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Sample records for granulometric characteristics relative

  1. The carbohydrates in relation to mineralogic and granulometric composition of surface sediments in the karst estuary (River Krka estuary, Yugoslavia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadz̆ija, Olga; Jurac̆ić, Mladen; Luić, Marija; Tonković, Maja; Jeric̆ević, Biserka

    1985-11-01

    The investigation of mineral, granulometric and chemical composition of sediments of the River Krka estuary (Yugoslavia) were performed in order to elucidate the origin of the sediments and the pattern of sedimentation. Estuarine surface sediments were found to be fine-grained with a bimodal distribution. Environmental conditions in estuarine sediments favour conservation of the organic matter (anoxic conditions). The carbohydrates in the sediments were investigated to determine whether they are of terrigenous or authigenous origin. Glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, rhamnose, glucosamine and glucuronic acid were detected in the sediments. Their mutual relationship indicates a preferentially terrigenous source of sedimented organic material in estuarine sediments.

  2. Levels and distribution patterns of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in surface sediments from Galicia coast (Northwestern, Spain) according to granulometric characteristics.

    PubMed

    Carro, N; García, I; Ignacio, M; Moureira, A

    2002-08-01

    In order to know distribution patterns of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in the marine environment from Galida, PCBs n degrees 31, 28, 52, 101, 118, 153, 105, 138, 156 and 180 were isolated by Soxhlet extraction from three fractions of different particle size (<0.063 mm, 0.063-0.2 mm and >0.2 mm) in surface marine sediments; the quantification was performed using GC-MS and GC-ECD. Distribution of PCB congeners was shifted in favour of higher chlorinated compounds (CBs 138,153 and 180) and highly correlated to TOC content. In general, the finest fractions (<0.063 mm) of sediment presented the highest loadings of PCBs, only the sediment from As Pías zone exhibited the highest concentration of chlorinated congeners in the coarsest fraction. CB 52 concentration, slightly volatile compound, was related to water temperature. By means of multivariate techniques of data exploration as hierarchical duster analysis and principal components analysis, sediment samples from un-contaminated and slightly contaminated areas were clearly separated; groupings between samples from nearby zones appeared. PMID:12211452

  3. Quaternary alluvial deposits of Wadi Gaza in the middle of the Gaza Strip (Palestine): Facies, granulometric characteristics, and their paleoflow direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubeid, Khalid Fathi

    2016-06-01

    The Quaternary rocks of the Gaza Strip mainly consist of clastic sedimentary rocks. In Wadi Gaza, the outcropping rocks consist of brownish fine-grained deposits, sandstones, and conglomerates. The deposits have been studied from a genetic point of view, and six facies have been described: (i) graded clast-supported conglomerates, (ii) cross-bedded clast-supported conglomerates, (iii) sandy matrix conglomerates, (iv) cross-laminated medium-grained sandstones, (v) graded coarse-grained sandstones, and (vi) massive sandstones. The field work observations and granulometric analysis show that the sphericity of the grains increase toward the west, where its value ranges from ∼0.64 in the east to ∼0.70 in the west. In addition, the grain forms tend to be disc shape in the east, whereas they tend to be disc-to spheroid shape in the west, and they become well rounded to well sorted toward the west. Moreover, the features, geometry, and spatial relationship among these facies suggest that the Wadi Gaza was meandering wadi fed from Beir Sheva and the Northern Negev in the southeast of Gaza Strip through Wadi Al Shallala and Wadi Sheneq and from Hebron mountains in the West Bank at the east through Wadi Al Shari'a alluvials. Within the Gaza Strip, paleocurrent data ranges from 210° to 310°, indicating a mean a paleoflow direction to the W (276°) and a median value about 275°. The sedimentary rocks in the Wadi Gaza are considered to be deposited in two periods of climate conditions: the coarse-grained rocks were deposited during the period of wet condition before 12.4 ka age, whereas the eolinite fine-grained rocks were deposited during semiarid climate conditions which are younger in age than 12.4 ka.

  4. Principal components granulometric analysis of tidally dominated depositional environments

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, S.W. ); Long, W.T. ); Friedrich, N.E. )

    1991-02-01

    Sediments often are investigated by using mechanical sieve analysis (at 1/4 or 1/2{phi} intervals) to identify differences in weight-percent distributions between related samples, and thereby, to deduce variations in sediment sources and depositional processes. Similar granulometric data from groups of surface samples from two siliciclastic estuaries and one carbonate tidal creek have been clustered using principal components analysis. Subtle geographic trends in tidally dominated depositional processes and in sediment sources can be inferred from the clusters. In Barnstable Harbor, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, the estuary can be subdivided into five major subenvironments, with tidal current intensities/directions and sediment sources (longshore transport or sediments weathering from the Sandwich Moraine) as controls. In Morro Bay, San Luis Obispo county, California, all major environments (beach, dune, bay, delta, and fluvial) can be easily distinguished; a wide variety of subenvironments can be recognized. On Pigeon Creek, San Salvador Island, Bahamas, twelve subenvironments can be recognized. Biogenic (Halimeda, Peneroplios, mixed skeletal), chemogenic (pelopids, aggregates), and detrital (lithoclastis skeletal), chemogenic (pelopids, aggregates), and detrital (lithoclastis of eroding Pleistocene limestone) are grain types which dominate. When combined with tidal current intensities/directions, grain sources produce subenvironments distributed parallel to tidal channels. The investigation of the three modern environments indicates that principal components granulometric analysis is potentially a useful tool in recognizing subtle changes in transport processes and sediment sources preserved in ancient depositional sequences.

  5. Granulometric profiling of aeolian dust deposits by automated image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, György; Újvári, Gábor; Kovács, János; Jakab, Gergely; Kiss, Klaudia; Szalai, Zoltán

    2016-04-01

    Determination of granulometric parameters is of growing interest in the Earth sciences. Particle size data of sedimentary deposits provide insights into the physicochemical environment of transport, accumulation and post-depositional alterations of sedimentary particles, and are important proxies applied in paleoclimatic reconstructions. It is especially true for aeolian dust deposits with a fairly narrow grain size range as a consequence of the extremely selective nature of wind sediment transport. Therefore, various aspects of aeolian sedimentation (wind strength, distance to source(s), possible secondary source regions and modes of sedimentation and transport) can be reconstructed only from precise grain size data. As terrestrial wind-blown deposits are among the most important archives of past environmental changes, proper explanation of the proxy data is a mandatory issue. Automated imaging provides a unique technique to gather direct information on granulometric characteristics of sedimentary particles. Granulometric data obtained from automatic image analysis of Malvern Morphologi G3-ID is a rarely applied new technique for particle size and shape analyses in sedimentary geology. Size and shape data of several hundred thousand (or even million) individual particles were automatically recorded in this study from 15 loess and paleosoil samples from the captured high-resolution images. Several size (e.g. circle-equivalent diameter, major axis, length, width, area) and shape parameters (e.g. elongation, circularity, convexity) were calculated by the instrument software. At the same time, the mean light intensity after transmission through each particle is automatically collected by the system as a proxy of optical properties of the material. Intensity values are dependent on chemical composition and/or thickness of the particles. The results of the automated imaging were compared to particle size data determined by three different laser diffraction instruments

  6. Microplastics elutriation from sandy sediments: A granulometric approach.

    PubMed

    Kedzierski, Mikaël; Le Tilly, Véronique; Bourseau, Patrick; Bellegou, Hervé; César, Guy; Sire, Olivier; Bruzaud, Stéphane

    2016-06-15

    Although relatively easy to extract in the marine environment, microplastics are very difficult to recover when they are trapped in sediments. The elutriation column is one of the best tools currently available for extracting plastics from sediment, but with a high sand recovery yield. This study aims to address the following questions: (i) is it possible to use a sedimentological approach to limit the sand recovery? (ii) does the extraction velocity of the sand and plastic particles vary according to density and granulometry? (iii) what is the relative recovery efficiency obtained for dense polymer particles mixed with marine sand? Based on a new granulometric classification, different plastic particle-size fractions are defined. Their extraction velocities are experimentally determined on particles of sediment and different plastics (PA, PVC). The particle recovery experiments indicate that it is possible to extract >90% of dense plastic particles in cases of negligible sand recovery. PMID:27053014

  7. Accurate determination of characteristic relative permeability curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Michael H.; Benson, Sally M.

    2015-09-01

    A recently developed technique to accurately characterize sub-core scale heterogeneity is applied to investigate the factors responsible for flowrate-dependent effective relative permeability curves measured on core samples in the laboratory. The dependency of laboratory measured relative permeability on flowrate has long been both supported and challenged by a number of investigators. Studies have shown that this apparent flowrate dependency is a result of both sub-core scale heterogeneity and outlet boundary effects. However this has only been demonstrated numerically for highly simplified models of porous media. In this paper, flowrate dependency of effective relative permeability is demonstrated using two rock cores, a Berea Sandstone and a heterogeneous sandstone from the Otway Basin Pilot Project in Australia. Numerical simulations of steady-state coreflooding experiments are conducted at a number of injection rates using a single set of input characteristic relative permeability curves. Effective relative permeability is then calculated from the simulation data using standard interpretation methods for calculating relative permeability from steady-state tests. Results show that simplified approaches may be used to determine flowrate-independent characteristic relative permeability provided flow rate is sufficiently high, and the core heterogeneity is relatively low. It is also shown that characteristic relative permeability can be determined at any typical flowrate, and even for geologically complex models, when using accurate three-dimensional models.

  8. USB flow characteristics related to noise generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. H.; Reddy, N. N.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of nozzle and flap geometry on upper surface blown flow field characteristics related to noise generation were examined experimentally using static models. Flow attachment and spreading characteristics were observed using flow visualization techniques. Velocity and turbulence profiles in the trailing edge wake were measured using hot-wire anemometry, and the effects of the geometric variables on peak velocity and turbulence intensity were determined. It is shown that peak trailing edge velocity is a function of the ratio of flow length to modified hydraulic diameter.

  9. Granulometric selectivity in Liza ramado and potential contamination resulting from heavy metal load in feeding areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedro, Sílvia; Canastreiro, Vera; Caçador, Isabel; Pereira, Eduarda; Duarte, Armando C.; Raposo de Almeida, Pedro

    2008-11-01

    The stomach contents of thin-lipped grey mullets Liza ramado were analysed in terms of granulometric composition and compared to the sediment of potential feeding areas in the Tagus estuary. Total organic matter (TOM) content and heavy metal content were determined in the surface sediment of three areas and eight trace elements were quantified: Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn. The three sampled areas did not differ in TOM; and the heavy metal content was below Effects Range-Low level for most elements. The mean observed concentrations were present in the following sequence: Zn > Pb > Cr > Cu ≈ Ni > Co > Cd > Hg. Stomach contents granulometric composition provided information about the feeding selectivity of the mullets. Sediment fractions with particle size between 20 and 50 μm are preferred, independently of the fishes' length. Smaller standard length (SL) fishes have a higher positive selection of fine grained sediments than those with a larger SL. Finer fractions usually have higher concentration of heavy metals, which makes younger specimens of the thin-lipped grey mullet potentially more exposed to heavy metal load in the estuary. Metal concentration was not independent from the sampling point, presenting higher values near the margins and the estuary tidal drainage system. This means that during the first period of each tidal cycle, the mullets will feed first on the most contaminated areas, as a consequence of their movement following the rising tide to feed on previously exposed areas.

  10. Characteristics of Astronomy-Related Organizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, A.

    1999-05-01

    Several characteristics of contemporaneous astronomy-related organizations have been investigated from an exhaustive up-to-date world-wide sample (the master files for the directory StarGuides and the database StarWorlds): geographical distributions of organizations and of observing facilities, as well as ages and sizes of currently active organizations. Interesting comments are drawn from each of these studies and from their inter-comparison. Geographical distributions are also compared with a survey of observing facilities carried out around 1900 by Stroobant et al.: the overall aspect did not change over the past century -- another example of the well-known self-reinforcement effect. This however could be interpreted as an alarming factor. Apart from strong densities in Europe and North America, the most striking feature is the desperate emptiness of most of the African continent and of so-called third-world countries. Those investigations show also that numerous astronomy-related organizations are not involved in direct observing. Cultural components and deliberate policies in some countries are also clearly visible, especially at the level of associations, planetariums and public observatories. The astronomy-related publishers and software producers are interestingly concentrated in only a few places. Some events had a clear impact on the rate of foundation of astronomy-related organizations, such as World Wars I and II, the beginning of space exploration and the landing of man on the Moon, but not all of them affected in the same way Western Europe and North America. It is still too early to assess the real impact of the end of the Cold War. Also if the rate of creation of astronomy-related organizations since the end of the fifties is really impressive, there is no indication that this should still go on that way half a century later, especially at a time the society at large has obviously moved to other priorities than space investigations and cosmological

  11. Alienation, dogmatism, and related personality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sexton, M E

    1983-01-01

    Examined the relationship between alienation and dogmatism, as measured by shared personality characteristics. Scores from the Rokeach Dogmatism Scale, the Keniston Alienation Scale, the California Test of Personality, and the Omnibus Personality Inventory were obtained for a sample of 92 college freshmen. Alienation and dogmatism were found to be positively related concepts. The factors that best predicted alienation from dogmatic responses were intolerance expressed for opposing beliefs and compulsivity in the belief system. Alienation and dogmatism also were found to be associated with several commonly held personality traits, which center around anxiety, low self-esteem, and social estrangement manifested in feelings of hostility, aggression, loneliness, rejection, and isolation. These results were discussed and compared to previous research that explored the two concepts separately. PMID:6826758

  12. Granulometric and magnetic properties of deposited particles in the Beijing subway and the implications for air quality management.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guipeng; Zhou, Liping; Dearing, John

    2016-10-15

    The subway system is an important traffic facility in Beijing and its internal air quality is an environmental issue that could potentially affect millions of people every day. Due to the intrinsic nature of rail abrasion in subway tunnels, iron-containing particles can be generated and become suspended in the subway environment. While some studies (e.g. Li et al., 2006) have monitored the in-train levels of PM2.5 (particles<2.5μm), there is a lack of systematic assessment of the concentration and characteristics of iron-containing particles in the Beijing subway system. Here we report results of a study on the granulometric and magnetic properties of deposited particle samples collected at different localities of the Beijing subway system. Our results show that the subway samples are characterized by the presence of fine particles. Volume proportions of 6.1±1.3% for particles<2.5μm and 27.5±6.1% for particles<10μm are found in the bulk subway samples. These samples exhibit a strong magnetic signal, which is approximately two orders of magnitude higher than that in naturally deposited particles collected in Beijing. Fine grained ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic minerals (e.g. iron and magnetite, respectively) are identified from mineral magnetic measurements and scanning electric microscopy. The samples collected from the Beijing stations with platform screen doors are found to be magnetically stronger and finer than those without them, suggesting that platform screen doors have failed to block the fine iron-containing particles released from the rail tunnel. Given the potential health consequences of fine suspended iron-containing particles, our results have important implications for air quality management in the Beijing subway system. PMID:27372891

  13. Physical characteristics related to bra fit.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Man; LaBat, Karen; Bye, Elizabeth

    2010-04-01

    Producing well-fitting garments has been a challenge for retailers and manufacturers since mass production began. Poorly fitted bras can cause discomfort or pain and result in lost sales for retailers. Because body contours are important factors affecting bra fit, this study analyses the relationship of physical characteristics to bra-fit problems. This study has used 3-D body-scanning technology to extract upper body angles from a sample of 103 college women; these data were used to categorise physical characteristics into shoulder slope, bust prominence, back curvature and acromion placement. Relationships between these physical categories and bra-fit problems were then analysed. Results show that significant main effects and two-way interactions of the physical categories exist in the fit problems of poor bra support and bra-motion restriction. The findings are valuable in helping the apparel industry create better-fitting bras. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Poorly fitted bras can cause discomfort or pain and result in lost sales for retailers. The findings regarding body-shape classification provide researchers with a statistics method to quantify physical characteristics and the findings regarding the relationship analysis between physical characteristics and bra fit offer bra companies valuable information about bra-fit perceptions attributable to women with figure variations. PMID:20309747

  14. Alienation, Dogmatism, and Related Personality Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexton, Miriam E.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the relationship between alienation and dogmatism, as measured by shared personality characteristics. Scores from the Rokeach Dogmatism Scale, the Keniston Alienation Scale, the California Test of Personality, and the Omnibus Personality Inventory were obtained for 92 college freshmen. Alienation and dogmatism were positively related…

  15. Characteristics Related to Female & Male Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Agnes M.

    2004-01-01

    The following research investigated gender and the leadership role and determined if there are differences in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and characteristics between female leaders and male leaders. Literature suggests there are specific gender leadership differences between males and females in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and…

  16. Individual personality characteristics related to suggestibility.

    PubMed

    Van Hook, Cheryl W; Steele, Connie

    2002-12-01

    The current study investigated the relationship between suggestibility of memory, personality characteristics identified by the Millon Index of Personality Traits, and tolerance for ambiguity measured by MacDonald's Ambiguity Tolerance-20. 85 female and 16 male college students were assigned to either an experimental group receiving the suggestive information or a control group. Suggestibility was assessed using Lindberg's suggestibility measure consisting of a short video, followed by a questionnaire used to assess memory, and a second administration one week later. Logistical regression analyses were used to construct a model of the personality characteristics predictive of suggestibility and indicated that susceptibility to suggestive information may differ across personalities for variables such as sensing, innovating, agreeing, and low tolerance of ambiguity. PMID:12530759

  17. Stroke-related sarcopenia: specific characteristics.

    PubMed

    Scherbakov, Nadja; Sandek, Anja; Doehner, Wolfram

    2015-04-01

    Sarcopenia is characterized by muscle wasting and is primarily a disease of the elderly. A stroke-specific sarcopenia has been described recently. Stroke-related sarcopenia has a number of features that distinguish it from the age-related sarcopenia. The disability from stroke depends on the brain lesion leading to impairment of the efferent neuronal pathways. However, the alterations of structural and functional muscle capacity are secondary and depend rather on complex pathophysiological reactions including imbalanced efferent neurovegetative control, systemic and local metabolic imbalance, feeding difficulties, and inflammation. Muscle structural changes start to develop within hours after stroke, followed by rapid reduction of muscle mass. The pathophysiological mechanisms leading to the muscle mass decline are still not understood in details. This review provides insights into the specific features of the stroke-related sarcopenia. Recent research achievements in this area and clinical implications will be discussed. PMID:25676847

  18. Pyrogenic carbon characteristics relate to wildfire behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerr, Stefan; Santin, Cristina; Preston, Caroline; Bryant, Rob; Merino, Augustin

    2014-05-01

    Pyrogenic carbon (PyC) comprises the whole range of organic compounds produced both naturally during wildfires (by charring or incomplete combustion) and anthropogenically by pyrolysis processes (heating in absence of oxygen). Relationships between pyrolysis conditions and biochar properties (i.e. 'antropogenic PyC') are well established, but limitations affecting wildfire research make these relationships more difficult to be investigated for wildfire PyC. Here, we study relationships between wildfire behaviour and characteristics of PyC by taking advantage of the experimental FireSmart boreal forest fire (June 2012, NWT- Canada), which reproduced wildfire conditions, and, at the same time, allowed fire behaviour monitoring and immediate post-fire sampling. Before the fire, three parallel transects of 18-m length were established in the direction of the prevailing wind in the central area of the burnt plot. These were instrumented at a spacing of 2 m with thermocouples connected to data loggers (Lascar, Easylog) to continuously (every second) record temperatures at the forest floor surface. Immediately after fire, samples of the PyC produced in the forest floor where collected adjacent to each thermocouple. PyC samples were characterized by elemental analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Our results show that transformation of the forest floor material by fire into PyC led to an enrichment of the carbon content, a higher carbon/nitrogen ratio and an increase of the thermal recalcitrance. Statistically significant relationships between some PyC characteristics and wildfire conditions were found such as an increase of carbon content of PyC with maximum temperature recorded during fire and an increase of thermal stability of PyC with fire duration. Considering that in boreal forests the fuel component most affected by fire is the forest floor and that the enhanced recalcitrance of PyC is likely to increase its resistance to biological degradation compared

  19. Psychosocial and Health-Related Characteristics of Adolescent Television Viewers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined relationship between television viewing frequency and adolescents' health-related and psychosocial characteristics. Found that shyness and exercise frequency predicted television viewing frequency. Among females, exercise frequency, shyness, loneliness, and perceived attractiveness predicted viewing frequency. Light viewers exercised more…

  20. The effect of the granulometric composition of a hydroxyapatite powder on the structure and phase composition of coatings deposited by the detonation gas spraying technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, A. A.; Yakovlev, V. I.; Legostaeva, E. V.; Sitnikov, A. A.; Sharkeev, Yu. P.

    2013-04-01

    The granulometric composition of a hydroxyapatite powder has been investigated. The initial powder has been classified into particle size ranges (0.1-10, 10-20, 20-30, and 50-300 μm). Coatings prepared from a hydroxyapatite powder of different size have been deposited by the detonation gas spraying technique. The structure and phase composition of the coatings have been studied. Changing the initial granulometric composition of the powder mixture is shown to provide control over the sprayed surface roughness.

  1. Home Visiting Processes: Relations with Family Characteristics and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Carla A.; Roggman, Lori A.; Green, Beth; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel; Korfmacher, Jon; McKelvey, Lorraine; Zhang, Dong; Atwater, Jane B.

    2013-01-01

    Variations in dosage, content, and family engagement with Early Head Start (EHS) home visiting services were examined for families participating in the EHS Research and Evaluation Project. Families were grouped by characteristics of maternal age, maternal ethnicity, and level of family risk. All home visiting variables were related differentially…

  2. The Relation of Selected Student Characteristics to Understanding of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boes, Robert Joseph

    Some of the purposes of this study were: (1) to determine whether the "Meaning of Science" course can make a significant contribution to college students' understanding of science, (2) to determine whether the course can promote a positive change in attitude toward science, and (3) to identify academic and non-academic characteristics related to…

  3. Relations between structural and dynamic thermal characteristics of building walls

    SciTech Connect

    Kossecka, E.; Kosny, J.

    1996-10-01

    The effect of internal thermal structure on dynamic characteristics of walls is analyzed. The concept of structure factors is introduced and the conditions they impose on response factors are given. Simple examples of multilayer walls, representing different types of thermal resistance and capacity distribution, are analyzed to illustrate general relations between structure factors and response factors. The idea of the ``thermally equivalent wall``, a plane multilayer structure, with dynamic characteristics similar to those of a complex structure, in which three-dimensional heat flow occurs, is presented.

  4. Relating Spatial Patterns in Image Data to Scene Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahler, A. H.; Woodcock, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    In remote sensing, the primary goal is accurate scene inference, in which characteristics of the scene are inferred from the image data. More effective inference of scene characteristics can be accomplished through the use of techniques that use explicit models of spatial pattern. Spatial patterns in image data are functionally related to the size and spacing of elements in the scene and to the spatial resolution of the image data. At resolutions where variance is high, scene inference techniques should rely heavily on data from the spatial domain. As variance decreases, effective scene inference will increasingly rely on spectral data.

  5. Mediterranean depression characteristics related to precipitation occurrence in Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iordanidou, V.; Koutroulis, A. G.; Tsanis, I. K.

    2014-09-01

    The characteristics of the cyclone tracks and circulation patterns that caused precipitation events of variable intensity for the period 1979-2011 over the island of Crete are presented. The dataset usedfor cyclone identification, is the 0.5 x 0.5, 30 years European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA-Interim mean sea-level pressure. Their characteristics are extracted with the aid of Melbourne University algorithm (MS scheme). Daily precipitation data from a dense gauging network over the island of Crete is also used for the classification of the precipitation events in terms of intensity. Daily precipitation intensity is classified in three severity categories, and the associated cyclones are filtered according to their distance from Crete Island. The atmospheric systems are further investigated both seasonally and annually for their position relative to Crete and morphological characteristics such as intensity and radius. Generally, it was found that cyclones affecting Crete most frequently approach from northwest and southwest directions and the actual cyclone centers associated with precipitation events are usually located in northwest and southeast positions relative to Crete domain. Precipitation increase is observed in parallel with cyclone pressure decrease as well as cyclone intensity, depth, radius and propagation velocity increase. Specific seasonal characteristics such as lower pressures and cyclone radius can be detected in spring in contrast to winter and autumn precipitation events. The examination of the relation between cyclone characteristics and precipitation occurrence provides improved understanding of the complex hydro-meteorological conditions and therefore valuable hydrologic information related to forecasting potential and management of the resources and the extremes.

  6. Characteristic Numerical Relativity Applied to Hydrodynamic Studies of Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebel, F.; Font, J. A.; Müller, E.; Papadopoulos, P.

    2002-12-01

    We present tests and results of a new axisymmetric, fully general relativistic code with a perfect fluid matter field. Our implementation is based on the null cone formalism of Bondi [2] and Tamburino-Winicour [14,15]. 3D characteristic numerical relativity has been proven to be very stable and accurate for evolutions of black hole spacetimes [7]. Following previous work [8,1] we solve the Einstein equation for a stress-energy tensor of a perfect fluid in characteristic coordinates. The evolution of the matter fields is performed using relativistic high-resolution shock-capturing schemes [4,11,13] based upon Riemann solvers. The implementation of such schemes in a 3D characteristic code is the current subject of a collaboration (GRACE). In this work we restrict ourselves to axisymmetric spacetimes, building on the vacuum code of Gómez, Papadopoulos and Winicour [6]. Applications in spherical symmetry have been presented in [11,12,9]...

  7. A Stratigraphic, Granulometric, and Textural Comparison of recent pyroclastic density current deposits exposed at West Island and Burr Point, Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, C. A.; Browne, B. L.

    2011-12-01

    Augustine Volcano (Alaska) is the most active volcano in the eastern Aleutian Islands, with 6 violent eruptions over the past 200 years and at least 12 catastrophic debris-avalanche deposits over the past ~2,000 years. The frequency and destructive nature of these eruptions combined with the proximity of Augustine Volcano to commercial ports and populated areas represents a significant hazard to the Cook Inlet region of Alaska. The focus of this study examines the relationship between debris-avalanche events and the subsequent emplacement of pyroclastic density currents by comparing the stratigraphic, granulometric, and petrographic characteristics of pyroclastic deposits emplaced following the 1883 A.D. Burr Point debris-avalanche and those emplaced following the ~370 14C yr B.P. West Island debris-avalanche. Data from this study combines grain size and componentry analysis of pyroclastic deposits with density, textural, and compositional analysis of juvenile clasts contained in the pyroclastic deposits. The 1883 A.D. Burr Point pyroclastic unit immediately overlies the 1883 debris avalanche deposit and underlies the 1912 Katmai ash. It ranges in thickness from 4 to 48 cm and consists of fine to medium sand-sized particles and coarser fragments of andesite. In places, this unit is normally graded and exhibits cross-bedding. Many of these samples are fines-enriched, with sorting coefficients ranging from -0.1 to 1.9 and median grain size ranging from 0.1 to 2.4 mm. The ~370 14C yr B.P. West Island pyroclastic unit is sandwiched between the underlying West Island debris-avalanche deposit and the overlying 1912 Katmai Ash deposit, and at times a fine-grained gray ash originating from the 1883 eruption. West Island pyroclastic deposit is sand to coarse-sand-sized and either normally graded or massive with sorting coefficients ranging from 0.9 to 2.8 and median grain sizes ranging from 0.4 to 2.6 mm. Some samples display a bimodal distribution of grain sizes, while

  8. Relative motion characteristics of 2 near-Earth Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutz, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    The stability of the nonlinear dynamical system of two GRAVSAT - type satellites was investigated by performing several numerical experiments which provide the simulations of the relative motion characteristics between the two satellites for various specified time intervals. The simulations included the relative range, range-rate, and relative acceleration magnitude. These simulations were generated with respect to appropriate initial orbital elements which were obtained such that the instantaneous separation distance between the two satellites has small fluctuations from a specified constant separation distance. The simulation results indicate that the behavior of the relative motions is very sensitive to the initial orbital elements of the satellites and that for a specified time interval of interest. A stable behavior is possible only with the use of an appropriate set of initial orbital elements compatible with the gravity field used to derive them.

  9. Mediterranean cyclone characteristics related to precipitation occurrence in Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iordanidou, V.; Koutroulis, A. G.; Tsanis, I. K.

    2015-08-01

    The characteristics of the cyclone tracks that caused precipitation events of variable intensity for the period 1979-2011 over the island of Crete are presented. The data set used for cyclone identification is the 0.5° × 0.5°, 30 years European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA-Interim mean sea-level pressure. Cyclone characteristics are calculated with the aid of the Melbourne University algorithm (MS scheme). Daily precipitation data from a dense gauging network over the island of Crete are also used for the classification of the precipitation events in terms of rain accumulation (intensity). Daily precipitation is classified in three categories and the associated cyclones are chosen according to their distance from Crete island. The seasonal and annual cycle of the physical characteristics of the cyclone tracks are investigated with respect to the cyclones' relative position to the island of Crete. It was found that cyclones affecting Crete most frequently approach from the western side of the island and the actual cyclone centers associated with precipitation events are usually located northwest and southeast of the Crete domain. Cyclone-induced rainfall increases in function to cyclones' depth, radius and propagation velocity increase as well as cyclones' pressure decrease. Spring cyclones that affect Crete with rainfall present lower pressures and higher cyclone propagation velocity in contrast to the ones associated with winter and autumn precipitation events. The examination of the relation between cyclone characteristics and precipitation occurrence provides valuable information related to forecasting potential and management of the water resources and the rainfall extremes.

  10. Cold streams: detectability, relation to structure and characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goerdt, Tobias

    2015-02-01

    Cold gas streaming along the dark-matter filaments of the cosmic web is predicted to be the major provider of resources for disc buildup and star formation in massive galaxies in the early universe. We use hydrodynamical simulations to study to what extent these cold streams are traceable in the extended circum-galactic environment of galaxies via Ly alpha emission, Ly alpha absorption and selected low ionisation metal absorption lines. We predict the strength of the absorption signal produced by the streams and find that it is consistent with observations in high redshift galaxies. The characteristics of the Ly alpha emission of our simulated galaxies are similar in luminosity, morphology and extent to the observed Ly alpha blobs, with distinct kinematic features. We analyse the characteristics of the cold streams in simulations and present scaling relations for the amount of infall, its velocity, distribution and its clumpiness and compare our findings with observations.

  11. The effective porosity and grain size relations in permeability functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urumović, K.; Urumović, K., Sr.

    2014-06-01

    Hydrogeological parameters of coherent and incoherent deposits are deeply dependent of their granulometric characteristics. These relations were shaped in formulas and defaultly used for calculation of hydraulic conductivity, and are valid only for uniform incoherent materials, mostly sands. In this paper, the results of analyses of permeability and specific surface area as a function of granulometric composition of various sediments - from siltey clays to very well graded gravels are presented. The effective porosity and the referential grain size are presented as fundamental granulometric parameters which express an effect of forces operating fluid movement through the saturated porous media. Suggested procedures for calculating referential grain size and determining effective (flow) porosity result with parameters that reliably determine specific surface area and permeability. These procedures ensure successful appliance of Kozeny-Carman model up to the limits of validity of Darcy's law. The value of an effective porosity in function of referential mean grain size has been calibrated within range from 1.5 μm to 6.0 mm. Reliability of these parameters application in KC model was confirmed by very high correlation between predicted and tested hydraulic conductivity - R2 = 0.99 for sandy and gravelly materials and R2 = 0.70 for clayey-siltey materials. Group representation of hydraulic conductivity (ranged from 10-12 m s-1 up to 10-2 m s-1) presents coefficient of correlation R2 = 0.97, for total sum of 175 samples of various deposits. These results present the new road to researches of porous material's effective porosity, permeability and specific surface area distribution, since these three parameters are critical conditions for successful groundwater flow modelling and contaminant transport. From the practical point of view, it is very important to be able to identify these parameters swiftly, cheaply and very accurately.

  12. Offense related characteristics and psychosexual development of juvenile sex offenders

    PubMed Central

    Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette 't A; Doreleijers, Theo AH; Jansen, Lucres MC; van Wijk, Anton PH; Bullens, Ruud AR

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This article reports on offense related characteristics and the psychosexual development in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders as measured by the Global Assessment Instrument for Juvenile Sex Offenders (GAIJSO). The predictive validity of these characteristics for persistent (sexual) offensive behavior in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders was investigated. Methods: One hundred seventy four sex offenders (mean age 14.9 SD 1.4) referred by the police to the Dutch Child Protection Board were examined. Offense related characteristics were assessed by means of the GAIJSO and the BARO (a global assessment tool for juvenile delinquents), and criminal careers of the subjects were ascertained from official judicial records. Results: Serious need for comprehensive diagnostics were found on the domains sexual offense and psychosexual development in juvenile sex offenders, especially in the group of child molesters. These youngsters displayed more internalizing and (psychosexual) developmental problems and their sexual offense was more alarming as compared to the other juvenile sex offender subgroups. Although one third of the juveniles had already committed one or more sex offenses prior to the index offense, at follow up (mean follow up period: 36 months SD 18 months) almost no sexual recidivism was found (0.6% of the entire sample). However, a substantial proportion of the entire sample of juvenile sex offenders showed non-sexual (55.6%) and violent recidivism (32.1%). Several predictors for a history of multiple sex offending and non-sexual recidivism were identified. Conclusion: This study revealed numerous problems in juvenile sex offenders. Assessment using the GAIJSO is helpful in order to identify indicators for extensive diagnostic assessment. In order to investigate the predictive validity for sexual reoffending a longer follow up period is necessary. PMID:19594889

  13. Distribution of mosquitoes in relation to urban landscape characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gleiser, R M; Zalazar, L P

    2010-04-01

    The current global increase in prevalence of vector borne diseases, as well as an expansion of tropical infections to more temperate zones, justifies further studies on vector populations. Urban areas may favour viral transmission to humans through close contacts between the vectors and the vertebrate hosts, and also affecting mosquito populations by offering larval habitat, refuges and adequate microclimates to survive the winter. This work analyses the spatial distribution of potential vector mosquitoes in relation to landscape characteristics in an urban environment in a temperate climate region. Mosquitoes were trapped monthly from October 2005 to March 2006 in 25 sites within Córdoba city and suburbs with miniature light traps+CO2. Nine species were collected, and the most abundant were Culex quinquefasciatus (37.1%), C. apicinus (26.6%) and Aedes aegypti (13.9%). Species that may be involved in SLEv transmission were recorded throughout the sampling. C. quinquefasciatus was detected in 92% of the sites; however, only two sites showed consistently larger collections. The site of highest C. quinquefasciatus abundance was located within an area of high Saint Louis Encefalitis virus prevalence and risk of infection, further supporting this species involvement as a vector. Significant correlations were detected between land cover characteristics and abundance of C. apicinus, C. interfor and C. maxi that were consistent with previous knowledge about their larval habitat and domestic preferences, which may be useful for targeting vector control operations. PMID:19413916

  14. Characteristics of Haptic Peripersonal Spatial Representation of Object Relations.

    PubMed

    Wako, Ryo; Ayabe-Kanamura, Saho

    2016-01-01

    Haptic perception of space is known to show characteristics that are different to actual space. The current study extends on this line of research, investigating whether systematic deviations are also observed in the formation of haptic spatial representations of object-to-object relations. We conducted a haptic spatial reproduction task analogous to the parallelity task with spatial layouts. Three magnets were positioned to form corners of an isosceles triangle and the task of the participant was to reproduce the right angle corner. Weobserved systematic deviations in the reproduction of the right angle triangle. The systematic deviations were not observed when the task was conducted on the mid-sagittal plane. Furthermore, the magnitude of the deviation was decreased when non-informative vision was introduced. These results suggest that there is a deformation in spatial representation of object-to-object relations formed using haptics. However, as no systematic deviation was observed when the task was conducted on the mid-saggital plane, we suggest that the perception of object-to-object relations use a different egocentric reference frame to the perception of orientation. PMID:27462990

  15. Characteristics of Haptic Peripersonal Spatial Representation of Object Relations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Haptic perception of space is known to show characteristics that are different to actual space. The current study extends on this line of research, investigating whether systematic deviations are also observed in the formation of haptic spatial representations of object-to-object relations. We conducted a haptic spatial reproduction task analogous to the parallelity task with spatial layouts. Three magnets were positioned to form corners of an isosceles triangle and the task of the participant was to reproduce the right angle corner. Weobserved systematic deviations in the reproduction of the right angle triangle. The systematic deviations were not observed when the task was conducted on the mid-sagittal plane. Furthermore, the magnitude of the deviation was decreased when non-informative vision was introduced. These results suggest that there is a deformation in spatial representation of object-to-object relations formed using haptics. However, as no systematic deviation was observed when the task was conducted on the mid-saggital plane, we suggest that the perception of object-to-object relations use a different egocentric reference frame to the perception of orientation. PMID:27462990

  16. HIV-related travel restrictions: trends and country characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Felicia; Prytherch, Helen; Nesbitt, Robin C.; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Increasingly, HIV-seropositive individuals cross international borders. HIV-related restrictions on entry, stay, and residence imposed by countries have important consequences for this mobile population. Our aim was to describe the geographical distribution of countries with travel restrictions and to examine the trends and characteristics of countries with such restrictions. Methods In 2011, data presented to UNAIDS were used to establish a list of countries with and without HIV restrictions on entry, stay, and residence and to describe their geographical distribution. The following indicators were investigated to describe the country characteristics: population at mid-year, international migrants as a percentage of the population, Human Development Index, estimated HIV prevalence (age: 15–49), presence of a policy prohibiting HIV screening for general employment purposes, government and civil society responses to having non-discrimination laws/regulations which specify migrants/mobile populations, government and civil society responses to having laws/regulations/policies that present obstacles to effective HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support for migrants/mobile populations, Corruption Perception Index, and gross national income per capita. Results HIV-related restrictions exist in 45 out of 193 WHO countries (23%) in all regions of the world. We found that the Eastern Mediterranean and Western Pacific Regions have the highest proportions of countries with these restrictions. Our analyses showed that countries that have opted for restrictions have the following characteristics: smaller populations, higher proportions of migrants in the population, lower HIV prevalence rates, and lack of legislation protecting people living with HIV from screening for employment purposes, compared with countries without restrictions. Conclusion Countries with a high proportion of international migrants tend to have travel restrictions – a finding that is

  17. Granulometric characterization of airborne particulate release during spray application of nanoparticle-doped coatings.

    PubMed

    Göhler, Daniel; Stintz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Airborne particle release during the spray application of coatings was analyzed in the nanometre and micrometre size range. In order to represent realistic conditions of domestic and handcraft use, the spray application was performed using two types of commercial propellant spray cans and a manual gravity spray gun. Four different types of coatings doped with three kinds of metal-oxide tracer nanoparticle additives (TNPA) were analyzed. Depending on the used coating and the kind of spray unit, particulate release numbers between 5 × 10(8) and 3 × 10(10) particles per gram ejection mass were determined in the dried spray aerosols. The nanoparticulate fraction amounted values between 10 and 60 no%. The comparison between nanoparticle-doped coatings with non-doped ones showed no TNPA-attributed differences in both the macroscopic spray process characteristics and the particle release numbers. SEM, TEM and EDX-analyzes showed that the spray aerosols were composed of particles made up solely from matrix material and sheathed pigments, fillers and TNPAs. Isolated ZnO- or Fe2O3-TNPAs could not be observed. PMID:25152690

  18. Wear and related characteristics of an aircraft tire during braking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Wear and related characteristics of friction and temperature developed during braking of size 22 x 5.5, type aircraft tires are studied. The testing technique involved gearing the tire to a driving wheel of a ground vehicle to provide operations at constant slip ratios on asphalt, concrete, and slurry-seal surfaces. Data were obtained over the range of slip ratios generally attributed to an aircraft braking system during dry runway operations. The results show that the cumulative tire wear varies linearly with distance traveled and the wear rate increases with increasing slip ratio and is influenced by the runway-surface character. Differences in the wear rates associated with the various surfaces suggest that runways can be rated on the basis of tire wear. The results also show that the friction coefficients developed during fixed-slip-ratio operations are in good agreement with those obtained by other investigators during cyclic braking, in that the dry friction is insensitive to the tire tread temperature is shown to increase with increasing slip ratio and, at the higher ratios, to be greater during braking on asphalt and slurry seal than on concrete.

  19. Phenotypic Characteristics and Virulence of Vibrio anguillarum-Related Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Pazos, F.; Santos, Y.; Magariños, B.; Bandín, I.; Núñez, S.; Toranzo, A. E.

    1993-01-01

    The phenotypic, molecular, and virulence properties of 46 Vibrio anguillarum-related (VAR) strains isolated from diseased fish and shellfish and from the environment were investigated. Twelve reference strains belonging to the 10 serotypes of V. anguillarum and the Vibrio splendidus type strain were included for comparison. Numerical taxonomy studies allowed us to group the isolates into four phena. The main phenotypic traits to differentiate VAR strains from V. anguillarum were fermentation of arabinose and mannitol, indole and Voges-Proskauer reactions, gelatin and casein hydrolysis, hemolytic activity, growth at 37 and 4°C, and resistance to ampicillin. Serological analysis confirmed that phena I and II were composed mainly of strains of V. anguillarum, while phena III and IV included VAR strains. Excluding the reference strains, the typeable isolates belonged to serotypes O3 (15 strains), O4 (3 strains), and O5 (2 strains) of V. anguillarum. The infectivity trials showed that only 9 of a total of 24 strains tested displayed virulence for rainbow trout. Virulent strains (50% lethal dose ranging from 102 to 106 cells) included V. anguillarum strains belonging to serotypes O1 (one strain), O2 (one strain), O3 (three isolates), and O4 (one isolate) and only three strains of the VAR group. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of lipopolysaccharide and outer membrane proteins showed heterogeneity not only among the 10 V. anguillarum serotypes but also within the VAR group. Immunoblot assays demonstrated a close relationship among V. anguillarum strains from the same serotype, while strains from different serotypes were not antigenically related. The VAR strains did not share antigenic components with the serotypes of V. anguillarum tested (serotypes O1 to O5). Plasmids were detected in only 19 of the total of 59 strains. The majority of the strains carrying plasmids were grouped within phenon IV, in which plasmid bands of 27 and 36 MDa

  20. Empirical relations between catchment characteristics and discharge patterns in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindström, G.; Dahné, J.; Arheimer, B.

    2012-04-01

    In hydrological modelling it is often assumed that catchment characteristics, such as soil type, vegetation, land-use, slope, altitude and climate influence both the magnitude and dynamics of the water discharge characteristics. This presentation demonstrates an inter-site comparison on similarities and dissimilarities in hydrological response from Swedish unregulated catchments with an area less than 2000 km2. Observed daily time-series for about 20 years from 198 sites were analysed to search for and quantify statistical relationships between catchment characteristics and flow characteristics. A number of flow characteristics were calculated, such as the mean, mean annual maximum, peakiness, skewness and percentiles. The catchments were grouped dependent on catchment characteristics (for example >80% forest). The differences between the discharges from different catchment types were analysed both graphically and statistically. A T-test was performed to see if the mean value for the flow characteristics was significantly different from the rest of the catchments. Following the t-test, a set of box-whisker diagrams were made for visual inspection of the results. The results showed that lake percentage is the most important catchment characteristic for most of the flow characteristics. The effect of lakes was therefore treated separately. For lake-free basins soil type was in general more important than land-use. For instance, coarse soils exhibit a sustained base flow, whereas thin soils and bare rock are characterised by peak flows with short duration. Finally, the presentation will give some examples on how the retrieved empirical information was included in a national modelling approach to simulate spatial variability in Swedish water discharge patterns.

  1. The Relation of Sample Demographic Characteristics to Job Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jury, Philip A.; And Others

    In order to examine the effects of such demographic characteristics as sex, age, education, occupational tenure and status, company and job tenure and management level on job satisfaction, the responses of 1,139 exempt employees in six companies to 28 satisfaction scales were factor analyzed. In comparing the factor structures for the various…

  2. Relations between Characteristics of Workplace Practices and Types of Informal Work-Related Learning: A Survey Study among Dutch Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doornbos, Anja J.; Simons, Robert-Jan; Denessen, Eddie

    2008-01-01

    Some organizations seek to promote informal work-related learning to stimulate organizational performance. This study focuses on six types of work-related learning in relation to personal, relational, and work characteristics of the workplace practice. A survey was conducted to identify types and levels of work-related learning for executive Dutch…

  3. Community Characteristics and Mortality: The Relative Strength of Association of Different Community Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Eric; McCleary, Rachael; Buttorff, Christine; Gaskin, Darrell J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We compared the strength of association between average 5-year county-level mortality rates and area-level measures, including air quality, sociodemographic characteristics, violence, and economic distress. Methods. We obtained mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System and linked it to socioeconomic and demographic data from the Census Bureau, air quality data, violent crime statistics, and loan delinquency data. We modeled 5-year average mortality rates (1998–2002) for all-cause, cancer, heart disease, stroke, and respiratory diseases as a function of county-level characteristics using ordinary least squares regression models. We limited analyses to counties with population of 100 000 or greater (n = 458). Results. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, particularly the percentage older than 65 years and near poor, were top predictors of all-cause and condition-specific mortality, as were a high concentration of construction and service workers. We found weaker associations for air quality, mortgage delinquencies, and violent crimes. Protective characteristics included the percentage of Hispanics, Asians, and married residents. Conclusions. Multiple factors influence county-level mortality. Although county demographic and socioeconomic characteristics are important, there are independent, although weaker, associations of other environmental characteristics. Future studies should investigate these factors to better understand community mortality risk. PMID:25033152

  4. Characteristic classes and weyl tensor: applications to general relativity.

    PubMed

    Avez, A

    1970-06-01

    In a recent paper, Chern and Simons proved that the Pontrjagin forms of a Riemannian manifold remain invariant under a conformal deformation. We show that these forms can be expressed uniquely in terms of the conformal curvature tensor: this provides a new proof of their result. Similar techniques can be applied to Euler-Poincare characteristic class, as suggested to me by A. Taub. We obtain the following: If the Weyl tensor of a compact space time is of type III of Bel-Petrov, then it cannot carry a perfect fluid + electromagnetic field. PMID:16591838

  5. Characteristic Classes and Weyl Tensor: Applications to General Relativity*

    PubMed Central

    Avez, André

    1970-01-01

    In a recent paper, Chern and Simons proved that the Pontrjagin forms of a Riemannian manifold remain invariant under a conformal deformation. We show that these forms can be expressed uniquely in terms of the conformal curvature tensor: this provides a new proof of their result. Similar techniques can be applied to Euler-Poincare characteristic class, as suggested to me by A. Taub. We obtain the following: If the Weyl tensor of a compact space time is of type III of Bel-Petrov, then it cannot carry a perfect fluid + electromagnetic field. PMID:16591838

  6. Analysis of protein conformational characteristics related to thermostability.

    PubMed

    Querol, E; Perez-Pons, J A; Mozo-Villarias, A

    1996-03-01

    The thermal stability of proteins was studied, 195 single amino acid residue replacements reported elsewhere being analysed for several protein conformational characteristics: type of residue replacement; conservative versus nonconservative substitution; replacement being in a homologous stretch of amino acid residues; change in hydrogen bond, van der Waals and secondary structure propensities; solvent-accessible versus inaccessible replacement; type of secondary structure involved in the substitution; the physico-chemical characteristics to which the thermostability enhancement can be attributed; and the relationship of the replacement site to the folding intermediates of the protein, when known. From the above analyses, some general rules arise which suggest where amino acid substitutions can be made to enhance protein thermostability: substitutions are conservative according to the Dayhoff matrix; mainly occur on conserved stretches of residues; preferentially occur on solvent-accessible residues; maintain or enhance the secondary structure propensity upon substitution; contribute to neutralize the dipole moment of the caps of helices and strands; and tend to increase the number of potential hydrogen bonding or van der Waals contacts or improve hydrophobic packing. PMID:8736493

  7. SSME model, engine dynamic characteristics related to Pogo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A linear model of the space shuttle main engine for use in Pogo studies was presented. A digital program is included from which engine transfer functions are determined relative to the engine operating level.

  8. Receiver Operating Characteristic Analysis for Detecting Explosives-related Threats

    SciTech Connect

    Oxley, Mark E; Venzin, Alexander M

    2012-11-14

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) are interested in developing a standardized testing procedure for determining the performance of candidate detection systems. This document outlines a potential method for judging detection system performance as well as determining if combining the information from a legacy system with a new system can signicantly improve performance. In this document, performance corresponds to the Neyman-Pearson criterion applied to the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves of the detection systems in question. A simulation was developed to investigate how the amount of data provided by the vendor in the form of the ROC curve eects the performance of the combined detection system. Furthermore, the simulation also takes into account the potential eects of correlation and how this information can also impact the performance of the combined system.

  9. Maternal and birth characteristics in relation to childhood leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Podvin, Danise; Kuehn, Carrie M; Mueller, Beth A; Williams, Michelle

    2006-07-01

    Our objective was to investigate the association of childhood leukaemia with selected maternal and birth characteristics by conducting a population-based case-control study using linked cancer registry and birth certificate records for Washington State. We compared maternal and infant characteristics of 595 Washington-born residents <20 years old with leukaemia diagnosed during 1981-2003, and 5,950 control children, using stratified analysis and logistic regression. Maternal age 35+ years (odds ratio [OR] 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1, 2.0), infant birthweight 4,000+ g (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1, 1.8), neonatal jaundice (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1, 2.1), and Down's syndrome (OR 31.3; 95% CI 6.4, 153.4) were associated with an increased risk of leukaemia. Among women with 2+ pregnancies, having at least two prior early (<20 weeks' gestation) fetal deaths was also associated with an increased risk (OR 1.5; 95% CI 0.97, 2.1). Maternal unmarried status (OR 0.7; 95% CI 0.6, 0.9) and African American race (OR 0.5; 95% CI 0.3, 0.9) were associated with a decreased risk. These results were more marked for acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) than for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), and for leukaemia diagnosed <5 years of age. These results may provide clues to the aetiology of childhood leukaemia. Genetic epidemiological studies are needed to expand our knowledge of inherent and possibly prenatal influences on the occurrence of this disease. PMID:16879503

  10. PETN: Variation in Physical and Chemical Characteristics Related to Aging.

    SciTech Connect

    Monroe, D. C.; Laintz, K. E.; Kramer, J. F.; Peterson, P. D.

    2006-01-01

    Physical and chemical analyses of five PETN (pentaerythritol tetranitrate) batches have been conducted to assist in defining powder acceptance criteria for qualification of newly manufactured powders, as well as for examination of potential changes related to aging and thus changes in performance. Results showed that (1) repeatable Fisher Sub-Sieve Sizer measurements (which relate well to historic performance data) could be obtained with consistent sample setup and measurement techniques; (2) BET nitrogen adsorption estimates of surface area correlate well with Fisher measurements and appear less variable; (3) PharmaVision particle size analyses show promise in discriminating among PETN batches; and (4) SEMs are extremely useful in semi-quantitative discrimination among batches. Physical and chemical data will be related to performance data (to be obtained) to develop quantitative physical and chemical tests useful in predicting performance over time, i.e., as powders age.

  11. Relations of Mothers' and Fathers' Reports of Infant Temperament, Parents' Psychological Functioning, and Family Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura, Jaqueline N.; Stevenson, Marguerite B.

    1986-01-01

    Examines 95 parents' reports of relations between infant termperament and parental psychological conditions, as well as familiy characteristics of socioeconomic status, birth order, and infant gender. (HOD)

  12. Characteristics of Students Related to Computer-Mediated Communications Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Barry J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a study of individual differences among high school students that relate to and predict their use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) tools--e-mail, Usenet news, and a multimedia notebook--to support project-based science learning. Findings indicate that skill and experience with computers, parental education, access to computers,…

  13. EI competencies as a related but different characteristic than intelligence.

    PubMed

    Boyatzis, Richard E; Batista-Foguet, Joan M; Fernández-I-Marín, Xavier; Truninger, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Amid the swarm of debate about emotional intelligence (EI) among academics are claims that cognitive intelligence, or general mental ability (g), is a stronger predictor of life and work outcomes as well as the counter claims that EI is their strongest predictor. Nested within the tempest in a teapot are scientific questions as to what the relationship is between g and EI. Using a behavioral approach to EI, we examined the relationship of a parametric measure of g as the person's GMAT scores and collected observations from others who live and work with the person as to the frequency of his or her EI behavior, as well as the person's self-assessment. The results show that EI, as seen by others, is slightly related to g, especially for males with assessment from professional relations. Further, we found that cognitive competencies are more strongly related to GMAT than EI competencies. For observations from personal relationships or self-assessment, there is no relationship between EI and GMAT. Observations from professional relations reveal a positive relationship between cognitive competencies and GMAT and EI and GMAT for males, but a negative relationship between EI and GMAT for females. PMID:25713545

  14. EI competencies as a related but different characteristic than intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Boyatzis, Richard E.; Batista-Foguet, Joan M.; Fernández-i-Marín, Xavier; Truninger, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Amid the swarm of debate about emotional intelligence (EI) among academics are claims that cognitive intelligence, or general mental ability (g), is a stronger predictor of life and work outcomes as well as the counter claims that EI is their strongest predictor. Nested within the tempest in a teapot are scientific questions as to what the relationship is between g and EI. Using a behavioral approach to EI, we examined the relationship of a parametric measure of g as the person’s GMAT scores and collected observations from others who live and work with the person as to the frequency of his or her EI behavior, as well as the person’s self-assessment. The results show that EI, as seen by others, is slightly related to g, especially for males with assessment from professional relations. Further, we found that cognitive competencies are more strongly related to GMAT than EI competencies. For observations from personal relationships or self-assessment, there is no relationship between EI and GMAT. Observations from professional relations reveal a positive relationship between cognitive competencies and GMAT and EI and GMAT for males, but a negative relationship between EI and GMAT for females. PMID:25713545

  15. [Morphological characteristics of algae floc and its relation with flotation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Heng; Wang, Qi-Shan; Wu, Yu-Bao; An, Yi; Peng, Xin-Hong

    2008-03-01

    Microcysits aeruginosa (MA) was removed by polyaluminium chloride (PAC) in the coagulation-flotation process. The test studied removing effect and morphological characteristics of PAC-MA flocs in the different coagulation conditions and discussed the correlation of them. Fractal dimension was measured by image analysis. The results indicate that the best range in dosage, stirring strength and time of flocculation reaction are respectively 5.6 - 9.8 mg/L Al2O3, 50 - 80 s(-1) and 5 - 8 min in the condition of mixing stirring strength of 500 s(-1), mixing time of 1 min, circulate ratio of 10%. The dosage, stirring strength and time of flocculation reaction influenced the form of flocs remarkably. Moreover the range of fractal dimension D2 is between 1.1688 and 1.2357, and average diameters vary between 300 microm and 500 microm with the best flocculation condition. The flocs with the looser structure, the bigger diameter variation and more branches can adhere to bubbles more easily. PMID:18649529

  16. Characteristics of YouTube™ Videos Related to Mammography.

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey H; Hillyer, Grace Clarke; MacDonald, Zerlina L; Reeves, Rachel; Basch, Charles E

    2015-12-01

    With a monthly total of more than one billion unique visitors, YouTube™ is one of the Internet's most visited websites and contributes to the growing amount of health-related information on the Internet. The purpose of this study was to analyze coverage of mammography screening in popular YouTube™ videos. A total of 173 videos were included in the analysis. Compared with professionally created videos, consumer-created videos had a significantly greater number of comments (>9 comments 38.0% for consumer vs. 11.8% for professional videos, p=<0.001). Videos created by professionals more often portrayed general mammography information (97.1 vs. 88.7%) compared to those created by consumers. The vast majority of videos presented general information (93.6%) related to mammography, and almost two thirds addressed preparing for the test. Less than 20% dealt with other types of examinations. Approximately 30% discussed pain associated with the examination (35.3%) and addressed issues of anxiety (32.4%) and fear (29.5%). Nearly half of the videos presented information about the test results (46.2%). Over 25% covered medical or family history. The majority did not pertain to a specific age group. Future research should focus on analyzing the accuracy of the information in the videos. PMID:25502853

  17. Characteristics of dayside auroral displays in relation to magnetospheric processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minow, Joseph I.

    1997-09-01

    The use of dayside aurorae as a ground based monitor of magnetopause activity is explored in this thesis. The origin of diffuse (OI) 630.0 nm emissions in the midday auroral oval is considered first. Analysis of low altitude satellite records of precipitating charged particles within the cusp show an unstructured electron component that will produce a 0.5-1 kR 630.0 nm emission throughout the cusp. Distribution of the electrons is controlled by the requirement of charge neutrality in the cusp, predicting a diffuse 630.0 nm background even if the magnetosheath plasma is introduced into the magnetosphere in discrete merging events. Cusp electron fluxes also contain a structured component characterized by enhancements in the electron energy and energy flux over background values in narrow regions a few 10's of kilometers in width. These structured features are identified as the source of the transient midday arcs. An auroral model is developed to study the morphology of (OI) 630.0 nm auroral emissions produced by the transient arcs. The model demonstrates that a diffuse 630.0 nm background emission is produced by transient arcs due to the long lifetime of the O(1D) state. Two sources of diffuse 630.0 nm background emissions exist in the cusp which may originate in discrete merging events. The conclusion is that persistent 630.0 nm emissions cannot be interpreted as prima facie evidence for continuous particle transport from the magnetosheath across the magnetopause boundary and into the polar cusp. The second subject that is considered is the analysis of temporal and spatial variations of the diffuse 557.7 nm pulsating aurora in relation to the 630.0 nm dominated transient aurora. Temporal variations at the poleward boundary of the diffuse 557.7 nm aurora correlate with the formation of the 630.0 nm transient aurorae suggesting that the two events are related. The character of the auroral variations is consistent with the behavior of particle populations reported

  18. Family social characteristics related to physical growth of young children.

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, N; Mora, J O; Herrera, M G

    1975-01-01

    Altogether 164 poor families who had children of normal and subnormal weight and height were studied in Bogota, Colombia. Physical growth was found to be positively associated with expenditure on food, sanitary conditions in the home, mother's age, birth interval between surviving children, level of parental newspaper reading, aspirations for children, and socioeconomic status. Physical growth was negatively associated with crowded living conditions and family size. Only mother's age, family size, spacing of births, and sanitary conditions were related to weight and height, independent of socioeconomic status. Food expenditure, crowding, parental newspaper reading, and aspirations for children all reflected the influence of socioeconomic status upon physical growth. The findings emphasized the importance of within-class social differences as they affect the physical growth of young children. PMID:1182354

  19. The Relationship of Freshmen's Physics Achievement and Their Related Affective Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gungor, Almer (Abak); Eryilmaz, Ali; Fakioglu, Turgut

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the best-fitting structural equation model between the freshmen's physics achievement and selected affective characteristics related to physics. These characteristics are students' situational interest in physics, personal interest in physics, aspiring extra activities related to physics, importance of…

  20. Obesity-related glomerulopathy: clinical and pathologic characteristics and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    D'Agati, Vivette D; Chagnac, Avry; de Vries, Aiko P J; Levi, Moshe; Porrini, Esteban; Herman-Edelstein, Michal; Praga, Manuel

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of obesity-related glomerulopathy is increasing in parallel with the worldwide obesity epidemic. Glomerular hypertrophy and adaptive focal segmental glomerulosclerosis define the condition pathologically. The glomerulus enlarges in response to obesity-induced increases in glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, filtration fraction and tubular sodium reabsorption. Normal insulin/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and mTOR signalling are critical for podocyte hypertrophy and adaptation. Adipokines and ectopic lipid accumulation in the kidney promote insulin resistance of podocytes and maladaptive responses to cope with the mechanical forces of renal hyperfiltration. Although most patients have stable or slowly progressive proteinuria, up to one-third develop progressive renal failure and end-stage renal disease. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockade is effective in the short-term but weight loss by hypocaloric diet or bariatric surgery has induced more consistent and dramatic antiproteinuric effects and reversal of hyperfiltration. Altered fatty acid and cholesterol metabolism are increasingly recognized as key mediators of renal lipid accumulation, inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis. Newer therapies directed to lipid metabolism, including SREBP antagonists, PPARα agonists, FXR and TGR5 agonists, and LXR agonists, hold therapeutic promise. PMID:27263398

  1. Red fox spatial characteristics in relation to waterfowl predation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, A.B.

    1972-01-01

    Radio-equipped red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) on the Cedar Creek area in Minnesota were spatially distributed, with individual families occupying well defined, nonoverlapping, contiguous territories. Territory boundaries often conformed to natural physical boundaries and appeared to be maintained through some nonaggressive behavior mechanism. Individual foxes traveled extensively throughout the family territory each night. Fox territories appeared to range from approximately 1 to 3 square miles in size, dependent largely on population density. Red foxes used a sequence of dens to rear their pups, and the amount and location of food remains at individual dens changed as the pups matured. The denning season was divided into pre-emergence, confined-use, and dispersed-use periods of 4 to 5 weeks each. Remains of adult waterfowl were collected at rearing dens on six townships in three ecologically different regions of eastern North Dakota. Remains of 172 adult dabbling ducks and 16 adult American coots (Fulica americana) were found at 35 dens. No remains from diving ducks were found. The number of adult ducks per den averaged 1.6, 5.9, and 10.2 for paired townships in regions with relatively low, moderate and high duck populations, respectively. Eighty-four percent of the ducks were females. The species and sex composition of ducks found at dens during early and late sampling periods reflected the nesting chronology of prairie dabbling ducks. Occupied rearing dens were focal points of red fox travel, and the locations of dens may have had considerable influence on predation. Thirty-five of 38 dens found on the six township study areas were on pastured or idle lands. The distribution of rearing dens on the Sand Lake and Arrowwood national wildlife refuges suggested that, on these areas, fox dens were concentrated because of the topography and land-use practices.

  2. Characteristics of binge eating disorder in relation to diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Wilfley, Denise E; Citrome, Leslie; Herman, Barry K

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review was to examine the evidentiary basis for binge eating disorder (BED) with reference to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Fifth Edition (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria for BED. A PubMed search restricted to titles and abstracts of English-language reviews, meta-analyses, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, journal articles, and letters using human participants was conducted on August 7, 2015, using keywords that included "binge eating disorder," DSM-5, DSM-IV, guilt, shame, embarrassment, quantity, psychological, behavior, and "shape and weight concerns." Of the 257 retrieved publications, 60 publications were considered relevant to discussions related to DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and were included in the current review, and 20 additional references were also included on the basis of the authors' knowledge and/or on a review of the reference lists from relevant articles obtained through the literature search. Evidence supports the duration/frequency criterion for BED and the primary importance of loss of control and marked distress in identifying individuals with BED. Although overvaluation of shape/weight is not a diagnostic criterion, its relationship to the severity of BED psychopathology may identify a unique subset of individuals with BED. Additionally, individuals with BED often exhibit a clinical profile consisting of psychiatric (eg, mood, obsessive-compulsive, and impulsive disorders) and medical (eg, gastrointestinal symptoms, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes) comorbidities and behavioral profiles (eg, overconsumption of calories outside of a binge eating episode and emotional eating). Future revisions of the BED diagnostic criteria should consider the inclusion of BED subtypes, perhaps based on the overvaluation of shape/weight, and an evidence-based reassessment of severity criteria. PMID:27621631

  3. CHARGE syndrome: relations between behavioral characteristics and medical conditions.

    PubMed

    Vervloed, Mathijs P J; Hoevenaars-van den Boom, Marella A A; Knoors, Harry; van Ravenswaaij, Conny M A; Admiraal, Ronald J C

    2006-04-15

    The behaviors and medical problems in 27 persons with CHARGE syndrome were studied, because it was hypothesized that their behavior might be partly dependent on the heterogeneous medical status. With the exception of more tics, cardiac surgery was associated with positive behaviors: less withdrawn behavior, better mood, and a more easy temperament. Tube feeding was also related to positive behavior, since participants with a history of tube feeding showed less intense behavior. Cerebral deficits were associated with three problem behaviors: more intense and withdrawn behavior and a worse mood. Deaf-blindness was associated with developmental delays in expressive and overall communication level, and recurrent middle ear infections correlated with delays in written language. Of all medical conditions, only the presence or absence of heart defects and cardiac surgery could differentiate between the participants with regard to the number of behavioral problems. Participants with heart surgery especially, had less behavior problems. The number of operations and hospitalizations was not associated with behavior, but the total length of the hospitalizations was. Long hospital stays were associated with less problem behavior, especially internalizing behaviors. Cerebral and heart problems did not result in longer hospital stays, whereas esophageal reflux did. Age effects were reflected in older participants, who showed more internalizing problems. Heart surgery and hospitalization may be protective factors, but the protection might not be the actual surgery or hospital stay, as there may be other variables that are the actual cause, such as reduced vitality or altered parent child interactions after heart surgery. The study could not confirm a significant association between medical conditions and autism found in previous studies. PMID:16532469

  4. Characteristics of binge eating disorder in relation to diagnostic criteria

    PubMed Central

    Wilfley, Denise E; Citrome, Leslie; Herman, Barry K

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review was to examine the evidentiary basis for binge eating disorder (BED) with reference to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fifth Edition (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria for BED. A PubMed search restricted to titles and abstracts of English-language reviews, meta-analyses, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, journal articles, and letters using human participants was conducted on August 7, 2015, using keywords that included “binge eating disorder,” DSM-5, DSM-IV, guilt, shame, embarrassment, quantity, psychological, behavior, and “shape and weight concerns.” Of the 257 retrieved publications, 60 publications were considered relevant to discussions related to DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and were included in the current review, and 20 additional references were also included on the basis of the authors’ knowledge and/or on a review of the reference lists from relevant articles obtained through the literature search. Evidence supports the duration/frequency criterion for BED and the primary importance of loss of control and marked distress in identifying individuals with BED. Although overvaluation of shape/weight is not a diagnostic criterion, its relationship to the severity of BED psychopathology may identify a unique subset of individuals with BED. Additionally, individuals with BED often exhibit a clinical profile consisting of psychiatric (eg, mood, obsessive–compulsive, and impulsive disorders) and medical (eg, gastrointestinal symptoms, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes) comorbidities and behavioral profiles (eg, overconsumption of calories outside of a binge eating episode and emotional eating). Future revisions of the BED diagnostic criteria should consider the inclusion of BED subtypes, perhaps based on the overvaluation of shape/weight, and an evidence-based reassessment of severity criteria. PMID:27621631

  5. Nutrition-Related Characteristics of High School Teachers and Student Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Jean D.; Woodburn, Margy J.

    1983-01-01

    Examined relationship between nutrition-related teacher (N=62) characteristics and effective nutrition education for their teenage students (N=1,073). Instruments used assessed such teacher characteristics as nutrition knowledge, dietary practices, and self-confidence as nutrition educators as well as students' knowledge and dietary practices…

  6. School Characteristics Related to Principals' Perceived Needs for a Violence Prevention Program in the Arkansas Delta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howerton, D. Lynn; Enger, John M.

    The fear of violence among students and teachers is straining the learning environment in many schools. This paper presents findings of a study that investigated school district characteristics in relation to the level of principals' expressed needs for school-violence prevention programs. The district characteristics included finance, size,…

  7. Characteristics of the USA dairy herd as related to management and demographic elements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The data characteristics of the United States dairy herd related to animals enrolled in milk recording (dairy herd improvement) are the basic foundation and important influencers for the management and genetic progress achieved in a population or animal production unit. The amount, characteristics ...

  8. Relations between Housing Characteristics and the Well-Being of Low-Income Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Leventhal, Tama; Lynch, Alicia Doyle; Kull, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Extant research has highlighted the importance of multiple characteristics of housing but has not comprehensively assessed a broad range of housing characteristics and their relative contributions to children's well-being. Using a representative, longitudinal sample of low-income children and adolescents from low-income urban neighborhoods (N…

  9. Adult Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse: Multitype Maltreatment and Disclosure Characteristics Related to Subjective Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonzon, Eva; Lindblad, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the impact of child sexual abuse and disclosure characteristics on adult psychological and psychosomatic symptoms. Data on abuse characteristics, disclosure-related events, and subjective health were collected through semistructured interviews and questionnaires from 123 adult women reporting having been sexually abused in…

  10. Peer Relations and Behavioral Characteristics of Isolated Children in Elementary School: A Longitudinal Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norwalk, Kate E.

    2013-01-01

    Research clearly shows that heterogeneity exists in the etiology, associated characteristics, and outcomes of social withdrawal/isolation. While individual level characteristics are thought to contribute to withdrawal and isolation, research suggests that peer relations may play an important role in the extent to which social withdrawal/isolation…

  11. An Investigation of Grade 12 Students' Misconceptions Relating to Fundamental Characteristics of Molecules and Atoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Alan Keith; Preston, Kirk R.

    An understanding of the concepts of atoms and molecules is fundamental to the learning of chemistry. Any misconceptions and alternative conceptions related to these concepts which students harbor will impede much further learning. This paper identifies misconceptions related to the fundamental characteristics of atoms and molecules which Grade 12…

  12. Resident Characteristics Related to the Lack of Morning Care Provision in Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Sandra F.; Durkin, Daniel W.; Rahman, Anna N.; Choi, Leena; Beuscher, Linda; Schnelle, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine usual long-term care (LTC) practices related to 3 aspects of morning care and determine if there were resident characteristics related to the lack of care. Design and Methods: Participants were 169 long-stay residents in 4 community LTC facilities who required staff assistance with either transfer…

  13. Granulometric distribution of natural and flux calcined chert from Ypresian phosphatic series of Gafsa-Metlaoui basin compared to diatomite filter aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidi, R.; Tlili, A.; Fourati, A.; Ammar, N.; Ounis, A.; Jamoussi, F.

    2012-02-01

    The cherty rocks of the Chouabine Formation of the Gafsa-Metlaoui basin (south-western Tunisia), that is composed by biogenic silica, are treated using thermal treatment at 1000°C with flux calcination method in order to prepare a specific filter aids of melting sulfur filter used for the production of sulfuric acid. This work presents the effect of heating on the granulometry of chert. The mineralogical composition of natural starting chert is composed by opal CT (cristobalite/tridymite) and by the mineral mixture of quartz, smectite clay minerals, palygorskite-sepiolite fibrous clay minerals, calcite and hematite. After thermal treatment, at 1000°C, the crystallinity of chert increases significantly and the opal-CT, transforms mostly to opal-C. The comparison of infrared spectra of untreated and treated cherts shows systematic variation of the wavenumber and the intensity of the absorption bands, due to the apparition of 619, 795, 1094 and 1202 cm-1 absorption bands of cristobalite in the infrared spectrum of chert treated sample, which is similar to diatomite. Granulometric analysis show that the natural untreated chert sample displays unimodal distribution, whereas the treated chert sample display bimodal distribution, as same as diatomite. Thus, a new mode appears systematically, between 0.1 μn and 1 μm, for all thermal treated samples with alkaline flux as observed for diatomite.

