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Sample records for granulometric characteristics relative

  1. The carbohydrates in relation to mineralogic and granulometric composition of surface sediments in the karst estuary (River Krka estuary, Yugoslavia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadz̆ija, Olga; Jurac̆ić, Mladen; Luić, Marija; Tonković, Maja; Jeric̆ević, Biserka

    1985-11-01

    The investigation of mineral, granulometric and chemical composition of sediments of the River Krka estuary (Yugoslavia) were performed in order to elucidate the origin of the sediments and the pattern of sedimentation. Estuarine surface sediments were found to be fine-grained with a bimodal distribution. Environmental conditions in estuarine sediments favour conservation of the organic matter (anoxic conditions). The carbohydrates in the sediments were investigated to determine whether they are of terrigenous or authigenous origin. Glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, rhamnose, glucosamine and glucuronic acid were detected in the sediments. Their mutual relationship indicates a preferentially terrigenous source of sedimented organic material in estuarine sediments.

  2. Levels and distribution patterns of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in surface sediments from Galicia coast (Northwestern, Spain) according to granulometric characteristics.

    PubMed

    Carro, N; García, I; Ignacio, M; Moureira, A

    2002-08-01

    In order to know distribution patterns of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in the marine environment from Galida, PCBs n degrees 31, 28, 52, 101, 118, 153, 105, 138, 156 and 180 were isolated by Soxhlet extraction from three fractions of different particle size (<0.063 mm, 0.063-0.2 mm and >0.2 mm) in surface marine sediments; the quantification was performed using GC-MS and GC-ECD. Distribution of PCB congeners was shifted in favour of higher chlorinated compounds (CBs 138,153 and 180) and highly correlated to TOC content. In general, the finest fractions (<0.063 mm) of sediment presented the highest loadings of PCBs, only the sediment from As Pías zone exhibited the highest concentration of chlorinated congeners in the coarsest fraction. CB 52 concentration, slightly volatile compound, was related to water temperature. By means of multivariate techniques of data exploration as hierarchical duster analysis and principal components analysis, sediment samples from un-contaminated and slightly contaminated areas were clearly separated; groupings between samples from nearby zones appeared. PMID:12211452

  3. Quaternary alluvial deposits of Wadi Gaza in the middle of the Gaza Strip (Palestine): Facies, granulometric characteristics, and their paleoflow direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubeid, Khalid Fathi

    2016-06-01

    The Quaternary rocks of the Gaza Strip mainly consist of clastic sedimentary rocks. In Wadi Gaza, the outcropping rocks consist of brownish fine-grained deposits, sandstones, and conglomerates. The deposits have been studied from a genetic point of view, and six facies have been described: (i) graded clast-supported conglomerates, (ii) cross-bedded clast-supported conglomerates, (iii) sandy matrix conglomerates, (iv) cross-laminated medium-grained sandstones, (v) graded coarse-grained sandstones, and (vi) massive sandstones. The field work observations and granulometric analysis show that the sphericity of the grains increase toward the west, where its value ranges from ∼0.64 in the east to ∼0.70 in the west. In addition, the grain forms tend to be disc shape in the east, whereas they tend to be disc-to spheroid shape in the west, and they become well rounded to well sorted toward the west. Moreover, the features, geometry, and spatial relationship among these facies suggest that the Wadi Gaza was meandering wadi fed from Beir Sheva and the Northern Negev in the southeast of Gaza Strip through Wadi Al Shallala and Wadi Sheneq and from Hebron mountains in the West Bank at the east through Wadi Al Shari'a alluvials. Within the Gaza Strip, paleocurrent data ranges from 210° to 310°, indicating a mean a paleoflow direction to the W (276°) and a median value about 275°. The sedimentary rocks in the Wadi Gaza are considered to be deposited in two periods of climate conditions: the coarse-grained rocks were deposited during the period of wet condition before 12.4 ka age, whereas the eolinite fine-grained rocks were deposited during semiarid climate conditions which are younger in age than 12.4 ka.

  4. Principal components granulometric analysis of tidally dominated depositional environments

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, S.W. ); Long, W.T. ); Friedrich, N.E. )

    1991-02-01

    Sediments often are investigated by using mechanical sieve analysis (at 1/4 or 1/2{phi} intervals) to identify differences in weight-percent distributions between related samples, and thereby, to deduce variations in sediment sources and depositional processes. Similar granulometric data from groups of surface samples from two siliciclastic estuaries and one carbonate tidal creek have been clustered using principal components analysis. Subtle geographic trends in tidally dominated depositional processes and in sediment sources can be inferred from the clusters. In Barnstable Harbor, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, the estuary can be subdivided into five major subenvironments, with tidal current intensities/directions and sediment sources (longshore transport or sediments weathering from the Sandwich Moraine) as controls. In Morro Bay, San Luis Obispo county, California, all major environments (beach, dune, bay, delta, and fluvial) can be easily distinguished; a wide variety of subenvironments can be recognized. On Pigeon Creek, San Salvador Island, Bahamas, twelve subenvironments can be recognized. Biogenic (Halimeda, Peneroplios, mixed skeletal), chemogenic (pelopids, aggregates), and detrital (lithoclastis skeletal), chemogenic (pelopids, aggregates), and detrital (lithoclastis of eroding Pleistocene limestone) are grain types which dominate. When combined with tidal current intensities/directions, grain sources produce subenvironments distributed parallel to tidal channels. The investigation of the three modern environments indicates that principal components granulometric analysis is potentially a useful tool in recognizing subtle changes in transport processes and sediment sources preserved in ancient depositional sequences.

  5. Granulometric profiling of aeolian dust deposits by automated image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, György; Újvári, Gábor; Kovács, János; Jakab, Gergely; Kiss, Klaudia; Szalai, Zoltán

    2016-04-01

    Determination of granulometric parameters is of growing interest in the Earth sciences. Particle size data of sedimentary deposits provide insights into the physicochemical environment of transport, accumulation and post-depositional alterations of sedimentary particles, and are important proxies applied in paleoclimatic reconstructions. It is especially true for aeolian dust deposits with a fairly narrow grain size range as a consequence of the extremely selective nature of wind sediment transport. Therefore, various aspects of aeolian sedimentation (wind strength, distance to source(s), possible secondary source regions and modes of sedimentation and transport) can be reconstructed only from precise grain size data. As terrestrial wind-blown deposits are among the most important archives of past environmental changes, proper explanation of the proxy data is a mandatory issue. Automated imaging provides a unique technique to gather direct information on granulometric characteristics of sedimentary particles. Granulometric data obtained from automatic image analysis of Malvern Morphologi G3-ID is a rarely applied new technique for particle size and shape analyses in sedimentary geology. Size and shape data of several hundred thousand (or even million) individual particles were automatically recorded in this study from 15 loess and paleosoil samples from the captured high-resolution images. Several size (e.g. circle-equivalent diameter, major axis, length, width, area) and shape parameters (e.g. elongation, circularity, convexity) were calculated by the instrument software. At the same time, the mean light intensity after transmission through each particle is automatically collected by the system as a proxy of optical properties of the material. Intensity values are dependent on chemical composition and/or thickness of the particles. The results of the automated imaging were compared to particle size data determined by three different laser diffraction instruments

  6. Microplastics elutriation from sandy sediments: A granulometric approach.

    PubMed

    Kedzierski, Mikaël; Le Tilly, Véronique; Bourseau, Patrick; Bellegou, Hervé; César, Guy; Sire, Olivier; Bruzaud, Stéphane

    2016-06-15

    Although relatively easy to extract in the marine environment, microplastics are very difficult to recover when they are trapped in sediments. The elutriation column is one of the best tools currently available for extracting plastics from sediment, but with a high sand recovery yield. This study aims to address the following questions: (i) is it possible to use a sedimentological approach to limit the sand recovery? (ii) does the extraction velocity of the sand and plastic particles vary according to density and granulometry? (iii) what is the relative recovery efficiency obtained for dense polymer particles mixed with marine sand? Based on a new granulometric classification, different plastic particle-size fractions are defined. Their extraction velocities are experimentally determined on particles of sediment and different plastics (PA, PVC). The particle recovery experiments indicate that it is possible to extract >90% of dense plastic particles in cases of negligible sand recovery. PMID:27053014

  7. Accurate determination of characteristic relative permeability curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Michael H.; Benson, Sally M.

    2015-09-01

    A recently developed technique to accurately characterize sub-core scale heterogeneity is applied to investigate the factors responsible for flowrate-dependent effective relative permeability curves measured on core samples in the laboratory. The dependency of laboratory measured relative permeability on flowrate has long been both supported and challenged by a number of investigators. Studies have shown that this apparent flowrate dependency is a result of both sub-core scale heterogeneity and outlet boundary effects. However this has only been demonstrated numerically for highly simplified models of porous media. In this paper, flowrate dependency of effective relative permeability is demonstrated using two rock cores, a Berea Sandstone and a heterogeneous sandstone from the Otway Basin Pilot Project in Australia. Numerical simulations of steady-state coreflooding experiments are conducted at a number of injection rates using a single set of input characteristic relative permeability curves. Effective relative permeability is then calculated from the simulation data using standard interpretation methods for calculating relative permeability from steady-state tests. Results show that simplified approaches may be used to determine flowrate-independent characteristic relative permeability provided flow rate is sufficiently high, and the core heterogeneity is relatively low. It is also shown that characteristic relative permeability can be determined at any typical flowrate, and even for geologically complex models, when using accurate three-dimensional models.

  8. USB flow characteristics related to noise generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. H.; Reddy, N. N.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of nozzle and flap geometry on upper surface blown flow field characteristics related to noise generation were examined experimentally using static models. Flow attachment and spreading characteristics were observed using flow visualization techniques. Velocity and turbulence profiles in the trailing edge wake were measured using hot-wire anemometry, and the effects of the geometric variables on peak velocity and turbulence intensity were determined. It is shown that peak trailing edge velocity is a function of the ratio of flow length to modified hydraulic diameter.

  9. Granulometric selectivity in Liza ramado and potential contamination resulting from heavy metal load in feeding areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedro, Sílvia; Canastreiro, Vera; Caçador, Isabel; Pereira, Eduarda; Duarte, Armando C.; Raposo de Almeida, Pedro

    2008-11-01

    The stomach contents of thin-lipped grey mullets Liza ramado were analysed in terms of granulometric composition and compared to the sediment of potential feeding areas in the Tagus estuary. Total organic matter (TOM) content and heavy metal content were determined in the surface sediment of three areas and eight trace elements were quantified: Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn. The three sampled areas did not differ in TOM; and the heavy metal content was below Effects Range-Low level for most elements. The mean observed concentrations were present in the following sequence: Zn > Pb > Cr > Cu ≈ Ni > Co > Cd > Hg. Stomach contents granulometric composition provided information about the feeding selectivity of the mullets. Sediment fractions with particle size between 20 and 50 μm are preferred, independently of the fishes' length. Smaller standard length (SL) fishes have a higher positive selection of fine grained sediments than those with a larger SL. Finer fractions usually have higher concentration of heavy metals, which makes younger specimens of the thin-lipped grey mullet potentially more exposed to heavy metal load in the estuary. Metal concentration was not independent from the sampling point, presenting higher values near the margins and the estuary tidal drainage system. This means that during the first period of each tidal cycle, the mullets will feed first on the most contaminated areas, as a consequence of their movement following the rising tide to feed on previously exposed areas.

  10. Characteristics of Astronomy-Related Organizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, A.

    1999-05-01

    Several characteristics of contemporaneous astronomy-related organizations have been investigated from an exhaustive up-to-date world-wide sample (the master files for the directory StarGuides and the database StarWorlds): geographical distributions of organizations and of observing facilities, as well as ages and sizes of currently active organizations. Interesting comments are drawn from each of these studies and from their inter-comparison. Geographical distributions are also compared with a survey of observing facilities carried out around 1900 by Stroobant et al.: the overall aspect did not change over the past century -- another example of the well-known self-reinforcement effect. This however could be interpreted as an alarming factor. Apart from strong densities in Europe and North America, the most striking feature is the desperate emptiness of most of the African continent and of so-called third-world countries. Those investigations show also that numerous astronomy-related organizations are not involved in direct observing. Cultural components and deliberate policies in some countries are also clearly visible, especially at the level of associations, planetariums and public observatories. The astronomy-related publishers and software producers are interestingly concentrated in only a few places. Some events had a clear impact on the rate of foundation of astronomy-related organizations, such as World Wars I and II, the beginning of space exploration and the landing of man on the Moon, but not all of them affected in the same way Western Europe and North America. It is still too early to assess the real impact of the end of the Cold War. Also if the rate of creation of astronomy-related organizations since the end of the fifties is really impressive, there is no indication that this should still go on that way half a century later, especially at a time the society at large has obviously moved to other priorities than space investigations and cosmological

  11. Alienation, dogmatism, and related personality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sexton, M E

    1983-01-01

    Examined the relationship between alienation and dogmatism, as measured by shared personality characteristics. Scores from the Rokeach Dogmatism Scale, the Keniston Alienation Scale, the California Test of Personality, and the Omnibus Personality Inventory were obtained for a sample of 92 college freshmen. Alienation and dogmatism were found to be positively related concepts. The factors that best predicted alienation from dogmatic responses were intolerance expressed for opposing beliefs and compulsivity in the belief system. Alienation and dogmatism also were found to be associated with several commonly held personality traits, which center around anxiety, low self-esteem, and social estrangement manifested in feelings of hostility, aggression, loneliness, rejection, and isolation. These results were discussed and compared to previous research that explored the two concepts separately. PMID:6826758

  12. Granulometric and magnetic properties of deposited particles in the Beijing subway and the implications for air quality management.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guipeng; Zhou, Liping; Dearing, John

    2016-10-15

    The subway system is an important traffic facility in Beijing and its internal air quality is an environmental issue that could potentially affect millions of people every day. Due to the intrinsic nature of rail abrasion in subway tunnels, iron-containing particles can be generated and become suspended in the subway environment. While some studies (e.g. Li et al., 2006) have monitored the in-train levels of PM2.5 (particles<2.5μm), there is a lack of systematic assessment of the concentration and characteristics of iron-containing particles in the Beijing subway system. Here we report results of a study on the granulometric and magnetic properties of deposited particle samples collected at different localities of the Beijing subway system. Our results show that the subway samples are characterized by the presence of fine particles. Volume proportions of 6.1±1.3% for particles<2.5μm and 27.5±6.1% for particles<10μm are found in the bulk subway samples. These samples exhibit a strong magnetic signal, which is approximately two orders of magnitude higher than that in naturally deposited particles collected in Beijing. Fine grained ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic minerals (e.g. iron and magnetite, respectively) are identified from mineral magnetic measurements and scanning electric microscopy. The samples collected from the Beijing stations with platform screen doors are found to be magnetically stronger and finer than those without them, suggesting that platform screen doors have failed to block the fine iron-containing particles released from the rail tunnel. Given the potential health consequences of fine suspended iron-containing particles, our results have important implications for air quality management in the Beijing subway system. PMID:27372891

  13. Alienation, Dogmatism, and Related Personality Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexton, Miriam E.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the relationship between alienation and dogmatism, as measured by shared personality characteristics. Scores from the Rokeach Dogmatism Scale, the Keniston Alienation Scale, the California Test of Personality, and the Omnibus Personality Inventory were obtained for 92 college freshmen. Alienation and dogmatism were positively related…

  14. Characteristics Related to Female & Male Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Agnes M.

    2004-01-01

    The following research investigated gender and the leadership role and determined if there are differences in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and characteristics between female leaders and male leaders. Literature suggests there are specific gender leadership differences between males and females in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and…

  15. Physical characteristics related to bra fit.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Man; LaBat, Karen; Bye, Elizabeth

    2010-04-01

    Producing well-fitting garments has been a challenge for retailers and manufacturers since mass production began. Poorly fitted bras can cause discomfort or pain and result in lost sales for retailers. Because body contours are important factors affecting bra fit, this study analyses the relationship of physical characteristics to bra-fit problems. This study has used 3-D body-scanning technology to extract upper body angles from a sample of 103 college women; these data were used to categorise physical characteristics into shoulder slope, bust prominence, back curvature and acromion placement. Relationships between these physical categories and bra-fit problems were then analysed. Results show that significant main effects and two-way interactions of the physical categories exist in the fit problems of poor bra support and bra-motion restriction. The findings are valuable in helping the apparel industry create better-fitting bras. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Poorly fitted bras can cause discomfort or pain and result in lost sales for retailers. The findings regarding body-shape classification provide researchers with a statistics method to quantify physical characteristics and the findings regarding the relationship analysis between physical characteristics and bra fit offer bra companies valuable information about bra-fit perceptions attributable to women with figure variations. PMID:20309747

  16. Individual personality characteristics related to suggestibility.

    PubMed

    Van Hook, Cheryl W; Steele, Connie

    2002-12-01

    The current study investigated the relationship between suggestibility of memory, personality characteristics identified by the Millon Index of Personality Traits, and tolerance for ambiguity measured by MacDonald's Ambiguity Tolerance-20. 85 female and 16 male college students were assigned to either an experimental group receiving the suggestive information or a control group. Suggestibility was assessed using Lindberg's suggestibility measure consisting of a short video, followed by a questionnaire used to assess memory, and a second administration one week later. Logistical regression analyses were used to construct a model of the personality characteristics predictive of suggestibility and indicated that susceptibility to suggestive information may differ across personalities for variables such as sensing, innovating, agreeing, and low tolerance of ambiguity. PMID:12530759

  17. Stroke-related sarcopenia: specific characteristics.

    PubMed

    Scherbakov, Nadja; Sandek, Anja; Doehner, Wolfram

    2015-04-01

    Sarcopenia is characterized by muscle wasting and is primarily a disease of the elderly. A stroke-specific sarcopenia has been described recently. Stroke-related sarcopenia has a number of features that distinguish it from the age-related sarcopenia. The disability from stroke depends on the brain lesion leading to impairment of the efferent neuronal pathways. However, the alterations of structural and functional muscle capacity are secondary and depend rather on complex pathophysiological reactions including imbalanced efferent neurovegetative control, systemic and local metabolic imbalance, feeding difficulties, and inflammation. Muscle structural changes start to develop within hours after stroke, followed by rapid reduction of muscle mass. The pathophysiological mechanisms leading to the muscle mass decline are still not understood in details. This review provides insights into the specific features of the stroke-related sarcopenia. Recent research achievements in this area and clinical implications will be discussed. PMID:25676847

  18. Pyrogenic carbon characteristics relate to wildfire behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerr, Stefan; Santin, Cristina; Preston, Caroline; Bryant, Rob; Merino, Augustin

    2014-05-01

    Pyrogenic carbon (PyC) comprises the whole range of organic compounds produced both naturally during wildfires (by charring or incomplete combustion) and anthropogenically by pyrolysis processes (heating in absence of oxygen). Relationships between pyrolysis conditions and biochar properties (i.e. 'antropogenic PyC') are well established, but limitations affecting wildfire research make these relationships more difficult to be investigated for wildfire PyC. Here, we study relationships between wildfire behaviour and characteristics of PyC by taking advantage of the experimental FireSmart boreal forest fire (June 2012, NWT- Canada), which reproduced wildfire conditions, and, at the same time, allowed fire behaviour monitoring and immediate post-fire sampling. Before the fire, three parallel transects of 18-m length were established in the direction of the prevailing wind in the central area of the burnt plot. These were instrumented at a spacing of 2 m with thermocouples connected to data loggers (Lascar, Easylog) to continuously (every second) record temperatures at the forest floor surface. Immediately after fire, samples of the PyC produced in the forest floor where collected adjacent to each thermocouple. PyC samples were characterized by elemental analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Our results show that transformation of the forest floor material by fire into PyC led to an enrichment of the carbon content, a higher carbon/nitrogen ratio and an increase of the thermal recalcitrance. Statistically significant relationships between some PyC characteristics and wildfire conditions were found such as an increase of carbon content of PyC with maximum temperature recorded during fire and an increase of thermal stability of PyC with fire duration. Considering that in boreal forests the fuel component most affected by fire is the forest floor and that the enhanced recalcitrance of PyC is likely to increase its resistance to biological degradation compared

  19. Psychosocial and Health-Related Characteristics of Adolescent Television Viewers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined relationship between television viewing frequency and adolescents' health-related and psychosocial characteristics. Found that shyness and exercise frequency predicted television viewing frequency. Among females, exercise frequency, shyness, loneliness, and perceived attractiveness predicted viewing frequency. Light viewers exercised more…

  20. The effect of the granulometric composition of a hydroxyapatite powder on the structure and phase composition of coatings deposited by the detonation gas spraying technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, A. A.; Yakovlev, V. I.; Legostaeva, E. V.; Sitnikov, A. A.; Sharkeev, Yu. P.

    2013-04-01

    The granulometric composition of a hydroxyapatite powder has been investigated. The initial powder has been classified into particle size ranges (0.1-10, 10-20, 20-30, and 50-300 μm). Coatings prepared from a hydroxyapatite powder of different size have been deposited by the detonation gas spraying technique. The structure and phase composition of the coatings have been studied. Changing the initial granulometric composition of the powder mixture is shown to provide control over the sprayed surface roughness.

  1. The Relation of Selected Student Characteristics to Understanding of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boes, Robert Joseph

    Some of the purposes of this study were: (1) to determine whether the "Meaning of Science" course can make a significant contribution to college students' understanding of science, (2) to determine whether the course can promote a positive change in attitude toward science, and (3) to identify academic and non-academic characteristics related to…

  2. Home Visiting Processes: Relations with Family Characteristics and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Carla A.; Roggman, Lori A.; Green, Beth; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel; Korfmacher, Jon; McKelvey, Lorraine; Zhang, Dong; Atwater, Jane B.

    2013-01-01

    Variations in dosage, content, and family engagement with Early Head Start (EHS) home visiting services were examined for families participating in the EHS Research and Evaluation Project. Families were grouped by characteristics of maternal age, maternal ethnicity, and level of family risk. All home visiting variables were related differentially…

  3. Relations between structural and dynamic thermal characteristics of building walls

    SciTech Connect

    Kossecka, E.; Kosny, J.

    1996-10-01

    The effect of internal thermal structure on dynamic characteristics of walls is analyzed. The concept of structure factors is introduced and the conditions they impose on response factors are given. Simple examples of multilayer walls, representing different types of thermal resistance and capacity distribution, are analyzed to illustrate general relations between structure factors and response factors. The idea of the ``thermally equivalent wall``, a plane multilayer structure, with dynamic characteristics similar to those of a complex structure, in which three-dimensional heat flow occurs, is presented.

  4. Relating Spatial Patterns in Image Data to Scene Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahler, A. H.; Woodcock, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    In remote sensing, the primary goal is accurate scene inference, in which characteristics of the scene are inferred from the image data. More effective inference of scene characteristics can be accomplished through the use of techniques that use explicit models of spatial pattern. Spatial patterns in image data are functionally related to the size and spacing of elements in the scene and to the spatial resolution of the image data. At resolutions where variance is high, scene inference techniques should rely heavily on data from the spatial domain. As variance decreases, effective scene inference will increasingly rely on spectral data.

  5. Mediterranean depression characteristics related to precipitation occurrence in Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iordanidou, V.; Koutroulis, A. G.; Tsanis, I. K.

    2014-09-01

    The characteristics of the cyclone tracks and circulation patterns that caused precipitation events of variable intensity for the period 1979-2011 over the island of Crete are presented. The dataset usedfor cyclone identification, is the 0.5 x 0.5, 30 years European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA-Interim mean sea-level pressure. Their characteristics are extracted with the aid of Melbourne University algorithm (MS scheme). Daily precipitation data from a dense gauging network over the island of Crete is also used for the classification of the precipitation events in terms of intensity. Daily precipitation intensity is classified in three severity categories, and the associated cyclones are filtered according to their distance from Crete Island. The atmospheric systems are further investigated both seasonally and annually for their position relative to Crete and morphological characteristics such as intensity and radius. Generally, it was found that cyclones affecting Crete most frequently approach from northwest and southwest directions and the actual cyclone centers associated with precipitation events are usually located in northwest and southeast positions relative to Crete domain. Precipitation increase is observed in parallel with cyclone pressure decrease as well as cyclone intensity, depth, radius and propagation velocity increase. Specific seasonal characteristics such as lower pressures and cyclone radius can be detected in spring in contrast to winter and autumn precipitation events. The examination of the relation between cyclone characteristics and precipitation occurrence provides improved understanding of the complex hydro-meteorological conditions and therefore valuable hydrologic information related to forecasting potential and management of the resources and the extremes.

  6. Characteristic Numerical Relativity Applied to Hydrodynamic Studies of Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebel, F.; Font, J. A.; Müller, E.; Papadopoulos, P.

    2002-12-01

    We present tests and results of a new axisymmetric, fully general relativistic code with a perfect fluid matter field. Our implementation is based on the null cone formalism of Bondi [2] and Tamburino-Winicour [14,15]. 3D characteristic numerical relativity has been proven to be very stable and accurate for evolutions of black hole spacetimes [7]. Following previous work [8,1] we solve the Einstein equation for a stress-energy tensor of a perfect fluid in characteristic coordinates. The evolution of the matter fields is performed using relativistic high-resolution shock-capturing schemes [4,11,13] based upon Riemann solvers. The implementation of such schemes in a 3D characteristic code is the current subject of a collaboration (GRACE). In this work we restrict ourselves to axisymmetric spacetimes, building on the vacuum code of Gómez, Papadopoulos and Winicour [6]. Applications in spherical symmetry have been presented in [11,12,9]...

  7. A Stratigraphic, Granulometric, and Textural Comparison of recent pyroclastic density current deposits exposed at West Island and Burr Point, Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, C. A.; Browne, B. L.

    2011-12-01

    Augustine Volcano (Alaska) is the most active volcano in the eastern Aleutian Islands, with 6 violent eruptions over the past 200 years and at least 12 catastrophic debris-avalanche deposits over the past ~2,000 years. The frequency and destructive nature of these eruptions combined with the proximity of Augustine Volcano to commercial ports and populated areas represents a significant hazard to the Cook Inlet region of Alaska. The focus of this study examines the relationship between debris-avalanche events and the subsequent emplacement of pyroclastic density currents by comparing the stratigraphic, granulometric, and petrographic characteristics of pyroclastic deposits emplaced following the 1883 A.D. Burr Point debris-avalanche and those emplaced following the ~370 14C yr B.P. West Island debris-avalanche. Data from this study combines grain size and componentry analysis of pyroclastic deposits with density, textural, and compositional analysis of juvenile clasts contained in the pyroclastic deposits. The 1883 A.D. Burr Point pyroclastic unit immediately overlies the 1883 debris avalanche deposit and underlies the 1912 Katmai ash. It ranges in thickness from 4 to 48 cm and consists of fine to medium sand-sized particles and coarser fragments of andesite. In places, this unit is normally graded and exhibits cross-bedding. Many of these samples are fines-enriched, with sorting coefficients ranging from -0.1 to 1.9 and median grain size ranging from 0.1 to 2.4 mm. The ~370 14C yr B.P. West Island pyroclastic unit is sandwiched between the underlying West Island debris-avalanche deposit and the overlying 1912 Katmai Ash deposit, and at times a fine-grained gray ash originating from the 1883 eruption. West Island pyroclastic deposit is sand to coarse-sand-sized and either normally graded or massive with sorting coefficients ranging from 0.9 to 2.8 and median grain sizes ranging from 0.4 to 2.6 mm. Some samples display a bimodal distribution of grain sizes, while

  8. Relative motion characteristics of 2 near-Earth Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutz, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    The stability of the nonlinear dynamical system of two GRAVSAT - type satellites was investigated by performing several numerical experiments which provide the simulations of the relative motion characteristics between the two satellites for various specified time intervals. The simulations included the relative range, range-rate, and relative acceleration magnitude. These simulations were generated with respect to appropriate initial orbital elements which were obtained such that the instantaneous separation distance between the two satellites has small fluctuations from a specified constant separation distance. The simulation results indicate that the behavior of the relative motions is very sensitive to the initial orbital elements of the satellites and that for a specified time interval of interest. A stable behavior is possible only with the use of an appropriate set of initial orbital elements compatible with the gravity field used to derive them.

  9. Mediterranean cyclone characteristics related to precipitation occurrence in Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iordanidou, V.; Koutroulis, A. G.; Tsanis, I. K.

    2015-08-01

    The characteristics of the cyclone tracks that caused precipitation events of variable intensity for the period 1979-2011 over the island of Crete are presented. The data set used for cyclone identification is the 0.5° × 0.5°, 30 years European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA-Interim mean sea-level pressure. Cyclone characteristics are calculated with the aid of the Melbourne University algorithm (MS scheme). Daily precipitation data from a dense gauging network over the island of Crete are also used for the classification of the precipitation events in terms of rain accumulation (intensity). Daily precipitation is classified in three categories and the associated cyclones are chosen according to their distance from Crete island. The seasonal and annual cycle of the physical characteristics of the cyclone tracks are investigated with respect to the cyclones' relative position to the island of Crete. It was found that cyclones affecting Crete most frequently approach from the western side of the island and the actual cyclone centers associated with precipitation events are usually located northwest and southeast of the Crete domain. Cyclone-induced rainfall increases in function to cyclones' depth, radius and propagation velocity increase as well as cyclones' pressure decrease. Spring cyclones that affect Crete with rainfall present lower pressures and higher cyclone propagation velocity in contrast to the ones associated with winter and autumn precipitation events. The examination of the relation between cyclone characteristics and precipitation occurrence provides valuable information related to forecasting potential and management of the water resources and the rainfall extremes.

  10. Cold streams: detectability, relation to structure and characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goerdt, Tobias

    2015-02-01

    Cold gas streaming along the dark-matter filaments of the cosmic web is predicted to be the major provider of resources for disc buildup and star formation in massive galaxies in the early universe. We use hydrodynamical simulations to study to what extent these cold streams are traceable in the extended circum-galactic environment of galaxies via Ly alpha emission, Ly alpha absorption and selected low ionisation metal absorption lines. We predict the strength of the absorption signal produced by the streams and find that it is consistent with observations in high redshift galaxies. The characteristics of the Ly alpha emission of our simulated galaxies are similar in luminosity, morphology and extent to the observed Ly alpha blobs, with distinct kinematic features. We analyse the characteristics of the cold streams in simulations and present scaling relations for the amount of infall, its velocity, distribution and its clumpiness and compare our findings with observations.

  11. The effective porosity and grain size relations in permeability functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urumović, K.; Urumović, K., Sr.

    2014-06-01

    Hydrogeological parameters of coherent and incoherent deposits are deeply dependent of their granulometric characteristics. These relations were shaped in formulas and defaultly used for calculation of hydraulic conductivity, and are valid only for uniform incoherent materials, mostly sands. In this paper, the results of analyses of permeability and specific surface area as a function of granulometric composition of various sediments - from siltey clays to very well graded gravels are presented. The effective porosity and the referential grain size are presented as fundamental granulometric parameters which express an effect of forces operating fluid movement through the saturated porous media. Suggested procedures for calculating referential grain size and determining effective (flow) porosity result with parameters that reliably determine specific surface area and permeability. These procedures ensure successful appliance of Kozeny-Carman model up to the limits of validity of Darcy's law. The value of an effective porosity in function of referential mean grain size has been calibrated within range from 1.5 μm to 6.0 mm. Reliability of these parameters application in KC model was confirmed by very high correlation between predicted and tested hydraulic conductivity - R2 = 0.99 for sandy and gravelly materials and R2 = 0.70 for clayey-siltey materials. Group representation of hydraulic conductivity (ranged from 10-12 m s-1 up to 10-2 m s-1) presents coefficient of correlation R2 = 0.97, for total sum of 175 samples of various deposits. These results present the new road to researches of porous material's effective porosity, permeability and specific surface area distribution, since these three parameters are critical conditions for successful groundwater flow modelling and contaminant transport. From the practical point of view, it is very important to be able to identify these parameters swiftly, cheaply and very accurately.