  14. The relative influence of road characteristics and habitat on adjacent lizard populations in arid shrublands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, Kaylan A.; Chalfoun, Anna L.; Gerow, Kenneth G.

    2016-01-01

    As road networks continue to expand globally, indirect impacts to adjacent wildlife populations remain largely unknown. Simultaneously, reptile populations are declining worldwide and anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation are frequently cited causes. We evaluated the relative influence of three different road characteristics (surface treatment, width, and traffic volume) and habitat features on adjacent populations of Northern Sagebrush Lizards (Sceloporus graciosus graciosus), Plateau Fence Lizards (S. tristichus), and Greater Short-Horned Lizards (Phrynosoma hernandesi) in mixed arid shrubland habitats in southwest Wyoming. Neither odds of lizard presence nor relative abundance was significantly related to any of the assessed road characteristics, although there was a trend for higher Sceloporus spp. abundance adjacent to paved roads. Sceloporus spp. relative abundance did not vary systematically with distance to the nearest road. Rather, both Sceloporus spp. and Greater Short-Horned Lizards were associated strongly with particular habitat characteristics adjacent to roads. Sceloporus spp. presence and relative abundance increased with rock cover, relative abundance was associated positively with shrub cover, and presence was associated negatively with grass cover. Greater Short-Horned Lizard presence increased with bare ground and decreased marginally with shrub cover. Our results suggest that habitat attributes are stronger correlates of lizard presence and relative abundance than individual characteristics of adjacent roads, at least in our system. Therefore, an effective conservation approach for these species may be to consider the landscape through which new roads and their associated development would occur, and the impact that placement could have on fragment size and key habitat elements.

  15. Salespersons' weight and ratings of characteristics related to effectiveness of selling.

    PubMed

    Zemanek, J E; McIntyre, R P; Zemanek, A

    1998-06-01

    A study was conducted to examine the effects of a salesperson's weight and the interaction of weight with sex on a variety of positive personal characteristics which have been previously established. 243 purchasing agents provided data on 410 male and female salespeople who were then divided into two groups by weight. Analyses of variance were conducted using weight and sex as the independent variables and a variety of personal characteristics as dependent variables. The analysis suggested that the weight and sex of a salesperson are related to several personal characteristics. PMID:9676505

  16. Agrichemicals in ground water of the midwestern USA: Relations to soil characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkart, M.R.; Kolpin, D.W.; Jaquis, R.J.; Cole, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive set of soil characteristics were examined to determine the effect of soil on the transport of agrichemicals to ground water. This paper examines the relation of local soil characteristics to concentrations and occurrence of nitrate, atrazine (2-chloro-4 ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-trazine), and atrazine residue [atrazine + deethylatrazine (2-amino-4-chloro-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) + deisopropylatrazine (2-amino-4-chloro-6-ethylamino-s-triazine)] from 99 wells completed in unconsolidated aquifers across the midwestern USA. The occurrence and concentrations of nitrate and atrazine in ground water were directly related to soil characteristics that determine the rate of water movement. The substantial differences in the relations found among soil characteristics and nitrate and atrazine in ground water suggest that different processes affect the transformation, adsorption, and transport of these contaminants. A multivariate analysis determined that the soil characteristics examined explained the amount of variability in concentrations for nitrate (19.0%), atrazine (33.4%), and atrazine residue (28.6%). These results document that, although soils do affect the transport of agrichemicals to ground water, other factors such as hydrology, land use, and climate must also be considered to understand the occurrence of agrichemicals in ground water.

  17. Intrapersonal characteristics of body-related guilt, shame, pride, and envy in Canadian adults.

    PubMed

    Pila, Eva; Brunet, Jennifer; Crocker, Peter R E; Kowalski, Kent C; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2016-03-01

    This study examined differences in body-related shame, guilt, pride, and envy based on intrapersonal characteristics of sex, age, and weight status in 527 Canadian adults. Compared to men, women reported significantly higher shame and guilt contextualized to the body. No sex differences were observed for envy or pride. Middle-aged adults reported higher shame and lower pride compared with young adults, whereas no age differences were observed with body-related guilt. Meanwhile, shame and guilt were highest for individuals who had overweight or obese weight status, and pride was highest in individuals with average weight status. Overall, effect sizes were small and there were no significant interaction effects between sex, age, and weight status across body-related emotions. Further research is needed to capture similarities and differences of body-related self-conscious emotions between intrapersonal characteristics, to aid the development of intervention strategies to manage this important dimension of body image. PMID:26799227

  18. Parent and Child Characteristics Related to Chosen Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Brenda A.; Aalborg, Annette E.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Bauman, Karl; Spoth, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Mothers were allowed to choose between two different family-based adolescent alcohol-drug prevention strategies and the choice was examined in relation to parent and teen characteristics. Under real world conditions, parents are making choices regarding health promotion strategies for their adolescents and little is known about how parent and teen…

  19. Adult Learners' Satisfaction and Its Relation to Characteristics of the Individual and the Educational Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeren, Ellen; Nicaise, Ides; Baert, Herman

    2012-01-01

    This article explores satisfactory learning experiences of adult learners in Flemish formal adult education. Satisfaction is an important issue in motivational psychology. We used the Comprehensive Lifelong Learning Participation Model of Boeren, Nicaise and Baert and explored whether satisfactory experiences relate to characteristics of the…

  20. Environmental Relative Moldiness Index and Associations with Home Characteristics and Infant Wheeze

    EPA Science Inventory

    Possible relationships between mold contamination, as described by the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI), home characteristics, and the development of wheeze in the first year of life were evaluated among a cohort of urban infants (n = 103) in Syracuse, New York. Pre...

  1. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Remarks on the extended characteristic uncertainty relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonov, D. A.

    2001-03-01

    Three remarks concerning the form and the range of validity of the state-extended characteristic uncertainty relations (URs) are presented. A more general definition of the uncertainty matrix for pure and mixed states is suggested. Some new URs are provided.

  2. Child and Parent Characteristics, Parental Expectations, and Child Behaviours Related to Preschool Children's Interest in Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baroody, Alison E.; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the relations between children's literacy interest and parent and child characteristics (i.e. parents' education level and child's gender), parental expectations of their child's school attainment and achievement and the child's positive and problem behaviours. Participants were 61 preschoolers from predominately…

  3. The Use of Technology in Relation to Community College Faculty Characteristics and Instructional Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the use of a course management system in relation to faculty characteristics and instructional environments at a rural community college in California. The use of the course management system, Blackboard, was the technology studied. This study used a nonexperimental quantitative ex post facto research…

  4. Burnout in Social Workers Treating Children as Related to Demographic Characteristics, Work Environment, and Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamama, Liat

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sense of burnout among 126 social workers who directly treat children and adolescents within the human service professions. Burnout was investigated in relation to social workers' demographic characteristics (age, family status, education, and seniority at work), extrinsic and intrinsic work conditions, and social support by…

  5. Grade-12 Students' Misconceptions Relating to Fundamental Characteristics of Atoms and Molecules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Alan K.; Preston, Kirk R.

    1992-01-01

    Identifies misconceptions related to the fundamental characteristics of atoms and molecules held by twelfth-grade students. Data were obtained by administration of semistructured interviews to a stratified, random sample of 30 students. Fifty-two misconceptions were observed and reported. Some of the misconceptions identified parallel the…

  6. [Characteristics of non-exertional heat-related illness in Japan].

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yasufumi

    2012-06-01

    This report shows characteristics of non-exertional heat-related illness in Japan. The findings are similar to those of previous reports in heatwaves of Europe and The United States. Eldery people with pre-existing diseases, homeless, living alone, poverty are independent risk factors of heatstoke and are strongly associated with severity and mortality. PMID:22690607

  7. Relation of Patient Pretreatment Characteristics to the Therapeutic Alliance in Diverse Psychotherapies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaston, Louise; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigated prediction of therapeutic alliance from patient pretreatment characteristics among 60 elderly depressed outpatients treated in behavioral, cognitive, and brief dynamic psychotherapy. Found that higher degree of patient defensiveness was related to lower patient contribution to alliance as reflected in patient commitment and working…

  8. Psychological Sequelae of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Abuse-Related Characteristics, Coping Strategies, and Attributional Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steel, Jennifer; Sanna, Lawrence; Hammond, Barbara; Whipple, James; Cross, Herbert

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test a model predicting the contribution of abuse-related characteristics and mediating variables such as coping and attributional style in the development of psychological sequelae in adults reporting a history of child sexual abuse (CSA). Methodology: Two hundred and eighty-five males and females from…

  9. Drying characteristics and modeling of yam slices under different relative humidity conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The drying characteristics of yam slices under different 23 constant relative humidity (RH) and step-down RH levels were studied. A mass transfer model was developed based on Bi-Di correlations containing a drying coefficient and a lag factor to describe the drying process. It was validated using ex...

  10. Does Spirituality Make a Difference? Psychosocial and Health-Related Characteristics of Spiritual Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammermeister, Jon; Peterson, Margaret

    2001-01-01

    Examined relationships among college students' differing levels of spiritual well-being and 11 psycho-social and health-related characteristics. Results revealed that students scoring higher on the spiritual health measure displayed better outcomes on psycho-social measures (e.g., loneliness, self-esteem and hopelessness). Alcohol and drug use…

  11. Relation of different measures of psychological characteristics to oral health habits, diabetes adherence and related clinical variables among diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Syrjälä, Anna-Maija H; Ylöstalo, Pekka; Niskanen, Mirka C; Knuuttila, Matti L E

    2004-04-01

    Among diabetic patients, oral health status and oral health behavior have been found to relate to metabolic control. The aim was to analyse which psychological characteristics, i.e. intention, self-efficacy, locus of control or self-esteem related to health behavior most comprehensively explain oral health habits, diabetes adherence, dental caries, deepened periodontal pockets, and the metabolic parameter HbA1c (glycosylated hemoglobin). The study subjects consisted of a group of 149 insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Data were obtained from self-completed questionnaires. The proportions of variance explained by the linear regression model were used as measures in the comparisons. It was found that oral health habits and diabetes adherence correlated. Both dental and diabetes self-efficacy scores were related to oral health habits and diabetes adherence. This indicates that self-efficacy is the best overall determinant of various health behavior practices. The ability of psychological characteristics to explain oral health was limited. Improvement of self-efficacy therefore may have a positive effect on various aspects of health behaviors. PMID:15056106

  12. Predicting the relative toxicity of metal ions using ion characteristics: Microtox{reg_sign} bioluminescence assay

    SciTech Connect

    McCloskey, J.T.; Newman, M.C.; Clark, S.B.

    1996-10-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships have been used to predict the relative toxicity of organic compounds. Although not as common, ion characteristics have also proven useful for predicting the relative toxicity of metal ions. The purpose of this study was to determine if the relative toxicity of metal ions using the Microtox{reg_sign} bioassay was predictable using ion characteristics. Median effect concentrations (EC50s) were determined for 20 metals in a NaNO{sub 3} medium, which reflected freshwater speciation conditions, using the Microtox bacterial assay. The log of EC50 values was modeled using several ion characteristics, and Akaike`s Information Criterion was calculated to determine which ion characteristics provided the best fit. Whether modeling total ion or free ion EC50 values, the one variable which best modeled EC50s was the softness index, while a combination of {chi}{sub m}{sup 2}r ({chi}{sub m} = electronegativity, r = Pauling ionic radius) and {vert_bar}log K{sub OH}{vert_bar} was the best two-variable model. Other variables, including {Delta}E{sub 0} and {chi}{sub m}{sup 2}r (one-variable models) and (AN/{Delta}IP, {Delta}E{sub 0}) and ({chi}{sub m}{sup 2}r, Z{sup 2}/r) (two-variable models), also gave adequate fits. Modeling with speciated (free ion) versus unspeciated (total ion) EC50 values did not improve fits. Modeling mono-, di-, and trivalent metal ions separately improved the models. The authors conclude that ion characteristics can be used to predict the relative toxicity of metal ions whether in freshwater (NaNO{sub 3} medium) or saltwater (NaCl medium) speciation conditions and that this approach can be applied to metal ions varying widely in both valence and binding tendencies.

  13. Global distribution and characteristics of coronae and related features on Venus - Implications for origin and relation to mantle processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stofan, Ellen R.; Sharpton, Virgil L.; Schubert, Gerald; Baer, Gidon; Bindschadler, Duane L.; Janes, Daniel M.; Squyres, Steven W.

    1992-01-01

    The increased coverage and resolution of Magellan images and altimetry data have resulted in significant new identifications of coronae and coronalike features and more detailed information on corona morphology, topography, and distribution. The distribution of coronae and coronalike features in Magellan data are assessed in the light of the proposed hotspot origin of these features. The basic characteristics of coronae are then compared with other possible hotspot features on Venus (e.g., major volcanic shields and domelike highlands) in a first-order assessment of the implications of mantle plume-related features on Venus for interior convective processes.

  14. A research model for relating job characteristics to job satisfaction of university foodservice employees.

    PubMed

    Duke, K M; Sneed, J

    1989-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between job characteristics and job satisfaction and between demographic variables and job satisfaction for university foodservice employees. A three-part survey was developed which included the 30-item Job Characteristics Inventory, 6 items related to job satisfaction, and 7 demographic items. Separate written questionnaires were administered to 32 managerial and 147 non-managerial employees of a large state university foodservice department. The response rate was 98% (32 managers and 143 non-managers). The reliability for the instrument, as determined by Cronbach's alpha, was 0.88 for employees and 0.91 for supervisors. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to test research hypotheses at a significance level of p less than or equal to .05. There was a positive relationship between job characteristics (autonomy, task identity, feedback, variety, dealing with others, and friendship opportunities) and job satisfaction for both employees and supervisors. Feedback and dealing with others were the individual job characteristics that were significant. Only one job characteristic, dealing with others, was rated higher by managerial than by non-managerial employees. There was no difference in job satisfaction by role (managerial vs. non-managerial) or demographic variables, except age for non-managerial employees. Older, non-managerial employees tended to be more satisfied with their jobs than did younger employees. Dietitians and foodservice managers can use the findings for implementing job design strategies, such as job enrichment and job rotation, to improve employee satisfaction. PMID:2760368

  15. RELATIVE CONTRIBUTIONS OF PARENT-PERCEIVED CHILD CHARACTERISTICS TO VARIATION IN CHILD FEEDING BEHAVIOR.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, Victoria K; Dovey, Terence M; Martin, Clarissa I; Meyer, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relative impact of co-occurring child characteristics on problematic feeding behavior. The aim of the current study was to assess the relative contributions of parent-perceived child characteristics in multivariable models of child feeding behavior. One hundred sixty-one mothers reported on their child's feeding behavior and a number of key child characteristics. These characteristics were entered into controlled multivariable models of child feeding behavior, using child and parent frequency domains of the Behavioral Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFAS; W. Crist et al., 1994) as outcome measures. Child feeding problems were positively associated with food neophobia and external behavioral and social issues, but not with most domains of temperamental difficulty or sensory sensitivity. Feeding problem frequency was associated with externalizing symptoms whereas parental perceptions of problems and coping were associated with social-interaction problems in the child. Population feeding problems appear to be external and interactive problems rather than driven by innate or internalizing factors. The association with externalizing symptoms suggests that feeding problems at this level may fall within a wider profile of challenging behavior; however, the existence of problematic feeding behaviors may constitute a challenge for parents only when the child's social interactions also are seen to be deficient. PMID:26715180

  16. [Comments relating to the psychosexual characteristics of the male transsexual. A clinical study].

    PubMed

    Fulcheri, M; Bertone, E; Barzega, G

    1995-03-01

    In this paper the authors analyse transexualism from a psychopathological, nosographic and clinical point of view. The re-examine the theories on the subjects elaborated by a number of authors and describe the clinical characteristics of the syndrome, paying special attention to problems relating to differential diagnosis. Moreover, they present the results ofa study carried out in a personal series of cases. The sample studied included 11 male transsexual subjects. The latter were evaluated through psychiatric interview and a questionnaire aimed at obtaining information on the following topics: the subjects' social and affective relations; their childhood experience; their perception and acceptance of themselves; the meaning, characteristics, localisation and experience of sexual pleasure. The results are discussed and compared with those of national and international literature on this subjects. PMID:7643729

  17. Mineralogical characteristics of the silica polymorphs in relation to their biological activities

    SciTech Connect

    Guthrie, G.D. Jr.; Heaney, P.J.

    1993-10-01

    Numerous aspects of minerals (including the silica polymorphs) can effect their biological activities. These include periodic structures, compositional variations, dissolution characteristics, surface properties, and particle size/shape. In order to understand mineral-induced pathogenesis in a mechanistic way, the links between these properties and biochemical processes must be elucidated. This paper presents some of the basic properties of the silica polymorphs that may relate to pathogenicity and mineralogical strategies for designing biological assays to evaluate these properties.

  18. The characteristics of 78 related airfoil sections from tests in the variable-density wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Eastman N; Ward, Kenneth E; Pinkerton, Robert M

    1933-01-01

    An investigation of a large group of related airfoils was made in the NACA variable-density wind tunnel at a large value of the Reynolds number. The tests were made to provide data that may be directly employed for a rational choice of the most suitable airfoil section for a given application. The variation of the aerodynamic characteristics with variations in thickness and mean-line form were systematically studied. (author)

  19. Growth, yield and compositional characteristics of Jerusalem artichoke as it relates to biomass production

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, M.D.; Chubey, B.B.; Dorrell, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) has shown excellent potential as a carbohydrate-rich crop. Initial investigations determined inulin and tuber yields; however, when additional studies showed that good quality pulp remained after inulin extraction and high forage yields per hectare were obtainable, the scope of investigation was broadened to assess utilization of the total plant. Plant growth, yield and compositional characteristics of Jerusalem artichoke as they relate to biomass production will be reported.

  20. Grazing bifurcation analysis of a relative rotation system with backlash non-smooth characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuang; Wang, Zhao-Long; Zhao, Shuang-Shuang; Li, Hai-Bin; Li, Jian-Xiong

    2015-07-01

    Grazing bifurcation of a relative rotation system with backlash non-smooth characteristic is studied along with the change of the external excitation in this paper. Considering the oil film, backlash, time-varying stiffness and time-varying error, the dynamical equation of a relative rotation system with a backlash non-smooth characteristic is deduced by applying the elastic hydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) and the Grubin theories. In the process of relative rotation, the occurrence of backlash will lead to the change of dynamic behaviors of the system, and the system will transform from the meshing state to the impact state. Thus, the zero-time discontinuous mapping (ZDM) and the Poincare mapping are deduced to analyze the local dynamic characteristics of the system before as well as after the moment that the backlash appears (i.e., the grazing state). Meanwhile, the grazing bifurcation mechanism is analyzed theoretically by applying the impact and Floquet theories. Numerical simulations are also given, which confirm the analytical results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61104040), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. E2012203090), and the University Innovation Team of Hebei Province Leading Talent Cultivation Project, China (Grant No. LJRC013).

  1. Influences of Rhythm- and Timbre-Related Musical Features on Characteristics of Music-Induced Movement

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Birgitta; Thompson, Marc R.; Luck, Geoff; Saarikallio, Suvi; Toiviainen, Petri

    2013-01-01

    Music makes us move. Several factors can affect the characteristics of such movements, including individual factors or musical features. For this study, we investigated the effect of rhythm- and timbre-related musical features as well as tempo on movement characteristics. Sixty participants were presented with 30 musical stimuli representing different styles of popular music, and instructed to move along with the music. Optical motion capture was used to record participants’ movements. Subsequently, eight movement features and four rhythm- and timbre-related musical features were computationally extracted from the data, while the tempo was assessed in a perceptual experiment. A subsequent correlational analysis revealed that, for instance, clear pulses seemed to be embodied with the whole body, i.e., by using various movement types of different body parts, whereas spectral flux and percussiveness were found to be more distinctly related to certain body parts, such as head and hand movement. A series of ANOVAs with the stimuli being divided into three groups of five stimuli each based on the tempo revealed no significant differences between the groups, suggesting that the tempo of our stimuli set failed to have an effect on the movement features. In general, the results can be linked to the framework of embodied music cognition, as they show that body movements are used to reflect, imitate, and predict musical characteristics. PMID:23641220

  2. Epidemiological Characteristics of Work-Related Ocular Trauma in Southwest Region of China

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Mingming; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the epidemiological characteristics of work-related eye injury in representative southwest region of China. Methods: Patients with eye injuries treated at the Ninth People’s Hospital of Chongqing from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2014 were included in the current study. All patients completed a comprehensive examination and interview. Demographic characteristics and injury details were recorded. The International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) and Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology (BETT) were used. Results: The average age of eye injury patients was 37.52 years and the majority were male. Among the 1055 total patients, approximately 42.9% of the injuries were work-related. The highest proportion of occupational eye trauma was observed in the group between 36 and 45 years of age. Occupational ocular trauma occurred more frequently in summer, with most from 16:00 to 18:00. Metal was the most common injury cause. Foreign body on external eye was the most common diagnosis. Workers in the manufacturing industry without pre-work safety training or eye protection were far more likely to suffer from occupational ocular trauma than those with training and protection. Conclusions: This study provides insight into the epidemiological characteristics of occupational ocular trauma in southwest region of China. The current findings might be considered as a baseline for future research on regional work-related eye injuries. Our findings will provide valuable information for further development of preventive strategies. PMID:26295403

  3. Effective relative permittivity and characteristic impedance of graphene loaded microstrip line by scalar S-parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Kamlesh; Neha, Tyagi, Pawan K.

    2016-05-01

    Graphene film has particular applications at the microwave frequencies because as the number of layers increases, the permittivity and conductivity are modulated. Particularly, an effective relative permittivity of graphene is of high interest. In the present work, effective relative permittivity and characteristic impedance for three kind of structures where microstrip line is either in air or loaded by glass or by graphene film on the glass substrate have been determined. The scalar S-parameters have been measured by adopting both transmission-reflection and short-open methods. The propagation constant and effective relative permittivity have been calculated and found to be nearly same for the both methods with maximum difference of 0.27% and 1.87%, respectively. However, the characteristic impedance values have significant variations as high as 12.13%. Enhanced effective relative permittivity in the range of 3.7 to 4.12 has been observed in the frequency range 1 to 8 GHz, if graphene film on the glass substrate has been loaded on top of the microstrip line. In this value the contribution of stripline substrate includes. Relative permittivity of only monolayer graphene film on the glass substrate is determined in the range of 1.62 to 4.05, and dispersive in nature.

  4. Optimization of multiple quality characteristics in bone drilling using grey relational analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Rupesh Kumar; Panda, Sudhansu Sekhar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Drilling of bone is common during bone fracture treatment to fix the fractured parts with screws wires or plates. Minimally invasive drilling of the bone has a great demand as it helps in better fixation and quick healing of the broken bones. The purpose of the present investigation is to determine the optimum cutting condition for the minimization of the temperature, force and surface roughness simultaneously during bone drilling. Method In this study, drilling experiments have been performed on bovine bone with different conditions of feed rate and drill rotational speed using full factorial design. Optimal level of the drilling parameters is determined by the grey relational grade (GRG) obtained from the GRA as the performance index of multiple quality characteristics. The effect of each drilling parameter on GRG is determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the results obtained are validated by confirmation experiment. Results Grey relational analysis showed that the investigation with feed rate of 40 mm/min and spindle speed of 500 rpm has the highest grey relational grade and is recommended setting for minimum temperature, force and surface roughness simultaneously during bone drilling. Feed rate has the highest contribution (59.49%) on the multiple performance characteristics followed by the spindle speed (37.69%) as obtained from ANOVA analysis. Conclusions The use of grey relational analysis will simplify the complex process of optimization of the multi response characteristics in bone drilling by converting them into a single grey relational grade. The use of the above suggested methodology can greatly minimize the bone tissue injury during drilling. PMID:25829751

  5. Sleep Spindle Characteristics in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Their Relation to Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Merrill S.

    2016-01-01

    Empirical evidence indicates that sleep spindles facilitate neuroplasticity and “off-line” processing during sleep, which supports learning, memory consolidation, and intellectual performance. Children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) exhibit characteristics that may increase both the risk for and vulnerability to abnormal spindle generation. Despite the high prevalence of sleep problems and cognitive deficits in children with NDD, only a few studies have examined the putative association between spindle characteristics and cognitive function. This paper reviews the literature regarding sleep spindle characteristics in children with NDD and their relation to cognition in light of what is known in typically developing children and based on the available evidence regarding children with NDD. We integrate available data, identify gaps in understanding, and recommend future research directions. Collectively, studies are limited by small sample sizes, heterogeneous populations with multiple comorbidities, and nonstandardized methods for collecting and analyzing findings. These limitations notwithstanding, the evidence suggests that future studies should examine associations between sleep spindle characteristics and cognitive function in children with and without NDD, and preliminary findings raise the intriguing question of whether enhancement or manipulation of sleep spindles could improve sleep-dependent memory and other aspects of cognitive function in this population. PMID:27478646

  6. Drinking group characteristics related to willingness to engage in protective behaviors with the group at nightclubs.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Hilary F; Miller, Brenda A; Bourdeau, Beth; Johnson, Mark B; Voas, Robert B

    2016-03-01

    Electronic music dance events (EMDEs) in nightclubs are settings where young adults tend to engage in high-risk behaviors, such as heavy alcohol and drug use. Consequences of these behaviors may be prevented if young adults engage in protective strategies with their drinking group. It is important to identify drinking group characteristics that predict willingness to intervene with peers. Objectives of this study were to (a) examine whether young adults at EMDEs would be willing to intervene with members of their drinking group and (b) identify both individual and group characteristics of drinking groups that predict willingness to intervene. Nightclub patrons (N = 215 individuals; 80 groups) were surveyed anonymously as they entered clubs. Individual- and group-level characteristics were measured in relation to willingness to intervene with peers. Mixed-model regressions were conducted, accounting for nesting by drinking group. Analyses show that participants were willing to intervene with their peers. Groups that knew each other well and had lower expectations for members' drinking were more willing to intervene. Women, younger, and older participants were also more willing to intervene. Findings show that club patrons are willing to intervene with their drinking groups to protect them from harmful consequences of heavy drinking and drug use. Findings indicate characteristics of both individuals and drinking groups that could be targeted in interventions among young adults largely not being reached by college interventions. PMID:26999349

  7. Sleep Spindle Characteristics in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Their Relation to Cognition.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Reut; Wise, Merrill S

    2016-01-01

    Empirical evidence indicates that sleep spindles facilitate neuroplasticity and "off-line" processing during sleep, which supports learning, memory consolidation, and intellectual performance. Children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) exhibit characteristics that may increase both the risk for and vulnerability to abnormal spindle generation. Despite the high prevalence of sleep problems and cognitive deficits in children with NDD, only a few studies have examined the putative association between spindle characteristics and cognitive function. This paper reviews the literature regarding sleep spindle characteristics in children with NDD and their relation to cognition in light of what is known in typically developing children and based on the available evidence regarding children with NDD. We integrate available data, identify gaps in understanding, and recommend future research directions. Collectively, studies are limited by small sample sizes, heterogeneous populations with multiple comorbidities, and nonstandardized methods for collecting and analyzing findings. These limitations notwithstanding, the evidence suggests that future studies should examine associations between sleep spindle characteristics and cognitive function in children with and without NDD, and preliminary findings raise the intriguing question of whether enhancement or manipulation of sleep spindles could improve sleep-dependent memory and other aspects of cognitive function in this population. PMID:27478646

  8. Gravitational radiation by point particle eccentric binary systems in the linearised characteristic formulation of general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cedeño Montaña, C. E.; de Araujo, J. C. N.

    2016-04-01

    We study a binary system composed of point particles of unequal masses in eccentric orbits in the linear regime of the characteristic formulation of general relativity, generalising a previous study found in the literature in which a system of equal masses in circular orbits is considered. We also show that the boundary conditions on the time-like world tubes generated by the orbits of the particles can be extended beyond circular orbits. Concerning the power lost by the emission of gravitational waves, it is directly obtained from the Bondi's News function. It is worth stressing that our results are completely consistent, because we obtain the same result for the power derived by Peters and Mathews, in a different approach, in their seminal paper of 1963. In addition, the present study constitutes a powerful tool to construct extraction schemes in the characteristic formalism to obtain the gravitational radiation produced by binary systems during the inspiralling phase.

  9. The Influence of Facial Characteristics on the Relation between Male 2D:4D and Dominance

    PubMed Central

    Ryckmans, Jan; Millet, Kobe; Warlop, Luk

    2015-01-01

    Although relations between 2D:4D and dominance rank in both baboons and rhesus macaques have been observed, evidence in humans is mixed. Whereas behavioral patterns in humans have been discovered that are consistent with these animal findings, the evidence for a relation between dominance and 2D:4D is weak or inconsistent. The present study provides experimental evidence that male 2D:4D is related to dominance after (fictitious) male-male interaction when the other man has a dominant, but not a submissive or neutral face. This finding provides evidence that the relationship between 2D:4D and dominance emerges in particular, predictable situations and that merely dominant facial characteristics of another person are enough to activate supposed relationships between 2D:4D and dominance. PMID:26600255

  10. Emulsion properties of casein and whey protein hydrolysates and the relation with other hydrolysate characteristics.

    PubMed

    van der Ven, C; Gruppen, H; de Bont, D B; Voragen, A G

    2001-10-01

    Casein and whey protein were hydrolyzed using 11 different commercially available enzyme preparations. Emulsion-forming ability and emulsion stability of the digests were measured as well as biochemical properties with the objective to study the relations between hydrolysate characteristics and emulsion properties. All whey protein hydrolysates formed emulsions with bimodal droplet size distributions, signifying poor emulsion-forming ability. Emulsion-forming ability of some casein hydrolysates was comparable to that of intact casein. Emulsion instability was caused by creaming and coalescence. Creaming occurred mainly in whey hydrolysate emulsions and in casein hydrolysate emulsions containing large emulsion droplets. Coalescence was dominant in casein emulsions with a broad particle size distribution. Emulsion instability due to coalescence was related to apparent molecular weight distribution of hydrolysates; a relative high amount of peptides larger than 2 kDa positively influences emulsion stability. PMID:11600059

  11. The Influence of Facial Characteristics on the Relation between Male 2D:4D and Dominance.

    PubMed

    Ryckmans, Jan; Millet, Kobe; Warlop, Luk

    2015-01-01

    Although relations between 2D:4D and dominance rank in both baboons and rhesus macaques have been observed, evidence in humans is mixed. Whereas behavioral patterns in humans have been discovered that are consistent with these animal findings, the evidence for a relation between dominance and 2D:4D is weak or inconsistent. The present study provides experimental evidence that male 2D:4D is related to dominance after (fictitious) male-male interaction when the other man has a dominant, but not a submissive or neutral face. This finding provides evidence that the relationship between 2D:4D and dominance emerges in particular, predictable situations and that merely dominant facial characteristics of another person are enough to activate supposed relationships between 2D:4D and dominance. PMID:26600255

  12. Relative Amplitude based Features of characteristic ECG-Peaks for Identification of Coronary Artery Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohel, Bakul; Tiwary, U. S.; Lahiri, T.

    Coronary artery disease or Myocardial Infarction is the leading cause of death and disability in the world. ECG is widely used as a cheap diagnostic tool for diagnosis of coronary artery disease but has low sensitivity with the present criteria based on ST-segment, T wave and Q wave changes. So to increase the sensitivity of the ECG we have introduced relative amplitude based new features of characteristic ‘R’ and ‘S’ ECG-peaks between two leads. Relative amplitude based features shows remarkable capability in discriminating Myocardial Infarction and Healthy pattern using backpropogation neural network classifier yield results with 81.82% sensitivity and 81.82% specificity. Also relative amplitude might be an efficient method in minimizing the effect of body composition on ECG amplitude based features without use of any information from other than ECG

  13. Characteristics of work-related fatal and hospitalised injuries not captured in workers’ compensation data

    PubMed Central

    Koehoorn, M; Tamburic, L; Xu, F; Alamgir, H; Demers, P A; McLeod, C B

    2015-01-01

    Objectives (1) To identify work-related fatal and non-fatal hospitalised injuries using multiple data sources, (2) to compare case-ascertainment from external data sources with accepted workers’ compensation claims and (3) to investigate the characteristics of work-related fatal and hospitalised injuries not captured by workers’ compensation. Methods Work-related fatal injuries were ascertained from vital statistics, coroners and hospital discharge databases using payment and diagnosis codes and injury and work descriptions; and work-related (non-fatal) injuries were ascertained from the hospital discharge database using admission, diagnosis and payment codes. Injuries for British Columbia residents aged 15–64 years from 1991 to 2009 ascertained from the above external data sources were compared to accepted workers’ compensation claims using per cent captured, validity analyses and logistic regression. Results The majority of work-related fatal injuries identified in the coroners data (83%) and the majority of work-related hospitalised injuries (95%) were captured as an accepted workers’ compensation claim. A work-related coroner report was a positive predictor (88%), and the responsibility of payment field in the hospital discharge record a sensitive indicator (94%), for a workers’ compensation claim. Injuries not captured by workers’ compensation were associated with female gender, type of work (natural resources and other unspecified work) and injury diagnosis (eg, airway-related, dislocations and undetermined/unknown injury). Conclusions Some work-related injuries captured by external data sources were not found in workers’ compensation data in British Columbia. This may be the result of capturing injuries or workers that are ineligible for workers’ compensation, or the result of injuries that go unreported to the compensation system. Hospital discharge records and coroner reports may provide opportunities to identify workers (or family

  14. [The characteristics of Alzheimer's Disease Units in relation to neuropsychological tests].

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Giacoma C; Caffari, Bruno; Vanacore, Nicola; Maggini, Marina; Raschetti, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    The Cronos Project is a post-marketing surveillance study implemented by the Italian Ministry of Health and the National Institute of Health whose main objectives are to characterise the population of Alzheimer's disease patients treated with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and monitor effectiveness and drug safety in the field practice. In this project 503 Alzheimer's disease units were activated located throughout the country. The characteristics of these Alzheimer's disease units are presented for setting (territorial, university, hospital, extra-hospital), health personnel employed, examinations offered (CT and MRI scans and laboratory tests), counselling activities and relationship with caregiver associations in relation to neuropsychological tests. PMID:16037652

  15. Feeding habits of juvenile flatfish in relation to habitat characteristics in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florin, Ann-Britt; Lavados, Gaston

    2010-03-01

    To investigate feeding habits of juvenile flounder ( Platichthys flesus) and turbot ( Psetta maxima) in relation to habitat characteristics a field survey with push net sampling was conducted in nursery areas with different ecological characteristics in the northern Baltic proper. Sampling sites were stratified to cover several different habitat types defined by substrate and wave exposure. Apart from flatfishes and epifauna, samples of macrofauna, meiofauna and hyperbenthic planktons were collected from each site together with data on vegetation, depth, salinity, temperature and turbidity. The diet differed between species where flounder diet was dominated by chironomids, copepods and oligochaetes while turbot apart from chironomids had a high incidence of amphipods, gobies and mysids. In both species there was a shift in diet with size, although this shift was influenced by the habitat. Among the environmental variables investigated, wave exposure was found to significantly influence flounder diet. Food preference in the most exposed areas was dominated by oligochaetes and copepods instead of chironomids, which dominated in sheltered areas. This study shows that habitat characteristics can have a major influence on feeding habits of juvenile flatfish.

  16. Prevalence and Genetic Characteristics of Geographic Atrophy among Elderly Japanese with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Sakurada, Yoichi; Yoneyama, Seigo; Sugiyama, Atsushi; Tanabe, Naohiko; Kikushima, Wataru; Mabuchi, Fumihiko; Kume, Atsuki; Kubota, Takeo; Iijima, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence and genetic characteristics of geographic atrophy (GA) among elderly Japanese with advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a clinic-based study. Methods Two-hundred and ninety consecutive patients with advanced AMD were classified into typical neovascular AMD, polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP) or geographic atrophy (GA). Genetic variants of ARMS2 A69S (rs10490924) and CFH I62V (rs800292) were genotyped using TaqMan Genotyping Assays. The clinical and genetic characteristics were compared between patients with and without GA. Results The number of patients diagnosed as having typical neovascular AMD, PCV, RAP and GA were 98 (33.8%), 151 (52.1%), 22 (7.5%) and 19 (6.6%), respectively. Of 19 patients with GA, 13 patients (68.4%) had unilateral GA with exudative AMD in the contralateral eye. Patients with GA were significantly older, with a higher prevalence of reticular pseudodrusen, bilateral involvement of advanced AMD and T-allele frequency of ARMS2 A69S compared with those with typical AMD and PCV; although there were no differences in the genetic and clinical characteristics among patients with GA and RAP. Conclusions The prevalence of GA was 6.6% among elderly Japanese with AMD. Patients with GA and RAP exhibited genetic and clinical similarities. PMID:26918864

  17. Investigating grade nine textbook problems for characteristics related to mathematical literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiepour Gatabi, Abolfazl; Stacey, Kaye; Gooya, Zahra

    2012-12-01

    This study presents a content analysis of the new Iranian Grade 9 mathematics textbook and two Australian Year 9 mathematics textbooks, examining the extent to which the problems show characteristics associated in the literature with promoting mathematical literacy. The new Iranian book was produced to meet a range of needs including several well aligned with mathematical literacy for all students. Australia was selected as the comparison country because of its relatively high international achievement in mathematical literacy. Three comparable chapters in each book were analysed for these characteristics. When considering the percentages of problems showing each characteristic, there was considerable similarity between the textbooks. However, the Australian mathematics textbooks contain many more problems than the Iranian textbook and each chapter includes problems in a diverse range of contexts and the mathematical tasks range from simple applications of formulas to real world modelling although of a constrained nature. With many fewer problems, the Iranian textbook has considerably less diversity of context and very little opportunity for students to engage in mathematical modelling, the key process of mathematical literacy.

  18. Relations of microbiome characteristics to edaphic properties of tropical soils from Trinidad.

    PubMed

    de Gannes, Vidya; Eudoxie, Gaius; Bekele, Isaac; Hickey, William J

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how community structure of Bacteria, Archaea, and Fungi varies as a function of edaphic characteristics is key to elucidating associations between soil ecosystem function and the microbiome that sustains it. In this study, non-managed tropical soils were examined that represented a range of edaphic characteristics, and a comprehensive soil microbiome analysis was done by Illumina sequencing of amplicon libraries that targeted Bacteria (universal prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene primers), Archaea (primers selective for archaeal 16S rRNA genes), or Fungi (internal transcribed spacer region). Microbiome diversity decreased in the order: Bacteria > Archaea > Fungi. Bacterial community composition had a strong relationship to edaphic factors while that of Archaea and Fungi was comparatively weak. Bacterial communities were 70-80% alike, while communities of Fungi and Archaea had 40-50% similarity. While each of the three component communities differed in species turnover patterns, soils having relatively similar bacterial communities also housed similar archaeal communities. In contrast, the composition of fungal communities had no correlation to bacterial or archaeal communities. Bacterial and archaeal diversity had significant (negative) correlations to pH, whereas fungal diversity was not correlated to pH. Edaphic characteristics that best explained variation between soils in bacterial community structure were: total carbon, sodium, magnesium, and zinc. For fungi, the best variables were: sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, boron, and C/N. Archaeal communities had two sets of edaphic factors of equal strength, one contained sulfur, sodium, and ammonium-N and the other was composed of clay, potassium, ammonium-N, and nitrate-N. Collectively, the data indicate that Bacteria, Archaea, and Fungi did not closely parallel one another in community structure development, and thus microbiomes in each soil acquired unique identities. This divergence could in part reflect the

  19. Relations of microbiome characteristics to edaphic properties of tropical soils from Trinidad

    PubMed Central

    de Gannes, Vidya; Eudoxie, Gaius; Bekele, Isaac; Hickey, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how community structure of Bacteria, Archaea, and Fungi varies as a function of edaphic characteristics is key to elucidating associations between soil ecosystem function and the microbiome that sustains it. In this study, non-managed tropical soils were examined that represented a range of edaphic characteristics, and a comprehensive soil microbiome analysis was done by Illumina sequencing of amplicon libraries that targeted Bacteria (universal prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene primers), Archaea (primers selective for archaeal 16S rRNA genes), or Fungi (internal transcribed spacer region). Microbiome diversity decreased in the order: Bacteria > Archaea > Fungi. Bacterial community composition had a strong relationship to edaphic factors while that of Archaea and Fungi was comparatively weak. Bacterial communities were 70–80% alike, while communities of Fungi and Archaea had 40–50% similarity. While each of the three component communities differed in species turnover patterns, soils having relatively similar bacterial communities also housed similar archaeal communities. In contrast, the composition of fungal communities had no correlation to bacterial or archaeal communities. Bacterial and archaeal diversity had significant (negative) correlations to pH, whereas fungal diversity was not correlated to pH. Edaphic characteristics that best explained variation between soils in bacterial community structure were: total carbon, sodium, magnesium, and zinc. For fungi, the best variables were: sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, boron, and C/N. Archaeal communities had two sets of edaphic factors of equal strength, one contained sulfur, sodium, and ammonium-N and the other was composed of clay, potassium, ammonium-N, and nitrate-N. Collectively, the data indicate that Bacteria, Archaea, and Fungi did not closely parallel one another in community structure development, and thus microbiomes in each soil acquired unique identities. This divergence could in part reflect

  20. Pedological characteristics related to groundwater occurrence in the Tarkwa area, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuma, J. S.; Younger, P. L.

    2001-08-01

    Saturated hydraulic conductivities ( Ks) and textural characteristics of soil have been determined by infiltration and particle size distribution tests, respectively, at 56 sites. These soil tests were conducted in the B-horizon during a groundwater resources survey in the Tarkwa area, Ghana. It was observed, in general, that extremely poorly sorted soils exhibited low porosity and relatively higher Ks, while relatively better sorted soils revealed high porosity and low Ks values. The range of Ks of the soils is from 10 -5-10 -8 m s -1, although the overwhelming majority is in the 10 -6-10 -7 m s -1 range. Tarkwaian soils are mainly silty sands with minor lateritic patches, which are located on hilly terrain underlain by Banket Series and Tarkwa Phyllite rocks. Banket soils are located mainly on hills, which act as groundwater recharge areas and exhibit the most favourable characteristics for infiltration in the area, in terms of both particle size distribution and Ks values. The preponderance of the Banket soils implies that they are the best medium for groundwater recharge in the area and can be expected to act as fair-yielding regolith aquifers in favourable areas. Huni and Kawere soils located in low-lying areas display characteristics suggesting that the Huni, with a much better sorting coefficient and Ks value, will admit more precipitation for recharge compared to the Kawere. Baseflow indices, determined for four catchments in the area, all reveal low storage characteristics in the range of 17-33%, reflecting a strong influence of the textural properties of soil. The moisture content of the soils varies from about 10% in the Banket gravels to 22% in dykes, while field capacity and permanent wilting point are estimated at 20-25% and 7-9% by volume, respectively. The pH of the soils varies from very acidic to moderately acidic, that is 1.72-5.01. The lowest pH values are associated with felsic dykes and are caused by the presence of well-disseminated fine

  1. Research on relation between bending stress and characteristic frequency of H-shaped beam by free vibration deflection

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Tsutomu; Watanabe, Takeshi

    2014-05-27

    In order to investigate a relation between a bending stress and a characteristic frequency of a beam, 4-point loading which had constant moment region was conducted to a beam with H shape configuration experimentally and numerically. H-shaped beam has many characteristic deformation modes. Axial tensile stress in the beam made its characteristic frequency higher, and compressive stress lower. In the experiment, some characteristic frequencies got higher by a bending stress, and the others stayed in a small frequency fluctuation. The distinction is anticipated as a capability to measure a bending stress of a beam by its characteristic frequencies.

  2. Multilevel modelling of built environment characteristics related to neighbourhood walking activity in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Li, F.; Fisher, K; Brownson, R.; Bosworth, M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relation between built environment factors (representing several dimensions of urban form of neighbourhoods) and walking activity at both the neighbourhood level and the resident level, in an older adult sample. Design, setting, participants: A cross sectional, multilevel design with neighbourhoods as the primary sampling unit and senior residents as the secondary unit. Five hundred and seventy seven residents (mean age = 74 years, SD = 6.3 years) participated in the survey, which was conducted among 56 city defined neighbourhoods in Portland, Oregon, USA. Neighbourhood level variables were constructed using geographical information systems. Resident level variables consisted of a mix of self reports and geocoded data on the built environment. Main outcome measure: Self reported neighbourhood walking. Main results: A positive relation was found between built environment factors (density of places of employment, household density, green and open spaces for recreation, number of street intersections) and walking activity at the neighbourhood level. At the resident level, perceptions of safety for walking and number of nearby recreational facilities were positively related to high levels of walking activity. A significant interaction was observed between number of street intersections and perceptions of safety from traffic. Conclusions: Certain neighbourhood built environment characteristics related to urban form were positively associated with walking activity in the neighbourhoods of senior residents. Public health promotion of walking activity/urban mobility and the design of interventions need to consider the contribution of neighbourhood level built environment influences. PMID:15965138

  3. Vertical PM10 Characteristics and their Relation with Tropospheric Meteorology over Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hei Tong, Cheuk

    2016-04-01

    Small particulates or PM10, those with aerodynamic diameters less than 10 mm, can cause long term impairment to human health as they can penetrate deep and deposit on the wall of the respiratory system. Hong Kong receives significant concentration of cross-boundary particulates but at the same time produce domestic pollutants which altogether contribute to the total pollution problem. Recent research interest is paying more attention on the vertical characteristic of PM in the lower atmosphere as possible correlations exist along different altitude. Besides, there exists potential relationship between PM concentration aloft and the high-level weather condition. Yet, most studies focus only up to around 200 meters above sea level due to the proposed significance and the lack of technology. Undoubtedly, this is not enough in investigating the relation between vertical atmospheric profile and PM vertical characteristics. New technology development has allowed measuring PM concentration along the vertical atmospheric profile up to tropopause. This measurement relies on the Atmospheric Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) which operates using the radar principle to detect Rayleigh and Mie scattering from atmospheric gas and aerosols. The research involves (1) study of the seasonal vertical PM10 characteristics in five studying site of Hong Kong covering urban, suburban and rural area; (2) the relationship of the PM10 characteristics with meteorological parameters; (3) the vertical PM10 characteristics under the approach of tropical cyclones. A portable Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) is adopted to collect PM data aloft while surface PM data is collected from ground stations. High-level meteorology data is received from Hong Kong Observatory. Statistical analyses are operated to investigate the correlation between weather conditions and PM concentration along the vertical profile. The research study is divided in phrases. The ultimate goal of the study is to develop models

  4. The Relation between Diverse Phenotypes of PCOS with Clinical Manifestations, Anthropometric Indices and Metabolic Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Shahrami, Seyedeh Hajar; Abbasi Ranjbar, Zahra; Milani, Forozan; Kezem-Nejad, Ehsan; Hassanzadeh Rad, Afagh; Dalil Heirat, Seyedeh Fatemeh

    2016-02-01

    Critical issue regarding to variation of findings based on different phenotypes led investigators to define whether they are distinct features or overlapping ones. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association between diverse phenotypes of PCOS (Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome) with clinical manifestations, anthropometric indices, and metabolic characteristics. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in 15-39 years old women with PCOS referred to infertility clinics in the north part of Iran, Rasht during 2010-2011. Data were gathered through an interview by a form consisted of demographic characteristics, laboratory findings, ovarian volume and anthropometric indices. A total of 214 patients consisted of 161 PCOS (cases) and 53 normal women (controls) participated in this study. The most prevalent phenotype in PCOS population was IM/PCO/HA (54%), followed by IM/HA (28%) and IM/PCO (13%). PCO/HA was present only in 6 PCOS patients (5%). PCOS patients were significantly younger than controls (P=0.07). Results showed that increased ovarian volume were higher in PCOS group in comparison with controls and IM/PCO/HA, and IM/PCO had respectively the largest ovarian volumes. Also, a significant relation was observed based on Cholesterol, 17OHP, LH, TG, 2hpp, and LH/FSH between patients with PCOS and control groups. There were significant differences in demographic, anthropometric, hormonal and ultrasound findings between PCOS and controls. Therefore, it seems that classification of the characteristics of each phenotype could offer an appropriate guide for screening risks of PCOS and may facilitate performing most favorable treatment for these complications. PMID:26997601

  5. Participant and site characteristics related to participant retention in a diabetes prevention translational project.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Luohua; Manson, Spero M; Dill, Edward J; Beals, Janette; Johnson, Ann; Huang, Haixiao; Acton, Kelly J; Roubideaux, Yvette

    2015-01-01

    Using multilevel analysis, this study investigated participant and site characteristics associated with participant retention in a multisite diabetes prevention translational project among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) people. We analyzed data from the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention Program (SDPI-DP), a lifestyle intervention to prevent diabetes implemented in 36 AI/AN grantee sites. A total of 2,553 participants were recruited and started the intervention between January 1, 2006 and July 31, 2008. They were offered the 16-session Lifestyle Balance Curriculum from the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) in the first 16-24 weeks of intervention. Generalized estimating equation models and proportional hazards models with robust standard error estimates were used to evaluate the relationships of participant and site characteristics with retention. As of July 31, 2009, about 50 % of SDPI-DP participants were lost to follow-up. Those who were younger, male, with lower household income, no family support person, and more baseline chronic pain were at higher risk for both short-term and long-term retention failure (i.e., not completing all 16 DPP sessions and loss to follow-up, respectively). Sites with large user populations and younger staff had lower likelihood of retaining participants successfully. Other site characteristics related to higher risk for retention failure included staff rating of participant disinterest in SDPI-DP and barriers to participant transportation and child/elder care. Future translational initiatives need to pay attention to both participant- and site-level factors in order to maximize participant retention. PMID:24384689

  6. Relating urban surface temperature to surface characteristics in Beijing area of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weidong; Lu, Liping; Ye, Caihua; Liu, Yonghong

    2009-10-01

    The surface environment and the thermal infrared information of remote sensing have been widely used to study urban climate. In this paper, the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data acquired in 2008 were applied to study the relationship between urban surface temperature and surface characteristics within the Beijing 5th ring road area of China. The thermal band data of TM combined with classification-based surface emissivity were utilized to estimate land surface temperature (LST). Meanwhile, surface characteristics parameters, such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI), the Normalized Difference Building Index (NDBI) and the Normalized Difference Bareness Index (NDBaI) were calculated according to related arithmetic respectively. The quantitative relationship between LST and NDVI, MNDWI, NDBI and NDBaI were investigated according to urban main land use/cover types (water body, vegetation and built-up surfaces). The results showed there were negative correlations between LST and NDVI, MNDWI for vegetation and built-up land use/cover types, positive correlations between LST and NDBI, NDBaI for vegetation and built-up land use/cover types. In general, in the area 5th ring road of Beijing the distribution of NDVI, MNDWI and NDBI directly defined the distribution of LST. For built-up land use/cover type, the NDVI was small, However, NDBI and LST were high. While in the area with more water and vegetation, the NDVI and MNDWI were high and LST was small. There were obvious correlation between LST and urban surface characteristics.

  7. Characteristics of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Korea and Their Work-relatedness Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kun Hyung; Kim, Day Sung; Jang, Sun Je; Hong, Ki Hun; Yoo, Seung-Won

    2010-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) can be compensated through the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance Act. We looked at the characteristics of WMSDs in worker's compensation records and the epidemiological investigation reports from the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute (OSHRI). Based on the records of compensation, the number of cases for WMSDs decreased from 4,532 in 2003 to 1,954 in 2007. However the proportion of WMSDs among the total approved occupational diseases increased from 49.6% in 2003 to 76.5% in 2007, and the total cost of WMSDs increased from 105.3 billion won in 2004 to 163.3 billion won in 2007. The approval rate of WMSDs by the OSHRI accounted for 65.6%. Ergonomic and clinical characteristics were associated with the approval rate; however, the degenerative changes had a minimal affect. This result was in discordance between OSHRI and the Korea Workers' Compensation & Welfare Service. We presumed that there were perceptional gaps in work-relatedness interpretation that resulted from the inequality of information in ergonomic analyses. We propose to introduce ergonomic analysis to unapproved WMSDs cases and discuss those results among experts that will be helpful to form a consensus among diverse groups. PMID:21258595

  8. The relation between geochemical characteristics and landslide in Hungtsaiping area, Nantou, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, P.; Tsai, L.

    2009-12-01

    Hungtsaiping is located at the south bank of the Yonglu stream, Chungliao Village of Nantou County, central Taiwan. Hungtsaiping landslide was triggered by the Chi-Chi earthquake (Mw=7.6) occurring on September 20, 1999 UTC near the town of Chi-Chi in Nantou County, central Taiwan. Coping with the geological and geomorphologic investigations, this study makes an attempt to find the relation between geochemical characteristics and landslide in Hungtsaiping area. Water samples were collected from spring waters, creeks, ponds, groundwater and the Yonglu stream once every month from May 2008 to May 2009. Oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopic, ionic concentrations, as well as electrical conductivity and pH value were analyzed. The results indicate that calcium and magnesium bicarbonate-rich water was found on the top and the middle part of the slope. On the other hand, sodium bicarbonate-rich water as well as exceptionally high sulfate concentration was found on the foot of the slope, the sulfate content decreased with increasing elevations until the middle part of slope. A conceptual model of flow process and water origin in Hungtsaiping landslide was established by summarizing the features of hydrogeochemical analyses and the profiles in this study. Keywords: landslide, geochemical characteristics, isotope, hydrochemistry. Fig. 1 The sampling locations of Hungtsaiping landslide. Fig. 2 Isogram: the concentration of sulfate in May 2008 in Hungtsaiping area.

  9. The predominance of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis in French organic sourdoughs and its impact on related bread characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lhomme, Emilie; Orain, Servane; Courcoux, Philippe; Onno, Bernard; Dousset, Xavier

    2015-11-20

    Fourteen bakeries located in different regions of France were selected. These bakers use natural sourdough and organic ingredients. Consequently, different organic sourdoughs used for the manufacture of French bread were studied by the enumeration of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and 16S rRNA sequencing of the isolates. In addition, after DNA extraction the bacterial diversity was assessed by pyrosequencing of the 16S rDNA V1-V3 region. Although LAB counts showed significant variations (7.6-9.5log10CFU/g) depending on the sourdough studied, their identification through a polyphasic approach revealed a large predominance of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis in all samples. In ten sourdoughs, both culture and independent methods identified L. sanfranciscensis as the dominant LAB species identified. In the remaining sourdoughs, culture methods identified 30-80% of the LAB as L. sanfranciscensis whereas more than 95% of the reads obtained by pyrosequencing belonged to L. sanfranciscensis. Other sub-dominant species, such as Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus hammesii, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, and Lactobacillus sakei, were also identified. Quantification of L. sanfranciscensis by real-time PCR confirmed the predominance of this species ranging from 8.24 to 10.38log10CFU/g. Regarding the acidification characteristics, sourdough and related bread physico-chemical characteristics varied, questioning the involvement of sub-dominant species or L. sanfranciscensis intra-species diversity and/or the role of the baker's practices. PMID:26051957

  10. A Comparison of Victim, Offender, and Event Characteristics of Alcohol- and Non-Alcohol-Related Homicides

    PubMed Central

    Pridemore, William Alex; Eckhardt, Krista

    2009-01-01

    The authors used narrative data from court and police records of homicides in Russia to compare alcohol- and non-alcohol-related incidents on victim, offender, and event characteristics. Binary logistic regression models were estimated for neither participant drinking, offender drinking, victim drinking, and both drinking. Consistent differences were found between alcohol- and non-alcohol-related homicides across the models. Alcohol-related homicides were significantly more likely to occur overnight, to occur on weekends, and to result from acute arguments and significantly less likely to occur between strangers, to be profit motivated or premeditated, and to be carried out to hide other crimes. No significant differences between the drinking and nondrinking samples were found for victim’s gender, primary weapon used, or event location. The authors place these findings into the literature on the situational context of crime and create a tentative typology of homicide events, grounded in the results of their inductive approach, based on alcohol use by homicide offenders and victims. PMID:19802358

  11. Impact of soil characteristics on relative bioavailability of NDL-PCBs in piglets.

    PubMed

    Delannoy, Matthieu; Fournier, Agnès; Tankari Dan-Badjo, Abdourahamane; Schwarz, Jessica; Lerch, Sylvain; Rychen, Guido; Feidt, Cyril

    2015-11-01

    Children may be orally exposed to organic pollutants through involuntary soil ingestion. This study was aimed at determining the impact of the characteristics (organic carbon (OC), black carbon (BC), clay contents and pH) of ten contaminated soils on the bioavailability of non-dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (NDL-PCBs). Five juvenile male piglets were exposed to increasing amounts of each of the soils. These soil-fed groups were compared by a relative bioavailability approach (RBA) to a reference group fed with corn oil spiked with increasing doses of Aroclor 1254. After 10days of oral exposure, the animals were sacrificed and NDL-PCB concentrations were determined by GC-MS in the adipose tissue. The relative bioavailability (RBA) factors were calculated for PCB 101, 138, 153 and 180. Despite high variations in the amount of black carbon (0.50gkg(-1)-6.0gkg(-1)d.w.) and organic matter (12gkg(-1)-180gkg(-1)d.w.), only 3 soils exhibited a significantly lower RBA for all NDL-PCBs, compared to the oil-group. High levels of OC (>100gkg(-1)) and BC content (3.0gkg(-1)) were related to a significant reduction in RBA. Overall, RBA was higher than 45% independently of the soil and the PCB congener. PMID:26210188

  12. Characteristic phasic evolution of convulsive seizure in PCDH19-related epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Hiroko; Imai, Katsumi; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Shigematsu, Hideo; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Inoue, Yushi; Higurashi, Norimichi; Hirose, Shinichi

    2016-03-01

    PCDH19-related epilepsy is a genetic disorder that was first described in 1971, then referred to as "epilepsy and mental retardation limited to females". PCDH19 has recently been identified as the responsible gene, but a detailed characterization of the seizure manifestation based on video-EEG recording is still limited. The purpose of this study was to elucidate features of the seizure semiology in children with PCDH19-related epilepsy. To do this, ictal video-EEG recordings of 26 convulsive seizures in three girls with PCDH19-related epilepsy were analysed. All seizures occurred in clusters, mainly during sleep accompanied by fever. The motor manifestations consisted of six sequential phases: "jerk", "reactive", "mild tonic", "fluttering", "mild clonic", and "postictal". Some phases were brief or lacking in some seizures, whereas others were long or pronounced. In the reactive phase, the patients looked fearful or startled with sudden jerks and turned over reactively. The tonic and clonic components were less intense compared with those of typical tonic-clonic seizures in other types of epilepsy. The fluttering phase was characterised initially by asymmetric, less rhythmic, and less synchronous tremulous movement and was then followed by the subtle clonic phase. Subtle oral automatism was observed in the postictal phase. The reactive, mild tonic, fluttering and mild clonic phases were most characteristic of seizures of PCDH19-related epilepsy. Ictal EEG started bilaterally and was symmetric in some patients but asymmetric in others. It showed asymmetric rhythmic discharges in some seizures at later phases. The electroclinical pattern of the phasic evolution of convulsive seizure suggests a focal onset seizure with secondary generalisation. Based on our findings, we propose that the six unique sequential phases in convulsive seizures suggest the diagnosis of PCDH19-related epilepsy when occurring in clusters with or without high fever in girls. [Published with

  13. Etiological features of borderline personality related characteristics in a birth cohort of 12-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    BELSKY, DANIEL W.; CASPI, AVSHALOM; ARSENEAULT, LOUISE; BLEIDORN, WIEBKE; FONAGY, PETER; GOODMAN, MARIANNE; HOUTS, RENATE; MOFFITT, TERRIE E.

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported that borderline personality related characteristics can be observed in children, and that these characteristics are associated with increased risk for the development of borderline personality disorder. It is not clear whether borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with adult borderline personality disorder. We investigated the etiology of borderline personality related characteristics in a longitudinal cohort study of 1,116 pairs of same-sex twins followed from birth through age 12 years. Borderline personality related characteristics measured at age 12 years were highly heritable, were more common in children who had exhibited poor cognitive function, impulsivity, and more behavioral and emotional problems at age 5 years, and co-occurred with symptoms of conduct disorder, depression, anxiety, and psychosis. Exposure to harsh treatment in the family environment through age 10 years predicted borderline personality related characteristics at age 12 years. This association showed evidence of environmental mediation and was stronger among children with a family history of psychiatric illness, consistent with diathesis–stress models of borderline etiology. Results indicate that borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with borderline personality disorder in adults and suggest that inherited and environmental risk factors make independent and interactive contributions to borderline etiology. PMID:22293008

  14. Building characteristics associated with moisture related problems in 8,918 Swedish dwellings.

    PubMed

    Hägerhed-Engman, Linda; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan

    2009-08-01

    Moisture problems in buildings have in a number of studies been shown to increase the risk for respiratory symptoms. The study Dampness in Buildings and Health (DBH) was initiated with the aim to identify health relevant exposures related to dampness in buildings. A questionnaire study about home environment with a focus on dampness problems and health was conducted in one county of Sweden (8,918 homes, response rate 79%). Building characteristics that were associated with one or more of the dampness indicators were for single-family houses, older houses, flat-roofed houses built in the 1960s and 1970s, houses with a concrete slab on the ground that were built before 1983. Moreover, tenancy and earlier renovation due to mould or moisture problems was strongly associated with dampness. A perception of dry air was associated with window-pane condensation, e.g. humid indoor air. PMID:19557598

  15. Twenty-five years of JEAB: A survey of selected demographic characteristics related to publication trends

    PubMed Central

    Williams, R. Alan; Buskist, W. F.

    1983-01-01

    Some demographic characteristics related to authorship of research reports in the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior (JEAB) were analyzed as to affiliation and location (U.S. or foreign) of authors. In addition, the incidence of publications by the members of the editorial board was tallied. The number of different affiliations of JEAB authors has decreased steadily over the past several years with substantially fewer papers deriving from independent laboratories and medical schools. While the number of papers by foreign authors has generally increased over the years there is a recent reduction in their number. These data paint a mixed picture of the “health” status of the experimental analysis of behavior as reflected in its major publication outlet. PMID:22478586

  16. Mean LIS flash properties and their relation to TRMM cloud and rain characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beirle, Steffen; Wagner, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    In a recent study, mean LIS flash properties (like the number of "events" per flash or the flash radiance), which can be associated with the flash "strength", have been analyzed (Beirle et al., NHESS, 2014). The resulting maps show consistent spatial patterns; most strikingly, oceanic flashes show higher values than continental flashes for all properties observed by LIS. Over land, regions with high (eastern US) and low (India) flash strength can be clearly identified. Several possible reasons for the differences in flash properties have been discussed, but a clear explanation, in particular of the land-ocean contrast, is still missing. Here we analyse how far mean LIS flash properties are related to cloud and rain characteristics as derived from TRMM instruments (PR2a23 algorithm). This additional data, coincident to but independent from the LIS measurements, will be an important step towards infering the driving physical mechanisms.

  17. Urinary metabolomic profiling of asthmatics can be related to clinical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, C C; Oliveira, A S; Santos, M; Rudnitskaya, A; Todo-Bom, A; Bousquet, J; Rocha, S M

    2016-09-01

    Metabolomics has been increasingly explored to achieve an improved understanding of asthma. In the current observational and exploratory study, the first to have examined the relationship between oxidative stress extension, eosinophilic inflammation, and disease severity in asthmatic patients, metabolomics (using target aliphatic aldehydes and alkanes) was carried out using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with a high-resolution time-of-flight analyzer (GC×GC-ToFMS). We were able to demonstrate that metabolomics can give valuable insights into asthma mechanisms once lipidic peroxidation assessed by urinary metabolomics is related to the clinical characteristics of nonobese asthmatics, such as disease severity, lung function, and eosinophilic inflammation. Nevertheless, considering our sample size, the obtained results require further validation using a much larger sample cohort. PMID:27188766

  18. Coalbed methane adsorption and desorption characteristics related to coal particle size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan-Yan, Feng; Wen, Yang; Wei, Chu

    2016-06-01

    Effects of particle size on CH4 and CO2 adsorption and desorption characteristics of coals are investigated at 308 K and pressures up to 5.0 MPa. The gas adsorption and desorption isotherms of coals with particle sizes ranging from 250 μm to 840 μm are measured via the volumetric method, and the Langmuir model is used to analyse the experimental results. Coal particle size is found to have an obvious effect on the coal pore structure. With the decrease of coal particle size in the process of grinding, the pore accessibility of the coal, including the specific surface area and pore volume, increases. Hence, coal with smaller particle size has higher specific surface area and higher pore volume. The ability of adsorption was highly related to the pore structure of coal, and coal particle size has a significant influence on coal adsorption/desorption characteristics, including adsorption capacity and desorption hysteresis for CH4 and CO2, i.e., coal with a smaller particle size achieves higher adsorption capacity, while the sample with a larger particle size has lower adsorption capacity. Further, coal with larger particle size is also found to have relatively large desorption hysteresis. In addition, dynamic adsorption performances of the samples are carried out at 298 K and at pressures of 0.1 MPa and 0.5 MPa, respectively, and the results indicate that with the increase of particle size, the difference between CO2 and CH4 adsorption capacities of the samples decreases. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB201202).

  19. Relationship Characteristics Associated with the Experience of Hurt in Romantic Relationships: A Test of the Relational Turbulence Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theiss, Jennifer A.; Knobloch, Leanne K.; Checton, Maria G.; Magsamen-Conrad, Kate

    2009-01-01

    We employed the relational turbulence model to identify (a) relationship characteristics associated with people's appraisals of hurtful messages, and (b) features of hurtful episodes and relationship characteristics that correspond with the directness of communication about hurt. We conducted a study in which 135 dating couples reported on their…

  20. The Relationships between Problem Characteristics, Achievement-Related Behaviors, and Academic Achievement in Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockalingam, Nachamma; Rotgans, Jerome I.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of five problem characteristics on students' achievement-related classroom behaviors and academic achievement. Data from 5,949 polytechnic students in PBL curricula across 170 courses were analyzed by means of path analysis. The five problem characteristics were: (1) problem clarity, (2) problem familiarity,…

  1. Child-Rearing Practices toward Children with Hemophilia: The Relative Importance of Clinical Characteristics and Parental Emotional Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banis, S.; Suurmeijer, Th. P. B. M.; van Peer, D. R.

    1999-01-01

    Addresses the relative importance of clinical characteristics of the child and parental emotional reactions, to child-rearing practices towards children with hemophilia. Results indicate that mother's emotional reactions appear to have a stronger influence on child-rearing uncertainty and overprotection than clinical characteristics of the child.…

  2. Tool Use and Performance: Relationships between Tool- and Learner-Related Characteristics in a Computer-Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juarez-Collazo, Norma A.; Elen, Jan; Clarebout, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    It is still unclear on what and how tool and learner characteristics influence tool use and consequently performance in computer-based learning environments (CBLEs). This study examines the relationships between tool-related characteristics (tool presentation: non-/embedded tool and instructional cues: non-/explained tool functionality) and…

  3. Examination of Student, Program, and Institutional Support Characteristics That Relate to PGA Golf Management Students' Intent to Persist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The examination of student (entry characteristics, academic performance, career goals, and interaction with peers and faculty), program (programmatic interventions, academic major, and learning communities), and institutional support characteristics (financial aid and residence) that relate to cohort intent to persist are studied among 490 PGA…

  4. Characteristics and Spontaneous Recovery of Tinnitus Related to Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Mühlmeier, Guido; Baguley, David; Cox, Tony; Suckfüll, Markus; Meyer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the characteristics and spontaneous recovery of tinnitus related to idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL). Study Design: Retrospective analysis from two randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials for treatment of ISSNHL within 48 hours from onset (Study A), or of tinnitus related to ISSNHL within 3 months from onset (Study B). Setting: Forty-eight European sites (academic tertiary referral centers, private ENT practices). Patients: One hundred thirteen adult patients of which 65 with hearing loss ≥30 dB (Study A) and 48 with persistent acute tinnitus (Study B) at baseline. Interventions: Intratympanic (i.t.) injection of placebo gel in single dose or in triple dose during 3 consecutive days. Main Outcome Measures: Frequency of tinnitus, subjective tinnitus loudness, rates of complete tinnitus remission, and complete hearing recovery during 3 months follow-up. Results: In acute ISSNHL, tinnitus loudness decreased rapidly in cases of mild-moderate hearing loss, and tinnitus had completely resolved in two-thirds of patients after 3 months. Hearing recovery preceded tinnitus resolution. When associated with severe-profound hearing loss, tinnitus improved significantly less. Complete hearing recovery and full tinnitus remission were both about three times more frequent in mild-moderate hearing loss patients than in severe-profound cases. Improvement in tinnitus loudness over time can be approximated by a negative exponential function. Conclusions: Prognosis for ISSNHL-related tinnitus is relatively poor in case of severe-profound hearing loss and the longer it has persisted. Alleviation or management of tinnitus should be a key therapeutic objective especially in pronounced ISSNHL cases. PMID:27228021

  5. [Intellectual and emotional characteristics of some European nations in relation to the stages of their historical development].

    PubMed

    Robustova, V V; Gorshenina, M A

    2015-01-01

    Intellectual and emotional characteristics of some European nations in the aspect of their historical development are illustrated by the example of representatives of British and Italian culture. Behavior, mentality and other speech-related functions are analyzed. PMID:26356529

  6. Characteristics of intermediate state related to anti-Stokes luminescence of ZnO single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Katsushi; Goto, Takenari; Yao, Takafumi

    2014-06-21

    Anti-Stokes luminescence from ZnO is supposed to be a two-step two-photon absorption process with an intermediate state. The intermediate state is assumed to be a localized state with two different excited and relaxed states. One of the localized states is believed to be the well-known 2.4 eV green luminescence; the other is difficult to observe experimentally. We found an interesting 2.25 eV deep luminescence from ZnO, which has been shown to relate to anti-Stokes luminescence. The 2.25 eV yellow luminescence was observable only below the band gap excitation and through a time-resolved observation after the excitation light was turned off. The intermediate states were found to be a photo-excited donor-acceptor pair and its lattice relaxation state. The characteristics and the role of the intermediate state of ZnO related to the anti-Stokes luminescence are discussed.