  12. Offense related characteristics and psychosexual development of juvenile sex offenders

    PubMed Central

    Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette 't A; Doreleijers, Theo AH; Jansen, Lucres MC; van Wijk, Anton PH; Bullens, Ruud AR

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This article reports on offense related characteristics and the psychosexual development in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders as measured by the Global Assessment Instrument for Juvenile Sex Offenders (GAIJSO). The predictive validity of these characteristics for persistent (sexual) offensive behavior in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders was investigated. Methods: One hundred seventy four sex offenders (mean age 14.9 SD 1.4) referred by the police to the Dutch Child Protection Board were examined. Offense related characteristics were assessed by means of the GAIJSO and the BARO (a global assessment tool for juvenile delinquents), and criminal careers of the subjects were ascertained from official judicial records. Results: Serious need for comprehensive diagnostics were found on the domains sexual offense and psychosexual development in juvenile sex offenders, especially in the group of child molesters. These youngsters displayed more internalizing and (psychosexual) developmental problems and their sexual offense was more alarming as compared to the other juvenile sex offender subgroups. Although one third of the juveniles had already committed one or more sex offenses prior to the index offense, at follow up (mean follow up period: 36 months SD 18 months) almost no sexual recidivism was found (0.6% of the entire sample). However, a substantial proportion of the entire sample of juvenile sex offenders showed non-sexual (55.6%) and violent recidivism (32.1%). Several predictors for a history of multiple sex offending and non-sexual recidivism were identified. Conclusion: This study revealed numerous problems in juvenile sex offenders. Assessment using the GAIJSO is helpful in order to identify indicators for extensive diagnostic assessment. In order to investigate the predictive validity for sexual reoffending a longer follow up period is necessary. PMID:19594889

  13. Distribution of mosquitoes in relation to urban landscape characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gleiser, R M; Zalazar, L P

    2010-04-01

    The current global increase in prevalence of vector borne diseases, as well as an expansion of tropical infections to more temperate zones, justifies further studies on vector populations. Urban areas may favour viral transmission to humans through close contacts between the vectors and the vertebrate hosts, and also affecting mosquito populations by offering larval habitat, refuges and adequate microclimates to survive the winter. This work analyses the spatial distribution of potential vector mosquitoes in relation to landscape characteristics in an urban environment in a temperate climate region. Mosquitoes were trapped monthly from October 2005 to March 2006 in 25 sites within Córdoba city and suburbs with miniature light traps+CO2. Nine species were collected, and the most abundant were Culex quinquefasciatus (37.1%), C. apicinus (26.6%) and Aedes aegypti (13.9%). Species that may be involved in SLEv transmission were recorded throughout the sampling. C. quinquefasciatus was detected in 92% of the sites; however, only two sites showed consistently larger collections. The site of highest C. quinquefasciatus abundance was located within an area of high Saint Louis Encefalitis virus prevalence and risk of infection, further supporting this species involvement as a vector. Significant correlations were detected between land cover characteristics and abundance of C. apicinus, C. interfor and C. maxi that were consistent with previous knowledge about their larval habitat and domestic preferences, which may be useful for targeting vector control operations. PMID:19413916

  14. Characteristics of Haptic Peripersonal Spatial Representation of Object Relations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Haptic perception of space is known to show characteristics that are different to actual space. The current study extends on this line of research, investigating whether systematic deviations are also observed in the formation of haptic spatial representations of object-to-object relations. We conducted a haptic spatial reproduction task analogous to the parallelity task with spatial layouts. Three magnets were positioned to form corners of an isosceles triangle and the task of the participant was to reproduce the right angle corner. Weobserved systematic deviations in the reproduction of the right angle triangle. The systematic deviations were not observed when the task was conducted on the mid-sagittal plane. Furthermore, the magnitude of the deviation was decreased when non-informative vision was introduced. These results suggest that there is a deformation in spatial representation of object-to-object relations formed using haptics. However, as no systematic deviation was observed when the task was conducted on the mid-saggital plane, we suggest that the perception of object-to-object relations use a different egocentric reference frame to the perception of orientation. PMID:27462990

  15. Characteristics of Haptic Peripersonal Spatial Representation of Object Relations.

    PubMed

    Wako, Ryo; Ayabe-Kanamura, Saho

    2016-01-01

    Haptic perception of space is known to show characteristics that are different to actual space. The current study extends on this line of research, investigating whether systematic deviations are also observed in the formation of haptic spatial representations of object-to-object relations. We conducted a haptic spatial reproduction task analogous to the parallelity task with spatial layouts. Three magnets were positioned to form corners of an isosceles triangle and the task of the participant was to reproduce the right angle corner. Weobserved systematic deviations in the reproduction of the right angle triangle. The systematic deviations were not observed when the task was conducted on the mid-sagittal plane. Furthermore, the magnitude of the deviation was decreased when non-informative vision was introduced. These results suggest that there is a deformation in spatial representation of object-to-object relations formed using haptics. However, as no systematic deviation was observed when the task was conducted on the mid-saggital plane, we suggest that the perception of object-to-object relations use a different egocentric reference frame to the perception of orientation. PMID:27462990

  16. HIV-related travel restrictions: trends and country characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Felicia; Prytherch, Helen; Nesbitt, Robin C.; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Increasingly, HIV-seropositive individuals cross international borders. HIV-related restrictions on entry, stay, and residence imposed by countries have important consequences for this mobile population. Our aim was to describe the geographical distribution of countries with travel restrictions and to examine the trends and characteristics of countries with such restrictions. Methods In 2011, data presented to UNAIDS were used to establish a list of countries with and without HIV restrictions on entry, stay, and residence and to describe their geographical distribution. The following indicators were investigated to describe the country characteristics: population at mid-year, international migrants as a percentage of the population, Human Development Index, estimated HIV prevalence (age: 15–49), presence of a policy prohibiting HIV screening for general employment purposes, government and civil society responses to having non-discrimination laws/regulations which specify migrants/mobile populations, government and civil society responses to having laws/regulations/policies that present obstacles to effective HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support for migrants/mobile populations, Corruption Perception Index, and gross national income per capita. Results HIV-related restrictions exist in 45 out of 193 WHO countries (23%) in all regions of the world. We found that the Eastern Mediterranean and Western Pacific Regions have the highest proportions of countries with these restrictions. Our analyses showed that countries that have opted for restrictions have the following characteristics: smaller populations, higher proportions of migrants in the population, lower HIV prevalence rates, and lack of legislation protecting people living with HIV from screening for employment purposes, compared with countries without restrictions. Conclusion Countries with a high proportion of international migrants tend to have travel restrictions – a finding that is

  17. Granulometric characterization of airborne particulate release during spray application of nanoparticle-doped coatings.

    PubMed

    Göhler, Daniel; Stintz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Airborne particle release during the spray application of coatings was analyzed in the nanometre and micrometre size range. In order to represent realistic conditions of domestic and handcraft use, the spray application was performed using two types of commercial propellant spray cans and a manual gravity spray gun. Four different types of coatings doped with three kinds of metal-oxide tracer nanoparticle additives (TNPA) were analyzed. Depending on the used coating and the kind of spray unit, particulate release numbers between 5 × 10(8) and 3 × 10(10) particles per gram ejection mass were determined in the dried spray aerosols. The nanoparticulate fraction amounted values between 10 and 60 no%. The comparison between nanoparticle-doped coatings with non-doped ones showed no TNPA-attributed differences in both the macroscopic spray process characteristics and the particle release numbers. SEM, TEM and EDX-analyzes showed that the spray aerosols were composed of particles made up solely from matrix material and sheathed pigments, fillers and TNPAs. Isolated ZnO- or Fe2O3-TNPAs could not be observed. PMID:25152690

  18. Wear and related characteristics of an aircraft tire during braking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Wear and related characteristics of friction and temperature developed during braking of size 22 x 5.5, type aircraft tires are studied. The testing technique involved gearing the tire to a driving wheel of a ground vehicle to provide operations at constant slip ratios on asphalt, concrete, and slurry-seal surfaces. Data were obtained over the range of slip ratios generally attributed to an aircraft braking system during dry runway operations. The results show that the cumulative tire wear varies linearly with distance traveled and the wear rate increases with increasing slip ratio and is influenced by the runway-surface character. Differences in the wear rates associated with the various surfaces suggest that runways can be rated on the basis of tire wear. The results also show that the friction coefficients developed during fixed-slip-ratio operations are in good agreement with those obtained by other investigators during cyclic braking, in that the dry friction is insensitive to the tire tread temperature is shown to increase with increasing slip ratio and, at the higher ratios, to be greater during braking on asphalt and slurry seal than on concrete.

  19. Phenotypic Characteristics and Virulence of Vibrio anguillarum-Related Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Pazos, F.; Santos, Y.; Magariños, B.; Bandín, I.; Núñez, S.; Toranzo, A. E.

    1993-01-01

    The phenotypic, molecular, and virulence properties of 46 Vibrio anguillarum-related (VAR) strains isolated from diseased fish and shellfish and from the environment were investigated. Twelve reference strains belonging to the 10 serotypes of V. anguillarum and the Vibrio splendidus type strain were included for comparison. Numerical taxonomy studies allowed us to group the isolates into four phena. The main phenotypic traits to differentiate VAR strains from V. anguillarum were fermentation of arabinose and mannitol, indole and Voges-Proskauer reactions, gelatin and casein hydrolysis, hemolytic activity, growth at 37 and 4°C, and resistance to ampicillin. Serological analysis confirmed that phena I and II were composed mainly of strains of V. anguillarum, while phena III and IV included VAR strains. Excluding the reference strains, the typeable isolates belonged to serotypes O3 (15 strains), O4 (3 strains), and O5 (2 strains) of V. anguillarum. The infectivity trials showed that only 9 of a total of 24 strains tested displayed virulence for rainbow trout. Virulent strains (50% lethal dose ranging from 102 to 106 cells) included V. anguillarum strains belonging to serotypes O1 (one strain), O2 (one strain), O3 (three isolates), and O4 (one isolate) and only three strains of the VAR group. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of lipopolysaccharide and outer membrane proteins showed heterogeneity not only among the 10 V. anguillarum serotypes but also within the VAR group. Immunoblot assays demonstrated a close relationship among V. anguillarum strains from the same serotype, while strains from different serotypes were not antigenically related. The VAR strains did not share antigenic components with the serotypes of V. anguillarum tested (serotypes O1 to O5). Plasmids were detected in only 19 of the total of 59 strains. The majority of the strains carrying plasmids were grouped within phenon IV, in which plasmid bands of 27 and 36 MDa

  20. Empirical relations between catchment characteristics and discharge patterns in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindström, G.; Dahné, J.; Arheimer, B.

    2012-04-01

    In hydrological modelling it is often assumed that catchment characteristics, such as soil type, vegetation, land-use, slope, altitude and climate influence both the magnitude and dynamics of the water discharge characteristics. This presentation demonstrates an inter-site comparison on similarities and dissimilarities in hydrological response from Swedish unregulated catchments with an area less than 2000 km2. Observed daily time-series for about 20 years from 198 sites were analysed to search for and quantify statistical relationships between catchment characteristics and flow characteristics. A number of flow characteristics were calculated, such as the mean, mean annual maximum, peakiness, skewness and percentiles. The catchments were grouped dependent on catchment characteristics (for example >80% forest). The differences between the discharges from different catchment types were analysed both graphically and statistically. A T-test was performed to see if the mean value for the flow characteristics was significantly different from the rest of the catchments. Following the t-test, a set of box-whisker diagrams were made for visual inspection of the results. The results showed that lake percentage is the most important catchment characteristic for most of the flow characteristics. The effect of lakes was therefore treated separately. For lake-free basins soil type was in general more important than land-use. For instance, coarse soils exhibit a sustained base flow, whereas thin soils and bare rock are characterised by peak flows with short duration. Finally, the presentation will give some examples on how the retrieved empirical information was included in a national modelling approach to simulate spatial variability in Swedish water discharge patterns.

  1. The Relation of Sample Demographic Characteristics to Job Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jury, Philip A.; And Others

    In order to examine the effects of such demographic characteristics as sex, age, education, occupational tenure and status, company and job tenure and management level on job satisfaction, the responses of 1,139 exempt employees in six companies to 28 satisfaction scales were factor analyzed. In comparing the factor structures for the various…

  2. Relations between Characteristics of Workplace Practices and Types of Informal Work-Related Learning: A Survey Study among Dutch Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doornbos, Anja J.; Simons, Robert-Jan; Denessen, Eddie

    2008-01-01

    Some organizations seek to promote informal work-related learning to stimulate organizational performance. This study focuses on six types of work-related learning in relation to personal, relational, and work characteristics of the workplace practice. A survey was conducted to identify types and levels of work-related learning for executive Dutch…

  3. Community Characteristics and Mortality: The Relative Strength of Association of Different Community Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Eric; McCleary, Rachael; Buttorff, Christine; Gaskin, Darrell J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We compared the strength of association between average 5-year county-level mortality rates and area-level measures, including air quality, sociodemographic characteristics, violence, and economic distress. Methods. We obtained mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System and linked it to socioeconomic and demographic data from the Census Bureau, air quality data, violent crime statistics, and loan delinquency data. We modeled 5-year average mortality rates (1998–2002) for all-cause, cancer, heart disease, stroke, and respiratory diseases as a function of county-level characteristics using ordinary least squares regression models. We limited analyses to counties with population of 100 000 or greater (n = 458). Results. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, particularly the percentage older than 65 years and near poor, were top predictors of all-cause and condition-specific mortality, as were a high concentration of construction and service workers. We found weaker associations for air quality, mortgage delinquencies, and violent crimes. Protective characteristics included the percentage of Hispanics, Asians, and married residents. Conclusions. Multiple factors influence county-level mortality. Although county demographic and socioeconomic characteristics are important, there are independent, although weaker, associations of other environmental characteristics. Future studies should investigate these factors to better understand community mortality risk. PMID:25033152

  4. Characteristic classes and weyl tensor: applications to general relativity.

    PubMed

    Avez, A

    1970-06-01

    In a recent paper, Chern and Simons proved that the Pontrjagin forms of a Riemannian manifold remain invariant under a conformal deformation. We show that these forms can be expressed uniquely in terms of the conformal curvature tensor: this provides a new proof of their result. Similar techniques can be applied to Euler-Poincare characteristic class, as suggested to me by A. Taub. We obtain the following: If the Weyl tensor of a compact space time is of type III of Bel-Petrov, then it cannot carry a perfect fluid + electromagnetic field. PMID:16591838

  5. Characteristic Classes and Weyl Tensor: Applications to General Relativity*

    PubMed Central

    Avez, André

    1970-01-01

    In a recent paper, Chern and Simons proved that the Pontrjagin forms of a Riemannian manifold remain invariant under a conformal deformation. We show that these forms can be expressed uniquely in terms of the conformal curvature tensor: this provides a new proof of their result. Similar techniques can be applied to Euler-Poincare characteristic class, as suggested to me by A. Taub. We obtain the following: If the Weyl tensor of a compact space time is of type III of Bel-Petrov, then it cannot carry a perfect fluid + electromagnetic field. PMID:16591838

  6. Analysis of protein conformational characteristics related to thermostability.

    PubMed

    Querol, E; Perez-Pons, J A; Mozo-Villarias, A

    1996-03-01

    The thermal stability of proteins was studied, 195 single amino acid residue replacements reported elsewhere being analysed for several protein conformational characteristics: type of residue replacement; conservative versus nonconservative substitution; replacement being in a homologous stretch of amino acid residues; change in hydrogen bond, van der Waals and secondary structure propensities; solvent-accessible versus inaccessible replacement; type of secondary structure involved in the substitution; the physico-chemical characteristics to which the thermostability enhancement can be attributed; and the relationship of the replacement site to the folding intermediates of the protein, when known. From the above analyses, some general rules arise which suggest where amino acid substitutions can be made to enhance protein thermostability: substitutions are conservative according to the Dayhoff matrix; mainly occur on conserved stretches of residues; preferentially occur on solvent-accessible residues; maintain or enhance the secondary structure propensity upon substitution; contribute to neutralize the dipole moment of the caps of helices and strands; and tend to increase the number of potential hydrogen bonding or van der Waals contacts or improve hydrophobic packing. PMID:8736493

  7. SSME model, engine dynamic characteristics related to Pogo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A linear model of the space shuttle main engine for use in Pogo studies was presented. A digital program is included from which engine transfer functions are determined relative to the engine operating level.

  8. Receiver Operating Characteristic Analysis for Detecting Explosives-related Threats

    SciTech Connect

    Oxley, Mark E; Venzin, Alexander M

    2012-11-14

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) are interested in developing a standardized testing procedure for determining the performance of candidate detection systems. This document outlines a potential method for judging detection system performance as well as determining if combining the information from a legacy system with a new system can signicantly improve performance. In this document, performance corresponds to the Neyman-Pearson criterion applied to the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves of the detection systems in question. A simulation was developed to investigate how the amount of data provided by the vendor in the form of the ROC curve eects the performance of the combined detection system. Furthermore, the simulation also takes into account the potential eects of correlation and how this information can also impact the performance of the combined system.

  9. Maternal and birth characteristics in relation to childhood leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Podvin, Danise; Kuehn, Carrie M; Mueller, Beth A; Williams, Michelle

    2006-07-01

    Our objective was to investigate the association of childhood leukaemia with selected maternal and birth characteristics by conducting a population-based case-control study using linked cancer registry and birth certificate records for Washington State. We compared maternal and infant characteristics of 595 Washington-born residents <20 years old with leukaemia diagnosed during 1981-2003, and 5,950 control children, using stratified analysis and logistic regression. Maternal age 35+ years (odds ratio [OR] 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1, 2.0), infant birthweight 4,000+ g (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1, 1.8), neonatal jaundice (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1, 2.1), and Down's syndrome (OR 31.3; 95% CI 6.4, 153.4) were associated with an increased risk of leukaemia. Among women with 2+ pregnancies, having at least two prior early (<20 weeks' gestation) fetal deaths was also associated with an increased risk (OR 1.5; 95% CI 0.97, 2.1). Maternal unmarried status (OR 0.7; 95% CI 0.6, 0.9) and African American race (OR 0.5; 95% CI 0.3, 0.9) were associated with a decreased risk. These results were more marked for acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) than for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), and for leukaemia diagnosed <5 years of age. These results may provide clues to the aetiology of childhood leukaemia. Genetic epidemiological studies are needed to expand our knowledge of inherent and possibly prenatal influences on the occurrence of this disease. PMID:16879503

  10. PETN: Variation in Physical and Chemical Characteristics Related to Aging.

    SciTech Connect

    Monroe, D. C.; Laintz, K. E.; Kramer, J. F.; Peterson, P. D.

    2006-01-01

    Physical and chemical analyses of five PETN (pentaerythritol tetranitrate) batches have been conducted to assist in defining powder acceptance criteria for qualification of newly manufactured powders, as well as for examination of potential changes related to aging and thus changes in performance. Results showed that (1) repeatable Fisher Sub-Sieve Sizer measurements (which relate well to historic performance data) could be obtained with consistent sample setup and measurement techniques; (2) BET nitrogen adsorption estimates of surface area correlate well with Fisher measurements and appear less variable; (3) PharmaVision particle size analyses show promise in discriminating among PETN batches; and (4) SEMs are extremely useful in semi-quantitative discrimination among batches. Physical and chemical data will be related to performance data (to be obtained) to develop quantitative physical and chemical tests useful in predicting performance over time, i.e., as powders age.

  11. Relations of Mothers' and Fathers' Reports of Infant Temperament, Parents' Psychological Functioning, and Family Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura, Jaqueline N.; Stevenson, Marguerite B.

    1986-01-01

    Examines 95 parents' reports of relations between infant termperament and parental psychological conditions, as well as familiy characteristics of socioeconomic status, birth order, and infant gender. (HOD)

  12. Characteristics of Students Related to Computer-Mediated Communications Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Barry J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a study of individual differences among high school students that relate to and predict their use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) tools--e-mail, Usenet news, and a multimedia notebook--to support project-based science learning. Findings indicate that skill and experience with computers, parental education, access to computers,…

  13. EI competencies as a related but different characteristic than intelligence.

    PubMed

    Boyatzis, Richard E; Batista-Foguet, Joan M; Fernández-I-Marín, Xavier; Truninger, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Amid the swarm of debate about emotional intelligence (EI) among academics are claims that cognitive intelligence, or general mental ability (g), is a stronger predictor of life and work outcomes as well as the counter claims that EI is their strongest predictor. Nested within the tempest in a teapot are scientific questions as to what the relationship is between g and EI. Using a behavioral approach to EI, we examined the relationship of a parametric measure of g as the person's GMAT scores and collected observations from others who live and work with the person as to the frequency of his or her EI behavior, as well as the person's self-assessment. The results show that EI, as seen by others, is slightly related to g, especially for males with assessment from professional relations. Further, we found that cognitive competencies are more strongly related to GMAT than EI competencies. For observations from personal relationships or self-assessment, there is no relationship between EI and GMAT. Observations from professional relations reveal a positive relationship between cognitive competencies and GMAT and EI and GMAT for males, but a negative relationship between EI and GMAT for females. PMID:25713545

  14. EI competencies as a related but different characteristic than intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Boyatzis, Richard E.; Batista-Foguet, Joan M.; Fernández-i-Marín, Xavier; Truninger, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Amid the swarm of debate about emotional intelligence (EI) among academics are claims that cognitive intelligence, or general mental ability (g), is a stronger predictor of life and work outcomes as well as the counter claims that EI is their strongest predictor. Nested within the tempest in a teapot are scientific questions as to what the relationship is between g and EI. Using a behavioral approach to EI, we examined the relationship of a parametric measure of g as the person’s GMAT scores and collected observations from others who live and work with the person as to the frequency of his or her EI behavior, as well as the person’s self-assessment. The results show that EI, as seen by others, is slightly related to g, especially for males with assessment from professional relations. Further, we found that cognitive competencies are more strongly related to GMAT than EI competencies. For observations from personal relationships or self-assessment, there is no relationship between EI and GMAT. Observations from professional relations reveal a positive relationship between cognitive competencies and GMAT and EI and GMAT for males, but a negative relationship between EI and GMAT for females. PMID:25713545

  15. [Morphological characteristics of algae floc and its relation with flotation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Heng; Wang, Qi-Shan; Wu, Yu-Bao; An, Yi; Peng, Xin-Hong

    2008-03-01

    Microcysits aeruginosa (MA) was removed by polyaluminium chloride (PAC) in the coagulation-flotation process. The test studied removing effect and morphological characteristics of PAC-MA flocs in the different coagulation conditions and discussed the correlation of them. Fractal dimension was measured by image analysis. The results indicate that the best range in dosage, stirring strength and time of flocculation reaction are respectively 5.6 - 9.8 mg/L Al2O3, 50 - 80 s(-1) and 5 - 8 min in the condition of mixing stirring strength of 500 s(-1), mixing time of 1 min, circulate ratio of 10%. The dosage, stirring strength and time of flocculation reaction influenced the form of flocs remarkably. Moreover the range of fractal dimension D2 is between 1.1688 and 1.2357, and average diameters vary between 300 microm and 500 microm with the best flocculation condition. The flocs with the looser structure, the bigger diameter variation and more branches can adhere to bubbles more easily. PMID:18649529

  16. Characteristics of YouTube™ Videos Related to Mammography.

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey H; Hillyer, Grace Clarke; MacDonald, Zerlina L; Reeves, Rachel; Basch, Charles E

    2015-12-01

    With a monthly total of more than one billion unique visitors, YouTube™ is one of the Internet's most visited websites and contributes to the growing amount of health-related information on the Internet. The purpose of this study was to analyze coverage of mammography screening in popular YouTube™ videos. A total of 173 videos were included in the analysis. Compared with professionally created videos, consumer-created videos had a significantly greater number of comments (>9 comments 38.0% for consumer vs. 11.8% for professional videos, p=<0.001). Videos created by professionals more often portrayed general mammography information (97.1 vs. 88.7%) compared to those created by consumers. The vast majority of videos presented general information (93.6%) related to mammography, and almost two thirds addressed preparing for the test. Less than 20% dealt with other types of examinations. Approximately 30% discussed pain associated with the examination (35.3%) and addressed issues of anxiety (32.4%) and fear (29.5%). Nearly half of the videos presented information about the test results (46.2%). Over 25% covered medical or family history. The majority did not pertain to a specific age group. Future research should focus on analyzing the accuracy of the information in the videos. PMID:25502853

  17. Characteristics of dayside auroral displays in relation to magnetospheric processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minow, Joseph I.

    1997-09-01

    The use of dayside aurorae as a ground based monitor of magnetopause activity is explored in this thesis. The origin of diffuse (OI) 630.0 nm emissions in the midday auroral oval is considered first. Analysis of low altitude satellite records of precipitating charged particles within the cusp show an unstructured electron component that will produce a 0.5-1 kR 630.0 nm emission throughout the cusp. Distribution of the electrons is controlled by the requirement of charge neutrality in the cusp, predicting a diffuse 630.0 nm background even if the magnetosheath plasma is introduced into the magnetosphere in discrete merging events. Cusp electron fluxes also contain a structured component characterized by enhancements in the electron energy and energy flux over background values in narrow regions a few 10's of kilometers in width. These structured features are identified as the source of the transient midday arcs. An auroral model is developed to study the morphology of (OI) 630.0 nm auroral emissions produced by the transient arcs. The model demonstrates that a diffuse 630.0 nm background emission is produced by transient arcs due to the long lifetime of the O(1D) state. Two sources of diffuse 630.0 nm background emissions exist in the cusp which may originate in discrete merging events. The conclusion is that persistent 630.0 nm emissions cannot be interpreted as prima facie evidence for continuous particle transport from the magnetosheath across the magnetopause boundary and into the polar cusp. The second subject that is considered is the analysis of temporal and spatial variations of the diffuse 557.7 nm pulsating aurora in relation to the 630.0 nm dominated transient aurora. Temporal variations at the poleward boundary of the diffuse 557.7 nm aurora correlate with the formation of the 630.0 nm transient aurorae suggesting that the two events are related. The character of the auroral variations is consistent with the behavior of particle populations reported

  18. Family social characteristics related to physical growth of young children.

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, N; Mora, J O; Herrera, M G

    1975-01-01

    Altogether 164 poor families who had children of normal and subnormal weight and height were studied in Bogota, Colombia. Physical growth was found to be positively associated with expenditure on food, sanitary conditions in the home, mother's age, birth interval between surviving children, level of parental newspaper reading, aspirations for children, and socioeconomic status. Physical growth was negatively associated with crowded living conditions and family size. Only mother's age, family size, spacing of births, and sanitary conditions were related to weight and height, independent of socioeconomic status. Food expenditure, crowding, parental newspaper reading, and aspirations for children all reflected the influence of socioeconomic status upon physical growth. The findings emphasized the importance of within-class social differences as they affect the physical growth of young children. PMID:1182354

  19. The Relationship of Freshmen's Physics Achievement and Their Related Affective Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gungor, Almer (Abak); Eryilmaz, Ali; Fakioglu, Turgut

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the best-fitting structural equation model between the freshmen's physics achievement and selected affective characteristics related to physics. These characteristics are students' situational interest in physics, personal interest in physics, aspiring extra activities related to physics, importance of…

  20. Obesity-related glomerulopathy: clinical and pathologic characteristics and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    D'Agati, Vivette D; Chagnac, Avry; de Vries, Aiko P J; Levi, Moshe; Porrini, Esteban; Herman-Edelstein, Michal; Praga, Manuel

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of obesity-related glomerulopathy is increasing in parallel with the worldwide obesity epidemic. Glomerular hypertrophy and adaptive focal segmental glomerulosclerosis define the condition pathologically. The glomerulus enlarges in response to obesity-induced increases in glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, filtration fraction and tubular sodium reabsorption. Normal insulin/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and mTOR signalling are critical for podocyte hypertrophy and adaptation. Adipokines and ectopic lipid accumulation in the kidney promote insulin resistance of podocytes and maladaptive responses to cope with the mechanical forces of renal hyperfiltration. Although most patients have stable or slowly progressive proteinuria, up to one-third develop progressive renal failure and end-stage renal disease. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockade is effective in the short-term but weight loss by hypocaloric diet or bariatric surgery has induced more consistent and dramatic antiproteinuric effects and reversal of hyperfiltration. Altered fatty acid and cholesterol metabolism are increasingly recognized as key mediators of renal lipid accumulation, inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis. Newer therapies directed to lipid metabolism, including SREBP antagonists, PPARα agonists, FXR and TGR5 agonists, and LXR agonists, hold therapeutic promise. PMID:27263398

  1. Red fox spatial characteristics in relation to waterfowl predation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, A.B.

    1972-01-01

    Radio-equipped red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) on the Cedar Creek area in Minnesota were spatially distributed, with individual families occupying well defined, nonoverlapping, contiguous territories. Territory boundaries often conformed to natural physical boundaries and appeared to be maintained through some nonaggressive behavior mechanism. Individual foxes traveled extensively throughout the family territory each night. Fox territories appeared to range from approximately 1 to 3 square miles in size, dependent largely on population density. Red foxes used a sequence of dens to rear their pups, and the amount and location of food remains at individual dens changed as the pups matured. The denning season was divided into pre-emergence, confined-use, and dispersed-use periods of 4 to 5 weeks each. Remains of adult waterfowl were collected at rearing dens on six townships in three ecologically different regions of eastern North Dakota. Remains of 172 adult dabbling ducks and 16 adult American coots (Fulica americana) were found at 35 dens. No remains from diving ducks were found. The number of adult ducks per den averaged 1.6, 5.9, and 10.2 for paired townships in regions with relatively low, moderate and high duck populations, respectively. Eighty-four percent of the ducks were females. The species and sex composition of ducks found at dens during early and late sampling periods reflected the nesting chronology of prairie dabbling ducks. Occupied rearing dens were focal points of red fox travel, and the locations of dens may have had considerable influence on predation. Thirty-five of 38 dens found on the six township study areas were on pastured or idle lands. The distribution of rearing dens on the Sand Lake and Arrowwood national wildlife refuges suggested that, on these areas, fox dens were concentrated because of the topography and land-use practices.

  2. CHARGE syndrome: relations between behavioral characteristics and medical conditions.

    PubMed

    Vervloed, Mathijs P J; Hoevenaars-van den Boom, Marella A A; Knoors, Harry; van Ravenswaaij, Conny M A; Admiraal, Ronald J C

    2006-04-15

    The behaviors and medical problems in 27 persons with CHARGE syndrome were studied, because it was hypothesized that their behavior might be partly dependent on the heterogeneous medical status. With the exception of more tics, cardiac surgery was associated with positive behaviors: less withdrawn behavior, better mood, and a more easy temperament. Tube feeding was also related to positive behavior, since participants with a history of tube feeding showed less intense behavior. Cerebral deficits were associated with three problem behaviors: more intense and withdrawn behavior and a worse mood. Deaf-blindness was associated with developmental delays in expressive and overall communication level, and recurrent middle ear infections correlated with delays in written language. Of all medical conditions, only the presence or absence of heart defects and cardiac surgery could differentiate between the participants with regard to the number of behavioral problems. Participants with heart surgery especially, had less behavior problems. The number of operations and hospitalizations was not associated with behavior, but the total length of the hospitalizations was. Long hospital stays were associated with less problem behavior, especially internalizing behaviors. Cerebral and heart problems did not result in longer hospital stays, whereas esophageal reflux did. Age effects were reflected in older participants, who showed more internalizing problems. Heart surgery and hospitalization may be protective factors, but the protection might not be the actual surgery or hospital stay, as there may be other variables that are the actual cause, such as reduced vitality or altered parent child interactions after heart surgery. The study could not confirm a significant association between medical conditions and autism found in previous studies. PMID:16532469

  3. Characteristics of binge eating disorder in relation to diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Wilfley, Denise E; Citrome, Leslie; Herman, Barry K

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review was to examine the evidentiary basis for binge eating disorder (BED) with reference to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Fifth Edition (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria for BED. A PubMed search restricted to titles and abstracts of English-language reviews, meta-analyses, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, journal articles, and letters using human participants was conducted on August 7, 2015, using keywords that included "binge eating disorder," DSM-5, DSM-IV, guilt, shame, embarrassment, quantity, psychological, behavior, and "shape and weight concerns." Of the 257 retrieved publications, 60 publications were considered relevant to discussions related to DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and were included in the current review, and 20 additional references were also included on the basis of the authors' knowledge and/or on a review of the reference lists from relevant articles obtained through the literature search. Evidence supports the duration/frequency criterion for BED and the primary importance of loss of control and marked distress in identifying individuals with BED. Although overvaluation of shape/weight is not a diagnostic criterion, its relationship to the severity of BED psychopathology may identify a unique subset of individuals with BED. Additionally, individuals with BED often exhibit a clinical profile consisting of psychiatric (eg, mood, obsessive-compulsive, and impulsive disorders) and medical (eg, gastrointestinal symptoms, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes) comorbidities and behavioral profiles (eg, overconsumption of calories outside of a binge eating episode and emotional eating). Future revisions of the BED diagnostic criteria should consider the inclusion of BED subtypes, perhaps based on the overvaluation of shape/weight, and an evidence-based reassessment of severity criteria. PMID:27621631

  4. Characteristics of binge eating disorder in relation to diagnostic criteria

    PubMed Central

    Wilfley, Denise E; Citrome, Leslie; Herman, Barry K

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review was to examine the evidentiary basis for binge eating disorder (BED) with reference to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fifth Edition (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria for BED. A PubMed search restricted to titles and abstracts of English-language reviews, meta-analyses, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, journal articles, and letters using human participants was conducted on August 7, 2015, using keywords that included “binge eating disorder,” DSM-5, DSM-IV, guilt, shame, embarrassment, quantity, psychological, behavior, and “shape and weight concerns.” Of the 257 retrieved publications, 60 publications were considered relevant to discussions related to DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and were included in the current review, and 20 additional references were also included on the basis of the authors’ knowledge and/or on a review of the reference lists from relevant articles obtained through the literature search. Evidence supports the duration/frequency criterion for BED and the primary importance of loss of control and marked distress in identifying individuals with BED. Although overvaluation of shape/weight is not a diagnostic criterion, its relationship to the severity of BED psychopathology may identify a unique subset of individuals with BED. Additionally, individuals with BED often exhibit a clinical profile consisting of psychiatric (eg, mood, obsessive–compulsive, and impulsive disorders) and medical (eg, gastrointestinal symptoms, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes) comorbidities and behavioral profiles (eg, overconsumption of calories outside of a binge eating episode and emotional eating). Future revisions of the BED diagnostic criteria should consider the inclusion of BED subtypes, perhaps based on the overvaluation of shape/weight, and an evidence-based reassessment of severity criteria. PMID:27621631

  5. Nutrition-Related Characteristics of High School Teachers and Student Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Jean D.; Woodburn, Margy J.

    1983-01-01

    Examined relationship between nutrition-related teacher (N=62) characteristics and effective nutrition education for their teenage students (N=1,073). Instruments used assessed such teacher characteristics as nutrition knowledge, dietary practices, and self-confidence as nutrition educators as well as students' knowledge and dietary practices…

  6. School Characteristics Related to Principals' Perceived Needs for a Violence Prevention Program in the Arkansas Delta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howerton, D. Lynn; Enger, John M.

    The fear of violence among students and teachers is straining the learning environment in many schools. This paper presents findings of a study that investigated school district characteristics in relation to the level of principals' expressed needs for school-violence prevention programs. The district characteristics included finance, size,…

  7. Characteristics of the USA dairy herd as related to management and demographic elements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The data characteristics of the United States dairy herd related to animals enrolled in milk recording (dairy herd improvement) are the basic foundation and important influencers for the management and genetic progress achieved in a population or animal production unit. The amount, characteristics ...

  8. Adult Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse: Multitype Maltreatment and Disclosure Characteristics Related to Subjective Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonzon, Eva; Lindblad, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the impact of child sexual abuse and disclosure characteristics on adult psychological and psychosomatic symptoms. Data on abuse characteristics, disclosure-related events, and subjective health were collected through semistructured interviews and questionnaires from 123 adult women reporting having been sexually abused in…

  9. Relations between Housing Characteristics and the Well-Being of Low-Income Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Leventhal, Tama; Lynch, Alicia Doyle; Kull, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Extant research has highlighted the importance of multiple characteristics of housing but has not comprehensively assessed a broad range of housing characteristics and their relative contributions to children's well-being. Using a representative, longitudinal sample of low-income children and adolescents from low-income urban neighborhoods (N…

  10. Peer Relations and Behavioral Characteristics of Isolated Children in Elementary School: A Longitudinal Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norwalk, Kate E.

    2013-01-01

    Research clearly shows that heterogeneity exists in the etiology, associated characteristics, and outcomes of social withdrawal/isolation. While individual level characteristics are thought to contribute to withdrawal and isolation, research suggests that peer relations may play an important role in the extent to which social withdrawal/isolation…

  11. Resident Characteristics Related to the Lack of Morning Care Provision in Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Sandra F.; Durkin, Daniel W.; Rahman, Anna N.; Choi, Leena; Beuscher, Linda; Schnelle, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine usual long-term care (LTC) practices related to 3 aspects of morning care and determine if there were resident characteristics related to the lack of care. Design and Methods: Participants were 169 long-stay residents in 4 community LTC facilities who required staff assistance with either transfer…

  12. An Investigation of Grade 12 Students' Misconceptions Relating to Fundamental Characteristics of Molecules and Atoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Alan Keith; Preston, Kirk R.

    An understanding of the concepts of atoms and molecules is fundamental to the learning of chemistry. Any misconceptions and alternative conceptions related to these concepts which students harbor will impede much further learning. This paper identifies misconceptions related to the fundamental characteristics of atoms and molecules which Grade 12…

  13. Granulometric distribution of natural and flux calcined chert from Ypresian phosphatic series of Gafsa-Metlaoui basin compared to diatomite filter aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidi, R.; Tlili, A.; Fourati, A.; Ammar, N.; Ounis, A.; Jamoussi, F.

    2012-02-01

    The cherty rocks of the Chouabine Formation of the Gafsa-Metlaoui basin (south-western Tunisia), that is composed by biogenic silica, are treated using thermal treatment at 1000°C with flux calcination method in order to prepare a specific filter aids of melting sulfur filter used for the production of sulfuric acid. This work presents the effect of heating on the granulometry of chert. The mineralogical composition of natural starting chert is composed by opal CT (cristobalite/tridymite) and by the mineral mixture of quartz, smectite clay minerals, palygorskite-sepiolite fibrous clay minerals, calcite and hematite. After thermal treatment, at 1000°C, the crystallinity of chert increases significantly and the opal-CT, transforms mostly to opal-C. The comparison of infrared spectra of untreated and treated cherts shows systematic variation of the wavenumber and the intensity of the absorption bands, due to the apparition of 619, 795, 1094 and 1202 cm-1 absorption bands of cristobalite in the infrared spectrum of chert treated sample, which is similar to diatomite. Granulometric analysis show that the natural untreated chert sample displays unimodal distribution, whereas the treated chert sample display bimodal distribution, as same as diatomite. Thus, a new mode appears systematically, between 0.1 μn and 1 μm, for all thermal treated samples with alkaline flux as observed for diatomite.

  14. The relative influence of road characteristics and habitat on adjacent lizard populations in arid shrublands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, Kaylan A.; Chalfoun, Anna L.; Gerow, Kenneth G.

    2016-01-01

    As road networks continue to expand globally, indirect impacts to adjacent wildlife populations remain largely unknown. Simultaneously, reptile populations are declining worldwide and anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation are frequently cited causes. We evaluated the relative influence of three different road characteristics (surface treatment, width, and traffic volume) and habitat features on adjacent populations of Northern Sagebrush Lizards (Sceloporus graciosus graciosus), Plateau Fence Lizards (S. tristichus), and Greater Short-Horned Lizards (Phrynosoma hernandesi) in mixed arid shrubland habitats in southwest Wyoming. Neither odds of lizard presence nor relative abundance was significantly related to any of the assessed road characteristics, although there was a trend for higher Sceloporus spp. abundance adjacent to paved roads. Sceloporus spp. relative abundance did not vary systematically with distance to the nearest road. Rather, both Sceloporus spp. and Greater Short-Horned Lizards were associated strongly with particular habitat characteristics adjacent to roads. Sceloporus spp. presence and relative abundance increased with rock cover, relative abundance was associated positively with shrub cover, and presence was associated negatively with grass cover. Greater Short-Horned Lizard presence increased with bare ground and decreased marginally with shrub cover. Our results suggest that habitat attributes are stronger correlates of lizard presence and relative abundance than individual characteristics of adjacent roads, at least in our system. Therefore, an effective conservation approach for these species may be to consider the landscape through which new roads and their associated development would occur, and the impact that placement could have on fragment size and key habitat elements.

  15. Salespersons' weight and ratings of characteristics related to effectiveness of selling.

    PubMed

    Zemanek, J E; McIntyre, R P; Zemanek, A

    1998-06-01

    A study was conducted to examine the effects of a salesperson's weight and the interaction of weight with sex on a variety of positive personal characteristics which have been previously established. 243 purchasing agents provided data on 410 male and female salespeople who were then divided into two groups by weight. Analyses of variance were conducted using weight and sex as the independent variables and a variety of personal characteristics as dependent variables. The analysis suggested that the weight and sex of a salesperson are related to several personal characteristics. PMID:9676505

  16. Agrichemicals in ground water of the midwestern USA: Relations to soil characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkart, M.R.; Kolpin, D.W.; Jaquis, R.J.; Cole, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive set of soil characteristics were examined to determine the effect of soil on the transport of agrichemicals to ground water. This paper examines the relation of local soil characteristics to concentrations and occurrence of nitrate, atrazine (2-chloro-4 ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-trazine), and atrazine residue [atrazine + deethylatrazine (2-amino-4-chloro-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) + deisopropylatrazine (2-amino-4-chloro-6-ethylamino-s-triazine)] from 99 wells completed in unconsolidated aquifers across the midwestern USA. The occurrence and concentrations of nitrate and atrazine in ground water were directly related to soil characteristics that determine the rate of water movement. The substantial differences in the relations found among soil characteristics and nitrate and atrazine in ground water suggest that different processes affect the transformation, adsorption, and transport of these contaminants. A multivariate analysis determined that the soil characteristics examined explained the amount of variability in concentrations for nitrate (19.0%), atrazine (33.4%), and atrazine residue (28.6%). These results document that, although soils do affect the transport of agrichemicals to ground water, other factors such as hydrology, land use, and climate must also be considered to understand the occurrence of agrichemicals in ground water.

  17. Intrapersonal characteristics of body-related guilt, shame, pride, and envy in Canadian adults.

    PubMed

    Pila, Eva; Brunet, Jennifer; Crocker, Peter R E; Kowalski, Kent C; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2016-03-01

    This study examined differences in body-related shame, guilt, pride, and envy based on intrapersonal characteristics of sex, age, and weight status in 527 Canadian adults. Compared to men, women reported significantly higher shame and guilt contextualized to the body. No sex differences were observed for envy or pride. Middle-aged adults reported higher shame and lower pride compared with young adults, whereas no age differences were observed with body-related guilt. Meanwhile, shame and guilt were highest for individuals who had overweight or obese weight status, and pride was highest in individuals with average weight status. Overall, effect sizes were small and there were no significant interaction effects between sex, age, and weight status across body-related emotions. Further research is needed to capture similarities and differences of body-related self-conscious emotions between intrapersonal characteristics, to aid the development of intervention strategies to manage this important dimension of body image. PMID:26799227

  18. Drying characteristics and modeling of yam slices under different relative humidity conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The drying characteristics of yam slices under different 23 constant relative humidity (RH) and step-down RH levels were studied. A mass transfer model was developed based on Bi-Di correlations containing a drying coefficient and a lag factor to describe the drying process. It was validated using ex...

  19. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Remarks on the extended characteristic uncertainty relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonov, D. A.

    2001-03-01

    Three remarks concerning the form and the range of validity of the state-extended characteristic uncertainty relations (URs) are presented. A more general definition of the uncertainty matrix for pure and mixed states is suggested. Some new URs are provided.

  20. Child and Parent Characteristics, Parental Expectations, and Child Behaviours Related to Preschool Children's Interest in Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baroody, Alison E.; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the relations between children's literacy interest and parent and child characteristics (i.e. parents' education level and child's gender), parental expectations of their child's school attainment and achievement and the child's positive and problem behaviours. Participants were 61 preschoolers from predominately…

  1. The Use of Technology in Relation to Community College Faculty Characteristics and Instructional Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the use of a course management system in relation to faculty characteristics and instructional environments at a rural community college in California. The use of the course management system, Blackboard, was the technology studied. This study used a nonexperimental quantitative ex post facto research…

  2. Burnout in Social Workers Treating Children as Related to Demographic Characteristics, Work Environment, and Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamama, Liat

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sense of burnout among 126 social workers who directly treat children and adolescents within the human service professions. Burnout was investigated in relation to social workers' demographic characteristics (age, family status, education, and seniority at work), extrinsic and intrinsic work conditions, and social support by…

  3. Parent and Child Characteristics Related to Chosen Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Brenda A.; Aalborg, Annette E.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Bauman, Karl; Spoth, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Mothers were allowed to choose between two different family-based adolescent alcohol-drug prevention strategies and the choice was examined in relation to parent and teen characteristics. Under real world conditions, parents are making choices regarding health promotion strategies for their adolescents and little is known about how parent and teen…

  4. Adult Learners' Satisfaction and Its Relation to Characteristics of the Individual and the Educational Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeren, Ellen; Nicaise, Ides; Baert, Herman

    2012-01-01

    This article explores satisfactory learning experiences of adult learners in Flemish formal adult education. Satisfaction is an important issue in motivational psychology. We used the Comprehensive Lifelong Learning Participation Model of Boeren, Nicaise and Baert and explored whether satisfactory experiences relate to characteristics of the…

  5. Environmental Relative Moldiness Index and Associations with Home Characteristics and Infant Wheeze

    EPA Science Inventory

    Possible relationships between mold contamination, as described by the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI), home characteristics, and the development of wheeze in the first year of life were evaluated among a cohort of urban infants (n = 103) in Syracuse, New York. Pre...

  6. Does Spirituality Make a Difference? Psychosocial and Health-Related Characteristics of Spiritual Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammermeister, Jon; Peterson, Margaret

    2001-01-01

    Examined relationships among college students' differing levels of spiritual well-being and 11 psycho-social and health-related characteristics. Results revealed that students scoring higher on the spiritual health measure displayed better outcomes on psycho-social measures (e.g., loneliness, self-esteem and hopelessness). Alcohol and drug use…

  7. Psychological Sequelae of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Abuse-Related Characteristics, Coping Strategies, and Attributional Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steel, Jennifer; Sanna, Lawrence; Hammond, Barbara; Whipple, James; Cross, Herbert

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test a model predicting the contribution of abuse-related characteristics and mediating variables such as coping and attributional style in the development of psychological sequelae in adults reporting a history of child sexual abuse (CSA). Methodology: Two hundred and eighty-five males and females from…

  8. [Characteristics of non-exertional heat-related illness in Japan].

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yasufumi

    2012-06-01

    This report shows characteristics of non-exertional heat-related illness in Japan. The findings are similar to those of previous reports in heatwaves of Europe and The United States. Eldery people with pre-existing diseases, homeless, living alone, poverty are independent risk factors of heatstoke and are strongly associated with severity and mortality. PMID:22690607

  9. Grade-12 Students' Misconceptions Relating to Fundamental Characteristics of Atoms and Molecules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Alan K.; Preston, Kirk R.

    1992-01-01

    Identifies misconceptions related to the fundamental characteristics of atoms and molecules held by twelfth-grade students. Data were obtained by administration of semistructured interviews to a stratified, random sample of 30 students. Fifty-two misconceptions were observed and reported. Some of the misconceptions identified parallel the…

  10. Relation of Patient Pretreatment Characteristics to the Therapeutic Alliance in Diverse Psychotherapies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaston, Louise; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigated prediction of therapeutic alliance from patient pretreatment characteristics among 60 elderly depressed outpatients treated in behavioral, cognitive, and brief dynamic psychotherapy. Found that higher degree of patient defensiveness was related to lower patient contribution to alliance as reflected in patient commitment and working…

  11. Relation of different measures of psychological characteristics to oral health habits, diabetes adherence and related clinical variables among diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Syrjälä, Anna-Maija H; Ylöstalo, Pekka; Niskanen, Mirka C; Knuuttila, Matti L E

    2004-04-01

    Among diabetic patients, oral health status and oral health behavior have been found to relate to metabolic control. The aim was to analyse which psychological characteristics, i.e. intention, self-efficacy, locus of control or self-esteem related to health behavior most comprehensively explain oral health habits, diabetes adherence, dental caries, deepened periodontal pockets, and the metabolic parameter HbA1c (glycosylated hemoglobin). The study subjects consisted of a group of 149 insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Data were obtained from self-completed questionnaires. The proportions of variance explained by the linear regression model were used as measures in the comparisons. It was found that oral health habits and diabetes adherence correlated. Both dental and diabetes self-efficacy scores were related to oral health habits and diabetes adherence. This indicates that self-efficacy is the best overall determinant of various health behavior practices. The ability of psychological characteristics to explain oral health was limited. Improvement of self-efficacy therefore may have a positive effect on various aspects of health behaviors. PMID:15056106

  12. Predicting the relative toxicity of metal ions using ion characteristics: Microtox{reg_sign} bioluminescence assay

    SciTech Connect

    McCloskey, J.T.; Newman, M.C.; Clark, S.B.

    1996-10-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships have been used to predict the relative toxicity of organic compounds. Although not as common, ion characteristics have also proven useful for predicting the relative toxicity of metal ions. The purpose of this study was to determine if the relative toxicity of metal ions using the Microtox{reg_sign} bioassay was predictable using ion characteristics. Median effect concentrations (EC50s) were determined for 20 metals in a NaNO{sub 3} medium, which reflected freshwater speciation conditions, using the Microtox bacterial assay. The log of EC50 values was modeled using several ion characteristics, and Akaike`s Information Criterion was calculated to determine which ion characteristics provided the best fit. Whether modeling total ion or free ion EC50 values, the one variable which best modeled EC50s was the softness index, while a combination of {chi}{sub m}{sup 2}r ({chi}{sub m} = electronegativity, r = Pauling ionic radius) and {vert_bar}log K{sub OH}{vert_bar} was the best two-variable model. Other variables, including {Delta}E{sub 0} and {chi}{sub m}{sup 2}r (one-variable models) and (AN/{Delta}IP, {Delta}E{sub 0}) and ({chi}{sub m}{sup 2}r, Z{sup 2}/r) (two-variable models), also gave adequate fits. Modeling with speciated (free ion) versus unspeciated (total ion) EC50 values did not improve fits. Modeling mono-, di-, and trivalent metal ions separately improved the models. The authors conclude that ion characteristics can be used to predict the relative toxicity of metal ions whether in freshwater (NaNO{sub 3} medium) or saltwater (NaCl medium) speciation conditions and that this approach can be applied to metal ions varying widely in both valence and binding tendencies.

  13. Global distribution and characteristics of coronae and related features on Venus - Implications for origin and relation to mantle processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stofan, Ellen R.; Sharpton, Virgil L.; Schubert, Gerald; Baer, Gidon; Bindschadler, Duane L.; Janes, Daniel M.; Squyres, Steven W.

    1992-01-01

    The increased coverage and resolution of Magellan images and altimetry data have resulted in significant new identifications of coronae and coronalike features and more detailed information on corona morphology, topography, and distribution. The distribution of coronae and coronalike features in Magellan data are assessed in the light of the proposed hotspot origin of these features. The basic characteristics of coronae are then compared with other possible hotspot features on Venus (e.g., major volcanic shields and domelike highlands) in a first-order assessment of the implications of mantle plume-related features on Venus for interior convective processes.

  14. A research model for relating job characteristics to job satisfaction of university foodservice employees.

    PubMed

    Duke, K M; Sneed, J

    1989-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between job characteristics and job satisfaction and between demographic variables and job satisfaction for university foodservice employees. A three-part survey was developed which included the 30-item Job Characteristics Inventory, 6 items related to job satisfaction, and 7 demographic items. Separate written questionnaires were administered to 32 managerial and 147 non-managerial employees of a large state university foodservice department. The response rate was 98% (32 managers and 143 non-managers). The reliability for the instrument, as determined by Cronbach's alpha, was 0.88 for employees and 0.91 for supervisors. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to test research hypotheses at a significance level of p less than or equal to .05. There was a positive relationship between job characteristics (autonomy, task identity, feedback, variety, dealing with others, and friendship opportunities) and job satisfaction for both employees and supervisors. Feedback and dealing with others were the individual job characteristics that were significant. Only one job characteristic, dealing with others, was rated higher by managerial than by non-managerial employees. There was no difference in job satisfaction by role (managerial vs. non-managerial) or demographic variables, except age for non-managerial employees. Older, non-managerial employees tended to be more satisfied with their jobs than did younger employees. Dietitians and foodservice managers can use the findings for implementing job design strategies, such as job enrichment and job rotation, to improve employee satisfaction. PMID:2760368

  15. RELATIVE CONTRIBUTIONS OF PARENT-PERCEIVED CHILD CHARACTERISTICS TO VARIATION IN CHILD FEEDING BEHAVIOR.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, Victoria K; Dovey, Terence M; Martin, Clarissa I; Meyer, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relative impact of co-occurring child characteristics on problematic feeding behavior. The aim of the current study was to assess the relative contributions of parent-perceived child characteristics in multivariable models of child feeding behavior. One hundred sixty-one mothers reported on their child's feeding behavior and a number of key child characteristics. These characteristics were entered into controlled multivariable models of child feeding behavior, using child and parent frequency domains of the Behavioral Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFAS; W. Crist et al., 1994) as outcome measures. Child feeding problems were positively associated with food neophobia and external behavioral and social issues, but not with most domains of temperamental difficulty or sensory sensitivity. Feeding problem frequency was associated with externalizing symptoms whereas parental perceptions of problems and coping were associated with social-interaction problems in the child. Population feeding problems appear to be external and interactive problems rather than driven by innate or internalizing factors. The association with externalizing symptoms suggests that feeding problems at this level may fall within a wider profile of challenging behavior; however, the existence of problematic feeding behaviors may constitute a challenge for parents only when the child's social interactions also are seen to be deficient. PMID:26715180

  16. [Comments relating to the psychosexual characteristics of the male transsexual. A clinical study].

    PubMed

    Fulcheri, M; Bertone, E; Barzega, G

    1995-03-01

    In this paper the authors analyse transexualism from a psychopathological, nosographic and clinical point of view. The re-examine the theories on the subjects elaborated by a number of authors and describe the clinical characteristics of the syndrome, paying special attention to problems relating to differential diagnosis. Moreover, they present the results ofa study carried out in a personal series of cases. The sample studied included 11 male transsexual subjects. The latter were evaluated through psychiatric interview and a questionnaire aimed at obtaining information on the following topics: the subjects' social and affective relations; their childhood experience; their perception and acceptance of themselves; the meaning, characteristics, localisation and experience of sexual pleasure. The results are discussed and compared with those of national and international literature on this subjects. PMID:7643729

  17. Mineralogical characteristics of the silica polymorphs in relation to their biological activities

    SciTech Connect

    Guthrie, G.D. Jr.; Heaney, P.J.

    1993-10-01

    Numerous aspects of minerals (including the silica polymorphs) can effect their biological activities. These include periodic structures, compositional variations, dissolution characteristics, surface properties, and particle size/shape. In order to understand mineral-induced pathogenesis in a mechanistic way, the links between these properties and biochemical processes must be elucidated. This paper presents some of the basic properties of the silica polymorphs that may relate to pathogenicity and mineralogical strategies for designing biological assays to evaluate these properties.

  18. The characteristics of 78 related airfoil sections from tests in the variable-density wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Eastman N; Ward, Kenneth E; Pinkerton, Robert M

    1933-01-01

    An investigation of a large group of related airfoils was made in the NACA variable-density wind tunnel at a large value of the Reynolds number. The tests were made to provide data that may be directly employed for a rational choice of the most suitable airfoil section for a given application. The variation of the aerodynamic characteristics with variations in thickness and mean-line form were systematically studied. (author)

  19. Growth, yield and compositional characteristics of Jerusalem artichoke as it relates to biomass production

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, M.D.; Chubey, B.B.; Dorrell, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) has shown excellent potential as a carbohydrate-rich crop. Initial investigations determined inulin and tuber yields; however, when additional studies showed that good quality pulp remained after inulin extraction and high forage yields per hectare were obtainable, the scope of investigation was broadened to assess utilization of the total plant. Plant growth, yield and compositional characteristics of Jerusalem artichoke as they relate to biomass production will be reported.

  20. Influences of Rhythm- and Timbre-Related Musical Features on Characteristics of Music-Induced Movement

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Birgitta; Thompson, Marc R.; Luck, Geoff; Saarikallio, Suvi; Toiviainen, Petri

    2013-01-01

    Music makes us move. Several factors can affect the characteristics of such movements, including individual factors or musical features. For this study, we investigated the effect of rhythm- and timbre-related musical features as well as tempo on movement characteristics. Sixty participants were presented with 30 musical stimuli representing different styles of popular music, and instructed to move along with the music. Optical motion capture was used to record participants’ movements. Subsequently, eight movement features and four rhythm- and timbre-related musical features were computationally extracted from the data, while the tempo was assessed in a perceptual experiment. A subsequent correlational analysis revealed that, for instance, clear pulses seemed to be embodied with the whole body, i.e., by using various movement types of different body parts, whereas spectral flux and percussiveness were found to be more distinctly related to certain body parts, such as head and hand movement. A series of ANOVAs with the stimuli being divided into three groups of five stimuli each based on the tempo revealed no significant differences between the groups, suggesting that the tempo of our stimuli set failed to have an effect on the movement features. In general, the results can be linked to the framework of embodied music cognition, as they show that body movements are used to reflect, imitate, and predict musical characteristics. PMID:23641220

  1. Epidemiological Characteristics of Work-Related Ocular Trauma in Southwest Region of China

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Mingming; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the epidemiological characteristics of work-related eye injury in representative southwest region of China. Methods: Patients with eye injuries treated at the Ninth People’s Hospital of Chongqing from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2014 were included in the current study. All patients completed a comprehensive examination and interview. Demographic characteristics and injury details were recorded. The International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) and Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology (BETT) were used. Results: The average age of eye injury patients was 37.52 years and the majority were male. Among the 1055 total patients, approximately 42.9% of the injuries were work-related. The highest proportion of occupational eye trauma was observed in the group between 36 and 45 years of age. Occupational ocular trauma occurred more frequently in summer, with most from 16:00 to 18:00. Metal was the most common injury cause. Foreign body on external eye was the most common diagnosis. Workers in the manufacturing industry without pre-work safety training or eye protection were far more likely to suffer from occupational ocular trauma than those with training and protection. Conclusions: This study provides insight into the epidemiological characteristics of occupational ocular trauma in southwest region of China. The current findings might be considered as a baseline for future research on regional work-related eye injuries. Our findings will provide valuable information for further development of preventive strategies. PMID:26295403

  2. Grazing bifurcation analysis of a relative rotation system with backlash non-smooth characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuang; Wang, Zhao-Long; Zhao, Shuang-Shuang; Li, Hai-Bin; Li, Jian-Xiong

    2015-07-01

    Grazing bifurcation of a relative rotation system with backlash non-smooth characteristic is studied along with the change of the external excitation in this paper. Considering the oil film, backlash, time-varying stiffness and time-varying error, the dynamical equation of a relative rotation system with a backlash non-smooth characteristic is deduced by applying the elastic hydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) and the Grubin theories. In the process of relative rotation, the occurrence of backlash will lead to the change of dynamic behaviors of the system, and the system will transform from the meshing state to the impact state. Thus, the zero-time discontinuous mapping (ZDM) and the Poincare mapping are deduced to analyze the local dynamic characteristics of the system before as well as after the moment that the backlash appears (i.e., the grazing state). Meanwhile, the grazing bifurcation mechanism is analyzed theoretically by applying the impact and Floquet theories. Numerical simulations are also given, which confirm the analytical results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61104040), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. E2012203090), and the University Innovation Team of Hebei Province Leading Talent Cultivation Project, China (Grant No. LJRC013).

  3. Effective relative permittivity and characteristic impedance of graphene loaded microstrip line by scalar S-parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Kamlesh; Neha, Tyagi, Pawan K.

    2016-05-01

    Graphene film has particular applications at the microwave frequencies because as the number of layers increases, the permittivity and conductivity are modulated. Particularly, an effective relative permittivity of graphene is of high interest. In the present work, effective relative permittivity and characteristic impedance for three kind of structures where microstrip line is either in air or loaded by glass or by graphene film on the glass substrate have been determined. The scalar S-parameters have been measured by adopting both transmission-reflection and short-open methods. The propagation constant and effective relative permittivity have been calculated and found to be nearly same for the both methods with maximum difference of 0.27% and 1.87%, respectively. However, the characteristic impedance values have significant variations as high as 12.13%. Enhanced effective relative permittivity in the range of 3.7 to 4.12 has been observed in the frequency range 1 to 8 GHz, if graphene film on the glass substrate has been loaded on top of the microstrip line. In this value the contribution of stripline substrate includes. Relative permittivity of only monolayer graphene film on the glass substrate is determined in the range of 1.62 to 4.05, and dispersive in nature.