  7. Frequency and characteristics of acne-related post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation.

    PubMed

    Abad-Casintahan, Flordeliz; Chow, Steven Kim Weng; Goh, Chee Leok; Kubba, Raj; Hayashi, Nobukazu; Noppakun, Nopadon; See, JoAnn; Suh, Dae Hun; Xiang, Li Hong Flora; Kang, Sewon

    2016-07-01

    In patients with darker skin types (Fitzpatrick phototypes III-VI), acne is often accompanied by post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH). Further, acne-related pigmentation can pose a greater concern for the patient than the acne lesions. There has been little formal study of this acne-related PIH. Recently, the Asian Acne Board - an international group of dermatologists with interest in acne research - made a preliminary evaluation of the frequency and characteristics of PIH in seven Asian countries. A total of 324 sequential acne subjects were evaluated for the presence of PIH. The majority (80.2%) of subjects had mild to moderate acne and there were more females than males (63.0% vs 37.0%). In this population of patients consulting a dermatologist for acne, 58.2% (188/324) had PIH. The results also showed that pigmentation problems are often long lasting: at least 1 year for more than half of subjects and 5 years or longer in 22.3%. In accordance with our clinical experience, patients reported that PIH is quite bothersome, often as bothersome or more so than the acne itself and sometimes more problematic. Excoriation was commonly reported by patients, and may represent a modifiable risk factor that could potentially be improved by patient education. PMID:26813513

  8. Pain, Work-related Characteristics, and Psychosocial Factors among Computer Workers at a University Center.

    PubMed

    Mainenti, Míriam Raquel Meira; Felicio, Lilian Ramiro; Rodrigues, Erika de Carvalho; Ribeiro da Silva, Dalila Terrinha; Vigário Dos Santos, Patrícia

    2014-04-01

    [Purpose] Complaint of pain is common in computer workers, encouraging the investigation of pain-related workplace factors. This study investigated the relationship among work-related characteristics, psychosocial factors, and pain among computer workers from a university center. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen subjects (median age, 32.0 years; interquartile range, 26.8-34.5 years) were subjected to measurement of bioelectrical impedance; photogrammetry; workplace measurements; and pain complaint, quality of life, and motivation questionnaires. [Results] The low back was the most prevalent region of complaint (76.9%). The number of body regions for which subjects complained of pain was greater in the no rest breaks group, which also presented higher prevalences of neck (62.5%) and low back (100%) pain. There were also observed associations between neck complaint and quality of life; neck complaint and head protrusion; wrist complaint and shoulder angle; and use of a chair back and thoracic pain. [Conclusion] Complaint of pain was associated with no short rest breaks, no use of a chair back, poor quality of life, high head protrusion, and shoulder angle while using the mouse of a computer. PMID:24764635

  9. Hepatitis B-related hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiological characteristics and disease burden.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, V T T; Law, M G; Dore, G J

    2009-07-01

    Worldwide, 350 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) who are at greater risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared with uninfected people. The relative risks of HCC among people infected with HBV ranges from 5 to 49 in case-control studies and from 7 to 98 in cohort studies. More than 50% of HCC cases worldwide and 70-80% of HCC cases in highly HBV endemic regions are attributable to HBV. Incidence of HCC (per 100,000 person/year) among people with chronic HBV infection ranges from 400 to 800 in male and from 120 to 180 in female. Factors associated with increased risk of HCC include demographic characteristics (male sex and older age), lifestyles (heavy alcohol consumption and smoking), viral factors (genotype C, D F, high level of HBV DNA, core/precore mutation) and clinical factors (cirrhosis, elevated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)). HBV-related HCC has extremely poor prognosis with median survival less than 16 months. Survival rates of HBV-related HCC ranged from 36% to 67% after 1 year and from 15% to 26% after 5 year of diagnosis. Older age, liver function impairment, vascular invasion, tumour aggressiveness and elevated AFP are associated with HCC survival. Global burden of HBV-related liver disease is still a major challenge for public health in the 21st century. While decreases in incidence of HBV infection have been observed in birth cohorts following the introduction of universal infant HBV vaccination programme, HBV-related HCC incidence in is projected to increase for at least two decades because of the high prevalence of chronic HBV infection and prolonged latency to HCC development. To reduce HBV-related HCC continued expansion of universal infant HBV vaccination is required along with antiviral therapy targeted to those individuals at highest risk of HCC. Broad public health strategies should include routine testing to identify chronic HBV infection, improved health infrastructures

  10. The Relative Age Effect and Physical Fitness Characteristics in German Male Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Ulbricht, Alexander; Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the study were to test: 1) whether the relative age effect (RAE) was prevalent in young (U12-U18) German male tennis players; 2) the potential influence of age and/or skill level on RAE and 3) whether maturity, anthropometric and fitness measures vary according to birth date distribution in elite youth tennis players. For the present study the following male populations were analysed: Overall German population (n = 3.216.811), all players affiliated to the German Tennis Federation (DTB) (n = 120.851), players with DTB official ranking (n = 7165), regional (n = 381) and national (n = 57) squads (11-17 years old), as well as the top 50 German senior players were analyzed. RAEs were more prevalent at higher competitive levels with more players born in the first quarter of the year compared with the reference population for ranked (29.6%), regional (38.1%) and national (42.1%) players. No systematic differences were found in any of the maturity, anthropometric and fitness characteristics of the regional squad players born across different quarters. RAEs are present in the DTB competitive system and it was more pronounced at higher competitive levels. Compared with early born, late born players who were selected into elite squads did not differ in maturation, anthropometric and fitness characteristics. Key points RAEsexist in the selection of youth tennis players in Germany, a greater percentage of players analyzed was born in the 1st quarter compared to all licensed tennis players in the country, and more pronounced with an increased competition level in youth players. Players born later in the selection year and still selected in elite squads were likely to be similar across a range of physical fitness attributes compared with those born earlier in the year. The selection process should be reevaluated and changed to reduce the impact of RAEs on tennis players. PMID:26336351

  11. Evaluation of DNA polymorphisms involving growth hormone relative to growth and carcass characteristics in Brahman steers.

    PubMed

    Beauchemin, V R; Thomas, M G; Franke, D E; Silver, G A

    2006-01-01

    Associations of DNA polymorphisms in growth hormone (GH) relative to growth and carcass characteristics in growing Brahman steers (N = 324 from 68 sires) were evaluated. Polymorphisms were an Msp-I RFLP and a leucine/valine SNP in the GH gene as well as a Hinf-I RFLP and a histidine/arginine SNP in transcriptional regulators of the GH gene, Pit-1 and Prop-1. Genotypic frequencies of the GH SNP, Pit-1 RFLP, and Prop-1 SNP were greater than 88% for one of the bi-allelic homozygous genotypes. Genotypic frequencies for the GH Msp-I RFLP genotypes were more evenly distributed with frequencies of 0.43, 0.42, and 0.15 for the genotypes of +/+, +/-, and -/-, respectively. Mixed model analyses of growth and carcass traits with genotype and contemporary group serving as fixed effects and sire fitted as a random effect suggested that sire was a significant source of variation (P < 0.05) in average daily gain, carcass yield, and marbling score. However, measures of growth and carcass traits were similar across GH Msp-I genotypes as steers were slaughtered when fat thickness was estimated to be approximately 1.0 cm. These polymorphisms within the GH gene and/or its transcriptional regulators do not appear to be informative predictors of growth and carcass characteristics in Brahman steers. This is partly due to the high level of homozygosity of genotypes. These findings do not eliminate the potential importance of these polymorphisms as predictors of growth and carcass traits in Bos taurus or Bos taurus x Bos indicus composite cattle. PMID:17117358

  12. Parent and child characteristics related to chosen adolescent alcohol and drug prevention program.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brenda A; Aalborg, Annette E; Byrnes, Hilary F; Bauman, Karl; Spoth, Richard

    2012-02-01

    Mothers were allowed to choose between two different family-based adolescent alcohol-drug prevention strategies and the choice was examined in relation to parent and teen characteristics. Under real world conditions, parents are making choices regarding health promotion strategies for their adolescents and little is known about how parent and teen characteristics interact with programs chosen. The two programs were: Family Matters (FM) (Bauman KE, Foshee VA, Ennett ST et al. Family Matters: a family-directed program designed to prevent adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Health Promot Pract 2001; 2: 81-96) and Strengthening Families Program (SFP) 10-14 (Spoth R, Redmond C, Lepper H. Alcohol initiation outcomes of universal family-focused preventive interventions: one- and two-year follow-ups of a controlled study. J Stud Alcohol Suppl 1999; 13: 103-11). A total of 272 families with an 11-12 years old enrolled in health care centers were in the choice condition of the larger study. SFP requires group meetings at specified times and thus demanded more specific time commitments from families. In contrast, FM is self-directed through booklets and is delivered in the home at a time chosen by the families. Mothers were significantly more likely to choose SFP when the adolescent had more problem behaviors. Mothers with greater education were more likely to choose FM. Findings may provide more real-world understanding of how some families are more likely to engage in one type of intervention over another. This understanding offers practical information for developing health promotion systems to service the diversity of families in the community. PMID:22156235

  13. Parent and child characteristics related to chosen adolescent alcohol and drug prevention program

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Brenda A.; Aalborg, Annette E.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Bauman, Karl; Spoth, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Mothers were allowed to choose between two different family-based adolescent alcohol–drug prevention strategies and the choice was examined in relation to parent and teen characteristics. Under real world conditions, parents are making choices regarding health promotion strategies for their adolescents and little is known about how parent and teen characteristics interact with programs chosen. The two programs were: Family Matters (FM) (Bauman KE, Foshee VA, Ennett ST et al. Family Matters: a family-directed program designed to prevent adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Health Promot Pract 2001; 2: 81–96) and Strengthening Families Program (SFP) 10–14 (Spoth R, Redmond C, Lepper H. Alcohol initiation outcomes of universal family-focused preventive interventions: one- and two-year follow-ups of a controlled study. J Stud Alcohol Suppl 1999; 13: 103–11). A total of 272 families with an 11–12 years old enrolled in health care centers were in the choice condition of the larger study. SFP requires group meetings at specified times and thus demanded more specific time commitments from families. In contrast, FM is self-directed through booklets and is delivered in the home at a time chosen by the families. Mothers were significantly more likely to choose SFP when the adolescent had more problem behaviors. Mothers with greater education were more likely to choose FM. Findings may provide more real-world understanding of how some families are more likely to engage in one type of intervention over another. This understanding offers practical information for developing health promotion systems to service the diversity of families in the community. PMID:22156235

  14. Psychological and physiological responses during an exam and their relation to personality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Spangler, G

    1997-08-01

    The aim of the study was to compare emotional and physiological responses to real and control examinations and to assess their relation to personality characteristics. Emotional responses were assessed by state anxiety and perceived stress. The assessment of physiological responses included the activity of the cardiac system (heart periods, vagal tone), the adrenocortical system (cortisol) and the immune system (immune globulin A, sIgA). Emotional and physiological responses of 23 students (12 males, 11 females) were assessed during an oral exam at the end of a basic course in psychology which was a prerequisite for the students' final exams. For the control condition physiological responses were assessed one week before the examination during a memory test. The findings of the study demonstrate different emotional and physiological response patterns to examinations as compared to the control condition. Heightened anxiety was observed only before the exam. Whereas within-situation physiological responses (higher heart periods, cortisol, and sIgA; lower vagal tone) were observed both under the exam and control condition, responses to exam condition indicated pre-exam anticipatory activation and post-exam restricted recovery responses. With regard to personality characteristics subjects with high ego-resiliency showed more flexible adaptation than subjects with low ego-resiliency both on the emotional level (anxiety down-regulation after exam) and on the physiological level (situation-specific responses, quick recovery). Subjects with high ego-control exhibited a lower physiological reactivity under both conditions, i.e. they seemed to maintain longer their control also on a physiological level independent of the type of situation. PMID:9364621

  15. Demographic and clinical characteristics related to cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease in China

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Dantao; Shi, Zhihong; Xu, Jun; Shen, Lu; Xiao, Shifu; Zhang, Nan; Li, Yi; Jiao, Jinsong; Wang, Yan-Jiang; Liu, Shuai; Zhang, Meilin; Wang, Meng; Liu, Shuling; Zhou, Yuying; Zhang, Xiao; Gu, Xiao-hua; Yang, Ce-ce; Wang, Yu; Jiao, Bin; Tang, Beisha; Wang, Jinhuan; Yu, Tao; Ji, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most frequent cause of dementia. AD diagnosis, progression, and treatment have not been analyzed nationwide in China. The primary aim of this study was to analyze demographic and clinical characteristics related to cognitive decline in AD patients treated at outpatient clinics in China. We performed a retrospective study of 1993 AD patients at 10 cognitive centers across 8 cities in China from March 2011 to October 2014. Of these, 891 patients were followed for more than 1 year. The mean age at diagnosis was 72.0 ± 10.0 years (range 38–96 years), and the mean age at onset of AD was 69.8 ± 9.5 years. Most patients (65.1%) had moderate to severe symptoms at the time of diagnosis, and mean Mini-Mental State Examination at diagnosis was 15.7 ± 7.7. AD patients showed significant cognitive decline at 12 months after diagnosis. Having more than 9 years of formal education was an independent risk factor related to rapid cognitive decline [odds ratio (OR) = 1.80; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.11–2.91]. Early-onset AD patients experienced more rapid cognitive decline than late-onset patients (OR = 1.83; 95% CI: 1.09–3.06). Most AD patients in China had moderate to severe symptoms at the time of diagnosis and experienced significant cognitive decline within 1 year. Rapid cognitive decline in AD was related to having a higher educational level and younger age of onset. PMID:27367978

  16. Characteristics and outcomes of fall-related open-globe injuries in pseudophakic patients

    PubMed Central

    Kavoussi, Shaheen C; Slade, Martin D; Meskin, Seth W; Adelman, Ron A

    2015-01-01

    Aim We aimed to identify the characteristics and prognostic indicators of poor visual and anatomic outcome in pseudophakic patients with fall-related open-globe (OG) injuries. We used a case series design, for a total of 26 patients. Methods Charts of consecutive pseudophakic patients with fall-related OG injury at a single institution were reviewed. Demographics, ophthalmic history, circumstances of injury, initial best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), examination findings, surgical interventions, and follow-up BCVA were tabulated for statistical analysis with unpaired t-tests and Fisher’s exact tests. Results Nineteen patients (73%) were women. Mean (± standard deviation) age was 80.6±4.6 years (range: 61–97 years). Initial BCVA was <20/400 in 24 of 25 patients (96%). Mean ocular trauma score (OTS) was 38.54±10.95. OTS was lower (P=0.0017, P<0.0001, and P=0.0240) and wound size was larger (P=0.0440, 0.0145, and 0.0026) in patients with final BCVA <20/40, <20/400, and phthisis at final follow-up, respectively; compared to patients with BCVA ≥20/40, 20/400, and no phthisis at final follow-up, respectively. Final BCVA <20/400 was associated with 360° subconjunctival hemorrhage (SCH), retinal detachment, and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (P=0.0498, 0.0181, and 0.0310, respectively). Total hyphema, intraocular lens (IOL) damage, and IOL expulsion were associated with needing multiple surgical interventions (P=0.0345, P<0.0001, and P=0.0023, respectively). Conclusion Large wound size, low OTS, 360° SCH, total hyphema, posterior injury, and IOL damage are common findings that are also prognostic of poor visual and anatomic outcome in pseudophakic patients with fall-related OG injuries. Ophthalmologists dealing primarily with geriatric populations should contribute to the discussion of fall risk. PMID:25784783

  17. Clinical, Pathological, and Prognostic Characteristics of Glomerulonephritis Related to Staphylococcal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Si-Yang; Bu, Ru; Zhang, Qi; Liang, Shuang; Wu, Jie; Liu, Xue-Guang Zhang Shu-Wen; Cai, Guang-Yan; Chen, Xiang-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Staphylococcal infection has become a common cause of postinfectious glomerulonephritis in the past 3 decades. Because few investigations focus on this disease, the demographics and clinicopathological features of glomerulonephritis related to staphylococcal infection are not well characterized. We conducted a pooled analysis of published literature in electronic databases and analyzed the clinical features, laboratory findings, and histopathological changes. The patients were divided into 4 groups based on their prognosis: remission, persistent renal dysfunction, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or death. A logistic regression model was used to identify the determinants of disease outcome. A total of 83 (64 men) patients with glomerulonephritis related to staphylococcal infection from 31 reports were analyzed. The mean age was 58 years (58 ± 17). Majority of the reports originated from Taiwan, Japan, and the United States. Clinical characteristics of the cases were hematuria (82/83), proteinuria (78/83), and acute kidney injury (75/83). Visceral abscesses (26/83) and skin infections (24/83) were the common sites of infection. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen. The dominant or codominant deposition of IgA or C3 along the glomeruli was an important feature identified by immunofluorescence. There were 19 patients (22.9%) that progressed to dialysis-dependent ESRD. Twelve patients (14.5%) died. A univariate regression analysis indicated that diabetes mellitus (DM) (odds ratio [OR] 2.96; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03–8.48; P = 0.04) and age (OR 4.80; 95% CI 1.84–12.53; P = 0.001) were risk factors for ESRD or death. A multivariate regression analysis also revealed that age (OR 4.90; 95% CI 1.82–13.18; P = 0.002) and DM (OR 3.07; 95% CI 0.98–9.59; P = 0.05) were independent risk factors for unfavorable prognosis. Glomerulonephritis related to staphylococcal infection has different features

  18. Estimating the Single-Trial Characteristics of Event-Related Responses: Evaluation of the MCERP Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, K. H.; Shah, A. S.; Truccolo, W. A.; Ding, M.; Bressler, S. L.; Schroeder, C. E.; Korsmey, Dave (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Single-trial event-related responses collected during the course of an experiment are typically averaged before analysis resulting in a rather crude picture of event-related brain dynamics. It has been quite clear for some time that these responses exhibit trial-to-trial variability: however, the computational techniques necessary to deal with such responses in noisy conditions have not been available. To this end we have developed the multiple-component, event-related potential model (mcERP), which assumes that the each event-related response consists of a sum of multiple evoked components each described by a stereotypical waveshape. These waveshapes are allowed to vary in amplitude and onset latency from trial to trial, which allows us to capture, to first-order, the trial-dependent variations in event-related brain dynamics. We have constructed many sets of synthetic data designed to simulate intracortical recordings from a 15 channel, linear-array multielectrode implanted acutely in V1 of an awake-behaving macaque undergoing visual stimulation with a red light flash. This synthetic data was used to characterize the performance of the mcERP algorithm. First we quantified the degree to which such trial-to-trial variability aids in the identification of multiple components, and we demonstrate that amplitude variability is a more important factor in component separation than latency variability. Second, we quantified the behavior of the algorithm under two distinct signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions: Gaussian noise independently present in each channel, and highly correlated (1/f distributed), far-field noise presented identically in each channel of the array. The mcERP algorithm was found to be robust to noise accurately identifying all component waveshapes and their associated single-trial characteristics down to SNR levels of -20dB for Gaussian noise and -7dB for 1/f far-field noise. Comparisons of the performance of this algorithm with factor analysis (FA

  19. Clinical, Pathological, and Prognostic Characteristics of Glomerulonephritis Related to Staphylococcal Infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Si-Yang; Bu, Ru; Zhang, Qi; Liang, Shuang; Wu, Jie; Liu, Xue-Guang Zhang Shu-Wen; Cai, Guang-Yan; Chen, Xiang-Mei

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcal infection has become a common cause of postinfectious glomerulonephritis in the past 3 decades. Because few investigations focus on this disease, the demographics and clinicopathological features of glomerulonephritis related to staphylococcal infection are not well characterized.We conducted a pooled analysis of published literature in electronic databases and analyzed the clinical features, laboratory findings, and histopathological changes. The patients were divided into 4 groups based on their prognosis: remission, persistent renal dysfunction, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or death. A logistic regression model was used to identify the determinants of disease outcome.A total of 83 (64 men) patients with glomerulonephritis related to staphylococcal infection from 31 reports were analyzed. The mean age was 58 years (58 ± 17). Majority of the reports originated from Taiwan, Japan, and the United States. Clinical characteristics of the cases were hematuria (82/83), proteinuria (78/83), and acute kidney injury (75/83). Visceral abscesses (26/83) and skin infections (24/83) were the common sites of infection. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen. The dominant or codominant deposition of IgA or C3 along the glomeruli was an important feature identified by immunofluorescence. There were 19 patients (22.9%) that progressed to dialysis-dependent ESRD. Twelve patients (14.5%) died. A univariate regression analysis indicated that diabetes mellitus (DM) (odds ratio [OR] 2.96; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-8.48; P = 0.04) and age (OR 4.80; 95% CI 1.84-12.53; P = 0.001) were risk factors for ESRD or death. A multivariate regression analysis also revealed that age (OR 4.90; 95% CI 1.82-13.18; P = 0.002) and DM (OR 3.07; 95% CI 0.98-9.59; P = 0.05) were independent risk factors for unfavorable prognosis.Glomerulonephritis related to staphylococcal infection has different features than typical

  20. Personal characteristics related to the risk of adolescent internet addiction: a survey in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Paralleling the rapid growth in computers and internet connections, adolescent internet addiction (AIA) is becoming an increasingly serious problem, especially in developing countries. This study aims to explore the prevalence of AIA and associated symptoms in a large population-based sample in Shanghai and identify potential predictors related to personal characteristics. Methods In 2007, 5,122 adolescents were randomly chosen from 16 high schools of different school types (junior, senior key, senior ordinary and senior vocational) in Shanghai with stratified-random sampling. Each student completed a self-administered and anonymous questionnaire that included DRM 52 Scale of Internet-use. The DRM 52 Scale was adapted for use in Shanghai from Young’s Internet Addiction Scale and contained 7 subscales related to psychological symptoms of AIA. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression were both used to analyze the data. Results Of the 5,122 students, 449 (8.8%) were identified as internet addicts. Although adolescents who had bad (vs. good) academic achievement had lower levels of internet-use (p < 0.0001), they were more likely to develop AIA (odds ratio 4.79, 95% CI: 2.51-9.73, p < 0.0001) and have psychological symptoms in 6 of the 7 subscales (not in Time-consuming subscale). The likelihood of AIA was higher among those adolescents who were male, senior high school students, or had monthly spending >100 RMB (all p-values <0.05). Adolescents tended to develop AIA and show symptoms in all subscales when they spent more hours online weekly (however, more internet addicts overused internet on weekends than on weekdays, p < 0.0001) or when they used the internet mainly for playing games or real-time chatting. Conclusions This study provides evidence that adolescent personal factors play key roles in inducing AIA. Adolescents having aforementioned personal characteristics and online behaviors are at high-risk of developing AIA that may compound

  1. Interdisciplinary mathematics and science: Characteristics, forms, and related effect sizes for student achievement and affective outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, Marlene M.

    1999-12-01

    This study provides an analytic description of quasi-experimental studies that may either support or deny the wisdom of educational reform through interdisciplinary mathematics and science. Interdisciplinarity is examined on two dimensions, the philosophic and the pedagogic, and by two methodologies, meta-analytic and qualitative, in a search for greater understanding of the definitions, forms, characteristics, and effects from studies of interdisciplinary mathematics and science. Thirty-four studies were collected from a search of the literature that spanned the century, the grade levels, and included many forms of interdisciplinarity. Several research questions were asked: (1) What forms of interdisciplinarity, philosophically and practically, are represented by the studies? (2) What are their qualitative effects in school settings? (3) What are the characteristics of interdisciplinary quasi-experimental research? (4) What achievement effects typify the interdisciplinary comparative studies? (5) What factors account for variation in these achievement effects? (6) What claims or criticisms regarding interdisciplinarity are supported or refuted by the qualitative analysis of forms and effects and the quantitative meta-analytic study? Results from this study support the concerns that terms of interdisciplinarity are used without regard for context and that there is a trend toward a great diversity of ideas regarding the nature of interdisciplinary education. Student achievement data were provided by the 34 studies for mathematics and/or science. The mean effect sizes for student achievement were computed as: mathematics achievement, .27 (SE = .09); science achievement, .37 (SE = .12). Curricular materials developed by teachers were significantly less related to student achievement than materials developed by researchers or commercially. The methods of integration employed by the 34 studies formed a continuum from sequenced instructional integration to total

  2. Distribution of salmon-habitat potential relative to landscape characteristics and implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Kelly M; Reeves, Gordon H; Miller, Daniel J; Clarke, Sharon; Vance-Borland, Ken; Christiansen, Kelly

    2007-01-01

    The geographic distribution of stream reaches with potential to support high-quality habitat for salmonids has bearing on the actual status of habitats and populations over broad spatial extents. As part of the Coastal Landscape Analysis and Modeling Study (CLAMS), we examined how salmon-habitat potential was distributed relative to current and future (+100 years) landscape characteristics in the Coastal Province of Oregon, USA. The intrinsic potential to provide high-quality rearing habitat was modeled for juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and juvenile steelhead (O. mykiss) based on stream flow, valley constraint, and stream gradient. Land ownership, use, and cover were summarized for 100-m analysis buffers on either side of stream reaches with high intrinsic potential and in the overall area encompassing the buffers. Past management seems to have concentrated nonindustrial private ownership, agriculture, and developed uses adjacent to reaches with high intrinsic potential for coho salmon. Thus, of the area in coho salmon buffers, 45% is either nonforested or recently logged, but only 10% is in larger-diameter forests. For the area in steelhead buffers, 21% is either non-forested or recently logged while 20% is in larger-diameter forests. Older forests are most extensive on federal lands but are rare on private lands, highlighting the critical role for public lands in near-term salmon conservation. Agriculture and development are projected to remain focused near high-intrinsic-potential reaches for coho salmon, increasing the importance of effectively addressing nonpoint source pollution from these uses. Percentages of larger-diameter forests are expected to increase throughout the province, but the increase will be only half as much in coho salmon buffers as in steelhead buffers. Most of the increase is projected for public lands, where policies emphasize biodiversity protection. Results suggest that widespread recovery of coho salmon is unlikely unless

  3. Characteristics of catheter-related bloodstream infections in children with intestinal failure: implications for clinical management.

    PubMed

    Drews, Barbara B; Sanghavi, Rinarani; Siegel, Jane D; Metcalf, Pat; Mittal, Naveen K

    2009-01-01

    Catheter-related bloodstream infection is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the intestinal-failure population. This study reports characteristics of CRBSI with implications for clinical management in parenteral nutrition-dependent children with intestinal failure. The researchers report the rate of central catheter infections, and the causative organisms, as well as identify risk factors in our intestinal-failure patients that would be amenable to preventive measures.The study is a retrospective review of the medical records of 101 patients with intestinal failure (IF), seen in the Intestinal Rehabilitation Clinic at Children's Medical Center of Dallas from May 2005 to March 2007. Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) were categorized as nosocomial or community-acquired. Data collected for each episode include microorganisms isolated from blood and potential risk factors. Z test was done to compare the infection rates.There were 92 episodes of CRBSIs in 45 parenteral nutrition (PN)-dependent patients with central venous catheters (CVC) in place for a total of 13,978 days. Eighty-three percent (n = 76) of CRBSIs developed in the community at a rate of 7.0 per 1,000 days. Seventeen percent (n = 16) nosocomial CRBSIs were observed at a rate of 5.5 per 1,000 catheter days. CRBSI rate was not statistically different between the two groups (7.0 vs. 5.5, p = .378).CRBSI in the intestinal-failure population is due to a wide variety of organisms with numerous risk factors. Education of CVC management with the practice of consistent guidelines may reduce CRBSI incidence, thus reducing the morbidity and mortality in the intestinal-failure patients. PMID:20010229

  4. Relating Demographic Characteristics of a Small Mammal to Remotely Sensed Forest-Stand Condition

    PubMed Central

    Lada, Hania; Thomson, James R.; Cunningham, Shaun C.; Mac Nally, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Many ecological systems around the world are changing rapidly in response to direct (land-use change) and indirect (climate change) human actions. We need tools to assess dynamically, and over appropriate management scales, condition of ecosystems and their responses to potential mitigation of pressures. Using a validated model, we determined whether stand condition of floodplain forests is related to densities of a small mammal (a carnivorous marsupial, Antechinus flavipes) in 60 000 ha of extant river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) forests in south-eastern Australia in 2004, 2005 and 2011. Stand condition was assessed remotely using models built from ground assessments of stand condition and satellite-derived reflectance. Other covariates, such as volumes of fallen timber, distances to floods, rainfall and life stages were included in the model. Trapping of animals was conducted at 272 plots (0.25 ha) across the region. Densities of second-year females (i.e. females that had survived to a second breeding year) and of second-year females with suckled teats (i.e. inferred to have been successful mothers) were higher in stands with the highest condition. There was no evidence of a relationship with stand condition for males or all females. These outcomes show that remotely-sensed estimates of stand condition (here floodplain forests) are relatable to some demographic characteristics of a small mammal species, and may provide useful information about the capacity of ecosystems to support animal populations. Over-regulation of large, lowland rivers has led to declines in many facets of floodplain function. If management of water resources continues as it has in recent decades, then our results suggest that there will be further deterioration in stand condition and a decreased capacity for female yellow-footed antechinuses to breed multiple times. PMID:24621967

  5. Relating demographic characteristics of a small mammal to remotely sensed forest-stand condition.

    PubMed

    Lada, Hania; Thomson, James R; Cunningham, Shaun C; Mac Nally, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Many ecological systems around the world are changing rapidly in response to direct (land-use change) and indirect (climate change) human actions. We need tools to assess dynamically, and over appropriate management scales, condition of ecosystems and their responses to potential mitigation of pressures. Using a validated model, we determined whether stand condition of floodplain forests is related to densities of a small mammal (a carnivorous marsupial, Antechinus flavipes) in 60,000 ha of extant river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) forests in south-eastern Australia in 2004, 2005 and 2011. Stand condition was assessed remotely using models built from ground assessments of stand condition and satellite-derived reflectance. Other covariates, such as volumes of fallen timber, distances to floods, rainfall and life stages were included in the model. Trapping of animals was conducted at 272 plots (0.25 ha) across the region. Densities of second-year females (i.e. females that had survived to a second breeding year) and of second-year females with suckled teats (i.e. inferred to have been successful mothers) were higher in stands with the highest condition. There was no evidence of a relationship with stand condition for males or all females. These outcomes show that remotely-sensed estimates of stand condition (here floodplain forests) are relatable to some demographic characteristics of a small mammal species, and may provide useful information about the capacity of ecosystems to support animal populations. Over-regulation of large, lowland rivers has led to declines in many facets of floodplain function. If management of water resources continues as it has in recent decades, then our results suggest that there will be further deterioration in stand condition and a decreased capacity for female yellow-footed antechinuses to breed multiple times. PMID:24621967

  6. Primary central nervous system lymphomas and related diseases: Pathological characteristics and discussion of the differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Yasuo; Muta, Hiroko; Ohshima, Koichi; Morioka, Motohiro; Tsukamoto, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Kakita, Akiyoshi

    2016-08-01

    Although primary diffuse large B-cell lymphomas of the CNS are designated as primary CNS lymphomas according to the WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissue in 2008, a variety of other lymphomas (Burkitt lymphomas, EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly) and related diseases (lymphomatoid granulomatosis) that are also found in the CNS have been spotlighted in recent years. The histopathology of primary CNS Burkitt lymphomas mimics that of primary diffuse large B-cell lymphomas of the CNS after steroid administration. Therefore, for correct diagnosis of the involved lymphoma, comprehensive fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis for c-MYC and BCL2 is recommended in all primary CNS lymphoma cases with aggressive clinical course, multifocal involvement of the CNS, and a high proliferation index. The pathological characteristics of primary CNS EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly have similarities with those of the latency phenotype III, EBV lymphoproliferative disorders that arise in the setting of immunodeficiency. These age-related lymphomas usually occur in elderly immunocompetent patients, and the incidence of this disease was estimated to range from 4.0% to 13.6% of all primary CNS lymphomas. Shorter overall survival has been reported for patients with this disease. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG) is a systemic, EBV-driven, angiocentric and angiodestructive lymphoproliferative disorder. Primary LYG that shows distinct clinicopathological features compared with systemic LYG was recently reported. Finally, this review focuses on the relationship between primary CNS lymphomas and demyelinating diseases, and the concomitant use of intraoperative cytology and frozen sections that are helpful in rapid intraoperative diagnosis. PMID:26607855

  7. Optical characteristics of prostate tissues and the key chromophores and fluorophores within tissues related to carcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Kenneth J.; Chen, Jun

    2015-03-01

    Tissues are an impressive complex creation comprised of a vast of assortment of molecules, structures and functional units. Despite this overwhelming complexity, we may still discuss average optical properties as long as we realize the limitations involved. There are five independent macroscopic parameters that are believed to characterize light propagation in tissue: the index of refraction (n), the absorption coefficient (μa), the scattering coefficient (μs), the reduced scattering coefficient (μ's), and the scattering anisotropy (g). This paper summarizes the Optical characteristics of tissue of prostate tissues ex vivo and the key fluorophores related to carcinogenesis. The absorption coefficient (μa) describes the effectiveness of light absorbed by certain chromophore. The key spectra fingerprints of water were introduced to distinguish different water contents in normal and cancerous prostate tissues. Fluorescence occurs when a molecule, atom or nanostructure relaxes to its ground state after being electrically excited. There are three fluorescence parameters of interest we may concern in tissue optics: the fluorescence lifetime (τf), the fluorescence quantum yield (Φ) and the fluorescence emission peak (λmax). The key wavelengths which can be used for cancer detection were reviewed. Scattering of light occurs in media which contains fluctuations in the refractive index n. Tissue ultrastructure extends from membranes to membrane aggregates to collagen fibers to nuclei to cells, which may be an alternative way to detect cancer in tissues.

  8. Environmental characteristics of regional groundwater in relation to fluoride poisoning in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong; Zhu, Wan Hua

    1991-07-01

    More and more data indicated that high- or low-fluoride-bearing drinking water led to endemic diseases in which fluoride poisoning was caused by high levels of fluoride (fluoride ion content >1.0 mg/I) in drinking water. Fluoride poisoning in North China is characterized by pathological changes of bones and teeth. Much attention has been devoted to the study of fluoride-bearing groundwater in North China because regionally groundwater has been the main source of water supply, and fluoride poisoning has developed to the extent that it affects human health seriously. Results from the studies in North China summarized in this article indicate that regional high-fluoride-bearing groundwater has a regular distribution corresponding with the development of endemic fluoride poisoning and has something to do with paleogeographic and paleoclimatic conditions, geology, and hydrogeology, especially with types of hydrogeochemistry, pH value of groundwater, degree of mineralization, and so forth. High-fluoride-bearing groundwater in relation to fluorosis occurs mainly in North China, and many effective measures have been taken to reduce the fluoride content in drinking water and to cure the disease after analyzing the distribution and environmental characteristics of high-fluoride-bearing groundwater.

  9. Age and work environment characteristics in relation to sleep: Additive, interactive and curvilinear effects.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Katharine R

    2016-05-01

    Although additive combinations of age and work environment characteristics have been found to predict sleep impairment, possible age x work environment interactions have been largely disregarded. The present study examined linear and curvilinear interactions of age with work environment measures in relation to sleep quality and duration. Survey data were collected from offshore day-shift personnel (N = 901). Main effects and interactions of the age terms with work environment measures (job demand, control, and social support, physical environment and strenuous work) were evaluated. Sleep duration was predicted by a curvilinear interaction, age(2)x job demand (p < .005), and by the age x social support interaction (p < .002); sleep quality was predicted by age x job demand (p < .002). Job control and physical environment showed significant additive effects. At a time when older employees are encouraged to remain in the workforce, the findings serve to increase understanding of how ageing and work demands jointly contribute to sleep impairment. PMID:26851463

  10. Master equation solutions in the linear regime of characteristic formulation of general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cedeño M., C. E.; de Araujo, J. C. N.

    2015-12-01

    From the field equations in the linear regime of the characteristic formulation of general relativity, Bishop, for a Schwarzschild's background, and Mädler, for a Minkowski's background, were able to show that it is possible to derive a fourth order ordinary differential equation, called master equation, for the J metric variable of the Bondi-Sachs metric. Once β , another Bondi-Sachs potential, is obtained from the field equations, and J is obtained from the master equation, the other metric variables are solved integrating directly the rest of the field equations. In the past, the master equation was solved for the first multipolar terms, for both the Minkowski's and Schwarzschild's backgrounds. Also, Mädler recently reported a generalisation of the exact solutions to the linearised field equations when a Minkowski's background is considered, expressing the master equation family of solutions for the vacuum in terms of Bessel's functions of the first and the second kind. Here, we report new solutions to the master equation for any multipolar moment l , with and without matter sources in terms only of the first kind Bessel's functions for the Minkowski, and in terms of the Confluent Heun's functions (Generalised Hypergeometric) for radiative (nonradiative) case in the Schwarzschild's background. We particularize our families of solutions for the known cases for l =2 reported previously in the literature and find complete agreement, showing the robustness of our results.

  11. Relational Coordination and Organisational Social Capital Association with Characteristics of General Practice

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Thomas Bøllingtoft; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Søndergaard, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Background. Relational coordination (RC) and organisational social capital (OSC) are measures of novel aspects of an organisation's performance, which have not previously been analysed together, in general practice. Objectives. The aim of this study was to analyse the associations between RC and OSC, and characteristics of general practice. Methods. Questionnaire survey study comprising 2074 practices in Denmark. Results. General practitioners (GPs) rated both RC and OSC in their general practice higher than their secretaries and nurses. The practice form was statistically significantly associated with high RC and OSC. RC was positively associated with the number of patients listed with a practice per staff, where staff is defined as all members of a practice including both owners and employees. Conclusion. The study showed that RC and OSC were significantly associated with type of profession and practice type. RC was also found to be significantly positively associated with number of patients per staff. However, the low response rate must be taken into consideration when interpreting the self-reported results of this study. PMID:25045537

  12. Relational coordination and organisational social capital association with characteristics of general practice.

    PubMed

    Lundstrøm, Sanne Lykke; Edwards, Kasper; Knudsen, Thomas Bøllingtoft; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Reventlow, Susanne; Søndergaard, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Background. Relational coordination (RC) and organisational social capital (OSC) are measures of novel aspects of an organisation's performance, which have not previously been analysed together, in general practice. Objectives. The aim of this study was to analyse the associations between RC and OSC, and characteristics of general practice. Methods. Questionnaire survey study comprising 2074 practices in Denmark. Results. General practitioners (GPs) rated both RC and OSC in their general practice higher than their secretaries and nurses. The practice form was statistically significantly associated with high RC and OSC. RC was positively associated with the number of patients listed with a practice per staff, where staff is defined as all members of a practice including both owners and employees. Conclusion. The study showed that RC and OSC were significantly associated with type of profession and practice type. RC was also found to be significantly positively associated with number of patients per staff. However, the low response rate must be taken into consideration when interpreting the self-reported results of this study. PMID:25045537

  13. Family and infant characteristics in relation to age at walking in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yalçin, S Songül; Yurdakök, Kadriye; Tezel, Başak; Ozbaş, Sema

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the onset of independent ambulation relative to possible relationships with maternal and infant characteristics. In a cross-sectional study, the health files of 1,553 Turkish children aged 12-23 months were selected by the multistage sampling method in the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) regions coded as low, medium and high malnutrition levels in Turkey. Children were selected from health centers by systematic sampling technique in each region. Kaplan-Meier analysis and estimated mean values were used for data description; log-rank test and the Cox multivariable regression analysis were applied for data analysis. Maternal education level, occupation, region of residence, gestational iron supplementation, child's gender, child's nutritional status, and presence of anemia in the infant during the survey period demonstrated significant relationships with walking unassisted in the univariate analysis. However, multivariable analysis showed that high maternal education, absence of parental consanguinity and appropriate weight-for-age Z score were positively associated with earlier age of walking. These findings showed the importance of improvement in girls' education, prevention of postnatal growth retardation and improvement in diet quality for children's gross motor development. In addition, counseling programs should be given to decrease the rate of parental consanguinity. PMID:23094536

  14. Cerulean Warbler abundance and occurrence relative to large-scale edge and habitat characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, P.B.; Bosworth, S.B.; Dettmers, R.

    2006-02-15

    We examined Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea) abundance and occurrence in southwestern West Virginia, where the coal-mining technique of mountaintop removal mining-valley fill converts large contiguous tracts of deciduous forest to forest patches surrounded by early successional habitats. Our study objectives were to quantify abundance and occurrence of Cerulean Warblers relative to (1) distance from the edge of extensive reclaimed grasslands and (2) habitat structure and landscape characteristics. Cerulean Warbler abundance increased with distance from the edge and edge effects extended 340 m into the forest. Percent occurrence did not vary with distance from mine edge, suggesting a degree of tolerance to the extensive edge occurring at the interface of forest and reclaimed lands. Abundance and occurrence were greater on ridges and midslopes than in bottomlands; consequently, disturbances such as mountaintop mining in which ridges are removed may have a greater impact on populations compared to other sources of fragmentation where ridges are not disturbed. It was found that, in addition to outright loss of forested habitat, mountaintop mining-valley fill alters the spatial configuration of forested habitats, creating edge and area effects that negatively affect Cerulean Warbler abundance and occurrence in the reclaimed mine landscape.

  15. Interpretation of the characteristics of ocean-dumped sewage sludge related to remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagoria, P. S.; Kuo, C. Y.

    1979-01-01

    Wastewater sludge characteristics in general, and characteristics of wastewater sludges generated by the City of Philadelphia in particular, were addressed. The types and sources of wastewater sludges, a description of sludge treatment and disposal processes, examination of sludge generation and management for the City of Philadelphia, and definition of characteristics for typical east coast sludges undergoing ocean disposal were discussed. Specific differences exist between the characteristics of primary and secondary wastewater sludges, especially with the nature and size distribution of the solids particles. The sludges from the City of Philadelphia monitored during remote sensing experiments were mixtures of various sludge types and lacked distinguishing characteristics. In particular, the anaerobic digestion process exerted the most significant influence on sludge characteristics for the City of Philadelphia. The sludges generated by the City of Philadelphia were found to be typical and harbor no unique features.

  16. Relations of job characteristics from multiple data sources with employee affect, absence, turnover intentions, and health.

    PubMed

    Spector, P E; Jex, S M

    1991-02-01

    Much of the evidence in support of job characteristics theory is limited to incumbent reports of job characteristics. In this study, job characteristics data from three independent sources--incumbents, ratings from job descriptions, and the Dictionary of Occupational Titles--were used. Convergent validities of incumbent reports with other sources were quite modest. Although incumbent reports of job characteristics correlated significantly with several employee outcomes (job satisfaction, work frustration, anxiety on the job, turnover intentions, and number of doctor visits), the other sources showed few significant correlations, except for number of doctor visits. Caution is urged in the use of incumbent self-reports of job characteristics as indicators of actual work environments. New methods for studying job characteristics are suggested. PMID:2016216

  17. Emotion Regulation in Context: The Jealousy Complex between Young Siblings and Its Relations with Child and Family Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volling, Brenda L.; McElwain, Nancy L.; Miller, Alison L.

    2002-01-01

    Examined relations between sibling jealousy and child and family characteristics in families with toddler and preschool-age siblings. Found that positive marital relationship was particularly strong predictor of older siblings' abilities to regulate jealousy in sessions with mothers. Younger siblings' jealous affect with mothers related to child's…

  18. Hillslopes to Hollows to Channels: Identifying Process Transitions and Domains using Characteristic Scaling Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, K.; Locke, W. W.

    2011-12-01

    Headwater catchments are partitioned into hillslopes, unchanneled valleys (hollows), and channels. Low order (less than or equal to two) channels comprise most of the stream length in the drainage network so defining where hillslopes end and hollows begin, and where hollows end and channels begin, is important for calibration and verification of hydrologic runoff and sediment production modeling. We test the use of landscape scaling relations to detect flow regimes characteristic of diffusive, concentrated, and incisive runoff, and use these flow regimes as proxies for hillslope, hollow, and channeled landforms. We use LiDAR-derived digital elevation models (DEMs) of two pairs of headwater catchments in southwest and north-central Montana to develop scaling relations of flowpath length, total stream power, and contributing area. The catchment pairs contrast low versus high drainage density and north versus south aspect. Inflections in scaling relations of contributing area and flowpath length in a single basin (modified Hack's law) and contributing area and total stream power were used to identify hillslope and fluvial process domain transitions. In the modified Hack's law, inflections in the slope of the log-log power law are hypothesized to correspond to changes in flow regime used as proxies for hillslope, hollow, and channeled landforms. Similarly, rate of change of total stream power with contributing area is hypothesized to become constant and then decrease at the hillslope to fluvial domain transition. Power law scaling of frequency-magnitude plots of curvature and an aspect-related parameter were also tested as an indicator of the transition from scale-dependent hillslope length to the scale invariant fluvial domain. Curvature and aspect were calculated at each cell in spectrally filtered DEMs. Spectral filtering by fast Fourier and wavelet transforms enhances detection of fine-scale fluvial features by removing long wavelength topography. Using the

  19. BEYOND THE INDICES: RELATIONS OF HABITAT AND FISH CHARACTERISTICS IN THE GEORGIA PIEDMONT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Georgia Department of Natural Resources has conducted biological sampling at 180 stream sites in the Georgia Piedmont (1998-99) and recorded several trophic and abundance characteristics of the fish assemblages and habitat at each site. These characteristics were combined to ...

  20. Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Sprites and Sprite-related VHF Signals Measured by JEM-GLIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.; Adachi, T.; Mihara, M.; Ushio, T.; Morimoto, T.; Kikuchi, H.; Suzuki, M.; Yamazaki, A.; Takahashi, Y.

    2014-12-01

    JEM-GLIMS conducts the first comprehensive nadir observations of lightning and TLEs using optical instruments and electromagnetic wave receivers. JEM-GLIMS started continuous orbital observations from November 2012 and has succeeded in detecting thousands of lightning events including TLEs. The global distribution of the detected lightning events clearly shows that most of the events were detected over continental regions. In addition, the global distributions of these lightning events show clear seasonal variations and were centered in the local summer hemisphere. To identify the sprite occurrences, it is necessary to perform the following data analysis: (1) a subtraction of the appropriately scaled wideband camera (LSI-1) image from the narrowband camera (LSI-2) image; (2) a calculation of intensity ratio between different spectrophotometer channels; and (3) an estimation of the polarization and charge moment changes for the parent CG discharges of the event using ground-based ELF measurement data. From a synthetic comparison of these results, we confirmed that JEM-GLISM succeeded in detecting sprite events. The VHF receiver onboard JEM-GLIMS uses two patch-type antennas separated by a 1.6-m interval and can detect VHF pulses emitted by lightning discharges in the 70-100 MHz frequency range. Using an interferometric technique, we successfully identified the source locations of VHF pulses excited by lightning discharges. At the presentation, we will show detailed spatiotemporal characteristics of sprite events detected by JEM-GLIMS optical instruments and the relation between the spatial distribution of sprites and source locations of VHF pulses excited by the parent lightning discharges of sprites.

  1. Relation of initial spacing and relative stand density indices to stand characteristics in a Douglas-fir plantation spacing trial

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtis, Robert O.; Bansal, Sheel; Harrington, Constance A.

    2016-01-01

    This report presents updated information on a 1981 Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) plantation spacing trial at 33 years from planting. Stand statistics at the most recent measurement were compared for initial spacing of 1 through 6 meters and associated relative densities. There was no clear relationship of spacing to top height. Diameter, live crown ratio, and percent survival increased with spacing; basal area and relative density decreased with increase in spacing. Volume in trees ≥ 4 cm diameter was greatest at 2 m spacing, while utilizable volume (trees ≥20 cm dbh) was greatest at 4 m spacing. Live crown ratio decreased and total crown projectional area increased with increasing relative density indices. Total crown projectional area was more closely related to relative density than to basal area.

  2. Associations between neighbourhood environmental characteristics and obesity and related behaviours among adult New Zealanders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of adult obesity is escalating in most wealthy and middle income countries. Due to the magnitude of this issue, research and interventions at the individual-level abound. However, the limited success and high costs of such interventions has led to a growing recognition of the potential role of environmental factors in reducing obesity and promoting physical activity and healthy diets. Methods This study utilised individual-level data from the 2006/7 New Zealand Health Survey on obesity, physical activity, diet and socio-economic variables linked to geographic information from other sources on potentially aetiologically-relevant environmental factors, based on the respondent’s residential address. We fitted logistic regression models for eight binary measures of weight or weight-related behaviours: 1) overweight; 2) obesity; 3) overweight + obesity; 4) active at least 30 minutes a day for 5+ days per week; 5) active <30 minutes per week; 6) walk 150 minutes + per week; 7) walk <30 minutes per week; and 8) consumption of 5+ fruits and vegetables per day. We included a range of independent environmental characteristics of interest in separate models. Results We found that increased neighbourhood deprivation and decreased access to neighbourhood greenspace were both significantly associated with increased odds of overweight and/or obesity. The results for weight-related behaviours indicate that meeting the recommended level of physical activity per week was associated with urban/rural status, with higher activity in the more rural areas and a surprising tendency for less activity among those living in areas with higher levels of active travel to work. Increased access to greenspace was associated with high levels of walking, while decreased access to greenspace was associated with low levels of walking. There was also a significant trend for low levels of walking to be positively associated with neighbourhood deprivation. Results

  3. The Effect of Student-Related and Text-Related Characteristics on Student's Reading Behaviour and Text Comprehension: An Eye Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Leeuw, Linda; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the present study was on the mediation and moderation effects of reading processes as evidenced from eye movements on the relation between cognitive and linguistic student characteristics (word decoding, vocabulary, comprehension skill, short-term memory, working memory, and nonverbal intelligence) and text comprehension. Forty 4th…

  4. Ultrasound image characteristics of ovarian follicles in relation to oocyte competence and follicular status in cattle.

    PubMed

    Vassena, R; Adams, G P; Mapletoft, R J; Pierson, R A; Singh, J

    2003-03-20

    Assessment of the quality of the female gamete has become paramount for in vitro procedures. There is a need to identify reliable indicators of oocyte competence and develop a simple, non-invasive method to assess competence. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships among ultrasonographic attributes of a follicle, its stage of development and the competence of the oocyte that it contains. We tested the hypotheses that follicular echotexture characteristics are related to: (1) the phase of development of the follicle, (2) the presence of the corpus luteum (CL) and/or the dominant follicle in the ovary, and (3) developmental competence of cumulus oocyte complexes (COC) from the same ovary. Crossbred beef cows (n=143), age 4-14 years, were given a luteolytic dose of dinoprost to cause ovulation. Ultrasound-guided ablation of all follicles > or = 4mm was done 8 days later to induce new follicular wave emergence during a luteal phase. Ultrasonographic images of dominant follicles and the three largest subordinate follicles (n=402 follicles; 84 cows) were acquired on Days 2, 3, 5 or 7 of the follicular wave (Day 0: wave emergence), i.e. growing, early-static, late static, and regressing phases of subordinate follicle development, respectively. From a subset of these animals (n=33), ovaries were collected within 30 min of slaughter and COC from subordinate follicles > or = 3mm underwent in vitro maturation, fertilization and culture to the blastocyst stage.Image analysis revealed differences in echotexture between dominant and subordinate follicles among Days 2-7 of the follicular wave. Images of dominant and subordinate follicles at Day 7 of the wave displayed consistently lower grey-scale values (P<0.05) in the peripheral antrum, follicular wall and perifollicular stroma than all other days. Follicle images displayed a consistent pattern of variation in echotexture among follicular phases. Data did not support the hypothesis of a local effect of the CL

  5. The effect of cryopreservation on goat semen characteristics related to sperm freezability.

    PubMed

    Dorado, J; Muñoz-Serrano, A; Hidalgo, M

    2010-08-01

    Seminal quality parameters were used to evaluate the effect of freeze-thawing procedure on goat sperm characteristics, and to relate possible changes in sperm parameters to cryopreservation success. Semen samples (n=110) were frozen with TRIS and milk-based extenders and thawed. Sperm quality parameters (motility, morphology and acrosome) were compared between fresh and frozen-thawed samples. Sperm freezability was judged by classifying the semen samples as "suitable" or "not suitable" according to the sperm quality parameters assessed before and after thawing. Fertility data was obtained after cervical insemination with frozen semen doses. The ejaculates were grouped into two categories according to their fertility results. In experiment 1, significant differences were found between semen extenders (P<0.001), bucks (P<0.05) and ejaculates within the same male (P<0.05) in terms of sperm quality. There was no seasonal effect (P>0.05) on the majority of the sperm parameters assessed after thawing. Moreover, significant differences (P<0.001) in semen parameters assessed in fresh semen and frozen-thawed samples were found between groups. The effect of the freeze-thawing procedure on sperm quality parameters was also different (P<0.05) between extenders within the same group. The number of sperm quality parameters that had changed after cryopreservation was lower in "suitable" semen samples before and after thawing. In experiment 2, no differences (P>0.05) in semen parameters assessed in fresh semen and frozen-thawed samples were found between groups. The effect of freezing and thawing on sperm quality parameters were different (P<0.05) between extenders within the same group. Only mean beat cross frequency (BCF) values were significantly higher (P<0.05) in TRIS diluted samples that led to successful pregnancies after artificial insemination. In conclusion, CASA-derived motility parameters, together with traditional semen assessment methods, give valuable information on

  6. Whose Depression Relates to Discrepancies? Testing Relations between Informant Characteristics and Informant Discrepancies from Both Informants' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Goodman, Kimberly L.; Kliewer, Wendy; Reid-Quinones, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether mothers' and children's depressive symptoms were each uniquely related to mother-child rating discrepancies on a multidimensional dyadic construct: domains associated with parental monitoring (i.e., Child Disclosure, Parental Knowledge, and Parental Solicitation). Participants included a community sample of 335…

  7. Identification of Drusen Characteristics in Age-Related Macular Degeneration by Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Schlanitz, Ferdinand G.; Sacu, Stefan; Baumann, Bernhard; Bolz, Matthias; Platzer, Maria; Pircher, Michael; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe qualitative characteristics of drusen in eyes with nonadvanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (OCT). Design Cross-sectional study. Methods Twenty-five eyes of 25 patients with early to intermediate (nonadvanced) AMD were imaged with polarization-sensitive OCT using macular volume scans. All individual drusen in each B-scan were manually delineated by experts certified by a reading center and graded for 6 different morphologic characteristics based on a defined classification scheme, including the presence of internal depolarizing structures and associated depolarizing foci. With the use of a custom-made software, the central B-scan of each individual druse was selected and used to analyze its location, diameter, and characteristics and assess the prevalence of the different features and relations between them. Results Using the macular volume scans, 6224 individual drusen could be identified, including their position within the retina, their characteristics, and their association with any pigmentary alterations. The most common drusen type was a convex-shaped druse with homogeneous medium internal reflectivity and no depolarizing contents (55.3% of drusen). A total of 30.5% of the drusen exhibited internal depolarizing material; 0.3% presented overlying hyperreflective foci, and in 54.5% the foci were also depolarizing. Significant correlations were found between the diameter of the drusen and their distribution throughout the retina, shape, homogeneity of internal reflectivity, presence of internal depolarizing characteristics, and presence of overlying foci (P < .001 each). Significant relations were found between reflectivity, homogeneity, and polarization-sensitive internal characteristics (P < .001). Conclusions Polarization-sensitive OCT reveals characteristic morphologic features of different druse types highlighting the pathophysiological spectrum of early to intermediate

  8. Teacher and Classroom Characteristics and Their Relations to Mathematics Achievement of the Students in the TIMSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyuz, Gozde; Berberoglu, Giray

    2010-01-01

    Background: Teacher-related factors such as gender, experience, conceptions related to mathematics, instructional practices have effects with various magnitudes on students' mathematics achievement. Classroom related factors such as class size, class climate and limitations to teaching and their relation to mathematics achievement have also been…

  9. Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Young People with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Relative Prevalence, Effects of Subject Characteristics, and Empirical Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lecavalier, Luc

    2006-01-01

    Parents or teachers rated 487 non-clinically referred young people with Pervasive Developmental Disorders on the Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form. The objectives of the study were to examine the relative prevalence of specific behavior problems, assess the impact of subject characteristics, and derive an empirical classification of behavioral…

  10. A Multi-Level Simultaneous Analysis of How Student and School Characteristics Are Related to Students' English Language Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Güvendir, Emre

    2015-01-01

    This study examines how student and school characteristics are related to Turkish students' English language achievement in Evaluation of Student Achievement Test (ÖBBS) of 2009. The participants of the study involve 43707 ninth year students who were required to take ÖBBS in 2009. For data analysis two level hierarchical linear modeling was…

  11. RELATION OF LANDSCAPE-SCALE ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS TO FISH ASSEMBLAGES IN THE UPPER FRENCH BROAD RIVER BASIN, NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish assemblages at 16 sites in the upper French Broad river basin in North Carolina were related to environmental characteristics at the landscape scale, the scale at which management activities and decisions are most likely to occur. Indirect gradient analysis and subsequent re...

  12. Relation of Spectral and Physiological Properties to Leaf Structural Characteristics of Arsenic Treated Rice Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arsenic (As) is a widely spread soil contaminant which can cause toxicity in plants. Although many studies have investigated the spectral characteristics of affected plants, the extent to which different toxicities may result in correspondingly different spectral signatures has received little atte...

  13. Investigating Grade Nine Textbook Problems for Characteristics Related to Mathematical Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatabi, Abolfazl Rafiepour; Stacey, Kaye; Gooya, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a content analysis of the new Iranian Grade 9 mathematics textbook and two Australian Year 9 mathematics textbooks, examining the extent to which the problems show characteristics associated in the literature with promoting mathematical literacy. The new Iranian book was produced to meet a range of needs including several well…

  14. An Investigation of Student Characteristics as Related to Achievement in an Individualized High School Biology Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlefield, David L.

    Reported is a study of possible differences in student characteristics between high, expected, and low achievers in an individualized learning biology program. Nine variables, ranging from biographical data through attitudinal data were studied. Effects on achievement and explanation of some of the differences were determined by examination of…

  15. STUDY OF THE BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF ERIONITE IN RELATION TO ITS CHEMICAL AND STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fibrous erionite appears to have many times the mesothelioma induction potential of asbestos. A member of a class of minerals termed zeolites, it differs markedly from asbestos in many physico-chemical characteristics. For preliminary biological studies, experiments were based on...

  16. Characteristic brain MRI findings in ataxia-neuropathy spectrum related to POLG mutation.

    PubMed

    Henao, Adriana I; Pira, Sonia; Herrera, Diego A; Vargas, Sergio A; Montoya, Jorge; Castillo, Mauricio

    2016-02-01

    Patients with mutations in the polymerase gamma gene (POLG) may present with progressive ataxia and in such situations neuroimaging findings may suggest the diagnosis. Herein we report a patient with a POLG gene W748S homozygous mutation and characteristic lesions in the thalamus, cerebellum and inferior olivary nucleus seen on magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:26755490

  17. Sources of Information Used in Relation to the Characteristics of the Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, K. N.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    A study to determine the relationships between the sources of information used at the different stages of adoption of innovative ideas and practices and the characteristics of the users. The study was conducted among farmers in India of varying ages, levels of occupation, and having varying sizes of holdings. (Author/JB)

  18. Teachers' Perceptions Related to Characteristics of a Professional Environment for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Mehmet; White, Arthur L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine pre-service and in-service science and mathematics teachers' perceptions of the characteristics of a professional teaching environment. The study further investigated the relationships of field placement contexts and grade levels on pre-service teachers' perceptions of importance and availability of…

  19. Neurobehaviors of Japanese Newborns in Relation to the Characteristics of Early Mother-Infant Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Kek Khee; Ohgi, Shohei; Howard, Judy; Tyler, Rachelle; Hirose, Taiko

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between newborn neurobehavioral profiles and the characteristics of early mother-infant interaction in Nagasaki, Japan. The authors administered the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS; T. B. Brazelton & J. K. Nugent, 1995) in the newborn period and the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale…

  20. Individual Characteristics of Adolescent Methamphetamine Users in Relation to Self-Reported Trouble with the Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassman, Ruth; Nowicke, Carole E.; Jun, Mi Kung

    2010-01-01

    Survey responses by nonexperimental drug users in grades 6-12 were examined to determine whether MA users and nonusers with shared individual characteristics experience differential rates of police trouble, and whether specific factors place some users at greater risk than others. Findings showed that police trouble is pronounced for MA users,…

  1. Hospital characteristics related to the intention to apply for meaningful use incentive payments.

    PubMed

    Diana, Mark L; Kazley, Abby Swanson; Ford, Eric W; Menachemi, Nir

    2012-01-01

    The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act of 2009 provides incentives for hospitals to fully adopt and use electronic health records (EHRs). We used data from the 2009 American Hospital Association (AHA) Annual Survey Information Technology Supplement and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) 2008 Hospital Cost Reports to examine how various hospital characteristics are associated with the intention to pursue meaningful use incentives. Overall, 86 percent of hospitals indicated an intent to pursue HITECH incentives. However, hospitals that already have an EHR system, are larger, and are located in urban areas are more likely to indicate an intention to pursue incentives. Despite a high interest in HITECH incentives, certain hospital characteristics, including current EHR use, increase the proclivity for some hospitals to pursue meaningful use. Given these differences, there is the potential for the HITECH Act to inadvertently increase the digital divide between hospitals with certain characteristics and their counterparts without those characteristics. Policy makers should consider ways to alleviate barriers, especially for nonusers of EHRs, to realize the maximum benefits of the HITECH Act. PMID:22737100

  2. The knocking characteristics of fuels in relation to maximum permissible performance of aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Biermann, Arnold E

    1939-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the relationship of various engine factors to knock in preignition in an aircraft engine. From this analysis and from the available experimental data, a method of evaluating the knocking characteristics of the fuel in an aircraft-engine cylinder is suggested.

  3. Parent/Child Concordance about Bullying Involvement and Family Characteristics Related to Bullying and Peer Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Melissa K.; Kaufman Kantor, Glenda; Finkelhor, David

    2009-01-01

    This study examined parent perspectives on bullying, parent/child concordance about bullying involvement, and family characteristics associated with bullying perpetration and peer victimization. Participants were 205 fifth-grade students and their parents. Students attended an urban, ethnically diverse school district in the Northeast. Youth…

  4. Individual variation related to testicular biometry and semen characteristics in collared peccaries (Tayassu Tajacu Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Peixoto, G C X; Silva, M A; Castelo, T S; Silva, A M; Bezerra, J A B; Souza, A L P; Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this research was to study the individual variation with regard to the morphometry of the testes evaluated by ultrasonography and semen characteristics and to verify the existence of relationship between these variables in collared peccaries. In addition, the testes of the animals were evaluated by histology in order to determine the proportion occupied by the seminiferous tubules. A total of 52 ejaculates were obtained from ten adult specimens that had been restrained by anesthesia. The testicular measurements (length, height, and width) were performed by ultrasonography, and the testicular volume was calculated according to Lambert's formula. The scrotal circumference was measured by encircling the thickest portion of the testicle with a graduated nylon tape. The semen was collected by electroejaculation. Testicular fragments were analyzed through classic histology for the determination of the area occupied by the seminiferous tubules. The results show a great amount of individual variation with regard to testicular morphometry and semen characteristics. No significant correlations were obtained between testicular measurements and semen characteristics. The histometric analysis revealed that 67.8% of the testes are occupied by seminiferous tubules. Results show that the measurement of testicular dimensions does not serve as an indicator of the quality of semen obtained by electroejaculation in collared peccaries, as there is no correlation between testicular morphometry and semen characteristics in this species that presents large variations among individuals. PMID:22964034

  5. Predicting Secondary Agriculture Teachers' Job Stress from Selected Personal, Family, and Work-Related Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Robert M.; Lambert, Misty D.; Lawver, Rebecca G.

    2010-01-01

    The study sought to describe the characteristics and explain the current level of job stress among secondary agriculture teachers. The sample consisted of 370 secondary agriculture teachers. Data were collected using the Job Stress Survey (Spielberger & Vagg, 1999). From the findings it was concluded that the average secondary agriculture teacher…

  6. An Analysis of Student Characteristics and Behaviour in Relation to Absence from Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawon, Krystyna; Pembroke, Michael; Wille, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Concern has been expressed in the literature that student absenteeism from lectures is undesirable as it may have adverse consequences for academic performance. The aim of this study was to examine whether there are identifiable groups of low-attendance students who display characteristic behaviours that are more typical than any other group.…

  7. Age Related Personality Characteristics of Epileptic Children: Parent and Child Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kralj, M. M.; And Others

    Personality characteristics of 101 epileptic children in two age groups (5-11 and 11-16) were studied by means of the child-reported Missouri Children's Picture Series and the mother-reported Missouri Problem Behavior Checklist. Scores for each age group across both parent and child reports were compared to published norms. A one-way multivariate…

  8. Long-Term Effects of Childhood Maltreatment History on Gender-Related Personality Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Leora N.; Martin, Lee

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 1,060 male and 305 female soldiers examined associations of gender-related personality attributes with a history of child maltreatment. Childhood abuse was associated with the presence of negative gender-related attributes; childhood neglect was associated with absence of positive gender-related attributes; childhood sexual abuse was…

  9. Changes in streamflow characteristics in Wisconsin as related to precipitation and land use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gebert, Warren A.; Garn, Herbert S.; Rose, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Streamflow characteristics were determined for 15 longterm streamflow-gaging stations for the periods 1915–2008, 1915–68, and 1969–2008 to identify trends. Stations selected represent flow characteristics for the major river basins in Wisconsin. Trends were statistically significant at the 95 percent confidence level at 13 of the 15 streamflow-gaging stations for various streamflow characteristics for 1915–2008. Most trends indicated increases in low flows for streams with agriculture as the dominant land use. The three most important findings are: increases in low flows and average flows in agricultural watersheds, decreases in flood peak discharge for many streams in both agricultural and forested watersheds, and climatic change occurred with increasing annual precipitation and changes in monthly occurrence of precipitation. When the 1915–68 period is compared to the 1969–2008 period, the annual 7-day low flow increased an average of 60 percent for nine streams in agricultural areas as compared to a 15 percent increase for the five forested streams. Average annual flow for the same periods increased 23 percent for the agriculture streams and 0.6 percent for the forested streams. The annual flood peak discharge for the same periods decreased 15 percent for agriculture streams and 8 percent for forested streams. The largest increase in the annual 7-day low flow was 117 percent, the largest increase in annual average flow was 41 percent, and the largest decrease in annual peak discharge was 51 percent. The trends in streamflow characteristics affect frequency characteristics, which are used for a variety of design and compliance purposes. The frequencies for the 1969–2008 period were compared to frequencies for the 1915–68 period. The 7-day, 10-year (Q7, 10) low flow increased 91 percent for nine agricultural streams, while the five forested streams had an increase of 18 percent. The 100-year flood peak discharge decreased an average of 15 percent

  10. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations in high altitude lakes and fish (Arctic charr) from the French Alps related to watershed characteristics.

    PubMed

    Marusczak, Nicolas; Larose, Catherine; Dommergue, Aurélien; Paquet, Serge; Beaulne, Jean-Sébastien; Maury-Brachet, Régine; Lucotte, Marc; Nedjai, Rachid; Ferrari, Christophe P

    2011-04-15

    Total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were measured in the muscle of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) and in the water column of 4 lakes that are located in the French Alps. Watershed characteristics were determined (6 coverage classes) for each lake in order to evaluate the influence of watershed composition on mercury and methylmercury concentrations in fish muscle and in the water column. THg and MeHg concentrations in surface water were relatively low and similar among lakes and watershed characteristics play a major role in determining water column Hg and MeHg levels. THg muscle concentrations for fish with either a standardized length of 220mm, a standardized age of 5 years or for individualuals did not exceed the 0.5mg kg(-1) fish consumption advisory limit established for Hg by the World Health Organization (WHO, 1990). These relatively low THg concentrations can be explained by watershed characteristics, which lead to short Hg residence time in the water column, and also by the short trophic chain that is characteristic of mountain lakes. Growth rate did not seem to influence THg concentrations in fish muscles of these lakes and we observed no relationship between fish Hg concentrations and altitude. This study shows that in the French Alps, high altitude lakes have relatively low THg and MeHg concentrations in both the water column and in Arctic charr populations. Therefore, Hg does not appear to present a danger for local populations and the fishermen of these lakes. PMID:21371737

  11. Characteristics analysis of a high speed permanent magnet synchronous generator using the transfer relations theorem and equivalent circuit method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Seok-Myeong; Ko, Kyoung-Jin; Park, Ji-Hoon; Cho, Han-Wook; Hong, Jung-Pyo

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents analytical methods to predict the magnetic field distribution, electrical parameters, and output characteristics of a high speed synchronous generator equipped with surface-mounted permanent magnet. In order to analyze the magnetic field distribution and to estimate the electrical parameters, electromagnetic transfer relation (TR) theorem is employed. Moreover, output characteristics for variable resistive load and the operating speed are also obtained by solving the permanent magnet machine's equivalent circuit equation. The analytical results are validated extensively by nonlinear finite element analysis and experimental results.

  12. Physical characteristics of a new synthetic fiber mattress in relation to pressure sores.

    PubMed

    Mita, K; Akataki, K; Itoh, K; Yoshida, M; Shinoda, T; Ishida, Y

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to develop a mattress which was made of the new synthetic fibers called 'Shin-Gosen', and to determine its physical characteristics associated with pressure sores such as pressure distribution, temperature and humidity. The Shin-Gosen mattress consisted of three layers of elastic fibers made of polyester multifilaments, which were mediated by four layers of wave-like fabrics made of nylon monofilaments. The physical characteristics of the mattress were compared with (a) the conventional cotton hospital mattress and (b) the SORELESS MAT made of vacuole gel which effectively eliminated compression forces. The Shin-Gosen mattress was found to provide pressure relief effects similar to that of the SORELESS MAT the desired thermal insulation as well as that of the cotton mattress and a higher level of moisture vapor permeability. These excellent features will not only contribute to preventing pressure sores, but will also enable comfortable resting and sleeping. PMID:9444514

  13. The flare star EV Lac. II - Relations between the characteristics of the flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avgoloupis, S.

    1986-07-01

    Characteristics of the four types of flares observed during the 184 events that were observed on the flare star EV Lac in the period 1967-1980 are analyzed. The data include the duration and magnitude of each event, the mean rate of luminosity and apparent magnitude increases, the integrated flare intensity over the whole event, and time histograms of intensity levels of the events. The flares were distributed into 49 type IV events, 71 type III events, 38 type II events and 25 type I events. Intensities were highest in type II events, and the extremes of other distinguishing characteristics were distributed among the other events, with some having correlations exceeding the 95 percent level. The differences were sufficiently pronounced to conclude that the individual type of flare event must be considered in future analyses, rather than considering all flare events as a uniform database.

  14. Statistical and numerical study of the relation between weather and sonic boom characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, Lixin; Bass, Henry E.; Raspet, Richard; Mcbride, Walton E.