  4. Optimization of multiple quality characteristics in bone drilling using grey relational analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Rupesh Kumar; Panda, Sudhansu Sekhar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Drilling of bone is common during bone fracture treatment to fix the fractured parts with screws wires or plates. Minimally invasive drilling of the bone has a great demand as it helps in better fixation and quick healing of the broken bones. The purpose of the present investigation is to determine the optimum cutting condition for the minimization of the temperature, force and surface roughness simultaneously during bone drilling. Method In this study, drilling experiments have been performed on bovine bone with different conditions of feed rate and drill rotational speed using full factorial design. Optimal level of the drilling parameters is determined by the grey relational grade (GRG) obtained from the GRA as the performance index of multiple quality characteristics. The effect of each drilling parameter on GRG is determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the results obtained are validated by confirmation experiment. Results Grey relational analysis showed that the investigation with feed rate of 40 mm/min and spindle speed of 500 rpm has the highest grey relational grade and is recommended setting for minimum temperature, force and surface roughness simultaneously during bone drilling. Feed rate has the highest contribution (59.49%) on the multiple performance characteristics followed by the spindle speed (37.69%) as obtained from ANOVA analysis. Conclusions The use of grey relational analysis will simplify the complex process of optimization of the multi response characteristics in bone drilling by converting them into a single grey relational grade. The use of the above suggested methodology can greatly minimize the bone tissue injury during drilling. PMID:25829751

  5. Sleep Spindle Characteristics in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Their Relation to Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Merrill S.

    2016-01-01

    Empirical evidence indicates that sleep spindles facilitate neuroplasticity and “off-line” processing during sleep, which supports learning, memory consolidation, and intellectual performance. Children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) exhibit characteristics that may increase both the risk for and vulnerability to abnormal spindle generation. Despite the high prevalence of sleep problems and cognitive deficits in children with NDD, only a few studies have examined the putative association between spindle characteristics and cognitive function. This paper reviews the literature regarding sleep spindle characteristics in children with NDD and their relation to cognition in light of what is known in typically developing children and based on the available evidence regarding children with NDD. We integrate available data, identify gaps in understanding, and recommend future research directions. Collectively, studies are limited by small sample sizes, heterogeneous populations with multiple comorbidities, and nonstandardized methods for collecting and analyzing findings. These limitations notwithstanding, the evidence suggests that future studies should examine associations between sleep spindle characteristics and cognitive function in children with and without NDD, and preliminary findings raise the intriguing question of whether enhancement or manipulation of sleep spindles could improve sleep-dependent memory and other aspects of cognitive function in this population. PMID:27478646

  6. Drinking group characteristics related to willingness to engage in protective behaviors with the group at nightclubs.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Hilary F; Miller, Brenda A; Bourdeau, Beth; Johnson, Mark B; Voas, Robert B

    2016-03-01

    Electronic music dance events (EMDEs) in nightclubs are settings where young adults tend to engage in high-risk behaviors, such as heavy alcohol and drug use. Consequences of these behaviors may be prevented if young adults engage in protective strategies with their drinking group. It is important to identify drinking group characteristics that predict willingness to intervene with peers. Objectives of this study were to (a) examine whether young adults at EMDEs would be willing to intervene with members of their drinking group and (b) identify both individual and group characteristics of drinking groups that predict willingness to intervene. Nightclub patrons (N = 215 individuals; 80 groups) were surveyed anonymously as they entered clubs. Individual- and group-level characteristics were measured in relation to willingness to intervene with peers. Mixed-model regressions were conducted, accounting for nesting by drinking group. Analyses show that participants were willing to intervene with their peers. Groups that knew each other well and had lower expectations for members' drinking were more willing to intervene. Women, younger, and older participants were also more willing to intervene. Findings show that club patrons are willing to intervene with their drinking groups to protect them from harmful consequences of heavy drinking and drug use. Findings indicate characteristics of both individuals and drinking groups that could be targeted in interventions among young adults largely not being reached by college interventions. PMID:26999349

  7. Sleep Spindle Characteristics in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Their Relation to Cognition.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Reut; Wise, Merrill S

    2016-01-01

    Empirical evidence indicates that sleep spindles facilitate neuroplasticity and "off-line" processing during sleep, which supports learning, memory consolidation, and intellectual performance. Children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) exhibit characteristics that may increase both the risk for and vulnerability to abnormal spindle generation. Despite the high prevalence of sleep problems and cognitive deficits in children with NDD, only a few studies have examined the putative association between spindle characteristics and cognitive function. This paper reviews the literature regarding sleep spindle characteristics in children with NDD and their relation to cognition in light of what is known in typically developing children and based on the available evidence regarding children with NDD. We integrate available data, identify gaps in understanding, and recommend future research directions. Collectively, studies are limited by small sample sizes, heterogeneous populations with multiple comorbidities, and nonstandardized methods for collecting and analyzing findings. These limitations notwithstanding, the evidence suggests that future studies should examine associations between sleep spindle characteristics and cognitive function in children with and without NDD, and preliminary findings raise the intriguing question of whether enhancement or manipulation of sleep spindles could improve sleep-dependent memory and other aspects of cognitive function in this population. PMID:27478646

  8. Gravitational radiation by point particle eccentric binary systems in the linearised characteristic formulation of general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cedeño Montaña, C. E.; de Araujo, J. C. N.

    2016-04-01

    We study a binary system composed of point particles of unequal masses in eccentric orbits in the linear regime of the characteristic formulation of general relativity, generalising a previous study found in the literature in which a system of equal masses in circular orbits is considered. We also show that the boundary conditions on the time-like world tubes generated by the orbits of the particles can be extended beyond circular orbits. Concerning the power lost by the emission of gravitational waves, it is directly obtained from the Bondi's News function. It is worth stressing that our results are completely consistent, because we obtain the same result for the power derived by Peters and Mathews, in a different approach, in their seminal paper of 1963. In addition, the present study constitutes a powerful tool to construct extraction schemes in the characteristic formalism to obtain the gravitational radiation produced by binary systems during the inspiralling phase.

  9. Emulsion properties of casein and whey protein hydrolysates and the relation with other hydrolysate characteristics.

    PubMed

    van der Ven, C; Gruppen, H; de Bont, D B; Voragen, A G

    2001-10-01

    Casein and whey protein were hydrolyzed using 11 different commercially available enzyme preparations. Emulsion-forming ability and emulsion stability of the digests were measured as well as biochemical properties with the objective to study the relations between hydrolysate characteristics and emulsion properties. All whey protein hydrolysates formed emulsions with bimodal droplet size distributions, signifying poor emulsion-forming ability. Emulsion-forming ability of some casein hydrolysates was comparable to that of intact casein. Emulsion instability was caused by creaming and coalescence. Creaming occurred mainly in whey hydrolysate emulsions and in casein hydrolysate emulsions containing large emulsion droplets. Coalescence was dominant in casein emulsions with a broad particle size distribution. Emulsion instability due to coalescence was related to apparent molecular weight distribution of hydrolysates; a relative high amount of peptides larger than 2 kDa positively influences emulsion stability. PMID:11600059

  10. The Influence of Facial Characteristics on the Relation between Male 2D:4D and Dominance

    PubMed Central

    Ryckmans, Jan; Millet, Kobe; Warlop, Luk

    2015-01-01

    Although relations between 2D:4D and dominance rank in both baboons and rhesus macaques have been observed, evidence in humans is mixed. Whereas behavioral patterns in humans have been discovered that are consistent with these animal findings, the evidence for a relation between dominance and 2D:4D is weak or inconsistent. The present study provides experimental evidence that male 2D:4D is related to dominance after (fictitious) male-male interaction when the other man has a dominant, but not a submissive or neutral face. This finding provides evidence that the relationship between 2D:4D and dominance emerges in particular, predictable situations and that merely dominant facial characteristics of another person are enough to activate supposed relationships between 2D:4D and dominance. PMID:26600255

  11. Relative Amplitude based Features of characteristic ECG-Peaks for Identification of Coronary Artery Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohel, Bakul; Tiwary, U. S.; Lahiri, T.

    Coronary artery disease or Myocardial Infarction is the leading cause of death and disability in the world. ECG is widely used as a cheap diagnostic tool for diagnosis of coronary artery disease but has low sensitivity with the present criteria based on ST-segment, T wave and Q wave changes. So to increase the sensitivity of the ECG we have introduced relative amplitude based new features of characteristic ‘R’ and ‘S’ ECG-peaks between two leads. Relative amplitude based features shows remarkable capability in discriminating Myocardial Infarction and Healthy pattern using backpropogation neural network classifier yield results with 81.82% sensitivity and 81.82% specificity. Also relative amplitude might be an efficient method in minimizing the effect of body composition on ECG amplitude based features without use of any information from other than ECG

  12. The Influence of Facial Characteristics on the Relation between Male 2D:4D and Dominance.

    PubMed

    Ryckmans, Jan; Millet, Kobe; Warlop, Luk

    2015-01-01

    Although relations between 2D:4D and dominance rank in both baboons and rhesus macaques have been observed, evidence in humans is mixed. Whereas behavioral patterns in humans have been discovered that are consistent with these animal findings, the evidence for a relation between dominance and 2D:4D is weak or inconsistent. The present study provides experimental evidence that male 2D:4D is related to dominance after (fictitious) male-male interaction when the other man has a dominant, but not a submissive or neutral face. This finding provides evidence that the relationship between 2D:4D and dominance emerges in particular, predictable situations and that merely dominant facial characteristics of another person are enough to activate supposed relationships between 2D:4D and dominance. PMID:26600255

  13. Characteristics of work-related fatal and hospitalised injuries not captured in workers’ compensation data

    PubMed Central

    Koehoorn, M; Tamburic, L; Xu, F; Alamgir, H; Demers, P A; McLeod, C B

    2015-01-01

    Objectives (1) To identify work-related fatal and non-fatal hospitalised injuries using multiple data sources, (2) to compare case-ascertainment from external data sources with accepted workers’ compensation claims and (3) to investigate the characteristics of work-related fatal and hospitalised injuries not captured by workers’ compensation. Methods Work-related fatal injuries were ascertained from vital statistics, coroners and hospital discharge databases using payment and diagnosis codes and injury and work descriptions; and work-related (non-fatal) injuries were ascertained from the hospital discharge database using admission, diagnosis and payment codes. Injuries for British Columbia residents aged 15–64 years from 1991 to 2009 ascertained from the above external data sources were compared to accepted workers’ compensation claims using per cent captured, validity analyses and logistic regression. Results The majority of work-related fatal injuries identified in the coroners data (83%) and the majority of work-related hospitalised injuries (95%) were captured as an accepted workers’ compensation claim. A work-related coroner report was a positive predictor (88%), and the responsibility of payment field in the hospital discharge record a sensitive indicator (94%), for a workers’ compensation claim. Injuries not captured by workers’ compensation were associated with female gender, type of work (natural resources and other unspecified work) and injury diagnosis (eg, airway-related, dislocations and undetermined/unknown injury). Conclusions Some work-related injuries captured by external data sources were not found in workers’ compensation data in British Columbia. This may be the result of capturing injuries or workers that are ineligible for workers’ compensation, or the result of injuries that go unreported to the compensation system. Hospital discharge records and coroner reports may provide opportunities to identify workers (or family

  14. [The characteristics of Alzheimer's Disease Units in relation to neuropsychological tests].

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Giacoma C; Caffari, Bruno; Vanacore, Nicola; Maggini, Marina; Raschetti, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    The Cronos Project is a post-marketing surveillance study implemented by the Italian Ministry of Health and the National Institute of Health whose main objectives are to characterise the population of Alzheimer's disease patients treated with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and monitor effectiveness and drug safety in the field practice. In this project 503 Alzheimer's disease units were activated located throughout the country. The characteristics of these Alzheimer's disease units are presented for setting (territorial, university, hospital, extra-hospital), health personnel employed, examinations offered (CT and MRI scans and laboratory tests), counselling activities and relationship with caregiver associations in relation to neuropsychological tests. PMID:16037652

  15. Feeding habits of juvenile flatfish in relation to habitat characteristics in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florin, Ann-Britt; Lavados, Gaston

    2010-03-01

    To investigate feeding habits of juvenile flounder ( Platichthys flesus) and turbot ( Psetta maxima) in relation to habitat characteristics a field survey with push net sampling was conducted in nursery areas with different ecological characteristics in the northern Baltic proper. Sampling sites were stratified to cover several different habitat types defined by substrate and wave exposure. Apart from flatfishes and epifauna, samples of macrofauna, meiofauna and hyperbenthic planktons were collected from each site together with data on vegetation, depth, salinity, temperature and turbidity. The diet differed between species where flounder diet was dominated by chironomids, copepods and oligochaetes while turbot apart from chironomids had a high incidence of amphipods, gobies and mysids. In both species there was a shift in diet with size, although this shift was influenced by the habitat. Among the environmental variables investigated, wave exposure was found to significantly influence flounder diet. Food preference in the most exposed areas was dominated by oligochaetes and copepods instead of chironomids, which dominated in sheltered areas. This study shows that habitat characteristics can have a major influence on feeding habits of juvenile flatfish.

  16. Prevalence and Genetic Characteristics of Geographic Atrophy among Elderly Japanese with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Sakurada, Yoichi; Yoneyama, Seigo; Sugiyama, Atsushi; Tanabe, Naohiko; Kikushima, Wataru; Mabuchi, Fumihiko; Kume, Atsuki; Kubota, Takeo; Iijima, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence and genetic characteristics of geographic atrophy (GA) among elderly Japanese with advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a clinic-based study. Methods Two-hundred and ninety consecutive patients with advanced AMD were classified into typical neovascular AMD, polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP) or geographic atrophy (GA). Genetic variants of ARMS2 A69S (rs10490924) and CFH I62V (rs800292) were genotyped using TaqMan Genotyping Assays. The clinical and genetic characteristics were compared between patients with and without GA. Results The number of patients diagnosed as having typical neovascular AMD, PCV, RAP and GA were 98 (33.8%), 151 (52.1%), 22 (7.5%) and 19 (6.6%), respectively. Of 19 patients with GA, 13 patients (68.4%) had unilateral GA with exudative AMD in the contralateral eye. Patients with GA were significantly older, with a higher prevalence of reticular pseudodrusen, bilateral involvement of advanced AMD and T-allele frequency of ARMS2 A69S compared with those with typical AMD and PCV; although there were no differences in the genetic and clinical characteristics among patients with GA and RAP. Conclusions The prevalence of GA was 6.6% among elderly Japanese with AMD. Patients with GA and RAP exhibited genetic and clinical similarities. PMID:26918864

  17. Investigating grade nine textbook problems for characteristics related to mathematical literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiepour Gatabi, Abolfazl; Stacey, Kaye; Gooya, Zahra

    2012-12-01

    This study presents a content analysis of the new Iranian Grade 9 mathematics textbook and two Australian Year 9 mathematics textbooks, examining the extent to which the problems show characteristics associated in the literature with promoting mathematical literacy. The new Iranian book was produced to meet a range of needs including several well aligned with mathematical literacy for all students. Australia was selected as the comparison country because of its relatively high international achievement in mathematical literacy. Three comparable chapters in each book were analysed for these characteristics. When considering the percentages of problems showing each characteristic, there was considerable similarity between the textbooks. However, the Australian mathematics textbooks contain many more problems than the Iranian textbook and each chapter includes problems in a diverse range of contexts and the mathematical tasks range from simple applications of formulas to real world modelling although of a constrained nature. With many fewer problems, the Iranian textbook has considerably less diversity of context and very little opportunity for students to engage in mathematical modelling, the key process of mathematical literacy.

  18. Relations of microbiome characteristics to edaphic properties of tropical soils from Trinidad

    PubMed Central

    de Gannes, Vidya; Eudoxie, Gaius; Bekele, Isaac; Hickey, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how community structure of Bacteria, Archaea, and Fungi varies as a function of edaphic characteristics is key to elucidating associations between soil ecosystem function and the microbiome that sustains it. In this study, non-managed tropical soils were examined that represented a range of edaphic characteristics, and a comprehensive soil microbiome analysis was done by Illumina sequencing of amplicon libraries that targeted Bacteria (universal prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene primers), Archaea (primers selective for archaeal 16S rRNA genes), or Fungi (internal transcribed spacer region). Microbiome diversity decreased in the order: Bacteria > Archaea > Fungi. Bacterial community composition had a strong relationship to edaphic factors while that of Archaea and Fungi was comparatively weak. Bacterial communities were 70–80% alike, while communities of Fungi and Archaea had 40–50% similarity. While each of the three component communities differed in species turnover patterns, soils having relatively similar bacterial communities also housed similar archaeal communities. In contrast, the composition of fungal communities had no correlation to bacterial or archaeal communities. Bacterial and archaeal diversity had significant (negative) correlations to pH, whereas fungal diversity was not correlated to pH. Edaphic characteristics that best explained variation between soils in bacterial community structure were: total carbon, sodium, magnesium, and zinc. For fungi, the best variables were: sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, boron, and C/N. Archaeal communities had two sets of edaphic factors of equal strength, one contained sulfur, sodium, and ammonium-N and the other was composed of clay, potassium, ammonium-N, and nitrate-N. Collectively, the data indicate that Bacteria, Archaea, and Fungi did not closely parallel one another in community structure development, and thus microbiomes in each soil acquired unique identities. This divergence could in part reflect

  19. Relations of microbiome characteristics to edaphic properties of tropical soils from Trinidad.

    PubMed

    de Gannes, Vidya; Eudoxie, Gaius; Bekele, Isaac; Hickey, William J

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how community structure of Bacteria, Archaea, and Fungi varies as a function of edaphic characteristics is key to elucidating associations between soil ecosystem function and the microbiome that sustains it. In this study, non-managed tropical soils were examined that represented a range of edaphic characteristics, and a comprehensive soil microbiome analysis was done by Illumina sequencing of amplicon libraries that targeted Bacteria (universal prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene primers), Archaea (primers selective for archaeal 16S rRNA genes), or Fungi (internal transcribed spacer region). Microbiome diversity decreased in the order: Bacteria > Archaea > Fungi. Bacterial community composition had a strong relationship to edaphic factors while that of Archaea and Fungi was comparatively weak. Bacterial communities were 70-80% alike, while communities of Fungi and Archaea had 40-50% similarity. While each of the three component communities differed in species turnover patterns, soils having relatively similar bacterial communities also housed similar archaeal communities. In contrast, the composition of fungal communities had no correlation to bacterial or archaeal communities. Bacterial and archaeal diversity had significant (negative) correlations to pH, whereas fungal diversity was not correlated to pH. Edaphic characteristics that best explained variation between soils in bacterial community structure were: total carbon, sodium, magnesium, and zinc. For fungi, the best variables were: sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, boron, and C/N. Archaeal communities had two sets of edaphic factors of equal strength, one contained sulfur, sodium, and ammonium-N and the other was composed of clay, potassium, ammonium-N, and nitrate-N. Collectively, the data indicate that Bacteria, Archaea, and Fungi did not closely parallel one another in community structure development, and thus microbiomes in each soil acquired unique identities. This divergence could in part reflect the

  20. Pedological characteristics related to groundwater occurrence in the Tarkwa area, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuma, J. S.; Younger, P. L.

    2001-08-01

    Saturated hydraulic conductivities ( Ks) and textural characteristics of soil have been determined by infiltration and particle size distribution tests, respectively, at 56 sites. These soil tests were conducted in the B-horizon during a groundwater resources survey in the Tarkwa area, Ghana. It was observed, in general, that extremely poorly sorted soils exhibited low porosity and relatively higher Ks, while relatively better sorted soils revealed high porosity and low Ks values. The range of Ks of the soils is from 10 -5-10 -8 m s -1, although the overwhelming majority is in the 10 -6-10 -7 m s -1 range. Tarkwaian soils are mainly silty sands with minor lateritic patches, which are located on hilly terrain underlain by Banket Series and Tarkwa Phyllite rocks. Banket soils are located mainly on hills, which act as groundwater recharge areas and exhibit the most favourable characteristics for infiltration in the area, in terms of both particle size distribution and Ks values. The preponderance of the Banket soils implies that they are the best medium for groundwater recharge in the area and can be expected to act as fair-yielding regolith aquifers in favourable areas. Huni and Kawere soils located in low-lying areas display characteristics suggesting that the Huni, with a much better sorting coefficient and Ks value, will admit more precipitation for recharge compared to the Kawere. Baseflow indices, determined for four catchments in the area, all reveal low storage characteristics in the range of 17-33%, reflecting a strong influence of the textural properties of soil. The moisture content of the soils varies from about 10% in the Banket gravels to 22% in dykes, while field capacity and permanent wilting point are estimated at 20-25% and 7-9% by volume, respectively. The pH of the soils varies from very acidic to moderately acidic, that is 1.72-5.01. The lowest pH values are associated with felsic dykes and are caused by the presence of well-disseminated fine

  1. Research on relation between bending stress and characteristic frequency of H-shaped beam by free vibration deflection

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Tsutomu; Watanabe, Takeshi

    2014-05-27

    In order to investigate a relation between a bending stress and a characteristic frequency of a beam, 4-point loading which had constant moment region was conducted to a beam with H shape configuration experimentally and numerically. H-shaped beam has many characteristic deformation modes. Axial tensile stress in the beam made its characteristic frequency higher, and compressive stress lower. In the experiment, some characteristic frequencies got higher by a bending stress, and the others stayed in a small frequency fluctuation. The distinction is anticipated as a capability to measure a bending stress of a beam by its characteristic frequencies.

  2. Multilevel modelling of built environment characteristics related to neighbourhood walking activity in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Li, F.; Fisher, K; Brownson, R.; Bosworth, M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relation between built environment factors (representing several dimensions of urban form of neighbourhoods) and walking activity at both the neighbourhood level and the resident level, in an older adult sample. Design, setting, participants: A cross sectional, multilevel design with neighbourhoods as the primary sampling unit and senior residents as the secondary unit. Five hundred and seventy seven residents (mean age = 74 years, SD = 6.3 years) participated in the survey, which was conducted among 56 city defined neighbourhoods in Portland, Oregon, USA. Neighbourhood level variables were constructed using geographical information systems. Resident level variables consisted of a mix of self reports and geocoded data on the built environment. Main outcome measure: Self reported neighbourhood walking. Main results: A positive relation was found between built environment factors (density of places of employment, household density, green and open spaces for recreation, number of street intersections) and walking activity at the neighbourhood level. At the resident level, perceptions of safety for walking and number of nearby recreational facilities were positively related to high levels of walking activity. A significant interaction was observed between number of street intersections and perceptions of safety from traffic. Conclusions: Certain neighbourhood built environment characteristics related to urban form were positively associated with walking activity in the neighbourhoods of senior residents. Public health promotion of walking activity/urban mobility and the design of interventions need to consider the contribution of neighbourhood level built environment influences. PMID:15965138

  3. Vertical PM10 Characteristics and their Relation with Tropospheric Meteorology over Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hei Tong, Cheuk

    2016-04-01

    Small particulates or PM10, those with aerodynamic diameters less than 10 mm, can cause long term impairment to human health as they can penetrate deep and deposit on the wall of the respiratory system. Hong Kong receives significant concentration of cross-boundary particulates but at the same time produce domestic pollutants which altogether contribute to the total pollution problem. Recent research interest is paying more attention on the vertical characteristic of PM in the lower atmosphere as possible correlations exist along different altitude. Besides, there exists potential relationship between PM concentration aloft and the high-level weather condition. Yet, most studies focus only up to around 200 meters above sea level due to the proposed significance and the lack of technology. Undoubtedly, this is not enough in investigating the relation between vertical atmospheric profile and PM vertical characteristics. New technology development has allowed measuring PM concentration along the vertical atmospheric profile up to tropopause. This measurement relies on the Atmospheric Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) which operates using the radar principle to detect Rayleigh and Mie scattering from atmospheric gas and aerosols. The research involves (1) study of the seasonal vertical PM10 characteristics in five studying site of Hong Kong covering urban, suburban and rural area; (2) the relationship of the PM10 characteristics with meteorological parameters; (3) the vertical PM10 characteristics under the approach of tropical cyclones. A portable Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) is adopted to collect PM data aloft while surface PM data is collected from ground stations. High-level meteorology data is received from Hong Kong Observatory. Statistical analyses are operated to investigate the correlation between weather conditions and PM concentration along the vertical profile. The research study is divided in phrases. The ultimate goal of the study is to develop models

  4. The Relation between Diverse Phenotypes of PCOS with Clinical Manifestations, Anthropometric Indices and Metabolic Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Shahrami, Seyedeh Hajar; Abbasi Ranjbar, Zahra; Milani, Forozan; Kezem-Nejad, Ehsan; Hassanzadeh Rad, Afagh; Dalil Heirat, Seyedeh Fatemeh

    2016-02-01

    Critical issue regarding to variation of findings based on different phenotypes led investigators to define whether they are distinct features or overlapping ones. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association between diverse phenotypes of PCOS (Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome) with clinical manifestations, anthropometric indices, and metabolic characteristics. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in 15-39 years old women with PCOS referred to infertility clinics in the north part of Iran, Rasht during 2010-2011. Data were gathered through an interview by a form consisted of demographic characteristics, laboratory findings, ovarian volume and anthropometric indices. A total of 214 patients consisted of 161 PCOS (cases) and 53 normal women (controls) participated in this study. The most prevalent phenotype in PCOS population was IM/PCO/HA (54%), followed by IM/HA (28%) and IM/PCO (13%). PCO/HA was present only in 6 PCOS patients (5%). PCOS patients were significantly younger than controls (P=0.07). Results showed that increased ovarian volume were higher in PCOS group in comparison with controls and IM/PCO/HA, and IM/PCO had respectively the largest ovarian volumes. Also, a significant relation was observed based on Cholesterol, 17OHP, LH, TG, 2hpp, and LH/FSH between patients with PCOS and control groups. There were significant differences in demographic, anthropometric, hormonal and ultrasound findings between PCOS and controls. Therefore, it seems that classification of the characteristics of each phenotype could offer an appropriate guide for screening risks of PCOS and may facilitate performing most favorable treatment for these complications. PMID:26997601

  5. Relating urban surface temperature to surface characteristics in Beijing area of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weidong; Lu, Liping; Ye, Caihua; Liu, Yonghong

    2009-10-01

    The surface environment and the thermal infrared information of remote sensing have been widely used to study urban climate. In this paper, the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data acquired in 2008 were applied to study the relationship between urban surface temperature and surface characteristics within the Beijing 5th ring road area of China. The thermal band data of TM combined with classification-based surface emissivity were utilized to estimate land surface temperature (LST). Meanwhile, surface characteristics parameters, such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI), the Normalized Difference Building Index (NDBI) and the Normalized Difference Bareness Index (NDBaI) were calculated according to related arithmetic respectively. The quantitative relationship between LST and NDVI, MNDWI, NDBI and NDBaI were investigated according to urban main land use/cover types (water body, vegetation and built-up surfaces). The results showed there were negative correlations between LST and NDVI, MNDWI for vegetation and built-up land use/cover types, positive correlations between LST and NDBI, NDBaI for vegetation and built-up land use/cover types. In general, in the area 5th ring road of Beijing the distribution of NDVI, MNDWI and NDBI directly defined the distribution of LST. For built-up land use/cover type, the NDVI was small, However, NDBI and LST were high. While in the area with more water and vegetation, the NDVI and MNDWI were high and LST was small. There were obvious correlation between LST and urban surface characteristics.

  6. Participant and site characteristics related to participant retention in a diabetes prevention translational project.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Luohua; Manson, Spero M; Dill, Edward J; Beals, Janette; Johnson, Ann; Huang, Haixiao; Acton, Kelly J; Roubideaux, Yvette

    2015-01-01

    Using multilevel analysis, this study investigated participant and site characteristics associated with participant retention in a multisite diabetes prevention translational project among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) people. We analyzed data from the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention Program (SDPI-DP), a lifestyle intervention to prevent diabetes implemented in 36 AI/AN grantee sites. A total of 2,553 participants were recruited and started the intervention between January 1, 2006 and July 31, 2008. They were offered the 16-session Lifestyle Balance Curriculum from the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) in the first 16-24 weeks of intervention. Generalized estimating equation models and proportional hazards models with robust standard error estimates were used to evaluate the relationships of participant and site characteristics with retention. As of July 31, 2009, about 50 % of SDPI-DP participants were lost to follow-up. Those who were younger, male, with lower household income, no family support person, and more baseline chronic pain were at higher risk for both short-term and long-term retention failure (i.e., not completing all 16 DPP sessions and loss to follow-up, respectively). Sites with large user populations and younger staff had lower likelihood of retaining participants successfully. Other site characteristics related to higher risk for retention failure included staff rating of participant disinterest in SDPI-DP and barriers to participant transportation and child/elder care. Future translational initiatives need to pay attention to both participant- and site-level factors in order to maximize participant retention. PMID:24384689

  7. The predominance of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis in French organic sourdoughs and its impact on related bread characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lhomme, Emilie; Orain, Servane; Courcoux, Philippe; Onno, Bernard; Dousset, Xavier

    2015-11-20

    Fourteen bakeries located in different regions of France were selected. These bakers use natural sourdough and organic ingredients. Consequently, different organic sourdoughs used for the manufacture of French bread were studied by the enumeration of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and 16S rRNA sequencing of the isolates. In addition, after DNA extraction the bacterial diversity was assessed by pyrosequencing of the 16S rDNA V1-V3 region. Although LAB counts showed significant variations (7.6-9.5log10CFU/g) depending on the sourdough studied, their identification through a polyphasic approach revealed a large predominance of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis in all samples. In ten sourdoughs, both culture and independent methods identified L. sanfranciscensis as the dominant LAB species identified. In the remaining sourdoughs, culture methods identified 30-80% of the LAB as L. sanfranciscensis whereas more than 95% of the reads obtained by pyrosequencing belonged to L. sanfranciscensis. Other sub-dominant species, such as Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus hammesii, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, and Lactobacillus sakei, were also identified. Quantification of L. sanfranciscensis by real-time PCR confirmed the predominance of this species ranging from 8.24 to 10.38log10CFU/g. Regarding the acidification characteristics, sourdough and related bread physico-chemical characteristics varied, questioning the involvement of sub-dominant species or L. sanfranciscensis intra-species diversity and/or the role of the baker's practices. PMID:26051957

  8. Characteristics of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Korea and Their Work-relatedness Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kun Hyung; Kim, Day Sung; Jang, Sun Je; Hong, Ki Hun; Yoo, Seung-Won

    2010-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) can be compensated through the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance Act. We looked at the characteristics of WMSDs in worker's compensation records and the epidemiological investigation reports from the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute (OSHRI). Based on the records of compensation, the number of cases for WMSDs decreased from 4,532 in 2003 to 1,954 in 2007. However the proportion of WMSDs among the total approved occupational diseases increased from 49.6% in 2003 to 76.5% in 2007, and the total cost of WMSDs increased from 105.3 billion won in 2004 to 163.3 billion won in 2007. The approval rate of WMSDs by the OSHRI accounted for 65.6%. Ergonomic and clinical characteristics were associated with the approval rate; however, the degenerative changes had a minimal affect. This result was in discordance between OSHRI and the Korea Workers' Compensation & Welfare Service. We presumed that there were perceptional gaps in work-relatedness interpretation that resulted from the inequality of information in ergonomic analyses. We propose to introduce ergonomic analysis to unapproved WMSDs cases and discuss those results among experts that will be helpful to form a consensus among diverse groups. PMID:21258595

  9. The relation between geochemical characteristics and landslide in Hungtsaiping area, Nantou, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, P.; Tsai, L.