    1992-01-01

    NASA measured sonic boom characteristics near Edwards Air Force Base from 11/66 to 1/67. Thirty four flights by an F-104 were recorded at an altitude of about 31,000 feet and flying speed of Mach 1.3. Forty two microphones were placed on the ground directly under the fight track. Each microphone recorded boom shape, rise time, peak overpressure, total boom duration, positive duration, and positive impulse.

  15. Health-related quality of life in a nationwide cohort of patients with COPD related to other characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Henoch, Ingela; Strang, Susann; Löfdahl, Claes-Göran; Ekberg-Jansson, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Background In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), various factors, such as dyspnoea, obstruction, exacerbations, smoking, exercise capacity, and body mass index, have been found to influence mortality and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). In order to identify subgroups of patients needing special attention, the aim of the present study was to explore the relationships between disease progression factors and HRQOL across COPD stages. Methods Baseline registrations from the Swedish COPD register of demographic, clinical, and patient-reported variables of 7,810 patients are presented. Dyspnoea was measured by the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnoea scale and HRQOL by the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ). Results This study shows as expected that patients with spirometrically more severe COPD had a significantly higher number of exacerbations and hospitalisations, significantly increasing dyspnoea, significantly decreasing body mass index and exercise capacity, and significantly worsening HRQOL. When adjusting for spirometric stage of COPD, deteriorated HRQOL was predicted by increasing dyspnoea, depression/anxiety, increasing number of exacerbations, and decreased exercise capacity. Further, these data show that an mMRC value of 2 corresponds to a CCQ value of 1.9. Conclusion The COPD patients suffered from a significant symptom burden, influencing HRQOL. A surprisingly great proportion of patients in spirometric stages II–IV showed marked changes of CCQ, indicating a need for an improved collaboration between clinical pulmonary medicine and palliative care. PMID:27238360

  16. Facial Characteristics and Olfactory Dysfunction: Two Endophenotypes Related to Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip and/or Palate

    PubMed Central

    Roosenboom, J.; Saey, I.; Peeters, H.; Devriendt, K.; Claes, P.; Hens, G.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence exists for the presence of a specific facial phenotype in nonaffected first-degree relatives of persons with CL/P. An increased risk for olfactory dysfunction has also been reported in CL/P-relatives. These phenotypic features can probably be explained via the presence of CL/P-related susceptibility genes. We aimed at confirming the occurrence of these endophenotypic traits in first-degree CL/P-relatives, and we investigated the link between the facial phenotype and the smell capacity in this group. We studied the facial morphology of 88 nonaffected first-degree relatives of patients with CL/P and 33 control subjects without family history of facial clefting by 3D surface imaging and a spatially dense analysis of the images. Smell testing was performed in 30 relatives and compared with 23 control subjects. Nonaffected relatives showed midface retrusion, hypertelorism, and olfactory dysfunction, compared to controls. In addition, we show for the first time that olfactory dysfunction in relatives is correlated to a smaller upper nasal region. This might be explained by a smaller central olfactory system. The different facial morphology in the relatives with olfactory impairment as compared to the total group may be an illustration of the contribution of different genetic backgrounds to the occurrence of CL/P via different biological pathways. PMID:26064961

  17. Socio-demographic and lifestyle-related characteristics associated with self-reported any, daily and occasional smoking during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Baron, Ruth; Manniën, Judith; de Jonge, Ank; Heymans, Martijn W; Klomp, Trudy; Hutton, Eileen K; Brug, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is a risk factor for various adverse birth outcomes. In order to develop effective interventions, insight is needed into the characteristics associated with pregnant women who smoke. Unknown is whether these characteristics differ for women who smoke daily and women who smoke occasionally. Our study sample, drawn from the DELIVER study (Sept 2009-March 2011), consisted of 6107 pregnant women in primary care in the Netherlands who were up to 34 weeks pregnant. The associations of thirteen socio-demographic or lifestyle-related characteristics with 'any smoking', 'daily smoking' and 'occasional smoking' during pregnancy were tested using multiple binary logistic regression with general estimating equations (GEE). Characteristics most strongly associated with any smoking were low education (OR 10.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 7.0-15.4), being of Turkish ethnicity (OR 3.9; 95%CI 2.3-6.7) and having no partner (OR 3.7; 95%CI 2.3-6.0). Women of Dutch ethnicity were three times more likely to smoke than those from Dutch-speaking Caribbean countries and non-religious women were much more likely to smoke than religious women. Low education was markedly more strongly associated with daily smoking than with occasional smoking (OR 20.3; 95%CI 13.2-31.3 versus OR 6.0; 95%CI 3.4-10.5). Daily smokers were more likely to be associated with other unfavorable lifestyle-related characteristics, such as not taking folic acid, being underweight, and having had an unplanned pregnancy. There is still much potential for health gain with respect to smoking during pregnancy in the Netherlands. Daily and occasional smokers appear to differ in characteristics, and therefore possibly require different interventions. PMID:24019956

  18. Educational and Demographic Characteristics of Energy-Related Scientists and Engineers, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Michael G.; Bain, Trevor

    Presented is an analysis of the education, training, and age distribution of experienced scientists, engineers, energy-related scientists, and energy-related engineers. Data are from the 1976 National Survey of Natural and Social Scientists and Engineers, which is one of a series of longitudinal studies of 50,000 scientists in the labor force at…

  19. Position-Related Differences in Selected Morphological Body Characteristics of Top-Level Female Handball Players.

    PubMed

    Bon, Marta; Pori, Primoz; Sibila, Marko

    2015-09-01

    The study aimed to establish the main morphological characteristics of Slovenian junior and senior female national handball team players. Morphological characteristics of various player subgroups (goalkeepers, wings, back players and pivots) were also determined so as to establish whether they had distinct profiles. The subjects were 87 handball players who were members of the Slovenian junior and senior female national teams in the period from 2003 to 2009. A standardised anthropometric protocol was used to assess the subjects' morphological characteristics. The measurements included 23 different anthropometric measures. First, basic statistical characteristics of anthropometric measures were obtained for all subjects together and then for each group separately. Somatotypes were determined using Heath-Carter's method. Endomorphic, mesomorphic and ectomorphic components were calculated by computer on the basis of formulas. In order to determine differences in the body composition and anthropometric data of the subjects playing in different positions, a one-way analysis of variance was employed. The results show that, on average, the wings differed the most from the other player groups in terms of their morphological body characteristics. The wings differed most prominently from the other player groups in terms of their morphological body parameters as they were significantly smaller and had a statistically significantly lower body mass than the other groups. In terms of transversal measures of the skeleton and the circumferences, the wings significantly differed mainly from the pivots and goalkeepers and less from the backs. The goalkeepers were the tallest, with high values of body mass and low values of transversal measures compared to P. Their skin folds were the most pronounced among all the groups on average and their share of subcutaneous fat in total body mass was the highest. Consequently, their endomorphic component of the somatotype was pronounced

  20. Characteristics of storage related capacity loss in Ni/H2 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidyanathan, Hari

    1993-01-01

    The changes in the capacity, voltage and pressure profile of flight configuration Ni/H2 cells when they are stored for extended periods is examined. The Ni/H2 cells exhibit capacity fade phenomenon regardless of their design when they are stored at room temperature. Capacity loss also occurs if old cells (5 years old) are stored in a very low rate trickle charge (C/200 rate) condition. A periodic recharge technique leads to pressure rise in the cells. Conventional trickle charge (C/100 rate) helps in minimizing or eliminating the second plateau which is one of the characteristics of the capacity fade phenomenon.

  1. Lightning Characteristics and Lightning Strike Peak Current Probabilities as Related to Aerospace Vehicle Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale L.; Vaughan, William W.

    1998-01-01

    A summary is presented of basic lightning characteristics/criteria for current and future NASA aerospace vehicles. The paper estimates the probability of occurrence of a 200 kA peak lightning return current, should lightning strike an aerospace vehicle in various operational phases, i.e., roll-out, on-pad, launch, reenter/land, and return-to-launch site. A literature search was conducted for previous work concerning occurrence and measurement of peak lighting currents, modeling, and estimating probabilities of launch vehicles/objects being struck by lightning. This paper presents these results.

  2. Relation of urbanization to stream habitat and geomorphic characteristics in nine metropolitan areas of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Peppler, Marie C.

    2010-01-01

    The relation of urbanization to stream habitat and geomorphic characteristics was examined collectively and individually for nine metropolitan areas of the United States?Portland, Oregon; Salt Lake City, Utah; Denver, Colorado; Dallas?Forth Worth, Texas; Milwaukee?Green Bay, Wisconsin; Birmingham, Alabama; Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh, North Carolina; and Boston, Massachusetts. The study was part of a larger study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1999 to 2004 to examine the effects of urbanization on the physical, chemical, and biological components of stream ecosystems. The objectives of the current study were to determine how stream habitat and geomorphic characteristics relate to different aspects of urbanization across a variety of diverse environmental settings and spatial scales. A space-for-time rural-to-urban land-cover gradient approach was used. Reach-scale habitat data and geomorphic characteristic data were collected once during low flow and included indicators of potential habitat degradation such as measures of channel geometry and hydraulics, streambed substrate, low-flow reach volume (an estimate of base-flow conditions), habitat complexity, and riparian/bank conditions. Hydrologic metrics included in the analyses were those expected to be altered by increases in impervious surfaces, such as high-flow frequency and duration, flashiness, and low-flow duration. Other natural and human features, such as reach-scale channel engineering, geologic setting, and slope, were quantified to identify their possible confounding influences on habitat relations with watershed-scale urbanization indicators. Habitat and geomorphic characteristics were compared to several watershed-scale indicators of urbanization, natural landscape characteristics, and hydrologic metrics by use of correlation analyses and stepwise linear regression. Habitat and geomorphic characteristics were related to percentages of impervious surfaces only in some metropolitan areas and

  3. Investigation of captive red wolf ejaculate characteristics in relation to age and inbreeding.

    PubMed

    Lockyear, K M; MacDonald, S E; Waddell, W T; Goodrowe, K L

    2016-09-15

    An evaluation of a large database of red wolf fresh ejaculate characteristics (n = 427 ejaculates from 64 wolves) was undertaken to increase knowledge of seminal characteristics in the red wolf and evaluate possible relationships between inbreeding, age, and seminal quality. Phase microscopy analysis of electroejaculates collected over 14 natural breeding seasons was compared with animal ages and inbreeding coefficients. Ejaculate volume increased and sperm concentration and total count decreased as wolves aged (P < 0.01, 0.001, and 0.05, respectively), and the proportion of sperm cell morphological abnormalities was greater in animals with higher coefficients of inbreeding (P < 0.001), particularly for older animals (P < 0.001). Moreover, the mean coefficient of inbreeding of animals that had failed to reproduce given at least one opportunity during their lifetimes was significantly greater than that of wolves with proven fertility, and wolves of proven fertility exhibited higher sperm concentrations and total counts than nonproven wolves. Thus, as the captive red wolf population becomes more inbred, the maximum age of reproduction is likely to decrease; an important finding to consider when projecting population dynamics and determining pairing recommendations. PMID:27283782

  4. Limnological characteristics of selected lakes in the Nebraska sandhills, U.S.A., and their relation to chemical characteristics of adjacent ground water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Baugh, James W.

    1986-10-01

    Limnological characteristics of Crane, Hackberry, Island and Roundup Lakes, and chemical characteristics of shallow ground water, within the Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge, western Nebraska, were determined during a preliminary investigation of the interaction between lakes and ground water in this study area between 1980 and 1984. When ice cover was absent, the lakes were well-mixed vertically, regardless of season. Depth to which 1% of surface illumination penetrated was commonly less than 1m. Variability in light penetration, as measured by Secchidisk transparency, appeared to be unrelated to changes in algal biomass, even though algal biomass, measured as chlorophyll a, varied seasonally within a two-order-of-magnitude range. Blue-green algae were the most abundant phytoplankton; this condition occurred most often when the ratio of total nitrogen to total phosphorus in the lakes' water was less than 29. Although rotifers and copepod naupli commonly were the most abundant zooplankton in the lakes, cladocerans were dominant occasionally. Either sodium or calcium was the most abundant cation, and bicarbonate was the most abundant anion, in water from water-table wells and lakes sampled during the study. The second most abundant cation in the ground water was related to the location of the sampled well within the ground-water system. The lakes were a source of dissolved organic carbon seeping to ground water. Chemical and hydrologic data indicate there is interaction between lakes and ground water in the study area.

  5. [CHARACTERISTICS AND DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSTICS OF SLEEP RELATED PATHOLOGICAL MOVEMENTS. UPDATE 2013].

    PubMed

    Faludi, Béla; Kovács, Norbert; Janszky, József; Komoly, Sámuel

    2015-05-30

    Wide variety of the movements (from the physiologic body position changes to different pathologic events) can be seen during the sleep period. The most important types of these movements are the sleep related events (from the parasomnias to the restless leg related movements), the movement disorders and the epilepsy related events. To differentiate between these events is required special skill, which is based on appropriate characterisation of the events (for example timing, repetition, pattern), the polysomnographic and video-EEG examination and validated questionnaires (FLEP scale). The appropriate differential diagnostics and therapy must be based on the knowledge of the relationship of the sleep architecture and movement events. This review would like to provide guideline for the understanding and recognizing the nature of the sleep related movements. PMID:26182607

  6. RELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS TO FISH ASSEMBLAGES IN THE UPPER FRENCH BROAD RIVER BASIN, NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish assemblages at 16 sites in the upper French Broad River basin, North Carolina were related to environmental variables using detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and linear regression. This study was conducted at the landscape scale because regional variables are controlle...

  7. Characteristics, diagnosis and therapeutic strategies for IgG4-related orbital disease.

    PubMed

    Oles, Krzysztof; Sładzień, Jacek; Bartuś, Krzysztof; Leszczyńska, Joanna; Bojanowska, Emila; Krakowczyk, Łukasz; Mika, Joanna

    2016-06-01

    Thanks to detailed studies conducted in recent years, a new disease syndrome was identified in 2001. It is known as a IgG4-related disease and its differentiation is based on the analysis of IgG4 levels in the affected tissues. The IgG4-related disease is considered to be a generalized pathological process involving a wide spectrum of various disorders that may affect distant organs. Orbital IgG4-related disease is a recently reported issue that may prove important for the elucidation of the etiology of idiopathic, lymphoplasmacytic or fibrotic disorders of various organs, including the orbits. In this article, we are describing epidemiology and differential diagnostics of IgG4-related orbital disease with particular focus on pseudotumors, MALT lymphomas and lymphocyte/plasma cell infiltrations of the orbit. We are also discussing therapeutic possibilities currently available in the management of the disease. PMID:27116895

  8. Variation of b and p values from aftershocks sequences along the Mexican subduction zone and their relation to plate characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila-Barrientos, L.; Zúñiga, F. R.; Rodríguez-Pérez, Q.; Guzmán-Speziale, M.

    2015-11-01

    Aftershock sequences along the Mexican subduction margin (between coordinates 110ºW and 91ºW) were analyzed by means of the p value from the Omori-Utsu relation and the b value from the Gutenberg-Richter relation. We focused on recent medium to large (Mw > 5.6) events considered susceptible of generating aftershock sequences suitable for analysis. The main goal was to try to find a possible correlation between aftershock parameters and plate characteristics, such as displacement rate, age and segmentation. The subduction regime of Mexico is one of the most active regions of the world with a high frequency of occurrence of medium to large events and plate characteristics change along the subduction margin. Previous studies have observed differences in seismic source characteristics at the subduction regime, which may indicate a difference in rheology and possible segmentation. The results of the analysis of the aftershock sequences indicate a slight tendency for p values to decrease from west to east with increasing of plate age although a statistical significance is undermined by the small number of aftershocks in the sequences, a particular feature distinctive of the region as compared to other world subduction regimes. The b values show an opposite, increasing trend towards the east even though the statistical significance is not enough to warrant the validation of such a trend. A linear regression between both parameters provides additional support for the inverse relation. Moreover, we calculated the seismic coupling coefficient, showing a direct relation with the p and b values. While we cannot undoubtedly confirm the hypothesis that aftershock generation depends on certain tectonic characteristics (age, thickness, temperature), our results do not reject it thus encouraging further study into this question.

  9. Methods and apparatus for measurement of a dimensional characteristic and methods of predictive modeling related thereto

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Eric P; Christiansen, Richard L.

    2007-05-29

    A method of optically determining a change in magnitude of at least one dimensional characteristic of a sample in response to a selected chamber environment. A magnitude of at least one dimension of the at least one sample may be optically determined subsequent to altering the at least one environmental condition within the chamber. A maximum change in dimension of the at least one sample may be predicted. A dimensional measurement apparatus for indicating a change in at least one dimension of at least one sample. The dimensional measurement apparatus may include a housing with a chamber configured for accommodating pressure changes and an optical perception device for measuring a dimension of at least one sample disposed in the chamber. Methods of simulating injection of a gas into a subterranean formation, injecting gas into a subterranean formation, and producing methane from a coal bed are also disclosed.

  10. Methods for measurement of a dimensional characteristic and methods of predictive modeling related thereto

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Eric P; Christiansen, Richard L.

    2007-10-23

    A method of optically determining a change in magnitude of at least one dimensional characteristic of a sample in response to a selected chamber environment. A magnitude of at least one dimension of the at least one sample may be optically determined subsequent to altering the at least one environmental condition within the chamber. A maximum change in dimension of the at least one sample may be predicted. A dimensional measurement apparatus for indicating a change in at least one dimension of at least one sample. The dimensional measurement apparatus may include a housing with a chamber configured for accommodating pressure changes and an optical perception device for measuring a dimension of at least one sample disposed in the chamber. Methods of simulating injection of a gas into a subterranean formation, injecting gas into a subterranean formation, and producing methane from a coal bed are also disclosed.

  11. Characteristics of Latrines in Central Tanzania and Their Relation to Fly Catches

    PubMed Central

    Irish, Seth; Aiemjoy, Kristen; Torondel, Belen; Abdelahi, Faraji; Ensink, Jeroen H. J.

    2013-01-01

    The disposal of human excreta in latrines is an important step in reducing the transmission of diarrhoeal diseases. However, in latrines, flies can access the latrine contents and serve as a mechanical transmitter of diarrhoeal pathogens. Furthermore, the latrine contents can be used as a breeding site for flies, which may further contribute to disease transmission. Latrines do not all produce flies, and there are some which produce only a few, while others can produce thousands. In order to understand the role of the latrine in determining this productivity, a pilot study was conducted, in which fifty latrines were observed in and around Ifakara, Tanzania. The characteristics of the latrine superstructure, use of the latrine, and chemical characteristics of pit latrine contents were compared to the numbers of flies collected in an exit trap placed over the drop hole in the latrine. Absence of a roof was found to have a significant positive association (t=3.17, p=0.003) with the total number of flies collected, and temporary superstructures, particularly as opposed to brick superstructures (z=4.26, p<0.001), and increased total solids in pit latrines (z=2.57, p=0.01) were significantly associated with increased numbers of blowflies leaving the latrine. The number of larvae per gram was significantly associated with the village from which samples were taken, with the largest difference between two villages outside Ifakara (z=2.12, p=0.03). The effect of latrine superstructure (roof, walls) on fly production may indicate that improvements in latrine construction could result in decreases in fly populations in areas where they transmit diarrhoeal pathogens. PMID:23874475

  12. Characteristics of genetics-related news content in Black weekly newspapers

    PubMed Central

    Caburnay, Charlene A.; Babb, Patricia; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Roberts, Jessica; Rath, Suchitra

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims/Objectives The media are an important source of health information, especially for those with less access to regular health care. Black news outlets such as Black newspapers are a source of health information for African Americans. This study characterized media coverage of genetics-related information in Black weekly newspapers and general audience newspapers from the same communities. Methods All health stories in a sample of 24 Black weekly newspapers and 12 general audience newspapers from January 2004 to December 2007 were reviewed for genetics-related stories. These stories were further coded for both journalistic and public health variables. Results Of all health-related stories identified, only 2% (n=357) were considered genetics-related. Genetics-related stories in Black newspapers–compared to those in general audience newspapers–were larger, more locally- and racially-relevant, and more likely to contain recommendations or action steps to improve health or reduce disease risks and to mention the importance of knowing one's family history. Stories in general audience newspapers were more likely to discuss causes of disease, mention genetic testing or therapy, and suggest a high/moderate degree of genetic determinism. Conclusions Black newspapers are a viable communication channel to disseminate findings and implications of human genome research to African American audiences. PMID:24080971

  13. Appearance-related cyberbullying: a qualitative investigation of characteristics, content, reasons, and effects.

    PubMed

    Berne, Sofia; Frisén, Ann; Kling, Johanna

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore 15-year-old adolescents' experiences of appearance-related cyberbullying. Twenty-seven adolescents participated in four focus groups. The adolescents in this study perceived that it is common to be targeted in appearance-related cyberbullying, especially for girls, and that appearance-related cyberbullying is considered to be a potent strategy when attempting to hurt girls. Girls often received comments about being fat, while among boys, it was common to receive comments about looking or seeming "gay." According to the adolescents, an important reason for engaging in appearance-related cyberbullying was to attain higher social status in the peer group. The girls and boys reacted differently to appearance-related cyberbullying. Boys tended to act out or take no offence, while girls experienced lower self-esteem and feelings of depression. Findings in this study contribute to research on cyberbullying as well as to research on girls' body esteem development. PMID:25194309

  14. Characteristics and Institutional Factors Related to Young Alumni Donors and Non-Donors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDearmon, J. Travis; Shirley, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the results of an institutional survey conducted by the Annual Giving Office at a large public university in the Midwest. Overall, 2,273 young alumni participated in an online survey that assessed personal and institutional factors related to an alumna's willingness to make donations to the university. The results of the study…

  15. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptomatology and Related Behavioural Characteristics in Individuals with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jo; Richards, Caroline; Nelson, Lisa; Oliver, Chris

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the proportion of individuals with Down syndrome (DS: N = 108) who met criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) on the Social Communication Questionnaire and the severity of ASD-related symptomatology in this group. The proportions of individuals with DS meeting the cut-off for ASD and autism in this sample were 19% and 8%,…

  16. Characteristics of Mother-Child Interactions Related to Adolescents' Positive Values and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a theoretical model that considered accurate perception and acceptance of maternal values in relation to adolescents' positive values and behaviors. One hundred fifty-one mother-adolescent dyads completed measures targeting adolescent and maternal perceptions of prosocial values and adolescent behaviors (M…

  17. LARGE BUILDINGS CHARACTERISTICS AS RELATED TO RADON RESISTANCE: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a literature review to determine to what useful extent buildings have been characterized and a data base developed in relation to radon entry and mitigation. Prior to 1993, most radon research in large buildings was focused on developing diagnostic and...

  18. Lesion Characteristics Related to Treatment Improvement in Object and Action Naming for Patients with Chronic Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, R. Bruce; Raymer, Anastasia; Chang, Yu-Ling; FitzGerald, David B.; Crosson, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between degree of lesion in various locations and improvement during treatment in stroke patients with chronic aphasia. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether the degree of lesion in specific brain regions was related to magnitude of improvement over the course of object and action naming…

  19. The Characteristics of Earth System Thinking of Science Gifted Students in relation to Climate Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Duk Ho; Cho, Kyu Seong; Hong, Deok Pyo; Park, Kyeong Jin

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the perception of earth system thinking of science gifted students in future problem solving (FPS) in relation to climate changes. In order to this study, the research problem associated with climate changes was developed through a literature review. The thirty seven science gifted students participated in lessons. The ideas in problem solving process of science gifted students were analyzed using the semantic network analysis method. The results are as follows. In the problem solving processes, science gifted students are ''changes of the sunlight by water layer'', ''changes of the Earth''s temperature'', ''changes of the air pressure'', '' change of the wind and weather''were represented in order. On other hand, regard to earth system thinking for climate changes, while science gifted students were used sub components related to atmospheres frequently, they were used sub components related to biosphere, geosphere, and hydrosphere a little. But, the analytical results of the structural relationship between the sub components related to earth system, they were recognised that biosphere, geosphere, and hydrosphere used very important in network structures. In conclusion, science gifted students were understood well that components of the earth system are influencing each other. Keywords : Science gifted students, Future problem solving, Climate change, Earth system thinking

  20. Peer-Related Social Interactions of Developmentally Delayed Young Children: Development and Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J.; Weinhouse, Ellen

    1984-01-01

    A short-term longitudinal study of the peer-related social interactions of 111 developmentally delayed toddlers and preschool children was carried out. Results suggested the existence of unusually marked deficits in peer interactions. Possible contributing factors were discussed. (Author/RH)

  1. Suspended Sediment Transport Dynamics and Sediment Yields in Relation to Watershed Characteristics, Upper Green River Basin, Kentucky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otoo, J.; Kentworthy, S.; Florea, L.; May, M.; Meier, Q.; Hollon, C.

    2008-12-01

    Sediment delivery is a major problem in the Green River, Kentucky, home of 71 of the state's 103 known mussel species and 151 fish species. The river also provides water for many of its surrounding counties. This research focuses on how suspended sediment loads, grain size, and the temporal co-variation of flow rate and sediment concentration during runoff events are related to watershed characteristics. The link between sediment load and watershed characteristics can help in the planning and development of effective strategies to minimize sediment load and suspended sediment concentration in the Green River, thereby improving the water quality of the river. The primary research objectives were on suspended sediment loads from two watersheds namely: Pitman Creek and Brush Creek in the Upper Green River Basin. Water quality was monitored using data sondes positioned at selected sites in the two watersheds. Water samples were collected and analyzed for concentrations of suspended sediments. The suspended sediments data was then linked to watershed characteristics to determine what factors affect or influence suspended sediment concentration in the Upper Green River Basin. Thus, the research reveals the relationships between suspended sediment loads, grain size, flow rate and the watershed characteristics of interest. We will present hydrologic monitoring results combined with field investigations which indicate that suspended sediment in the Green River is affected by an discharge, relief, geology, watershed area, landuse, and cover conditions.

  2. Electron-phonon interactions in silicon: Mean free paths, related distributions and transport characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkerman, Avraham; Murat, Michael

    2015-05-01

    The mean free path (MFP) for electron-phonon interactions in pure silicon is an important characteristic needed both for low energy electron transport calculations using Boltzmann transport equation, and for Monte Carlo simulations. Full band calculations present a basic (though complicated) approach to the solution of the problem. Simpler approaches based on analytical presentation of the scattering rates have also been used; however they are valid for a restricted range of electron energies, below 2 eV. In this paper we introduce a hybrid method that utilizes the density of energy states calculated from the full band calculations for electron energies larger than 2 eV, allowing to extend the analytical approach for energies up to 5 eV, where the impact ionization becomes the dominant mechanism of electron interactions within bulk silicon. The resulting MFPs as function of electron energy and lattice temperature, together with the integral probability distribution for given energy losses by phonon emission (or energy gain by absorption of phonons) form the database for Monte Carlo calculations. Using this method, we calculate the electron diffusivity and mobility as function of the electron and lattice temperatures. These parameters are important for solution of the two temperature model, used for calculations of the track structure created by swift ions and nanosecond laser beams.

  3. Characteristics of stratospheric turbulent layers measured by LITOS and their relation to the Richardson number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haack, A.; Gerding, M.; Lübken, F.-J.

    2014-09-01

    Based on high-resolution turbulence measurements performed with the newly established balloon-borne instrument Leibniz Institute Turbulence Observations in the Stratosphere (LITOS) during the Balloon Experiments for University Students (BEXUS) 6 and BEXUS 8 campaigns from Kiruna, we derived characteristics of stratospheric turbulence layers, like their thickness and distance in between. Typically, the layers are ˜15-130 m thick and have a distance of ˜60-270 m, and their number increases with altitude. Due to the very high measurement resolution of LITOS in the range of millimeters, we obtain energy dissipation rate profiles with unprecedented precision. Within the turbulent layers we get a mean dissipation rate of 3.4×10-2W/kg (BEXUS 6) and 1.1 × 10-2 W/kg (BEXUS 8) corresponding to a heating rate of 1 to ˜3 K/d. The profiles show an increase of the energy dissipation with altitude. Comparisons with the Richardson number Ri preclude a clear correlation between the occurrence of turbulence and Ri<1/4. Despite the expected occurrence of turbulence at Ri<1/4, we also observed turbulent layers where Ri was >1/4 and far beyond, independent of the scale over which Ri has been determined.

  4. Investigation of some characteristics of polyhydroxy milkweed triglycerides and their acylated derivatives in relation to lubricity.

    PubMed

    Harry-O'kuru, Rogers E; Biresaw, Girma; Cermak, Steven C; Gordon, Sherald H; Vermillion, Karl

    2011-05-11

    Most industrial lubricants are derived from nonrenewable petroleum-based sources. As useful as these lubricants are, their unintended consequences are the pollution of the Earth's environment as a result of the slow degradation of the spent materials. Native seed oils, on the other hand, are renewable and are also biodegradable in the environment, but these oils often suffer a drawback in having lower thermal stability and a shorter shelf life because of the intrinsic -C═C- unsaturation in their structures. This drawback can be overcome, yet the inherent biodegradative property retained, by appropriate derivatization of the oil. Pursuant to this, this study investigated derivatized polyhydroxy milkweed oil to assess its suitability as lubricant. The milkweed plant is a member of the Asclepiadaceae, a family with many genera including the common milkweeds, Asclepias syriaca L., Asclepias speciosa L., Asclepias tuberosa L., etc. The seeds of these species contain mainly C-18 triglycerides that are highly unsaturated, 92%. The olefinic character of this oil has been chemically modified by generating polyhydroxy triglycerides (HMWO) that show high viscosity and excellent moisturizing characteristics. In this work, HMWO have been chemically modified by esterifying their hydroxyl groups with acyl groups of various chain lengths (C2-C5). The results of investigation into the effect of the acyl derivatives' chemical structure on kinematic and dynamic viscosity, oxidation stability, cold-flow (pour point, cloud point) properties, coefficient of friction, wear, and elastohydrodynamic film thickness are discussed. PMID:21428293

  5. Parasite infection rates of impala (Aepyceros melampus) in fenced game reserves in relation to reserve characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ezenwa, V.O.

    2004-01-01

    Under certain conditions reserves can pose a threat to wildlife conservation by increasing the transmission of parasites and pathogens. In this study, I investigated associations between reserve characteristics including area, density and species richness and parasite infection rates in impala (Aepyceros melampus). Using coprological methods to measure gastrointestinal parasitism rates of impala inhabiting five fully or partially fenced game reserves in central Kenya, I found that bovid species richness was correlated with parasite taxa richness across reserves, and that prevalence rates of multi-host strongyle nematodes were higher in reserves with more species. In addition, reserve size was also implicated as a potential predictor of infection risk. Overall, these results suggest that wildlife inhabiting highly diverse and small reserves may suffer from higher than normal rates of infection. Given the potential debilitating effects increases in parasitism can have on wildlife, these results underscore the importance of considering parasite transmission dynamics in the management of small, fenced protected areas. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Motorcycle Related Injuries among Rural Dwellers in Irrua, Nigeria: Characteristics and Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Dongo, A. E.; Kesieme, E. B.; Eighemherio, A.; Nwokike, O.; Esezobor, E.; Alufohai, E.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The escalating use of motorcycle for commercial transportation of commuters and goods has resulted in an increase in morbidity and mortality from road traffic injuries. Objectives. To study the characteristics of motorcycle injuries seen in Irrua, Nigeria. Materials and Methods. This is a one-year prospective study of all patients seen from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2009. A structured proforma was filled for all consecutive crash victims involving a motorcycle. Results. Motorcycle injuries accounted for 11.6% of attendance in surgical emergency room (142 out of 1,214); 76.8% were males. Amongst victims 47.1% were riders, 42.9%, passengers, and 7.8% pedestrians. Extremity injury accounted for 42.2% while head injury occurred in 21.8%. There were 9 deaths (6.3%). In this study no victim used crash helmet. Conclusion. Banning of motorcycle for commercial use and the introduction of tricycles into rural/suburban comminutes may be an important preventive strategy. PMID:24228178

  7. p53 status of head and neck cancer: relation to biological characteristics and outcome of radiotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, G. D.; Richman, P. I.; Dische, S.; Saunders, M. I.; Robinson, B.; Daley, F. M.; Ross, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    p53 status was investigated in 99 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck region uniformly treated with accelerated radiotherapy and in whom tumour cell proliferation and DNA aneuploidy were assessed using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) incorporation and flow cytometry (FCM). Seventy-six percent of tumours were immunohistochemically positive for p53 protein, but heterogeneity was noticed both in the percentage of cells positive for p53 and in their level of expression. However, tumours which were either essentially all positive or all negative or showed sporadic positivity for p53 protein showed no differences in their level of aneuploidy, proliferation rate, tissue organisation or outcome with radiotherapy. There was a trend for those p53-positive tumours with the strongest expression to have more DNA aneuploidy and deregulation of proliferation organisation than weaker expressors; but there were no differences in proliferation rate or outcome of radiotherapy. These studies suggest that p53 protein stabilisation as assessed by immunohistochemistry does not have any major relationship with the biological characteristics and outcome of squamous cell cancer treated by accelerated radiotherapy. Images Figure 1 PMID:7779719

  8. Age-related changes in semen quality characteristics and expectations of reproductive longevity in Duroc boars.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu Hung; Lo, Ling Ling; Liu, Shyh Hwa; Yang, Tien Shuh

    2010-08-01

    Quadratic fitting was used to regress semen characteristics of 1441 samples consisting of 12-month collection from 58 Duroc boars against animal age varied from 10 to 80 months. Data was divided into two groups of cool (14.0-22.7 degrees C, RH 81.5%) and hot season (22.9-29.9 degrees C, RH 86.6%), to test effects of age, season and their interactions. Results revealed that young boars of around 1 year old could endure the hot season. The endurance gradually diminished as animals grew. In the hot season animals exhibited peak performance at age around 33 month and it remained for 1 month, while cool-season kept boars could last for 48 months from 16 months old onward. The reproductive longevity should be 51 month in a subtropical environment and it may extend to 70 month if heat stress can be avoided. The estimated total sperm contribution of a Duroc boar would be 1.8 times more when kept below 22 degrees C than in a natural subtropical environment. It is concluded that to maintain Duroc boars as semen donor to at least 4 years of age is feasible in a subtropical environment and boar longevity could reach 6 years old if well kept in a temperate region. PMID:20662811

  9. [Community structure characteristics of phytoplankton and related affecting factors in Hengshan Reservoir, Zhejiang, China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Liang-Jie; Yu, Peng-Fei; Zhu, Jun-Quan; Xu, Zhen; Lü, Guang-Han; Jin, Chun-Hua

    2014-02-01

    In order to reveal the community structure characteristics of phytoplankton and the relationships with environmental factors in Hengshan Reservoir, the phytoplankton species composition, abundance, biomass and 12 environmental factors at 4 sampling sites were analyzed from March 2011 to February 2012. A total of 246 phytoplankton species were identified, which belong to 78 genera and 7 phyla. The dominant species were Melosira varians, M. granulate, Cyclotella meneghiniana, Asterianella formosa, Synedra acus, Achnanthes exigua, Ankistrodesmus falcatus, Oscillatoria lacustris, Cryptomonas erosa, Chroomonas acuta, Phormidium tenue and Microcystis aeruginosa, etc. Seasonal variations of species were obvious. The annual abundance and biomass of the phytoplankton were 0.51 x 10(5)-14.22 x 10(5) ind x L(-1) and 0.07-1.27 mg x L(-1), respectively. The values of the Margelef index, Pielou index and Shannon index of the phytoplankton community were 1.10-3.33, 0.26-0.81 and 0.51-2.38, respectively. The phytoplankton community structure was of Bacillariophyta-Cryptophyta type in spring and winter, of Chlorophyta-Cyanophyta type in summer, and of Bacillariophyta type in autumn. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) showed that temperature, transparency, chemical oxygen demand and pH had the closest relationships with the phytoplankton community structure in the reservoir. Water quality evaluation showed that Hengshan Reservoir was in a secondary pollution with a meso-trophic level. PMID:24830259

  10. Multiple performance characteristics optimization for Al 7075 on electric discharge drilling by Taguchi grey relational theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, Rajesh; Kumar, Anish; Garg, Mohinder Pal; Singh, Ajit; Sharma, Neeraj

    2015-05-01

    Electric discharge drill machine (EDDM) is a spark erosion process to produce micro-holes in conductive materials. This process is widely used in aerospace, medical, dental and automobile industries. As for the performance evaluation of the electric discharge drilling machine, it is very necessary to study the process parameters of machine tool. In this research paper, a brass rod 2 mm diameter was selected as a tool electrode. The experiments generate output responses such as tool wear rate (TWR). The best parameters such as pulse on-time, pulse off-time and water pressure were studied for best machining characteristics. This investigation presents the use of Taguchi approach for better TWR in drilling of Al-7075. A plan of experiments, based on L27 Taguchi design method, was selected for drilling of material. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows the percentage contribution of the control factor in the machining of Al-7075 in EDDM. The optimal combination levels and the significant drilling parameters on TWR were obtained. The optimization results showed that the combination of maximum pulse on-time and minimum pulse off-time gives maximum MRR.

  11. [Sexual abuse of children and adolescents: characteristics of sexual victimization in family relations].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Márcia Aparecida; Ferriani, Maria das Graças Carvalho; Reis, Jair Naves dos

    2004-01-01

    This study analyzes the characteristics of sexual abuse committed within the family against age groups classified according to the Brazilian Statute for Children and Adolescents (the prevailing legislation on matters pertaining to minors) and treated at the Reference Center for Children and Adolescents and the Guardianship Councils in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil, from 1995 to 2000. Some 234 abuses were identified, committed by 217 aggressors, against 210 families and a total of 226 victims. A total of 131 children (48.7%) and 95 adolescents (41.2%), predominantly females, were victimized. Children ranging from 10 to 12 years were the most frequently abused (19.5%), as well as adolescents from 12 to 14 years old (17.3%). The majority of the victims live in families with 3 (19.9%) or 4 children (177%), and the firstborn are the most frequently abused (33.6%). The majority of aggressors who acted alone victimized only one individual (86.7%). Fathers (34.2%) and stepfathers (30.3%) were the most frequent aggressors, with the former victimizing more children (19.7%) and the latter adolescents (17.1%). PMID:15073625

  12. Efficient assembly of finite-element subsystems with large relative rotations. [for rotorcraft dynamic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuh, Jon-Shen; Panda, Brahmananda; Peters, David A.

    1988-01-01

    A finite element approach is presented for the modeling of rotorcraft undergoing elastic deformation in addition to large rigid body motion with respect to inertial space, with particular attention given to the coupling of the rotor and fuselage subsystems subject to large relative rotations. The component synthesis technique used here allows the coupling of rotors to the fuselage for different rotorcraft configurations. The formulation is general and applicable to any rotorcraft vibration, aeroelasticity, and dynamics problem.

  13. The highly-cited Electrocardiogram-related articles in science citation index expanded: characteristics and hotspots.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xianglin; Gu, Jiaojiao; Yan, Hong; Xu, Zhi; Ren, Bing; Yang, Yaming; Yang, Xiaodong; Chen, Qi; Tan, Shaohua

    2014-01-01

    We used bibliometric analysis methodology in the expanded Science Citation Index to identify highly-cited electrocardiogram (ECG)-related articles with total citations (TC2012) exceeding 100 from the publication year to 2012. Web of Science search tools were used to identify the highly-cited articles. The aspects analyzed for highly cited publications included effect of time on citation analysis, journals and Web of Science categories, number of authors per publication, originating institutions and countries, total citation and total citation per year life cycles of articles (C2012) and research hotspots. Results showed that a total of 467 electrocardiogram-related publications were regarded as the highly-cited publications. TC2012 ranged from 101 to 2879, with 215 as the average number of citations. No highly-cited publications have emerged yet during the first two years of the present 2010 Decade. All 11 countries and institutions originating highly-cited ECG-related publications were developed countries, USA in 9 of them. Four subject categories were identified as hotspots by total citations TC2012 and C2012: atrial fibrillation, long QT syndrome, angina and myocardial infarction, and risk factor analysis and health evaluation. PMID:24742585

  14. Nutrient, Habitat, and Basin-Characteristics Data and Relations with Fish and Invertebrate Communities in Indiana Streams, 1998-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frey, Jeffrey W.; Caskey, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of existing nutrient, habitat, basin-characteristics, and biological-community (fish and invertebrate) data assessed significant relations between nutrients and biological data. Data from 1998 through 2000 for 58 sites in the Upper Wabash River Basin, Lower Wabash River Basin, and tributaries to the Great Lakes and Ohio River Basins were analyzed. Correspondence analysis was used to assess significant relations among nutrients, habitat, basin-characteristics, and biological-community data. Canonical correspondence analysis was used to identify which environmental parameters most influenced the biological communities. When all 58 sites were assessed, six biological-community attributes, metric scores, or site scores were statistically sigificant but weak. When a subset of data was analyzed for eight headwater streams in one ecoregion to minimize the naturally occurring variability associated with the 58 sites, the strength of the relations increased and 24 attributes, metric scores, or site scores were significantly related. Fish-community composition in the 58 sites was most influenced by habitat and land use but not by nutrients. The invertebrate-community composition in the 58 sites was most influenced by habitat, land use, soils, and one nutrient (total Kjeldahl nitrogen [TKN]).

  15. Which tinnitus-related characteristics affect current health-related quality of life and depression? A cross-sectional cohort study.

    PubMed

    Weidt, Steffi; Delsignore, Aba; Meyer, Martin; Rufer, Michael; Peter, Nicole; Drabe, Natalie; Kleinjung, Tobias

    2016-03-30

    Tinnitus is sometimes associated with lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and depressive symptoms. However, only limited evidence exists identifying which tinnitus characteristics are responsible for these associations. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess associations between tinnitus, HRQoL, depressive symptoms, subjective tinnitus loudness and audiometrically assessed tinnitus characteristics (e.g., hearing threshold). Two hundred and eight outpatients reporting tinnitus completed questionnaires on tinnitus (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, THI), HRQoL (World-Health-Organisation Quality of Life Short Form Survey, WHOQOL-BREF), and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI), and underwent audiometry. Patients with higher THI scores exhibited significantly lower HRQoL, and higher depression scores. THI total-score, THI subscales, and subjective tinnitus loudness explained significant variance of WHOQOL-BREF and BDI. Audiometrically measured features were not associated with WHOQOL-BREF or BDI. Overall, we confirmed findings that different features of tinnitus are associated with HRQoL and depressive symptoms but not with audiometrically assessed tinnitus characteristics. Consequently, physicians should evaluate THI total score, its sub-scores, and subjective tinnitus loudness to reliably and quickly identify patients who potentially suffer from depressive symptoms or significantly lower HRQoL. Supporting these patients early might help to prevent the development of reactive depressive symptoms and impairment of HRQoL. PMID:26850646

  16. Effect of feed-related farm characteristics on relative values of genetic traits in dairy cows to reduce greenhouse gas emissions along the chain.

    PubMed

    Van Middelaar, C E; Berentsen, P B M; Dijkstra, J; Van Arendonk, J A M; De Boer, I J M

    2015-07-01

    Breeding has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from dairy farming. Evaluating the effect of a 1-unit change (i.e., 1 genetic standard deviation improvement) in genetic traits on GHG emissions along the chain provides insight into the relative importance of genetic traits to reduce GHG emissions. Relative GHG values of genetic traits, however, might depend on feed-related farm characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feed-related farm characteristics on GHG values by comparing the values of milk yield and longevity for an efficient farm and a less efficient farm. The less efficient farm did not apply precision feeding and had lower feed production per hectare than the efficient farm. Greenhouse gas values of milk yield and longevity were calculated by using a whole-farm model and 2 different optimization methods. Method 1 optimized farm management before and after a change in genetic trait by maximizing labor income; the effect on GHG emissions (i.e., from production of farm inputs up to the farm gate) was considered a side effect. Method 2 optimized farm management after a change in genetic trait by minimizing GHG emissions per kilogram of milk while maintaining labor income and milk production at least at the level before the change in trait; the effect on labor income was considered a side effect. Based on maximizing labor income (method 1), GHG values of milk yield and longevity were, respectively, 279 and 143kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/unit change per cow per year on the less efficient farm, and 247 and 210kg of CO2e/unit change per cow per year on the efficient farm. Based on minimizing GHG emissions (method 2), GHG values of milk yield and longevity were, respectively, 538 and 563kg of CO2e/unit change per cow per year on the less efficient farm, and 453 and 441kg of CO2e/unit change per cow per year on the efficient farm. Sensitivity analysis showed that, for both methods, the absolute effect of a

  17. Electrophysiological characteristics of feeding-related neurons after taste avoidance Pavlovian conditioning in Lymnaea stagnalis

    PubMed Central

    Sunada, Hiroshi; Takigami, Satoshi; Lukowiak, Ken; Sakakibara, Manabu

    2014-01-01

    Taste avoidance conditioning (TAC) was carried out on the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. The conditional stimulus (CS) was sucrose which elicits feeding behavior; while the unconditional stimulus (US) was a tactile stimulus to the head which causes feeding to be suppressed. The neuronal circuit that drives feeding behavior in Lymnaea is well worked out. We therefore compared the physiological characteristics on 3 classes of neurons involved with feeding behavior especially in response to the CS in conditioned vs. control snails. The cerebral giant cell (CGC) modulates feeding behavior, N1 medial neuron (N1M) is one of the central pattern generator neurons that organizes feeding behavior, while B3 is a motor neuron active during the rasp phase of feeding. We found the resting membrane potential in CGC was hyperpolarized significantly in conditioned snails but impulse activity remained the same between conditioned vs. control snails. There was, however, a significant increase in spontaneous activity and a significant depolarization of N1M’s resting membrane potential in conditioned snails. These changes in N1M activity as a result of training are thought to be due to withdrawal interneuron RPeD11 altering the activity of the CGCs. Finally, in B3 there was: 1) a significant decrease in the amplitude and the frequency of the post-synaptic potentials; 2) a significant hyperpolarization of resting membrane potential in conditioned snails; and 3) a disappearance of bursting activity typically initiated by the CS. These neuronal modifications are consistent with the behavioral phenotype elicited by the CS following conditioning. PMID:27493506

  18. Clinical and echocardiographic characteristics for differentiating between transthyretin-related and light-chain cardiac amyloidoses.

    PubMed

    Mori, Minako; An, Yoshimori; Katayama, Oju; Kitagawa, Tomoya; Sasaki, Yuya; Onaka, Takashi; Yonezawa, Akihito; Murata, Kenichiro; Yokota, Tadaaki; Ando, Kenji; Imada, Kazunori

    2015-11-01

    Differential diagnosis between transthyretin (TTR) and immunoglobulin light-chain (AL) cardiac amyloidoses is essential due to significantly different prognoses and therapeutic options. Therefore, clinical characteristics of patients with biopsy-proven cardiac amyloidosis were investigated to differentiate TTR from AL amyloidosis. From September 2006 to May 2014, 46 patients were confirmed to have cardiac amyloidosis (TTR, n = 28; AL, n = 18) in our institute. The median age of patients with TTR amyloidosis was 78 years (range 61-90) with 27 (96 %) males, while that of patients with AL amyloidosis was 66 (range 52-76) with 12 (67 %) males. There were no statistically significant differences in echocardiographic findings regarding left ventricular (LV) systolic function or diastolic dysfunction between the two groups. Interestingly, serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in patients with AL amyloidosis were significantly higher than those in TTR amyloidosis patients. In contrast, the LV wall was significantly thicker in patients with TTR amyloidosis than in those with AL amyloidosis. Therefore, the ratio of BNP to LV mass index (LVMI) at presentation in AL amyloidosis patients was significantly higher than that in TTR patients (6.7 vs 2.9, p = 0.0006). A BNP-LVMI ratio of less than 3.5 had a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for TTR amyloidosis of 71 and 83 %, respectively. One-year overall survival was 88.7 % in the patients with TTR amyloidosis and 23.7 % in the patients with AL amyloidosis. Our analysis indicates that the BNP-LVMI ratio, as well as age and sex, may be useful parameters for distinguishing TTR from AL cardiac amyloidosis. PMID:26251157

  19. Virulence characteristics of Aeromonas spp. in relation to source and biotype.

    PubMed Central

    Kirov, S M; Rees, B; Wellock, R C; Goldsmid, J M; Van Galen, A D

    1986-01-01

    The significance of Aeromonas spp. as potential water-borne enteric pathogens in Tasmania, Australia, an area with a mild climate and comparatively low year-round water temperatures, was investigated in view of the reported marked peak of Aeromonas-associated gastroenteritis in the summer and the apparent influence of temperature on levels of potentially pathogenic species in water supplies. Biochemical characteristics and virulence-associated properties--exotoxin production (hemolysin, enterotoxin), ability to grow at 43 degrees C, and possession of pili--were determined for 105 Tasmanian isolates of Aeromonas spp.; 43 isolates were from clinical specimens (greater than 75% diarrhea associated) and 62 were from water. Current classification schemes were evaluated for these isolates. A. sobria comprised 35% of the clinical isolates and 16% of the water isolates, A. hydrophila comprised 56 and 79%, and A. caviae comprised 9 and 5%. A total of 42% of the clinical isolates and 15% of the environmental isolates were enterotoxigenic (by the suckling mouse assay); these levels were significantly lower than those found in warmer environments. The majority (74%) of enterotoxigenic isolates were A. sobria. Enterotoxin-producing isolates possessed three or more of the following properties. They were Voges-Proskauer positive, did not hydrolyze arabinose, were positive for lysine decarboxylase, were able to grow at 43 degrees C, and produced large amounts of hemolysin (titer, greater than 128). Thus, the biochemical scheme proposed by Burke et al. (V. Burke, J. Robinson, H.M. Atkinson, and M. Gracey, J. Clin. Microbiol. 15:48-52, 1982) for identifying enterotoxigenic isolates appears to have widespread applicability. Environmental enterotoxigenic isolates possessed numerous pili, but these appeared to be lost once infection was established, as a similar isolates from patients with diarrhea were poorly piliated. Images PMID:2877008

  20. [Characteristics of leaf carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry in relation to plant size of Machilus pauhoi].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei-lei; Zhong, Quan-lin; Cheng, Dong-liang; Zhang, Zhong-rui; Fei, Ling; Xu, Chao-bin; He, Li-zhong; Wang, Wei-jun

    2015-07-01

    To explore the effects of stand age on variation patterns of leaf C, N, P stoichiometric characteristics of Machilus pauhoi, two stands, i.e., 9 and 13 years old, were selected. The relationships between leaf nutrient contents (C, N and P) and diameters at breast height (DBH) of individual plants were analyzed. The data revealed that the individual variations of seedlings in M. pauhoi stands were strengthened with the stand development. The stand age had significant effects on leaf C, N, P contents and C:N ratio but not on C:P and N: P ratios. Specifically, the mean values of leaf C, N, P contents and N:P ratio in the 9-year-old stand were lower than those in the 13-year-old stand, whereas, inverse pattern of C:N and C:P ratios were found in the two stands. Furthermore, leaf N and P stoichiometry varied significantly within the stand. Specifically, leaf N and P contents, as well as their stoichiometric ratios, linearly correlated with DBH in the 9-year-old stand. On the contrary, leaf N and P stoichiometry showed quadratic correlation in 13-year-old stand (except leaf C:N which linearly correlated with DBH). Lastly, nutrient transfer rates of leaf N and P in the 9-year-old stand were higher than that in 13-year-old stand, and the discrepancies of leaf nutrient transfer strategy between growing and non-growing seasons were caused by the different growth phases and environmental conditions. PMID:26720927

  1. Distribution of ammonia oxidizers in relation to vegetation characteristics in the Qilian Mountains, northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, X. S.; Mao, W. L.; Liu, G. X.; Chen, T.; Zhang, W.; Wu, X. K.; Long, H. Z.; Zhang, B. G.; Gao, T. P.

    2014-04-01

    Nitrogen is the major limiting nutrient in cold environments, and its availability is strongly dependent on nitrification. However, microbial communities driving this process remain largely uncharacterized in alpine meadow soils in northwestern China, namely those catalyzing the rate-limiting step of ammonia oxidation. In this study, ammonia-oxidizing communities in alpine meadow soils were characterized by real-time PCR and clone sequencing by targeting on amoA genes, which putatively encode ammonia monooxygenase subunit A. The results demonstrated that ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) outnumbered ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the alpine meadow soils. Most of the AOA phylotypes detected in the study region fell within typical Group I.1b of Thaumarchaeota. Interestingly, a new ammonia-oxidizing archaeal group named "Kobresia meadow soil group" was found. Phylogenetic analysis of AOB communities exhibited a dominance of Nitrosospira-like sequences affiliated to beta-Proteobacteria. Compared with other alpine environments, Qilian Mountains had a great phylogenetic diversity of ammonia oxidizers. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) analysis showed that distinct AOA/AOB phylotype groups were attributed to different meadow types, reflecting an overall distribution of ammonia-oxidizing communities associated with meadow types. Redundancy Analysis (RDA) analysis showed that Axis 1 (90.9%) together with Axis 2 (9.1%) explained all the variables while Axis 1 exhibited a significant explanatory power. So that vegetation coverage mostly correlated to Axis 1 was the most powerful environmental factor in the study region. Characteristics of ammonia-oxidizing communities showed a close association with vegetation coverage.

  2. Personal characteristics relating to radium loss over a decade or more in radium dial workers

    SciTech Connect

    Stebbings, J.H.; Jansen, A.; Kotek, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Personal habits and biological characteristics of 42 female Illinois radium workers first employed during the 1920s were analyzed in relationship to radium loss in late adult life. The 42 women met the criteria that they first were examined between 1957 and 1969 and are no longer employed, have had two or more radium body-burden measurements by gamma spectroscopy, 10-year minimum interval exists between initial and final measurements, and exhibit a RaC body burden in 1970 or later of greater than or equal to.137 kBQ. High radium body burdens are associated with decreased rates of radium elimination, as previously described. However, the most powerful predictor was coffee/tea consumption, increased consumption being associated with increased rates of radium elimination and explaining approx.35% of the variance. The effect persisted after deletion of smokers and subjects with x-ray evidence of bone damage. Weight/height ratios were positively associated with radium excretion. Individuals smoking cigarettes throughout the study period had significantly low rates of elimination of radium, similar to subjects with x-ray evidence of significant radiation-induced bone damage. Both smokers and subjects with x-ray evidence of radiation damage to bone had low weight/height ratios, suggesting that biological promoters of radiation damage to bone may exist. Rates of radium elimination were significantly associated with (linear) bone density, demonstrating that rates of loss of radium cannot be assumed to be independent of adult or postmenopausal bone density losses. Number of children and age of menopause did not have demonstrable effects on radium elimination. 9 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Error-Related Activity in the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Miezin, Francis M.; Nelson, Steven M.; Dubis, Joseph W.; Dosenbach, Nico U.F.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.; Petersen, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have focused on the role of specific brain regions, such as the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex during trials on which participants make errors, whereas others have implicated a host of more widely distributed regions in the human brain. Previous work has proposed that there are multiple cognitive control networks, raising the question of whether error-related activity can be found in each of these networks. Thus, to examine error-related activity broadly, we conducted a meta-analysis consisting of 12 tasks that included both error and correct trials. These tasks varied by stimulus input (visual, auditory), response output (button press, speech), stimulus category (words, pictures), and task type (e.g., recognition memory, mental rotation). We identified 41 brain regions that showed a differential fMRI BOLD response to error and correct trials across a majority of tasks. These regions displayed three unique response profiles: (1) fast, (2) prolonged, and (3) a delayed response to errors, as well as a more canonical response to correct trials. These regions were found mostly in several control networks, each network predominantly displaying one response profile. The one exception to this “one network, one response profile” observation is the frontoparietal network, which showed prolonged response profiles (all in the right hemisphere), and fast profiles (all but one in the left hemisphere). We suggest that, in the place of a single localized error mechanism, these findings point to a large-scale set of error-related regions across multiple systems that likely subserve different functions. PMID:25568119

  4. Inventory of Determinants of Obesity-Related Behaviors in Adolescents: Development and Psychometric Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Parisa; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Jalali-Farahani, Sara; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Hooman, Haidar Ali; Parvin, Parnian; Ghasemi, Mohammadreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: The rising prevalence of childhood obesity is a major health problem worldwide. Hence, there is a growing need for health professionals to become capable of assessing the factors that determine lifestyle in a culturally relevant manner. Objectives: This study aimed to develop and assess a questionnaire for measuring determinants of obesity-related behaviors in Tehranian adolescents. Patients and Methods: Based on the results of a qualitative study and an extensive literature review, the 44-item “Inventory of determinants of obesity-related behaviors in adolescents (IDOBA)” with eight subscales was developed: 1) unhealthy nutrition and physical inactivity; 2) stress-related eating; 3) perceived inability; 4) perceived lack of threat; 5) perceived priority of educational achievement; 6) perceived acceptability; 7) motivation loss; and 8) lack of support. Validity of IDOBA was assessed, utilizing face, content, and construct validity methods. To confirm face validity, ten overweight/obese adolescents completed the questionnaire. To calculate content validity ratio (CVR) and content validity index (CVI), a different panel of ten experts commented independently on the necessity, relevance, clarity, and simplicity of each item. To assess construct validity using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), a total of 478 adolescents (57.7% male) aged 13 to 18 years, who were recruited from schools, participated in the study. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test whether the data fit the hypothesized measurement model that was derived from EFA. Test-retest and internal consistency methods were used to assess reliability of the IDOBA scale. Results: All items were perceived as relevant and comprehendible by adolescents. Content validity was confirmed by the panel of experts. The internal consistency, as measured by Cronbach’s alpha coefficients, exceeded the minimum reliability standard of 0.60 for eight subscales. No ceiling effects were observed

  5. Characteristics of the work environment related to older employees' willingness to continue working: intrinsic motivation as a mediator.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Peter T

    2011-08-01

    The relationships between older employees' willingness to continue working and characteristics of the work environment for older workers were investigated, as well as a possible mediation by intrinsic motivation. 103 employees ages 50 to 65 years, from various sectors of the Dutch labor market, completed questionnaires that measured willingness to continue working, intrinsic motivation, organizational stimulation, work variety, work challenge, and job autonomy. Hierarchical regression analyses showed organizational stimulation, as well as the various job characteristics, were positively related to employees' willingness to continue working. Moreover, intrinsic motivation fully mediated the relationship of work variety with willingness to continue working and partially mediated the relationships of organizational stimulation, work challenge, and job autonomy with willingness to continue working. It was concluded that organizations can encourage older workers to work until age 65 and beyond by shifting their focus from extrinsic to intrinsic rewards. PMID:22049660

  6. Immunoglobulin G4-Related Kidney Disease: A Comprehensive Pictorial Review of the Imaging Spectrum, Mimickers, and Clinicopathological Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Nieun; Byun, Jae Ho; Lee, Seung Soo; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lee, Moon-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related kidney disease (IgG4-KD) has recently been demonstrated to be an important part of IgG4-related sclerosing disease (IgG4-SD). However, since IgG4-KD is still relatively unfamiliar to radiologists and physicians as compared to IgG4-SD involving other organs, it could, therefore, be easily missed. In this article, we present a comprehensive pictorial review of IgG4-KD with regards to the imaging spectrum, mimickers, and clinicopathologic characteristics, based on our clinical experience with 48 patients during the past 13 years, as well as a literature review. Awareness of the broad imaging spectrum of IgG4-KD and differential diagnosis from its mimickers will thus facilitate its early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26357500

  7. IgG4-related renal disease: clinical and pathological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Naoto; Nao, Tomoya; Fukuhara, Hideo; Karashima, Takashi; Inoue, Keiji; Taniguchi, Yoshinori; Takeuchi, Mai; Zen, Yoh; Sato, Yasuharu; Notohara, Kenji; Yoshino, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    IgG4-related disease is a recently established systemic condition. Tubulointerstitial nephritis is the most common renal manifestation. Glomerular lesions, particularly membranous glomerulonephritis, can develop simultaneously. Some patients present with serological renal dysfunction associated with elevated IgG or IgE levels and hypocomplementemia, while others are incidentally found to have abnormalities in kidneys on imaging. A majority of patients with IgG4-related kidney disease have similar lesions at other anatomical sites, which help us to suspect this condition. Serum IgG4 elevation (>135 mg/dL) is the most, although not entirely, specific marker for the diagnosis. Imaging findings varies from small nodules to bilateral diffuse abnormalities. In addition to the renal parenchyma, the renal pelvis and perirenal adipose tissue can be affected. Histological features include dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, storiform or "bird's eye" fibrosis (highlighted by PAM stain), and IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration (>10 cells/high-power field and IgG4/IgG-positive cell ratio >40%). Immune complex deposition is detectable in the tubular basement membrane by immunofluorescence and/or electron microscopy. Patients usually respond well to corticosteroids, but highly active diseases may require other immunosuppressive therapies. Further investigations will be required to fully understand pathophysiology underlying this emerging condition. PMID:25337295

  8. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of therapy-related chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Koichi; Pemmaraju, Naveen; Strati, Paolo; Nogueras-Gonzalez, Graciela; Ning, Jing; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Pierce, Sherry; Cortes, Jorge; Kantarjian, Hagop; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo

    2013-10-17

    We sought to describe the clinical features and outcomes of therapy-related chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (t-CMML) and compare with those of de novo CMML. We identified 358 CMML patients, of whom 39 (11%) had t-CMML. Although the groups had similar demographic, hematologic, and molecular alteration profiles, the proportion of patients with intermediate or high CMML-specific cytogenetic risk in the t-CMML was significantly higher than that in the de novo CMML (P = .011). The median latency to develop t-CMML was 6 years. The median overall and leukemia-free survival duration of the t-CMML were shorter than those of the de novo CMML; however, t-CMML itself was not prognostic after adjusting for the effects of other covariates including cytogenetics. These results suggest that compared with de novo CMML, t-CMML is associated with more high-risk cytogenetics that manifest as poor outcomes. We propose that t-CMML be recognized as one of the therapy-related myeloid neoplasms. PMID:23896412

  9. Klebsiella pneumoniae related community-acquired acute lower respiratory infections in Cambodia: Clinical characteristics and treatment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In many Asian countries, Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) is the second pathogen responsible for community-acquired pneumonia. Yet, very little is known about KP etiology in ALRI in Cambodia, a country that has one of the weakest medical infrastructures in the region. We present here the first clinico-radiological description of KP community-acquired ALRI in hospitalized Cambodian patients. Methods Through ALRI surveillance in two provincial hospitals, KP was isolated from sputum and blood cultures, and identified by API20E gallery from patients ≥ 5 years-old with fever and respiratory symptoms onset ≤14 days. Antibiotics susceptibility testing was provided systematically to clinicians when bacteria were isolated. We collected patients' clinical, radiological and microbiological data and their outcome 3 months after discharge. We also compared KP-related with other bacteria-related ALRI to determine risk factors for KP infection. Results From April 2007 to December 2009, 2315 ALRI patients ≥ 5 years-old were enrolled including 587 whose bacterial etiology could be assigned. Of these, 47 (8.0%) had KP infection; their median age was 55 years and 68.1% were females. Reported prior medication was high (42.5%). Patients' chest radiographs showed pneumonia (61.3% including 39% that were necrotizing), preexisting parenchyma lesions (29.5%) and pleural effusions alone (4.5%) and normal parenchyma (4.5%). Five patients had severe conditions on admission and one patient died during hospitalization. Of the 39 patients that were hospital discharged, 14 died including 12 within 1 month after discharge. Only 13 patients (28%) received an appropriate antibiotherapy. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) - producing strains were found in 8 (17.0%) patients. Female gender (Odds ratio (OR) 2.1; p = 0.04) and diabetes mellitus (OR 3.1; p = 0.03) were independent risk factors for KP-related ALRI. Conclusions KP ALRI in Cambodia has high fatality rate, are more

  10. Characteristics of backward and forward two-particle relative dispersion in turbulence at different Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buaria, D.; Sawford, Brian L.; Yeung, P. K.

    2015-10-01

    A new algorithm based on post-processing of saved trajectories has been developed and applied to obtain well-sampled backward and forward relative dispersion statistics in stationary isotropic turbulence, over a range of initial separations ranging from Kolmogorov to energy-containing scales. Detailed results are obtained over a range of Taylor-scale Reynolds numbers, up to 1000, which is higher than in recent work in the literature. Backward dispersion is faster, especially at intermediate times after the ballistic range and before long-time diffusive behavior is reached. Richardson scaling has been demonstrated for the mean-squared separation, and forward and backward Richardson constants estimated to be gf = 0.55 and gb = 1.5, which are close to or comparable to other estimates. However, because of persistent dissipation sub-range effects no corresponding scaling was observed for higher order moments of the separation. Analysis of the separation probability density function showed only transitory agreement with the well-known Richardson prediction. The strong exponential growth of the separation on dissipation sub-range scales was analyzed in terms of a central limit theory approximation. The resulting predictions for the ratio of the growth rates of the third- and fourth-order moments are reasonably consistent with the theory. The backward growth rates, corresponding to the ratio of the magnitude of the smallest to largest Lyapunov exponents, are about 50% greater than the forward growth rates, somewhat higher than other estimates. The predicted asymmetry between backward and forward relative displacements at early times, manifested in a t3 variation of the difference in the backward and forward mean-square relative displacement, was confirmed numerically and explicitly traced to Eulerian properties at the small scales. However, this t3 growth is not simply connected to the t3 growth in the Richardson regime and the asymmetry manifested there by the difference

  11. Blood and Oil: Vehicle Characteristics in Relation to Fatality Risk and Fuel Economy

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Leon S.

    2006-01-01

    I examined the potential for a lower risk of death compatible with increased fuel economy among 67 models of 1999–2002 model year cars, vans, and sport-utility vehicles (SUVs) during the calendar years 2000 to 2004. The odds of death for drivers and all persons killed in vehicle collisions were related to vehicle weight, size, stability, and crashworthiness. I calculated that fatality rates would have been 28% lower and fuel use would have been reduced by 16% if vehicle weights had been reduced to the weight of vehicles with the lowest weight per size, where size is measured by the lateral distance needed to perform a 180-degree turn. If, in addition, all vehicles had crashworthiness and stability equal to those of the top-rated vehicles, more than half the deaths involving passenger cars, vans, and SUVs could have been prevented by vehicle modifications. PMID:17018814

  12. Propagation characteristics of the ionospheric transmission window relating to long wave radio location issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossey, Paul A.; Lewis, Edward A.

    1992-11-01

    Most applications of long radio waves (ELF/VLF/LF/MF) are ground-based and exploit the fact that such signals can propagate to great distances via reflections from the lower ionosphere. It is known however that, owing to the influence of the earth's magnetic field, long wave signals can penetrate through the ionosphere as well; at times, the waves penetrate with relatively little loss, depending on ionospheric conditions and other propagation factors. This has prompted investigations of the long wave 'ionospheric transmission window' as part of efforts to assess the feasibility of deploying long wave emitters in space for terrestrial applications and/or for exploiting, in space, signals emanating from ground-based long wave transmitters. This paper outlines results of theoretical and experimental investigations of the ionospheric transmission window over the frequency range from about 100 Hz to 500 kHz, with emphasis on directional issues associated with long wave penetration of the ionosphere.

  13. The effective density of randomly moving electrons and related characteristics of materials with degenerate electron gas

    SciTech Connect

    Palenskis, V.

    2014-04-15

    Interpretation of the conductivity of metals, of superconductors in the normal state and of semiconductors with highly degenerate electron gas remains a significant issue if consideration is based on the classical statistics. This study is addressed to the characterization of the effective density of randomly moving electrons and to the evaluation of carrier diffusion coefficient, mobility, and other parameters by generalization of the widely published experimental results. The generalized expressions have been derived for various kinetic parameters attributed to the non-degenerate and degenerate electron gas, by analyzing a random motion of the single type carriers in homogeneous materials. The values of the most important kinetic parameters for different metals are also systematized and discussed. It has been proved that Einstein's relation between the diffusion coefficient and the drift mobility of electrons is held for any level of degeneracy if the effective density of randomly moving carriers is properly taken into account.

  14. Behavioural characteristics of the Prader-Willi syndrome related biallelic Snord116 mouse model.

    PubMed

    Zieba, Jerzy; Low, Jac Kee; Purtell, Louise; Qi, Yue; Campbell, Lesley; Herzog, Herbert; Karl, Tim

    2015-10-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is the predominant genetic cause of obesity in humans and is associated with several behavioural phenotypes such as altered motoric function, reduced activity, and learning disabilities. It can include mood instability and, in some cases, psychotic episodes. Recently, the Snord116 gene has been associated with the development of PWS, however, it's contribution to the behavioural aspects of the disease are unknown. Here we show that male and female mice lacking Snord116 on both alleles exhibit normal motor behaviours and exploration but do display task-dependent alterations to locomotion and anxiety-related behaviours. Sociability is well developed in Snord116 deficient mice as are social recognition memory, spatial working memory, and fear-associated behaviours. No sex-specific effects were found. In conclusion, the biallelic Snord116 deficiency mouse model exhibits particular endophenotypes with some relevance to PWS, suggesting partial face validity for the syndrome. PMID:26259850

  15. Relative effectiveness coefficient: a quality characteristic of toothpastes containing active components.

    PubMed

    Borissova, R; Kirova, E

    1996-12-01

    It has been proposed that the parameter of relative effectiveness coefficient (REC) be used for the qualitative assessment of toothpastes containing active ingredients. REC is the ratio between the concentration of the active component in water eluates obtained after three minutes and adequately prolonged (up to the reaching of equilibrium state) dispersion of the toothpaste in distilled water at a 1:4 ratio (condition simulating the use of toothpaste in the oral cavity). The change in REC after storage following its production, as well as testing the toothpaste stability at high and low temperatures, provides an evidence for deviations in its quality. REC was applied for the assessment of toothpastes containing 0.5% zinc citrate as an active ingredient. PMID:8996867

  16. Characteristics of lung dusts and their relation to dust exposure and pathological findings in the lungs.

    PubMed

    Dobreva, M; Burilkov, T; Kolev, K; Lalova, P

    1975-09-01

    Lung dusts were investigated, post-mortem, in twenty-five miners from mixed metal mines, tunnels, and quarries who had exposed to high concentrations of mixed dust containing about 20-25% free crystalline silica. The character of the relations found between the amount of quartz per 100 g dry tissue and the clinical, X-ray and pathological findings is similar to that established in coal miners. The difference lies in the fact that with equal amounts of quartz per 100 g dry tissue, there is less silicosis in coal miners than in our cases; the average residence time of retained dust is longer in coal miners, but its quartz per cent is lower. PMID:198369

  17. [Impact of characteristics related to patients and interventions on revenues and costs of hospitals].

    PubMed

    Iserloh, M; Kox, W J

    2015-01-01

    Since introduction of the German refined DRG system, the, in relation to other countries, relatively long hospital stay has been reduced significantly. The analyses presented here examine the hypothesis that only few impact factors allow for good hospital management and that length of stay is a performance indicator. The analyses were based on remuneration data of 20 German hospitals for 2007-2009, comprising details of 963 923 patient cases, and cost data for 2007-2010. Using simple and multiple linear regressions, the impact of hospital length of stay and case-based factors on case mix index (CMI) and cost categories were explained. The variance of the case mix index was best explained by the length of hospital stay, showing an adjusted regression coefficient β=0.488 (p<0.001), followed by the number of coded procedures (β=0.35, p<0.001). Other predictors played a minor role. The regression coefficient was higher for conservative (non-operative) than for surgery (operative) departments. In the regression on costs, the length of hospital stay explained the variance of total costs by β=0.391 (p<0.001), among these personnel costs of the nursing staff correlated most highly (β=0.595, p<0.001). The analyses confirm the working hypothesis with length of stay impacting CMI and costs most significantly. Treatment effort and complexity level, mortality rate, patient age or gender are well discussed factors but their joint impact on the CMI is minor. Consequently, cockpits for operational length of stay management comprising key data and ratios should be introduced on the department level. PMID:24566837

  18. Measurement of volatile organic compounds in suburban Bangkok, Thailand: characteristics and influence from combustion related activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suthawaree, J.; Tajima, Y.; Kato, S.; Khunchornyakong, A.; Sharp, A.; Kajii, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Elucidation of air quality in the suburban area of Bangkok, Thailand is essential in order to achieve effective regulations and mitigation strategies. VOCs plays important role in formation of tropospheric urban ozone. Without overkill NO concentration, transport of O3 precursors into suburban area which add surplus to local O3 formation as well as direct transport of O3 itself results in relatively higher total O3 observed in suburban area rather than urban. Whole air canister sampling was carried out in the suburban Bangkok during 2008, July 2-7. 4 samples per day were collected at 30 min passes 6, 12, 17, 21 hours with sampling time of 1 min. Analysis was achieved by using GC-FID and GC-MS. High concentrations of VOCs detected during the peak periods in the morning and evening are most likely due to vehicular emission. Averaged VOCs concentrations, reveal distinct different between data measured for weekday and weekend which the latter were found with lower concentrations. No difference was found for CFCs which the levels are also comparable to global background level reported by World Meteorological Organization. The most abundance species have found to be propane and toluene with averaged concentration of 3100 and 2891 pptv, respectively. Ratios of benzene over toluene suggest additional concentration owing to industrial emission, of which particularly larger during the weekday. Comparison with C2Cl4 and CH3Cl concentrations obtained for suburban Tokyo reveal relatively higher influence of biomass burning at suburban Bangkok. In order to estimate the role of the different VOCs towards tropospheric ozone formation, ozone formation potential was calculated using maximum incremental reactivity. Toluene was found to contribute the most to O3 production followed by ethylene, m,p-xylene, and propylene.

  19. Characteristics of the crops grown with the light vector altered relative to the gravity vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkovich, Y. A.; Smolianina, S. O.; Krivobok, N. M.; Erokhin, A. N.; Ivanov, V. B.

    A series of laboratory experiments with soft wheat Triticum aestivum L., cult. Apogee had the purpose to look into the interference of such determinants of plant development as the gravity force and the light direction. Light vector relative to the gravity vector was set unidirectional, opposite directional or perpendicular. Plant orientation relative to the gravity vector was set natural, inverse or perpendicular. Seeds were put into a 2-mm layer of a fiber ion-exchange artificial soil overlaying horizontal hydrophilic plates of porous titanium or anchored to porous ceramic tubes using plastic rings. Plants grew at two levels of the photosynthetic photon flux (PPF): 55 ± 5 μ mol/(m2\\cdot s) and 550 ± 20 μ mol/(m2\\cdot s) during 24-hr lighting. Water potential at the membrane surface varied from 0 to - 10.0 kPa in different experiments. It was shown that PPF of 550 μ mol/(m2\\cdot s) and membrane surface WP no less than -1.0 kPa yielded normal plants with healthy germinating seeds no matter plant orientation. In the inverse orientation, dry mass on the full-ripe stage was 25% higher and the number of productive tillers was twice as large as in the control. At the same time, as compared with the control, dry mass of roots and shoot height were almost 50% and 35% less, respectively. With PPF reduced to 55 μ mol/(m2\\cdot s), dry mass of the inverted plants was by 22% higher than the control, but water potential reduction to -10.0 kPa decreased this parameter in the inverted plants by 63%. Dry mass of roots of the inverted plants was consistently less in comparison with the naturally oriented plants. The experiments evidenced that morphology and ontogenesis of plants are significantly dependent on the interposition of the light and gravity vectors.

  20. Rhipicephalus sanguineus and R. turanicus (Acari:Ixodidae): closely related species with different biological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ioffe-Uspensky, I; Mumcuoglu, K Y; Uspensky, I; Galun, R

    1997-01-01

    Life cycle parameters of 2 closely related tick species, Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille and R. turanicus Pomerantsev, were studied under laboratory conditions. Both Rhipicephalus, which have small adults, demonstrated the same adaptations as large tick species inhabiting deserts and semideserts: high reproductive rate, decrease in egg size, and an increase in interstage growth to compensate for the smaller size at birth. Pronounced quantitative differences between both species were discerned in relation to these adaptations. Female R. turanicus produced twice as many eggs as R. sanguineus which was facilitated by the greater amount of blood engorged by females and by the smaller egg weight in R. turanicus as compared with R. sanguineus. In all developmental stages, the weight increase from unfed to fed ticks was greater in R. turanicus than in R. sanguineus (23% higher in larvae, 118% in nymphs, and 26% in females). The increase in weight in R. turanicus from the unfed larva (0.013 mg) to the unfed female (3.31 mg) was 254-fold, and in R. sanguineus it was 127-fold (from 0.021 to 2.54 mg). In nymphal R. turanicus, the higher density and the greater height of the dorsal epicuticular folds, as well as procuticular indentations found inside the folds allow this tick to stretch its alloscutum during blood engorgement to a greater extent than R. sanguineus. The rates of blood ingestion (for nymphs and females), egg maturation, and metamorphosis were 1.1-1.7 times greater in R. turanicus than in R. sanguineus. A life cycle strategy with both a higher reproductive rate and faster development in R turanicus may be explained by its greater dependence on environmental factors than that in R. sanguineus. PMID:9086715

  1. Abuse Characteristics and Individual Differences Related to Disclosing Childhood Sexual, Physical, and Emotional Abuse and Witnessed Domestic Violence.

    PubMed

    Bottoms, Bette L; Peter-Hagene, Liana C; Epstein, Michelle A; Wiley, Tisha R A; Reynolds, Carrie E; Rudnicki, Aaron G

    2016-04-01

    Many adult survivors of childhood abuse hide their victimization, avoiding disclosure that could identify perpetrators, end the abuse, and bring help to the victim. We surveyed 1,679 women undergraduates to understand disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, and, for the first time, witnessed domestic violence, which many consider to be emotionally abusive. A substantial minority of victims failed to ever disclose their sexual abuse (23%), physical abuse (34%), emotional abuse (20%), and witnessed domestic violence (29%). Overall, abuse-specific factors were better predictors of disclosure than individual-level characteristics. Disclosure of sexual abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and by multiple perpetrators), being more worried about injury and more upset at the time of the abuse, and self-labeling as a victim of abuse. Disclosure of physical abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and multiple perpetrators), being less emotionally close to the perpetrator, being older when the abuse ended, being more worried and upset, and self-labeling as a victim. Disclosure of emotional abuse was associated with being older when the abuse ended, and being more worried and upset. Disclosure was unrelated to victim demographic characteristics or defensive reactions (dissociative proneness, fantasy proneness, repressive coping style, and temporary forgetting), except that among physical and emotional abuse victims, repressors were less likely to disclose than non-repressors. Disclosure of witnessing domestic violence was not significantly related to any factors measured. PMID:25550167

  2. Do physical and relational aggression explain adolescents' friendship selection? The competing roles of network characteristics, gender, and social status.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Berger, Christian; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2011-01-01

    The role of physical and relational aggression in adolescents' friendship selection was examined in a longitudinal sample of 274 Chilean students from 5th and 6th grade followed over 1 year. Longitudinal social network modeling (SIENA) was used to study selection processes for aggression while influence processes were controlled for. Furthermore, the effects of network characteristics (i.e., reciprocity and transitivity), gender, and social status on friendship selection were examined. The starting assumption of this study was that selection effects based on aggression might have been overestimated in previous research as a result of failing to consider influence processes and alternative characteristics that steer friendship formation. The results show that selection effects of both physical and relational aggression disappeared when network effects, gender, and social status were taken into account. Particularly gender and perceived popularity appeared to be far more important determinants of friendship selection over time than aggression. Moreover, a peer influence effect was only found for relational aggression, and not for physical aggression. These findings suggest that similarity in aggression among befriended adolescents can be considered to be mainly a by-product rather than a leading dimension in friendship selection. PMID:21688275

  3. Relations of specific conductance to streamflow and selected water-quality characteristics of the Arkansas River basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, Doug

    1987-01-01

    Areal, seasonal, and long-term variations in the specific conductance of surface and groundwater in the Arkansas River basin of Colorado were evaluated and relations of specific conductance to stream-flow and to concentrations of dissolved solids and major ions were determined as part of an effort to develop a comprehensive hydrologic model of the basin. Mean specific conductance of surface and groundwater was smallest in the upper basin and increased downstream. Smallest mean specific conductance occurred during summer runoff, and largest mean specific conductance occurred during spring and fall low flows. Trends in specific conductance occurred at 18 of 31 surface-water stations and in flow-adjusted specific conductance at 14 of 24 surface-water stations. Logarithmic relations of specific conductance to streamflow were determined for 69 stations. Significant seasonal differences in the relations illustrate the effect of basin characteristics on the relation of specific conductance to streamflow. Relations of specific conductance to dissolved-solids concentration were determined for 28 surface-water stations and for groundwater in alluvial aquifers along the Arkansas River. Relations of specific conductance to concentrations of major ions were determined for 26 surface-water stations and for groundwater in alluvial aquifers along the Arkansas River. (USGS)

  4. Relating temperature, snow height and glacier characteristics to streamflow trends in Western Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormann, Christoph; Morin, Efrat; Renner, Maik; Francke, Till; Bronstert, Axel

    2014-05-01

    The results of streamflow trend studies are often characterised by mostly insignificant trends. This applies especially for trends of annually averaged runoff: In our study region, Western Austria, we found that there is a trend gradient from high-altitude to low-altitude stations, i.e. a pattern of mostly positive annual trends at higher stations and negative ones at lower stations. At mid-altitudes, trends are mostly insignificant. The trends were most probably caused by the following two main processes: On the one hand, melting glaciers produce excess runoff at high-altitude watersheds. On the other hand, increasing evapotranspiration results in decreasing trends at low-altitude watersheds. However, these patterns are masked at mid-altitudes because the resulting positive and negative trends balance each other. To verify these theories, we attributed the detected trends to specific causes. For this purpose, we analysed trends on a daily basis, as the causes for these changes might be restricted to a smaller temporal scale than the annual one. The daily trends were assessed by calculating 30-day moving average subsets and then estimating significance and magnitude. This allowed for the explicit pointing out of the exact days of year (DOY) when certain streamflow trends emerge and then relating them to the according DOYs of trends and annual cycles of other observed variables, e.g. the DOYs when snow height trends occur or the DOY when temperature crosses the freezing point in spring. Concerning trends caused by increased glacial melt, we applied correlation analyses between glacier area and trend magnitudes during the corresponding DOYs. As a result, the positive trends in spring were attributed to an earlier and more intense snow melt. The ones that follow in late spring at upper stations could be related to increased glacial melt. The negative trends in summertime that turn up earlier at low-altitude stations and later at high-altitude stations are most

  5. Statistical Relation of Dynamic Sar Arc Characteristics To Substorms and Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ievenko, I. B.; Alexeyev, V. N.

    It is known that mid-latitude red arcs (SAR arcs) are related to magnetic storms de- fined by variations of the Dst index. By using data of spectrophotometric observations at the Yakutsk meridian (Maimaga st. CGMC: 57 N; 200 E) we have shown that the occurence and/or brightness of SAR arc take place during the substorm expan- sion phase (Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, V.39, N.6,P.697, 1999). Here we use of SAR arc 700 hours registration data in 1989-2000 and carry out the correlation cou- pling analysis of 630 nm emission intensity in an arc (Im) and the velocity of the arc equatorward movement (Vm) with magnetic indices AL, Dst and ASYH. The follow- ing peculiarities of influence of the substorm and storm to the SAR arc dynamics are revealed: 1) The SAR arc intensity during the weak magnetic storm of Dst-50 nT is defined by the auroral index AL with a correlation coefficient R=-0.45-0.55. The significant rela- tion of arc intensity to Dst is not but it is essential with ASYH-index. It is assumed that the AL-dependence of Im is most likely caused by the considerable contribution of the asymmetric ring currrent arising during a substorm to the SAR arc generation. 2) In the samplings of data for the moderate storms of -50Dst-120 nT the statistically significant dependence (R=-0.5-0.7) of arc luminosity on the ring currrent intensity appears, that is in agreement with early results. In this case, the significant relation of Im to AL remains constant. 3) The velocity of SAR arc equatorward movement is of the significant dependence only on AL-index with R-0.5, that can be indicative of a conditionallity of this phenomenon by penetration of the non- stationary convection electric field to plasmasphere latitudes during a substorm. 4) The latitudinal distribu- tion of SAR arc intensity maximum location by the number of observation hours at the Yakutsk meridian is close to the normal one with a median at c=55 N (L=3) and it is of a half-width 6. It is supported that this

  6. Estimates of aerosol species scattering characteristics as a function of relative humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malm, William C.; Day, Derek E.

    The absorption of water by ambient aerosols can significantly increase the light scattering coefficient and thereby affect issues such as visibility and climate forcing. Although water absorption by inorganic compounds and mixtures of inorganic compounds can often be modeled with adequate certainty for most applications, modeling water uptake by organic aerosols at present is speculative. In this paper, we present data in the form of f (RH)=b scat(RH)/b scat,dry , where bscat(RH) is the scattering coefficient measured at some relative humidity (RH)>20% and bscat,dry is the scattering coefficient measured at RH <20%. The f(RH) has been measured at Great Smoky Mountains National Park in Tennessee and at Grand Canyon National Park in Arizona. The f(RH) curves obtained from these two sites, which show distinctly different aerosol composition and average RH values, are compared. We also present comparisons between the measured water uptake by ambient aerosol with modeled water uptake by inorganic compounds to estimate the water uptake by organic aerosol.

  7. Activity-related characteristics of the convective envelopes in evolving low-mass stars

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, S.M.; Vandenberg, D.A.

    1986-07-01

    Convective envelope structures have been computed for the post-main-sequence evolutionary phases of 0.7-1.6 solar mass model stars having initial mass-fraction abundances of helium and heavier elements equal to Y = 0.25 and Z = 0.0169 (solar), respectively. Two types of quantities as a function of the basic stellar parameters have been studied. The first of these is relevant to the theory of stellar dynamos and includes estimates of the convective turnover time, various dynamo number parameters, and the maximum nonthermal energy which is available for the dynamo action. The other is related to the expected sizes of inhomogeneities on the stellar surfaces and comprises the determination of the depth of the convective zone, the pressure scale height at the outer edge of the convective region, and the thicknesses of the shells where the superadiabatic gradient is large and where the opacity is within 10 percent of its maximum. All of the above properties, which are fully discussed, are extensively tabulated and their variations as a function of evolutionary state are conveniently displayed in a number of contour plots to facilitate comparisons with observations. 29 references.

  8. Distribution and density of moose in relation to landscape characteristics: Effects of scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maier, J.A.K.; Ver Hoef, J.M.; McGuire, A.D.; Bowyer, R.T.; Saperstein, L.; Maier, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    We analyzed the relation between early winter distribution and density of female moose (Alces alces L.) and habitat heterogeneity in interior Alaska. We tested for effects of vegetation type, topography, distance to rivers and towns, occurrence and timing of fire, and landscape metrics. A spatial linear model was used to analyze effects of independent variables organized at multiple scales. Because densities of moose vary widely as a result of differences in management and other factors, a spatial response surface of the log of moose density was fit to remove large-scale effects. The analysis revealed that the densest populations of moose occurred closer to towns, at moderate elevations, near rivers, and in areas where fire occurred between 11 and 30 years ago. Furthermore, moose tended to occur in areas with large compact patches of varied habitat and avoided variable terrain and nonvegetated areas. Relationships of most variables with moose density occurred at or below 34 km2, suggesting that moose respond to environmental variables within a few kilometres of their location. The spatial model of density of moose developed in this study represents an important application for effective monitoring and management of moose in the boreal forest. ?? 2005 NRC.

  9. Behavioral activities of male Cerulean Warblers in relation to habitat characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Petra Bohall; Perkins, Kelly A.

    2012-01-01

    Activities of 29 male Cerulean Warblers (Setophaga cerulea) were quantified on two sites in West Virginia during May–June 2005. Singing and foraging were the most common of 11 observed behavioral activities (81.6%), while maintenance and mating behaviors were uncommonly observed. Male activity differed among vegetative strata (P  =  0.02) with lower- and mid-canopy strata used most often (70% of observations), especially for foraging, perching, and preening. The upper-canopy was used primarily for singing, particularly within core areas of territories and in association with canopy gaps. Foraging occurred more than expected outside of core areas. Males were associated with canopy gaps during 30% of observations, but the distribution of behavioral activities was not significantly related (P  =  0.06) to gap presence. Males used 23 different tree species for a variety of activities with oaks (Quercus spp.) used most often on the xeric site and black cherry (Prunus serotina) and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) on the mesic site. Tree species used for singing differed between core and non-core areas (P < 0.0001) but distribution of singing and foraging activity did not differ among tree species (P  =  0.13). Cerulean Warblers appear to be flexible in use of tree species. Their use of different canopy strata for different behavioral activities provides an explanation for the affinity this species exhibits for a vertically stratified forest canopy.

  10. Clinical Characteristics, Pathophysiology, and Management of Noncentral Nervous System Cancer-Related Cognitive Impairment in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wefel, Jeffrey S.; Kesler, Shelli R.; Noll, Kyle R.; Schagen, Sanne B.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, a body of research has emerged confirming what many adult patients with noncentral nervous system cancer have long reported—that cancer and its treatment are frequently associated with cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI). The severity of CRCI varies, and symptoms can emerge early or late in the disease course. Nonetheless, CRCI is typically mild to moderate in nature and primarily involves the domains of memory, attention, executive functioning, and processing speed. Animal models and novel neuroimaging techniques have begun to unravel the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying CRCI, including the role of inflammatory cascades, direct neurotoxic effects, damage to progenitor cells, white matter abnormalities, and reduced functional connectivity, among others. Given the paucity of research on CRCI with other cancer populations, this review synthesizes the current literature with a deliberate focus on CRCI within the context of breast cancer. A hypothetical case-study approach is used to illustrate how CRCI often presents clinically and how current science can inform practice. While the literature regarding intervention for CRCI is nascent, behavioral and pharmacologic approaches are discussed. PMID:25483452

  11. Workshop Characteristics Related to Chronic Disease Self-Management Education Program Attendance

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Ory, Marcia G.; Jiang, Luohua; Lorig, Kate; Kulinski, Kristie P.; Ahn, SangNam

    2015-01-01

    Using the national dissemination of Chronic Disease Self-Management Education (CDSME) programs, the purposes of this study were to (1) document intervention attendance rates as related to the number of participants enrolled in the workshop and (2) compare the relationship between workshop attendance and workshop size by delivery site rurality and type. Data were analyzed from the first 100,000 middle-aged and older adults who participated in CDSME workshops spanning 45 states, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Communities Putting Prevention to Work: Chronic Disease Self-Management Program initiative. Descriptive statistics are reported for all participants, then separately by each delivery site type. Ratios between the number of workshop participants and the number of workshop sessions attended were calculated and graphed based on the rurality of delivery and separately for the leading five delivery site types. Associations between the number of workshop participants and the number of sessions attended differed by delivery site rurality and type. Findings have implications for participant retention and workshop delivery costs, which can assist program deliverers to strategically plan implementation efforts in their areas. PMID:25964943

  12. Age-related characteristics of risky decision-making and progressive expectation formation.

    PubMed

    Kardos, Zsófia; Kóbor, Andrea; Takács, Ádám; Tóth, Brigitta; Boha, Roland; File, Bálint; Molnár, Márk

    2016-10-01

    During daily encounters, it is inevitable that people take risks. Investigating the sequential processing of risk hazards involve expectation formation about outcome contingencies. The present study aimed to explore risk behavior and its neural correlates in sequences of decision making, particularly in old age, which represents a critical period regarding risk-taking propensity. The Balloon Analogue Risk Task was used in an electrophysiological setting with young and elderly age groups. During the task each additional pump on a virtual balloon increased the likelihood of a balloon burst but also increased the chance to collect more reward. Event-related potentials associated with rewarding feedback were analyzed based on the forthcoming decisions (whether to continue or to stop) in order to differentiate between states of expectation towards gain or loss. In the young, the reward positivity ERP component increased as a function of reward contingencies with the largest amplitude for rewarding feedback followed by the decision to stop. In the elderly, however, reward positivity did not reflect the effect of reward structure. Behavioral indices of risk-taking propensity suggest that the performance of the young and the elderly were dissociable only with respect to response times: The elderly was characterized by hesitation and more deliberative decision making throughout the experiment. These findings signify that sequential tracking of outcome contingencies has a key role in cost-efficient action planning and progressive expectation formation. PMID:27385088

  13. Relation of agronomic and multispectral reflectance characteristics of spring wheat canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E. (Principal Investigator); Ahlrichs, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    The relationships between crop canopy variables such as leaf area index (LAI) and their multispectral reflectance properties were investigated along with the potential for estimating canopy variables from remotely sensed reflectance measurements. Reflectance spectra over the 0.4 to 2.5 micron wavelength range were acquired during each of the major development stages of spring wheat canopies at Williston, North Dakota, during three seasons. Treatments included planting date, N fertilization, cultivar, and soil moisture. Agronomic measurements included development stage, biomass, LAI, and percent soil cover. High correlations were found between reflectance and percent cover, LAI, and biomass. A near infrared wavelength band, 0.76 to 0.90 microns, was most important in explaining variation in LAI and percent cover, while a middle infrared band, 2.08 to 2.35 microns, explained the most variation in biomass and plant water content. Transformations, including the near infrared/red reflectance ratio and greenness index, were also highly correlated to canopy variables. The relationship of canopy variables to reflectance decreased as the crop began to ripen. the canopy variables could be accurately predicted using measurements from three to five wavelength bands. The wavelength bands proposed for the thematic mapper sensor were more strongly related to the canopy variables than the LANDSAT MSS bands.

  14. Ice nuclei characteristics from M-PACE and their relation to ice formation in clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prenni, Anthony J.; Demott, Paul J.; Rogers, David C.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Zhang, Gong; Poellot, Michael R.

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents airborne measurements of ice nuclei (IN) number concentration and elemental composition from the mixed-phase Arctic cloud experiment (M-PACE) in northern Alaska during October 2004. Although the project average IN concentration was low, less than 1 L-1 STP, there was significant spatial and temporal variability, with local maximum concentrations of nearly 60 L-1 STP. Immersion and/or condensation freezing appear to be the dominant freezing mechanisms, whereas mechanisms that occur below water saturation played a smaller role. The dominant particle types identified as IN were metal oxides/dust (39%), carbonaceous particles (35%) and mixtures of metal oxides/dust with either carbonaceous components or salts/sulphates (25%), although there was significant variability in elemental composition. Trajectory analysis suggests both local and remote sources, including biomass burning and volcanic ash. Seasonal variability of IN number concentrations based on this study and data from SHEBA/FIRE-ACE indicates that fall concentrations are depleted relative to spring by about a factor of five. Average IN number concentrations from both studies compare favorably with cloud ice number concentrations of cloud particles larger than 125 μm, for temperatures less than -10 °C. Cloud ice number concentrations also were enhanced in spring, by a factor of ~2, but only over a limited temperature range.

  15. Cardiovascular characteristics in Marfan syndrome and their relation to the genotype.

    PubMed

    De Backer, J

    2009-01-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a systemic disorder of connective tissue with autosomal dominant inheritance. The diagnosis of MFS is based on the identification of a combination of clinical manifestations in the ocular, musculoskeletal, and cardiovascular organ systems defined in the Ghent Nosology (De Paepe et al, 1996). Confirmation of the diagnosis in an individual requires the presence of major clinical manifestations in at least two organ systems associated with involvement of a third organ system. In relatives of an affected proband, major involvement of one organ system and involvement of a second organ system confirms the diagnosis. Major clinical criteria are very specific for MFS and include a combination of (4 out of 8) skeletal manifestations, ectopia lentis, dural ectasia and dilatation or dissection of the ascending aorta. The prevalence of- and the guidelines for the assessment of each of these major criteria are well established. Minor clinical criteria are less typical, but their importance in the diagnostic process should not be underestimated. Unfortunately, figures on the prevalence as well as practical guidelines for the assessment of most minor criteria are lacking, especially for those involving the cardiovascular system. The major cardiovascular manifestation in MFS is a progressive dilatation of the ascending aorta, leading to aortic aneurysm formation and eventually to fatal aortic rupture or dissection. Aortic dissection in early adult life is the leading cause of death in MFS. Early diagnosis of individuals at risk of the disease is extremely important as timely treatment of cardiovascular complications has greatly improved life expectancy in MFS. Despite progress in medical and surgical treatment of aortic aneurysms, MFS continues to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This may be related to inadequate diagnosis or treatment, but also to the occurrence of cardiovascular problems in ageing MFS patients that were

  16. Farmers’ Cohort for Agricultural Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (FARM) Study: Study Design, Methods, and Baseline Characteristics of Enrolled Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Hannae; Baek, Sora; Park, Hee-won; Lee, Sang-Ah; Moon, Jiyoung; Yang, Jae E.; Kim, Ki Sung; Kim, Jee Yong; Kang, Eun Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Background The ongoing Farmers’ Cohort for Agricultural Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (FARM) study was developed to evaluate health status and related factors in farmers. Methods Farmers in Kangwon Province, South Korea, were recruited. Baseline characteristics were determined using questionnaires about sociodemographic and health characteristics and agricultural work-related factors. In addition, laboratory examinations (lumbar spinal radiography and serologic testing) were conducted. Results The FARM study covers eight rural areas and recruited 1013 subjects (534 women; mean [standard deviation {SD}] age, 57.2 [7.5] years). Musculoskeletal pain in multiple areas was reported by 925 subjects (91.3%), and low back pain (63.8%) was the most frequent site of pain. Farmer’s Stress Inventory (mean [SD], 77.7 [10.2]; range, 28–112] and subjective stress index (mean [SD], 5.3 [2.4]; range, 0–10) were above median scale values, reflecting a stressful condition, while the EuroQol-5D-3L index and the EuroQol-Visual Analog Scale scores were high (mean [SD], 0.9 [0.1]; range −0.171–1 and mean [SD], 67.7 [18.7]; range 0–100, respectively), reflecting good life quality. In total, 53% of participants had worked in farming for more than 30 years, and workers involved in dry-field farming comprised the largest subgroup (41.5%). Most participants (94.3%) had no more than a high school education, and families with annual income below 20 million won constituted the largest subgroup (36.3%). Conclusions The FARM study may provide data on the current health status and related sociodemographic and agricultural work-related risk factors in Korean farmers, with the goal of providing a scientific basis for developing coping interventions and preventive strategies. PMID:26235456

  17. Adults with RRM2B-related mitochondrial disease have distinct clinical and molecular characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Pitceathly, Robert D. S.; Smith, Conrad; Fratter, Carl; Alston, Charlotte L.; He, Langping; Craig, Kate; Blakely, Emma L.; Evans, Julie C.; Taylor, John; Shabbir, Zarfishan; Deschauer, Marcus; Pohl, Ute; Roberts, Mark E.; Jackson, Matthew C.; Halfpenny, Christopher A.; Turnpenny, Peter D.; Lunt, Peter W.; Hanna, Michael G.; Schaefer, Andrew M.; McFarland, Robert; Horvath, Rita; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Turnbull, Douglass M.; Poulton, Joanna; Taylor, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial maintenance gene RRM2B are an important cause of familial mitochondrial disease in both adults and children and represent the third most common cause of multiple mitochondrial DNA deletions in adults, following POLG [polymerase (DNA directed), gamma] and PEO1 (now called C10ORF2, encoding the Twinkle helicase) mutations. However, the clinico-pathological and molecular features of adults with RRM2B-related disease have not been clearly defined. In this multicentre study of 26 adult patients from 22 independent families, including five additional cases published in the literature, we show that extra-ocular neurological complications are common in adults with genetically confirmed RRM2B mutations. We also demonstrate a clear correlation between the clinical phenotype and the underlying genetic defect. Myopathy was a prominent manifestation, followed by bulbar dysfunction and fatigue. Sensorineural hearing loss and gastrointestinal disturbance were also important findings. Severe multisystem neurological disease was associated with recessively inherited compound heterozygous mutations with a mean age of disease onset at 7 years. Dominantly inherited heterozygous mutations were associated with a milder predominantly myopathic phenotype with a later mean age of disease onset at 46 years. Skeletal muscle biopsies revealed subsarcolemmal accumulation of mitochondria and/or cytochrome c oxidase-deficient fibres. Multiple mitochondrial DNA deletions were universally present in patients who underwent a muscle biopsy. We identified 18 different heterozygous RRM2B mutations within our cohort of patients, including five novel mutations that have not previously been reported. Despite marked clinical overlap between the mitochondrial maintenance genes, key clinical features such as bulbar dysfunction, hearing loss and gastrointestinal disturbance should help prioritize genetic testing towards RRM2B analysis, and sequencing of the gene

  18. Characteristics of DNA methylation changes induced by traffic-related air pollution.

    PubMed

    Ding, Rui; Jin, Yongtang; Liu, Xinneng; Zhu, Ziyi; Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Ting; Xu, Yinchun

    2016-01-15

    Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) is a potential risk factor for numerous respiratory disorders, including lung cancer, while alteration of DNA methylation may be one of the underlying mechanisms. However, the effects of TRAP mixtures on DNA methylation have not been investigated. We have studied the effects of brief or prolonged TRAP exposures on DNA methylation in the rat. The exposures were performed in spring and autumn, with identical study procedures. In each season, healthy Wistar rats were exposed to TRAP at for 4 h, 7 d, 14 d, or 28 d. Global DNA methylation (LINE-1 and Alu) and specific gene methylation (p16(CDKN2A), APC, and iNOS) in the DNA from blood and lung tissues were quantified by pyrosequencing. Multiple linear regression was applied to assess the influence of air pollutants on DNA methylation levels. The levels of PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 in the high and moderate groups were significantly higher than in the control group. The DNA methylation levels were not significantly different between spring and autumn. When spring and autumn data were analyzed together, PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 exposures were associated with changes in%5mC (95% CI) in LINE-1, iNOS, p16(CDKN2A), and APC ranging from -0.088 (-0.150, -0.026) to 0.102 (0.049, 0.154) per 1 μg/m(3) increase in the pollutant concentration. Prolonged exposure to a high level of TRAP was negatively associated with LINE-1 and iNOS methylation, and positively associated with APC methylations in the DNA from lung tissues but not blood. These findings show that TRAP exposure is associated with decreased methylation of LINE-1 and iNOS, and increased methylation of p16(CDKN2A) and APC. PMID:26778509

  19. Characteristics of Settling Coral Reef Fish Are Related to Recruitment Timing and Success

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Tauna L.; Sponaugle, Su

    2014-01-01

    Many marine populations exhibit high variability in the recruitment of young into the population. While environmental cycles and oceanography explain some patterns of replenishment, the role of other growth-related processes in influencing settlement and recruitment is less clear. Examination of a 65-mo. time series of recruitment of a common coral reef fish, Stegastes partitus, to the reefs of the upper Florida Keys revealed that during peak recruitment months, settlement stage larvae arriving during dark lunar phases grew faster as larvae and were larger at settlement compared to those settling during the light lunar phases. However, the strength and direction of early trait-mediated selective mortality also varied by settlement lunar phase such that the early life history traits of 2–4 week old recruit survivors that settled across the lunar cycle converged to more similar values. Similarly, within peak settlement periods, early life history traits of settling larvae and selective mortality of recruits varied by the magnitude of the settlement event: larvae settling in larger events had longer PLDs and consequently were larger at settlement than those settling in smaller pulses. Traits also varied by recruitment habitat: recruits surviving in live coral habitat (vs rubble) or areas with higher densities of adult conspecifics were those that were larger at settlement. Reef habitats, especially those with high densities of territorial conspecifics, are more challenging habitats for young fish to occupy and small settlers (due to lower larval growth and/or shorter PLDs) to these habitats have a lower chance of survival than they do in rubble habitats. Settling reef fish are not all equal and the time and location of settlement influences the likelihood that individuals will survive to contribute to the population. PMID:25250964

  20. Characteristics of rat platelets and relative contributions of platelets and blood coagulation to haemostasis.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, O

    2000-01-01

    In order to understand some of the haemostatic mechanisms in rats for the interpretation of toxicological data, basic haemostatic parameters with a special emphasis on platelet functions were first measured in vitro. The results of reactions of rat platelets to many aggregating agents suggest that only ADP may be a consistently significant aggregator. The search for physiologic aggregators revealed ADP to be available from erythrocytes. Adhesion reaction also required ADP. Collagen was not considered to be essential for either reaction. Aggregation and adhesion were probably both reversible in flowing blood, while irreversible thrombi were formed in blood at rest ex vivo. Blood coagulation parameters determined revealed that the intrinsic pathway may be more important than the extrinsic one. The rate of intrinsic coagulation reaction was rapid, and plasma coagulation appeared to be of primary importance while the influence of platelet aggregation was minor. A simple model of rat haemostatic mechanism is proposed based on these results. Additionally, to define the relative contribution of platelets versus other cellular and plasma coagulation in vivo, rats were administered antiplatelet drugs (ticlopidine, suprofen and clopidogrel) and an anticoagulant (warfarin) intraperitoneally. Bleeding times (BTs) were significantly increased in all treated groups. ADP-induced platelet aggregations were significantly depressed by the administration of the three antiplatelet drugs, while kaolon-activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time were greatly increased in the warfarin-treated rats. The increase in BT may be due to the inhibition of platelet activity or blood coagulation defect in rats given antiplatelet drugs or warfarin, respectively. These results suggest that platelets play a key role in haemostasis in the rat. Two possible explanations of the disparity between in vitro and in vivo results may be that functional tests used here are not adequate to cover

  1. Physiological characteristics and related gene expression of after-ripening on seed dormancy release in rice.

    PubMed

    Du, W; Cheng, J; Cheng, Y; Wang, L; He, Y; Wang, Z; Zhang, H

    2015-11-01

    After-ripening is a common method used for dormancy release in rice. In this study, the rice variety Jiucaiqing (Oryza sativa L. subsp. japonica) was used to determine dormancy release following different after-ripening times (1, 2 and 3 months). Germination speed, germination percentage and seedling emergence increased with after-ripening; more than 95% germination and 85% seedling emergence were observed following 1 month of after-ripening within 10 days of imbibition, compared with <45% germination and 20% seedling emergence in freshly harvested seed. Hence, 3 months of after-ripening could be considered a suitable treatment period for rice dormancy release. Dormancy release by after-ripening is mainly correlated with a rapid decline in ABA content and increase in IAA content during imbibition. Subsequently, GA(1)/ABA, GA(7)/ABA, GA(12)/ABA, GA(20)/ABA and IAA/ABA ratios significantly increased, while GA(3)/ABA, GA(4)/ABA and GAs/IAA ratio significantly decreased in imbibed seeds following 3 months of after-ripening, thereby altering α-amylase activity during seed germination. Peak α-amylase activity occurred at an earlier germination stage in after-ripened seeds than in freshly harvested seeds. Expression of ABA, GA and IAA metabolism genes and dormancy-related genes was regulated by after-ripening time upon imbibition. Expression of OsCYP707A5, OsGA2ox1, OsGA2ox2, OsGA2ox3, OsILR1, OsGH3-2, qLTG3-1 and OsVP1 increased, while expression of Sdr4 decreased in imbibed seeds following 3 months of after-ripening. Dormancy release through after-ripening might be involved in weakening tissues covering the embryo via qLTG3-1 and decreased ABA signalling and sensitivity via Sdr4 and OsVP1. PMID:26205956

  2. Bioinformatics analysis of differentially expressed pathways related to the metastatic characteristics of osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei; Ma, Xiaojun; Shen, Jiakang; Yin, Fei; Wang, Chongren; Cai, Zhengdong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, gene expression data of osteosarcoma (OSA) were analyzed to identify metastasis-related biological pathways. Four gene expression data sets (GSE21257, GSE9508, GSE49003 and GSE66673) were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). An analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was performed using the Significance Analysis of Microarray (SAM) method. Gene expression levels were converted into scores of pathways by the Functional Analysis of Individual Microarray Expression (FAIME) algorithm and the differentially expressed pathways (DEPs) were then disclosed by a t-test. The distinguishing and prediction ability of the DEPs for metastatic and non-metastatic OSA was further confirmed using the principal component analysis (PCA) method and 3 gene expression data sets (GSE9508, GSE49003 and GSE66673) based on the support vector machines (SVM) model. A total of 616 downregulated and 681 upregulated genes were identified in the data set, GSE21257. The DEGs could not be used to distinguish metastatic OSA from non-metastatic OSA, as shown by PCA. Thus, an analysis of DEPs was further performed, resulting in 14 DEPs, such as NRAS signaling, Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) regulation of cytokines and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF)-mediated interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) activation. Cluster analysis indicated that these pathways could be used to distinguish between metastatic OSA from non-metastatic OSA. The prediction accuracy was 91, 66.7 and 87.5% for the data sets, GSE9508, GSE49003 and GSE66673, respectively. The results of PCA further validated that the DEPs could be used to distinguish metastatic OSA from non-metastatic OSA. On the whole, several DEPs were identified in metastatic OSA compared with non-metastatic OSA. Further studies on these pathways and relevant genes may help to enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying metastasis and may thus aid in

  3. Characteristics of settling coral reef fish are related to recruitment timing and success.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Tauna L; Sponaugle, Su

    2014-01-01

    Many marine populations exhibit high variability in the recruitment of young into the population. While environmental cycles and oceanography explain some patterns of replenishment, the role of other growth-related processes in influencing settlement and recruitment is less clear. Examination of a 65-mo. time series of recruitment of a common coral reef fish, Stegastes partitus, to the reefs of the upper Florida Keys revealed that during peak recruitment months, settlement stage larvae arriving during dark lunar phases grew faster as larvae and were larger at settlement compared to those settling during the light lunar phases. However, the strength and direction of early trait-mediated selective mortality also varied by settlement lunar phase such that the early life history traits of 2-4 week old recruit survivors that settled across the lunar cycle converged to more similar values. Similarly, within peak settlement periods, early life history traits of settling larvae and selective mortality of recruits varied by the magnitude of the settlement event: larvae settling in larger events had longer PLDs and consequently were larger at settlement than those settling in smaller pulses. Traits also varied by recruitment habitat: recruits surviving in live coral habitat (vs rubble) or areas with higher densities of adult conspecifics were those that were larger at settlement. Reef habitats, especially those with high densities of territorial conspecifics, are more challenging habitats for young fish to occupy and small settlers (due to lower larval growth and/or shorter PLDs) to these habitats have a lower chance of survival than they do in rubble habitats. Settling reef fish are not all equal and the time and location of settlement influences the likelihood that individuals will survive to contribute to the population. PMID:25250964

  4. Recovery characteristics of the electrically stimulated auditory nerve in deafened guinea pigs: relation to neuronal status.

    PubMed

    Ramekers, Dyan; Versnel, Huib; Strahl, Stefan B; Klis, Sjaak F L; Grolman, Wilko

    2015-03-01

    Successful cochlear implant performance requires adequate responsiveness of the auditory nerve to prolonged pulsatile electrical stimulation. Degeneration of the auditory nerve as a result of severe hair cell loss could considerably compromise this ability. The main objective of this study was to characterize the recovery of the electrically stimulated auditory nerve, as well as to evaluate possible changes caused by deafness-induced degeneration. To this end we studied temporal responsiveness of the auditory nerve in a guinea pig model of sensorineural hearing loss. Using masker-probe and pulse train paradigms we compared electrically evoked compound action potentials (eCAPs) in normal-hearing animals with those in animals with moderate (two weeks after ototoxic treatment) and severe (six weeks after ototoxic treatment) loss of spiral ganglion cells (SGCs). Masker-probe interval and pulse train inter-pulse interval was varied from 0.3 to 16 ms. Whereas recovery assessed with masker-probe was roughly similar for normal-hearing and both groups of deafened animals, it was considerably faster for six weeks deaf animals (τ ≈ 1.2 ms) than for two weeks deaf or normal-hearing animals (τ ≈ 3-4 ms) when 100-ms pulse trains were applied. Latency increased with decreasing inter-pulse intervals, and this was more pronounced with pulse trains than with masker-probe stimulation. With high frequency pulse train stimulation eCAP amplitudes were modulated for deafened animals, meaning that amplitudes for odd pulse numbers were larger than for even pulses. The relative refractory period (τ) and the modulation depth of the eCAP amplitude for pulse trains, as well as the latency increase for both paradigms significantly correlated with quantified measures of auditory nerve degeneration (size and packing density of SGCs). In addition to these findings, separate masker-probe recovery functions for the eCAP N1 and N2 peaks displayed a robust non-monotonic or shoulder

  5. Late-onset ankylosing spondylitis and related spondylarthropathies: clinical and radiological characteristics and pharmacological treatment options.

    PubMed

    Toussirot, Eric; Wendling, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis is the prototype of related diseases commonly called spondylarthropathies which include reactive arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, arthritis associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (enteropathic arthritis) and undifferentiated spondylarthropathies. Ankylosing spondylitis and spondylarthropathies are generally observed in young patients but can be observed later in life or in persons >50 years of age. All the spondylarthropathy subgroups are represented in the elderly with some features particular to this age group. Indeed, radiological aspects of ankylosing spondylitis may be difficult to interpret because of the radiological changes induced by aging. Late-onset peripheral spondylarthropathies are characterised by severe disease, marked elevation of laboratory parameters of inflammation, oligoarthritis involving the lower limbs and oedema of the extremities. Psoriatic arthritis is more severe in the elderly and is associated with worse outcomes than in young patients. The clinical presentation of undifferentiated spondylarthropathy is as varied in the elderly as in young and middle-aged adults. Reactive arthritis and enteropathic arthritis are observed in the elderly more rarely. The effects of aging on drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics, together with the existence of co-morbidities and polypharmacy, are responsible for difficulties in the therapeutic management of late-onset ankylosing spondylitis or spondylarthropathies. Indeed, NSAIDs should be used with caution in older patients because of the high risk of serious gastrointestinal complications. Sulfasalazine and methotrexate have been used as disease-controlling drugs but did not prove very effective. Pamidronate and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha antagonists offer a therapeutic alternative but have not been specifically tested in the elderly. Pamidronate has been tested in young-onset ankylosing spondylitis and spondylarthropathies with conflicting results but can be used in

  6. Bioinformatics analysis of differentially expressed pathways related to the metastatic characteristics of osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Ma, Xiaojun; Shen, Jiakang; Yin, Fei; Wang, Chongren; Cai, Zhengdong

    2016-08-01

    In this study, gene expression data of osteosarcoma (OSA) were analyzed to identify metastasis-related biological pathways. Four gene expression data sets (GSE21257, GSE9508, GSE49003 and GSE66673) were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). An analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was performed using the Significance Analysis of Microarray (SAM) method. Gene expression levels were converted into scores of pathways by the Functional Analysis of Individual Microarray Expression (FAIME) algorithm and the differentially expressed pathways (DEPs) were then disclosed by a t-test. The distinguishing and prediction ability of the DEPs for metastatic and non-metastatic OSA was further confirmed using the principal component analysis (PCA) method and 3 gene expression data sets (GSE9508, GSE49003 and GSE66673) based on the support vector machines (SVM) model. A total of 616 downregulated and 681 upregulated genes were identified in the data set, GSE21257. The DEGs could not be used to distinguish metastatic OSA from non-metastatic OSA, as shown by PCA. Thus, an analysis of DEPs was further performed, resulting in 14 DEPs, such as NRAS signaling, Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) regulation of cytokines and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF)-mediated interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) activation. Cluster analysis indicated that these pathways could be used to distinguish between metastatic OSA from non-metastatic OSA. The prediction accuracy was 91, 66.7 and 87.5% for the data sets, GSE9508, GSE49003 and GSE66673, respectively. The results of PCA further validated that the DEPs could be used to distinguish metastatic OSA from non-metastatic OSA. On the whole, several DEPs were identified in metastatic OSA compared with non-metastatic OSA. Further studies on these pathways and relevant genes may help to enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying metastasis

  7. Characteristics of myosin profile in human vastus lateralis muscle in relation to training background.

    PubMed

    Zawadowska, B; Majerczak, J; Semik, D; Karasinski, J; Kolodziejski, L; Kilarski, W M; Duda, K; Zoladz, J A

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-four male volunteers (mean +/- SD: age 25.4+/-5.8 years, height 178.6+/-5.5 cm, body mass 72.1+/-7.7 kg) of different training background were investigated and classified into three groups according to their physical activity and sport discipline: untrained students (group A), national and sub-national level endurance athletes (group B, 7.8+/-2.9 years of specialised training) and sprint-power athletes (group C, 12.8+/-8.7 years of specialised training). Muscle biopsies of vastus lateralis were analysed histochemically for mATPase and SDH activities, immunohistochemically for fast and slow myosin, and electrophoretically followed by Western immunoblotting for myosin heavy chain (MyHC) composition. Significant differences (P<0.05) regarding composition of muscle fibre types and myosin heavy chains were found only between groups A (41.7+/-1.6% of MyHCI, 40.8+/-4.0% of MyHCIIA and 17.5+/-4.0% of MyHCIIX) and B (64.3+/-0.8% of MyHCI, 34.0+/-1.4% of MyHCIIA and 1.7+/-1.4% of MyHCIIX) and groups A and C (59.6+/-1.6% of MyHCI, 37.2+/-1.3% of MyHCIIA and 3.2+/-1.3% of MyHCIIX). Unexpectedly, endurance athletes (group B) such as long-distance runners, cyclists and cross country skiers, did not differ from the athletes representing short term, high power output sports (group C) such as ice hockey, karate, ski-jumping, volleyball, soccer and modern dance. Furthermore, the relative amount of the fastest MyHCIIX isoform in vastus lateralis muscle was significantly lower in the athletes from group C than in students (group A). We conclude that the myosin profile in the athletes belonging to group C was unfavourable for their sport disciplines. This could be the reason why those athletes did not reach international level despite of several years of training. PMID:15493580

  8. Temperature and relative humidity influence the microbial and physicochemical characteristics of Camembert-type cheese ripening.

    PubMed

    Leclercq-Perlat, M-N; Sicard, M; Trelea, I C; Picque, D; Corrieu, G

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of temperature and relative humidity (RH) on microbial and biochemical ripening kinetics, Camembert-type cheeses were prepared from pasteurized milk seeded with Kluyveromyces marxianus, Geotrichum candidum, Penicillium camemberti, and Brevibacterium aurantiacum. Microorganism growth and biochemical changes were studied under different ripening temperatures (8, 12, and 16°C) and RH (88, 92, and 98%). The central point runs (12°C, 92% RH) were both reproducible and repeatable, and for each microbial and biochemical parameter, 2 kinetic descriptors were defined. Temperature had significant effects on the growth of both K. marxianus and G. candidum, whereas RH did not affect it. Regardless of the temperature, at 98% RH the specific growth rate of P. camemberti spores was significantly higher [between 2 (8°C) and 106 times (16°C) higher]. However, at 16°C, the appearance of the rind was no longer suitable because mycelia were damaged. Brevibacterium aurantiacum growth depended on both temperature and RH. At 8°C under 88% RH, its growth was restricted (1.3 × 10(7) cfu/g), whereas at 16°C and 98% RH, its growth was favored, reaching 7.9 × 10(9) cfu/g, but the rind had a dark brown color after d 20. Temperature had a significant effect on carbon substrate consumption rates in the core as well as in the rind. In the rind, when temperature was 16°C rather than 8°C, the lactate consumption rate was approximately 2.9 times higher under 88% RH. Whatever the RH, temperature significantly affected the increase in rind pH (from 4.6 to 7.7 ± 0.2). At 8°C, an increase in rind pH was observed between d 6 and 9, whereas at 16°C, it was between d 2 and 3. Temperature and RH affected the increasing rate of the underrind thickness: at 16°C, half of the cheese thickness appeared ripened on d 14 (wrapping day). However, at 98% RH, the underrind was runny. In conclusion, some descriptors, such as yeast growth and the pH in the rind, depended solely on

  9. Glycine receptor antibodies in PERM and related syndromes: characteristics, clinical features and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal-González, Alexander; Leite, M. Isabel; Waters, Patrick; Woodhall, Mark; Coutinho, Ester; Balint, Bettina; Lang, Bethan; Pettingill, Philippa; Carr, Aisling; Sheerin, Una-Marie; Press, Raomand; Lunn, Michael P.; Lim, Ming; Maddison, Paul; Meinck, H.-M.; Vandenberghe, Wim

    2014-01-01

    monoclonal antibodies to glycine receptor-α1. Ten glycine receptor antibody positive samples were also identified in a retrospective cohort of 56 patients with stiff person syndrome and related syndromes. Glycine receptor antibodies are strongly associated with spinal and brainstem disorders, and the majority of patients have progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus. The antibodies demonstrate in vitro evidence of pathogenicity and the patients respond well to immunotherapies, contrasting with earlier studies of this syndrome, which indicated a poor prognosis. The presence of glycine receptor antibodies should help to identify a disease that responds to immunotherapies, but these treatments may need to be sustained, relapses can occur and maintenance immunosuppression may be required. PMID:24951641

  10. A comparison of food refusal related to characteristics of food in children with autism spectrum disorder and typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Kristie L; Anderson, Sarah E; Curtin, Carol; Must, Aviva; Bandini, Linda G

    2014-12-01

    Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently report child food refusal based on characteristics of food. Our study sought to determine whether parent report of food refusal based on the characteristics of food was greater in children with ASD than in typically developing children, associated with a greater percentage of foods refused of those offered, and associated with fruit and vegetable intake. A modified food frequency questionnaire was used to determine overall food refusal as well as fruit and vegetable intake. Parent-reported food refusal related to characteristics of food (eg, texture/consistency, temperature, brand, color, shape, taste/smell, foods mixed together, or foods touching other foods) was compared between 53 children with ASD and 58 typically developing children aged 3 to 11 years in the Children's Activity and Meal Patterns Study (2007-2008). Children with ASD were significantly more likely to refuse foods based on texture/consistency (77.4% vs 36.2%), taste/smell (49.1% vs 5.2%), mixtures (45.3% vs 25.9%), brand (15.1% vs 1.7%), and shape (11.3% vs 1.7%). No differences between groups were found for food refusal based on temperature, foods touching other foods, or color. Irrespective of ASD status, the percentage of foods refused of those offered was associated with parent reports of food refusal based on all characteristics examined, except temperature. Food refusal based on color was inversely associated with vegetable consumption in both groups. Routine screening for food refusal among children with ASD is warranted to prevent dietary inadequacies that may be associated with selective eating habits. Future research is needed to develop effective and practical feeding approaches for children with ASD. PMID:24928779

  11. Complementarity among climate related energy sources: Sensitivity study to climate characteristics across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francois, Baptiste; Hingray, Benoit; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Raynaud, Damien; Borga, Marco; Vautard, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Climate related energy sources like solar-power, wind-power and hydro-power are important contributors to the transitions to a low-carbon economy. Past studies, mainly based on solar and wind powers, showed that the power from such energy sources fluctuates in time and space following their driving climatic variables. However, when combining different energy sources together, their intermittent feature is smoothed, resulting to lower time variability of the produced power and to lower storage capacity required for balancing. In this study, we consider solar, wind and hydro energy sources in a 100% renewable Europe using a set of 12 regions following two climate transects, the first one going from the Northern regions (Norway, Finland) to the Southern ones (Greece, Andalucía, Tunisia) and the second one going from the oceanic climate (West of France, Galicia) to the continental one (Romania, Belorussia). For each of those regions, we combine wind and solar irradiance data from the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (Vautard et al., 2014), temperature data from the European Climate Assessment & Dataset (Haylock et al., 2008) and runoff from the Global Runoff Data Center (GRDC, 1999) for estimating solar-power, wind-power, run-of-the-river hydro-power and the electricity demand over a time period of 30 years. The use of this set of 12 regions across Europe allows integrating knowledge about time and space variability for each different energy sources. We then assess the optimal share of each energy sources, aiming to decrease the time variability of the regional energy balance at different time scales as well as the energy storage required for balancing within each region. We also evaluate how energy transport among regions contributes for smoothing out both the energy balance and the storage requirement. The strengths of this study are i) to handle with run-of-the-river hydro power in addition to wind and solar energy sources and ii) to carry out this analysis

  12. Interrelationships Between Receiver/Relative Operating Characteristics Display, Binomial, Logit, and Bayes' Rule Probability of Detection Methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    2014-01-01

    Unknown risks are introduced into failure critical systems when probability of detection (POD) capabilities are accepted without a complete understanding of the statistical method applied and the interpretation of the statistical results. The presence of this risk in the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) community is revealed in common statements about POD. These statements are often interpreted in a variety of ways and therefore, the very existence of the statements identifies the need for a more comprehensive understanding of POD methodologies. Statistical methodologies have data requirements to be met, procedures to be followed, and requirements for validation or demonstration of adequacy of the POD estimates. Risks are further enhanced due to the wide range of statistical methodologies used for determining the POD capability. Receiver/Relative Operating Characteristics (ROC) Display, simple binomial, logistic regression, and Bayes' rule POD methodologies are widely used in determining POD capability. This work focuses on Hit-Miss data to reveal the framework of the interrelationships between Receiver/Relative Operating Characteristics Display, simple binomial, logistic regression, and Bayes' Rule methodologies as they are applied to POD. Knowledge of these interrelationships leads to an intuitive and global understanding of the statistical data, procedural and validation requirements for establishing credible POD estimates.

  13. Characteristics of age-related behavioral changes in senescence-accelerated mouse SAMP8 and SAMP10.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, M

    1997-01-01

    Senescence-Accelerated Mouse (SAM), a murine model of accelerated senescence, has been established by Takeda et al. (1981). SAM consists of senescence-accelerated-prone mouse (SAMP) and senescence-accelerated-resistant mouse (SAMR), the latter of which shows normal aging characteristics. In 1991 there were eight different substrains in the P-series, which commonly exhibited accelerated aging with a shortened life span (Takeda et al., 1991). Among the P-series, we have found that SAMP8 mice show significant impairments in a variety of learning tasks when compared with SAMR1 mice (Miyamoto et al., 1986). Further studies suggest that SAMP8 exhibits an age-related emotional disorder characterized by reduced anxiety-like behavior (Miyamoto et al., 1992). On the other hand, it has been shown that SAMP10 exhibits brain atrophy and learning impairments in an avoidance task (Shimada et al., 1992, 1993). Here, characteristics of age-related deficits in learning and memory, changes in emotional behavior, and abnormality of circadian rhythms in SAMP8 and SAMP10 mice are described. In the experiments, SAMP8/Ta (SAMP8), SAMP10/(/)Ta (SAMP10) and SAMR1TA (SAMR1) reared under specific pathogen-free conditions at Takeda Chemical Industries were used. PMID:9088911

  14. Linguistic characteristics in a non-trauma-related narrative task are associated with PTSD diagnosis and symptom severity.

    PubMed

    Papini, Santiago; Yoon, Patricia; Rubin, Mikael; Lopez-Castro, Teresa; Hien, Denise A

    2015-05-01

    Linguistic characteristics of trauma narratives have been linked to the development and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it remains unclear if linguistic markers of PTSD exist beyond the scope of trauma narratives. This study used ambiguous visual prompts to elicit spontaneous narratives from trauma-exposed individuals with (n = 23) and without PTSD (n = 30). Individuals with PTSD used more singular pronouns and death-related words, and fewer plural pronouns. Within the PTSD group, increased severity of reexperiencing symptoms was associated with greater use of singular pronouns and lower use of cognitive words; increased severity of avoidance symptoms was associated with lower use of death words; and increased severity of hyperarousal symptoms was associated with less frequent use of anxiety words. Together, these linguistic variables accounted for 53% of the variance in total PTSD symptom severity. These findings are consistent with previous research suggesting that language use is a strong predictor of PTSD psychopathology, and extend the evidence to include the linguistic characteristics of non-trauma-related narratives. PMID:25961121

  15. Stress Status and Related Characteristics among Urban Residents: A Six-Province Capital Cities Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tingzhong; Rockett, Ian R. H.; Lv, Qiaohong; Cottrell, Randall R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To estimate current prevalence levels of stress, and to identify related characteristics among urban residents in China. Design A cross-sectional, multilevel study. Selected through multi-stage quota-sampling, survey participants were 4,735 urban residents aged 15 years and older who resided in one of six selected Chinese capital cities. Data were collected on stress levels and sociodemographic characteristics. Stress was assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale, Chinese version (CPSS). A multilevel variance component model was employed to analyze associations between sociodemographic variables and stress. Results The mean stress score for urban residents was 22.34 (SD: 3.22), and 36.8% of those surveyed (95% CI: 33.5–40.2%) were severely stressed (>25). Multilevel regression analysis indicated that residents aged 55 years and older were less stressed than residents under age 25. The most educated and higher income earners had lower stress levels than the least educated and poorest. High levels of stress were apparent among all other occupational groups, relative to managers and clerks, except retirees and operational workers. Residents in the north of China exhibited higher stress levels than counterparts in the south. Conclusions This study suggests that higher stress levels are positively associated with social class in China. Our findings could inform health policy, guide prevention strategies, and justify the design and implementation of targeted interventions. PMID:22276209

  16. Investigating the Relation Between Prevalence of Asthmatic Allergy with the Characteristics of the Environment Using Association Rule Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanani Sadat, Y.; Karimipour, F.; Kanani Sadat, A.

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has highly increased in recent decades due to contamination of the environment with the allergy stimuli. A common treat is identifying the allergy stimulus and, then, avoiding the patient to be exposed with it. There are, however, many unknown allergic diseases stimuli that are related to the characteristics of the living environment. In this paper, we focus on the effect of air pollution on asthmatic allergies and investigate the association between prevalence of such allergies with those characteristics of the environment that may affect the air pollution. For this, spatial association rule mining has been deployed to mine the association between spatial distribution of allergy prevalence and the air pollution parameters such as CO, SO2, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, and O3 (compiled by the air pollution monitoring stations) as well as living distance to parks and roads. The results for the case study (i.e., Tehran metropolitan area) indicates that distance to parks and roads as well as CO, NO2, PM10, and PM2.5 is related to the allergy prevalence in December (the most polluted month of the year in Tehran), while SO2 and O3 have no effect on that.

  17. Variations in Sleep Characteristics and Sleep-Related Impairment in At-Risk College Drinkers: A Latent Profile Analysis

    PubMed Central

    DeMartini, Kelly S.; Fucito, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Sleep disturbance and heavy drinking increase risk of negative consequences in college students. Limited research exists on how they act synergistically, and the overall nature of sleep and sleep-related impairment in college student drinkers is poorly understood. A latent profile analysis was conducted on the sleep characteristics and daytime sleep-related consequences of college student drinkers who were at-risk based on Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test – Consumption scores. Methods Participants (N = 312, mean age = 18.90 (0.97) years) consumed a mean (SD) of 20.93 (13.04) drinks per week. Scores on the ten items of the Sleep/Wake Behavior Problems Scale (SWPS) were the class indicators. Results Four classes best described the sleep and sleep-related consequences of at-risk college drinkers. Classes represented different gradients and types of sleep patterns and sleep-related impairment; nearly half the sample reported late bedtimes and daytime consequences of insufficient sleep. Subsequent validation analyses indicated that these classes were directly correspondent with severity of alcohol consumption, alcohol-related consequences illicit substance use, and perceived health. Conclusions These findings indicate the presence of significant heterogeneity in college drinkers’ sleep patterns and experiences of sleep-related impairment. Class differences significantly impact the level of alcohol and drug use and the consequences members experience. Greater alcohol use and sleep/wake problems are associated with increased risk for negative consequences for certain classes. These results suggest that college drinking interventions could benefit from the incorporation of sleep-related content and the value in adding brief alcohol assessments and interventions to other college health treatments. PMID:25133844

  18. Case-control study of disturbed eating behaviors and related psychographic characteristics in young adults with and without diet-related chronic health conditions.

    PubMed

    Quick, Virginia M; McWilliams, Rita; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2012-08-01

    Young adults with diet-related chronic health conditions (DRCHCs; i.e., type 1 diabetes, celiac disease, cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome) face challenges complying with dietary restrictions required to effectively manage their health condition. These restrictions could put them at risk for disturbed eating. The purpose of this study was to determine if young adults with and without DRCHCs differed with regard to disturbed eating behaviors and related psychographics characteristics (i.e., body image attributes, mental disorders, intrapersonal characteristics and sociocultural environment [i.e., media and family]). Each DRCHC participant (cases=166) was matched to 4 healthy participants (controls=664) based on gender and BMI (±0.50 BMI units). Conditional logistic regression analyses indicate cases were twice as likely to have been diagnosed by a healthcare provider with an eating disorder (p=0.08, OR=1.99, CI(90) [1.03-3.83]). Cases were significantly more likely to use Inappropriate Compensatory Behaviors to manage their weight, i.e., excessive exercise (p=0.04, OR=1.41, CI(95) [1.02-1.94]) and misuse medication (p=0.04, OR=1.14, CI(95) [1.00-1.29]) than controls. Depression and anxiety were significantly higher, and health status was significantly poorer in cases compared with controls. DRCHC participants were less likely to report feeling body image pressures from the media, placed a greater value on their health, used social diversion, and recalled a greater emphasis being placed on their mothers' weights and mealtimes being less structured than control participants. Findings indicate that nutrition and other healthcare professionals should incorporate screening DRCHC patients for disturbed eating behaviors and eating disorders in their standards of care. PMID:22664398

  19. Spatial variability of cv Tempranillo phenology within the Ribera del Duero DO (Spain) related to soil type and plot characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Maria C.; Jones, Gregory V.; Yuste, Jesús

    2014-05-01

    Vineyards in the Ribera del Duero area (Spain) date back to the roman time, with significant fluctuations throughout the centuries, reaching consolidation and stable production in the 10th and 11th centuries. The present Ribera del Duero Designation of Origen (DO) started in 1980 and has increased from less than 6,000 ha planted to more than 21,000 ha planted by 2010 and becoming one the top regions for wine production in Spain with success in the global wine market. Vineyards of Ribera del Duero are found along 115 km of the Duero River. Within this distance, differences in elevation and topography produce differences in climate, which provide the means by which a zonification for vineyard management can be assessed. In this work, the differences in phenological growth characteristics for the Tempranillo variety were analyzed within the Ribera del Duero DO and related to soil and plot characteristics. Phenology dates, referenced to different Baggiolini classification stages, were evaluated in 20 control plots distributed throughout the Ribera del Duero DO during the period 2004-2012. These years presented different climatic characteristics, which were analyzed from daily temperature and precipitation series recorded from 1980 to 2012 at five stations located along the Duero River. Most vineyards were cultivated under rainfed conditions. In order to evaluate the spatial variability in phenology, climate and soils, the plots were classified using a hierarchical cluster multivariate analysis. Parameters such as the elevation, the distance to river and the soil type were taken into account in the classification. According to the WRB classification (2006) the main soil types in the area are Calcaric Cambisols, Eutric Cambisols, Calcic Luvisol, Calcaric fluvisols, Eutric fluvisols and in less proportion Lithic Leptosols and Calcaric Rogosols. Four different groups were observed, with differences in elevation, distance to the Duero River and the soil type. The

  20. The Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2): Study Design and Baseline Characteristics (AREDS2 Report Number 1)

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Emily Y.; Clemons, Traci; SanGiovanni, John Paul; Danis, Ronald; Domalpally, Amitha; McBee, Wendy; Sperduto, Robert; Ferris, Frederick L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) demonstrated beneficial effects of oral supplementation with antioxidant vitamins and minerals on the development of advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in persons with at least intermediate AMD (bilateral large drusen with or without pigment changes). Observational data suggest that other oral nutrient supplements might further reduce the risk of progression to advanced AMD. The primary purpose of Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of lutein+zeaxanthin (L+Z) and/or omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation in reducing the risk of developing advanced AMD. The study will also assess the reduction in zinc and the omission of beta-carotene from original AREDS formulation. Design Multicenter phase 3 randomized controlled clinical trial Participants Persons age 50 to 85 with bilateral intermediate AMD or advanced AMD in one eye Methods All participants were randomly assigned to: 1) placebo (n=1012); 2) L+Z (10 mg/2 mg, n=1044); 3) ω-3 LCPUFAs (eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) [650gmg/350 mg] n=1069); or 4) the combination of L+Z and ω -3 LCPUFAs (n=1078). All participants were offered a secondary randomization to 1 of 4 variations of the original AREDS formulation keeping vitamins C (500 mg), E (400 IU), and copper (2 mg) unchanged while varying zinc and beta-carotene as follows: zinc remains at the original level (80mg), lower only zinc to 25mg, omit beta-carotene only, or lower zinc to 25 mg and omit beta-carotene. Main Outcome Measures Progression to advanced AMD determined by centralized grading of annual fundus photographs. Results 4,203 participants were enrolled at 82 clinical centers located in the U.S. Population characteristics at baseline were as follows: mean age 74 years, 57% female, 97% white, 7% current smokers, 19% with prior cardiovascular disease and 44% and 50% taking statin-class cholesterol

  1. Soccer Player Characteristics in English Lower-League Development Programmes: The Relationships between Relative Age, Maturation, Anthropometry and Physical Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Lovell, Ric; Towlson, Chris; Parkin, Guy; Portas, Matt; Vaeyens, Roel; Cobley, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) and its relationships with maturation, anthropometry, and physical performance characteristics were examined across a representative sample of English youth soccer development programmes. Birth dates of 1,212 players, chronologically age-grouped (i.e., U9’s-U18’s), representing 17 professional clubs (i.e., playing in Leagues 1 & 2) were obtained and categorised into relative age quartiles from the start of the selection year (Q1 = Sep-Nov; Q2 = Dec-Feb; Q3 = Mar-May; Q4 = Jun-Aug). Players were measured for somatic maturation and performed a battery of physical tests to determine aerobic fitness (Multi-Stage Fitness Test [MSFT]), Maximal Vertical Jump (MVJ), sprint (10 & 20m), and agility (T-Test) performance capabilities. Odds ratio’s (OR) revealed Q1 players were 5.3 times (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 4.08–6.83) more likely to be selected than Q4’s, with a particularly strong RAE bias observed in U9 (OR: 5.56) and U13-U16 squads (OR: 5.45–6.13). Multivariate statistical models identified few between quartile differences in anthropometric and fitness characteristics, and confirmed chronological age-group and estimated age at peak height velocity (APHV) as covariates. Assessment of practical significance using magnitude-based inferences demonstrated body size advantages in relatively older players (Q1 vs. Q4) that were very-likely small (Effect Size [ES]: 0.53–0.57), and likely to very-likely moderate (ES: 0.62–0.72) in U12 and U14 squads, respectively. Relatively older U12-U14 players also demonstrated small advantages in 10m (ES: 0.31–0.45) and 20m sprint performance (ES: 0.36–0.46). The data identify a strong RAE bias at the entry-point to English soccer developmental programmes. RAE was also stronger circa-PHV, and relatively older players demonstrated anaerobic performance advantages during the pubescent period. Talent selectors should consider motor function and maturation status assessments to avoid

  2. Soccer Player Characteristics in English Lower-League Development Programmes: The Relationships between Relative Age, Maturation, Anthropometry and Physical Fitness.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Ric; Towlson, Chris; Parkin, Guy; Portas, Matt; Vaeyens, Roel; Cobley, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) and its relationships with maturation, anthropometry, and physical performance characteristics were examined across a representative sample of English youth soccer development programmes. Birth dates of 1,212 players, chronologically age-grouped (i.e., U9's-U18's), representing 17 professional clubs (i.e., playing in Leagues 1 & 2) were obtained and categorised into relative age quartiles from the start of the selection year (Q1 = Sep-Nov; Q2 = Dec-Feb; Q3 = Mar-May; Q4 = Jun-Aug). Players were measured for somatic maturation and performed a battery of physical tests to determine aerobic fitness (Multi-Stage Fitness Test [MSFT]), Maximal Vertical Jump (MVJ), sprint (10 & 20m), and agility (T-Test) performance capabilities. Odds ratio's (OR) revealed Q1 players were 5.3 times (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 4.08-6.83) more likely to be selected than Q4's, with a particularly strong RAE bias observed in U9 (OR: 5.56) and U13-U16 squads (OR: 5.45-6.13). Multivariate statistical models identified few between quartile differences in anthropometric and fitness characteristics, and confirmed chronological age-group and estimated age at peak height velocity (APHV) as covariates. Assessment of practical significance using magnitude-based inferences demonstrated body size advantages in relatively older players (Q1 vs. Q4) that were very-likely small (Effect Size [ES]: 0.53-0.57), and likely to very-likely moderate (ES: 0.62-0.72) in U12 and U14 squads, respectively. Relatively older U12-U14 players also demonstrated small advantages in 10m (ES: 0.31-0.45) and 20m sprint performance (ES: 0.36-0.46). The data identify a strong RAE bias at the entry-point to English soccer developmental programmes. RAE was also stronger circa-PHV, and relatively older players demonstrated anaerobic performance advantages during the pubescent period. Talent selectors should consider motor function and maturation status assessments to avoid premature and unwarranted

  3. Aqueous corrosion characteristics and corrosion-related cracking susceptibilities of Fe sub 3 Al-type iron aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, R.A.; Kim, J.G. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1991-04-01

    In certain fossil-energy applications, iron aluminides may be subjected to ambient-temperature aqueous corrosion conditions. In the present project, the aqueous corrosion characteristics and the cracking tendencies under aqueous-corrosion conditions were studied. In these studies, electrochemical, immersion and electrochemical-mechanical evaluation techniques were employed. For a range of iron-aluminide compositions, cyclic anodic polarization tests were conducted in a number of electrolytes to provide information on anodic dissolution characteristics including tendencies for either active uniform corrosion, localized corrosion, or passivation. Average corrosion penetration rates were determined by application of Tafel methods or the polarization-resistance method in combination with Faraday's law. Immersion test methods were employed to verify corrosion behavior as determined by electrochemical methods and to evaluate localized-corrosion initiation times. U-bend corrosion tests were conducted at open-circuit corrosion potentials and at potentiostatically-controlled anodic and cathodic potentials to investigate the cracking tendencies of selected iron aluminides and to provide information on the cracking mechanism. And finally, slow-strain-rate corrosion tests were conducted at open-circuit and potentiostatically-controlled cathodic potentials to study the ductility response as related to cracking tendencies and the mechanism responsible. 32 refs., 19 figs., 11 tabs.