    2009-12-01

    Hungtsaiping is located at the south bank of the Yonglu stream, Chungliao Village of Nantou County, central Taiwan. Hungtsaiping landslide was triggered by the Chi-Chi earthquake (Mw=7.6) occurring on September 20, 1999 UTC near the town of Chi-Chi in Nantou County, central Taiwan. Coping with the geological and geomorphologic investigations, this study makes an attempt to find the relation between geochemical characteristics and landslide in Hungtsaiping area. Water samples were collected from spring waters, creeks, ponds, groundwater and the Yonglu stream once every month from May 2008 to May 2009. Oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopic, ionic concentrations, as well as electrical conductivity and pH value were analyzed. The results indicate that calcium and magnesium bicarbonate-rich water was found on the top and the middle part of the slope. On the other hand, sodium bicarbonate-rich water as well as exceptionally high sulfate concentration was found on the foot of the slope, the sulfate content decreased with increasing elevations until the middle part of slope. A conceptual model of flow process and water origin in Hungtsaiping landslide was established by summarizing the features of hydrogeochemical analyses and the profiles in this study. Keywords: landslide, geochemical characteristics, isotope, hydrochemistry. Fig. 1 The sampling locations of Hungtsaiping landslide. Fig. 2 Isogram: the concentration of sulfate in May 2008 in Hungtsaiping area.

  10. A Comparison of Victim, Offender, and Event Characteristics of Alcohol- and Non-Alcohol-Related Homicides

    PubMed Central

    Pridemore, William Alex; Eckhardt, Krista

    2009-01-01

    The authors used narrative data from court and police records of homicides in Russia to compare alcohol- and non-alcohol-related incidents on victim, offender, and event characteristics. Binary logistic regression models were estimated for neither participant drinking, offender drinking, victim drinking, and both drinking. Consistent differences were found between alcohol- and non-alcohol-related homicides across the models. Alcohol-related homicides were significantly more likely to occur overnight, to occur on weekends, and to result from acute arguments and significantly less likely to occur between strangers, to be profit motivated or premeditated, and to be carried out to hide other crimes. No significant differences between the drinking and nondrinking samples were found for victim’s gender, primary weapon used, or event location. The authors place these findings into the literature on the situational context of crime and create a tentative typology of homicide events, grounded in the results of their inductive approach, based on alcohol use by homicide offenders and victims. PMID:19802358

  11. Impact of soil characteristics on relative bioavailability of NDL-PCBs in piglets.

    PubMed

    Delannoy, Matthieu; Fournier, Agnès; Tankari Dan-Badjo, Abdourahamane; Schwarz, Jessica; Lerch, Sylvain; Rychen, Guido; Feidt, Cyril

    2015-11-01

    Children may be orally exposed to organic pollutants through involuntary soil ingestion. This study was aimed at determining the impact of the characteristics (organic carbon (OC), black carbon (BC), clay contents and pH) of ten contaminated soils on the bioavailability of non-dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (NDL-PCBs). Five juvenile male piglets were exposed to increasing amounts of each of the soils. These soil-fed groups were compared by a relative bioavailability approach (RBA) to a reference group fed with corn oil spiked with increasing doses of Aroclor 1254. After 10days of oral exposure, the animals were sacrificed and NDL-PCB concentrations were determined by GC-MS in the adipose tissue. The relative bioavailability (RBA) factors were calculated for PCB 101, 138, 153 and 180. Despite high variations in the amount of black carbon (0.50gkg(-1)-6.0gkg(-1)d.w.) and organic matter (12gkg(-1)-180gkg(-1)d.w.), only 3 soils exhibited a significantly lower RBA for all NDL-PCBs, compared to the oil-group. High levels of OC (>100gkg(-1)) and BC content (3.0gkg(-1)) were related to a significant reduction in RBA. Overall, RBA was higher than 45% independently of the soil and the PCB congener. PMID:26210188

  12. Etiological features of borderline personality related characteristics in a birth cohort of 12-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    BELSKY, DANIEL W.; CASPI, AVSHALOM; ARSENEAULT, LOUISE; BLEIDORN, WIEBKE; FONAGY, PETER; GOODMAN, MARIANNE; HOUTS, RENATE; MOFFITT, TERRIE E.

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported that borderline personality related characteristics can be observed in children, and that these characteristics are associated with increased risk for the development of borderline personality disorder. It is not clear whether borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with adult borderline personality disorder. We investigated the etiology of borderline personality related characteristics in a longitudinal cohort study of 1,116 pairs of same-sex twins followed from birth through age 12 years. Borderline personality related characteristics measured at age 12 years were highly heritable, were more common in children who had exhibited poor cognitive function, impulsivity, and more behavioral and emotional problems at age 5 years, and co-occurred with symptoms of conduct disorder, depression, anxiety, and psychosis. Exposure to harsh treatment in the family environment through age 10 years predicted borderline personality related characteristics at age 12 years. This association showed evidence of environmental mediation and was stronger among children with a family history of psychiatric illness, consistent with diathesis–stress models of borderline etiology. Results indicate that borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with borderline personality disorder in adults and suggest that inherited and environmental risk factors make independent and interactive contributions to borderline etiology. PMID:22293008

  13. Characteristic phasic evolution of convulsive seizure in PCDH19-related epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Hiroko; Imai, Katsumi; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Shigematsu, Hideo; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Inoue, Yushi; Higurashi, Norimichi; Hirose, Shinichi

    2016-03-01

    PCDH19-related epilepsy is a genetic disorder that was first described in 1971, then referred to as "epilepsy and mental retardation limited to females". PCDH19 has recently been identified as the responsible gene, but a detailed characterization of the seizure manifestation based on video-EEG recording is still limited. The purpose of this study was to elucidate features of the seizure semiology in children with PCDH19-related epilepsy. To do this, ictal video-EEG recordings of 26 convulsive seizures in three girls with PCDH19-related epilepsy were analysed. All seizures occurred in clusters, mainly during sleep accompanied by fever. The motor manifestations consisted of six sequential phases: "jerk", "reactive", "mild tonic", "fluttering", "mild clonic", and "postictal". Some phases were brief or lacking in some seizures, whereas others were long or pronounced. In the reactive phase, the patients looked fearful or startled with sudden jerks and turned over reactively. The tonic and clonic components were less intense compared with those of typical tonic-clonic seizures in other types of epilepsy. The fluttering phase was characterised initially by asymmetric, less rhythmic, and less synchronous tremulous movement and was then followed by the subtle clonic phase. Subtle oral automatism was observed in the postictal phase. The reactive, mild tonic, fluttering and mild clonic phases were most characteristic of seizures of PCDH19-related epilepsy. Ictal EEG started bilaterally and was symmetric in some patients but asymmetric in others. It showed asymmetric rhythmic discharges in some seizures at later phases. The electroclinical pattern of the phasic evolution of convulsive seizure suggests a focal onset seizure with secondary generalisation. Based on our findings, we propose that the six unique sequential phases in convulsive seizures suggest the diagnosis of PCDH19-related epilepsy when occurring in clusters with or without high fever in girls. [Published with

  14. Urinary metabolomic profiling of asthmatics can be related to clinical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, C C; Oliveira, A S; Santos, M; Rudnitskaya, A; Todo-Bom, A; Bousquet, J; Rocha, S M

    2016-09-01

    Metabolomics has been increasingly explored to achieve an improved understanding of asthma. In the current observational and exploratory study, the first to have examined the relationship between oxidative stress extension, eosinophilic inflammation, and disease severity in asthmatic patients, metabolomics (using target aliphatic aldehydes and alkanes) was carried out using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with a high-resolution time-of-flight analyzer (GC×GC-ToFMS). We were able to demonstrate that metabolomics can give valuable insights into asthma mechanisms once lipidic peroxidation assessed by urinary metabolomics is related to the clinical characteristics of nonobese asthmatics, such as disease severity, lung function, and eosinophilic inflammation. Nevertheless, considering our sample size, the obtained results require further validation using a much larger sample cohort. PMID:27188766

  15. Building characteristics associated with moisture related problems in 8,918 Swedish dwellings.

    PubMed

    Hägerhed-Engman, Linda; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan

    2009-08-01

    Moisture problems in buildings have in a number of studies been shown to increase the risk for respiratory symptoms. The study Dampness in Buildings and Health (DBH) was initiated with the aim to identify health relevant exposures related to dampness in buildings. A questionnaire study about home environment with a focus on dampness problems and health was conducted in one county of Sweden (8,918 homes, response rate 79%). Building characteristics that were associated with one or more of the dampness indicators were for single-family houses, older houses, flat-roofed houses built in the 1960s and 1970s, houses with a concrete slab on the ground that were built before 1983. Moreover, tenancy and earlier renovation due to mould or moisture problems was strongly associated with dampness. A perception of dry air was associated with window-pane condensation, e.g. humid indoor air. PMID:19557598

  16. Twenty-five years of JEAB: A survey of selected demographic characteristics related to publication trends

    PubMed Central

    Williams, R. Alan; Buskist, W. F.

    1983-01-01

    Some demographic characteristics related to authorship of research reports in the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior (JEAB) were analyzed as to affiliation and location (U.S. or foreign) of authors. In addition, the incidence of publications by the members of the editorial board was tallied. The number of different affiliations of JEAB authors has decreased steadily over the past several years with substantially fewer papers deriving from independent laboratories and medical schools. While the number of papers by foreign authors has generally increased over the years there is a recent reduction in their number. These data paint a mixed picture of the “health” status of the experimental analysis of behavior as reflected in its major publication outlet. PMID:22478586

  17. Mean LIS flash properties and their relation to TRMM cloud and rain characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beirle, Steffen; Wagner, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    In a recent study, mean LIS flash properties (like the number of "events" per flash or the flash radiance), which can be associated with the flash "strength", have been analyzed (Beirle et al., NHESS, 2014). The resulting maps show consistent spatial patterns; most strikingly, oceanic flashes show higher values than continental flashes for all properties observed by LIS. Over land, regions with high (eastern US) and low (India) flash strength can be clearly identified. Several possible reasons for the differences in flash properties have been discussed, but a clear explanation, in particular of the land-ocean contrast, is still missing. Here we analyse how far mean LIS flash properties are related to cloud and rain characteristics as derived from TRMM instruments (PR2a23 algorithm). This additional data, coincident to but independent from the LIS measurements, will be an important step towards infering the driving physical mechanisms.

  18. Coalbed methane adsorption and desorption characteristics related to coal particle size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan-Yan, Feng; Wen, Yang; Wei, Chu

    2016-06-01

    Effects of particle size on CH4 and CO2 adsorption and desorption characteristics of coals are investigated at 308 K and pressures up to 5.0 MPa. The gas adsorption and desorption isotherms of coals with particle sizes ranging from 250 μm to 840 μm are measured via the volumetric method, and the Langmuir model is used to analyse the experimental results. Coal particle size is found to have an obvious effect on the coal pore structure. With the decrease of coal particle size in the process of grinding, the pore accessibility of the coal, including the specific surface area and pore volume, increases. Hence, coal with smaller particle size has higher specific surface area and higher pore volume. The ability of adsorption was highly related to the pore structure of coal, and coal particle size has a significant influence on coal adsorption/desorption characteristics, including adsorption capacity and desorption hysteresis for CH4 and CO2, i.e., coal with a smaller particle size achieves higher adsorption capacity, while the sample with a larger particle size has lower adsorption capacity. Further, coal with larger particle size is also found to have relatively large desorption hysteresis. In addition, dynamic adsorption performances of the samples are carried out at 298 K and at pressures of 0.1 MPa and 0.5 MPa, respectively, and the results indicate that with the increase of particle size, the difference between CO2 and CH4 adsorption capacities of the samples decreases. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB201202).

  19. Relationship Characteristics Associated with the Experience of Hurt in Romantic Relationships: A Test of the Relational Turbulence Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theiss, Jennifer A.; Knobloch, Leanne K.; Checton, Maria G.; Magsamen-Conrad, Kate

    2009-01-01

    We employed the relational turbulence model to identify (a) relationship characteristics associated with people's appraisals of hurtful messages, and (b) features of hurtful episodes and relationship characteristics that correspond with the directness of communication about hurt. We conducted a study in which 135 dating couples reported on their…

  20. The Relationships between Problem Characteristics, Achievement-Related Behaviors, and Academic Achievement in Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockalingam, Nachamma; Rotgans, Jerome I.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of five problem characteristics on students' achievement-related classroom behaviors and academic achievement. Data from 5,949 polytechnic students in PBL curricula across 170 courses were analyzed by means of path analysis. The five problem characteristics were: (1) problem clarity, (2) problem familiarity,…

  1. Examination of Student, Program, and Institutional Support Characteristics That Relate to PGA Golf Management Students' Intent to Persist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The examination of student (entry characteristics, academic performance, career goals, and interaction with peers and faculty), program (programmatic interventions, academic major, and learning communities), and institutional support characteristics (financial aid and residence) that relate to cohort intent to persist are studied among 490 PGA…

  2. Tool Use and Performance: Relationships between Tool- and Learner-Related Characteristics in a Computer-Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juarez-Collazo, Norma A.; Elen, Jan; Clarebout, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    It is still unclear on what and how tool and learner characteristics influence tool use and consequently performance in computer-based learning environments (CBLEs). This study examines the relationships between tool-related characteristics (tool presentation: non-/embedded tool and instructional cues: non-/explained tool functionality) and…

  3. Child-Rearing Practices toward Children with Hemophilia: The Relative Importance of Clinical Characteristics and Parental Emotional Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banis, S.; Suurmeijer, Th. P. B. M.; van Peer, D. R.

    1999-01-01

    Addresses the relative importance of clinical characteristics of the child and parental emotional reactions, to child-rearing practices towards children with hemophilia. Results indicate that mother's emotional reactions appear to have a stronger influence on child-rearing uncertainty and overprotection than clinical characteristics of the child.…

  4. Characteristics and Spontaneous Recovery of Tinnitus Related to Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Mühlmeier, Guido; Baguley, David; Cox, Tony; Suckfüll, Markus; Meyer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the characteristics and spontaneous recovery of tinnitus related to idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL). Study Design: Retrospective analysis from two randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials for treatment of ISSNHL within 48 hours from onset (Study A), or of tinnitus related to ISSNHL within 3 months from onset (Study B). Setting: Forty-eight European sites (academic tertiary referral centers, private ENT practices). Patients: One hundred thirteen adult patients of which 65 with hearing loss ≥30 dB (Study A) and 48 with persistent acute tinnitus (Study B) at baseline. Interventions: Intratympanic (i.t.) injection of placebo gel in single dose or in triple dose during 3 consecutive days. Main Outcome Measures: Frequency of tinnitus, subjective tinnitus loudness, rates of complete tinnitus remission, and complete hearing recovery during 3 months follow-up. Results: In acute ISSNHL, tinnitus loudness decreased rapidly in cases of mild-moderate hearing loss, and tinnitus had completely resolved in two-thirds of patients after 3 months. Hearing recovery preceded tinnitus resolution. When associated with severe-profound hearing loss, tinnitus improved significantly less. Complete hearing recovery and full tinnitus remission were both about three times more frequent in mild-moderate hearing loss patients than in severe-profound cases. Improvement in tinnitus loudness over time can be approximated by a negative exponential function. Conclusions: Prognosis for ISSNHL-related tinnitus is relatively poor in case of severe-profound hearing loss and the longer it has persisted. Alleviation or management of tinnitus should be a key therapeutic objective especially in pronounced ISSNHL cases. PMID:27228021

  5. [Intellectual and emotional characteristics of some European nations in relation to the stages of their historical development].

    PubMed

    Robustova, V V; Gorshenina, M A

    2015-01-01

    Intellectual and emotional characteristics of some European nations in the aspect of their historical development are illustrated by the example of representatives of British and Italian culture. Behavior, mentality and other speech-related functions are analyzed. PMID:26356529

  6. Pain, Work-related Characteristics, and Psychosocial Factors among Computer Workers at a University Center.

    PubMed

    Mainenti, Míriam Raquel Meira; Felicio, Lilian Ramiro; Rodrigues, Erika de Carvalho; Ribeiro da Silva, Dalila Terrinha; Vigário Dos Santos, Patrícia

    2014-04-01

    [Purpose] Complaint of pain is common in computer workers, encouraging the investigation of pain-related workplace factors. This study investigated the relationship among work-related characteristics, psychosocial factors, and pain among computer workers from a university center. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen subjects (median age, 32.0 years; interquartile range, 26.8-34.5 years) were subjected to measurement of bioelectrical impedance; photogrammetry; workplace measurements; and pain complaint, quality of life, and motivation questionnaires. [Results] The low back was the most prevalent region of complaint (76.9%). The number of body regions for which subjects complained of pain was greater in the no rest breaks group, which also presented higher prevalences of neck (62.5%) and low back (100%) pain. There were also observed associations between neck complaint and quality of life; neck complaint and head protrusion; wrist complaint and shoulder angle; and use of a chair back and thoracic pain. [Conclusion] Complaint of pain was associated with no short rest breaks, no use of a chair back, poor quality of life, high head protrusion, and shoulder angle while using the mouse of a computer. PMID:24764635

  7. Frequency and characteristics of acne-related post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation.

    PubMed

    Abad-Casintahan, Flordeliz; Chow, Steven Kim Weng; Goh, Chee Leok; Kubba, Raj; Hayashi, Nobukazu; Noppakun, Nopadon; See, JoAnn; Suh, Dae Hun; Xiang, Li Hong Flora; Kang, Sewon

    2016-07-01

    In patients with darker skin types (Fitzpatrick phototypes III-VI), acne is often accompanied by post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH). Further, acne-related pigmentation can pose a greater concern for the patient than the acne lesions. There has been little formal study of this acne-related PIH. Recently, the Asian Acne Board - an international group of dermatologists with interest in acne research - made a preliminary evaluation of the frequency and characteristics of PIH in seven Asian countries. A total of 324 sequential acne subjects were evaluated for the presence of PIH. The majority (80.2%) of subjects had mild to moderate acne and there were more females than males (63.0% vs 37.0%). In this population of patients consulting a dermatologist for acne, 58.2% (188/324) had PIH. The results also showed that pigmentation problems are often long lasting: at least 1 year for more than half of subjects and 5 years or longer in 22.3%. In accordance with our clinical experience, patients reported that PIH is quite bothersome, often as bothersome or more so than the acne itself and sometimes more problematic. Excoriation was commonly reported by patients, and may represent a modifiable risk factor that could potentially be improved by patient education. PMID:26813513

  8. Characteristics of intermediate state related to anti-Stokes luminescence of ZnO single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Katsushi; Goto, Takenari; Yao, Takafumi

    2014-06-21

    Anti-Stokes luminescence from ZnO is supposed to be a two-step two-photon absorption process with an intermediate state. The intermediate state is assumed to be a localized state with two different excited and relaxed states. One of the localized states is believed to be the well-known 2.4 eV green luminescence; the other is difficult to observe experimentally. We found an interesting 2.25 eV deep luminescence from ZnO, which has been shown to relate to anti-Stokes luminescence. The 2.25 eV yellow luminescence was observable only below the band gap excitation and through a time-resolved observation after the excitation light was turned off. The intermediate states were found to be a photo-excited donor-acceptor pair and its lattice relaxation state. The characteristics and the role of the intermediate state of ZnO related to the anti-Stokes luminescence are discussed.

  9. Hepatitis B-related hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiological characteristics and disease burden.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, V T T; Law, M G; Dore, G J

    2009-07-01

    Worldwide, 350 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) who are at greater risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared with uninfected people. The relative risks of HCC among people infected with HBV ranges from 5 to 49 in case-control studies and from 7 to 98 in cohort studies. More than 50% of HCC cases worldwide and 70-80% of HCC cases in highly HBV endemic regions are attributable to HBV. Incidence of HCC (per 100,000 person/year) among people with chronic HBV infection ranges from 400 to 800 in male and from 120 to 180 in female. Factors associated with increased risk of HCC include demographic characteristics (male sex and older age), lifestyles (heavy alcohol consumption and smoking), viral factors (genotype C, D F, high level of HBV DNA, core/precore mutation) and clinical factors (cirrhosis, elevated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)). HBV-related HCC has extremely poor prognosis with median survival less than 16 months. Survival rates of HBV-related HCC ranged from 36% to 67% after 1 year and from 15% to 26% after 5 year of diagnosis. Older age, liver function impairment, vascular invasion, tumour aggressiveness and elevated AFP are associated with HCC survival. Global burden of HBV-related liver disease is still a major challenge for public health in the 21st century. While decreases in incidence of HBV infection have been observed in birth cohorts following the introduction of universal infant HBV vaccination programme, HBV-related HCC incidence in is projected to increase for at least two decades because of the high prevalence of chronic HBV infection and prolonged latency to HCC development. To reduce HBV-related HCC continued expansion of universal infant HBV vaccination is required along with antiviral therapy targeted to those individuals at highest risk of HCC. Broad public health strategies should include routine testing to identify chronic HBV infection, improved health infrastructures

  10. Parent and child characteristics related to chosen adolescent alcohol and drug prevention program

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Brenda A.; Aalborg, Annette E.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Bauman, Karl; Spoth, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Mothers were allowed to choose between two different family-based adolescent alcohol–drug prevention strategies and the choice was examined in relation to parent and teen characteristics. Under real world conditions, parents are making choices regarding health promotion strategies for their adolescents and little is known about how parent and teen characteristics interact with programs chosen. The two programs were: Family Matters (FM) (Bauman KE, Foshee VA, Ennett ST et al. Family Matters: a family-directed program designed to prevent adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Health Promot Pract 2001; 2: 81–96) and Strengthening Families Program (SFP) 10–14 (Spoth R, Redmond C, Lepper H. Alcohol initiation outcomes of universal family-focused preventive interventions: one- and two-year follow-ups of a controlled study. J Stud Alcohol Suppl 1999; 13: 103–11). A total of 272 families with an 11–12 years old enrolled in health care centers were in the choice condition of the larger study. SFP requires group meetings at specified times and thus demanded more specific time commitments from families. In contrast, FM is self-directed through booklets and is delivered in the home at a time chosen by the families. Mothers were significantly more likely to choose SFP when the adolescent had more problem behaviors. Mothers with greater education were more likely to choose FM. Findings may provide more real-world understanding of how some families are more likely to engage in one type of intervention over another. This understanding offers practical information for developing health promotion systems to service the diversity of families in the community. PMID:22156235

  11. Parent and child characteristics related to chosen adolescent alcohol and drug prevention program.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brenda A; Aalborg, Annette E; Byrnes, Hilary F; Bauman, Karl; Spoth, Richard

    2012-02-01

    Mothers were allowed to choose between two different family-based adolescent alcohol-drug prevention strategies and the choice was examined in relation to parent and teen characteristics. Under real world conditions, parents are making choices regarding health promotion strategies for their adolescents and little is known about how parent and teen characteristics interact with programs chosen. The two programs were: Family Matters (FM) (Bauman KE, Foshee VA, Ennett ST et al. Family Matters: a family-directed program designed to prevent adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Health Promot Pract 2001; 2: 81-96) and Strengthening Families Program (SFP) 10-14 (Spoth R, Redmond C, Lepper H. Alcohol initiation outcomes of universal family-focused preventive interventions: one- and two-year follow-ups of a controlled study. J Stud Alcohol Suppl 1999; 13: 103-11). A total of 272 families with an 11-12 years old enrolled in health care centers were in the choice condition of the larger study. SFP requires group meetings at specified times and thus demanded more specific time commitments from families. In contrast, FM is self-directed through booklets and is delivered in the home at a time chosen by the families. Mothers were significantly more likely to choose SFP when the adolescent had more problem behaviors. Mothers with greater education were more likely to choose FM. Findings may provide more real-world understanding of how some families are more likely to engage in one type of intervention over another. This understanding offers practical information for developing health promotion systems to service the diversity of families in the community. PMID:22156235

  12. Psychological and physiological responses during an exam and their relation to personality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Spangler, G

    1997-08-01

    The aim of the study was to compare emotional and physiological responses to real and control examinations and to assess their relation to personality characteristics. Emotional responses were assessed by state anxiety and perceived stress. The assessment of physiological responses included the activity of the cardiac system (heart periods, vagal tone), the adrenocortical system (cortisol) and the immune system (immune globulin A, sIgA). Emotional and physiological responses of 23 students (12 males, 11 females) were assessed during an oral exam at the end of a basic course in psychology which was a prerequisite for the students' final exams. For the control condition physiological responses were assessed one week before the examination during a memory test. The findings of the study demonstrate different emotional and physiological response patterns to examinations as compared to the control condition. Heightened anxiety was observed only before the exam. Whereas within-situation physiological responses (higher heart periods, cortisol, and sIgA; lower vagal tone) were observed both under the exam and control condition, responses to exam condition indicated pre-exam anticipatory activation and post-exam restricted recovery responses. With regard to personality characteristics subjects with high ego-resiliency showed more flexible adaptation than subjects with low ego-resiliency both on the emotional level (anxiety down-regulation after exam) and on the physiological level (situation-specific responses, quick recovery). Subjects with high ego-control exhibited a lower physiological reactivity under both conditions, i.e. they seemed to maintain longer their control also on a physiological level independent of the type of situation. PMID:9364621

  13. The Relative Age Effect and Physical Fitness Characteristics in German Male Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Ulbricht, Alexander; Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the study were to test: 1) whether the relative age effect (RAE) was prevalent in young (U12-U18) German male tennis players; 2) the potential influence of age and/or skill level on RAE and 3) whether maturity, anthropometric and fitness measures vary according to birth date distribution in elite youth tennis players. For the present study the following male populations were analysed: Overall German population (n = 3.216.811), all players affiliated to the German Tennis Federation (DTB) (n = 120.851), players with DTB official ranking (n = 7165), regional (n = 381) and national (n = 57) squads (11-17 years old), as well as the top 50 German senior players were analyzed. RAEs were more prevalent at higher competitive levels with more players born in the first quarter of the year compared with the reference population for ranked (29.6%), regional (38.1%) and national (42.1%) players. No systematic differences were found in any of the maturity, anthropometric and fitness characteristics of the regional squad players born across different quarters. RAEs are present in the DTB competitive system and it was more pronounced at higher competitive levels. Compared with early born, late born players who were selected into elite squads did not differ in maturation, anthropometric and fitness characteristics. Key points RAEsexist in the selection of youth tennis players in Germany, a greater percentage of players analyzed was born in the 1st quarter compared to all licensed tennis players in the country, and more pronounced with an increased competition level in youth players. Players born later in the selection year and still selected in elite squads were likely to be similar across a range of physical fitness attributes compared with those born earlier in the year. The selection process should be reevaluated and changed to reduce the impact of RAEs on tennis players. PMID:26336351

  14. Evaluation of DNA polymorphisms involving growth hormone relative to growth and carcass characteristics in Brahman steers.