  4. Executive functioning in autism spectrum disorders: influence of task and sample characteristics and relation to symptom severity.

    PubMed

    Van Eylen, Lien; Boets, Bart; Steyaert, Jean; Wagemans, Johan; Noens, Ilse

    2015-11-01

    Impaired executive functioning (EF) has been proposed to underlie symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, insight in the EF profile of ASD individuals is hampered due to task impurity and inconsistent findings. To elucidate these inconsistencies, we investigated the influence of task and sample characteristics on EF in ASD, with an extended test battery designed to reduce task impurity. Additionally, we studied the relation between EF and ASD symptoms. EF (inhibition, cognitive flexibility, generativity, working memory and planning) was measured in open-ended versus structured assessment situations, while controlling for possible confounding EF and non-EF variables. The performance of 50 individuals with ASD was compared with that of 50 age, gender and IQ matched typically developing (TD) individuals. The effects of group (ASD versus TD), age (children versus adolescents) and gender were examined, as well as the correlation between age, IQ, ASD symptoms and EF. Individuals with ASD showed impairments in all EF domains, but deficits were more pronounced in open-ended compared to structured settings. Group differences did not depend on gender and only occasionally on participants' age. This suggests that inconsistencies between studies largely result from differences in task characteristics and less from differences in the investigated sample features. However, age and IQ strongly correlated with EF, indicating that group differences in these factors should be controlled for when studying EF. Finally, EF correlated with both social and non-social ASD symptoms, but further research is needed to clarify the nature of this relationship. PMID:25697266

  5. Buoyancy characteristics of the bloater (Coregonus hoyi) in relation to patterns of vertical migration and acoustic backscattering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleischer, Guy W.; TeWinkel, Leslie M.

    1998-01-01

    Acoustic studies in Lake Michigan found that bloaters (Coregonus hoyi) were less reflective per size than the other major pelagic species. This difference in in situ acoustic backscattering could indicate that the deep-water bloaters have compressed swimbladders for much of their vertical range with related implications on buoyancy. To test this hypothesis, the buoyancy characteristics of bloaters were determined with fish placed in a cage that was lowered to bottom and monitored with an underwater camera. We found bloaters were positively buoyant near surface, neutrally buoyant at intermediate strata, and negatively buoyant near bottom. This pattern was consistent for the range of depths bloaters occur. The depth of neutral buoyancy (near the 50-n strata) corresponds with the maximum extent of vertical migration for bloaters observed in acoustic surveys. Fish below this depth would be negatively buoyant which supports our contention that bloaters deeper in the water column have compressed swimbladders. Understanding the buoyancy characteristics of pelagic fishes will help to predict the effects of vertical migration on target strength measurement and confirms the use of acoustics as a tool to identify and quantify the ecological phenomenon of vertical migration.

  6. The relation characteristics of personality of managers working in Iran University of Medical Sciences with success and desirable job

    PubMed Central

    Atefi Manesh, Pezhman; Saleh Ardestani, Abbas; Kermani, Behnaz; Rezapoor, Aziz; Sarabi Asiabar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies suggest the existence of an effective relationship between individuals’characteristics and important factors such as occupational and organizational performance, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and etc. This study was designed based on the dimensions of personality (introversion /extroversion) of managers of Iran University of Medical Sciences at three levels (executive, middle and senior) with their career success rate. Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study, whose population was all managers of Iran University of Medical Sciences. To collect data, two valid and reliable questionnaires were used. The first questionnaire assessed personality characteristics of each director, and the second measured occupational success. Related tests such as Pearson correlation test and independent comparison (independent t-test) at a significance level of 0.05 were used for data analysis. Results: Findings revealed no significant relationship between variables of introversion and extroversion and occupational success among the senior managers, (p> 0.05). However, there was a direct but incomplete relationship between introversion and extroversion, which correlated with job success among middle and executives managers. Conclusion: It seems that in all three levels of managers, if the managers communicated more with employees and if the subject of communication was more of executive nature, the correlation rate would increase between extroversion and introversion with job success variables. Therefore, it is suggested to give attention to organizational interaction and communication, and contingency variables such as organization condition, structure, formality and complexity. PMID:26793625

  7. Registered nurses' and student nurses' assessment of pain and distress related to specific patient and nurse characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hall-Lord, Marie Louise; Larsson, Bodil Wilde

    2006-07-01

    Previous studies examining the influence of patient and nurse characteristics on assessments of pain and distress are not consistent in their results. Few studies have focused on the influence of nurses' personality factors on the assessment of pain and distress. The aims of this study were to compare registered nurses' and student nurses' assessments of patients' pain and distress and to identify if the assessment relate to specific patient and nurse characteristics. Seventy-one registered nurses and 184 student nurses assessed pain and distress in three hypothetical cases and responded to personality factors scales. The assessments of pain and distress regarding the patients showed significant differences. The respondents were divided into two groups, respectively, for each patient according to whether the patient's experiences of pain and distress were assessed as more or less intense. Both the groups of registered nurses and student nurses showed significantly differences on personality factors. The groups of student nurses also differed on nursing experience. Patients' age, and type and stage of illness, personality factors, and nursing experience influenced the respondents' assessments. These findings can be used to help educators in nursing to develop strategies to improve skills and knowledge in the assessment at pain and distress. PMID:16412537

  8. Examining methodological variation in response inhibition: The effects of outcome measures and task characteristics on age-related differences.

    PubMed

    Klenberg, Liisa; Närhi, Vesa; Korkman, Marit; Hokkanen, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This study addressed methodological issues common to developmental studies on response inhibition. Age-related differences were investigated using two Stroop-like tasks with different levels of complexity and comparing different outcome measures in a sample of 340 children and adolescents aged 7-15 years. First, speed and accuracy of task performance were examined; the results showing that improvement in speed continued until age 13 in both the basic naming task and the two inhibition tasks. Improvement in accuracy was less consistent and continued until age 9 or 13 years. Second, two different algorithms were employed to control for the effects of basic processes in inhibition tasks. The difference algorithm indicated age-related differences similar to those for speed. The ratio algorithm, however, suggested earlier deceleration of development of response inhibition at 9 or 11 years of age. Factors related to the cognitive requirements and presented stimuli also had an effect on the results. The present findings shed light on the inconsistencies in the developmental studies of response inhibition and demonstrated that the selection of outcome measures and task characteristics are critical because they affect the way development is depicted. PMID:25175830

  9. Relations among habitat characteristics, exotic species, and turbid-river cyprinids in the Missouri River drainage of Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quist, M.C.; Hubert, W.A.; Rahel, F.J.

    2004-01-01

    We used data from 91 stream reaches in the Missouri River drainage of Wyoming to determine whether abiotic and biotic factors were related to the abundance of four cyprinid species associated with turbid-river environments: flathead chub Platygobio gracilis, sturgeon chub Macrhybopsis gelida, plains minnow Hybognathus placitus, and western silvery minnow H. argyritis. The abundance of these cyprinids was positively related to the percentage of fine substrate in a reach and inversely related to the percentage of gravel substrate, the percentage of large rocky substrate, and the abundance of exotic piscivores. Differences in substrate composition and abundance of exotic piscivores were largely explained by the presence and location of large, mainstem impoundments. Reaches without any large impoundments in their watershed had a high percentage of fine substrate, high catch rates of turbid-river cyprinids, few exotic piscivores, and little gravel or large rocky substrate. Reaches with a downstream impoundment (i.e., within 200 km) had habitat characteristics similar to those without impoundments but had few turbid-river cyprinids and many exotic piscivores. Reaches with an upstream impoundment (i.e., within 200 km) had little fine substrate, a high percentage of large rocky substrate, few turbid-river cyprinids, and many exotic piscivores. Our results suggest that impoundments have had a substantial influence on the distribution and abundance of cyprinid species adapted to hydrologically dynamic, turbid prairie streams and that conserving these species is dependent on maintaining natural flow and sediment transport regimes and on reducing habitat suitability for exotic piscivores.

  10. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw in a multiple myeloma patient: A case report with characteristic radiographic features.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Do; Park, Moo-Rim; Kwon, Kyung-Hwan

    2015-09-01

    A 59-year-old male who had suffered from multiple myeloma for nine years and had been administered bisphosphonates for seven years visited a dental hospital for pain relief due to extensive caries in his left maxillary molars. The molars were extracted, leaving an exposed wound for three months. The radiograph showed sequestra formation and irregular bone destruction in the left maxilla. Sudden pain and gingival swelling in the right mandibular molar area occurred six months later. The interseptum of the right lower second molar was observed to be necrotic during surgery. These findings coincided with the features of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). In this case, the long intravenous administration of bisphosphonates and tooth extraction were likely the etiologic factors of BRONJ in a patient with multiple myeloma; moreover, the bilateral occurrence of BRONJ is a characteristic feature. PMID:26389064

  11. Wound ballistics of firearm-related injuries--part 2: mechanisms of skeletal injury and characteristics of maxillofacial ballistic trauma.

    PubMed

    Stefanopoulos, P K; Soupiou, O T; Pazarakiotis, V C; Filippakis, K

    2015-01-01

    Maxillofacial firearm-related injuries vary in extent and severity because of the characteristics and behaviour of the projectile(s), and the complexity of the anatomical structures involved, whereas the degree of tissue disruption is also affected by the distance of the shot. In low-energy injuries there is limited damage to the underlying skeleton, which usually dominates the clinical picture, dictating a more straightforward therapeutic approach. High-energy injuries are associated with extensive hard and soft tissue disruption, and are characterized by a surrounding zone of damaged tissue that is prone to progressive necrosis as a result of compromised blood supply and wound sepsis. Current treatment protocols for these injuries emphasize the importance of serial debridement for effective wound control while favouring early definitive reconstruction. PMID:25128263

  12. Wound ballistics of firearm-related injuries--part 1: missile characteristics and mechanisms of soft tissue wounding.

    PubMed

    Stefanopoulos, P K; Filippakis, K; Soupiou, O T; Pazarakiotis, V C

    2014-12-01

    Firearm-related injuries are caused by a wide variety of weapons and projectiles. The kinetic energy of the penetrating projectile defines its ability to disrupt and displace tissue, whereas the actual tissue damage is determined by the mode of energy release during the projectile-tissue interaction and the particular characteristics of the tissues and organs involved. Certain projectile factors, namely shape, construction, and stability, greatly influence the rate of energy transfer to the tissues along the wound track. Two zones of tissue damage can be identified, the permanent cavity created by the passage of the bullet and a potential area of contused tissue surrounding it, produced mainly by temporary cavitation which is a manifestation of effective high-energy transfer to tissue. Due to the complex nature of these injuries, wound assessment and the type and extent of treatment required should be based on an understanding of the various mechanisms contributing to tissue damage. PMID:25128259

  13. Relating low-flow characteristics to the base flow recession time constant at partial record stream gauges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eng, K.; Milly, P.C.D.

    2007-01-01

    Base flow recession information is helpful for regional estimation of low-flow characteristics. However, analyses that exploit such information generally require a continuous record of streamflow at the estimation site to characterize base flow recession. Here we propose a simple method for characterizing base flow recession at low-flow partial record stream gauges (i.e., sites with very few streamflow measurements under low-streamflow conditions), and we use that characterization as the basis for a practical new approach to low-flow regression. In a case study the introduction of a base flow recession time constant, estimated from a single pair of strategically timed streamflow measurements, approximately halves the root-mean-square estimation error relative to that of a conventional drainage area regression. Additional streamflow measurements can be used to reduce the error further.

  14. Point particle binary system with components of different masses in the linear regime of the characteristic formulation of general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cedeño M, C. E.; de Araujo, J. C. N.

    2016-05-01

    A study of binary systems composed of two point particles with different masses in the linear regime of the characteristic formulation of general relativity with a Minkowski background is provided. The present paper generalizes a previous study by Bishop et al. The boundary conditions at the world tubes generated by the particles's orbits are explored, where the metric variables are decomposed in spin-weighted spherical harmonics. The power lost by the emission of gravitational waves is computed using the Bondi News function. The power found is the well-known result obtained by Peters and Mathews using a different approach. This agreement validates the approach considered here. Several multipole term contributions to the gravitational radiation field are also shown.

  15. Characteristics of child maltreatment and their relation to dissociation, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and depression in adult psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Mueller-Pfeiffer, Christoph; Moergeli, Hanspeter; Schumacher, Sonja; Martin-Soelch, Chantal; Wirtz, Gustav; Fuhrhans, Christoph; Hindermann, Esther; Rufer, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Little is known about the influence of particular characteristics of childhood maltreatment, such as developmental stage, relationship to the perpetrator, and nature of the trauma, on adult psychopathology. The effects of childhood maltreatment were assessed in adult psychiatric patients (N = 287) using self-rating scales and diagnostic checklists. Maltreatment was strongly associated with dissociation. This relationship was observed for all childhood developmental stages and was strongest when the perpetrator was outside the family. Dissociation was more strongly correlated with childhood emotional abuse and sexual harassment than with sexual or physical abuse. Childhood sexual abuse was found to be associated with symptoms of posttraumatic stress. The findings suggest that dissociation is a relatively specific consequence of childhood maltreatment that is largely independent of the familial relationship to the perpetrator or the child's developmental stage. PMID:23686156

  16. School Characteristics and Experiences of African American, Hispanic/Latino, and Native American Youth in Rural Communities: Relation to Educational Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvin, Matthew J.; Byun, Soo-yong; Meece, Judith L.; Reed, Karla S.; Farmer, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine differences in the school characteristics and experiences of African American, Hispanic/Latino, and Native American youth in rural high schools as well as their relation to educational aspirations. We also investigated the characteristics and experiences of students and their families given that…

  17. Risk Characteristics of the Combined Geographic Atrophy and Choroidal Neovascularisation Phenotype in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Saade, Celine; Ganti, Bhaskar; Marmor, Michael; Freund, K. Bailey; Smith, R. Theodore

    2014-01-01

    Aim To investigate the risk characteristics of the combined geographic atrophy (GA) and choroidal neovascularization (CNV) phenotype of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) compared to GA or CNV. Methods Patients with advanced AMD were identified and divided into three groups using multimodal imaging: patients with GA in at least one eye, patients with CNV in at least one eye, and patients with simultaneous GA and CNV in at least one eye. Epidemiologic and clinical factors were gathered from patient questionnaires. Genotypes for age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2) and complement factor H (CFH) were determined. Results 42 patients with GA or CNV and 16 patients with combined GA/CNV were identified. Patients with the combined phenotype were older (86.4 vs. 81.8 years, p=0.049) and had a higher prevalence of advanced AMD in the fellow eye (81.3% vs. 31.0%, p<0.001). CFH and ARMS2 risk alleles were not associated with the combined phenotype. Conclusion The combined GA/CNV phenotype has similar epidemiologic, clinical, and genetic features as GA and CNV but occurs at an older age and is more associated with advanced AMD in the fellow eye, suggesting that all these phenotypes are part of the same spectrum of disease and that the combined phenotype represents an even more advanced form of AMD than either GA or CNV. PMID:25091949

  18. [Impact of canopy structural characteristics on inner air temperature and relative humidity of Koelreuteria paniculata community in summer].

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhong; Li, Zhan-dong; Cheng, Fang-yun; Sha, Hai-feng

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the diurnal variation of the correlations between the cooling and humidifying effects and canopy structural characteristics of the Koelreuteria paniculata community, the measurements of air temperature, relative humidity, canopy density, leaf area index (LAI) and mean leaf angle (MLA) were performed on calm sunny summer days in the community in Beijing Olympic Forest Park, China. There were significant correlations between the canopy density, LAI and MLA, which affected the cooling and humidifying effects together. The cooling effect reached its maximum by 12:00, whereas the humidifying effect reached its peak at 10:00. Compared with the control open space site, the community appeared to lower the air temperature by 0.43 to 7.53 °C and to increase the relative humidity by 1%-22% during the daytime. However, the cooling and humidifying effects seem to be not effective during the night. The canopy density and LAI were better for determining the cooling and humidifying effects from 9:00 to 12:00. However, these effects were largely controlled only by the canopy density from 12:00 to 14:00 and were significantly correlated with the canopy density and LAI afterwards until 18:00. PMID:26572013

  19. Emotion regulation in context: the jealousy complex between young siblings and its relations with child and family characteristics.

    PubMed

    Volling, Brenda L; McElwain, Nancy L; Miller, Alison L

    2002-01-01

    Jealousy is a social emotion that has received little attention by developmental researchers. The current study examined sibling jealousy and its relations to child and family characteristics in 60 families with a 16-month-old toddler and an older preschool-age sibling. Sibling jealousy was elicited in social triads consisting of a parent (mother or father) and the two siblings. Positive marital relationship quality (i.e., love and relationship maintenance) was a particularly strong predictor of the older siblings' abilities to regulate jealousy reactions in the mother sessions. Younger siblings' jealous affect with mothers was linked to the child's temperament, whereas older siblings' jealous affect with mothers was related to the child's emotional understanding. Younger siblings displayed more behavioral dysregulation in the mother-sibling triads if there was greater sibling rivalry reported by mothers. Session order (i.e., which sibling was challenged first in the jealousy paradigm) had a strong effect on both the affect and behavioral dysregulation displayed by the older and younger siblings. Results are discussed with respect to the need for future research to consider social relationships as developmental contexts for young children's emotion regulation. PMID:11949910

  20. Functional composition of epifauna in the south-eastern North Sea in relation to habitat characteristics and fishing effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Hermann; Diekmann, Rabea; Kröncke, Ingrid

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of ecosystem functioning is essential to describe the ecological status of ecosystems and is therefore directly requested in international directives. There is a lack of knowledge regarding functional aspects of benthic communities and their environmental and anthropogenic driving forces in the southern North Sea. This study linked functional composition of epibenthic communities to environmental conditions and fishing effort and investigated spatial correlations between habitat characteristics to gain insight into potential synergistic and/or cumulative effects. Functional composition of epifauna was assessed by using biological trait analysis (BTA), which considered 15 ecological traits of 54 species. Functional composition was related to ten predictor variables derived from sediment composition, bottom temperature and salinity, hydrodynamics, annual primary production and fishing effort. Our results revealed significantly different functional composition between the Dogger Bank, the Oyster Ground, the West and North Frisian coast. Mobility, feeding type, size and adult longevity were the most important traits differentiating the communities. A high proportion of trait modalities related to an opportunistic life mode were obvious in coastal areas especially at the West Frisian coast and in the area of the Frisian Front indicating disturbed communities. In contrast, functional composition in the Dogger Bank area indicated undisturbed communities with prevalence of large, long-lived and permanently attached species being sensitive towards disturbance such as fishing. Tidal stress, mud content of sediments, salinity, stratification and fishing effort were found to be the most important habitat characteristics shaping functional composition. Strong correlations were found between variables, especially between those which changed gradually from the coast to offshore areas including fishing effort. Unfavourable extremes of these factors in coastal areas

  1. Relation of systemic and local muscle exercise capacity to skeletal muscle characteristics in men with congestive heart failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massie, B. M.; Simonini, A.; Sahgal, P.; Wells, L.; Dudley, G. A.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The present study was undertaken to further characterize changes in skeletal muscle morphology and histochemistry in congestive heart failure and to determine the relation of these changes to abnormalities of systemic and local muscle exercise capacity. BACKGROUND. Abnormalities of skeletal muscle appear to play a role in the limitation of exercise capacity in congestive heart failure, but information on the changes in muscle morphology and biochemistry and their relation to alterations in muscle function is limited. METHODS. Eighteen men with predominantly mild to moderate congestive heart failure (mean +/- SEM New York Heart Association functional class 2.6 +/- 0.2, ejection fraction 24 +/- 2%) and eight age- and gender-matched sedentary control subjects underwent measurements of peak systemic oxygen consumption (VO2) during cycle ergometry, resistance to fatigue of the quadriceps femoris muscle group and biopsy of the vastus lateralis muscle. RESULTS. Peak VO2 and resistance to fatigue were lower in the patients with heart failure than in control subjects (15.7 +/- 1.2 vs. 25.1 +/- 1.5 ml/min-kg and 63 +/- 2% vs. 85 +/- 3%, respectively, both p < 0.001). Patients had a lower proportion of slow twitch, type I fibers than did control subjects (36 +/- 3% vs. 46 +/- 5%, p = 0.048) and a higher proportion of fast twitch, type IIab fibers (18 +/- 3% vs. 7 +/- 2%, p = 0.004). Fiber cross-sectional area was smaller, and single-fiber succinate dehydrogenase activity, a mitochondrial oxidative marker, was lower in patients (both p < or = 0.034). Likewise, the ratio of average fast twitch to slow twitch fiber cross-sectional area was lower in patients (0.780 +/- 0.06 vs. 1.05 +/- 0.08, p = 0.019). Peak VO2 was strongly related to integrated succinate dehydrogenase activity in patients (r = 0.896, p = 0.001). Peak VO2, resistance to fatigue and strength also correlated significantly with several measures of fiber size, especially of fast twitch fibers, in

  2. Neosho Madtom and Other Ictalurid Populations in Relation to Hydrologic Characteristics of an Impounded Midwestern Warmwater Stream: Update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bryan, Janice L.; Wildhaber, Mark L.; William B. Leeds, William B.; Dey, Rima

    2010-01-01

    The Neosho madtom, Noturus placidus, is a small (less than 75 millimeters in total length) ictalurid that is native to the main stems of the Neosho and Cottonwood Rivers in Kansas and Oklahoma and the Spring River in Kansas and Missouri. The Neosho madtom was federally listed as threatened by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in May 1990. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has been monitoring Neosho madtoms since 1991, and questioned whether or not Neosho madtom densities were affected by other catfish species, reservoirs, and hydrologic characteristics. Using the first 8 years of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service monitoring data, Wildhaber and others (2000) analyzed whether or not Neosho madtom densities were related to these environmental characteristics. The goal of this report is to update these results with data from 1999 to 2008. The trends of Neosho madtom densities in respect to John Redmond Reservoir and other catfish species remains consistent with the previous report. In both the Neosho and Spring Rivers, Neosho madtoms had a significant positive association with all catfish species. Of those species tested, only in the population of Neosho madtoms were significantly different in density above verses below the John Redmond Reservoir after accounting for the yearly variation. The average density of Neosho madtoms at the streamgage immediately below the reservoir had the second lowest density compared to the other streamgages. The positive associations with Neosho madtoms that remained consistent from the previous report included the 1-, 3-, and 7-day minima discharges and the annual minimum discharge from the previous water year (water year prior to when the fish were sampled) and the 1-, 3-, 7-, and 30-day minima discharges from the current water year (same water year fish were sampled).

  3. α1-Adrenoceptors and muscarinic receptors in voiding function – binding characteristics of therapeutic agents in relation to the pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Shizuo; Ito, Yoshihiko; Tsukada, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    In vivo and ex vivo binding of α1-adrenoceptor and muscarinic receptors involved in voiding function is reviewed with therapeutic agents (α1-adrenoceptor antagonists: prazosin, tamsulosin and silodosin; and muscarinic receptor antagonists: oxybutynin, tolterodine, solifenacin, propiverine, imiafenacin and darifenacin) in lower urinary tract symptoms. This approach allows estimation of the inhibition of a well-characterized selective (standard) radioligand by unlabelled potential drugs or direct measurement of the distribution and receptor binding of a standard radioligand or radiolabelled form of a novel drug. In fact, these studies could be conducted in various tissues from animals pretreated with radioligands and/or unlabelled novel drugs, by conventional radioligand binding assay, radioactivity measurement, autoradiography and positron emission tomography. In vivo and ex vivo receptor binding with α1-adrenoceptor antagonists and muscarinic receptor antagonists have been proved to be useful in predicting the potency, organ selectivity and duration of action of drugs in relation to their pharmacokinetics. Such evaluations of drug–receptor binding reveal that adverse effects could be avoided by the use of new α1-adrenoceptor antagonists and muscarinic receptor antagonists for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms. Thus, the comparative analysis of α1-adrenoceptor and muscarinic receptor binding characteristics in the lower urinary tract and other tissues after systemic administration of therapeutic agents allows the rationale for their pharmacological characteristics from the integrated viewpoint of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The current review emphasizes the usefulness of in vivo and ex vivo receptor binding in the discovery and development of novel drugs for the treatment of not only urinary dysfunction but also other disorders. PMID:21265873

  4. An Urban Neo-Poverty Population-Based Quality of Life and Related Social Characteristics Investigation from Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Fengrong; Li, Kai; Gao, Qian; Liu, Dan; Li, Jinghai; Hu, Liwen; Wu, Xian; Edmiston, E. Kale; Liu, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate quality of life (QOL) and related characteristics among an urban neo-poverty population in northeast China, and to compare this population with a traditional poverty cohort. Design The research was a cross-sectional survey executed from June 2005 to October 2007, with a sample of 2940 individuals ages 36 to 55 in three different industrial cities of northeast China. Data were collected on QOL status and sociodemographic characteristics. QOL was assessed using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (Chinese version). Multiple regression analysis was employed to analyze association between sociodemographic variables and QOL. Results The scores for QOL in the neo-poverty group were higher than those in the traditional poverty group, but lower than those in the general population. When the neo-poverty population was divided into two subgroups by age, 36–45 years and 46–55 years, the differences in QOL scores were not significant. However, there were significant differences in several dimensions between two subgroups according to unemployment time (<5 years and >5 years). Additionally, stepwise regression analysis indicated that disease burden, including disease and medical expenditures, was a common risk factor for declining QOL in the neo-poverty group. Conclusions Despite some limitations, this study provides initial evidence that the QOL of the urban neo-poverty population lies between that of the general population and traditional poverty. QOL of the neo-poverty group approached QOL of the traditional poverty group with increased unemployment years. In addition to decreased income, disease burden is the most important factor influencing QOL status in urban neo-poverty. PMID:22719968

  5. Comparative genomic and transcriptomic analysis revealed genetic characteristics related to solvent formation and xylose utilization in Clostridium acetobutylicum EA 2018

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Clostridium acetobutylicum, a gram-positive and spore-forming anaerobe, is a major strain for the fermentative production of acetone, butanol and ethanol. But a previously isolated hyper-butanol producing strain C. acetobutylicum EA 2018 does not produce spores and has greater capability of solvent production, especially for butanol, than the type strain C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Results Complete genome of C. acetobutylicum EA 2018 was sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing. Genomic comparison with ATCC 824 identified many variations which may contribute to the hyper-butanol producing characteristics in the EA 2018 strain, including a total of 46 deletion sites and 26 insertion sites. In addition, transcriptomic profiling of gene expression in EA 2018 relative to that of ATCC824 revealed expression-level changes of several key genes related to solvent formation. For example, spo0A and adhEII have higher expression level, and most of the acid formation related genes have lower expression level in EA 2018. Interestingly, the results also showed that the variation in CEA_G2622 (CAC2613 in ATCC 824), a putative transcriptional regulator involved in xylose utilization, might accelerate utilization of substrate xylose. Conclusions Comparative analysis of C. acetobutylicum hyper-butanol producing strain EA 2018 and type strain ATCC 824 at both genomic and transcriptomic levels, for the first time, provides molecular-level understanding of non-sporulation, higher solvent production and enhanced xylose utilization in the mutant EA 2018. The information could be valuable for further genetic modification of C. acetobutylicum for more effective butanol production. PMID:21284892

  6. Social Cognition in Williams Syndrome: Relations between Performance on the Social Attribution Task and Cognitive and Behavioral Characteristics.

    PubMed

    van der Fluit, Faye; Gaffrey, Michael S; Klein-Tasman, Bonita P

    2012-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a developmental disorder of genetic origin, with characteristic cognitive and personality profiles. Studies of WS point to an outgoing and gregarious personality style, often contrasted with autism spectrum disorders; however, recent research has uncovered underlying social reciprocity difficulties in people with WS. Social information processing difficulties that underlie these social reciprocity difficulties have been sparsely examined. Participants in the current study included 24 children with WS ages 8 through 15. A lab-based measure of social perception and social cognition was administered (Social Attribution Test), as well as an intellectual functioning measure (KBIT-II) and parent reports of communication and reciprocal social skills (Social Communication Questionnaire, Social Responsiveness Scale). Relations between social cognition, cognitive abilities, and social-communication were examined. Results demonstrated relations between parent-reported social reciprocity and the typicality of the responses provided in the lab-based measure, even once variability in intellectual functioning was taken into account. Specifically, those individuals who produced narratives in response to the social attribution task (SAT) that were more similar to those described in previous studies of typically developing individuals were also reported to have fewer social reciprocity difficulties in the real world setting as reported by parents. In addition, a significant improvement in performance on the SAT was seen with added scaffolding, particularly for participants with stronger intellectual functioning. These findings indicate that difficulties interpreting the social dynamics between others in ambiguous situations may contribute to the social relationship difficulties observed in people with WS, above and beyond the role of intellectual functioning. Exploratory analyses indicated that performance by individuals with stronger intellectual

  7. Long Term Empirical Relations between Storm Characteristics and Episodic Groundwater Recharge across Geographic and Land-Use Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashie, A.; Mirus, B. B.; Pavelsky, T.

    2015-12-01

    Shallow aquifers are an important water resource and provide baseflow to streams, yet estimating rates of groundwater recharge is difficult. While climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and magnitude of extreme precipitation events, the resulting impact on recharge remains poorly understood. We quantify empirical relations between precipitation characteristics and episodic groundwater recharge for a wide variety of geographic and land-use types across North Carolina. We extract storm duration, magnitude, average rate, and storm intensity from precipitation records over periods of twelve to thirty-five years at ten locations, for a total of 3,544 individual storm events. Using time-series of water-table fluctuations from nearby monitoring wells, we estimate relative recharge to precipitation ratios (RPR) to identify statistical trends. RPR increases with increased storm duration, whereas RPR decreases with increasing magnitude, average rate, and intensity. Agricultural and urban areas exhibit the greatest decrease in RPR due to increasing storm magnitude, average rate, and intensity, while naturally vegetated areas exhibit a larger increase in RPR with increased storm duration. Though RPR is generally higher during the winter than the summer, this seasonal effect is magnified in the Appalachian and Piedmont regions. These statistical trends provide valuable insights into the likely consequences of climate and land-use change for water resources in humid, subtropical climates in the American southeast. If, as predicted, growing seasons lengthen and the intensity of storms increases with a warming climate, decreased recharge in Appalachia, the Piedmont, and rapidly growing urban areas in the region would further limit groundwater availability.

  8. Social Cognition in Williams Syndrome: Relations between Performance on the Social Attribution Task and Cognitive and Behavioral Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    van der Fluit, Faye; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Klein-Tasman, Bonita P.

    2012-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a developmental disorder of genetic origin, with characteristic cognitive and personality profiles. Studies of WS point to an outgoing and gregarious personality style, often contrasted with autism spectrum disorders; however, recent research has uncovered underlying social reciprocity difficulties in people with WS. Social information processing difficulties that underlie these social reciprocity difficulties have been sparsely examined. Participants in the current study included 24 children with WS ages 8 through 15. A lab-based measure of social perception and social cognition was administered (Social Attribution Test), as well as an intellectual functioning measure (KBIT-II) and parent reports of communication and reciprocal social skills (Social Communication Questionnaire, Social Responsiveness Scale). Relations between social cognition, cognitive abilities, and social-communication were examined. Results demonstrated relations between parent-reported social reciprocity and the typicality of the responses provided in the lab-based measure, even once variability in intellectual functioning was taken into account. Specifically, those individuals who produced narratives in response to the social attribution task (SAT) that were more similar to those described in previous studies of typically developing individuals were also reported to have fewer social reciprocity difficulties in the real world setting as reported by parents. In addition, a significant improvement in performance on the SAT was seen with added scaffolding, particularly for participants with stronger intellectual functioning. These findings indicate that difficulties interpreting the social dynamics between others in ambiguous situations may contribute to the social relationship difficulties observed in people with WS, above and beyond the role of intellectual functioning. Exploratory analyses indicated that performance by individuals with stronger intellectual

  9. Studies on Brassica carinata seed. 2. Carbohydrate molecular structure in relation to carbohydrate chemical profile, energy values, and biodegradation characteristics.

    PubMed

    Xin, Hangshu; Falk, Kevin C; Yu, Peiqiang

    2013-10-23

    The objectives of this study were to investigate (1) the carbohydrate chemical profile, (2) the energy values, (3) the rumen neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradation kinetics, (4) the carbohydrate-related functional group structural features using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic technique with attenuated total reflectance (ATR), and (5) the correlations between carbohydrate intrinsic structural features and nutritional profiles in three strains of Brassica carinata in yellow and brown seed coats, with comparison to canola seed as a reference. The results showed that yellow B. carinata strains 111000EM and AAC A100 were lower for contents of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), and carbohydrate (CHO) and higher for contents of total digestible nutrients (TDN), energy values, and effective degradable NDF (EDNDF) than brown-seeded 110915EM. In comparison, brown canola seed (Brassica napus L.) had more fiber content and less EDNDF. Also, carinata strains showed significantly different IR intensities in structural carbohydrate (SCHO), cellulosic compounds (CELC), and total CHO profiles. These structural variations might be one of the possible reasons for various fiber profile and biodegradation characteristics for ruminants in oilseeds. However, multivariate analyses within carbohydrate regions indicated there were still some structural relationships among the four oilseed samples. Moreover, the correlation study showed that the changes of CELC and CHO peak intensities were highly related with some changes in CHO chemical profile, energy values, and in situ NDF degradation kinetics in B. carinata and canola seeds. Further study with a large sample size is still necessary to figure out whether CHO molecular spectral information could be used to predict nutrient values and biological behavior in oilseeds. PMID:24059242

  10. Drought characteristics and related risks in large and mesoscale tropical catchments in Latin-America and South East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nauditt, Alexandra; Ribbe, Lars; Birkel, Christian; Célleri, Rolando

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal meteorological and hydrological droughts are a recurrent phenomenon in water abundant tropical countries and are expected to become more frequent in the future. Unusual water shortage in the past months and years has severely affected societies living in the Paraiba do Sul river basin (Brazil), the Mekong, as well as in a number of basins in Central America and Vietnam among many others. Preparedness, however, is absent and site appropriate water management measures and strategies are not available. While drought related research and water management in recent years has been widely addressed in water scarce subtropical regions, the US and Europe, not much attention has been paid to drought risk in tropical catchments. Available daily or monthly precipitation and runoff time series for catchments in Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, the Mekong region and Vietnam were analysed to compare historical meteorological and hydrological drought frequency (SPI/SRI). The role of tropical catchment characteristics, storage and climate variability in seasonal drought evolvement was investigated by applying the conceptual semi-distributed HBV light model to two undisturbed catchments in Central Vietnam and 18 catchments of a size of 70-5000 km² in Costa Rica. For the Mekong and the Paraíba de Sul, the hydrological module of the WEAP model was applied to undisturbed subcatchments with the same objective. To understand and separate the anthropogenic impact on drought evolvement, the abstractions (irrigation, reservoirs, water supply) and hydrological alterations were observed and quantified by applying water allocation and balance model WEAP. We conclude that such a combined model-data analysis that equally accounts for landscape related and anthropogenic impacts on the local hydrological cycle is a useful approach for drought management in tropical countries.

  11. Student and high-school characteristics related to completing a science, technology, engineering or mathematics (STEM) major in college

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeBeau, Brandon; Harwell, Michael; Monson, Debra; Dupuis, Danielle; Medhanie, Amanuel; Post, Thomas R.

    2012-04-01

    Background: The importance of increasing the number of US college students completing degrees in science, technology, engineering or mathematics (STEM) has prompted calls for research to provide a better understanding of factors related to student participation in these majors, including the impact of a student's high-school mathematics curriculum. Purpose: This study examines the relationship between various student and high-school characteristics and completion of a STEM major in college. Of specific interest is the influence of a student's high-school mathematics curriculum on the completion of a STEM major in college. Sample: The sample consisted of approximately 3500 students from 229 high schools. Students were predominantly Caucasian (80%), with slightly more males than females (52% vs 48%). Design and method: A quasi-experimental design with archival data was used for students who enrolled in, and graduated from, a post-secondary institution in the upper Midwest. To be included in the sample, students needed to have completed at least three years of high-school mathematics. A generalized linear mixed model was used with students nested within high schools. The data were cross-sectional. Results: High-school predictors were not found to have a significant impact on the completion of a STEM major. Significant student-level predictors included ACT mathematics score, gender and high-school mathematics GPA. Conclusions: The results provide evidence that on average students are equally prepared for the rigorous mathematics coursework regardless of the high-school mathematics curriculum they completed.

  12. Youth victimization in Sweden: prevalence, characteristics and relation to mental health and behavioral problems in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Cater, Asa K; Andershed, Anna-Karin; Andershed, Henrik

    2014-08-01

    The present study examines multiple types of victimization simultaneously, their prevalence and characteristics in childhood and adolescence, and it examines the associations between victimization and poly-victimization on the one hand and single and multiple mental health and behavioral problems on the other. The sample consisted of 2,500 Swedish young adults (20-24 years) who provided detailed report of multiple types of lifetime victimization and current health and behaviors via an interview and a questionnaire. Results showed that it was more common to be victimized in adolescence than in childhood and more common to be victimized repeatedly rather than a single time, among both males and females. Males and females were victimized in noticeably different ways and partially at different places and by different perpetrators. With regard to mental health and behavioral problems, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, self-harm, and criminality were clearly overrepresented among both males and females who had experienced any type of victimization. Poly-victimization was related to single and multiple mental health and behavioral problems among both males and females. We conclude that professionals need to conduct thorough evaluations of victimization when completing mental health assessments among troubled youths, and that youth might benefit from the development of interventions for poly-victimized youth. PMID:24685360

  13. Identifying social characteristics of health-related information seeker: a gender-specific approach for cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo

    2015-01-01

    While health information-seeking behavior as an indicator of health communication of patients including cancer survivors has been researched, few studies have focused on how socioeconomic position and media use combine to influence health-related information seekers. This study examined social characteristics of health information-seeking behavior taking into account an individual's socioeconomic position and their media use in Korea, a developed country. The data for this study came from a survey of 1,010 respondents drawn from a nationally representative sample in the Republic of Korea. We conducted multivariate logistic regression analyses for gender-specific effects. We found that men who reported high household income were one and half times more likely to seek health information than those with low income status. We also found that women who performed Internet searches by computer at home were almost two times more likely to seek health information than those who did not. Similar results were found for men as well. Our analyses revealed that socioeconomic position and media use are associated with health information-seeking behavior by gender. Studies on information seekers may bring us more effective health promotion and relevant intervention for people with chronic conditions including cancer survivors. PMID:25773838

  14. [Spatiotemporal variation characteristics and related affecting factors of actual evapotranspiration in the Hun-Taizi River Basin, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Feng, Xue; Cai, Yan-Cong; Guan, De-Xin; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wang, An-Zhi; Wu, Jia-Bing; Yuan, Feng-Hui

    2014-10-01

    Based on the meteorological and hydrological data from 1970 to 2006, the advection-aridity (AA) model with calibrated parameters was used to calculate evapotranspiration in the Hun-Taizi River Basin in Northeast China. The original parameter of the AA model was tuned according to the water balance method and then four subbasins were selected to validate. Spatiotemporal variation characteristics of evapotranspiration and related affecting factors were analyzed using the methods of linear trend analysis, moving average, kriging interpolation and sensitivity analysis. The results showed that the empirical parameter value of 0.75 of AA model was suitable for the Hun-Taizi River Basin with an error of 11.4%. In the Hun-Taizi River Basin, the average annual actual evapotranspiration was 347.4 mm, which had a slightly upward trend with a rate of 1.58 mm · (10 a(-1)), but did not change significantly. It also indicated that the annual actual evapotranspiration presented a single-peaked pattern and its peak value occurred in July; the evapotranspiration in summer was higher than in spring and autumn, and it was the smallest in winter. The annual average evapotranspiration showed a decreasing trend from the northwest to the southeast in the Hun-Taizi River Basin from 1970 to 2006 with minor differences. Net radiation was largely responsible for the change of actual evapotranspiration in the Hun-Taizi River Basin. PMID:25796880

  15. Relative biological effectiveness enhancement of a 125I brachytherapy seed with characteristic x rays from its constitutive materials.

    PubMed

    Taschereau, Richard; Roy, René; Pouliot, Jean

    2002-07-01

    The isotopes used for permanent prostate implants, 125I and 103Pd, provide about equivalent tumor control. The purpose of this study is to investigate how characteristic x rays may be used to raise the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of an iodine seed at short distances to increase the differential effect between tumor and healthy tissue. Within the theoretical framework of microdosimetry, the GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit has been used to calculate the RBE of experimental seed designs in which shell and core dimensions and composition were varied independently. A new seed model was also simulated based on the best results obtained. The RBE could be enhanced by increasing the shell thickness and for the range considered, optimum results were obtained by using gradually lower atomic number elements. For a practical 50-60 microm shell, molybdenum is the material of choice. The core diameter has little influence on RBE, but maximum effectiveness is obtained with yttrium or zirconium. These results were put together to design a Mo-shell and Y-core seed for which the RBE enhancement was at least 5-7% (close to the source), which is higher than palladium. This enhanced RBE combined with the longer half-life of iodine could mean comparable tumor control and better protection to organs at risk than with current seeds. The RBE dependence on distance is an interesting feature that could benefit other applications such as ocular melanoma or coronary brachytherapy where a highly localized dose distribution is desired. PMID:12148718

  16. Psychological characteristics of people with spinal cord injury-related persisting pain referred to a tertiary pain management center.

    PubMed

    Nicholson Perry, Kathryn; Nicholas, Michael K; Middleton, James; Siddall, Philip

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the psychological characteristics of a cohort of individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) and persisting pain referred to a tertiary pain management center. Forty-five individuals completed measures of pain, mood, disability, and both pain- and SCI-related psychological variables such as self-efficacy and catastrophizing. Compared with a general pain clinic population attending the same tertiary pain management center (n = 5,941), the sample was found to have lower pain intensity, comparable pain catastrophizing levels, and less activity interference due to pain. In contrast, those with SCI pain reported poorer mood. Pain catastrophizing was associated with anxiety, depression, and activity interference due to pain; pain self-efficacy was close to being significantly associated with these variables also. SCI acceptance and self-efficacy were also associated with some of these variables. These findings suggest that the biopsychosocial model of pain is applicable in this sample and that further treatment benefits could be obtained through use of interventions targeting psychological and social variables within this model. PMID:19533520

  17. Age related differences of selected Hatha yoga practices on anthropometric characteristics, muscular strength and flexibility of healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Kaushik; Chatterjee, Abhirup; Pal, Rameshwar; Tomer, Omveer S; Saha, Mantu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physiological benefits of yoga on volunteers of a particular age group are available. However, reports on efficacy of a specific yoga package on the populace of different age groups from similar occupational background is still very limited. Therefore, the present study was conducted to appraise the effect of a specific Hatha yoga package on anthropometric characteristics, flexibility and muscular strength of healthy individuals of different age groups from similar occupational trade. Materials and Methods: A total of 71 participants (Group All) from Indian Air Force ground personnel volunteered and age wise divided into 3 groups - (i) Group I (Gr. - I) (n1 = 27, 20-29 years), (ii) Group II (Gr. - II) (n2 = 21, 30-39 years) and (iii) Group III (Gr. - III) (n3 = 23, 40-49 years). All the participants undergone selected Hatha yoga training for 1 h daily for a period of 12 weeks. Parameters were recorded before and after the training. Pre and post training differences were assessed by Student's t-test. Results: Body weight (All, Gr. - II and Gr. - III [all P < 0.05]), body mass index (Gr. - II and Gr. - III [both P < 0.01]) and fat% (Gr. - II and III [both P < 0.05]) were decreased significantly. Neck circumference was increased significantly in Gr. - I (P < 0.05) but decreased significantly in Gr. - III (P < 0.05). Chest circumference (All (P < 0.001), in Gr. - I and II [both P < 0.05]), grip strength (All [left: P < 0.01 and right: P < 0.05], in Gr. - I [left: P < 0.05 and right: P < 0.01], in Gr. - II [right: P < 0.05] and in Gr. - III [left: P < 0.05 and right: P < 0.01]), back leg strength (group wise P < 0.001, P < 0.05, P < 0.01 and P < 0.05 respectively) and flexibility (all P < 0.001) were increased significantly. Summary and Conclusion: Hatha yoga can improve anthropometric characteristics, muscular strength and flexibility among volunteers of different age group and can also be helpful in preventing and attenuating age related deterioration of

  18. Protective Equipment and Player Characteristics Associated With the Incidence of Sport-Related Concussion in High School Football Players

    PubMed Central

    McGuine, Timothy A.; Hetzel, Scott; McCrea, Michael; Brooks, M. Alison

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of sport-related concussion (SRC) in high school football is well documented. However, limited prospective data are available regarding how player characteristics and protective equipment affect the incidence of SRC. Purpose To determine whether the type of protective equipment (helmet and mouth guard) and player characteristics affect the incidence of SRC in high school football players. Design Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods Certified athletic trainers (ATs) at each high school recorded the type of helmet worn (brand, model, purchase year, and recondition status) by each player as well as information regarding players’ demographics, type of mouth guard used, and history of SRC. The ATs also recorded the incidence and days lost from participation for each SRC. Incidence of SRC was compared for various helmets, type of mouth guard, history of SRC, and player demographics. Results A total of 2081 players (grades 9–12) enrolled during the 2012 and/or 2013 football seasons (2287 player-seasons) and participated in 134,437 football (practice or competition) exposures. Of these players, 206 (9%) sustained a total of 211 SRCs (1.56/1000 exposures). There was no difference in the incidence of SRC (number of helmets, % SRC [95% CI]) for players wearing Riddell (1171, 9.1% [7.6%–11.0%]), Schutt (680, 8.7% [6.7%–11.1%]), or Xenith (436, 9.2% [6.7%–12.4%]) helmets. Helmet age and recondition status did not affect the incidence of SRC. The rate of SRC (hazard ratio [HR]) was higher in players who wore a custom mouth guard (HR = 1.69 [95% CI, 1.20–2.37], P <.001) than in players who wore a generic mouth guard. The rate of SRC was also higher (HR = 1.96 [95% CI, 1.40–2.73], P <.001) in players who had sustained an SRC within the previous 12 months (15.1% of the 259 players [95% CI, 11.0%–20.1%]) than in players without a previous SRC (8.2% of the 2028 players [95% CI, 7.1%–9.5%]). Conclusion Incidence of SRC was similar

  19. Innovation and the "Dark Side" of Personality: Dysfunctional Traits and Their Relation to Self-Reported Innovative Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zibarras, Lara D.; Port, Rebecca L.; Woods, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between self-reported innovative characteristics and dysfunctional personality traits. Participants (N = 207) from a range of occupations completed the Innovation Potential Indicator (IPI) and the Hogan Development Survey (HDS). Those who reported innovative characteristics also reported the following…

  20. Characteristics Expected in Fields of Higher Education and Gender Stereotypical Traits Related to Academic Success: A Mirror Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verniers, Catherine; Martinot, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test whether the content of a gender stereotype concerning general academic achievement matched the characteristics deemed to predict success in the fields of higher education dominated by women and men respectively. A sample of 207 undergraduate students rated the extent to which characteristics ascribed to…

  1. Small-scale genetic structure in a marine population in relation to water circulation and egg characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Knutsen, Halvor; Olsen, Esben M; Espeland, Sigurd H; Asplin, Lars; Jelmert, Anders; Knutsen, Jan Atle; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2010-10-01

    Until the last decade it was assumed that most marine species have pronounced gene flow over vast areas, largely because of their potential for dispersal during early life stages. However, recent genetic, modeling, and field studies have shown that marine populations may be structured at scales that are inconsistent with extensive dispersal of eggs and larvae. Such findings have stimulated the birth of new studies explaining the mechanisms that promote population structure and isolation in the oceans, in the face of high potential for dispersal. Here we study the vertical and horizontal distribution of cod (Gadus morhua) eggs in relation to small-scale circulation and water column hydrography in a coastal location of southern Norway. Previous studies conducted in this region have shown that cod populations inhabiting fjord locations, which are on average 30 km apart, are genetically differentiated, a remarkable outcome considering that Atlantic cod have pelagic egg stages and long pelagic larval duration. We document that cod eggs are found in greater abundance in shallow water layers, which on average are flowing up the fjord (away from the open ocean), and in the inner portion of the fjord, which is subject to lower current speeds compared to the outer or mouth of the fjord. Eggs were found to be neutrally buoyant at shallow depths, a trait that also favors local retention, given the local circulation. The same patterns held during two environmentally contrasting years. These results strongly suggest that population structure of Atlantic cod is favored and maintained by a balance between water circulation and egg characteristics. PMID:21058552

  2. Human motion characteristics in relation to feeling familiar or frightened during an announced short interaction with a proactive humanoid.

    PubMed

    Baddoura, Ritta; Venture, Gentiane

    2014-01-01

    During an unannounced encounter between two humans and a proactive humanoid (NAO, Aldebaran Robotics), we study the dependencies between the human partners' affective experience (measured via the answers to a questionnaire) particularly regarding feeling familiar and feeling frightened, and their arm and head motion [frequency and smoothness using Inertial Measurement Units (IMU)]. NAO starts and ends its interaction with its partners by non-verbally greeting them hello (bowing) and goodbye (moving its arm). The robot is invested with a real and useful task to perform: handing each participant an envelope containing a questionnaire they need to answer. NAO's behavior varies from one partner to the other (Smooth with X vs. Resisting with Y). The results show high positive correlations between feeling familiar while interacting with the robot and: the frequency and smoothness of the human arm movement when waving back goodbye, as well as the smoothness of the head during the whole encounter. Results also show a negative dependency between feeling frightened and the frequency of the human arm movement when waving back goodbye. The principal component analysis (PCA) suggests that, in regards to the various motion measures examined in this paper, the head smoothness and the goodbye gesture frequency are the most reliable measures when it comes to considering the familiar experienced by the participants. The PCA also points out the irrelevance of the goodbye motion frequency when investigating the participants' experience of fear in its relation to their motion characteristics. The results are discussed in light of the major findings of studies on body movements and postures accompanying specific emotions. PMID:24688466

  3. Human motion characteristics in relation to feeling familiar or frightened during an announced short interaction with a proactive humanoid

    PubMed Central

    Baddoura, Ritta; Venture, Gentiane

    2014-01-01

    During an unannounced encounter between two humans and a proactive humanoid (NAO, Aldebaran Robotics), we study the dependencies between the human partners' affective experience (measured via the answers to a questionnaire) particularly regarding feeling familiar and feeling frightened, and their arm and head motion [frequency and smoothness using Inertial Measurement Units (IMU)]. NAO starts and ends its interaction with its partners by non-verbally greeting them hello (bowing) and goodbye (moving its arm). The robot is invested with a real and useful task to perform: handing each participant an envelope containing a questionnaire they need to answer. NAO's behavior varies from one partner to the other (Smooth with X vs. Resisting with Y). The results show high positive correlations between feeling familiar while interacting with the robot and: the frequency and smoothness of the human arm movement when waving back goodbye, as well as the smoothness of the head during the whole encounter. Results also show a negative dependency between feeling frightened and the frequency of the human arm movement when waving back goodbye. The principal component analysis (PCA) suggests that, in regards to the various motion measures examined in this paper, the head smoothness and the goodbye gesture frequency are the most reliable measures when it comes to considering the familiar experienced by the participants. The PCA also points out the irrelevance of the goodbye motion frequency when investigating the participants' experience of fear in its relation to their motion characteristics. The results are discussed in light of the major findings of studies on body movements and postures accompanying specific emotions. PMID:24688466

  4. CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS, OUTCOMES AND RISK FACTORS FOR DEATH AMONG CRITICALLY ILL PATIENTS WITH HIV-RELATED ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY

    PubMed Central

    LUNA, Leonardo Duarte Sobreira; SOARES, Douglas de Sousa; JUNIOR, Geraldo Bezerra da SILVA; CAVALCANTE, Malena Gadelha; MALVEIRA, Lara Raissa Cavalcante; MENESES, Gdayllon Cavalcante; PEREIRA, Eanes Delgado Barros; DAHER, Elizabeth De Francesco

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Background: The aim of this study is to describe clinical characteristics, outcomes and risk factors for death among patients with HIV-related acute kidney injury (AKI) admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: A retrospective study was conducted with HIV-infected AKI patients admitted to the ICU of an infectious diseases hospital in Fortaleza, Brazil. All the patients with confirmed diagnosis of HIV and AKI admitted from January 2004 to December 2011 were included. A comparison between survivors and non-survivors was performed. Risk factors for death were investigated. Results: Among 256 AKI patients admitted to the ICU in the study period, 73 were identified as HIV-infected, with a predominance of male patients (83.6%), and the mean age was 41.2 ± 10.4 years. Non-survivor patients presented higher APACHE II scores (61.4 ± 19 vs. 38.6 ± 18, p = 0.004), used more vasoconstrictors (70.9 vs. 37.5%, p = 0.02) and needed more mechanical ventilation - MV (81.1 vs. 35.3%, p = 0.001). There were 55 deaths (75.3%), most of them (53.4%) due to septic shock. Independent risk factors for mortality were septic shock (OR = 14.2, 95% CI = 2.0-96.9, p = 0.007) and respiratory insufficiency with need of MV (OR = 27.6, 95% CI = 5.0-153.0, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Non-survivor HIV-infected patients with AKI admitted to the ICU presented higher severity APACHE II scores, more respiratory damage and hemodynamic impairment than survivors. Septic shock and respiratory insufficiency were independently associated to death. PMID:27410912

  5. Rankings of iron, vitamin D, and calcium intakes in relation to maternal characteristics of pregnant Canadian women.

    PubMed

    Morisset, Anne-Sophie; Weiler, Hope A; Dubois, Lise; Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Shapiro, Gabriel D; Dodds, Linda; Massarelli, Isabelle; Vigneault, Michel; Arbuckle, Tye E; Fraser, William D

    2016-07-01

    Iron, vitamin D, and calcium intakes in the prenatal period are important determinants of maternal and fetal health. The objective of this study was to examine iron, vitamin D, and calcium intakes from diet and supplements in relation to maternal characteristics. Data were collected in a subsample of 1186 pregnant women from the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, a cohort study including pregnant women recruited from 10 Canadian sites between 2008 and 2011. A food frequency questionnaire was administered to obtain rankings of iron, calcium, and vitamin D intake (16-21 weeks of pregnancy). Intakes from supplements were obtained from a separate questionnaire (6-13 weeks of pregnancy). Women were divided into 2 groups according to the median total intake of each nutrient. Supplement intake was an important contributor to total iron intake (median 74%, interquartile range (IQR) 0%-81%) and total vitamin D intake (median 60%, IQR 0%-73%), while the opposite was observed for calcium (median 18%, IQR 0%-27%). Being born outside of Canada was significantly associated with lower total intakes of iron, vitamin D, and calcium (p ≤ 0.01 for all). Consistent positive indicators of supplement use (iron, vitamin D, and calcium) were maternal age over 30 years and holding a university degree. In conclusion, among Canadian women, the probability of having lower iron, vitamin D, and calcium intakes is higher among those born outside Canada; supplement intake is a major contributor to total iron and vitamin D intakes; and higher education level and age over 30 years are associated with supplement intake. PMID:27324651

  6. Pathways between temporomandibular disorders, occlusal characteristics, facial pain, and oral health-related quality of life among patients with severe malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Rusanen, Jaana; Silvola, Anna-Sofia; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Pirttiniemi, Pertti; Lahti, Satu; Sipilä, Kirsi

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the pathways between temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), occlusal characteristics, facial pain, and oral health-related quality of life in patients with severe malocclusion. The study comprised 94 (34 men and 60 women, mean age 38 years) adult patients who were referred for orthodontic or surgical-orthodontic treatment. All the patients had severe malocclusion. Oral health-related quality of life was measured with the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 scale (OHIP-14), the intensity of facial pain using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), TMD with Helkimo's clinical dysfunction index (Di), and occlusal characteristics with the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR). A hypothetical model of the interrelationships between these factors was constructed based on the conceptual model of biological, behavioural, and psychosocial consequences of oral diseases. The associations were studied with path analysis. Women reported poorer oral health-related quality of life, higher pain levels, and had more severe TMD than men, but the gender difference was statistically significant only in pain and TMD. In contrast to the hypothetical model, among women the occlusal characteristics were not directly associated with oral health-related quality of life or facial pain. Among men, the occlusal characteristics were directly associated with oral health-related quality of life. In conclusion, patients with severe malocclusion who also have TMD and facial pain more often have impaired oral health-related quality of life. The associations of the occlusal characteristics with oral health-related quality of life differ between genders. Therefore, these associations should be studied separately among genders. PMID:21795754

  7. Effect of alpha-tocopherol supplementation during boar semen cryopreservation on sperm characteristics and expression of apoptosis related genes.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yeon-Ji; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Song, Hye-Jin; Kang, Eun-Ju; Ock, Sun-A; Kumar, B Mohana; Balasubramanian, S; Rho, Gyu-Jin

    2009-04-01

    Boar semen is extremely vulnerable to cold shock and sensitive to peroxidative damage due to high content of unsaturated fatty acids in the phospholipids of the plasma membrane and the relatively low antioxidant capacity of seminal plasma. The present study evaluated the influence of alpha-tocopherol supplementation at various concentrations in the boar semen extender during cryopreservation on post-thawed sperm motility characteristics (total sperm motility, MOT; local motility, LCM; curvilinear velocity, VCL; straight linear velocity, VSL; and average path velocity, VAP), sperm qualities (viability, acrosomal integrity and apoptosis), expression of stress protein (HSP70), and the expression of pro-apoptotic (Bax and Bak) and anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2l and Bcl-xl) genes. Semen collected from 10 Duroc boars was cryopreserved in lactose-egg yolk buffer supplemented with various concentrations of alpha-tocopherol (0, 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 microM) using the straw-freezing procedure and stored at -196 degrees C for a minimum period of one month. In frozen-thawed groups, sperm motility was significantly (P<0.05) lower than that of fresh sperm. In fresh sperm, HSP70 immunoreactivity expression was observed in the equatorial region, but in frozen-thawed groups, expressions were mostly observed in the sperm head. Higher apoptosis rates were observed in 600 and 800 microM alpha-tocopherol supplemented frozen-thawed groups. In alpha-tocopherol supplemented frozen-thawed groups immediately after thawing, the expression was similar to that of fresh group. But after incubation at 37 degrees C for 3h, the expression in 200 and 800 microM alpha-tocopherol supplemented groups was higher than that of others. Expression of pro-apoptotic genes was significantly higher and anti-apoptotic genes was significantly (P<0.01) lower in alpha-tocopherol supplemented frozen-thawed groups compared to fresh sperm group. In conclusion, alpha-tocopherol, supplemented at 200 microM concentration

  8. Physician, Practice, and Patient Characteristics Related to Primary Care Physician Physical and Mental Health: Results from the Physician Worklife Study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Eric S; Konrad, Thomas R; Linzer, Mark; McMurray, Julia; Pathman, Donald E; Gerrity, Martha; Schwartz, Mark D; Scheckler, William E; Douglas, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study the impact that physician, practice, and patient characteristics have on physician stress, satisfaction, mental, and physical health. Data Sources Based on a survey of over 5,000 physicians nationwide. Four waves of surveys resulted in 2,325 complete responses. Elimination of ineligibles yielded a 52 percent response rate; 1,411 responses from primary care physicians were used. Study Design A conceptual model was tested by structural equation modeling. Physician job satisfaction and stress mediated the relationship between physician, practice, and patient characteristics as independent variables and physician physical and mental health as dependent variables. Principle Findings The conceptual model was generally supported. Practice and, to a lesser extent, physician characteristics influenced job satisfaction, whereas only practice characteristics influenced job stress. Patient characteristics exerted little influence. Job stress powerfully influenced job satisfaction and physical and mental health among physicians. Conclusions These findings support the notion that workplace conditions are a major determinant of physician well-being. Poor practice conditions can result in poor outcomes, which can erode quality of care and prove costly to the physician and health care organization. Fortunately, these conditions are manageable. Organizational settings that are both “physician friendly” and “family friendly” seem to result in greater well-being. These findings are particularly important as physicians are more tightly integrated into the health care system that may be less clearly under their exclusive control.

  9. Analysis on Soil Seed Bank Diversity Characteristics and Its Relation with Soil Physical and Chemical Properties after Substrate Addition

    PubMed Central

    He, Mengxuan; Lv, Lingyue; Li, Hongyuan; Meng, Weiqing; Zhao, Na

    2016-01-01

    Aims Considered as an essential measure in the application of soil seed bank (SSB) projects, the mixing of substrate and surface soil can effectively improve soil condition. This research is aimed at exploring the diversity characteristics of SSBs and the relationships between SSBs and soil properties. Methods Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was adopted to describe the ordination of SSBs on soil properties’ gradients; multiple linear regressions were adopted to analyze the relationship between average growth height and soil properties, density and soil properties. Results Experimental groups of mixed substrate (the mixture of organic and inorganic substrates) had high diversity indexes, especially the Shannon-Wiener Index compared with those of single substrate. Meanwhile, a higher number of species and increased density were also noted in those of mixed substrate. The best test group, No.16, had the highest diversity indexes with a Shannon-Wiener of 1.898, Simpson of 0.633 and Pielou of 0.717, and also showed the highest density of 14000 germinants /m2 and 21 species. In addition, an improvement of the soil’s chemical and physical properties was noted when the substrates were mixed. The mixed substrate of turfy soil and perlite could effectively enhance the soil moisture content, whilst a mixed substrate of rice husk carbon and vermiculite could improve the content of available potassium (AK) and phosphorus (AP) and strengthen soil fertility. The germinated plants also reflected obvious regularities of ordination on soil factor gradients. Three distinct cluster groups were presented, of which the first cluster was distributed in an area with a relatively higher content of AK and AP; the second cluster was distributed at places with relatively higher soil moisture content; and the third cluster of plants didn’t show any obvious relationship with soil physical and chemical properties. Through CCA analysis, AK and AP were considered the most important

  10. Evaluation of bacteriophage supplementation on growth performance, blood characteristics, relative organ weight, breast muscle characteristics and excreta microbial shedding in broilers.

    PubMed

    Wang, J P; Yan, L; Lee, J H; Kim, I H

    2013-04-01

    A total of 720 1-d-old male broilers (Arbor Acres) with the initial BW = 45±2 g were used in a 32-d experiment. Birds were randomly allotted into 1 of 4 treatments according to a completely random block design. Dietary treatments included: i) CON (basal diet), ii) ANT (CON+0.5 g antibiotics/kg feed (bacitracin methylene disalicylate)), iii) BP1 (CON+0.25 bacteriophage/kg feed), and iv) BP2 (CON+0.5 g bacteriophage/kg feed). The BWG and FI were not affected by dietary treatments throughout the whole experiment, whereas BP2 treatment reduced (p<0.05) the feed conversion ratio compared with the CON treatment during 0 to 14 d. The birds fed bacteriophages at the level of 0.25 g/kg increased (p<0.05) the relative liver weight. The inclusion of antibiotic and bacteriophage significantly reduced (p<0.05) the Escherichia coli and Salmonella concentration in the excreta compared with the NC group. Broilers fed the BP2 treatment had higher (p<0.05) lactobacillus counts compared with those fed NC and PC treatments. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of 0.5 g/kg bacteriophages increased feed efficiency and liver weight without effects on the breast muscle properties; also pathogens were inhibited by addition of bacteriophages. PMID:25049825

  11. Speech Characteristics of Patients with Pallido-Ponto-Nigral Degeneration and Their Application to Presymptomatic Detection in At-Risk Relatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liss, Julie M.; Krein-Jones, Kari; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.; Caviness, John N.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This report describes the speech characteristics of individuals with a neurodegenerative syndrome called pallido-ponto-nigral degeneration (PPND) and examines the speech samples of at-risk, but asymptomatic, relatives for possible preclinical detection. Method: Speech samples of 9 members of a PPND kindred were subjected to perceptual…

  12. Program and Student Characteristics Related to the Performance of New York State Associate Degree Graduates on the Registered Nurse Licensing Examination. Research Publication No. 75-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muncrief, Martha

    Characteristics of Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) programs in New York State which relate to the achievement of their graduates on the State Board Test Pool Examination (SBTPE) were identified. A questionnaire was designed and mailed to all two-year colleges in the states offering the ADN. A total of 32 questionnaires were returned (91 percent).…

  13. Practice Characteristics of Graduates of East Tennessee State University Quillen College of Medicine: Factors Related to Career Choices in Primary Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Click, Ivy A.

    2013-01-01

    The nation is facing a physician shortage, specifically in relation to primary care and in rural underserved areas. The most basic function of a medical school is to educate physicians to care for the national population. The purpose of this study was to examine the physician practicing characteristics of the graduates of East Tennessee State…

  14. The Relation between Candidate Teachers' Moral Maturity Levels and Their Individual Innovativeness Characteristics: A Case Study of Harran University Education Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adiguzel, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine the relation between the moral maturity levels of candidate teachers and their individual innovativeness characteristics. The population of the study consisted of undergraduate students who were registered at Harran University Faculty of Education in the 2011 to 2012 academic year. Data were…

  15. Effects of Student Characteristics, Principal Qualifications, and Organizational Constraints for Assessing Student Achievement: A School Public Relations and Human Resources Concern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, I. Phillip; Vang, Maiyoua; Young, Karen Holsey

    2008-01-01

    Standards-based student achievement scores are used to assess the effectiveness of public education and to have important implications regarding school public relations and human resource practices. Often overlooked is that these scores may be moderated by the characteristics of students, the qualifications of principals, and the restraints…

  16. Influencing Work-Related Learning: The Role of Job Characteristics and Self-Directed Learning Orientation in Part-Time Vocational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gijbels, David; Raemdonck, Isabel; Vervecken, Dries

    2010-01-01

    Based on the Demand-Control-Support (DCS) model, the present paper aims to investigate the influence of job characteristics such as job demands, job control, social support at work and self-directed learning orientation on the work-related learning behaviour of workers. The present study was conducted in a centre for part-time vocational education…

  17. Doctoral Student Persistence in Non-Traditional Cohort Programs: Examining Educationally-Related Peer Relationships, Students' Understanding of Faculty Expectations, and Student Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of educationally-related peer relationships, students' understanding of faculty expectations, and student characteristics on the persistence of doctoral students in non-traditional, residential, cohort programs in educational leadership. Drawing on the concepts of academic and social…

  18. "Old Dogs" and New Skills: How Clinician Characteristics Relate to Motivational Interviewing Skills before, during, and after Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Kenneth M.; Cheng, Wendy Y.; Smith, Jennifer L.; Brooks, Adam C.; Amrhein, Paul C.; Wain, R. Morgan; Nunes, Edward V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The relationships between the occupational, educational, and verbal-cognitive characteristics of health care professionals and their motivational interviewing (MI) skills before, during, and after training were investigated. Method: Fifty-eight community-based addiction clinicians (M = 42.1 years, SD = 10.0; 66% Female) were assessed…

  19. Did I Tell You That? Ethical Issues Related to Using Computational Methods to Discover Non-Disclosed Patient Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Cato, Kenrick D; Bockting, Walter; Larson, Elaine

    2016-07-01

    Widespread availability of electronic health records coupled with sophisticated statistical methods offer great potential for a variety of applications for health and disease surveillance, developing predictive models and advancing decision support for clinicians. However, use of "big data" mining and discovery techniques has also raised ethical issues such as how to balance privacy and autonomy with the wider public benefits of data sharing. Furthermore, electronic data are being increasingly used to identify individual characteristics, which can be useful for clinical prediction and management, but were not previously disclosed to a clinician. This process in computer parlance is called electronic phenotyping, and has a number of ethical implications. Using the Belmont Report's principles of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice as a framework, we examined the ethical issues posed by electronic phenotyping. Ethical issues identified include the ability of the patient to consent for the use of their information, the ability to suppress pediatric information, ensuring that the potential benefits justify the risks of harm to patients, and acknowledging that the clinician's biases or stereotypes, conscious or unintended, may become a factor in the therapeutic interaction. We illustrate these issues with two vignettes, using the person characteristic of gender minority status (i.e., transgender identity) and health history characteristic of substance abuse. Data mining has the potential to uncover patient characteristics previously obscured, which can provide clinicians with beneficial clinical information. Hence, ethical guidelines must be updated to ensure that electronic phenotyping supports the principles of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice. PMID:27534587

  20. Application of Taguchi technique coupled with grey relational analysis for multiple performance characteristics optimization of EDM parameters on ST 42 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prayogo, Galang Sandy; Lusi, Nuraini

    2016-04-01

    The optimization technique of machining parameters considering multiple performance characteristics of non conventional machining EDM process using Taguchi method combined with grey relational analysis (GRA) is presented in this study. ST 42 steel was chosen as material work piece and graphite as electrode during this experiment. Performance characteristics such as material removal rate and overcut are selected to evaluated the effect of machining parameters. Current, pulse on time, pulse off time and discharging time/ Z down were selected as machining parameters. The experiments was conducted by varying that machining parameters in three different levels. Based on the Taguchi quality design concept, a L27 orthogonal array table was chosen for the experiments. By using the combination of GRA and Taguchi, the optimization of complicated multiple performance characteristics was transformed into the optimization of a single response performance index. Optimal levels of machining parameters were identified by using Grey Relational Analysis method. The statistical application of analysis of variance was used to determine the relatively significant machining parameters. The result of confirmation test indicted that the determined optimal combination of machining parameters effectively improve the performance characteristics of the machining EDM process on ST 42 steel.

  1. Characteristics of “Abstracts of Science and Technology in Japan, Agro-Industries” and Related Agricultural Papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, Shukuko; Sasaki, Toshio

    Japan Agricultural Library Council has cooperated with JICST in making abstracts of “Abstracts of Science and Technology in Japan, Agro-Industries” published by JICST over these five years. Taking this opportunity of starting computerized edition of the Title and changing the coverage the author and others reviewed the abstracting work so far. The outline of the Title is first described. Then the number of journals and citations covered in it by subject are compared with those of Japan Agriculture Literature Article Index of which main users are agricultural scientists and researchers and which is used as reference tool of selecting papers to be included in English titles. The characteristics and points to be improved are explained. Characteristics of agriculture literature, which are seen through making English abstracts are also described.