    PubMed

    Beauchemin, V R; Thomas, M G; Franke, D E; Silver, G A

    2006-01-01

    Associations of DNA polymorphisms in growth hormone (GH) relative to growth and carcass characteristics in growing Brahman steers (N = 324 from 68 sires) were evaluated. Polymorphisms were an Msp-I RFLP and a leucine/valine SNP in the GH gene as well as a Hinf-I RFLP and a histidine/arginine SNP in transcriptional regulators of the GH gene, Pit-1 and Prop-1. Genotypic frequencies of the GH SNP, Pit-1 RFLP, and Prop-1 SNP were greater than 88% for one of the bi-allelic homozygous genotypes. Genotypic frequencies for the GH Msp-I RFLP genotypes were more evenly distributed with frequencies of 0.43, 0.42, and 0.15 for the genotypes of +/+, +/-, and -/-, respectively. Mixed model analyses of growth and carcass traits with genotype and contemporary group serving as fixed effects and sire fitted as a random effect suggested that sire was a significant source of variation (P < 0.05) in average daily gain, carcass yield, and marbling score. However, measures of growth and carcass traits were similar across GH Msp-I genotypes as steers were slaughtered when fat thickness was estimated to be approximately 1.0 cm. These polymorphisms within the GH gene and/or its transcriptional regulators do not appear to be informative predictors of growth and carcass characteristics in Brahman steers. This is partly due to the high level of homozygosity of genotypes. These findings do not eliminate the potential importance of these polymorphisms as predictors of growth and carcass traits in Bos taurus or Bos taurus x Bos indicus composite cattle. PMID:17117358

  15. Demographic and clinical characteristics related to cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease in China

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Dantao; Shi, Zhihong; Xu, Jun; Shen, Lu; Xiao, Shifu; Zhang, Nan; Li, Yi; Jiao, Jinsong; Wang, Yan-Jiang; Liu, Shuai; Zhang, Meilin; Wang, Meng; Liu, Shuling; Zhou, Yuying; Zhang, Xiao; Gu, Xiao-hua; Yang, Ce-ce; Wang, Yu; Jiao, Bin; Tang, Beisha; Wang, Jinhuan; Yu, Tao; Ji, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most frequent cause of dementia. AD diagnosis, progression, and treatment have not been analyzed nationwide in China. The primary aim of this study was to analyze demographic and clinical characteristics related to cognitive decline in AD patients treated at outpatient clinics in China. We performed a retrospective study of 1993 AD patients at 10 cognitive centers across 8 cities in China from March 2011 to October 2014. Of these, 891 patients were followed for more than 1 year. The mean age at diagnosis was 72.0 ± 10.0 years (range 38–96 years), and the mean age at onset of AD was 69.8 ± 9.5 years. Most patients (65.1%) had moderate to severe symptoms at the time of diagnosis, and mean Mini-Mental State Examination at diagnosis was 15.7 ± 7.7. AD patients showed significant cognitive decline at 12 months after diagnosis. Having more than 9 years of formal education was an independent risk factor related to rapid cognitive decline [odds ratio (OR) = 1.80; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.11–2.91]. Early-onset AD patients experienced more rapid cognitive decline than late-onset patients (OR = 1.83; 95% CI: 1.09–3.06). Most AD patients in China had moderate to severe symptoms at the time of diagnosis and experienced significant cognitive decline within 1 year. Rapid cognitive decline in AD was related to having a higher educational level and younger age of onset. PMID:27367978

  16. Characteristics and outcomes of fall-related open-globe injuries in pseudophakic patients

    PubMed Central

    Kavoussi, Shaheen C; Slade, Martin D; Meskin, Seth W; Adelman, Ron A

    2015-01-01

    Aim We aimed to identify the characteristics and prognostic indicators of poor visual and anatomic outcome in pseudophakic patients with fall-related open-globe (OG) injuries. We used a case series design, for a total of 26 patients. Methods Charts of consecutive pseudophakic patients with fall-related OG injury at a single institution were reviewed. Demographics, ophthalmic history, circumstances of injury, initial best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), examination findings, surgical interventions, and follow-up BCVA were tabulated for statistical analysis with unpaired t-tests and Fisher’s exact tests. Results Nineteen patients (73%) were women. Mean (± standard deviation) age was 80.6±4.6 years (range: 61–97 years). Initial BCVA was <20/400 in 24 of 25 patients (96%). Mean ocular trauma score (OTS) was 38.54±10.95. OTS was lower (P=0.0017, P<0.0001, and P=0.0240) and wound size was larger (P=0.0440, 0.0145, and 0.0026) in patients with final BCVA <20/40, <20/400, and phthisis at final follow-up, respectively; compared to patients with BCVA ≥20/40, 20/400, and no phthisis at final follow-up, respectively. Final BCVA <20/400 was associated with 360° subconjunctival hemorrhage (SCH), retinal detachment, and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (P=0.0498, 0.0181, and 0.0310, respectively). Total hyphema, intraocular lens (IOL) damage, and IOL expulsion were associated with needing multiple surgical interventions (P=0.0345, P<0.0001, and P=0.0023, respectively). Conclusion Large wound size, low OTS, 360° SCH, total hyphema, posterior injury, and IOL damage are common findings that are also prognostic of poor visual and anatomic outcome in pseudophakic patients with fall-related OG injuries. Ophthalmologists dealing primarily with geriatric populations should contribute to the discussion of fall risk. PMID:25784783

  17. Clinical, Pathological, and Prognostic Characteristics of Glomerulonephritis Related to Staphylococcal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Si-Yang; Bu, Ru; Zhang, Qi; Liang, Shuang; Wu, Jie; Liu, Xue-Guang Zhang Shu-Wen; Cai, Guang-Yan; Chen, Xiang-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Staphylococcal infection has become a common cause of postinfectious glomerulonephritis in the past 3 decades. Because few investigations focus on this disease, the demographics and clinicopathological features of glomerulonephritis related to staphylococcal infection are not well characterized. We conducted a pooled analysis of published literature in electronic databases and analyzed the clinical features, laboratory findings, and histopathological changes. The patients were divided into 4 groups based on their prognosis: remission, persistent renal dysfunction, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or death. A logistic regression model was used to identify the determinants of disease outcome. A total of 83 (64 men) patients with glomerulonephritis related to staphylococcal infection from 31 reports were analyzed. The mean age was 58 years (58 ± 17). Majority of the reports originated from Taiwan, Japan, and the United States. Clinical characteristics of the cases were hematuria (82/83), proteinuria (78/83), and acute kidney injury (75/83). Visceral abscesses (26/83) and skin infections (24/83) were the common sites of infection. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen. The dominant or codominant deposition of IgA or C3 along the glomeruli was an important feature identified by immunofluorescence. There were 19 patients (22.9%) that progressed to dialysis-dependent ESRD. Twelve patients (14.5%) died. A univariate regression analysis indicated that diabetes mellitus (DM) (odds ratio [OR] 2.96; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03–8.48; P = 0.04) and age (OR 4.80; 95% CI 1.84–12.53; P = 0.001) were risk factors for ESRD or death. A multivariate regression analysis also revealed that age (OR 4.90; 95% CI 1.82–13.18; P = 0.002) and DM (OR 3.07; 95% CI 0.98–9.59; P = 0.05) were independent risk factors for unfavorable prognosis. Glomerulonephritis related to staphylococcal infection has different features

  18. Estimating the Single-Trial Characteristics of Event-Related Responses: Evaluation of the MCERP Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, K. H.; Shah, A. S.; Truccolo, W. A.; Ding, M.; Bressler, S. L.; Schroeder, C. E.; Korsmey, Dave (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Single-trial event-related responses collected during the course of an experiment are typically averaged before analysis resulting in a rather crude picture of event-related brain dynamics. It has been quite clear for some time that these responses exhibit trial-to-trial variability: however, the computational techniques necessary to deal with such responses in noisy conditions have not been available. To this end we have developed the multiple-component, event-related potential model (mcERP), which assumes that the each event-related response consists of a sum of multiple evoked components each described by a stereotypical waveshape. These waveshapes are allowed to vary in amplitude and onset latency from trial to trial, which allows us to capture, to first-order, the trial-dependent variations in event-related brain dynamics. We have constructed many sets of synthetic data designed to simulate intracortical recordings from a 15 channel, linear-array multielectrode implanted acutely in V1 of an awake-behaving macaque undergoing visual stimulation with a red light flash. This synthetic data was used to characterize the performance of the mcERP algorithm. First we quantified the degree to which such trial-to-trial variability aids in the identification of multiple components, and we demonstrate that amplitude variability is a more important factor in component separation than latency variability. Second, we quantified the behavior of the algorithm under two distinct signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions: Gaussian noise independently present in each channel, and highly correlated (1/f distributed), far-field noise presented identically in each channel of the array. The mcERP algorithm was found to be robust to noise accurately identifying all component waveshapes and their associated single-trial characteristics down to SNR levels of -20dB for Gaussian noise and -7dB for 1/f far-field noise. Comparisons of the performance of this algorithm with factor analysis (FA

  19. Clinical, Pathological, and Prognostic Characteristics of Glomerulonephritis Related to Staphylococcal Infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Si-Yang; Bu, Ru; Zhang, Qi; Liang, Shuang; Wu, Jie; Liu, Xue-Guang Zhang Shu-Wen; Cai, Guang-Yan; Chen, Xiang-Mei

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcal infection has become a common cause of postinfectious glomerulonephritis in the past 3 decades. Because few investigations focus on this disease, the demographics and clinicopathological features of glomerulonephritis related to staphylococcal infection are not well characterized.We conducted a pooled analysis of published literature in electronic databases and analyzed the clinical features, laboratory findings, and histopathological changes. The patients were divided into 4 groups based on their prognosis: remission, persistent renal dysfunction, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or death. A logistic regression model was used to identify the determinants of disease outcome.A total of 83 (64 men) patients with glomerulonephritis related to staphylococcal infection from 31 reports were analyzed. The mean age was 58 years (58 ± 17). Majority of the reports originated from Taiwan, Japan, and the United States. Clinical characteristics of the cases were hematuria (82/83), proteinuria (78/83), and acute kidney injury (75/83). Visceral abscesses (26/83) and skin infections (24/83) were the common sites of infection. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen. The dominant or codominant deposition of IgA or C3 along the glomeruli was an important feature identified by immunofluorescence. There were 19 patients (22.9%) that progressed to dialysis-dependent ESRD. Twelve patients (14.5%) died. A univariate regression analysis indicated that diabetes mellitus (DM) (odds ratio [OR] 2.96; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-8.48; P = 0.04) and age (OR 4.80; 95% CI 1.84-12.53; P = 0.001) were risk factors for ESRD or death. A multivariate regression analysis also revealed that age (OR 4.90; 95% CI 1.82-13.18; P = 0.002) and DM (OR 3.07; 95% CI 0.98-9.59; P = 0.05) were independent risk factors for unfavorable prognosis.Glomerulonephritis related to staphylococcal infection has different features than typical

  20. Interdisciplinary mathematics and science: Characteristics, forms, and related effect sizes for student achievement and affective outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, Marlene M.

    1999-12-01

    This study provides an analytic description of quasi-experimental studies that may either support or deny the wisdom of educational reform through interdisciplinary mathematics and science. Interdisciplinarity is examined on two dimensions, the philosophic and the pedagogic, and by two methodologies, meta-analytic and qualitative, in a search for greater understanding of the definitions, forms, characteristics, and effects from studies of interdisciplinary mathematics and science. Thirty-four studies were collected from a search of the literature that spanned the century, the grade levels, and included many forms of interdisciplinarity. Several research questions were asked: (1) What forms of interdisciplinarity, philosophically and practically, are represented by the studies? (2) What are their qualitative effects in school settings? (3) What are the characteristics of interdisciplinary quasi-experimental research? (4) What achievement effects typify the interdisciplinary comparative studies? (5) What factors account for variation in these achievement effects? (6) What claims or criticisms regarding interdisciplinarity are supported or refuted by the qualitative analysis of forms and effects and the quantitative meta-analytic study? Results from this study support the concerns that terms of interdisciplinarity are used without regard for context and that there is a trend toward a great diversity of ideas regarding the nature of interdisciplinary education. Student achievement data were provided by the 34 studies for mathematics and/or science. The mean effect sizes for student achievement were computed as: mathematics achievement, .27 (SE = .09); science achievement, .37 (SE = .12). Curricular materials developed by teachers were significantly less related to student achievement than materials developed by researchers or commercially. The methods of integration employed by the 34 studies formed a continuum from sequenced instructional integration to total

  1. Personal characteristics related to the risk of adolescent internet addiction: a survey in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Paralleling the rapid growth in computers and internet connections, adolescent internet addiction (AIA) is becoming an increasingly serious problem, especially in developing countries. This study aims to explore the prevalence of AIA and associated symptoms in a large population-based sample in Shanghai and identify potential predictors related to personal characteristics. Methods In 2007, 5,122 adolescents were randomly chosen from 16 high schools of different school types (junior, senior key, senior ordinary and senior vocational) in Shanghai with stratified-random sampling. Each student completed a self-administered and anonymous questionnaire that included DRM 52 Scale of Internet-use. The DRM 52 Scale was adapted for use in Shanghai from Young’s Internet Addiction Scale and contained 7 subscales related to psychological symptoms of AIA. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression were both used to analyze the data. Results Of the 5,122 students, 449 (8.8%) were identified as internet addicts. Although adolescents who had bad (vs. good) academic achievement had lower levels of internet-use (p < 0.0001), they were more likely to develop AIA (odds ratio 4.79, 95% CI: 2.51-9.73, p < 0.0001) and have psychological symptoms in 6 of the 7 subscales (not in Time-consuming subscale). The likelihood of AIA was higher among those adolescents who were male, senior high school students, or had monthly spending >100 RMB (all p-values <0.05). Adolescents tended to develop AIA and show symptoms in all subscales when they spent more hours online weekly (however, more internet addicts overused internet on weekends than on weekdays, p < 0.0001) or when they used the internet mainly for playing games or real-time chatting. Conclusions This study provides evidence that adolescent personal factors play key roles in inducing AIA. Adolescents having aforementioned personal characteristics and online behaviors are at high-risk of developing AIA that may compound

  2. Distribution of salmon-habitat potential relative to landscape characteristics and implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Kelly M; Reeves, Gordon H; Miller, Daniel J; Clarke, Sharon; Vance-Borland, Ken; Christiansen, Kelly

    2007-01-01

    The geographic distribution of stream reaches with potential to support high-quality habitat for salmonids has bearing on the actual status of habitats and populations over broad spatial extents. As part of the Coastal Landscape Analysis and Modeling Study (CLAMS), we examined how salmon-habitat potential was distributed relative to current and future (+100 years) landscape characteristics in the Coastal Province of Oregon, USA. The intrinsic potential to provide high-quality rearing habitat was modeled for juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and juvenile steelhead (O. mykiss) based on stream flow, valley constraint, and stream gradient. Land ownership, use, and cover were summarized for 100-m analysis buffers on either side of stream reaches with high intrinsic potential and in the overall area encompassing the buffers. Past management seems to have concentrated nonindustrial private ownership, agriculture, and developed uses adjacent to reaches with high intrinsic potential for coho salmon. Thus, of the area in coho salmon buffers, 45% is either nonforested or recently logged, but only 10% is in larger-diameter forests. For the area in steelhead buffers, 21% is either non-forested or recently logged while 20% is in larger-diameter forests. Older forests are most extensive on federal lands but are rare on private lands, highlighting the critical role for public lands in near-term salmon conservation. Agriculture and development are projected to remain focused near high-intrinsic-potential reaches for coho salmon, increasing the importance of effectively addressing nonpoint source pollution from these uses. Percentages of larger-diameter forests are expected to increase throughout the province, but the increase will be only half as much in coho salmon buffers as in steelhead buffers. Most of the increase is projected for public lands, where policies emphasize biodiversity protection. Results suggest that widespread recovery of coho salmon is unlikely unless

  3. Characteristics of catheter-related bloodstream infections in children with intestinal failure: implications for clinical management.

    PubMed

    Drews, Barbara B; Sanghavi, Rinarani; Siegel, Jane D; Metcalf, Pat; Mittal, Naveen K

    2009-01-01

    Catheter-related bloodstream infection is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the intestinal-failure population. This study reports characteristics of CRBSI with implications for clinical management in parenteral nutrition-dependent children with intestinal failure. The researchers report the rate of central catheter infections, and the causative organisms, as well as identify risk factors in our intestinal-failure patients that would be amenable to preventive measures.The study is a retrospective review of the medical records of 101 patients with intestinal failure (IF), seen in the Intestinal Rehabilitation Clinic at Children's Medical Center of Dallas from May 2005 to March 2007. Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) were categorized as nosocomial or community-acquired. Data collected for each episode include microorganisms isolated from blood and potential risk factors. Z test was done to compare the infection rates.There were 92 episodes of CRBSIs in 45 parenteral nutrition (PN)-dependent patients with central venous catheters (CVC) in place for a total of 13,978 days. Eighty-three percent (n = 76) of CRBSIs developed in the community at a rate of 7.0 per 1,000 days. Seventeen percent (n = 16) nosocomial CRBSIs were observed at a rate of 5.5 per 1,000 catheter days. CRBSI rate was not statistically different between the two groups (7.0 vs. 5.5, p = .378).CRBSI in the intestinal-failure population is due to a wide variety of organisms with numerous risk factors. Education of CVC management with the practice of consistent guidelines may reduce CRBSI incidence, thus reducing the morbidity and mortality in the intestinal-failure patients. PMID:20010229

  4. Relating Demographic Characteristics of a Small Mammal to Remotely Sensed Forest-Stand Condition

    PubMed Central

    Lada, Hania; Thomson, James R.; Cunningham, Shaun C.; Mac Nally, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Many ecological systems around the world are changing rapidly in response to direct (land-use change) and indirect (climate change) human actions. We need tools to assess dynamically, and over appropriate management scales, condition of ecosystems and their responses to potential mitigation of pressures. Using a validated model, we determined whether stand condition of floodplain forests is related to densities of a small mammal (a carnivorous marsupial, Antechinus flavipes) in 60 000 ha of extant river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) forests in south-eastern Australia in 2004, 2005 and 2011. Stand condition was assessed remotely using models built from ground assessments of stand condition and satellite-derived reflectance. Other covariates, such as volumes of fallen timber, distances to floods, rainfall and life stages were included in the model. Trapping of animals was conducted at 272 plots (0.25 ha) across the region. Densities of second-year females (i.e. females that had survived to a second breeding year) and of second-year females with suckled teats (i.e. inferred to have been successful mothers) were higher in stands with the highest condition. There was no evidence of a relationship with stand condition for males or all females. These outcomes show that remotely-sensed estimates of stand condition (here floodplain forests) are relatable to some demographic characteristics of a small mammal species, and may provide useful information about the capacity of ecosystems to support animal populations. Over-regulation of large, lowland rivers has led to declines in many facets of floodplain function. If management of water resources continues as it has in recent decades, then our results suggest that there will be further deterioration in stand condition and a decreased capacity for female yellow-footed antechinuses to breed multiple times. PMID:24621967

  5. Relating demographic characteristics of a small mammal to remotely sensed forest-stand condition.

    PubMed

    Lada, Hania; Thomson, James R; Cunningham, Shaun C; Mac Nally, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Many ecological systems around the world are changing rapidly in response to direct (land-use change) and indirect (climate change) human actions. We need tools to assess dynamically, and over appropriate management scales, condition of ecosystems and their responses to potential mitigation of pressures. Using a validated model, we determined whether stand condition of floodplain forests is related to densities of a small mammal (a carnivorous marsupial, Antechinus flavipes) in 60,000 ha of extant river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) forests in south-eastern Australia in 2004, 2005 and 2011. Stand condition was assessed remotely using models built from ground assessments of stand condition and satellite-derived reflectance. Other covariates, such as volumes of fallen timber, distances to floods, rainfall and life stages were included in the model. Trapping of animals was conducted at 272 plots (0.25 ha) across the region. Densities of second-year females (i.e. females that had survived to a second breeding year) and of second-year females with suckled teats (i.e. inferred to have been successful mothers) were higher in stands with the highest condition. There was no evidence of a relationship with stand condition for males or all females. These outcomes show that remotely-sensed estimates of stand condition (here floodplain forests) are relatable to some demographic characteristics of a small mammal species, and may provide useful information about the capacity of ecosystems to support animal populations. Over-regulation of large, lowland rivers has led to declines in many facets of floodplain function. If management of water resources continues as it has in recent decades, then our results suggest that there will be further deterioration in stand condition and a decreased capacity for female yellow-footed antechinuses to breed multiple times. PMID:24621967

  6. Primary central nervous system lymphomas and related diseases: Pathological characteristics and discussion of the differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Yasuo; Muta, Hiroko; Ohshima, Koichi; Morioka, Motohiro; Tsukamoto, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Kakita, Akiyoshi

    2016-08-01

    Although primary diffuse large B-cell lymphomas of the CNS are designated as primary CNS lymphomas according to the WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissue in 2008, a variety of other lymphomas (Burkitt lymphomas, EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly) and related diseases (lymphomatoid granulomatosis) that are also found in the CNS have been spotlighted in recent years. The histopathology of primary CNS Burkitt lymphomas mimics that of primary diffuse large B-cell lymphomas of the CNS after steroid administration. Therefore, for correct diagnosis of the involved lymphoma, comprehensive fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis for c-MYC and BCL2 is recommended in all primary CNS lymphoma cases with aggressive clinical course, multifocal involvement of the CNS, and a high proliferation index. The pathological characteristics of primary CNS EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly have similarities with those of the latency phenotype III, EBV lymphoproliferative disorders that arise in the setting of immunodeficiency. These age-related lymphomas usually occur in elderly immunocompetent patients, and the incidence of this disease was estimated to range from 4.0% to 13.6% of all primary CNS lymphomas. Shorter overall survival has been reported for patients with this disease. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG) is a systemic, EBV-driven, angiocentric and angiodestructive lymphoproliferative disorder. Primary LYG that shows distinct clinicopathological features compared with systemic LYG was recently reported. Finally, this review focuses on the relationship between primary CNS lymphomas and demyelinating diseases, and the concomitant use of intraoperative cytology and frozen sections that are helpful in rapid intraoperative diagnosis. PMID:26607855

  7. Master equation solutions in the linear regime of characteristic formulation of general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cedeño M., C. E.; de Araujo, J. C. N.

    2015-12-01

    From the field equations in the linear regime of the characteristic formulation of general relativity, Bishop, for a Schwarzschild's background, and Mädler, for a Minkowski's background, were able to show that it is possible to derive a fourth order ordinary differential equation, called master equation, for the J metric variable of the Bondi-Sachs metric. Once β , another Bondi-Sachs potential, is obtained from the field equations, and J is obtained from the master equation, the other metric variables are solved integrating directly the rest of the field equations. In the past, the master equation was solved for the first multipolar terms, for both the Minkowski's and Schwarzschild's backgrounds. Also, Mädler recently reported a generalisation of the exact solutions to the linearised field equations when a Minkowski's background is considered, expressing the master equation family of solutions for the vacuum in terms of Bessel's functions of the first and the second kind. Here, we report new solutions to the master equation for any multipolar moment l , with and without matter sources in terms only of the first kind Bessel's functions for the Minkowski, and in terms of the Confluent Heun's functions (Generalised Hypergeometric) for radiative (nonradiative) case in the Schwarzschild's background. We particularize our families of solutions for the known cases for l =2 reported previously in the literature and find complete agreement, showing the robustness of our results.

  8. Relational Coordination and Organisational Social Capital Association with Characteristics of General Practice

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Thomas Bøllingtoft; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Søndergaard, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Background. Relational coordination (RC) and organisational social capital (OSC) are measures of novel aspects of an organisation's performance, which have not previously been analysed together, in general practice. Objectives. The aim of this study was to analyse the associations between RC and OSC, and characteristics of general practice. Methods. Questionnaire survey study comprising 2074 practices in Denmark. Results. General practitioners (GPs) rated both RC and OSC in their general practice higher than their secretaries and nurses. The practice form was statistically significantly associated with high RC and OSC. RC was positively associated with the number of patients listed with a practice per staff, where staff is defined as all members of a practice including both owners and employees. Conclusion. The study showed that RC and OSC were significantly associated with type of profession and practice type. RC was also found to be significantly positively associated with number of patients per staff. However, the low response rate must be taken into consideration when interpreting the self-reported results of this study. PMID:25045537

  9. Optical characteristics of prostate tissues and the key chromophores and fluorophores within tissues related to carcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Kenneth J.; Chen, Jun

    2015-03-01

    Tissues are an impressive complex creation comprised of a vast of assortment of molecules, structures and functional units. Despite this overwhelming complexity, we may still discuss average optical properties as long as we realize the limitations involved. There are five independent macroscopic parameters that are believed to characterize light propagation in tissue: the index of refraction (n), the absorption coefficient (μa), the scattering coefficient (μs), the reduced scattering coefficient (μ's), and the scattering anisotropy (g). This paper summarizes the Optical characteristics of tissue of prostate tissues ex vivo and the key fluorophores related to carcinogenesis. The absorption coefficient (μa) describes the effectiveness of light absorbed by certain chromophore. The key spectra fingerprints of water were introduced to distinguish different water contents in normal and cancerous prostate tissues. Fluorescence occurs when a molecule, atom or nanostructure relaxes to its ground state after being electrically excited. There are three fluorescence parameters of interest we may concern in tissue optics: the fluorescence lifetime (τf), the fluorescence quantum yield (Φ) and the fluorescence emission peak (λmax). The key wavelengths which can be used for cancer detection were reviewed. Scattering of light occurs in media which contains fluctuations in the refractive index n. Tissue ultrastructure extends from membranes to membrane aggregates to collagen fibers to nuclei to cells, which may be an alternative way to detect cancer in tissues.

  10. Environmental characteristics of regional groundwater in relation to fluoride poisoning in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong; Zhu, Wan Hua

    1991-07-01

    More and more data indicated that high- or low-fluoride-bearing drinking water led to endemic diseases in which fluoride poisoning was caused by high levels of fluoride (fluoride ion content >1.0 mg/I) in drinking water. Fluoride poisoning in North China is characterized by pathological changes of bones and teeth. Much attention has been devoted to the study of fluoride-bearing groundwater in North China because regionally groundwater has been the main source of water supply, and fluoride poisoning has developed to the extent that it affects human health seriously. Results from the studies in North China summarized in this article indicate that regional high-fluoride-bearing groundwater has a regular distribution corresponding with the development of endemic fluoride poisoning and has something to do with paleogeographic and paleoclimatic conditions, geology, and hydrogeology, especially with types of hydrogeochemistry, pH value of groundwater, degree of mineralization, and so forth. High-fluoride-bearing groundwater in relation to fluorosis occurs mainly in North China, and many effective measures have been taken to reduce the fluoride content in drinking water and to cure the disease after analyzing the distribution and environmental characteristics of high-fluoride-bearing groundwater.

  11. Age and work environment characteristics in relation to sleep: Additive, interactive and curvilinear effects.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Katharine R

    2016-05-01

    Although additive combinations of age and work environment characteristics have been found to predict sleep impairment, possible age x work environment interactions have been largely disregarded. The present study examined linear and curvilinear interactions of age with work environment measures in relation to sleep quality and duration. Survey data were collected from offshore day-shift personnel (N = 901). Main effects and interactions of the age terms with work environment measures (job demand, control, and social support, physical environment and strenuous work) were evaluated. Sleep duration was predicted by a curvilinear interaction, age(2)x job demand (p < .005), and by the age x social support interaction (p < .002); sleep quality was predicted by age x job demand (p < .002). Job control and physical environment showed significant additive effects. At a time when older employees are encouraged to remain in the workforce, the findings serve to increase understanding of how ageing and work demands jointly contribute to sleep impairment. PMID:26851463

  12. Cerulean Warbler abundance and occurrence relative to large-scale edge and habitat characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, P.B.; Bosworth, S.B.; Dettmers, R.

    2006-02-15

    We examined Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea) abundance and occurrence in southwestern West Virginia, where the coal-mining technique of mountaintop removal mining-valley fill converts large contiguous tracts of deciduous forest to forest patches surrounded by early successional habitats. Our study objectives were to quantify abundance and occurrence of Cerulean Warblers relative to (1) distance from the edge of extensive reclaimed grasslands and (2) habitat structure and landscape characteristics. Cerulean Warbler abundance increased with distance from the edge and edge effects extended 340 m into the forest. Percent occurrence did not vary with distance from mine edge, suggesting a degree of tolerance to the extensive edge occurring at the interface of forest and reclaimed lands. Abundance and occurrence were greater on ridges and midslopes than in bottomlands; consequently, disturbances such as mountaintop mining in which ridges are removed may have a greater impact on populations compared to other sources of fragmentation where ridges are not disturbed. It was found that, in addition to outright loss of forested habitat, mountaintop mining-valley fill alters the spatial configuration of forested habitats, creating edge and area effects that negatively affect Cerulean Warbler abundance and occurrence in the reclaimed mine landscape.

  13. Relational coordination and organisational social capital association with characteristics of general practice.

    PubMed

    Lundstrøm, Sanne Lykke; Edwards, Kasper; Knudsen, Thomas Bøllingtoft; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Reventlow, Susanne; Søndergaard, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Background. Relational coordination (RC) and organisational social capital (OSC) are measures of novel aspects of an organisation's performance, which have not previously been analysed together, in general practice. Objectives. The aim of this study was to analyse the associations between RC and OSC, and characteristics of general practice. Methods. Questionnaire survey study comprising 2074 practices in Denmark. Results. General practitioners (GPs) rated both RC and OSC in their general practice higher than their secretaries and nurses. The practice form was statistically significantly associated with high RC and OSC. RC was positively associated with the number of patients listed with a practice per staff, where staff is defined as all members of a practice including both owners and employees. Conclusion. The study showed that RC and OSC were significantly associated with type of profession and practice type. RC was also found to be significantly positively associated with number of patients per staff. However, the low response rate must be taken into consideration when interpreting the self-reported results of this study. PMID:25045537

  14. Family and infant characteristics in relation to age at walking in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yalçin, S Songül; Yurdakök, Kadriye; Tezel, Başak; Ozbaş, Sema

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the onset of independent ambulation relative to possible relationships with maternal and infant characteristics. In a cross-sectional study, the health files of 1,553 Turkish children aged 12-23 months were selected by the multistage sampling method in the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) regions coded as low, medium and high malnutrition levels in Turkey. Children were selected from health centers by systematic sampling technique in each region. Kaplan-Meier analysis and estimated mean values were used for data description; log-rank test and the Cox multivariable regression analysis were applied for data analysis. Maternal education level, occupation, region of residence, gestational iron supplementation, child's gender, child's nutritional status, and presence of anemia in the infant during the survey period demonstrated significant relationships with walking unassisted in the univariate analysis. However, multivariable analysis showed that high maternal education, absence of parental consanguinity and appropriate weight-for-age Z score were positively associated with earlier age of walking. These findings showed the importance of improvement in girls' education, prevention of postnatal growth retardation and improvement in diet quality for children's gross motor development. In addition, counseling programs should be given to decrease the rate of parental consanguinity. PMID:23094536

  15. Interpretation of the characteristics of ocean-dumped sewage sludge related to remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagoria, P. S.; Kuo, C. Y.

    1979-01-01

    Wastewater sludge characteristics in general, and characteristics of wastewater sludges generated by the City of Philadelphia in particular, were addressed. The types and sources of wastewater sludges, a description of sludge treatment and disposal processes, examination of sludge generation and management for the City of Philadelphia, and definition of characteristics for typical east coast sludges undergoing ocean disposal were discussed. Specific differences exist between the characteristics of primary and secondary wastewater sludges, especially with the nature and size distribution of the solids particles. The sludges from the City of Philadelphia monitored during remote sensing experiments were mixtures of various sludge types and lacked distinguishing characteristics. In particular, the anaerobic digestion process exerted the most significant influence on sludge characteristics for the City of Philadelphia. The sludges generated by the City of Philadelphia were found to be typical and harbor no unique features.

  16. Relations of job characteristics from multiple data sources with employee affect, absence, turnover intentions, and health.

    PubMed

    Spector, P E; Jex, S M

    1991-02-01

    Much of the evidence in support of job characteristics theory is limited to incumbent reports of job characteristics. In this study, job characteristics data from three independent sources--incumbents, ratings from job descriptions, and the Dictionary of Occupational Titles--were used. Convergent validities of incumbent reports with other sources were quite modest. Although incumbent reports of job characteristics correlated significantly with several employee outcomes (job satisfaction, work frustration, anxiety on the job, turnover intentions, and number of doctor visits), the other sources showed few significant correlations, except for number of doctor visits. Caution is urged in the use of incumbent self-reports of job characteristics as indicators of actual work environments. New methods for studying job characteristics are suggested. PMID:2016216

  17. Emotion Regulation in Context: The Jealousy Complex between Young Siblings and Its Relations with Child and Family Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volling, Brenda L.; McElwain, Nancy L.; Miller, Alison L.

    2002-01-01

    Examined relations between sibling jealousy and child and family characteristics in families with toddler and preschool-age siblings. Found that positive marital relationship was particularly strong predictor of older siblings' abilities to regulate jealousy in sessions with mothers. Younger siblings' jealous affect with mothers related to child's…

  18. Hillslopes to Hollows to Channels: Identifying Process Transitions and Domains using Characteristic Scaling Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, K.; Locke, W. W.

    2011-12-01

    Headwater catchments are partitioned into hillslopes, unchanneled valleys (hollows), and channels. Low order (less than or equal to two) channels comprise most of the stream length in the drainage network so defining where hillslopes end and hollows begin, and where hollows end and channels begin, is important for calibration and verification of hydrologic runoff and sediment production modeling. We test the use of landscape scaling relations to detect flow regimes characteristic of diffusive, concentrated, and incisive runoff, and use these flow regimes as proxies for hillslope, hollow, and channeled landforms. We use LiDAR-derived digital elevation models (DEMs) of two pairs of headwater catchments in southwest and north-central Montana to develop scaling relations of flowpath length, total stream power, and contributing area. The catchment pairs contrast low versus high drainage density and north versus south aspect. Inflections in scaling relations of contributing area and flowpath length in a single basin (modified Hack's law) and contributing area and total stream power were used to identify hillslope and fluvial process domain transitions. In the modified Hack's law, inflections in the slope of the log-log power law are hypothesized to correspond to changes in flow regime used as proxies for hillslope, hollow, and channeled landforms. Similarly, rate of change of total stream power with contributing area is hypothesized to become constant and then decrease at the hillslope to fluvial domain transition. Power law scaling of frequency-magnitude plots of curvature and an aspect-related parameter were also tested as an indicator of the transition from scale-dependent hillslope length to the scale invariant fluvial domain. Curvature and aspect were calculated at each cell in spectrally filtered DEMs. Spectral filtering by fast Fourier and wavelet transforms enhances detection of fine-scale fluvial features by removing long wavelength topography. Using the

  19. BEYOND THE INDICES: RELATIONS OF HABITAT AND FISH CHARACTERISTICS IN THE GEORGIA PIEDMONT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Georgia Department of Natural Resources has conducted biological sampling at 180 stream sites in the Georgia Piedmont (1998-99) and recorded several trophic and abundance characteristics of the fish assemblages and habitat at each site. These characteristics were combined to ...

  20. Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Sprites and Sprite-related VHF Signals Measured by JEM-GLIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.; Adachi, T.; Mihara, M.; Ushio, T.; Morimoto, T.; Kikuchi, H.; Suzuki, M.; Yamazaki, A.; Takahashi, Y.

    2014-12-01

    JEM-GLIMS conducts the first comprehensive nadir observations of lightning and TLEs using optical instruments and electromagnetic wave receivers. JEM-GLIMS started continuous orbital observations from November 2012 and has succeeded in detecting thousands of lightning events including TLEs. The global distribution of the detected lightning events clearly shows that most of the events were detected over continental regions. In addition, the global distributions of these lightning events show clear seasonal variations and were centered in the local summer hemisphere. To identify the sprite occurrences, it is necessary to perform the following data analysis: (1) a subtraction of the appropriately scaled wideband camera (LSI-1) image from the narrowband camera (LSI-2) image; (2) a calculation of intensity ratio between different spectrophotometer channels; and (3) an estimation of the polarization and charge moment changes for the parent CG discharges of the event using ground-based ELF measurement data. From a synthetic comparison of these results, we confirmed that JEM-GLISM succeeded in detecting sprite events. The VHF receiver onboard JEM-GLIMS uses two patch-type antennas separated by a 1.6-m interval and can detect VHF pulses emitted by lightning discharges in the 70-100 MHz frequency range. Using an interferometric technique, we successfully identified the source locations of VHF pulses excited by lightning discharges. At the presentation, we will show detailed spatiotemporal characteristics of sprite events detected by JEM-GLIMS optical instruments and the relation between the spatial distribution of sprites and source locations of VHF pulses excited by the parent lightning discharges of sprites.

  1. Relation of initial spacing and relative stand density indices to stand characteristics in a Douglas-fir plantation spacing trial

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtis, Robert O.; Bansal, Sheel; Harrington, Constance A.

    2016-01-01

    This report presents updated information on a 1981 Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) plantation spacing trial at 33 years from planting. Stand statistics at the most recent measurement were compared for initial spacing of 1 through 6 meters and associated relative densities. There was no clear relationship of spacing to top height. Diameter, live crown ratio, and percent survival increased with spacing; basal area and relative density decreased with increase in spacing. Volume in trees ≥ 4 cm diameter was greatest at 2 m spacing, while utilizable volume (trees ≥20 cm dbh) was greatest at 4 m spacing. Live crown ratio decreased and total crown projectional area increased with increasing relative density indices. Total crown projectional area was more closely related to relative density than to basal area.

  2. Associations between neighbourhood environmental characteristics and obesity and related behaviours among adult New Zealanders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of adult obesity is escalating in most wealthy and middle income countries. Due to the magnitude of this issue, research and interventions at the individual-level abound. However, the limited success and high costs of such interventions has led to a growing recognition of the potential role of environmental factors in reducing obesity and promoting physical activity and healthy diets. Methods This study utilised individual-level data from the 2006/7 New Zealand Health Survey on obesity, physical activity, diet and socio-economic variables linked to geographic information from other sources on potentially aetiologically-relevant environmental factors, based on the respondent’s residential address. We fitted logistic regression models for eight binary measures of weight or weight-related behaviours: 1) overweight; 2) obesity; 3) overweight + obesity; 4) active at least 30 minutes a day for 5+ days per week; 5) active <30 minutes per week; 6) walk 150 minutes + per week; 7) walk <30 minutes per week; and 8) consumption of 5+ fruits and vegetables per day. We included a range of independent environmental characteristics of interest in separate models. Results We found that increased neighbourhood deprivation and decreased access to neighbourhood greenspace were both significantly associated with increased odds of overweight and/or obesity. The results for weight-related behaviours indicate that meeting the recommended level of physical activity per week was associated with urban/rural status, with higher activity in the more rural areas and a surprising tendency for less activity among those living in areas with higher levels of active travel to work. Increased access to greenspace was associated with high levels of walking, while decreased access to greenspace was associated with low levels of walking. There was also a significant trend for low levels of walking to be positively associated with neighbourhood deprivation. Results

  3. The Effect of Student-Related and Text-Related Characteristics on Student's Reading Behaviour and Text Comprehension: An Eye Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Leeuw, Linda; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the present study was on the mediation and moderation effects of reading processes as evidenced from eye movements on the relation between cognitive and linguistic student characteristics (word decoding, vocabulary, comprehension skill, short-term memory, working memory, and nonverbal intelligence) and text comprehension. Forty 4th…

  4. The effect of cryopreservation on goat semen characteristics related to sperm freezability.

    PubMed

    Dorado, J; Muñoz-Serrano, A; Hidalgo, M

    2010-08-01

    Seminal quality parameters were used to evaluate the effect of freeze-thawing procedure on goat sperm characteristics, and to relate possible changes in sperm parameters to cryopreservation success. Semen samples (n=110) were frozen with TRIS and milk-based extenders and thawed. Sperm quality parameters (motility, morphology and acrosome) were compared between fresh and frozen-thawed samples. Sperm freezability was judged by classifying the semen samples as "suitable" or "not suitable" according to the sperm quality parameters assessed before and after thawing. Fertility data was obtained after cervical insemination with frozen semen doses. The ejaculates were grouped into two categories according to their fertility results. In experiment 1, significant differences were found between semen extenders (P<0.001), bucks (P<0.05) and ejaculates within the same male (P<0.05) in terms of sperm quality. There was no seasonal effect (P>0.05) on the majority of the sperm parameters assessed after thawing. Moreover, significant differences (P<0.001) in semen parameters assessed in fresh semen and frozen-thawed samples were found between groups. The effect of the freeze-thawing procedure on sperm quality parameters was also different (P<0.05) between extenders within the same group. The number of sperm quality parameters that had changed after cryopreservation was lower in "suitable" semen samples before and after thawing. In experiment 2, no differences (P>0.05) in semen parameters assessed in fresh semen and frozen-thawed samples were found between groups. The effect of freezing and thawing on sperm quality parameters were different (P<0.05) between extenders within the same group. Only mean beat cross frequency (BCF) values were significantly higher (P<0.05) in TRIS diluted samples that led to successful pregnancies after artificial insemination. In conclusion, CASA-derived motility parameters, together with traditional semen assessment methods, give valuable information on

  5. Ultrasound image characteristics of ovarian follicles in relation to oocyte competence and follicular status in cattle.

    PubMed

    Vassena, R; Adams, G P; Mapletoft, R J; Pierson, R A; Singh, J

    2003-03-20

    Assessment of the quality of the female gamete has become paramount for in vitro procedures. There is a need to identify reliable indicators of oocyte competence and develop a simple, non-invasive method to assess competence. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships among ultrasonographic attributes of a follicle, its stage of development and the competence of the oocyte that it contains. We tested the hypotheses that follicular echotexture characteristics are related to: (1) the phase of development of the follicle, (2) the presence of the corpus luteum (CL) and/or the dominant follicle in the ovary, and (3) developmental competence of cumulus oocyte complexes (COC) from the same ovary. Crossbred beef cows (n=143), age 4-14 years, were given a luteolytic dose of dinoprost to cause ovulation. Ultrasound-guided ablation of all follicles > or = 4mm was done 8 days later to induce new follicular wave emergence during a luteal phase. Ultrasonographic images of dominant follicles and the three largest subordinate follicles (n=402 follicles; 84 cows) were acquired on Days 2, 3, 5 or 7 of the follicular wave (Day 0: wave emergence), i.e. growing, early-static, late static, and regressing phases of subordinate follicle development, respectively. From a subset of these animals (n=33), ovaries were collected within 30 min of slaughter and COC from subordinate follicles > or = 3mm underwent in vitro maturation, fertilization and culture to the blastocyst stage.Image analysis revealed differences in echotexture between dominant and subordinate follicles among Days 2-7 of the follicular wave. Images of dominant and subordinate follicles at Day 7 of the wave displayed consistently lower grey-scale values (P<0.05) in the peripheral antrum, follicular wall and perifollicular stroma than all other days. Follicle images displayed a consistent pattern of variation in echotexture among follicular phases. Data did not support the hypothesis of a local effect of the CL

  6. Whose Depression Relates to Discrepancies? Testing Relations between Informant Characteristics and Informant Discrepancies from Both Informants' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Goodman, Kimberly L.; Kliewer, Wendy; Reid-Quinones, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether mothers' and children's depressive symptoms were each uniquely related to mother-child rating discrepancies on a multidimensional dyadic construct: domains associated with parental monitoring (i.e., Child Disclosure, Parental Knowledge, and Parental Solicitation). Participants included a community sample of 335…

  7. Identification of Drusen Characteristics in Age-Related Macular Degeneration by Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Schlanitz, Ferdinand G.; Sacu, Stefan; Baumann, Bernhard; Bolz, Matthias; Platzer, Maria; Pircher, Michael; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe qualitative characteristics of drusen in eyes with nonadvanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (OCT). Design Cross-sectional study. Methods Twenty-five eyes of 25 patients with early to intermediate (nonadvanced) AMD were imaged with polarization-sensitive OCT using macular volume scans. All individual drusen in each B-scan were manually delineated by experts certified by a reading center and graded for 6 different morphologic characteristics based on a defined classification scheme, including the presence of internal depolarizing structures and associated depolarizing foci. With the use of a custom-made software, the central B-scan of each individual druse was selected and used to analyze its location, diameter, and characteristics and assess the prevalence of the different features and relations between them. Results Using the macular volume scans, 6224 individual drusen could be identified, including their position within the retina, their characteristics, and their association with any pigmentary alterations. The most common drusen type was a convex-shaped druse with homogeneous medium internal reflectivity and no depolarizing contents (55.3% of drusen). A total of 30.5% of the drusen exhibited internal depolarizing material; 0.3% presented overlying hyperreflective foci, and in 54.5% the foci were also depolarizing. Significant correlations were found between the diameter of the drusen and their distribution throughout the retina, shape, homogeneity of internal reflectivity, presence of internal depolarizing characteristics, and presence of overlying foci (P < .001 each). Significant relations were found between reflectivity, homogeneity, and polarization-sensitive internal characteristics (P < .001). Conclusions Polarization-sensitive OCT reveals characteristic morphologic features of different druse types highlighting the pathophysiological spectrum of early to intermediate

  8. Teacher and Classroom Characteristics and Their Relations to Mathematics Achievement of the Students in the TIMSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyuz, Gozde; Berberoglu, Giray

    2010-01-01

    Background: Teacher-related factors such as gender, experience, conceptions related to mathematics, instructional practices have effects with various magnitudes on students' mathematics achievement. Classroom related factors such as class size, class climate and limitations to teaching and their relation to mathematics achievement have also been…

  9. Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Young People with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Relative Prevalence, Effects of Subject Characteristics, and Empirical Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lecavalier, Luc

    2006-01-01

    Parents or teachers rated 487 non-clinically referred young people with Pervasive Developmental Disorders on the Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form. The objectives of the study were to examine the relative prevalence of specific behavior problems, assess the impact of subject characteristics, and derive an empirical classification of behavioral…

  10. RELATION OF LANDSCAPE-SCALE ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS TO FISH ASSEMBLAGES IN THE UPPER FRENCH BROAD RIVER BASIN, NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish assemblages at 16 sites in the upper French Broad river basin in North Carolina were related to environmental characteristics at the landscape scale, the scale at which management activities and decisions are most likely to occur. Indirect gradient analysis and subsequent re...

  11. A Multi-Level Simultaneous Analysis of How Student and School Characteristics Are Related to Students' English Language Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Güvendir, Emre

    2015-01-01

    This study examines how student and school characteristics are related to Turkish students' English language achievement in Evaluation of Student Achievement Test (ÖBBS) of 2009. The participants of the study involve 43707 ninth year students who were required to take ÖBBS in 2009. For data analysis two level hierarchical linear modeling was…

  12. An Analysis of Student Characteristics and Behaviour in Relation to Absence from Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawon, Krystyna; Pembroke, Michael; Wille, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Concern has been expressed in the literature that student absenteeism from lectures is undesirable as it may have adverse consequences for academic performance. The aim of this study was to examine whether there are identifiable groups of low-attendance students who display characteristic behaviours that are more typical than any other group.…

  13. Hospital characteristics related to the intention to apply for meaningful use incentive payments.

    PubMed

    Diana, Mark L; Kazley, Abby Swanson; Ford, Eric W; Menachemi, Nir

    2012-01-01

    The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act of 2009 provides incentives for hospitals to fully adopt and use electronic health records (EHRs). We used data from the 2009 American Hospital Association (AHA) Annual Survey Information Technology Supplement and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) 2008 Hospital Cost Reports to examine how various hospital characteristics are associated with the intention to pursue meaningful use incentives. Overall, 86 percent of hospitals indicated an intent to pursue HITECH incentives. However, hospitals that already have an EHR system, are larger, and are located in urban areas are more likely to indicate an intention to pursue incentives. Despite a high interest in HITECH incentives, certain hospital characteristics, including current EHR use, increase the proclivity for some hospitals to pursue meaningful use. Given these differences, there is the potential for the HITECH Act to inadvertently increase the digital divide between hospitals with certain characteristics and their counterparts without those characteristics. Policy makers should consider ways to alleviate barriers, especially for nonusers of EHRs, to realize the maximum benefits of the HITECH Act. PMID:22737100

  14. The knocking characteristics of fuels in relation to maximum permissible performance of aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Biermann, Arnold E

    1939-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the relationship of various engine factors to knock in preignition in an aircraft engine. From this analysis and from the available experimental data, a method of evaluating the knocking characteristics of the fuel in an aircraft-engine cylinder is suggested.

  15. Parent/Child Concordance about Bullying Involvement and Family Characteristics Related to Bullying and Peer Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Melissa K.; Kaufman Kantor, Glenda; Finkelhor, David

    2009-01-01

    This study examined parent perspectives on bullying, parent/child concordance about bullying involvement, and family characteristics associated with bullying perpetration and peer victimization. Participants were 205 fifth-grade students and their parents. Students attended an urban, ethnically diverse school district in the Northeast. Youth…

  16. Individual variation related to testicular biometry and semen characteristics in collared peccaries (Tayassu Tajacu Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Peixoto, G C X; Silva, M A; Castelo, T S; Silva, A M; Bezerra, J A B; Souza, A L P; Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this research was to study the individual variation with regard to the morphometry of the testes evaluated by ultrasonography and semen characteristics and to verify the existence of relationship between these variables in collared peccaries. In addition, the testes of the animals were evaluated by histology in order to determine the proportion occupied by the seminiferous tubules. A total of 52 ejaculates were obtained from ten adult specimens that had been restrained by anesthesia. The testicular measurements (length, height, and width) were performed by ultrasonography, and the testicular volume was calculated according to Lambert's formula. The scrotal circumference was measured by encircling the thickest portion of the testicle with a graduated nylon tape. The semen was collected by electroejaculation. Testicular fragments were analyzed through classic histology for the determination of the area occupied by the seminiferous tubules. The results show a great amount of individual variation with regard to testicular morphometry and semen characteristics. No significant correlations were obtained between testicular measurements and semen characteristics. The histometric analysis revealed that 67.8% of the testes are occupied by seminiferous tubules. Results show that the measurement of testicular dimensions does not serve as an indicator of the quality of semen obtained by electroejaculation in collared peccaries, as there is no correlation between testicular morphometry and semen characteristics in this species that presents large variations among individuals. PMID:22964034

  17. Predicting Secondary Agriculture Teachers' Job Stress from Selected Personal, Family, and Work-Related Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Robert M.; Lambert, Misty D.; Lawver, Rebecca G.

    2010-01-01

    The study sought to describe the characteristics and explain the current level of job stress among secondary agriculture teachers. The sample consisted of 370 secondary agriculture teachers. Data were collected using the Job Stress Survey (Spielberger & Vagg, 1999). From the findings it was concluded that the average secondary agriculture teacher…

  18. Relation of Spectral and Physiological Properties to Leaf Structural Characteristics of Arsenic Treated Rice Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arsenic (As) is a widely spread soil contaminant which can cause toxicity in plants. Although many studies have investigated the spectral characteristics of affected plants, the extent to which different toxicities may result in correspondingly different spectral signatures has received little atte...

  19. Investigating Grade Nine Textbook Problems for Characteristics Related to Mathematical Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatabi, Abolfazl Rafiepour; Stacey, Kaye; Gooya, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a content analysis of the new Iranian Grade 9 mathematics textbook and two Australian Year 9 mathematics textbooks, examining the extent to which the problems show characteristics associated in the literature with promoting mathematical literacy. The new Iranian book was produced to meet a range of needs including several well…

  20. An Investigation of Student Characteristics as Related to Achievement in an Individualized High School Biology Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlefield, David L.

    Reported is a study of possible differences in student characteristics between high, expected, and low achievers in an individualized learning biology program. Nine variables, ranging from biographical data through attitudinal data were studied. Effects on achievement and explanation of some of the differences were determined by examination of…

  1. STUDY OF THE BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF ERIONITE IN RELATION TO ITS CHEMICAL AND STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fibrous erionite appears to have many times the mesothelioma induction potential of asbestos. A member of a class of minerals termed zeolites, it differs markedly from asbestos in many physico-chemical characteristics. For preliminary biological studies, experiments were based on...

  2. Characteristic brain MRI findings in ataxia-neuropathy spectrum related to POLG mutation.

    PubMed

    Henao, Adriana I; Pira, Sonia; Herrera, Diego A; Vargas, Sergio A; Montoya, Jorge; Castillo, Mauricio

    2016-02-01

    Patients with mutations in the polymerase gamma gene (POLG) may present with progressive ataxia and in such situations neuroimaging findings may suggest the diagnosis. Herein we report a patient with a POLG gene W748S homozygous mutation and characteristic lesions in the thalamus, cerebellum and inferior olivary nucleus seen on magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:26755490

  3. Sources of Information Used in Relation to the Characteristics of the Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, K. N.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    A study to determine the relationships between the sources of information used at the different stages of adoption of innovative ideas and practices and the characteristics of the users. The study was conducted among farmers in India of varying ages, levels of occupation, and having varying sizes of holdings. (Author/JB)

  4. Teachers' Perceptions Related to Characteristics of a Professional Environment for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Mehmet; White, Arthur L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine pre-service and in-service science and mathematics teachers' perceptions of the characteristics of a professional teaching environment. The study further investigated the relationships of field placement contexts and grade levels on pre-service teachers' perceptions of importance and availability of…

  5. Neurobehaviors of Japanese Newborns in Relation to the Characteristics of Early Mother-Infant Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Kek Khee; Ohgi, Shohei; Howard, Judy; Tyler, Rachelle; Hirose, Taiko

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between newborn neurobehavioral profiles and the characteristics of early mother-infant interaction in Nagasaki, Japan. The authors administered the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS; T. B. Brazelton & J. K. Nugent, 1995) in the newborn period and the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale…

  6. Individual Characteristics of Adolescent Methamphetamine Users in Relation to Self-Reported Trouble with the Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassman, Ruth; Nowicke, Carole E.; Jun, Mi Kung

    2010-01-01

    Survey responses by nonexperimental drug users in grades 6-12 were examined to determine whether MA users and nonusers with shared individual characteristics experience differential rates of police trouble, and whether specific factors place some users at greater risk than others. Findings showed that police trouble is pronounced for MA users,…

  7. Age Related Personality Characteristics of Epileptic Children: Parent and Child Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kralj, M. M.; And Others

    Personality characteristics of 101 epileptic children in two age groups (5-11 and 11-16) were studied by means of the child-reported Missouri Children's Picture Series and the mother-reported Missouri Problem Behavior Checklist. Scores for each age group across both parent and child reports were compared to published norms. A one-way multivariate…

  8. Long-Term Effects of Childhood Maltreatment History on Gender-Related Personality Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Leora N.; Martin, Lee

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 1,060 male and 305 female soldiers examined associations of gender-related personality attributes with a history of child maltreatment. Childhood abuse was associated with the presence of negative gender-related attributes; childhood neglect was associated with absence of positive gender-related attributes; childhood sexual abuse was…

  9. Changes in streamflow characteristics in Wisconsin as related to precipitation and land use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gebert, Warren A.; Garn, Herbert S.; Rose, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Streamflow characteristics were determined for 15 longterm streamflow-gaging stations for the periods 1915–2008, 1915–68, and 1969–2008 to identify trends. Stations selected represent flow characteristics for the major river basins in Wisconsin. Trends were statistically significant at the 95 percent confidence level at 13 of the 15 streamflow-gaging stations for various streamflow characteristics for 1915–2008. Most trends indicated increases in low flows for streams with agriculture as the dominant land use. The three most important findings are: increases in low flows and average flows in agricultural watersheds, decreases in flood peak discharge for many streams in both agricultural and forested watersheds, and climatic change occurred with increasing annual precipitation and changes in monthly occurrence of precipitation. When the 1915–68 period is compared to the 1969–2008 period, the annual 7-day low flow increased an average of 60 percent for nine streams in agricultural areas as compared to a 15 percent increase for the five forested streams. Average annual flow for the same periods increased 23 percent for the agriculture streams and 0.6 percent for the forested streams. The annual flood peak discharge for the same periods decreased 15 percent for agriculture streams and 8 percent for forested streams. The largest increase in the annual 7-day low flow was 117 percent, the largest increase in annual average flow was 41 percent, and the largest decrease in annual peak discharge was 51 percent. The trends in streamflow characteristics affect frequency characteristics, which are used for a variety of design and compliance purposes. The frequencies for the 1969–2008 period were compared to frequencies for the 1915–68 period. The 7-day, 10-year (Q7, 10) low flow increased 91 percent for nine agricultural streams, while the five forested streams had an increase of 18 percent. The 100-year flood peak discharge decreased an average of 15 percent

  10. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations in high altitude lakes and fish (Arctic charr) from the French Alps related to watershed characteristics.

    PubMed

    Marusczak, Nicolas; Larose, Catherine; Dommergue, Aurélien; Paquet, Serge; Beaulne, Jean-Sébastien; Maury-Brachet, Régine; Lucotte, Marc; Nedjai, Rachid; Ferrari, Christophe P

    2011-04-15

    Total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were measured in the muscle of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) and in the water column of 4 lakes that are located in the French Alps. Watershed characteristics were determined (6 coverage classes) for each lake in order to evaluate the influence of watershed composition on mercury and methylmercury concentrations in fish muscle and in the water column. THg and MeHg concentrations in surface water were relatively low and similar among lakes and watershed characteristics play a major role in determining water column Hg and MeHg levels. THg muscle concentrations for fish with either a standardized length of 220mm, a standardized age of 5 years or for individualuals did not exceed the 0.5mg kg(-1) fish consumption advisory limit established for Hg by the World Health Organization (WHO, 1990). These relatively low THg concentrations can be explained by watershed characteristics, which lead to short Hg residence time in the water column, and also by the short trophic chain that is characteristic of mountain lakes. Growth rate did not seem to influence THg concentrations in fish muscles of these lakes and we observed no relationship between fish Hg concentrations and altitude. This study shows that in the French Alps, high altitude lakes have relatively low THg and MeHg concentrations in both the water column and in Arctic charr populations. Therefore, Hg does not appear to present a danger for local populations and the fishermen of these lakes. PMID:21371737

  11. Characteristics analysis of a high speed permanent magnet synchronous generator using the transfer relations theorem and equivalent circuit method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Seok-Myeong; Ko, Kyoung-Jin; Park, Ji-Hoon; Cho, Han-Wook; Hong, Jung-Pyo

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents analytical methods to predict the magnetic field distribution, electrical parameters, and output characteristics of a high speed synchronous generator equipped with surface-mounted permanent magnet. In order to analyze the magnetic field distribution and to estimate the electrical parameters, electromagnetic transfer relation (TR) theorem is employed. Moreover, output characteristics for variable resistive load and the operating speed are also obtained by solving the permanent magnet machine's equivalent circuit equation. The analytical results are validated extensively by nonlinear finite element analysis and experimental results.

  12. The flare star EV Lac. II - Relations between the characteristics of the flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avgoloupis, S.

    1986-07-01

    Characteristics of the four types of flares observed during the 184 events that were observed on the flare star EV Lac in the period 1967-1980 are analyzed. The data include the duration and magnitude of each event, the mean rate of luminosity and apparent magnitude increases, the integrated flare intensity over the whole event, and time histograms of intensity levels of the events. The flares were distributed into 49 type IV events, 71 type III events, 38 type II events and 25 type I events. Intensities were highest in type II events, and the extremes of other distinguishing characteristics were distributed among the other events, with some having correlations exceeding the 95 percent level. The differences were sufficiently pronounced to conclude that the individual type of flare event must be considered in future analyses, rather than considering all flare events as a uniform database.

  13. Physical characteristics of a new synthetic fiber mattress in relation to pressure sores.

    PubMed

    Mita, K; Akataki, K; Itoh, K; Yoshida, M; Shinoda, T; Ishida, Y

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to develop a mattress which was made of the new synthetic fibers called 'Shin-Gosen', and to determine its physical characteristics associated with pressure sores such as pressure distribution, temperature and humidity. The Shin-Gosen mattress consisted of three layers of elastic fibers made of polyester multifilaments, which were mediated by four layers of wave-like fabrics made of nylon monofilaments. The physical characteristics of the mattress were compared with (a) the conventional cotton hospital mattress and (b) the SORELESS MAT made of vacuole gel which effectively eliminated compression forces. The Shin-Gosen mattress was found to provide pressure relief effects similar to that of the SORELESS MAT the desired thermal insulation as well as that of the cotton mattress and a higher level of moisture vapor permeability. These excellent features will not only contribute to preventing pressure sores, but will also enable comfortable resting and sleeping. PMID:9444514

  14. Statistical and numerical study of the relation between weather and sonic boom characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, Lixin; Bass, Henry E.; Raspet, Richard; Mcbride, Walton E.

    1992-01-01

    NASA measured sonic boom characteristics near Edwards Air Force Base from 11/66 to 1/67. Thirty four flights by an F-104 were recorded at an altitude of about 31,000 feet and flying speed of Mach 1.3. Forty two microphones were placed on the ground directly under the fight track. Each microphone recorded boom shape, rise time, peak overpressure, total boom duration, positive duration, and positive impulse.

  15. Health-related quality of life in a nationwide cohort of patients with COPD related to other characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Henoch, Ingela; Strang, Susann; Löfdahl, Claes-Göran; Ekberg-Jansson, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Background In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), various factors, such as dyspnoea, obstruction, exacerbations, smoking, exercise capacity, and body mass index, have been found to influence mortality and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). In order to identify subgroups of patients needing special attention, the aim of the present study was to explore the relationships between disease progression factors and HRQOL across COPD stages. Methods Baseline registrations from the Swedish COPD register of demographic, clinical, and patient-reported variables of 7,810 patients are presented. Dyspnoea was measured by the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnoea scale and HRQOL by the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ). Results This study shows as expected that patients with spirometrically more severe COPD had a significantly higher number of exacerbations and hospitalisations, significantly increasing dyspnoea, significantly decreasing body mass index and exercise capacity, and significantly worsening HRQOL. When adjusting for spirometric stage of COPD, deteriorated HRQOL was predicted by increasing dyspnoea, depression/anxiety, increasing number of exacerbations, and decreased exercise capacity. Further, these data show that an mMRC value of 2 corresponds to a CCQ value of 1.9. Conclusion The COPD patients suffered from a significant symptom burden, influencing HRQOL. A surprisingly great proportion of patients in spirometric stages II–IV showed marked changes of CCQ, indicating a need for an improved collaboration between clinical pulmonary medicine and palliative care. PMID:27238360

  16. Facial Characteristics and Olfactory Dysfunction: Two Endophenotypes Related to Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip and/or Palate

    PubMed Central

    Roosenboom, J.; Saey, I.; Peeters, H.; Devriendt, K.; Claes, P.; Hens, G.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence exists for the presence of a specific facial phenotype in nonaffected first-degree relatives of persons with CL/P. An increased risk for olfactory dysfunction has also been reported in CL/P-relatives. These phenotypic features can probably be explained via the presence of CL/P-related susceptibility genes. We aimed at confirming the occurrence of these endophenotypic traits in first-degree CL/P-relatives, and we investigated the link between the facial phenotype and the smell capacity in this group. We studied the facial morphology of 88 nonaffected first-degree relatives of patients with CL/P and 33 control subjects without family history of facial clefting by 3D surface imaging and a spatially dense analysis of the images. Smell testing was performed in 30 relatives and compared with 23 control subjects. Nonaffected relatives showed midface retrusion, hypertelorism, and olfactory dysfunction, compared to controls. In addition, we show for the first time that olfactory dysfunction in relatives is correlated to a smaller upper nasal region. This might be explained by a smaller central olfactory system. The different facial morphology in the relatives with olfactory impairment as compared to the total group may be an illustration of the contribution of different genetic backgrounds to the occurrence of CL/P via different biological pathways. PMID:26064961

  17. Socio-demographic and lifestyle-related characteristics associated with self-reported any, daily and occasional smoking during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Baron, Ruth; Manniën, Judith; de Jonge, Ank; Heymans, Martijn W; Klomp, Trudy; Hutton, Eileen K; Brug, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is a risk factor for various adverse birth outcomes. In order to develop effective interventions, insight is needed into the characteristics associated with pregnant women who smoke. Unknown is whether these characteristics differ for women who smoke daily and women who smoke occasionally. Our study sample, drawn from the DELIVER study (Sept 2009-March 2011), consisted of 6107 pregnant women in primary care in the Netherlands who were up to 34 weeks pregnant. The associations of thirteen socio-demographic or lifestyle-related characteristics with 'any smoking', 'daily smoking' and 'occasional smoking' during pregnancy were tested using multiple binary logistic regression with general estimating equations (GEE). Characteristics most strongly associated with any smoking were low education (OR 10.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 7.0-15.4), being of Turkish ethnicity (OR 3.9; 95%CI 2.3-6.7) and having no partner (OR 3.7; 95%CI 2.3-6.0). Women of Dutch ethnicity were three times more likely to smoke than those from Dutch-speaking Caribbean countries and non-religious women were much more likely to smoke than religious women. Low education was markedly more strongly associated with daily smoking than with occasional smoking (OR 20.3; 95%CI 13.2-31.3 versus OR 6.0; 95%CI 3.4-10.5). Daily smokers were more likely to be associated with other unfavorable lifestyle-related characteristics, such as not taking folic acid, being underweight, and having had an unplanned pregnancy. There is still much potential for health gain with respect to smoking during pregnancy in the Netherlands. Daily and occasional smokers appear to differ in characteristics, and therefore possibly require different interventions. PMID:24019956

  18. Educational and Demographic Characteristics of Energy-Related Scientists and Engineers, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Michael G.; Bain, Trevor

    Presented is an analysis of the education, training, and age distribution of experienced scientists, engineers, energy-related scientists, and energy-related engineers. Data are from the 1976 National Survey of Natural and Social Scientists and Engineers, which is one of a series of longitudinal studies of 50,000 scientists in the labor force at…

  19. Position-Related Differences in Selected Morphological Body Characteristics of Top-Level Female Handball Players.

    PubMed

    Bon, Marta; Pori, Primoz; Sibila, Marko

    2015-09-01

    The study aimed to establish the main morphological characteristics of Slovenian junior and senior female national handball team players. Morphological characteristics of various player subgroups (goalkeepers, wings, back players and pivots) were also determined so as to establish whether they had distinct profiles. The subjects were 87 handball players who were members of the Slovenian junior and senior female national teams in the period from 2003 to 2009. A standardised anthropometric protocol was used to assess the subjects' morphological characteristics. The measurements included 23 different anthropometric measures. First, basic statistical characteristics of anthropometric measures were obtained for all subjects together and then for each group separately. Somatotypes were determined using Heath-Carter's method. Endomorphic, mesomorphic and ectomorphic components were calculated by computer on the basis of formulas. In order to determine differences in the body composition and anthropometric data of the subjects playing in different positions, a one-way analysis of variance was employed. The results show that, on average, the wings differed the most from the other player groups in terms of their morphological body characteristics. The wings differed most prominently from the other player groups in terms of their morphological body parameters as they were significantly smaller and had a statistically significantly lower body mass than the other groups. In terms of transversal measures of the skeleton and the circumferences, the wings significantly differed mainly from the pivots and goalkeepers and less from the backs. The goalkeepers were the tallest, with high values of body mass and low values of transversal measures compared to P. Their skin folds were the most pronounced among all the groups on average and their share of subcutaneous fat in total body mass was the highest. Consequently, their endomorphic component of the somatotype was pronounced

  20. Relation of urbanization to stream habitat and geomorphic characteristics in nine metropolitan areas of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Peppler, Marie C.