  2. Chemical transformations of characteristic hop secondary metabolites in relation to beer properties and the brewing process: a review.

    PubMed

    Steenackers, Bart; De Cooman, Luc; De Vos, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    The annual production of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) exceeds 100,000 mt and is almost exclusively consumed by the brewing industry. The value of hops is attributed to their characteristic secondary metabolites; these metabolites are precursors which are transformed during the brewing process into important bittering, aromatising and preservative components with rather low efficiency. By selectively transforming these components off-line, both their utilisation efficiency and functionality can be significantly improved. Therefore, the chemical transformations of these secondary metabolites will be considered with special attention to recent advances in the field. The considered components are the hop alpha-acids, hop beta-acids and xanthohumol, which are components unique to hops, and alpha-humulene and beta-caryophyllene, sesquiterpenes which are highly characteristic of hops. PMID:25442616

  3. Age-related changes in sleep spindles characteristics during daytime recovery following a 25-hour sleep deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Rosinvil, T.; Lafortune, M.; Sekerovic, Z.; Bouchard, M.; Dubé, J.; Latulipe-Loiselle, A.; Martin, N.; Lina, J. M.; Carrier, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The mechanisms underlying sleep spindles (~11–15 Hz; >0.5 s) help to protect sleep. With age, it becomes increasingly difficult to maintain sleep at a challenging time (e.g., daytime), even after sleep loss. This study compared spindle characteristics during daytime recovery and nocturnal sleep in young and middle-aged adults. In addition, we explored whether spindles characteristics in baseline nocturnal sleep were associated with the ability to maintain sleep during daytime recovery periods in both age groups. Methods: Twenty-nine young (15 women and 14 men; 27.3 y ± 5.0) and 31 middle-aged (19 women and 13 men; 51.6 y ± 5.1) healthy subjects participated in a baseline nocturnal sleep and a daytime recovery sleep after 25 hours of sleep deprivation. Spindles were detected on artifact-free Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep epochs. Spindle density (nb/min), amplitude (μV), frequency (Hz), and duration (s) were analyzed on parasagittal (linked-ears) derivations. Results: In young subjects, spindle frequency increased during daytime recovery sleep as compared to baseline nocturnal sleep in all derivations, whereas middle-aged subjects showed spindle frequency enhancement only in the prefrontal derivation. No other significant interaction between age group and sleep condition was observed. Spindle density for all derivations and centro-occipital spindle amplitude decreased whereas prefrontal spindle amplitude increased from baseline to daytime recovery sleep in both age groups. Finally, no significant correlation was found between spindle characteristics during baseline nocturnal sleep and the marked reduction in sleep efficiency during daytime recovery sleep in both young and middle-aged subjects. Conclusion: These results suggest that the interaction between homeostatic and circadian pressure modulates spindle frequency differently in aging. Spindle characteristics do not seem to be linked with the ability to maintain daytime recovery sleep. PMID

  4. Relating landscape characteristics to non-point source pollution in mine waste-located watersheds using geospatial techniques.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Huaguo; Ji, Wei

    2007-01-01

    Landscape characteristics of a watershed are important variables that influence surface water quality. Understanding the relationship between these variables and surface water quality is critical in predicting pollution potential and developing watershed management practices to eliminate or reduce pollution risk. To understand the impacts of landscape characteristics on water quality in mine waste-located watersheds, we conducted a case study in the Tri-State Mining District which is located in the conjunction of three states (Missouri, Kansas and Oklahoma). Severe heavy metal pollution exists in that area resulting from historical mining activities. We characterized land use/land cover over the last three decades by classifying historical multi-temporal Landsat imagery. Landscape metrics such as proportion, edge density and contagion were calculated based on the classified imagery. In-stream water quality data over three decades were collected, including lead, zinc, iron, cadmium, aluminum and conductivity which were used as key water quality indicators. Statistical analyses were performed to quantify the relationship between landscape metrics and surface water quality. Results showed that landscape characteristics in mine waste-located watersheds could account for as much as 77% of the variation of water quality indicators. A single landscape metric alone, such as proportion of mine waste area, could be used to predict surface water quality; but its predicting power is limited, usually accounting for less than 60% of the variance of water quality indicators. PMID:16551489

  5. Plasma and Magnetic Field Characteristics of Solar Coronal Mass Ejections in Relation to Geomagnetic Storm Intensity and Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying D.; Hu, Huidong; Wang, Rui; Yang, Zhongwei; Zhu, Bei; Liu, Yi A.; Luhmann, Janet G.; Richardson, John D.

    2015-08-01

    The largest geomagnetic storms of solar cycle 24 so far occurred on 2015 March 17 and June 22 with {D}{st} minima of -223 and -195 nT, respectively. Both of the geomagnetic storms show a multi-step development. We examine the plasma and magnetic field characteristics of the driving coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in connection with the development of the geomagnetic storms. A particular effort is to reconstruct the in situ structure using a Grad-Shafranov technique and compare the reconstruction results with solar observations, which gives a larger spatial perspective of the source conditions than one-dimensional in situ measurements. Key results are obtained concerning how the plasma and magnetic field characteristics of CMEs control the geomagnetic storm intensity and variability: (1) a sheath-ejecta-ejecta mechanism and a sheath-sheath-ejecta scenario are proposed for the multi-step development of the 2015 March 17 and June 22 geomagnetic storms, respectively; (2) two contrasting cases of how the CME flux-rope characteristics generate intense geomagnetic storms are found, which indicates that a southward flux-rope orientation is not a necessity for a strong geomagnetic storm; and (3) the unexpected 2015 March 17 intense geomagnetic storm resulted from the interaction between two successive CMEs plus the compression by a high-speed stream from behind, which is essentially the “perfect storm” scenario proposed by Liu et al. (i.e., a combination of circumstances results in an event of unusual magnitude), so the “perfect storm” scenario may not be as rare as the phrase implies.

  6. Spray nozzle designs for agricultural aviation applications. [relation of drop size to spray characteristics and nozzle efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K. W.; Putnam, A. A.; Gieseke, J. A.; Golovin, M. N.; Hale, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Techniques of generating monodisperse sprays and information concerning chemical liquids used in agricultural aviation are surveyed. The periodic dispersion of liquid jet, the spinning disk method, and ultrasonic atomization are the techniques discussed. Conceptually designed spray nozzles for generating monodisperse sprays are assessed. These are based on the classification of the drops using centrifugal force, on using two opposing liquid laden air jets, and on operating a spinning disk at an overloaded flow. Performance requirements for the designs are described and estimates of the operational characteristics are presented.

  7. Study on quantitative relation between characteristics of striature bionic coupling unit and wear resistance of gray cast iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Zuobo; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Peng; Cong, Dalong; Meng, Chao; Wang, Chuanwei; Ren, Luquan

    2015-03-01

    In order to improve the wear resistance of gray cast iron guide rail, striature bionic coupling units of different characteristics were manufactured by laser surface remelting. Wear behavior of gray cast iron with striature bionic coupling units has been studied under dry sliding condition at room temperature using a homemade linear reciprocating wear testing machine. The wear resistance was evaluated by means of weight loss measurement and wear morphology. The results indicated that there is a relationship between weight loss and the area of striature bionic coupling units and α: Δm = Δm0 - 0.0212S × cos α - 0.0241S × sin α.

  8. Age-related changes to spectral voice characteristics affect judgments of prosodic, segmental, and talker attributes for child and adult speech

    PubMed Central

    Dilley, Laura C.; Wieland, Elizabeth A.; Gamache, Jessica L.; McAuley, J. Devin; Redford, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose As children mature, changes in voice spectral characteristics covary with changes in speech, language, and behavior. Spectral characteristics were manipulated to alter the perceived ages of talkers’ voices while leaving critical acoustic-prosodic correlates intact, to determine whether perceived age differences were associated with differences in judgments of prosodic, segmental, and talker attributes. Method Speech was modified by lowering formants and fundamental frequency, for 5-year-old children’s utterances, or raising them, for adult caregivers’ utterances. Next, participants differing in awareness of the manipulation (Exp. 1a) or amount of speech-language training (Exp. 1b) made judgments of prosodic, segmental, and talker attributes. Exp. 2 investigated the effects of spectral modification on intelligibility. Finally, in Exp. 3 trained analysts used formal prosody coding to assess prosodic characteristics of spectrally-modified and unmodified speech. Results Differences in perceived age were associated with differences in ratings of speech rate, fluency, intelligibility, likeability, anxiety, cognitive impairment, and speech-language disorder/delay; effects of training and awareness of the manipulation on ratings were limited. There were no significant effects of the manipulation on intelligibility or formally coded prosody judgments. Conclusions Age-related voice characteristics can greatly affect judgments of speech and talker characteristics, raising cautionary notes for developmental research and clinical work. PMID:23275414

  9. Anaemia in Relation to Body Mass Index (BMI) and Socio-Demographic Characteristics in Adult Nigerians in Ebonyi State

    PubMed Central

    Ogbonnaya, Lawrence Ulu; Obuna, Akuma Johnson; Awelegbe, Femi; Uro-Chukwu, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Anaemia, a multifactorial health challenge has been found to affect every stage of human development with negative health impacts. Providing information on the factors associated with Anaemia will help in formulating mitigating strategies against this important public health problem. Objective: To determine the prevalence of Anaemia and its relationship with body mass index (BMI) and sociodemographic characteristics in adult Nigerians in Ebonyi State, South-eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Adults (n=428) aged ≥ 18 y (mean=38.4±13.7 y) randomly selected from 130 political wards from the 13 Local Government Areas of the state were studied. Sociodemographic data was collected with questionnaire while blood samples were collected for hemoglobin determination using colorimetric cyanmethemoglobin method. Data was analysed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS® for Windows® ver. 16). Results: In general, 21.7% of the subjects were anemic with Anaemia prevalence of 9.9%, 15.8% and 39.8% in male, non-pregnant and pregnant female, respectively. About four percent (3.7%) of the subjects were underweight, while 37.6% had excess weight with hemoglobin concentration having no relationship with BMI and sociodemographic parameters. Conclusion: It may be conclude that the Anaemia in adult Nigerians in Ebonyi State has no definite relationship with BMI and sociodemographic characteristics studied. Further studies are needed to document other factors that may be associated with Anaemia among adults in the State. PMID:25738011

  10. The Effect of Blade-Section Thickness Ratio on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Related Full-Scale Propellers at Mach Numbers up to 0.65

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Julian D; Steinberg, Seymour

    1953-01-01

    The results of an investigation of two 10-foot-diameter, two-blade NACA propellers are presented for a range of blade angles from 20 degrees to 55 degrees at airspeeds up to 500 miles per hour. These results are compared with those from previous investigations of five related NACA propellers in order to evaluate the effects of blade-section thickness ratios on propeller aerodynamic characteristics.

  11. Galileo's relativity principle, the concept of pressure, and complex characteristics, for the six-equation, one-pressure model

    SciTech Connect

    Makowitz, H.

    1992-10-01

    We have studied various formulations of the concept of pressure, in the context of the usual Six-Equation Model of thermal-hydraulics. A different concept of pressure, than the usual one, has been used. This new pressure concept is Galilean Invariant, and results for the One-Pressure Model with the same complex characteristic roots as the Basic III-Posed Model,'' discussed in the literature for the cases we have investigated. We have also examined several Two-Pressure formulations and shown that two pressures are a necessary but not sufficient condition for obtaining a Well-Posed system. Several counter examples are presented. We have shown that the standard theory is not Galilean Invariant and suggested that the origin of III-Posedness is due to our closure relationships. We also question whether the current theory can satisfy conservation principles for mass, energy, and momentum.

  12. The characteristic trends of karst springs discharges in relation to climate change (examples from the Classical Karst, SE Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravbar, Natasa; Kovacic, Gregor

    2016-04-01

    Changes in the large-scale hydrological cycle induced by global warming are among the biggest actual concerns. The observed records and climate simulations are consistent in projecting changing precipitation and temperature patterns worldwide. Particularly the incidence of changed precipitation amount, intensity and variability may increase changes in hydrological regimes, and could have implications on water quantity and quality in many areas. This may affect freshwater dependant ecosystems and several socio-economic activities. Groundwater resources availability, stability of access and utilisation may further provoke difficulties for many services, such as drinking water supply, agriculture, industry, hydropower, etc. Karst aquifers are due to their specific nature (i.e. rapid infiltration rates and underground water flow, highly controlled by conduits) highly dependent on respective hydrological conditions. The goal of this study was to better understand how and to what extent impacts of the climate change may affect karst groundwater resources and to quantify the role of karst aquifers in flood attenuation and baseflow maintenance. The characteristic linear trends of mean, minimal and maximal annual discharge values of nine selected karst springs in SE Slovenia have been assessed and compared with the linear trends of annual precipitation amount and air temperature covering a 52-year period (1961 - 2013). The data have also been evaluated in respect to the individual spring's catchment characteristics (e.g. storage capacity). Obtained results and analysis reveal the impacts of climate (environmental) change on karst groundwater and call for urgent adherence of standards for karst water sources protection, monitoring and rational use in the relevant management strategies.

  13. Investigation the Quality of Life and its Relation with Clinical and Demographic Characteristics in Women with Breast Cancer Under Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Musarezaie, Amir; Ghasemi, Tahere Momeni Ghale; Esfahani, Homayoon Naji

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study was performed to examine quality of life's dimensions and its relationship with some clinical and demographic characteristics on women with breast cancer under chemotherapy referred to the oncology hospital, Isfahan University of medical sciences, Iran. Methods: This Cross sectional study was conducted among 330 breast cancer patients with simple sampling methodology. Data collection instrument included a questionnaire contains 2 parts (clinical and demographic characteristics information and version 2.0 of the SF-36 questionnaire (the international version). The data were analyzed with 99% confidence by carried out using SPSS18 with using descriptive and analytic statistics. Results: The majority of subjects’ quality of life was moderate (53.93%). there was a statistically significant relationship between quality of life among breast cancer patients with chemotherapy sessions (P < 0.05, df =4, χ2 = 16.37). One way Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) suggested the absence of any significant relationship between quality of life with marital status (f = 0.21; P = 0.92) and employment status (f = 0.26; P = 0.77). Also, Spearman test showed the absence of any significant relationship between quality of life with age (P = 0.60), and the elapsed duration from diagnosis (P = 0.68), however Spearman test showed significant relationship between quality of life and education status (P = 0.002, r = -0.84). Conclusion: With regard to results of this study, there was a direct correlation between the number of chemotherapy sessions and patients quality of life. The attitude of the population toward chemotherapy is usually inhibiting and negative, so patients, students and nurses should be trained about chemotherapy efficacy to improve their attitude about chemotherapy, which in turn would lead to improvement of the patients’ quality of life. PMID:23272284

  14. Folate-related polymorphisms in gastrointestinal stromal tumours: susceptibility and correlation with tumour characteristics and clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Angelini, Sabrina; Ravegnini, Gloria; Nannini, Margherita; Bermejo, Justo Lorenzo; Musti, Muriel; Pantaleo, Maria A; Fumagalli, Elena; Venturoli, Nicola; Palassini, Elena; Consolini, Nicola; Casali, Paolo G; Biasco, Guido; Hrelia, Patrizia

    2015-06-01

    The folate metabolism pathway has a crucial role in tumorigenesis as it supports numerous critical intracellular reactions, including DNA synthesis, repair, and methylation. Despite its importance, little is known about the influence of the folate pathway on gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST), a rare tumour with an incidence ranging between 6 and 19.6 cases per million worldwide. The importance of folate metabolism led us to investigate the influence of polymorphisms in the genes coding folate-metabolising enzymes on GIST susceptibility, tumour characteristics and clinical outcome. We investigated a panel of 13 polymorphisms in 8 genes in 60 cases and 153 controls. The TS 6-bp deletion allele (formerly rs34489327, delTInsTTAAAG) was associated with reduced risk of GIST (OR=0.20, 95% CI 0.05-0.67, P=0.0032). Selected polymorphisms in patients stratified by age, gender, and other main molecular and clinical characteristics showed that few genotypes may show a likely correlation. We also observed a significant association between the RFC AA/AG genotype and time to progression (HR=0.107, 95% CI 0.014-0.82; P=0.032). Furthermore, we observed a tendency towards an association between the SHMT1 variant allele (TT, rs1979277) and early death (HR=4.53, 95% CI 0.77-26.58, P=0.087). Aware of the strengths and limitations of the study, these results suggest that polymorphisms may modify the risk of GIST and clinical outcome, pointing to the necessity for further investigations with information on folate plasma levels and a larger study population. PMID:25227144

  15. Instillation versus Inhalation of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes: Exposure-Related Health Effects, Clearance, and the Role of Particle Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) may cause adverse pulmonary responses due to their nanoscale, fibrous morphology and/or biopersistance. This study tested multiple factors (dose, time, physicochemical characteristics, and administration method) shown to affect MWCNT toxicity with the hypothesis that these factors will influence significantly different responses upon MWCNT exposure. The study is unique in that (1) multiple administration methods were tested using particles from the same stock; (2) bulk MWCNT formulations had few differences (metal content, surface area/functionalization); and (3) MWCNT retention was quantified using a specialized approach for measuring unlabeled MWCNTs in rodent lungs. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to original (O), purified (P), and carboxylic acid functionalized (F) MWCNTs via intratracheal instillation and inhalation. Blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lung tissues were collected at postexposure days 1 and 21 for quantifying biological responses and MWCNTs in lung tissues by programmed thermal analysis. At day 1, MWCNT instillation produced significant BALF neutrophilia and MWCNT-positive macrophages. Instilled O- and P-MWCNTs produced significant inflammation in lung tissues, which resolved by day 21 despite MWCNT retention. MWCNT inhalation produced no BALF neutrophilia and no significant histopathology past day 1. However, on days 1 and 21 postinhalation of nebulized MWCNTs, significantly increased numbers of MWCNT-positive macrophages were observed in BALF. Results suggest (1) MWCNTs produce transient inflammation if any despite persistence in the lungs; (2) instilled O-MWCNTs cause more inflammation than P- or F-MWCNTs; and (3) MWCNT suspension media produce strikingly different effects on physicochemical particle characteristics and pulmonary responses. PMID:25144856

  16. Instillation versus inhalation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes: exposure-related health effects, clearance, and the role of particle characteristics.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rona M; Doudrick, Kyle; Franzi, Lisa M; TeeSy, Christel; Anderson, Donald S; Wu, Zheqiong; Mitra, Somenath; Vu, Vincent; Dutrow, Gavin; Evans, James E; Westerhoff, Paul; Van Winkle, Laura S; Raabe, Otto G; Pinkerton, Kent E

    2014-09-23

    Inhaled multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) may cause adverse pulmonary responses due to their nanoscale, fibrous morphology and/or biopersistance. This study tested multiple factors (dose, time, physicochemical characteristics, and administration method) shown to affect MWCNT toxicity with the hypothesis that these factors will influence significantly different responses upon MWCNT exposure. The study is unique in that (1) multiple administration methods were tested using particles from the same stock; (2) bulk MWCNT formulations had few differences (metal content, surface area/functionalization); and (3) MWCNT retention was quantified using a specialized approach for measuring unlabeled MWCNTs in rodent lungs. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to original (O), purified (P), and carboxylic acid functionalized (F) MWCNTs via intratracheal instillation and inhalation. Blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lung tissues were collected at postexposure days 1 and 21 for quantifying biological responses and MWCNTs in lung tissues by programmed thermal analysis. At day 1, MWCNT instillation produced significant BALF neutrophilia and MWCNT-positive macrophages. Instilled O- and P-MWCNTs produced significant inflammation in lung tissues, which resolved by day 21 despite MWCNT retention. MWCNT inhalation produced no BALF neutrophilia and no significant histopathology past day 1. However, on days 1 and 21 postinhalation of nebulized MWCNTs, significantly increased numbers of MWCNT-positive macrophages were observed in BALF. Results suggest (1) MWCNTs produce transient inflammation if any despite persistence in the lungs; (2) instilled O-MWCNTs cause more inflammation than P- or F-MWCNTs; and (3) MWCNT suspension media produce strikingly different effects on physicochemical particle characteristics and pulmonary responses. PMID:25144856

  17. Folate-related polymorphisms in gastrointestinal stromal tumours: susceptibility and correlation with tumour characteristics and clinical outcome

    PubMed Central

    Angelini, Sabrina; Ravegnini, Gloria; Nannini, Margherita; Bermejo, Justo Lorenzo; Musti, Muriel; Pantaleo, Maria A; Fumagalli, Elena; Venturoli, Nicola; Palassini, Elena; Consolini, Nicola; Casali, Paolo G; Biasco, Guido; Hrelia, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    The folate metabolism pathway has a crucial role in tumorigenesis as it supports numerous critical intracellular reactions, including DNA synthesis, repair, and methylation. Despite its importance, little is known about the influence of the folate pathway on gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST), a rare tumour with an incidence ranging between 6 and 19.6 cases per million worldwide. The importance of folate metabolism led us to investigate the influence of polymorphisms in the genes coding folate-metabolising enzymes on GIST susceptibility, tumour characteristics and clinical outcome. We investigated a panel of 13 polymorphisms in 8 genes in 60 cases and 153 controls. The TS 6-bp deletion allele (formerly rs34489327, delTInsTTAAAG) was associated with reduced risk of GIST (OR=0.20, 95% CI 0.05–0.67, P=0.0032). Selected polymorphisms in patients stratified by age, gender, and other main molecular and clinical characteristics showed that few genotypes may show a likely correlation. We also observed a significant association between the RFC AA/AG genotype and time to progression (HR=0.107, 95% CI 0.014–0.82; P=0.032). Furthermore, we observed a tendency towards an association between the SHMT1 variant allele (TT, rs1979277) and early death (HR=4.53, 95% CI 0.77–26.58, P=0.087). Aware of the strengths and limitations of the study, these results suggest that polymorphisms may modify the risk of GIST and clinical outcome, pointing to the necessity for further investigations with information on folate plasma levels and a larger study population. PMID:25227144

  18. Which Patient Characteristics Among Cocaine Users with HIV Relate to Drug Use and Adherence Outcomes Following a Dual-Focused Intervention?

    PubMed

    Read, Gaia; Ingersoll, Karen S

    2016-03-01

    This is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized trial of dually-focused interventions for nonadherent HIV patients with cocaine use disorders (Ingersoll et al. in Drug Alcohol Depend 116(1-3):177-187, 2011). We examined the relationships among baseline demographic, psychological, psychiatric, and behavioral characteristics and 6-months post-study ART adherence, log viral load (VL), ASI Drug Composite Score, and days using cocaine. We used the SAS GLMSELECT procedure to build multivariate models of each post-study outcome. Post-study ART adherence was related to 2 psychological variables; while logVL was related to 2 drug-related behaviors. ASI Drug Composite score was related to 2 psychiatric disorders, 1 demographic, and 1 psychological variable; in contrast, days using cocaine related to 1 behavioral and 3 psychological variables. Analyses show clear, robust relationships among behavioral, psychological and psychiatric diagnosis factors with post-study ART adherence and cocaine use outcomes. Future ART adherence interventions for cocaine users should consider tailoring to these patient characteristics. PMID:26142103

  19. Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephani, Hans

    2004-02-01

    Preface; Notation; Part I. Special Relativity: 1. Introduction: inertial systems and Galilei invariance of classical mechanics; 2. Light propagation in moving coordinate systems and Lorentz transformations; 3. Our world as a Minkowski space; 4. Mechanics of special relativity; 5. Optics of plane waves; 6. Four-dimensional vectors and tensors; 7. Electrodynamics in vacuo; 8. Transformation properties of electromagnetic fields: examples; 9. Null vectors and the algebraic properties of electromagnetic field tensors; 10. Charged point particles and their field; 11. Pole-dipole particles and their field; 12. Electrodynamics in media; 13. Perfect fluids and other physical theories; Part II. Riemannian Geometry: 14. Introduction: the force-free motion of particles in Newtonian mechanics; 15. Why Riemannian geometry?; 16. Riemannian space; 17. Tensor algebra; 18. The covariant derivative and parallel transport; 19. The curvature tensor; 20. Differential operators, integrals and integral laws; 21. Fundamental laws of physics in Riemannian spaces; Part III. Foundations of Einstein's Theory of Gravitation: 22. The fundamental equations of Einstein's theory of gravitation; 23. The Schwarzschild solution; 24. Experiments to verify the Schwarzschild metric; 25. Gravitational lenses; 26. The interior Schwarzschild solution; Part IV. Linearized Theory of Gravitation, Far Fields and Gravitational Waves: 27. The linearized Einstein theory of gravity; 28. Far fields due to arbitrary matter distributions and balance equations for momentum and angular momentum; 29. Gravitational waves; 30. The Cauchy problem for the Einstein field equations; Part V. Invariant Characterization of Exact Solutions: 31. Preferred vector fields and their properties; 32. The Petrov classification; 33. Killing vectors and groups of motion; 34. A survey of some selected classes of exact solutions; Part VI. Gravitational Collapse and Black Holes: 35. The Schwarzschild singularity; 36. Gravitational collapse

  20. Circadian regulation of human sleep and age-related changes in its timing, consolidation and EEG characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dijk, D. J.; Duffy, J. F.

    1999-01-01

    The light-entrainable circadian pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus regulates the timing and consolidation of sleep by generating a paradoxical rhythm of sleep propensity; the circadian drive for wakefulness peaks at the end of the day spent awake, ie close to the onset of melatonin secretion at 21.00-22.00 h and the circadian drive for sleep crests shortly before habitual waking-up time. With advancing age, ie after early adulthood, sleep consolidation declines, and time of awakening and the rhythms of body temperature, plasma melatonin and cortisol shift to an earlier clock hour. The variability of the phase relationship between the sleep-wake cycle and circadian rhythms increases, and in old age sleep is more susceptible to internal arousing stimuli associated with circadian misalignment. The propensity to awaken from sleep advances relative to the body temperature nadir in older people, a change that is opposite to the phase delay of awakening relative to internal circadian rhythms associated with morningness in young people. Age-related changes do not appear to be associated with a shortening of the circadian period or a reduction of the circadian drive for wake maintenance. These changes may be related to changes in the sleep process itself, such as reductions in slow-wave sleep and sleep spindles as well as a reduced strength of the circadian signal promoting sleep in the early morning hours. Putative mediators and modulators of circadian sleep regulation are discussed.

  1. Circadian regulation of human sleep and age-related changes in its timing, consolidation and EEG characteristics.

    PubMed

    Dijk, D J; Duffy, J F

    1999-04-01

    The light-entrainable circadian pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus regulates the timing and consolidation of sleep by generating a paradoxical rhythm of sleep propensity; the circadian drive for wakefulness peaks at the end of the day spent awake, ie close to the onset of melatonin secretion at 21.00-22.00 h and the circadian drive for sleep crests shortly before habitual waking-up time. With advancing age, ie after early adulthood, sleep consolidation declines, and time of awakening and the rhythms of body temperature, plasma melatonin and cortisol shift to an earlier clock hour. The variability of the phase relationship between the sleep-wake cycle and circadian rhythms increases, and in old age sleep is more susceptible to internal arousing stimuli associated with circadian misalignment. The propensity to awaken from sleep advances relative to the body temperature nadir in older people, a change that is opposite to the phase delay of awakening relative to internal circadian rhythms associated with morningness in young people. Age-related changes do not appear to be associated with a shortening of the circadian period or a reduction of the circadian drive for wake maintenance. These changes may be related to changes in the sleep process itself, such as reductions in slow-wave sleep and sleep spindles as well as a reduced strength of the circadian signal promoting sleep in the early morning hours. Putative mediators and modulators of circadian sleep regulation are discussed. PMID:10344586

  2. What Drives Juvenile Probation Officers? Relating Organizational Contexts, Status Characteristics, and Personal Convictions to Treatment and Punishment Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Geoff; Kupchik, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Data from surveys of juvenile court probation officers in four states are analyzed to understand professional orientations toward two seemingly contrasting goals of contemporary juvenile justice systems: punishment and treatment. These self-reported juvenile probation officer orientations are considered in relation to three clusters of variables…

  3. Stress among Student Affairs Administrators: The Relationship of Personal Characteristics and Organizational Variables to Work-Related Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berwick, Kathleen R.

    1992-01-01

    Examined possible relationships between reported work-related stress and organizational and personal variables, hardiness of personality, exercise activity, and organizational culture of 240 student affairs administrators within Minnesota. Results revealed that job satisfaction and hardiness of personality were greatest predictors of lowered…

  4. The Influence of Aggressors' Characteristics on Teachers' Responses to Physical and Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogowicz, Samantha T.; Del Vecchio, Tamara; Dwyer-Masin, Tanya; Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, middle school teachers responded to written vignettes describing physical and relational aggressive incidents. The aggressors were male or female children committing an aggressive act against same-sex peers, who were also described as good or bad. Among the results, teachers rated female physical aggression as more serious…

  5. The Sophistication of Reading Interests as Related to Selected Personality Factors and Certain Other Characteristics of High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zais, Robert Stanley

    This study attempted to estimate by objective means the level of sophistication of high school students' interest in fiction and to determine the degree to which sophistication was related to selected personality factors and to sex, age, intelligence, and reading achievement. A scale was developed to measure sophistication of reading interests; a…

  6. Student and High-School Characteristics Related to Completing a Science, Technology, Engineering or Mathematics (STEM) Major in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBeau, Brandon; Harwell, Michael; Monson, Debra; Dupuis, Danielle; Medhanie, Amanuel; Post, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The importance of increasing the number of US college students completing degrees in science, technology, engineering or mathematics (STEM) has prompted calls for research to provide a better understanding of factors related to student participation in these majors, including the impact of a student's high-school mathematics…

  7. Family Roots of Empathy-Related Characteristics: The Role of Perceived Maternal and Paternal Need Support in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miklikowska, Marta; Duriez, Bart; Soenens, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Theories on empathy development have stressed the role of socialization in general and the role of parental support in particular. This 3-wave longitudinal study of middle adolescents (N = 678) aimed to contribute to the extant research on the socialization of empathy (a) by examining the relative contribution of perceived maternal and paternal…

  8. Role of sediment characteristics on natural radiation level of the Vaigai river sediment, Tamilnadu, India.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, V; Paramasivam, K; Suresh, G; Jose, M T

    2014-01-01

    The sediment characteristics such as granulometric contents (sand, silt and clay), organic matter, magnetic susceptibility (low and high frequency) and weight percentage of magnetic minerals and the natural radionuclide ((238)U, (232)Th and (40)K) contents have been analyzed for the sediment samples of Vaigai river with an aim of evaluating the radiation hazard nature and assessing characterization of sediment. Granulometric analysis confirmed that the sand is major content. The organic matter content is ranged from 0.30 to 8.62% and comparison shows that the present river has high organic content. The magnetic measurement results indicated that the sites S16, S18 and S25 may be affected anthropogenically. Frequency dependence magnetic susceptibility is calculated to know the contribution of grains to magnetic susceptibility. Average of activity concentrations (except (40)K) and all calculated radiological parameters are within the recommended level. Multivariate statistical analyses (Pearson correlation, cluster and factor analysis) dictated that the role of sediment characteristics on the level of radioactivity in the river sediments. The content of organic matter and clay, and magnetic parameters are positively correlated with important radioactive variables. The measurement of organic matter and magnetic susceptibility in various granulometric contents show some higher values in silt and clay fractions. Radioactivity level was also measured for the samples (after removing silt and clay fractions from bulk samples) and the results show decrease in radioactive variables. The present study stated that the lower grain sized fractions have the ability to absorb the contents such as organic content and magnetic minerals as cations on their surface and raise the level of radioactivity. Percentage of decrease in the natural radionuclides of (238)U, (232)Th, (40)K and absorbed dose rate of the samples (after removing the silt and clay fractions from bulk samples) to the

  9. Interpersonal discrimination and depressive symptomatology: examination of several personality-related characteristics as potential confounders in a racial/ethnic heterogeneous adult sample

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Research suggests that reports of interpersonal discrimination result in poor mental health. Because personality characteristics may either confound or mediate the link between these reports and mental health, there is a need to disentangle its role in order to better understand the nature of discrimination-mental health association. We examined whether hostility, anger repression and expression, pessimism, optimism, and self-esteem served as confounders in the association between perceived interpersonal discrimination and CESD-based depressive symptoms in a race/ethnic heterogeneous probability-based sample of community-dwelling adults. Methods We employed a series of ordinary least squares regression analyses to examine the potential confounding effect of hostility, anger repression and expression, pessimism, optimism, and self-esteem between interpersonal discrimination and depressive symptoms. Results Hostility, anger repression, pessimism and self-esteem were significant as possible confounders of the relationship between interpersonal discrimination and depressive symptoms, together accounting for approximately 38% of the total association (beta: 0.1892, p < 0.001). However, interpersonal discrimination remained a positive predictor of depressive symptoms (beta: 0.1176, p < 0.001). Conclusion As one of the first empirical attempts to examine the potential confounding role of personality characteristics in the association between reports of interpersonal discrimination and mental health, our results suggest that personality-related characteristics may serve as potential confounders. Nevertheless, our results also suggest that, net of these characteristics, reports of interpersonal discrimination are associated with poor mental health. PMID:24256578

  10. Impression Evaluation and Eye Movement Related to The Characteristic Expression as Elements in Abstract Paintings: Mondrian, Malewitsch and Rothko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, Kiyomi

    This paper has the purpose to inspect differences regarding impression evaluation and eye movement by comparing characteristic expression as elements in abstract paintings. Malewitsch's paintings which emphasize oblique lines and inclined rectangles elicited impression evaluations such as “hard”, “irritable”, “dynamic” and “exciting”. Mondrian's paintings which emphasize vertical and horizontal line elicited impression evaluations such as “cheerful” and “light”. Rothko's paintings which are obscure outlines elicited impression evaluations such as “mild”, “comfortable”, “relaxing”, “static” and “tedious”. Paintings that have clear vertical and horizontal lines elicit a trend toward higher mean line-of-sight velocity. Paintings that have many distinctive expression elements elicit large frequency of long gaze point. This study indicates that vertical lines, horizontal lines, oblique lines, obscure outlines, and other expression elements in abstract paintings are influencing factors for impression evaluation and eye movement. This suggests that mutual interactions of components that constitute paintings cannot be disregarded. This study is inspection of common impression and perception caused by appreciation of paintings.

  11. HIV-related characteristics among female partners of injecting drug users in Kelantan, Malaysia: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Mohd Nasarruddin, Aishah; Wan Mohammad, Wan Mohd Zahiruddin; Nik Hussain, Nik Hazlina; Ali, Siti Hawa; Zubir, Hazura Mat

    2015-01-01

    Kelantan, a northeastern state in Peninsular Malaysia, is one of the states that has been acutely hit by injecting drug user (IDU)-driven HIV epidemic, in addition to having a high number of infected women in Malaysia. This cross-sectional study describes the socio-demographic characteristics, HIV risk factors, risk perception, and adoption of preventive behaviors among female partners of IDUs in Kelantan. Out of 101 women, the majority of them are from low socioeconomic background and have no other risk factors besides heterosexual HIV transmission from their male IDU partners. Although 45.5% have not been tested for HIV and more than half (53.5%) of them did not use condoms during sexual intercourse, only 44.6% of the women perceived themselves to be at risk of being infected with HIV. Most of the women (86.1%) were willing to undergo voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). Female partners of IDUs continue to be vulnerable to HIV due to having sexual contact with IDUs, and also due to their socioeconomic position in the community. To prevent HIV transmission among female partners of IDUs, consolidating HIV prevention efforts from multiple approaches is needed. PMID:25471247

  12. Heat transfer characteristics within an array of impinging jets. Effects of crossflow temperature relative to jet temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Florschuetz, L. W.; Su, C. C.

    1985-01-01

    Spanwise average heat fluxes, resolved in the streamwise direction to one stream-wise hole spacing were measured for two-dimensional arrays of circular air jets impinging on a heat transfer surface parallel to the jet orifice plate. The jet flow, after impingement, was constrained to exit in a single direction along the channel formed by the jet orifice plate and heat transfer surface. The crossflow originated from the jets following impingement and an initial crossflow was present that approached the array through an upstream extension of the channel. The regional average heat fluxes are considered as a function of parameters associated with corresponding individual spanwise rows within the array. A linear superposition model was employed to formulate appropriate governing parameters for the individual row domain. The effects of flow history upstream of an individual row domain are also considered. The results are formulated in terms of individual spanwise row parameters. A corresponding set of streamwise resolved heat transfer characteristics formulated in terms of flow and geometric parameters characterizing the overall arrays is described.

  13. Landform-related permafrost characteristics in the source area of the Yellow River, eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Sheng, Yu; Wu, Jichun; Feng, Ziliang; Ning, Zuojun; Hu, Xiaoying; Zhang, Xiumin

    2016-09-01

    The source area of the Yellow River (SAYR) lies in the eastern part of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). Glaciers are absent in the area, but permafrost is widespread because of the high elevations, typically 4200-5000 m a.s.l. Landforms in the SAYR were classified into seven basic types, based on their morphological characteristics and genesis, and further divided into 12 sub-classes based on geomorphic processes. Permafrost development and ground temperature in boreholes were analyzed on representative landforms in the SAYR. Permafrost was discontinuously distributed at 4300-4400 m a.s.l. in fluvial plains because of variations in local topography, sediments, vegetation and water content. In hills and low-relief mountains in the western part of the study area, permafrost is continuous above 4400 m a.s.l. even on unshaded south-facing slopes. In contrast, permafrost in the central part of the study area is discontinuous over this elevation range. Analysis of ground temperature measurements revealed that three macro-scale factors, latitude, longitude, and elevation, explain 72.8% of the variation in the measured mean annual ground temperature (MAGT). The remaining 27.2% can potentially be explained by variations in topography and land cover within the SAYR.

  14. Energy consumption for baking and characteristics of baked product in relation to type of oven and baking procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Nee, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Data were obtained and analyzed on 1) energy consumption when a test food was baked with four types of electric ovens (electric range oven, table model conventional oven, table model forced convection oven, and table model broiler/toaster oven) with three cooking procedures (participant's own procedure, preheated procedure, and cold start procedure); 2) patterns of energy consumption in 10-minute intervals; and 3) the characteristics of the finished food. Twenty participants from households in Columbus, Ohio, baked loaves of quick bread in a laboratory in the four types of ovens with three cooking procedures. Statistical analyses of data included analyses of variance, Tukey test, and Duncan's multiple range test. Significantly more energy was used with the participants' own procedures than with either the preheated or the cold start procedure (p < .01). There was no consistency in total energy consumption between the preheated and the cold start procedures in the four types of ovens. The electric range oven consumed significantly more energy than the other three types of ovens in the first 10-minute interval; however, the table model forced convection oven consumed significantly more energy than other ovens in the second and third 10-minute intervals. No consistent patterns were observed for volume and weight loss of breads baked with the three cooking procedures, but use of the table model forced convection oven always resulted in larger volume than with other ovens.

  15. Determination of optical characteristics of a dispersive medium from the measured relative angular distribution of radiation emerging from a layer

    SciTech Connect

    Berdnik, V.V.; Loiko, V.A.; Ivanov, A.P.

    1995-04-01

    A method is suggested that allows one to determine the photon survival probability and the coefficients in the Legendre polynomial expansion of the scattering indicatrix from the relative intensities of radiation emerging from a layer. The method consists in solving the nonlinear equations of the radiation-transfer theory for the radiation intensities at layer boundaries. Estimates are also given for the errors in the restoration procedure.

  16. Characteristics Associated with Utilization of Asthma-Related Traditional Chinese Medicine Services among Asthma Children in Taiwan: A Nationwide Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tung-Hu; Chou, Yiing-Jenq

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Previous studies have demonstrated the advantages of TCM use among asthmatic children. However, there is a paucity of epidemiologic reports on features of TCM users among asthmatic children. This cohort study aimed to investigate child's, parent's, and provider's characteristics associated with the use of asthma-related TCM services among newly diagnosed asthmatic children. Materials and Methods. A nationally representative cohort of one million National Health Insurance beneficiaries was used. The newly diagnosed asthma children who received asthma medication from western medicine providers from 2005 to 2010 were selected as our sample for analysis. Generalized estimating equation was applied to identify the child's, parents', and provider's characteristics associated with the use of asthma-related TCM among the newly diagnosed asthmatic children. Results. Of 20,080 children who were enrolled and followed up for one year, 4,034 children used TCM for asthma-related treatment. Children with prior experience of TCM, pre-school and school aged children, boys, those with more severe asthma or poorer health, with higher income parents were more likely to use asthma-related TCM. Herbal medicine was the most common modality among asthmatic children. Conclusions. There were only 20% newly diagnosed asthmatic children using TCM. The findings may shed light on possible integration of TCM with western medicine services. PMID:25972906

  17. Statistical relations of salt and selenium loads to geospatial characteristics of corresponding subbasins of the Colorado and Gunnison Rivers in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leib, Kenneth J.; Linard, Joshua I.; Williams, Cory A.

    2012-01-01

    Elevated loads of salt and selenium can impair the quality of water for both anthropogenic and natural uses. Understanding the environmental processes controlling how salt and selenium are introduced to streams is critical to managing and mitigating the effects of elevated loads. Dominant relations between salt and selenium loads and environmental characteristics can be established by using geospatial data. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, investigated statistical relations between seasonal salt or selenium loads emanating from the Upper Colorado River Basin and geospatial data. Salt and selenium loads measured during the irrigation and nonirrigation seasons were related to geospatial variables for 168 subbasins within the Gunnison and Colorado River Basins. These geospatial variables represented subbasin characteristics of the physical environment, precipitation, geology, land use, and the irrigation network. All subbasin variables with units of area had statistically significant relations with load. The few variables that were not in units of area but were statistically significant helped to identify types of geospatial data that might influence salt and selenium loading. Following a stepwise approach, combinations of these statistically significant variables were used to develop multiple linear regression models. The models can be used to help prioritize areas where salt and selenium control projects might be most effective.

  18. A random forest approach for predicting the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis intermediate host Ochotona spp. presence in relation to landscape characteristics in western China

    PubMed Central

    Marston, Christopher G.; Danson, F. Mark; Armitage, Richard P.; Giraudoux, Patrick; Pleydell, David R.J.; Wang, Qian; Qui, Jiamin; Craig, Philip S.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding distribution patterns of hosts implicated in the transmission of zoonotic disease remains a key goal of parasitology. Here, random forests are employed to model spatial patterns of the presence of the plateau pika (Ochotona spp.) small mammal intermediate host for the parasitic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis which is responsible for a significant burden of human zoonoses in western China. Landsat ETM+ satellite imagery and digital elevation model data were utilized to generate quantified measures of environmental characteristics across a study area in Sichuan Province, China. Land cover maps were generated identifying the distribution of specific land cover types, with landscape metrics employed to describe the spatial organisation of land cover patches. Random forests were used to model spatial patterns of Ochotona spp. presence, enabling the relative importance of the environmental characteristics in relation to Ochotona spp. presence to be ranked. An index of habitat aggregation was identified as the most important variable in influencing Ochotona spp. presence, with area of degraded grassland the most important land cover class variable. 71% of the variance in Ochotona spp. presence was explained, with a 90.98% accuracy rate as determined by ‘out-of-bag’ error assessment. Identification of the environmental characteristics influencing Ochotona spp. presence enables us to better understand distribution patterns of hosts implicated in the transmission of Em. The predictive mapping of this Em host enables the identification of human populations at increased risk of infection, enabling preventative strategies to be adopted. PMID:25386042

  19. A random forest approach for predicting the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis intermediate host Ochotona spp. presence in relation to landscape characteristics in western China.

    PubMed

    Marston, Christopher G; Danson, F Mark; Armitage, Richard P; Giraudoux, Patrick; Pleydell, David R J; Wang, Qian; Qui, Jiamin; Craig, Philip S

    2014-12-01

    Understanding distribution patterns of hosts implicated in the transmission of zoonotic disease remains a key goal of parasitology. Here, random forests are employed to model spatial patterns of the presence of the plateau pika (Ochotona spp.) small mammal intermediate host for the parasitic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis which is responsible for a significant burden of human zoonoses in western China. Landsat ETM+ satellite imagery and digital elevation model data were utilized to generate quantified measures of environmental characteristics across a study area in Sichuan Province, China. Land cover maps were generated identifying the distribution of specific land cover types, with landscape metrics employed to describe the spatial organisation of land cover patches. Random forests were used to model spatial patterns of Ochotona spp. presence, enabling the relative importance of the environmental characteristics in relation to Ochotona spp. presence to be ranked. An index of habitat aggregation was identified as the most important variable in influencing Ochotona spp. presence, with area of degraded grassland the most important land cover class variable. 71% of the variance in Ochotona spp. presence was explained, with a 90.98% accuracy rate as determined by 'out-of-bag' error assessment. Identification of the environmental characteristics influencing Ochotona spp. presence enables us to better understand distribution patterns of hosts implicated in the transmission of Em. The predictive mapping of this Em host enables the identification of human populations at increased risk of infection, enabling preventative strategies to be adopted. PMID:25386042

  20. Seismotectonic characteristics of the Krško Basin with relation to seismic safety of existing and planned nuclear infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavec, Miloš; Atanackov, Jure; Jamšek Rupnik, Petra

    2015-04-01

    The Kr\\vsko Basin hosts complex infrastructure and is being investigated as a potential site for several future projects including a new NPP and a low and intermediate level radioactive waste repository. A large database of geological, geophysical and geotechnical data has been accumulated, producing increasingly detailed tectonic and seismotectonic models of the Kr\\vsko Basin. The first tectonic and seismotectonic investigation campaign was undertaken in the 1970s for the first Kr\\vsko NPP (Arsovski et al., 1973). The next study (Fajfar et al., 1994) was followed by an extensive geophysical survey in in which basin axis-trending syncline was reevaluated (Persoglia, ed., 2000). In 2004 the geological, tectonic and seismotectonic characteristics of the Kr\\vsko Basin were readdressed by performing a periodic seismic hazard assessment for the NPP (Swan et al., 2004). After which, a series of field investigations were conducted for the potential radwaste repository site evaluation (Brenčič, ed., 2006; Petkovšek, ed., 2009). In 2008-2013 a set of geological, geotechnical and seismological investigations were performed for the proposed new NPP unit (Bazargan-Sabet et al., 2010). As part of this project the seismotectonic model and the seismic source model were updated (Bavec et al., 2010a,b). Particular attention was given to the Libna fault (Bavec et al., 2013), which was also the subject of a follow up study to further evaluate the age of deformed sediments in the basin (Cline et al., 2013). A new phase of geological, geophysical and geomorphic investigations is being undertaken in the Kr\\vsko basin by the team of Rizzo Associates and Geological Survey of Slovenia to refine on the geological and seismological inputs to the planned PSHA. The Basin has experienced moderate and dispersed seismic activity. The catalogue of known earthquakes in the region (ARSO, 2011) extends back to the early 17th century. The strongest earthquake in the Kr\\vsko basin was the

  1. Maternal and birth anthropometric characteristics in relation to the risk of childhood lymphomas: a Swedish nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Petridou, Eleni Th; Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Antonopoulos, Constantine N; Dessypris, Nick; Svensson, Tobias; Stephansson, Olof; Kieler, Helle; Smedby, Karin E

    2015-11-01

    This Swedish nationwide cohort study aims to examine the role of maternal characteristics (maternal age, education, smoking, BMI, diabetes, and preeclampsia) and multiple intrauterine growth measures on the risk of childhood lymphomas. A total of 3 444 136 singleton live births registered in the Swedish Medical Birth Register were analyzed, among whom there were 515 incident non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) cases and 169 Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) cases aged 0-14 years at diagnosis (1973-2007) identified through linkage with the Swedish Cancer Register. Proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of NHL and HL. Male sex (HR=2.00, 95% CI: 1.66-2.41), older maternal age (HR=1.03, 95% CI: 1.00-1.06, per 1-year increase), and large for gestational age compared with appropriate for gestational age (AGA) birth weight (HR=1.83, 95% CI: 1.20-2.79) were correlated with the risk of NHL; of note, in subanalysis by sex, the latter association was confined to girls (HR=3.37, 95% CI: 1.90-5.97, Pinteraction by sex=0.008). The risk of childhood HL overall was more evident among boys (HR=2.03, 95% CI: 1.46-2.81), whereas indices of accelerated fetal growth were not convincingly associated with the risk of HL. Apart from the established association with sex, the findings point to accelerated intrauterine growth as a risk factor for childhood NHL that may differ by sex. Given the rarity of this condition at birth, however, further studies with more elaborate indices are needed to conclude on its association with rare diseases such as HL. PMID:25569452

  2. Effects of storage medium and UV photofunctionalization on time-related changes of titanium surface characteristics and biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jian-Wei; Chen, Yun; Yang, Guo-Li; Wang, Xiao-Xiang; He, Fu-Ming; Wang, Hui-Ming

    2016-07-01

    Storage in aqueous solution and ultraviolet (UV) photofunctionalization are two applicable methods to overcome the biological aging and increase the bioactivity of titanium. As information regarding the combined effects of storage medium and UV photofunctionalization has never been found in published literatures, this study focused on whether appropriate storage methods and UV photofunctionalization have synergistic effects on the biological properties of aged titanium surfaces. Titanium plates and discs were sandblasted and acid etched and then further prepared in five different modes as using different storage mediums (air or dH2 O) for 4 weeks and then with or without UV treatment. The surface characteristics were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy, contact angle measurements, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on the surfaces, and cellular morphology, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and osteocalcin release were evaluated. The results showed that nanostructures were observed on water-stored titanium surfaces with a size of about 15 × 20 nm(2) . UV treatment was effective to remove the hydrocarbon contamination on titanium surfaces stored in either air or water. UV photofunctionalization further enhanced the already increased bioactivity of modSLA on initial cell attachment, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and osteocalcin release. Overall, UV photofunctionalization was effective in further enhancing the already increased bioactivity by using dH2 O as storage medium, and the effect of UV treatment was much more overwhelming than that of the storage medium. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 932-940, 2016. PMID:25969950

  3. Water Relations of Seed Development and Germination in Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) : IV. Characteristics of the Perisperm during Seed Development.

    PubMed

    Welbaum, G E; Bradford, K J

    1990-04-01

    We previously reported that an apparent water potential disequilibrium is maintained late in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) seed development between the embryo and the surrounding fruit tissue (mesocarp). To further investigate the basis of this phenomenon, the permeability characteristics of the tissues surrounding muskmelon embryos (the mucilaginous endocarp, the testa, a 2- to 4-cell-layered perisperm and a single cell layer of endosperm) were examined from 20 to 65 days after anthesis (DAA). Water passes readily through the perisperm envelope (endosperm + perisperm), testa, and endocarp at all stages of development. Electrolyte leakage (conductivity of imbibition solutions) of individual intact seeds, decoated seeds (testa removed), and embryos (testa and perisperm envelope removed) was measured during imbibition of freshly harvested seeds. The testa accounted for up to 80% of the total electrolyte leakage. Leakage from decoated seeds fell by 8- to 10-fold between 25 and 45 DAA. Presence of the perisperm envelope prior to 40 DAA had little effect on leakage, while in more mature seeds, it reduced leakage by 2- to 3-fold. In mature seeds, freezing, soaking in methanol, autoclaving, accelerated aging, and other treatments which killed the embryos had little effect on leakage of intact or decoated seeds, but caused osmotic swelling of the perisperm envelope due to the leakage of solutes from the embryo into the space between the embryo and perisperm. The semipermeability of the perisperm envelope of mature seeds did not depend upon cellular viability or lipid membrane integrity. After maximum seed dry weight is attained (35-40 DAA), the perisperm envelope prevents the diffusion of solutes, but not of water, between the embryo and the surrounding testa, endocarp, and mesocarp tissue. PMID:16667368

  4. Effect of protocol-related variables and women's characteristics on the cumulative false-positive risk in breast cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Román, R.; Sala, M.; Salas, D.; Ascunce, N.; Zubizarreta, R.; Castells, X.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reducing the false-positive risk in breast cancer screening is important. We examined how the screening-protocol and women's characteristics affect the cumulative false-positive risk. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study of 1 565 364 women aged 45–69 years who underwent 4 739 498 screening mammograms from 1990 to 2006. Multilevel discrete hazard models were used to estimate the cumulative false-positive risk over 10 sequential mammograms under different risk scenarios. Results: The factors affecting the false-positive risk for any procedure and for invasive procedures were double mammogram reading [odds ratio (OR) = 2.06 and 4.44, respectively], two mammographic views (OR = 0.77 and 1.56, respectively), digital mammography (OR = 0.83 for invasive procedures), premenopausal status (OR = 1.31 and 1.22, respectively), use of hormone replacement therapy (OR = 1.03 and 0.84, respectively), previous invasive procedures (OR = 1.52 and 2.00, respectively), and a familial history of breast cancer (OR = 1.18 and 1.21, respectively). The cumulative false-positive risk for women who started screening at age 50–51 was 20.39% [95% confidence interval (CI) 20.02–20.76], ranging from 51.43% to 7.47% in the highest and lowest risk profiles, respectively. The cumulative risk for invasive procedures was 1.76% (95% CI 1.66–1.87), ranging from 12.02% to 1.58%. Conclusions: The cumulative false-positive risk varied widely depending on the factors studied. These findings are relevant to provide women with accurate information and to improve the effectiveness of screening programs. PMID:21430183

  5. [Interconnection of physico-chemical characteristics of organic solvents and their denaturing ability in relation to proteins].

    PubMed

    Belova, A B; Mozhaev, V V; Levashov, A V; Sergeeva, M V; Martinek, K; Khmel'nitskiĭ, Iu L

    1991-11-01

    Reversible denaturation of several proteins (alpha-chymotrypsin, trypsin, laccase, chymotrypsinogen, cytochrome c and myoglobin) by a broad series of organic solvents of different nature was studied. The regularities of this process were analyzed, employing both experimental and literary data based on the results of kinetic and spectroscopic measurements. In all the systems under study denaturation proceeded in a threshold manner, i. e., an abrupt change in the catalytic and/or spectroscopic properties of the dissolved proteins was observed after a certain threshold concentration of the organic solvent had been reached. To account for the observed features of the denaturation process, a thermodynamic model of reversible protein denaturation by organic solvents was proposed. This model is based on the widely accepted viewpoint that the undisturbed water shell around the protein globule is necessary for maintaining the dissolved protein in the native state. Quantitative analysis of the model led to an equation establishing a relationship between the threshold concentration of an organic solvent and its physico-chemical characteristics, such as hydrophobicity, solvating ability and molecular geometry. This equation fits well in the experimental data for all the proteins tested. Based on the above thermodynamic model of protein denaturation, a novel quantitative parameter characterizing the denaturing strength of organic solvents (termed as the denaturation capacity or DC) was proposed. Different organic solvents arranged according to their DC values form the DC scale of organic solvents which permits to predict theoretically the threshold concentration of any organic solvent for a given protein.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1666845

  6. Hospital Qualities Related to Return to Work from Occupational Injury after Controlling for Injury Severity as Well as Occupational Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We examined associations between hospital quality in the workers’ compensation system and injured patients’ return to work after controlling for injury severity, occupational factors, and demographic factors. Return to work data of injured workers were constructed from 2 datasets: 23,392 patients injured in 2009–2011 from the Korea Workers’ Compensation & Welfare Service and return to work data from Korea Employment Information Services. After de-identifying the data, quality scores were matched for each hospital that cared for injured patients. Injury severity was measured by Abbreviated Injury Scales. Relative risk and 95% confidence interval were calculated using log binomial regression models. After adjusting for age, sex, injury severity, occupation, factory size, city, and hospital type, the relative risk (95% confidence interval) for the total score was 1.04 (1.02–1.06), 1.06 (1.04–1.09), and 1.07 (1.05–1.10) in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quartiles, respectively, compared to the 1st quartile. The RR (95% CI) in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quartiles was 1.05 (1.02–1.07), 1.05 (1.02–1.08), and 1.06 (1.04–1.09) for the process score; and 1.02 (1.01–1.04), 1.05 (1.03–1.07), and 1.06 (1.04–1.09) for the outcome score compared to the 1st quartile score, respectively. In conclusion, our study design with blinded merge methods shows that total, process, and outcome qualities are related to the return to work of injured workers after controlling for other factors. PMID:27134489

  7. Relative contributions of strength, anthropometric, and body composition characteristics to estimated propulsive force in young male swimmers.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Kristen C; Housh, Terry J; Smith, Cory M; Hill, Ethan C; Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Johnson, Glen O; Housh, Dona J; Schmidt, Richard J; Cramer, Joel T

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relative contributions of isokinetic forearm flexion (FLX) and extension (EXT) peak torque (PT) at 180°·s, height (HT), percent body fat (%BF), and fat-free mass (FFM) to the prediction of estimated propulsive force (EPF) and which of these variables should be a focus of training in young male swimmers. Thirty young male swimmers (mean age ± SD = 12.4 ± 2.7 years) volunteered for this study. The subjects were members of local swimming clubs who competed in the front crawl. The swimmers were measured for FLX and EXT PT at 180°·s, HT, body mass (BM), arm muscle area (AMA), arm circumference, triceps skinfold, %BF, and FFM. Arm muscle area was used to calculate EPF. Zero-order correlations and stepwise multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships among variables and the relative contributions of FLX, EXT, HT, %BF, and FFM to the prediction of EPF. Forearm flexion PT at 180°·s, EXT, BM, HT, FFM, AMA, and EPF were significantly intercorrelated (r = 0.83-1.00). In addition, 4 variables contributed significantly to the prediction of EPF (standardized regression coefficients = FFM [1.00], FLX [0.92], EXT [-0.62], and HT [-0.35]). Percent body fat did not contribute to any of the stepwise models. These findings suggested that age-related increases in HT and FFM, as well as training for increases in FLX and EXT strength may improve propulsive force and swimming performance in young male swimmers. PMID:25785708

  8. Hospital Qualities Related to Return to Work from Occupational Injury after Controlling for Injury Severity as Well as Occupational Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Won, Jong-Uk; Seok, Hongdeok; Rhie, Jeongbae; Yoon, Jin-Ha

    2016-05-01

    We examined associations between hospital quality in the workers' compensation system and injured patients' return to work after controlling for injury severity, occupational factors, and demographic factors. Return to work data of injured workers were constructed from 2 datasets: 23,392 patients injured in 2009-2011 from the Korea Workers' Compensation & Welfare Service and return to work data from Korea Employment Information Services. After de-identifying the data, quality scores were matched for each hospital that cared for injured patients. Injury severity was measured by Abbreviated Injury Scales. Relative risk and 95% confidence interval were calculated using log binomial regression models. After adjusting for age, sex, injury severity, occupation, factory size, city, and hospital type, the relative risk (95% confidence interval) for the total score was 1.04 (1.02-1.06), 1.06 (1.04-1.09), and 1.07 (1.05-1.10) in the 2(nd), 3(rd), and 4(th) quartiles, respectively, compared to the 1(st) quartile. The RR (95% CI) in the 2(nd), 3(rd), and 4(th) quartiles was 1.05 (1.02-1.07), 1.05 (1.02-1.08), and 1.06 (1.04-1.09) for the process score; and 1.02 (1.01-1.04), 1.05 (1.03-1.07), and 1.06 (1.04-1.09) for the outcome score compared to the 1(st) quartile score, respectively. In conclusion, our study design with blinded merge methods shows that total, process, and outcome qualities are related to the return to work of injured workers after controlling for other factors. PMID:27134489

  9. Relations between morning sector Pi 1 pulsation activity and particle and field characteristics observed by the DE 2 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engebretson, M. J.; Cahill, L. J., Jr.; Winningham, J. D.; Rosenberg, T. J.; Arnoldy, R. L.; Maynard, N. C.; Sugiura, M.

    1986-01-01

    Ground-based magnetometer, photometer, and riometer data are combined with low-altitude particle and electric and magnetic field data from the DE-2 spacecraft to provide a more complete characterization of the magnetospheric and tropospheric environment in which morning sector asymmetric Pi 1 pulsations are observed. The results of the study are in agreement with recent conclusions that morning sector asymmetric Pi 1 pulsations are physically related to pulsating aurorae. Precipitation of energetic electrons (E greater than 35 keV) coincides in every instance with the occurrence of these pulsations.

  10. Indoor environmental and air quality characteristics, building-related health symptoms, and worker productivity in a federal government building complex.

    PubMed

    Lukcso, David; Guidotti, Tee Lamont; Franklin, Donald E; Burt, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Building Health Sciences, Inc. (BHS), investigated environmental conditions by many modalities in 71 discreet areas of 12 buildings in a government building complex that had experienced persistent occupant complaints despite correction of deficiencies following a prior survey. An online health survey was completed by 7,637 building occupants (49% response rate), a subset of whom voluntarily wore personal sampling apparatus and underwent medical evaluation. Building environmental measures were within current standards and guidelines, with few outliers. Four environmental factors were consistently associated with group-level building-related health complaints: physical comfort/discomfort, odor, job stress, and glare. Several other factors were frequently commented on by participants, including cleanliness, renovation and construction activities, and noise. Low relative humidity was significantly associated with lower respiratory and "sick building syndrome"-type symptoms. No other environmental conditions (including formaldehyde, PM10 [particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm], or mold levels, which were tested by 7 parameters) correlated directly with individual health symptoms. Indicators of atopy or allergy (sinusitis, allergies, and asthma), when present singly, in combinations of 2 conditions, or together, were hierarchically associated with the following: increased absence, increased presenteeism (presence at work but at reduced capacity), and increase in reported symptom-days, including symptoms not related to respiratory disease. We found that in buildings without unusual hazards and with environmental and air quality indicators within the range of acceptable indoor air quality standards, there is an identifiable population of occupants with a high prevalence of asthma and allergic disease who disproportionately report discomfort and lost productivity due to symptoms and that in "normal" buildings these outcome indicators are more closely

  11. Age- and Sex-Related Characteristics of Tonic Gaba Currents in the Rat Substantia Nigra Pars Reticulata

    PubMed Central

    Hasson, H.; Bojar, M.; Moshé, S. L.; Galanopoulou, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the pharmacologic effects of GABAergic drugs and the postsynaptic phasic GABAAergic inhibitory responses in the anterior part of the rat substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNRA) are age- and sex-specific. Here, we investigate whether there are age- and sex-related differences in the expression of the δ GABAA receptor (GABAAR) subunit and GABAAR mediated tonic currents. We have used δ-specific immunochemistry and whole cell patch clamp to study GABAAR mediated tonic currents in the SNRA of male and female postnatal day (PN) PN5-9, PN11-16, and PN25-32 rats. We observed age-related decline, but no sex-specific changes, in bicuculline (BIM) sensitive GABAAR tonic current density, which correlated with the decline in δ subunit in the SNRA between PN15 and 30. Furthermore, we show that the GABAAR tonic currents can be modified by muscimol (GABAAR agonist; partial GABACR agonist), THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo (5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol: α4β3δ GABAARs agonist and GABACR antagonist), and zolpidem (α1-subunit selective GABAAR agonist) in age-and sex-dependent manner specific for each drug. We propose that the emergence of the GABAAR-sensitive anticonvulsant effects of the rat SNRA during development may depend upon the developmental decline in tonic GABAergic inhibition of the activity of rat SNRA neurons, although other sex-specific factors are also involved. PMID:25645446

  12. The relative importance of host characteristics and co-infection in generating variation in Heligmosomoides polygyrus fecundity.

    PubMed

    Luong, L T; Perkins, S E; Grear, D A; Rizzoli, A; Hudson, P J

    2010-05-01

    We examined the relative importance of intrinsic host factors and microparasite co-infection in generating variation in Heligmosomoides polygyrus fecundity, a parameter that serves as a proxy for infectiousness. We undertook extensive trapping of Apodemus flavicollis, the yellow-necked mouse in the woodlands of the Italian Alps and recorded eggs in utero from the dominant nematode species H. polygyrus, and tested for the presence of five microparasite infections. The results showed that sex and breeding status interact, such that males in breeding condition harboured more fecund nematodes than other hosts; in particular, worms from breeding males had, on average, 52% more eggs in utero than worms from non-breeding males. In contrast, we found a weak relationship between intensity and body mass, and no relationship between intensity and sex or intensity and breeding condition. We did not find any evidence to support the hypothesis that co-infection with microparasites contributed to variation in worm fecundity in this system. The age-intensity profiles for mice singly-infected with H. polygyrus and those co-infected with the nematode and at least one microparasite were both convex and not statistically different from each other. We concluded that intrinsic differences between hosts, specifically with regard to sex and breeding condition, contribute relatively more to the variation in worm fecundity than parasite co-infection status. PMID:20109249

  13. The Effects of N Nutrition on the Water Relations and Gas Exchange Characteristics of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Jack A.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize leaf photosynthetic and stomatal responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants grown under two N-nutritional regimes. High- and low-N regimes were imposed on growth-chamber-grown plants by fertilizing with nutrient solutions containing 12 or 1 millimolar nitrogen, respectively. Gas-exchange measurements indicated not only greater photosynthetic capacity of high-N plants under well-watered conditions, but also a greater sensitivity of CO2 exchange rate and leaf conductance to CO2 and leaf water potential compared to low-N plants. Increased sensitivity of high-N plants was associated with greater tissue elasticity, lower values of leaf osmotic pressure and greater aboveground biomass. These N-nutritional-related changes resulted in greater desiccation (lowered relative water content) of high-N plants as leaf water potential fell, and were implicated as being important in causing greater sensitivity of high-N leaf gas exchange to reductions in water potential. Water use efficiency of leaves, calculated as CO2 exchange rate/transpiration, increased from 9.1 to 13 millimoles per mole and 7.9 to 9.1 millimoles per mole for high- and low-N plants as water became limiting. Stomatal oscillations were commonly observed in the low-N treatment at low leaf water potentials and ambient CO2 concentrations, but disappeared as CO2 was lowered and stomata opened. PMID:16664606

  14. Nutritional characteristics of wild primate foods: do the diets of our closest living relatives have lessons for us?

    PubMed

    Milton, K

    1999-06-01

    The widespread prevalence of diet-related health problems, particularly in highly industrialized nations, suggests that many humans are not eating in a manner compatible with their biology. Anthropoids, including all great apes, take most of their diet from plants, and there is general consensus that humans come from a strongly herbivorous ancestry. Though gut proportions differ, overall gut anatomy and the pattern of digestive kinetics of extant apes and humans are very similar. Analysis of tropical forest leaves and fruits routinely consumed by wild primates shows that many of these foods are good sources of hexoses, cellulose, hemicellulose, pectic substances, vitamin C, minerals, essential fatty acids, and protein. In general, relative to body weight, the average wild monkey or ape appears to take in far higher levels of many essential nutrients each day than the average American and such nutrients (as well as other substances) are being consumed together in their natural chemical matrix. The recommendation that Americans consume more fresh fruits and vegetables in greater variety appears well supported by data on the diets of free-ranging monkeys and apes. Such data also suggest that greater attention to features of the diet and digestive physiology of non-human primates could direct attention to important areas for future research on features of human diet and health. PMID:10378206

  15. Age- and sex-related characteristics of tonic GABA currents in the rat substantia nigra pars reticulata.

    PubMed

    Chudomel, O; Hasson, H; Bojar, M; Moshé, S L; Galanopoulou, A S

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that the pharmacologic effects of GABAergic drugs and the postsynaptic phasic GABAAergic inhibitory responses in the anterior part of the rat substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNRA) are age- and sex-specific. Here, we investigate whether there are age- and sex-related differences in the expression of the δ GABAA receptor (GABAAR) subunit and GABAAR mediated tonic currents. We have used δ-specific immunochemistry and whole cell patch clamp to study GABAAR mediated tonic currents in the SNRA of male and female postnatal day (PN) PN5-9, PN11-16, and PN25-32 rats. We observed age-related decline, but no sex-specific changes, in bicuculline (BIM) sensitive GABAAR tonic current density, which correlated with the decline in δ subunit in the SNRA between PN15 and 30. Furthermore, we show that the GABAAR tonic currents can be modified by muscimol (GABAAR agonist; partial GABACR agonist), THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo (5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol: α4β3δ GABAARs agonist and GABACR antagonist), and zolpidem (α1-subunit selective GABAAR agonist) in age- and sex-dependent manner specific for each drug. We propose that the emergence of the GABAAR-sensitive anticonvulsant effects of the rat SNRA during development may depend upon the developmental decline in tonic GABAergic inhibition of the activity of rat SNRA neurons, although other sex-specific factors are also involved. PMID:25645446

  16. Characteristics of Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR) naturally enhanced ion-acoustic lines (NEIALs) in relation to auroral forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michell, R. G.; Grydeland, T.; Samara, M.

    2014-10-01

    Naturally enhanced ion-acoustic lines (NEIALs) have been observed with the Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR) ever since it began operating in 2006. The nearly continuous operation of PFISR since then has led to a large number of NEIAL observations from there, where common-volume, high-resolution auroral imaging data are available. We aim to systematically distinguish the different types of auroral forms that are associated with different NEIAL features, including spectral shape and altitude extent. We believe that NEIALs occur with a continuum of morphological characteristics, although we find that most NEIALs observed with PFISR fall into two general categories. The first group occurs at fairly low altitudes - F region or below - and have power at, and spread between, the ion-acoustic peaks. The second group contains the type of NEIALs that have previously been observed with the EISCAT radars, those that extend to high altitudes (600 km or more) and often have large asymmetries in the power enhancements between the two ion-acoustic shoulders. We find that there is a correlation between the auroral structures and the type of NEIALs observed, and that the auroral structures present during NEIAL events are consistent with the likely NEIAL generation mechanisms inferred in each case. The first type of NEIAL - low altitude - is the most commonly observed with PFISR and is most often associated with active, structured auroral arcs, such as substorm growth phase, and onset arcs and are likely generated by Langmuir turbulence. The second type of NEIAL - high altitude - occurs less frequently in the PFISR radar and is associated with aurora that contains large fluxes of low-energy electrons, as can happen in poleward boundary intensifications as well as at substorm onset and is likely the result of current-driven instabilities and in some cases Langmuir turbulence as well. In addition, a preliminary auroral photometry analysis revealed that there is an

  17. Relating phosphorus uptake to changes in transient storage and streambed sediment characteristics in headwater tributaries of Valley Creek, an urbanizing watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Robert J.; Packman, Aaron I.; Kilham, Susan S.