    2010-01-01

    The relation of urbanization to stream habitat and geomorphic characteristics was examined collectively and individually for nine metropolitan areas of the United States?Portland, Oregon; Salt Lake City, Utah; Denver, Colorado; Dallas?Forth Worth, Texas; Milwaukee?Green Bay, Wisconsin; Birmingham, Alabama; Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh, North Carolina; and Boston, Massachusetts. The study was part of a larger study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1999 to 2004 to examine the effects of urbanization on the physical, chemical, and biological components of stream ecosystems. The objectives of the current study were to determine how stream habitat and geomorphic characteristics relate to different aspects of urbanization across a variety of diverse environmental settings and spatial scales. A space-for-time rural-to-urban land-cover gradient approach was used. Reach-scale habitat data and geomorphic characteristic data were collected once during low flow and included indicators of potential habitat degradation such as measures of channel geometry and hydraulics, streambed substrate, low-flow reach volume (an estimate of base-flow conditions), habitat complexity, and riparian/bank conditions. Hydrologic metrics included in the analyses were those expected to be altered by increases in impervious surfaces, such as high-flow frequency and duration, flashiness, and low-flow duration. Other natural and human features, such as reach-scale channel engineering, geologic setting, and slope, were quantified to identify their possible confounding influences on habitat relations with watershed-scale urbanization indicators. Habitat and geomorphic characteristics were compared to several watershed-scale indicators of urbanization, natural landscape characteristics, and hydrologic metrics by use of correlation analyses and stepwise linear regression. Habitat and geomorphic characteristics were related to percentages of impervious surfaces only in some metropolitan areas and

  1. Characteristics of storage related capacity loss in Ni/H2 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidyanathan, Hari

    1993-01-01

    The changes in the capacity, voltage and pressure profile of flight configuration Ni/H2 cells when they are stored for extended periods is examined. The Ni/H2 cells exhibit capacity fade phenomenon regardless of their design when they are stored at room temperature. Capacity loss also occurs if old cells (5 years old) are stored in a very low rate trickle charge (C/200 rate) condition. A periodic recharge technique leads to pressure rise in the cells. Conventional trickle charge (C/100 rate) helps in minimizing or eliminating the second plateau which is one of the characteristics of the capacity fade phenomenon.

  2. Lightning Characteristics and Lightning Strike Peak Current Probabilities as Related to Aerospace Vehicle Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale L.; Vaughan, William W.

    1998-01-01

    A summary is presented of basic lightning characteristics/criteria for current and future NASA aerospace vehicles. The paper estimates the probability of occurrence of a 200 kA peak lightning return current, should lightning strike an aerospace vehicle in various operational phases, i.e., roll-out, on-pad, launch, reenter/land, and return-to-launch site. A literature search was conducted for previous work concerning occurrence and measurement of peak lighting currents, modeling, and estimating probabilities of launch vehicles/objects being struck by lightning. This paper presents these results.

  3. Investigation of captive red wolf ejaculate characteristics in relation to age and inbreeding.

    PubMed

    Lockyear, K M; MacDonald, S E; Waddell, W T; Goodrowe, K L

    2016-09-15

    An evaluation of a large database of red wolf fresh ejaculate characteristics (n = 427 ejaculates from 64 wolves) was undertaken to increase knowledge of seminal characteristics in the red wolf and evaluate possible relationships between inbreeding, age, and seminal quality. Phase microscopy analysis of electroejaculates collected over 14 natural breeding seasons was compared with animal ages and inbreeding coefficients. Ejaculate volume increased and sperm concentration and total count decreased as wolves aged (P < 0.01, 0.001, and 0.05, respectively), and the proportion of sperm cell morphological abnormalities was greater in animals with higher coefficients of inbreeding (P < 0.001), particularly for older animals (P < 0.001). Moreover, the mean coefficient of inbreeding of animals that had failed to reproduce given at least one opportunity during their lifetimes was significantly greater than that of wolves with proven fertility, and wolves of proven fertility exhibited higher sperm concentrations and total counts than nonproven wolves. Thus, as the captive red wolf population becomes more inbred, the maximum age of reproduction is likely to decrease; an important finding to consider when projecting population dynamics and determining pairing recommendations. PMID:27283782

  4. Limnological characteristics of selected lakes in the Nebraska sandhills, U.S.A., and their relation to chemical characteristics of adjacent ground water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Baugh, James W.

    1986-10-01

    Limnological characteristics of Crane, Hackberry, Island and Roundup Lakes, and chemical characteristics of shallow ground water, within the Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge, western Nebraska, were determined during a preliminary investigation of the interaction between lakes and ground water in this study area between 1980 and 1984. When ice cover was absent, the lakes were well-mixed vertically, regardless of season. Depth to which 1% of surface illumination penetrated was commonly less than 1m. Variability in light penetration, as measured by Secchidisk transparency, appeared to be unrelated to changes in algal biomass, even though algal biomass, measured as chlorophyll a, varied seasonally within a two-order-of-magnitude range. Blue-green algae were the most abundant phytoplankton; this condition occurred most often when the ratio of total nitrogen to total phosphorus in the lakes' water was less than 29. Although rotifers and copepod naupli commonly were the most abundant zooplankton in the lakes, cladocerans were dominant occasionally. Either sodium or calcium was the most abundant cation, and bicarbonate was the most abundant anion, in water from water-table wells and lakes sampled during the study. The second most abundant cation in the ground water was related to the location of the sampled well within the ground-water system. The lakes were a source of dissolved organic carbon seeping to ground water. Chemical and hydrologic data indicate there is interaction between lakes and ground water in the study area.

  5. Characteristics, diagnosis and therapeutic strategies for IgG4-related orbital disease.

    PubMed

    Oles, Krzysztof; Sładzień, Jacek; Bartuś, Krzysztof; Leszczyńska, Joanna; Bojanowska, Emila; Krakowczyk, Łukasz; Mika, Joanna

    2016-06-01

    Thanks to detailed studies conducted in recent years, a new disease syndrome was identified in 2001. It is known as a IgG4-related disease and its differentiation is based on the analysis of IgG4 levels in the affected tissues. The IgG4-related disease is considered to be a generalized pathological process involving a wide spectrum of various disorders that may affect distant organs. Orbital IgG4-related disease is a recently reported issue that may prove important for the elucidation of the etiology of idiopathic, lymphoplasmacytic or fibrotic disorders of various organs, including the orbits. In this article, we are describing epidemiology and differential diagnostics of IgG4-related orbital disease with particular focus on pseudotumors, MALT lymphomas and lymphocyte/plasma cell infiltrations of the orbit. We are also discussing therapeutic possibilities currently available in the management of the disease. PMID:27116895

  6. [CHARACTERISTICS AND DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSTICS OF SLEEP RELATED PATHOLOGICAL MOVEMENTS. UPDATE 2013].

    PubMed

    Faludi, Béla; Kovács, Norbert; Janszky, József; Komoly, Sámuel

    2015-05-30

    Wide variety of the movements (from the physiologic body position changes to different pathologic events) can be seen during the sleep period. The most important types of these movements are the sleep related events (from the parasomnias to the restless leg related movements), the movement disorders and the epilepsy related events. To differentiate between these events is required special skill, which is based on appropriate characterisation of the events (for example timing, repetition, pattern), the polysomnographic and video-EEG examination and validated questionnaires (FLEP scale). The appropriate differential diagnostics and therapy must be based on the knowledge of the relationship of the sleep architecture and movement events. This review would like to provide guideline for the understanding and recognizing the nature of the sleep related movements. PMID:26182607

  7. RELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS TO FISH ASSEMBLAGES IN THE UPPER FRENCH BROAD RIVER BASIN, NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish assemblages at 16 sites in the upper French Broad River basin, North Carolina were related to environmental variables using detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and linear regression. This study was conducted at the landscape scale because regional variables are controlle...

  8. Variation of b and p values from aftershocks sequences along the Mexican subduction zone and their relation to plate characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila-Barrientos, L.; Zúñiga, F. R.; Rodríguez-Pérez, Q.; Guzmán-Speziale, M.

    2015-11-01

    Aftershock sequences along the Mexican subduction margin (between coordinates 110ºW and 91ºW) were analyzed by means of the p value from the Omori-Utsu relation and the b value from the Gutenberg-Richter relation. We focused on recent medium to large (Mw > 5.6) events considered susceptible of generating aftershock sequences suitable for analysis. The main goal was to try to find a possible correlation between aftershock parameters and plate characteristics, such as displacement rate, age and segmentation. The subduction regime of Mexico is one of the most active regions of the world with a high frequency of occurrence of medium to large events and plate characteristics change along the subduction margin. Previous studies have observed differences in seismic source characteristics at the subduction regime, which may indicate a difference in rheology and possible segmentation. The results of the analysis of the aftershock sequences indicate a slight tendency for p values to decrease from west to east with increasing of plate age although a statistical significance is undermined by the small number of aftershocks in the sequences, a particular feature distinctive of the region as compared to other world subduction regimes. The b values show an opposite, increasing trend towards the east even though the statistical significance is not enough to warrant the validation of such a trend. A linear regression between both parameters provides additional support for the inverse relation. Moreover, we calculated the seismic coupling coefficient, showing a direct relation with the p and b values. While we cannot undoubtedly confirm the hypothesis that aftershock generation depends on certain tectonic characteristics (age, thickness, temperature), our results do not reject it thus encouraging further study into this question.

  9. Methods and apparatus for measurement of a dimensional characteristic and methods of predictive modeling related thereto

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Eric P; Christiansen, Richard L.

    2007-05-29

    A method of optically determining a change in magnitude of at least one dimensional characteristic of a sample in response to a selected chamber environment. A magnitude of at least one dimension of the at least one sample may be optically determined subsequent to altering the at least one environmental condition within the chamber. A maximum change in dimension of the at least one sample may be predicted. A dimensional measurement apparatus for indicating a change in at least one dimension of at least one sample. The dimensional measurement apparatus may include a housing with a chamber configured for accommodating pressure changes and an optical perception device for measuring a dimension of at least one sample disposed in the chamber. Methods of simulating injection of a gas into a subterranean formation, injecting gas into a subterranean formation, and producing methane from a coal bed are also disclosed.

  10. Methods for measurement of a dimensional characteristic and methods of predictive modeling related thereto

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Eric P; Christiansen, Richard L.

    2007-10-23

    A method of optically determining a change in magnitude of at least one dimensional characteristic of a sample in response to a selected chamber environment. A magnitude of at least one dimension of the at least one sample may be optically determined subsequent to altering the at least one environmental condition within the chamber. A maximum change in dimension of the at least one sample may be predicted. A dimensional measurement apparatus for indicating a change in at least one dimension of at least one sample. The dimensional measurement apparatus may include a housing with a chamber configured for accommodating pressure changes and an optical perception device for measuring a dimension of at least one sample disposed in the chamber. Methods of simulating injection of a gas into a subterranean formation, injecting gas into a subterranean formation, and producing methane from a coal bed are also disclosed.

  11. Characteristics of Latrines in Central Tanzania and Their Relation to Fly Catches

    PubMed Central

    Irish, Seth; Aiemjoy, Kristen; Torondel, Belen; Abdelahi, Faraji; Ensink, Jeroen H. J.

    2013-01-01

    The disposal of human excreta in latrines is an important step in reducing the transmission of diarrhoeal diseases. However, in latrines, flies can access the latrine contents and serve as a mechanical transmitter of diarrhoeal pathogens. Furthermore, the latrine contents can be used as a breeding site for flies, which may further contribute to disease transmission. Latrines do not all produce flies, and there are some which produce only a few, while others can produce thousands. In order to understand the role of the latrine in determining this productivity, a pilot study was conducted, in which fifty latrines were observed in and around Ifakara, Tanzania. The characteristics of the latrine superstructure, use of the latrine, and chemical characteristics of pit latrine contents were compared to the numbers of flies collected in an exit trap placed over the drop hole in the latrine. Absence of a roof was found to have a significant positive association (t=3.17, p=0.003) with the total number of flies collected, and temporary superstructures, particularly as opposed to brick superstructures (z=4.26, p<0.001), and increased total solids in pit latrines (z=2.57, p=0.01) were significantly associated with increased numbers of blowflies leaving the latrine. The number of larvae per gram was significantly associated with the village from which samples were taken, with the largest difference between two villages outside Ifakara (z=2.12, p=0.03). The effect of latrine superstructure (roof, walls) on fly production may indicate that improvements in latrine construction could result in decreases in fly populations in areas where they transmit diarrhoeal pathogens. PMID:23874475

  12. Characteristics of genetics-related news content in Black weekly newspapers

    PubMed Central

    Caburnay, Charlene A.; Babb, Patricia; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Roberts, Jessica; Rath, Suchitra

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims/Objectives The media are an important source of health information, especially for those with less access to regular health care. Black news outlets such as Black newspapers are a source of health information for African Americans. This study characterized media coverage of genetics-related information in Black weekly newspapers and general audience newspapers from the same communities. Methods All health stories in a sample of 24 Black weekly newspapers and 12 general audience newspapers from January 2004 to December 2007 were reviewed for genetics-related stories. These stories were further coded for both journalistic and public health variables. Results Of all health-related stories identified, only 2% (n=357) were considered genetics-related. Genetics-related stories in Black newspapers–compared to those in general audience newspapers–were larger, more locally- and racially-relevant, and more likely to contain recommendations or action steps to improve health or reduce disease risks and to mention the importance of knowing one's family history. Stories in general audience newspapers were more likely to discuss causes of disease, mention genetic testing or therapy, and suggest a high/moderate degree of genetic determinism. Conclusions Black newspapers are a viable communication channel to disseminate findings and implications of human genome research to African American audiences. PMID:24080971

  13. Appearance-related cyberbullying: a qualitative investigation of characteristics, content, reasons, and effects.

    PubMed

    Berne, Sofia; Frisén, Ann; Kling, Johanna

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore 15-year-old adolescents' experiences of appearance-related cyberbullying. Twenty-seven adolescents participated in four focus groups. The adolescents in this study perceived that it is common to be targeted in appearance-related cyberbullying, especially for girls, and that appearance-related cyberbullying is considered to be a potent strategy when attempting to hurt girls. Girls often received comments about being fat, while among boys, it was common to receive comments about looking or seeming "gay." According to the adolescents, an important reason for engaging in appearance-related cyberbullying was to attain higher social status in the peer group. The girls and boys reacted differently to appearance-related cyberbullying. Boys tended to act out or take no offence, while girls experienced lower self-esteem and feelings of depression. Findings in this study contribute to research on cyberbullying as well as to research on girls' body esteem development. PMID:25194309

  14. Characteristics of Mother-Child Interactions Related to Adolescents' Positive Values and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a theoretical model that considered accurate perception and acceptance of maternal values in relation to adolescents' positive values and behaviors. One hundred fifty-one mother-adolescent dyads completed measures targeting adolescent and maternal perceptions of prosocial values and adolescent behaviors (M…

  15. LARGE BUILDINGS CHARACTERISTICS AS RELATED TO RADON RESISTANCE: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a literature review to determine to what useful extent buildings have been characterized and a data base developed in relation to radon entry and mitigation. Prior to 1993, most radon research in large buildings was focused on developing diagnostic and...

  16. Lesion Characteristics Related to Treatment Improvement in Object and Action Naming for Patients with Chronic Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, R. Bruce; Raymer, Anastasia; Chang, Yu-Ling; FitzGerald, David B.; Crosson, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between degree of lesion in various locations and improvement during treatment in stroke patients with chronic aphasia. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether the degree of lesion in specific brain regions was related to magnitude of improvement over the course of object and action naming…

  17. The Characteristics of Earth System Thinking of Science Gifted Students in relation to Climate Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Duk Ho; Cho, Kyu Seong; Hong, Deok Pyo; Park, Kyeong Jin

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the perception of earth system thinking of science gifted students in future problem solving (FPS) in relation to climate changes. In order to this study, the research problem associated with climate changes was developed through a literature review. The thirty seven science gifted students participated in lessons. The ideas in problem solving process of science gifted students were analyzed using the semantic network analysis method. The results are as follows. In the problem solving processes, science gifted students are ''changes of the sunlight by water layer'', ''changes of the Earth''s temperature'', ''changes of the air pressure'', '' change of the wind and weather''were represented in order. On other hand, regard to earth system thinking for climate changes, while science gifted students were used sub components related to atmospheres frequently, they were used sub components related to biosphere, geosphere, and hydrosphere a little. But, the analytical results of the structural relationship between the sub components related to earth system, they were recognised that biosphere, geosphere, and hydrosphere used very important in network structures. In conclusion, science gifted students were understood well that components of the earth system are influencing each other. Keywords : Science gifted students, Future problem solving, Climate change, Earth system thinking

  18. Characteristics and Institutional Factors Related to Young Alumni Donors and Non-Donors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDearmon, J. Travis; Shirley, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the results of an institutional survey conducted by the Annual Giving Office at a large public university in the Midwest. Overall, 2,273 young alumni participated in an online survey that assessed personal and institutional factors related to an alumna's willingness to make donations to the university. The results of the study…

  19. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptomatology and Related Behavioural Characteristics in Individuals with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jo; Richards, Caroline; Nelson, Lisa; Oliver, Chris

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the proportion of individuals with Down syndrome (DS: N = 108) who met criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) on the Social Communication Questionnaire and the severity of ASD-related symptomatology in this group. The proportions of individuals with DS meeting the cut-off for ASD and autism in this sample were 19% and 8%,…

  20. Peer-Related Social Interactions of Developmentally Delayed Young Children: Development and Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J.; Weinhouse, Ellen

    1984-01-01

    A short-term longitudinal study of the peer-related social interactions of 111 developmentally delayed toddlers and preschool children was carried out. Results suggested the existence of unusually marked deficits in peer interactions. Possible contributing factors were discussed. (Author/RH)

  1. Suspended Sediment Transport Dynamics and Sediment Yields in Relation to Watershed Characteristics, Upper Green River Basin, Kentucky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otoo, J.; Kentworthy, S.; Florea, L.; May, M.; Meier, Q.; Hollon, C.

    2008-12-01

    Sediment delivery is a major problem in the Green River, Kentucky, home of 71 of the state's 103 known mussel species and 151 fish species. The river also provides water for many of its surrounding counties. This research focuses on how suspended sediment loads, grain size, and the temporal co-variation of flow rate and sediment concentration during runoff events are related to watershed characteristics. The link between sediment load and watershed characteristics can help in the planning and development of effective strategies to minimize sediment load and suspended sediment concentration in the Green River, thereby improving the water quality of the river. The primary research objectives were on suspended sediment loads from two watersheds namely: Pitman Creek and Brush Creek in the Upper Green River Basin. Water quality was monitored using data sondes positioned at selected sites in the two watersheds. Water samples were collected and analyzed for concentrations of suspended sediments. The suspended sediments data was then linked to watershed characteristics to determine what factors affect or influence suspended sediment concentration in the Upper Green River Basin. Thus, the research reveals the relationships between suspended sediment loads, grain size, flow rate and the watershed characteristics of interest. We will present hydrologic monitoring results combined with field investigations which indicate that suspended sediment in the Green River is affected by an discharge, relief, geology, watershed area, landuse, and cover conditions.

  2. Characteristics of stratospheric turbulent layers measured by LITOS and their relation to the Richardson number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haack, A.; Gerding, M.; Lübken, F.-J.

    2014-09-01

    Based on high-resolution turbulence measurements performed with the newly established balloon-borne instrument Leibniz Institute Turbulence Observations in the Stratosphere (LITOS) during the Balloon Experiments for University Students (BEXUS) 6 and BEXUS 8 campaigns from Kiruna, we derived characteristics of stratospheric turbulence layers, like their thickness and distance in between. Typically, the layers are ˜15-130 m thick and have a distance of ˜60-270 m, and their number increases with altitude. Due to the very high measurement resolution of LITOS in the range of millimeters, we obtain energy dissipation rate profiles with unprecedented precision. Within the turbulent layers we get a mean dissipation rate of 3.4×10-2W/kg (BEXUS 6) and 1.1 × 10-2 W/kg (BEXUS 8) corresponding to a heating rate of 1 to ˜3 K/d. The profiles show an increase of the energy dissipation with altitude. Comparisons with the Richardson number Ri preclude a clear correlation between the occurrence of turbulence and Ri<1/4. Despite the expected occurrence of turbulence at Ri<1/4, we also observed turbulent layers where Ri was >1/4 and far beyond, independent of the scale over which Ri has been determined.

  3. Investigation of some characteristics of polyhydroxy milkweed triglycerides and their acylated derivatives in relation to lubricity.

    PubMed

    Harry-O'kuru, Rogers E; Biresaw, Girma; Cermak, Steven C; Gordon, Sherald H; Vermillion, Karl

    2011-05-11

    Most industrial lubricants are derived from nonrenewable petroleum-based sources. As useful as these lubricants are, their unintended consequences are the pollution of the Earth's environment as a result of the slow degradation of the spent materials. Native seed oils, on the other hand, are renewable and are also biodegradable in the environment, but these oils often suffer a drawback in having lower thermal stability and a shorter shelf life because of the intrinsic -C═C- unsaturation in their structures. This drawback can be overcome, yet the inherent biodegradative property retained, by appropriate derivatization of the oil. Pursuant to this, this study investigated derivatized polyhydroxy milkweed oil to assess its suitability as lubricant. The milkweed plant is a member of the Asclepiadaceae, a family with many genera including the common milkweeds, Asclepias syriaca L., Asclepias speciosa L., Asclepias tuberosa L., etc. The seeds of these species contain mainly C-18 triglycerides that are highly unsaturated, 92%. The olefinic character of this oil has been chemically modified by generating polyhydroxy triglycerides (HMWO) that show high viscosity and excellent moisturizing characteristics. In this work, HMWO have been chemically modified by esterifying their hydroxyl groups with acyl groups of various chain lengths (C2-C5). The results of investigation into the effect of the acyl derivatives' chemical structure on kinematic and dynamic viscosity, oxidation stability, cold-flow (pour point, cloud point) properties, coefficient of friction, wear, and elastohydrodynamic film thickness are discussed. PMID:21428293

  4. Parasite infection rates of impala (Aepyceros melampus) in fenced game reserves in relation to reserve characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ezenwa, V.O.

    2004-01-01

    Under certain conditions reserves can pose a threat to wildlife conservation by increasing the transmission of parasites and pathogens. In this study, I investigated associations between reserve characteristics including area, density and species richness and parasite infection rates in impala (Aepyceros melampus). Using coprological methods to measure gastrointestinal parasitism rates of impala inhabiting five fully or partially fenced game reserves in central Kenya, I found that bovid species richness was correlated with parasite taxa richness across reserves, and that prevalence rates of multi-host strongyle nematodes were higher in reserves with more species. In addition, reserve size was also implicated as a potential predictor of infection risk. Overall, these results suggest that wildlife inhabiting highly diverse and small reserves may suffer from higher than normal rates of infection. Given the potential debilitating effects increases in parasitism can have on wildlife, these results underscore the importance of considering parasite transmission dynamics in the management of small, fenced protected areas. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Electron-phonon interactions in silicon: Mean free paths, related distributions and transport characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkerman, Avraham; Murat, Michael

    2015-05-01

    The mean free path (MFP) for electron-phonon interactions in pure silicon is an important characteristic needed both for low energy electron transport calculations using Boltzmann transport equation, and for Monte Carlo simulations. Full band calculations present a basic (though complicated) approach to the solution of the problem. Simpler approaches based on analytical presentation of the scattering rates have also been used; however they are valid for a restricted range of electron energies, below 2 eV. In this paper we introduce a hybrid method that utilizes the density of energy states calculated from the full band calculations for electron energies larger than 2 eV, allowing to extend the analytical approach for energies up to 5 eV, where the impact ionization becomes the dominant mechanism of electron interactions within bulk silicon. The resulting MFPs as function of electron energy and lattice temperature, together with the integral probability distribution for given energy losses by phonon emission (or energy gain by absorption of phonons) form the database for Monte Carlo calculations. Using this method, we calculate the electron diffusivity and mobility as function of the electron and lattice temperatures. These parameters are important for solution of the two temperature model, used for calculations of the track structure created by swift ions and nanosecond laser beams.

  6. [Sexual abuse of children and adolescents: characteristics of sexual victimization in family relations].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Márcia Aparecida; Ferriani, Maria das Graças Carvalho; Reis, Jair Naves dos

    2004-01-01

    This study analyzes the characteristics of sexual abuse committed within the family against age groups classified according to the Brazilian Statute for Children and Adolescents (the prevailing legislation on matters pertaining to minors) and treated at the Reference Center for Children and Adolescents and the Guardianship Councils in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil, from 1995 to 2000. Some 234 abuses were identified, committed by 217 aggressors, against 210 families and a total of 226 victims. A total of 131 children (48.7%) and 95 adolescents (41.2%), predominantly females, were victimized. Children ranging from 10 to 12 years were the most frequently abused (19.5%), as well as adolescents from 12 to 14 years old (17.3%). The majority of the victims live in families with 3 (19.9%) or 4 children (177%), and the firstborn are the most frequently abused (33.6%). The majority of aggressors who acted alone victimized only one individual (86.7%). Fathers (34.2%) and stepfathers (30.3%) were the most frequent aggressors, with the former victimizing more children (19.7%) and the latter adolescents (17.1%). PMID:15073625

  7. [Community structure characteristics of phytoplankton and related affecting factors in Hengshan Reservoir, Zhejiang, China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Liang-Jie; Yu, Peng-Fei; Zhu, Jun-Quan; Xu, Zhen; Lü, Guang-Han; Jin, Chun-Hua

    2014-02-01

    In order to reveal the community structure characteristics of phytoplankton and the relationships with environmental factors in Hengshan Reservoir, the phytoplankton species composition, abundance, biomass and 12 environmental factors at 4 sampling sites were analyzed from March 2011 to February 2012. A total of 246 phytoplankton species were identified, which belong to 78 genera and 7 phyla. The dominant species were Melosira varians, M. granulate, Cyclotella meneghiniana, Asterianella formosa, Synedra acus, Achnanthes exigua, Ankistrodesmus falcatus, Oscillatoria lacustris, Cryptomonas erosa, Chroomonas acuta, Phormidium tenue and Microcystis aeruginosa, etc. Seasonal variations of species were obvious. The annual abundance and biomass of the phytoplankton were 0.51 x 10(5)-14.22 x 10(5) ind x L(-1) and 0.07-1.27 mg x L(-1), respectively. The values of the Margelef index, Pielou index and Shannon index of the phytoplankton community were 1.10-3.33, 0.26-0.81 and 0.51-2.38, respectively. The phytoplankton community structure was of Bacillariophyta-Cryptophyta type in spring and winter, of Chlorophyta-Cyanophyta type in summer, and of Bacillariophyta type in autumn. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) showed that temperature, transparency, chemical oxygen demand and pH had the closest relationships with the phytoplankton community structure in the reservoir. Water quality evaluation showed that Hengshan Reservoir was in a secondary pollution with a meso-trophic level. PMID:24830259

  8. Age-related changes in semen quality characteristics and expectations of reproductive longevity in Duroc boars.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu Hung; Lo, Ling Ling; Liu, Shyh Hwa; Yang, Tien Shuh

    2010-08-01

    Quadratic fitting was used to regress semen characteristics of 1441 samples consisting of 12-month collection from 58 Duroc boars against animal age varied from 10 to 80 months. Data was divided into two groups of cool (14.0-22.7 degrees C, RH 81.5%) and hot season (22.9-29.9 degrees C, RH 86.6%), to test effects of age, season and their interactions. Results revealed that young boars of around 1 year old could endure the hot season. The endurance gradually diminished as animals grew. In the hot season animals exhibited peak performance at age around 33 month and it remained for 1 month, while cool-season kept boars could last for 48 months from 16 months old onward. The reproductive longevity should be 51 month in a subtropical environment and it may extend to 70 month if heat stress can be avoided. The estimated total sperm contribution of a Duroc boar would be 1.8 times more when kept below 22 degrees C than in a natural subtropical environment. It is concluded that to maintain Duroc boars as semen donor to at least 4 years of age is feasible in a subtropical environment and boar longevity could reach 6 years old if well kept in a temperate region. PMID:20662811

  9. Motorcycle Related Injuries among Rural Dwellers in Irrua, Nigeria: Characteristics and Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Dongo, A. E.; Kesieme, E. B.; Eighemherio, A.; Nwokike, O.; Esezobor, E.; Alufohai, E.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The escalating use of motorcycle for commercial transportation of commuters and goods has resulted in an increase in morbidity and mortality from road traffic injuries. Objectives. To study the characteristics of motorcycle injuries seen in Irrua, Nigeria. Materials and Methods. This is a one-year prospective study of all patients seen from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2009. A structured proforma was filled for all consecutive crash victims involving a motorcycle. Results. Motorcycle injuries accounted for 11.6% of attendance in surgical emergency room (142 out of 1,214); 76.8% were males. Amongst victims 47.1% were riders, 42.9%, passengers, and 7.8% pedestrians. Extremity injury accounted for 42.2% while head injury occurred in 21.8%. There were 9 deaths (6.3%). In this study no victim used crash helmet. Conclusion. Banning of motorcycle for commercial use and the introduction of tricycles into rural/suburban comminutes may be an important preventive strategy. PMID:24228178

  10. p53 status of head and neck cancer: relation to biological characteristics and outcome of radiotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, G. D.; Richman, P. I.; Dische, S.; Saunders, M. I.; Robinson, B.; Daley, F. M.; Ross, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    p53 status was investigated in 99 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck region uniformly treated with accelerated radiotherapy and in whom tumour cell proliferation and DNA aneuploidy were assessed using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) incorporation and flow cytometry (FCM). Seventy-six percent of tumours were immunohistochemically positive for p53 protein, but heterogeneity was noticed both in the percentage of cells positive for p53 and in their level of expression. However, tumours which were either essentially all positive or all negative or showed sporadic positivity for p53 protein showed no differences in their level of aneuploidy, proliferation rate, tissue organisation or outcome with radiotherapy. There was a trend for those p53-positive tumours with the strongest expression to have more DNA aneuploidy and deregulation of proliferation organisation than weaker expressors; but there were no differences in proliferation rate or outcome of radiotherapy. These studies suggest that p53 protein stabilisation as assessed by immunohistochemistry does not have any major relationship with the biological characteristics and outcome of squamous cell cancer treated by accelerated radiotherapy. Images Figure 1 PMID:7779719