    2007-04-01

    SummaryPhosphorus uptake dynamics were examined in two small streams in the Valley Creek watershed, located in an urbanizing area approximately 30 km west of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. The goal of this research was to examine how phosphorus uptake is influenced by temporal changes in bed sediment characteristics and transient storage in streams within an urbanizing watershed. We conducted tracer studies with a conservative solute, observed phosphorus uptake in situ and in laboratory experiments, and measured fine bed sediment grain size distributions and chemical compositions at both sites. At the Morehall Rd. site, the total laboratory and in situ uptake rates were related to the silt-clay ( d < 50 μm) content of the fine ( d < 2 mm) bed sediment and the sediment phosphorus concentration. The in situ uptake rate was also related to the sediment magnesium content and the transient storage exchange rate and area. At the Sheldrake Rd. site, the phosphorus uptake rates observed in situ and in the laboratory were not significantly related to any of the measured stream or sediment characteristics. However, the areal average uptake (uptake flux), was related to the transient storage exchange rate. In addition, the abiotic contribution to in situ uptake was evaluated by comparing the in situ and laboratory measured uptake rates. The total abiotic in situ uptake rate was found to be related to the bed sediment silt-clay content and the transient storage residence time, while the abiotic uptake flux was related to the transient storage residence time. Overall, these urbanizing streams were less efficient at removing phosphorus from the water column than forested streams in non-urban settings.

  18. Tessera terrain on Venus: A survey of the global distribution, characteristics, and relation to surrounding units from Magellan data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Mikhail A.; Head, James W.

    The tessera terrain on Venus, comprised of areas of high radar backscatter, complex deformation patterns relative to other units, and topography standing higher than surrounding plains, covers ~35.33×106 km2, about 8% of the surface of Venus, and is nonrandomly distributed, being preferentially located at equatorial and higher northern latitudes with a distinct paucity below about 30°S. Individual tessera occurrences range in area from the lower limits of our measurements (about 200 km2) up to the largest tessera, Ovda, with an area of about 8.6×106 km2, or about 2% of the surface area of Venus. The size-frequency distribution of tessera patches is strongly unimodal and skewed toward smaller sizes, reflecting the great abundance of small tessera fragments. Modes of occurrence include (1) large clusters (e.g., Aphrodite Terra and Ishtar Terra); (2) arc-like segments which may extend for thousands of kilometers and are either concave inward toward the major tessera cluster development or away from it; (3) areas where tesserae are rare or absent which occur both as low-lying plains (e.g., Guinevere Planitia), and as elevated regions (e.g., Atla Regio). Tessera terrain has a bimodal elevation-frequency distribution, with the main peak at about 0-1 km and an additional peak at about 3 km above mean planetary radius. In terms of number of occurrences, however, tesserae do not display a correlation with elevation at the global scale, since small tessera patches commonly occupy low-lying regions. Although tessera exhibit a range of gravity signatures, many occurrences are interpreted to represent relatively shallow (crustal) levels of compensation. Tessera boundaries include Type I (sinuous/embayed, dominated by adjacent lava plains embaying tessera massifs; 73% of total tesserae boundaries) and Type II (linear/tectonic). Only a small percentage of the length of all boundary types show no lava embayment and could be interpreted as tectonically active for long periods

  19. The International Database of HOme blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome (IDHOCO): moving from baseline characteristics to research perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Niiranen, Teemu J; Thijs, Lutgarde; Asayama, Kei; Johansson, Jouni K; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Kikuya, Masahiro; Boggia, José; Hozawa, Atsushi; Sandoya, Edgardo; Stergiou, George S; Tsuji, Ichiro; Jula, Antti M; Imai, Yutaka; Staessen, Jan A

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to construct an International Database of HOme blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome (IDHOCO). The main goal of this database is to determine outcome-based diagnostic thresholds for the self-measured home blood pressure (BP). Secondary objectives include investigating the predictive value of white-coat and masked hypertension, morning and evening BP, BP and heart rate variability, and the home arterial stiffness index. We also aim to determine an optimal schedule for home BP measurements that provides the most accurate risk stratification. Eligible studies are population-based, have fatal as well as nonfatal outcomes available for analysis, comply with ethical standards, and have been previously published in peer-reviewed journals. In a meta-analysis based on individual subject data, composite and cause-specific cardiovascular events will be related to various indexes derived by home BP measurement. The analyses will be stratified by a cohort and adjusted for the clinic BP and established cardiovascular risk factors. The database includes 6753 subjects from five cohorts recruited in Ohasama, Japan (n = 2777); Finland (n = 2075); Tsurugaya, Japan (n = 836); Didima, Greece (n = 665); and Montevideo, Uruguay (n = 400). In these five cohorts, during a total of 62 106 person-years of follow-up (mean 9.2 years), 852 subjects died and 740 participants experienced a fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular event. IDHOCO provides a unique opportunity to investigate several hypotheses that could not reliably be studied in individual studies. The results of these analyses should be of help to clinicians involved in the management of patients with suspected or established hypertension. PMID:22763485

  20. Relative permeability hysteresis and capillary trapping characteristics of supercritical CO2/brine systems: An experimental study at reservoir conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbarabadi, Morteza; Piri, Mohammad

    2013-02-01

    We present the results of an experimental study on the effects of hysteresis on capillary trapping and relative permeability of CO2/brine systems at reservoir conditions. We performed thirty unsteady- and steady-state drainage and imbibition full-recirculation flow experiments in three different sandstone rock samples, low- and high-permeability Berea and Nugget sandstones. The experiments were carried out at various flow rates with both supercritical CO2 (scCO2)/brine and gaseous CO2 (gCO2)/brine fluid systems. The unsteady-state experiments were carried out with a wide range of flow rates to establish a broad range of initial brine saturations (Swi). This allowed investigation of the sensitivity of residual trapped CO2 saturation (S) to changes in Swi. The values were successfully compared with those available in the literature. For a given Swi, the trapped scCO2 saturation was less than that of gCO2 in the same sample. This was attributed to brine being less wetting in the presence of scCO2 than in the presence of gCO2. Post-imbibition dissolution of trapped CO2 and formation of dissolution front was also investigated. During the steady-state experiments, scCO2 and brine were co-injected with monotonically increasing or decreasing fractional flows to perform drainage and imbibition processes. We carried out seven sets of steady-state flow tests with various trajectories generating a comprehensive group of relative permeability hysteresis curves. The scanning curves revealed distinct features with potentially important implications for storage of scCO2 in geological formations. For both series of experiments, the ratio of S to initial CO2 saturation (1- Swi) was found to be much higher for low initial CO2 saturations. The results indicate that very promising fractions (about 49 to 83%) of the initial CO2 saturation can be stored through capillary trapping.

  1. Damaging biting behaviors in intensively kept rearing gilts: the effect of jute sacks and relations with production characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ursinus, W W; Wijnen, H J; Bartels, A C; Dijvesteijn, N; van Reenen, C G; Bolhuis, J E

    2014-11-01

    Pigs may display biting behavior directed at pen mates, resulting in body damage such as tail wounds. We assessed the suitability of jute sacks (hung vertically at wall) to reduce biting behaviors and tail wounds in rearing gilts. Additionally, we assessed several characteristics of different types of tail biters. Tail docked rearing gilts originated from 72 litters, which were kept in partly slatted pens with jute sacks (J) or barren control pens (CON; 36 litters per treatment). Tail and ear damage were observed at weaning (4 wk) and during the weaner and rearing phase (17 J and 19 CON pens). Sow (dam) damage was also considered. Biting behaviors (tail, ear, and other) were observed during the weaner and rearing phase. Weight was recorded at birth, weaning, and end of the weaner phase and ADG was calculated from birth till weaning and from weaning till 9 wk. Furthermore, estimated breeding values for litter size, litter birth weight, back fat, and growth between birth and ∼ 105 kg, and ∼ 25 to 105 kg were determined. Jute sacks reduced tail and ear damage at weaning (both P < 0.001) and tended to reduce sow tail damage (P = 0.09). Jute sacks also reduced tail damage post-weaning (P < 0.001 to 0.03), with a 5-fold reduction of (mild) tail wounds at the age of 13 wk. Biting behaviors directed at pen mates were up to 50% lower in J pens (P < 0.001 to 0.04). Higher genotypic litter size, litter birth weight, growth, and lower back fat seemed associated with higher levels of ear or tail-biting behavior (P = 0.002 to 0.09), albeit dependent on treatment and phase. Higher phenotypic litter sizes were associated with higher levels of biting behaviors (P = 0.004-0.08). High-tail-biters and Medium-tail-biters (the latter less pronounced) stemmed from larger litters (P = 0.01 to 0.05), were heavier (P = 0.03 to 0.04), grew faster (P = 0.05 to 0.08), and displayed higher levels of all kinds of biting behavior directed to pen mates and the jute sack (P < 0.001 to 0

  2. Characteristics of positive cloud-to-ground lightning in Da Hinggan Ling forest region at relatively high latitude, northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qie, Xiushu; Wang, Zhichao; Wang, Dongfang; Liu, Mingyuan

    2013-12-01

    2009 and 2010, a multistation network of fast and slow antennas was installed on the edge of a relatively high latitude forest region in Da Hinggan Ling (50.4°N, 124.1°E) of northeastern China. The documented 185 positive cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes containing 196 return strokes were analyzed in the paper. It was found that 71.89% of the positive CG flashes contained continuing current. The average duration of continuing current was short with an arithmetic mean value of 33.29 ms and a geometric mean value of 16.74 ms; only one continuing current lasted longer than 150 ms, probably because of the small size of the storm cell in this relatively high latitude region. The vast majority (94.59%) of positive CG flashes was characterized by a single stroke, and the average number of stroke per flash is 1.06. The average charge transferred by positive stroke and continuing current, based upon the analysis of five flashes with well-documented simultaneous measurements of more than five stations, was +5.2 C from a height of 6.0 km (above ground) and +10.2 C from a height of 6.4 km, respectively. The charge moment for +CG strokes ranged from +13.7 C km to +55.9 C km, while that for continuing current ranged from +29.0 C km to +96.9 C km, respectively. The preliminary breakdown process in positive CG flashes can be classified into three types, namely type S (same), type D (different), and type C (chaotic) according to the disparities in the initial polarity of bipolar pulses from the return stroke, which account for 62.92%, 23.60%, and 13.48%, respectively. According to the electric field waveforms indicative (or not indicative) of intracloud (IC) discharge, positive CG flashes are classified into four types, i.e., ordinary positive CG flash (63.78%), hybrid +CG-IC flash (21.08%), hybrid IC-+CG flash (5.41%), and hybrid IC-+CG-IC flash (9.73%). About 15.14% of the recorded positive CG flashes were byproduct of IC lightning discharge.

  3. Assessment of contaminant levels and trophic relations at a World Heritage Site by measurements in a characteristic shorebird species

    SciTech Connect

    Schwemmer, Philipp; Covaci, Adrian; Das, Krishna; Lepoint, Gilles; Adler, Sven; Garthe, Stefan

    2015-01-15

    The River Elbe is responsible for influxes of contaminants into the Wadden Sea World Heritage Site. We investigated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), oxychlordane (OxC), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (α-, β-, γ-HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in blood and feathers from Eurasian oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus; n=28) at the Elbe and compared it with a non-riverine site about 90 km further north. (1) Mean levels of all contaminants in feathers and serum were significantly higher at the river (∑PCBs: 27.6 ng/g feather, 37.0 ng/ml serum; ∑DDTs: 5.3 ng/g feather, 4.4 ng/ml serum) compared with the non-riverine site (∑PCBs: 6.5 ng/g feather, 1.2 ng/ml serum; ∑DDTs: 1.4 ng/g feather, 0.5 ng/ml serum). Mean ∑HCH and HCB levels were <1.8 ng/g in feather and <1.8 ng/ml in serum at both sites. (2) Levels of most detectable compounds in serum and feathers were significantly related, but levels were not consistently higher in either tissue. (3) There was no significant relationship between trophic level in individual oystercatchers (expressed as δ15N) or the degree of terrestrial feeding (expressed as δ13C) and contaminant loads. (4) PBDEs were not detected in significant amounts at either site. The results of this study indicate that the outflow from one of Europe′s largest river systems is associated with significant historical contamination, reflected by the accumulation of contaminants in body tissues in a coastal benthivore predator. - Highlights: • Contaminants in Oystercatchers from the Elbe river and a non-riverine site were measured. • Mean levels of contaminants were higher at the river than at the non-riverine site. • Levels of most contaminants in serum and feathers were significantly related. • No relationship between trophic level (δ15N) and contaminant level was found. • One of Europe′s largest river systems is associated

  4. Tessera Terrain on Venus: A Survey of the Global Distribution, Characteristics, and Relation to Surrounding Units from Magellan Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, Mikhail; Head, James W.

    1996-01-01

    The tessera terrain on Venus, comprised of areas of high radar backscatter, complex deformation patterns relative to other units, and topography standing higher than surrounding plains, covers approximately 35.33 x 10(exp 6)sq km, about 8% of the surface of Venus, and is nonrandomly distributed, being preferentially located at equatorial and higher northern latitudes with a distinct paucity below about 30degS. Individual tessera occurrences range in area from the lower limits of our measurements (about 200 sq km) up to the largest tessera, Ovda, with an area of about 8.6 x 10(exp 6)sq km, or about 2% of the surface area of Venus. The size-frequency distribution of tessera patches is strongly unimodal and skewed toward smaller sizes, reflecting the great abundance of small tessera fragments. Modes of occurrence include (1) large clusters (e.g., Aphrodite Terra and Ishtar Terra); (2) arc-like segments which may extend for thousands of kilometers and are either concave inward toward the major tessera cluster development or away from it; (3) areas where tesserae are rare or absent which occur both as low-lying plains (e.g., Guinevere Planitia), and as elevated regions (e.g., Ata Regio). Tessera terrain has a bimodal elevation-frequency distribution, with the main peak at about 0- 1 km and an additional peak at about 3 km above mean planetary radius. In terms of number of occurrences, however, tesserae do not display a correlation with elevation at the global scale, since small tessera patches commonly occupy low-lying regions. Although tessera exhibit a range of gravity signatures, many occurrences are interpreted to represent relatively shallow (crustal) levels of compensation. Tessera boundaries include Type I (sinuous/embayed, dominated by adjacent lava plains embaying tessera massifs; 73% of total tesserae boundaries) and Type II (linear/tectonic). Only a small percentage of the length of all boundary types show no lava embayment and could be interpreted as

  5. Plasticity-induced characteristic changes of pattern dynamics and the related phase transitions in small-world neuronal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xu-Hui; Hu, Gang

    2014-10-01

    Phase transitions widely exist in nature and occur when some control parameters are changed. In neural systems, their macroscopic states are represented by the activity states of neuron populations, and phase transitions between different activity states are closely related to corresponding functions in the brain. In particular, phase transitions to some rhythmic synchronous firing states play significant roles on diverse brain functions and disfunctions, such as encoding rhythmical external stimuli, epileptic seizure, etc. However, in previous studies, phase transitions in neuronal networks are almost driven by network parameters (e.g., external stimuli), and there has been no investigation about the transitions between typical activity states of neuronal networks in a self-organized way by applying plastic connection weights. In this paper, we discuss phase transitions in electrically coupled and lattice-based small-world neuronal networks (LBSW networks) under spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). By applying STDP on all electrical synapses, various known and novel phase transitions could emerge in LBSW networks, particularly, the phenomenon of self-organized phase transitions (SOPTs): repeated transitions between synchronous and asynchronous firing states. We further explore the mechanics generating SOPTs on the basis of synaptic weight dynamics.

  6. Effect of impregnating agent and relative humidity on surface characteristics of sorbents determined by inverse gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kasperkowiak, M; Kołodziejek, J; Strzemiecka, B; Voelkel, A

    2013-05-01

    Sorbents that potentially can be used for separation of the products of biotechnological conversion of glycerol were examined. Properties of Zeolite 5A, resins: Amberlite, Diaion and their samples impregnated with an aqueous solutions of 1,2,3-propanetriol, 1,3-propanediol, 2,3-butanediol, acetic acid, succinic acid and model fermentation broth were investigated. Because surface properties will probably depend on the ambient humidity the IGC experiments were carried out under different conditions of relative humidity RH=0, 40 and 80%. Activity of the sorbents surface was expressed by the value of the dispersive component of the free surface energy. Inverse gas chromatography was also used to express acid-base properties of materials described by KA and KD parameters. The changes in the activity of investigated sorbents significantly varied depending on the type of impregnating agent. Moreover, the obtained results demonstrate that humidity can strongly influence, in some cases, the dispersive component of the free surface energy and the ability to specific interactions (KA and KD). PMID:23522262

  7. Effect of Body mass index on the performance characteristics of PSA-related markers to detect prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yao; Han, Cheng-Tao; Zhang, Gui-Ming; Liu, Fang; Ding, Qiang; Xu, Jian-Feng; Vidal, Adriana C.; Freedland, Stephen J.; Ng, Chi-Fai; Ye, Ding-Wei

    2016-01-01

    To examine whether the predictive performance of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and PSA-related markers for prostate cancer (PCa) is modified by body mass index (BMI). Patients with a PSA 2–10 ng/mL who underwent multicore prostate biopsies were recruited from three tertiary centers. Serum markers measured included total PSA (tPSA), free-to-total PSA (f/tPSA), p2PSA, percentage of p2PSA (%p2PSA), and prostate health index (PHI). The association between serum markers and PCa risk was assessed by logistic regression. Predictive performance for each marker was quantified using the area under the receiver operator curves (AUC). Among 516 men, 18.2% had PCa at biopsy. For all tested markers, their predictive value on PCa risk was lower in obese patients compared to normal weight patients. We found statistically significant interactions between BMI and tPSA (P = 0.0026) and p2PSA (P = 0.038). PHI achieved an AUC of 0.872 in normal weight patients and 0.745 in obese patients, which outperformed the other predictors regardless of BMI category. In conclusion, PHI achieved the best predictive performance for detecting PCa and was not influenced by BMI. PMID:26754552

  8. Structural and functional characteristics of two novel members of pathogensis-related multigene family of class 10 from yellow lupine+.

    PubMed

    Handschuh, Luiza; Femiak, Iwona; Kasperska, Alina; Figlerowicz, Marek; Sikorski, Michał M

    2007-01-01

    PR-10 proteins (pathogensis-related), ubiquitous within the plant kingdom, are usually encoded by multigene families. To date we have identified 10 homologous pr-10 genes in a yellow lupine cDNA library. Here, the structure and expression of two newly identified yellow lupine pr-10 genes (LlYpr10-2b and LlYpr10-2f) are presented. Many potential regulatory sites were found in both gene promoters including common ones as well as those unique for each gene. However, promoter deletion analysis in transgenic tobacco plants revealed similar patterns of reporter gene (gus) expression. Shortened fragments of both gene promoters studied caused high GUS activity in leaves (along vascular bundles), stamen stigma, anthers and pollen grains. When conjugated with longer LlYpr-10.2 promoter fragments, GUS was additionally present in petal edges. Only a long fragment of the LlYpr10-2b gene promoter caused GUS expression in the stem. In yellow lupine the pr-10.2 genes are present in all studied organs, but their level of expression depends on the stage of development and is affected by wounding, oxidative stress and salicylic acid treatment. Silencing of the Llpr-10.2b gene in 4-week-old yellow lupine plants did not lead to any visible symptoms, which suggests that the function of the silenced gene is supplemented by its close homologues, still present in the studied plants. PMID:18080022

  9. Age-related joint moment characteristics during normal gait and successful reactive-recovery from unexpected slip perturbations

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian; Lockhart, Thurmon E.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of aging on 3D lower extremity joint moments during successful reactive-recovery from unexpected slips. Unexpected slips were induced by having participants walk over a slippery floor surface. Successful reactive-recovery trials from nine young and nine elderly participants were identified and analyzed. Three-dimensional inverse dynamics were implemented to calculate reactive joint moments at the ankle, knee, and hip joints. Peak joint moment magnitude and the speed of peak joint moment generation were used to describe the balance recovery strategies from unexpected slips. Results indicated significantly higher peak joint moments in recovery than in normal walking for both the young and elderly. Meanwhile, during reactive-recovery, the elderly were found to utilize both frontal and sagittal joint moments while the younger adults relied primarily on sagittal joint moment. It was concluded that the ankle and knee joints were critical in controlling sagittal plane motion disturbance, while the hip joint was mainly responsible for stabilizing upper body balance in the frontal plane. This study confirmed age-related differences in joint moment generation during unexpected slips. Additionally, implementing 3D analysis is recommended in future slips and falls research. PMID:19581088

  10. Client Characteristics as Moderators of the Relation Between the Therapeutic Alliance and Outcome in Cognitive Therapy for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo-Luaces, Lorenzo; DeRubeis, Robert J.; Webb, Christian A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Little is known about the variability of the alliance-outcome correlation across identifiable client subsets. This question was explored in a sample of 60 clients receiving cognitive therapy for depression, from which an overall correlation of .23 was observed between alliance ratings and subsequent symptom change. Methods We examined interactions between the observer-rated version of the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI-O) and client demographics, features of depression, personality and other clinical features in predicting subsequent symptom change. Results After correcting for multiple comparisons, interactions between the WAI-O and the number of prior depressive episodes, as well as the severity of baseline anxiety symptoms, were significant predictors of symptom change. When both interactions were controlled for, number of prior depressive episodes emerged as a statistically significant moderator. The alliance predicted outcome in the subgroup of clients with 0–2 prior episodes (r = .52), but not in those with 3 or more prior episodes (r = −.02). These findings were obtained despite similar univariate distributions on the alliance and symptom change in the two subgroups. Discussion Differences that were observed in the predictive relation of alliance to outcome as a function of number of prior episodes suggests that different therapy processes may account for change in these subgroups. If the pattern observed in the present study is replicated, it would suggest that the alliance-outcome association has been both under- and over-estimated. PMID:24547921

  11. Characteristics of the nurse manager's recognition behavior and its relation to sense of coherence of staff nurses in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Chiharu; Arai, Hidenori; Suga, Sawako

    2015-01-01

    The recognition behaviors strongly influence the job satisfaction of staff nurses and an extremely important factor for the prevention of burnout and the promotion of retention. Additionally, among internal factors that may affect worker's mental health, a sense of coherence (SOC) is an important concept from the view of the salutogenic theory and stress recognition style. Individual's SOC increases in relation to recognition behavior. However, in Japan, few studies have examined the effect of recognition behaviors on the SOC of staff nurses. The purpose of this study was to investigate how staff nurses perceive recognition behaviors of the nurse manager and to determine the relationship between recognition behaviors and the staff nurses' SOC. This quantitative, cross-sectional study involved 10 hospitals in Japan. A total of 1425 nurses completed the questionnaire. As a result, the perceptions of nurse manager's recognition behaviors by staff nurses were evaluated by presentation and report, individual value and the transfer of responsibility, and professional development. The median score of staff nurse SOC-13 was 50 (IQR; 45-55). Significant differences in SOC scores were found in marital status, age, years of experience, and mental and physical health condition. In conclusion, recognition behaviors by the nurse manager can improve staff nurse's SOC and effectively support the mental health of the staff nurse. PMID:26285404

  12. Patterns of agricultural pesticide use in relation to socioeconomic characteristics of the population in the rural U.S. South.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Matt; Tajik, Mansoureh; Wing, Steve

    2007-01-01

    Residents of rural, agricultural areas where pesticides are used experience increased potential for pesticide exposure. In the rural U.S. South, where communities are predominantly of color, increased agricultural chemical use can constitute environmental injustice. Lacking data on the amounts of pesticide applied, the authors used county-level expenditure on agricultural chemicals as a proxy for pesticide use to explore spatial patterns of pesticide expenditure in relation to racial and economic composition in 953 rural counties in 12 southern states. Approximately eight times more money was spent on pesticides in counties with populations having more than 40 percent persons of color than in counties with less than 6 percent. Approximately four times more money was spent in counties with more than 22 percent of their population living in poverty than in counties with less than 12 percent. After adjusting for agricultural land area and land use, the authors found counties with more than 40 percent persons of color and more than 22 percent poverty spent about $1.3 million more on pesticides in 2002 than did counties with less than 6 percent persons of color and 12 percent poverty. This pattern of pesticide expenditures may produce racial and economic inequities in environmental exposures to pesticides, having implications for environmental justice and public health. PMID:17665723

  13. Identifying consumer preferences for specific beef flavor characteristics in relation to cattle production and postmortem processing parameters.

    PubMed

    O'Quinn, T G; Woerner, D R; Engle, T E; Chapman, P L; Legako, J F; Brooks, J C; Belk, K E; Tatum, J D

    2016-02-01

    Sensory analysis of ground LL samples representing 12 beef product categories was conducted in 3 different regions of the U.S. to identify flavor preferences of beef consumers. Treatments characterized production-related flavor differences associated with USDA grade, cattle type, finishing diet, growth enhancement, and postmortem aging method. Consumers (N=307) rated cooked samples for 12 flavors and overall flavor desirability. Samples were analyzed to determine fatty acid content. Volatile compounds produced by cooking were extracted and quantified. Overall, consumers preferred beef that rated high for beefy/brothy, buttery/beef fat, and sweet flavors and disliked beef with fishy, livery, gamey, and sour flavors. Flavor attributes of samples higher in intramuscular fat with greater amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids and lesser proportions of saturated, odd-chain, omega-3, and trans fatty acids were preferred by consumers. Of the volatiles identified, diacetyl and acetoin were most closely correlated with desirable ratings for overall flavor and dimethyl sulfide was associated with an undesirable sour flavor. PMID:26560806

  14. Work related characteristics, work-home and home-work interference and burnout among primary healthcare physicians: A gender perspective in a Serbian context

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Little information exists on work and stress related health of medical doctors in non-EU countries. Filling this knowledge gap is needed to uncover the needs of this target population and to provide information on comparability of health related phenomena such as burnout across countries. This study examined work related characteristics, work-home and home-work interference and burnout among Serbian primary healthcare physicians (PHPs) and compared burnout levels with other medical doctors in EU countries. Methods Data were collected via surveys which contained Maslach Burnout Inventory and other validated instruments measuring work and home related characteristics. The sample consisted of 373 PHPs working in 12 primary healthcare centres. Data were analysed using t-tests and Chi square tests. Results No gender differences were detected on mean scores of variables among Serbian physicians, who experience high levels of personal accomplishment, workload, job control and social support, medium to high levels of emotional exhaustion, medium levels of depersonalisation and work-home interference, and low levels of home-work interference. There were more women than men who experienced low job control and high depersonalisation. Serbian physicians experienced significantly higher emotional exhaustion and lower depersonalisation than physicians in some other European countries. Conclusions To diminish excessive workload, the number of physicians working in primary healthcare centres in Serbia should be increased. Considering that differences between countries were detected on all burnout subcomponents, work-related interventions for employees should be country specific. The role of gender needs to be closely examined in future studies as well. PMID:21943328

  15. Assessment of contaminant levels and trophic relations at a World Heritage Site by measurements in a characteristic shorebird species.

    PubMed

    Schwemmer, Philipp; Covaci, Adrian; Das, Krishna; Lepoint, Gilles; Adler, Sven; Garthe, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The River Elbe is responsible for influxes of contaminants into the Wadden Sea World Heritage Site. We investigated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), oxychlordane (OxC), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (α-, β-, γ-HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in blood and feathers from Eurasian oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus; n = 28) at the Elbe and compared it with a non-riverine site about 90 km further north. (1) Mean levels of all contaminants in feathers and serum were significantly higher at the river (∑PCBs: 27.6 ng/g feather, 37.0 ng/ml serum; ∑DDTs: 5.3 ng/g feather, 4.4 ng/ml serum) compared with the non-riverine site (∑PCBs: 6.5 ng/g feather, 1.2 ng/ml serum; ∑DDTs: 1.4 ng/g feather, 0.5 ng/ml serum). Mean ∑HCH and HCB levels were <1.8 ng/g in feather and < 1.8 ng/ml in serum at both sites. (2) Levels of most detectable compounds in serum and feathers were significantly related, but levels were not consistently higher in either tissue. (3) There was no significant relationship between trophic level in individual oystercatchers (expressed as δ15N) or the degree of terrestrial feeding (expressed as δ13C) and contaminant loads. (4) PBDEs were not detected in significant amounts at either site. The results of this study indicate that the outflow from one of Europe's largest river systems is associated with significant historical contamination, reflected by the accumulation of contaminants in body tissues in a coastal benthivore predator. PMID:25460633

  16. Gait characteristics of people with diabetes-related peripheral neuropathy, with and without a history of ulceration.

    PubMed

    Raspovic, Anita

    2013-09-01

    Biomechanical alterations in diabetes are believed to contribute to plantar neuropathic ulceration. This exploratory study documents clinical measures of flexibility and strength, alongside three-dimensional biomechanical gait data of the lower limb, in 10 patients with a history of neuropathic ulceration (DNU; n=10). Comparative data is presented from age and gender matched groups with; diabetes peripheral neuropathy and no ulcer history (DWN; n=10), diabetes and no peripheral neuropathy (DNN; n=10) and a non-diabetes reference group (NOND; n=10). Biomechanical data were collected at a comfortable walking speed with a Vicon motion analysis system. Clinical measures showed a non-significant trend toward decreased static range of motion at the ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joints, with worsening neuropathy status. Of the diabetes groups, knee and ankle strength was significantly lower in those with an ulcer history (p=0.01-0.03), with the exception of knee extension. In the DNU group, walking speed was on average 0.17 ms slower compared to NOND (p=0.04). The DNU group demonstrated a lower range of motion than NOND at the: hips (frontal plane, by 25%: p=0.03); hips and knees (transverse plane, 31%: p=0.01 and 32%: p<0.01); ankles (sagittal plane, 22%: p<0.01) and first metatarsophalangeal joints (sagittal plane, 32%: p=0.01), with less foot rotation (24%: p=0.04). Kinetic alterations in DNU included lower: ankle maximum power (21%: p=0.03) and vertical ground reaction force 2nd peak (6%: p<0.01). The study findings identified gait alterations in people with clinically severe peripheral neuropathy and related plantar foot ulcer history. Further research is needed to explore potential casual pathways. PMID:23583607

  17. Identifying subtypes of patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration by genotypic and cardiovascular risk characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background One of the challenges in the interpretation of studies showing associations between environmental and genotypic data with disease outcomes such as neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is understanding the phenotypic heterogeneity within a patient population with regard to any risk factor associated with the condition. This is critical when considering the potential therapeutic response of patients to any drug developed to treat the condition. In the present study, we identify patient subtypes or clusters which could represent several different targets for treatment development, based on genetic pathways in AMD and cardiovascular pathology. Methods We identified a sample of patients with neovascular AMD, that in previous studies had been shown to be at elevated risk for the disease through environmental factors such as cigarette smoking and genetic variants including the complement factor H gene (CFH) on chromosome 1q25 and variants in the ARMS2/HtrA serine peptidase 1 (HTRA1) gene(s) on chromosome 10q26. We conducted a multivariate segmentation analysis of 253 of these patients utilizing available epidemiologic and genetic data. Results In a multivariate model, cigarette smoking failed to differentiate subtypes of patients. However, four meaningfully distinct clusters of patients were identified that were most strongly differentiated by their cardiovascular health status (histories of hypercholesterolemia and hypertension), and the alleles of ARMS2/HTRA1 rs1049331. Conclusions These results have significant personalized medicine implications for drug developers attempting to determine the effective size of the treatable neovascular AMD population. Patient subtypes or clusters may represent different targets for therapeutic development based on genetic pathways in AMD and cardiovascular pathology, and treatments developed that may elevate CV risk, may be ill advised for certain of the clusters identified. PMID:21682878

  18. Characteristics and outcome of therapy-related myeloid neoplasms: Report from the Italian network on secondary leukemias.

    PubMed

    Fianchi, Luana; Pagano, Livio; Piciocchi, Alfonso; Candoni, Anna; Gaidano, Gianluca; Breccia, Massimo; Criscuolo, Marianna; Specchia, Giorgina; Maria Pogliani, Enrico; Maurillo, Luca; Aloe-Spiriti, Maria Antonietta; Mecucci, Cristina; Niscola, Pasquale; Rossetti, Elena; Mansueto, Giovanna; Rondoni, Michela; Fozza, Claudio; Invernizzi, Rosangela; Spadea, Antonio; Fenu, Susanna; Buda, Gabriele; Gobbi, Marco; Fabiani, Emiliano; Sica, Simona; Hohaus, Stefan; Leone, Giuseppe; Voso, Maria Teresa

    2015-05-01

    Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN) are a complication of cytotoxic treatment for primary tumors and autoimmune diseases. We report data on 277 t-MN patients, recruited between 1999 and 2013 by the Italian Network on Secondary Leukemias (104 retrospectively and 173 prospectively registered). Median age at t-MN diagnosis was 64 years (range, 21-87). Most frequent primary malignancies (PMs) were lymphoproliferative diseases and breast cancer. One hundred and thirty-three patients had received chemotherapy (CHT), 43 patients radiotherapy (RT), and 101 patients combined CHT/RT for PM. Median time between cytotoxic treatment and t-MN was 5.7 years, with t-MN following RT alone associated with significantly longer latency, compared to CHT or combined CHT/RT (mean, 11.2 vs. 7.1 years, P = 0.0005). The addition of topoisomerase-II inhibitors to alkylating agents was associated with shorter latency compared to alkylating agents alone (median, 6 vs. 8.4 years, P = 0.02). Median survival was 14.6 months from t-MN diagnosis, and was significantly longer in patients treated with allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Significant factors for survival at the multivariable analysis included age, adverse karyotype, and degree of anemia. Our data underline the prognostic importance of karyotype and age in t-MN, similar to de novo acute myeloid leukemia. Treatment approaches should not preclude the use of conventional treatments for younger t-MN patients, including allogeneic stem cell transplantation as potentially curative approach. PMID:25653205

  19. Distribution patterns of wintering sea ducks in relation to the North Atlantic Oscillation and local environmental characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zipkin, Elise F.; Gardner, Beth; Gilbert, Andrew T.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Royle, J. Andrew; Silverman, Emily D.

    2010-01-01

    Twelve species of North American sea ducks (Tribe Mergini) winter off the eastern coast of the United States and Canada. Yet, despite their seasonal proximity to urbanized areas in this region, there is limited information on patterns of wintering sea duck habitat use. It is difficult to gather information on sea ducks because of the relative inaccessibility of their offshore locations, their high degree of mobility, and their aggregated distributions. To characterize environmental conditions that affect wintering distributions, as well as their geographic ranges, we analyzed count data on five species of sea ducks (black scoters Melanitta nigra americana, surf scoters M. perspicillata, white-winged scoters M. fusca, common eiders Somateria mollissima, and long-tailed ducks Clangula hyemalis) that were collected during the Atlantic Flyway Sea Duck Survey for ten years starting in the early 1990s. We modeled count data for each species within ten-nautical-mile linear survey segments using a zero-inflated negative binomial model that included four local-scale habitat covariates (sea surface temperature, mean bottom depth, maximum bottom slope, and a variable to indicate if the segment was in a bay or not), one broad-scale covariate (the North Atlantic Oscillation), and a temporal correlation component. Our results indicate that species distributions have strong latitudinal gradients and consistency in local habitat use. The North Atlantic Oscillation was the only environmental covariate that had a significant (but variable) effect on the expected count for all five species, suggesting that broad-scale climatic conditions may be directly or indirectly important to the distributions of wintering sea ducks. Our results provide critical information on species-habitat associations, elucidate the complicated relationship between the North Atlantic Oscillation, sea surface temperature, and local sea duck abundances, and should be useful in assessing the impacts of climate

  20. Hygroscopicity and CCN activity of atmospheric aerosol particles and their relation to organics: Characteristics of urban aerosols in Nagoya, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawana, Kaori; Nakayama, Tomoki; Mochida, Michihiro

    2016-04-01

    The size-resolved distributions of hygroscopic growth factor g and the ratios of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) to condensation nuclei of atmospheric aerosols were investigated in Nagoya, Japan. The average of the distributions of g at 85% relative humidity was bimodal. The size-resolved mean κ derived from g showed an increasing trend with diameter: 0.17-0.33 at 24-359 nm. The κ values calculated from CCN activation curves were 37% higher than those derived from g. Only 9% of the 37% difference is explained by the difference in the κ of inorganics under subsaturated and supersaturated conditions, suggesting a contribution of organics to the remaining 28% difference. The size-averaged κ of organics (κorg) was calculated as 0.14 and 0.19 by two different methods. The number fractions of CCN predicted from the hygroscopicity data over the range of 24-359 nm are loosely consistent with those observed if the size- and time-averaged g is applied to all particles (differences: -30% to +10%). This consistency improves if size- and time-resolved g and g distribution are used (differences: -19% to -3%). Whereas the number fractions of CCN predicted from the composition data are greatly underestimated if organics are assumed to be insoluble (differences: -64% to -45%), they are more consistent if κorg of 0.14 or 0.19 is applied (differences: -10% to +14%). The results demonstrate the importance of the dependence of the g of particles on time and particle size and the hygroscopicity of organics for CCN number concentrations in the urban atmosphere.

  1. Origin of superlubricity in a-C:H:Si films: a relation to film bonding structure and environmental molecular characteristic.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinchun; Kato, Takahisa; Nosaka, Masataka

    2014-08-27

    Superlubricity of Si-containing hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H:Si) films has been systematically investigated in relation to the film bonding structure and the environmental atmosphere. Structural diversity induced by hydrogen incorporation (i.e., 17.3-36.7 at. % H), namely sp(2)-bonded a-C, diamond-like or polymer-like, and tribointeractions activated by the participation of environmental gaseous molecules mainly determine the frictional behaviors of a-C:H:Si films. A suitable control of hydrogen content in the film (i.e., the inherent hydrogen coverage) is obligate to obtain durable superlubricity in a distinct gaseous atmosphere such as dry N2, reactive H2 or humid air. Rapid buildup of running-in-induced antifriction tribolayers at the contact interface, which is more feasible in self-mated sliding, is crucial for achieving a superlubric state. Superior tribological performances have been observed for the polymer-like a-C:H:Si (31.9 at. % H) film, as this hydrogen-rich sample can exhibit superlow friction in various atmospheres including dry inert N2 (μ ∼ 0.001), Ar (μ ∼ 0.012), reactive H2 (μ ∼ 0.003) and humid air (μ ∼ 0.004), and can maintain ultralow friction in corrosive O2 (μ ∼ 0.084). Hydrogen is highlighted for its decisive role in obtaining superlow friction. The occurrence of superlubricity in a-C:H:Si films is generally attributed to a synergistic effect of phase transformation, surface passivation and shear localization, for instance, the near-frictionless state occurred in dry N2. The contribution of each mechanism to the friction reduction depends on the specific intrafilm and interfilm interactions along with the atmospheric effects. These antifriction a-C:H:Si films are promising for industrial applications as lubricants. PMID:25100259

  2. Humic Acid Composition and Characteristics of Soil Organic Matter in Relation to the Elevation Gradient of Moso Bamboo Plantations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsueh-Ching; Chou, Chiao-Ying; Chiou, Chyi-Rong; Tian, Guanglong; Chiu, Chih-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Studying the influence of climatic and/or site-specific factors on soil organic matter (SOM) along an elevation gradient is important for understanding the response of SOM to global warming. We evaluated the composition of SOM and structure of humic acids along an altitudinal gradient from 600 to 1400 m in moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) plantations in central Taiwan using NMR spectroscopy and photometric analysis. Total organic C and total nitrogen (N) content increased with increasing elevation. Aromaticity decreased and ΔlogK (the logarithm of the absorbance ratio of humic acids at 400 and 600 nm) increased with increasing elevation, which suggests that SOM humification decreased with increasing elevation. High temperature at low elevations seemed to enhance the decomposition (less accumulation of total organic C and N) and humification (high aromaticity and low ΔlogK). The alkyl-C/O-alkyl-C (A/O-A) ratio of humic acids increased with increasing elevation, which suggests that SOM humification increased with increasing elevation; this finding was contrary to the trend observed for ΔlogK and aromaticity. Such a discrepancy might be due to the relatively greater remaining of SOM derived from high alkyl-C broadleaf litter of previous forest at high elevations. The ratio of recalcitrant C to total organic C was low at low elevations, possibly because of enhanced decomposition of recalcitrant SOM from the previous broadleaf forest during long-term intensive cultivation and high temperature. Overall, the change in SOM pools and in the rate of humification with elevation was primarily affected by changes in climatic conditions along the elevation gradient in these bamboo plantations. However, when the composition of SOM, as assessed by NMR spectroscopy and photometric analysis was considered, site-specific factors such as residual SOM from previous forest and intensive cultivation history could also have an important effect on the humic acid composition and

  3. Studying the Relation Between Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome and Anatomic and Anthropometric Characteristics of Military Male Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Sobhani, Vahid; Shakibaee, Abolfazl; Khatibi Aghda, Amidoddin; Emami Meybodi, Mohammad Kazem; Delavari, Abbasali; Jahandideh, Dariush

    2015-01-01

    Background: Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome (MTSS) is common among military recruits and to our knowledge; the factors that might put the military recruits at higher risk of incidence of MTSS are not well known. Objectives: This study was done to investigate the association between some anthropometric and anatomical factors and the prevalence of MTSS among military recruits. Patients and Methods: One hundred and eighty one randomly selected military recruits were included in this cross sectional study. Using history taking and physical examinations they were tested for MTSS. Accordingly the subjects were assigned to the case (those with MTSS) and control groups (normal healthy subjects). Using standard guidelines, the anthropometric and anatomical criteria of the subjects were measured. The correlation between the measurements and the prevalence of MTSS was tested using statistical analysis. Results: Data of all the 181 subjects with the mean age of 30.7 ± 4.68 years were Included in the final analysis. The prevalence of MTSS was found to be 16.6% (30 people). Internal and external rotation range of motion, iliospinale height, the score of navicular drop test, and the trochanteric tibial lateral length were significantly different between healthy subjects and patients with MTSS (P < 0.05). Discussion: The prevalence of MTSS was relatively lower in this study comparing to other studies on military personnel. It was not probably due to type of military shoes or exercise area surface (none of them were standardized); it could be due to low intensity trainings and the long intervals between training sessions. PMID:26448835

  4. An evaluation of the relations between flow regime components, stream characteristics, species traits and meta-demographic rates of warmwater stream fishes: Implications for aquatic resource management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, James T.; Shea, C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Fishery biologists are increasingly recognizing the importance of considering the dynamic nature of streams when developing streamflow policies. Such approaches require information on how flow regimes influence the physical environment and how those factors, in turn, affect species-specific demographic rates. A more cost-effective alternative could be the use of dynamic occupancy models to predict how species are likely to respond to changes in flow. To appraise the efficacy of this approach, we evaluated relative support for hypothesized effects of seasonal streamflow components, stream channel characteristics, and fish species traits on local extinction, colonization, and recruitment (meta-demographic rates) of stream fishes. We used 4 years of seasonal fish collection data from 23 streams to fit multistate, multiseason occupancy models for 42 fish species in the lower Flint River Basin, Georgia. Modelling results suggested that meta-demographic rates were influenced by streamflows, particularly short-term (10-day) flows. Flow effects on meta-demographic rates also varied with stream size, channel morphology, and fish species traits. Small-bodied species with generalized life-history characteristics were more resilient to flow variability than large-bodied species with specialized life-history characteristics. Using this approach, we simplified the modelling framework, thereby facilitating the development of dynamic, spatially explicit evaluations of the ecological consequences of water resource development activities over broad geographic areas. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Comparison of Perfectionism and Related Positive-Negative Dimension in People With High Traits on Obsessive Compulsive and Eating Disorder Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Yahghoubi, Hassan; Mohammadzadeh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psychopathological perfectionism is often correlated with obsessive compulsive eating disorders. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate perfectionism in people with high traits of obsessive compulsive and eating disorder characteristics. Materials and Methods: This study was an expo fact research. The statistical population of the research comprised of male and female undergraduate students at Tabriz and Sarab branches of Payam- e- Noor University, Tabriz Islamic University and Azarbaijan Shahid Madani university in the academic year 2012 - 2013. A group of 640 university students, using the stratified random sampling method were screened by the obsessive compulsive inventory and the eating attitude test, then a group of 143 participants with high obsessive compulsive traits with another 137 participants with high eating disorder characteristics were selected and assessed with the Perfectionism Inventory. Data were analyzed using one way analysis of variance. Results: The results showed that perfectionism and related negative dimension are more commonly found in people with high obsessive-compulsive traits than eating disorder characteristics (P < 0.02). The results showed the highest contribution of maladaptive perfectionism in predicting obsessive-compulsive features and pathological eating attitude. Also, no difference was found between the two groups in terms of negative perfectionism. Conclusions: The greater association of perfectionism with symptoms of obsessive-compulsive is consistent with its phenomenological feature. Fear of failure may motivate the behavioral components of perfectionism that aim to focus on careful checking, reassurance seeking and excessive consideration before making a decision. PMID:26576174

  6. A gap in formal long-term care use related to characteristics of caregivers and households, under the public universal system in Japan: 2001-2010.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Mutsumi; Hashimoto, Hideki; Tamiya, Nanako

    2015-06-01

    We investigated whether the universal provision of long-term care (LTC) under Japan's public system has equalized its use across households with different socio-economic characteristics, with a special focus on the gender and marital status of primary caregivers, and income. We used repeated cross-sectional data from national household surveys (2001, 2004, 2007, and 2010) and conducted multiple logistic regression analyses to obtain odds ratios of caregiver and household characteristics for service use, adjusting for recipients' characteristics. The results showed that the patterns of service use have been consistently determined by caregivers' gender and marital status over the period despite demographic changes among caregivers. The gap in service use first narrowed, then widened again across income levels after the global economic recession. The results indicate that the traditional gender-bound norms and capacity constraints on households' informal care provision remained influential on decisions over service use, even after the universal provision of formal care. To improve equality of service utilization, the universal LTC system needs to meet diversifying needs of caregivers/recipients and their households, by overcoming barriers related to gender norms and economic disparity. PMID:25467791

  7. Remote Analysis of Grain Size Characteristic in Submarine Pyroclastic Deposits from Kolumbo Volcano, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, C.; Whitesell, D. P.; Roman, C.; Carey, S.

    2011-12-01

    Grain size characteristics of pyroclastic deposits provide valuable information about source eruption energetics and depositional processes. Maximum size and sorting are often used to discriminate between fallout and sediment gravity flow processes during explosive eruptions. In the submarine environment the collection of such data in thick pyroclastic sequences is extremely challenging and potentially time consuming. A method has been developed to extract grain size information from stereo images collected by a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). In the summer of 2010 the ROV Hercules collected a suite of stereo images from a thick pumice sequence in the caldera walls of Kolumbo submarine volcano located about seven kilometers off the coast of Santorini, Greece. The highly stratified, pumice-rich deposit was likely created by the last explosive eruption of the volcano that took place in 1650 AD. Each image was taken from a distance of only a few meters from the outcrop in order to capture the outlines of individual clasts with relatively high resolution. Mosaics of individual images taken as the ROV transected approximately 150 meters of vertical outcrop were used to create large-scale vertical stratigraphic columns that proved useful for overall documentation of the eruption sequence and intracaldera correlations of distinct tephra units. Initial image processing techniques, including morphological operations, edge detection, shape and size estimation were implemented in MatLab and applied to a subset of individual images of the mosiacs. A large variety of algorithms were tested in order to best discriminate the outlines of individual pumices. This proved to be challenging owing to the close packing and overlapping of individual pumices. Preliminary success was achieved in discriminating the outlines of the large particles and measurements were carried out on the largest clasts present at different stratigraphic levels. In addition, semi-quantitative analysis of the

  8. Characteristics of mRNA dynamic expression related to spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury: a transcriptomics study.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zhi-Ping; Xia, Peng; Hou, Ting-Ting; Li, Ding-Yang; Zheng, Chang-Jun; Yang, Xiao-Yu

    2016-03-01

    Following spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury, an endogenous damage system is immediately activated and participates in a cascade reaction. It is difficult to interpret dynamic changes in these pathways, but the examination of the transcriptome may provide some information. The transcriptome reflects highly dynamic genomic and genetic information and can be seen as a precursor for the proteome. We used DNA microarrays to measure the expression levels of dynamic evolution-related mRNA after spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. The abdominal aorta was blocked with a vascular clamp for 90 minutes and underwent reperfusion for 24 and 48 hours. The simple ischemia group and sham group served as controls. After rats had regained consciousness, hindlimbs showed varying degrees of functional impairment, and gradually improved with prolonged reperfusion in spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury groups. Hematoxylin-eosin staining demonstrated that neuronal injury and tissue edema were most severe in the 24-hour reperfusion group, and mitigated in the 48-hour reperfusion group. There were 8,242 differentially expressed mRNAs obtained by Multi-Class Dif in the simple ischemia group, 24-hour and 48-hour reperfusion groups. Sixteen mRNA dynamic expression patterns were obtained by Serial Test Cluster. Of them, five patterns were significant. In the No. 28 pattern, all differential genes were detected in the 24-hour reperfusion group, and their expressions showed a trend in up-regulation. No. 11 pattern showed a decreasing trend in mRNA whereas No. 40 pattern showed an increasing trend in mRNA from ischemia to 48 hours of reperfusion, and peaked at 48 hours. In the No. 25 and No. 27 patterns, differential expression appeared only in the 24-hour and 48-hour reperfusion groups. Among the five mRNA dynamic expression patterns, No. 11 and No. 40 patterns could distinguish normal spinal cord from pathological tissue. No. 25 and No. 27 patterns could distinguish simple

  9. Foraging loads of red wood ants: Formica aquilonia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in relation to tree characteristics and stand age

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Jon; Johansson, Therese

    2016-01-01

    Background. Foraging efficiency is critical in determining the success of organisms and may be affected by a range of factors, including resource distance and quality. For social insects such as ants, outcomes must be considered at the level of both the individual and the colony. It is important to understand whether anthropogenic disturbances, such as forestry, affect foraging loads, independent of effects on the quality and distribution of resources. We asked if ants harvest greater loads from more distant and higher quality resources, how individual efforts scale to the colony level, and whether worker loads are affected by stand age. Methods. First, we performed a fine-scale study examining the effect of distance and resource quality (tree diameter and species) on harvesting of honeydew by red wood ants, Formica aquilonia, in terms of crop load per worker ant and numbers of workers walking up and down each tree (ant activity) (study 1). Second, we modelled what the combination of load and worker number responses meant for colony-level foraging loads. Third, at a larger scale, we asked whether the relationship between worker load and resource quality and distance depended on stand age (study 2). Results. Study 1 revealed that seventy percent of ants descending trees carried honeydew, and the percentage of workers that were honeydew harvesters was not related to tree species or diameter, but increased weakly with distance. Distance positively affected load mass in both studies 1 and 2, while diameter had weak negative effects on load. Relationships between load and distance and diameter did not differ among stands of different ages. Our model showed that colony-level loads declined much more rapidly with distance for small diameter than large diameter trees. Discussion. We suggest that a negative relationship between diameter and honeydew load detected in study 1 might be a result of crowding on large diameter trees close to nests, while the increase in honeydew

  10. Characteristics of mRNA dynamic expression related to spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury: a transcriptomics study

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Zhi-ping; Xia, Peng; Hou, Ting-ting; Li, Ding-yang; Zheng, Chang-jun; Yang, Xiao-yu

    2016-01-01

    Following spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury, an endogenous damage system is immediately activated and participates in a cascade reaction. It is difficult to interpret dynamic changes in these pathways, but the examination of the transcriptome may provide some information. The transcriptome reflects highly dynamic genomic and genetic information and can be seen as a precursor for the proteome. We used DNA microarrays to measure the expression levels of dynamic evolution-related mRNA after spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. The abdominal aorta was blocked with a vascular clamp for 90 minutes and underwent reperfusion for 24 and 48 hours. The simple ischemia group and sham group served as controls. After rats had regained consciousness, hindlimbs showed varying degrees of functional impairment, and gradually improved with prolonged reperfusion in spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury groups. Hematoxylin-eosin staining demonstrated that neuronal injury and tissue edema were most severe in the 24-hour reperfusion group, and mitigated in the 48-hour reperfusion group. There were 8,242 differentially expressed mRNAs obtained by Multi-Class Dif in the simple ischemia group, 24-hour and 48-hour reperfusion groups. Sixteen mRNA dynamic expression patterns were obtained by Serial Test Cluster. Of them, five patterns were significant. In the No. 28 pattern, all differential genes were detected in the 24-hour reperfusion group, and their expressions showed a trend in up-regulation. No. 11 pattern showed a decreasing trend in mRNA whereas No. 40 pattern showed an increasing trend in mRNA from ischemia to 48 hours of reperfusion, and peaked at 48 hours. In the No. 25 and No. 27 patterns, differential expression appeared only in the 24-hour and 48-hour reperfusion groups. Among the five mRNA dynamic expression patterns, No. 11 and No. 40 patterns could distinguish normal spinal cord from pathological tissue. No. 25 and No. 27 patterns could distinguish simple

  11. Relating nutrient and herbicide fate with landscape features and characteristics of 15 subwatersheds in the Choptank River watershed.

    PubMed

    Hively, W Dean; Hapeman, Cathleen J; McConnell, Laura L; Fisher, Thomas R; Rice, Clifford P; McCarty, Gregory W; Sadeghi, Ali M; Whitall, David R; Downey, Peter M; Niño de Guzmán, Gabriela T; Bialek-Kalinski, Krystyna; Lang, Megan W; Gustafson, Anne B; Sutton, Adrienne J; Sefton, Kerry A; Harman Fetcho, Jennifer A

    2011-09-01

    Excess nutrients and agrochemicals from non-point sources contribute to water quality impairment in the Chesapeake Bay watershed and their loading rates are related to land use, agricultural practices, hydrology, and pollutant fate and transport processes. In this study, monthly baseflow stream samples from 15 agricultural subwatersheds of the Choptank River in Maryland USA (2005 to 2007) were characterized for nutrients, herbicides, and herbicide transformation products. High-resolution digital maps of land use and forested wetlands were derived from remote sensing imagery. Examination of landscape metrics and water quality data, partitioned according to hydrogeomorphic class, provided insight into the fate, delivery, and transport mechanisms associated with agricultural pollutants. Mean Nitrate-N concentrations (4.9 mg/L) were correlated positively with percent agriculture (R(2)=0.56) and negatively with percent forest (R(2)=0.60). Concentrations were greater (p=0.0001) in the well-drained upland (WDU) hydrogeomorphic region than in poorly drained upland (PDU), reflecting increased denitrification and reduced agricultural land use intensity in the PDU landscape due to the prevalence of hydric soils. Atrazine and metolachlor concentrations (mean 0.29 μg/L and 0.19 μg/L) were also greater (p=0.0001) in WDU subwatersheds than in PDU subwatersheds. Springtime herbicide concentrations exhibited a strong, positive correlation (R(2)=0.90) with percent forest in the WDU subwatersheds but not in the PDU subwatersheds. In addition, forested riparian stream buffers in the WDU were more prevalent than in the PDU where forested patches are typically not located near streams, suggesting an alternative delivery mechanism whereby volatilized herbicides are captured by the riparian forest canopy and subsequently washed off during rainfall. Orthophosphate, CIAT (6-chloro-N-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine), CEAT (6-chloro-N-ethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine), and MESA

  12. Seasonal variations in vibrational spectra of the sea surface nanolayer and their relation to characteristic parameters for phytoplankton activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laß, Kristian; Bange, Hermann W.; Friedrichs, Gernot

    2013-04-01

    The sea surface nanolayer is a very thin organic substance layer, down to monomolecular thickness. It is found on top of the sea surface microlayer, which in turn comprises roughly the uppermost millimeter of the water column. The nanolayer constitutes the actual interface between ocean and atmosphere and plays an important role in all exchange processes of matter and energy between ocean and atmosphere. Nevertheless, knowledge about formation and development of the sea surface nanolayer in the course of the year is very limited. In this study we present surface-specific observations of the sea surface nanolayer development over a period of three and a half years. Samples of the sea surface have been taken monthly at Boknis Eck Time Series Station (Eckernförde Bay, southwestern Baltic Sea) by screen sampling. From surface-sensitive vibrational spectra obtained by nonlinear sum frequency generation spectroscopy (SFG), information on amount, structure and composition of the organic nanolayer material was extracted. SFG has been introduced by us as a new method to study the ocean nanolayer quite recently [1,2]. The abundance of nanolayer material was found to follow a pronounced yearly periodicity, with larger amounts of material present from mid to end of summer. A substantial time lag of about 2.5 months between spring algal bloom maxima and abundance maxima of nanolayer material has been observed. In contrast to common perception, this shows that high phytoplankton abundance and pronounced nanolayers are not directly related to each other. Variations in the appearance of the spectra serve as indicators for changes in structure and chemical composition of the nanolayer. The accumulation of carbohydrate-rich material in late summer provides a possible explanation for the observed spectral changes. We propose that sloppy feeding of zooplankton as well as photochemical and/or microbial processing of organic material present in the microlayer is responsible for the

  13. Relating nutrient and herbicide fate with landscape features and characteristics of 15 subwatersheds in the Choptank River watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hively, W. Dean; Hapeman, Cathleen J.; McConnell, Laura L.; Fisher, Thomas R.; Rice, Clifford P.; McCarty, Gregory W.; Sadeghi, Ali M.; Whitall, David R.; Downey, Peter M.; de Guzman, Gabriela T. Nino; Bialek-Kalinski, Krystyna; Lang, Megan W.; Gustafson, Anne B.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Sefton, Kerry A.; Harman Fetcho, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    Excess nutrients and agrochemicals from non-point sources contribute to water quality impairment in the Chesapeake Bay watershed and their loading rates are related to land use, agricultural practices, hydrology, and pollutant fate and transport processes. In this study, monthly baseflow stream samples from 15 agricultural subwatersheds of the Choptank River in Maryland USA (2005 to 2007) were characterized for nutrients, herbicides, and herbicide transformation products. High-resolution digital maps of land use and forested wetlands were derived from remote sensing imagery. Examination of landscape metrics and water quality data, partitioned according to hydrogeomorphic class, provided insight into the fate, delivery, and transport mechanisms associated with agricultural pollutants. Mean Nitrate-N concentrations (4.9 mg/L) were correlated positively with percent agriculture (R2 = 0.56) and negatively with percent forest (R2 = 0.60). Concentrations were greater (p = 0.0001) in the well-drained upland (WDU) hydrogeomorphic region than in poorly drained upland (PDU), reflecting increased denitrification and reduced agricultural land use intensity in the PDU landscape due to the prevalence of hydric soils. Atrazine and metolachlor concentrations (mean 0.29 μg/L and 0.19 μg/L) were also greater (p = 0.0001) in WDU subwatersheds than in PDU subwatersheds. Springtime herbicide concentrations exhibited a strong, positive correlation (R2 = 0.90) with percent forest in the WDU subwatersheds but not in the PDU subwatersheds. In addition, forested riparian stream buffers in the WDU were more prevalent than in the PDU where forested patches are typically not located near streams, suggesting an alternative delivery mechanism whereby volatilized herbicides are captured by the riparian forest canopy and subsequently washed off during rainfall. Orthophosphate, CIAT (6-chloro-N-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine), CEAT (6-chloro-N-ethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine), and

  14. Foraging loads of red wood ants: Formica aquilonia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in relation to tree characteristics and stand age.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Heloise; Andersson, Jon; Johansson, Therese

    2016-01-01

    Background. Foraging efficiency is critical in determining the success of organisms and may be affected by a range of factors, including resource distance and quality. For social insects such as ants, outcomes must be considered at the level of both the individual and the colony. It is important to understand whether anthropogenic disturbances, such as forestry, affect foraging loads, independent of effects on the quality and distribution of resources. We asked if ants harvest greater loads from more distant and higher quality resources, how individual efforts scale to the colony level, and whether worker loads are affected by stand age. Methods. First, we performed a fine-scale study examining the effect of distance and resource quality (tree diameter and species) on harvesting of honeydew by red wood ants, Formica aquilonia, in terms of crop load per worker ant and numbers of workers walking up and down each tree (ant activity) (study 1). Second, we modelled what the combination of load and worker number responses meant for colony-level foraging loads. Third, at a larger scale, we asked whether the relationship between worker load and resource quality and distance depended on stand age (study 2). Results. Study 1 revealed that seventy percent of ants descending trees carried honeydew, and the percentage of workers that were honeydew harvesters was not related to tree species or diameter, but increased weakly with distance. Distance positively affected load mass in both studies 1 and 2, while diameter had weak negative effects on load. Relationships between load and distance and diameter did not differ among stands of different ages. Our model showed that colony-level loads declined much more rapidly with distance for small diameter than large diameter trees. Discussion. We suggest that a negative relationship between diameter and honeydew load detected in study 1 might be a result of crowding on large diameter trees close to nests, while the increase in honeydew

  15. Relative dose in dual energy fast-kVp switching and conventional kVp imaging: spatial frequency dependent noise characteristics and low contrast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadava, Girijesh K.; Chandra, Naveen; Hsieh, Jiang

    2011-03-01

    Dual energy computed tomography offers unique diagnostic value by enabling access to material density, effective atomic number, and energy specific spectral characteristics, which remained indeterminate with conventional kVp imaging. Gemstone Spectral Imaging (GSI) is one of the dual energy methods based on fast kVp switching between two x-ray spectra, 80 kVp and 140 kVp nominal, in adjacent projections. The purpose of this study was to compare relative dose between GSI monochromatic and conventional kVp imaging for equivalent image noise characteristics. A spatialfrequency domain noise power spectrum (NPS) was used as a more complete noise descriptor for the comparison of the two image types. Uniform 20cm water phantom images from GSI and conventional 120 kVp scans were used for NPS calculation. In addition, a low contrast imaging study of the two image types with equivalent noise characteristics was conducted for contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR) and low contrast detectability (LCD) in the Catphan600® phantom. From three GSI presets ranging from medium to low dose, we observed that conventional 120kVp scan requires ~ 7% - 18% increase in dose to match the noise characteristics in optimal noise GSI monochromatic image; and that the 65 keV monochromatic image CNR for a 0.5% contrast object is 22% higher compared to corresponding 120 kVp scan. Optimal use of the two energy spectra within GSI results in reduced noise and improved CNR in the monochromatic images, indicating the potential for use of this image type in routine clinical applications.

  16. Lunch-time food choices in preschoolers: Relationships between absolute and relative intakes of different food categories, and appetitive characteristics and weight.

    PubMed

    Carnell, S; Pryor, K; Mais, L A; Warkentin, S; Benson, L; Cheng, R

    2016-08-01

    Children's appetitive characteristics measured by parent-report questionnaires are reliably associated with body weight, as well as behavioral tests of appetite, but relatively little is known about relationships with food choice. As part of a larger preloading study, we served 4-5year olds from primary school classes five school lunches at which they were presented with the same standardized multi-item meal. Parents completed Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) sub-scales assessing satiety responsiveness (CEBQ-SR), food responsiveness (CEBQ-FR) and enjoyment of food (CEBQ-EF), and children were weighed and measured. Despite differing preload conditions, children showed remarkable consistency of intake patterns across all five meals with day-to-day intra-class correlations in absolute and percentage intake of each food category ranging from 0.78 to 0.91. Higher CEBQ-SR was associated with lower mean intake of all food categories across all five meals, with the weakest association apparent for snack foods. Higher CEBQ-FR was associated with higher intake of white bread and fruits and vegetables, and higher CEBQ-EF was associated with greater intake of all categories, with the strongest association apparent for white bread. Analyses of intake of each food group as a percentage of total intake, treated here as an index of the child's choice to consume relatively more or relatively less of each different food category when composing their total lunch-time meal, further suggested that children who were higher in CEBQ-SR ate relatively more snack foods and relatively less fruits and vegetables, while children with higher CEBQ-EF ate relatively less snack foods and relatively more white bread. Higher absolute intakes of white bread and snack foods were associated with higher BMI z score. CEBQ sub-scale associations with food intake variables were largely unchanged by controlling for daily metabolic needs. However, descriptive comparisons of lunch intakes with

  17. Optically Addressable Silicon Vacancy-Related Spin Centers in Rhombic Silicon Carbide with High Breakdown Characteristics and ENDOR Evidence of Their Structure.

    PubMed

    Soltamov, V A; Yavkin, B V; Tolmachev, D O; Babunts, R A; Badalyan, A G; Davydov, V Yu; Mokhov, E N; Proskuryakov, I I; Orlinskii, S B; Baranov, P G

    2015-12-11

    We discovered a family of uniaxially oriented silicon vacancy-related centers with S=3/2 in a rhombic 15R-SiC crystalline matrix. We demonstrate that these centers exhibit unique characteristics such as optical spin alignment up to the temperatures of 250°C. Thus, the range of robust optically addressable vacancy-related spin centers is extended to the wide class of rhombic SiC polytypes. To use these centers for quantum applications it is essential to know their structure. Using high frequency electron nuclear double resonance, we show that the centers are formed by negatively charged silicon vacancies V_{Si}^{-} in the paramagnetic state with S=3/2 that is noncovalently bonded to the neutral carbon vacancy V_{C}^{0} in the nonparamagnetic state, located on the adjacent site along the SiC symmetry c axis. PMID:26705655

  18. Optically Addressable Silicon Vacancy-Related Spin Centers in Rhombic Silicon Carbide with High Breakdown Characteristics and ENDOR Evidence of Their Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltamov, V. A.; Yavkin, B. V.; Tolmachev, D. O.; Babunts, R. A.; Badalyan, A. G.; Davydov, V. Yu.; Mokhov, E. N.; Proskuryakov, I. I.; Orlinskii, S. B.; Baranov, P. G.

    2015-12-01

    We discovered a family of uniaxially oriented silicon vacancy-related centers with S =3 /2 in a rhombic 15 R -SiC crystalline matrix. We demonstrate that these centers exhibit unique characteristics such as optical spin alignment up to the temperatures of 250 °C . Thus, the range of robust optically addressable vacancy-related spin centers is extended to the wide class of rhombic SiC polytypes. To use these centers for quantum applications it is essential to know their structure. Using high frequency electron nuclear double resonance, we show that the centers are formed by negatively charged silicon vacancies VSi- in the paramagnetic state with S =3 /2 that is noncovalently bonded to the neutral carbon vacancy VC0 in the nonparamagnetic state, located on the adjacent site along the SiC symmetry c axis.

  19. The SmeYZ efflux pump of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia contributes to drug resistance, virulence-related characteristics, and virulence in mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Tsung; Huang, Yi-Wei; Chen, Shiang-Jiuun; Chang, Chia-Wei; Yang, Tsuey-Ching

    2015-07-01

    The resistance-nodulation-division (RND)-type efflux pump is one of the causes of the multidrug resistance of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The roles of the RND-type efflux pump in physiological functions and virulence, in addition to antibiotic extrusion, have attracted much attention. In this study, the contributions of the constitutively expressed SmeYZ efflux pump to drug resistance, virulence-related characteristics, and virulence were evaluated. S. maltophilia KJ is a clinical isolate of multidrug resistance. The smeYZ isogenic deletion mutant, KJΔYZ, was constructed by a gene replacement strategy. The antimicrobial susceptibility, virulence-related physiological characteristics, susceptibility to human serum and neutrophils, and in vivo virulence between KJ and KJΔYZ were comparatively assessed. The SmeYZ efflux pump contributed resistance to aminoglycosides and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Inactivation of smeYZ resulted in attenuation of oxidative stress susceptibility, swimming, flagella formation, biofilm formation, and secreted protease activity. Furthermore, loss of SmeYZ increased susceptibility to human serum and neutrophils and decreased in vivo virulence in a murine model. These findings suggest the possibility of attenuation of the resistance and virulence of S. maltophilia with inhibitors of the SmeYZ efflux pump. PMID:25918140

  20. Preliminary appraisal of ephemeral-streamflow characteristics as related to drainage area, active-channel width, and soils in northwestern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hejl, H.R., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Regression equations are presented to predict ephemeral streamflow characteristics in the San Juan Basin in northwestern New Mexico. The standard error of estimate for predicting runoff for water year 1978 using drainage area as the independent variable was 152 percent. Indications are that reliable equations for predicating annual runoff can be developed and the standard error of estimate might be reduced significantly with additional years of record. The coefficient of regression when relating drainage area to runoff for water year 1978 was significant at the 1-percent level. Preliminary results also indicate it is feasible to predict streamflow characteristics using hyrologic soil-group classifications based on runoff potential. The standard error of estimate for predicting peak discharges with recurrence intervals of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 years using active-channel width as the independent variable averaged about 50 percent, and the regression coefficient was significant at the 1-percent level. Using drainage area to predict peak discharges resulted in a standard error of estimate that averaged about 60 percent and a regression coefficient significant at the 5-percent level. The standard error of estimate averaged about 45 percent when active-channel width and drainage area were related to peak discharges in multiple regression analyses. (USGS)

  1. Relation of urban land-use and dry-weather storm and snowmelt flow characteristics to stream-water quality, Shunganunga Creek basin, Topeka, Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, L.M.; Bevans, H.E.

    1984-01-01

    Water-quality characteristics of streams draining Topeka, Kansas , and the Shunganunga Creek basin were investigated from October , 1979, through November 1981, to determine the effects of runoff from urban areas. Characteristics were determined at six sites and summarized statistically for three streamflow conditions-dry weather, storm, and snowmelt. Median concentrations of trace metals and nutrients were greater in storm streamflow than in dry-weather streamflow. Regression equations were developed to estimate median concentrations of total lead and zinc in storm streamflow from the percentage of drainage area in residential plus commercial land-use areas and from street density. Median concentrations of dissolved sodium, chloride, and solids were considerably greater in snowmelt streamflow than in dry-weather streamflow. Regression equations were also developed to estimate median concentrations of dissolved sodium, chloride, and solids from the summation of percentages of the drainage area in residential, commercial, and industrial land-use areas and from street density. Multiple-regression analysis relating storm-runoff volumes and average constituent concentrations to land-use and storm charactersitcs produced significant relations for storm-runoff volume, total lead, total zinc, and suspended sediment. (USGS)

  2. Relation between selected well-construction characteristics and occurrence of bacteria in private household-supply wells, south-central and southeastern Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, Tammy M.; Zimmerman, Michele L.; Lindsey, Bruce D.

    2001-01-01

    Total coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria were analyzed in ground water sampled from 78 private household-supply wells as part of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection to evaluate the relation between wellconstruction characteristics and the occurrence of bacteria in ground water. Sampling was done in eight counties in south-central and southeastern Pennsylvania from September 2000 to March 2001. All samples were collected from wells in close proximity to agricultural land-use areas. Total coliform bacteria were found in water from 62 percent (48 of 78) of the wells, and bacteria were just as likely to be found in sanitary wells (grouted/loose-fitting well cap or grouted/sanitary sealed well cap) as in nonsanitary wells (nongrouted/ loose-fitting well cap). The areas underlain by carbonate bedrock had the highest percentages of total coliform detected (about 75 percent). Nearly half of the samples collected in the areas underlain by noncarbonate bedrock also were found to have total coliform present. E. colibacteria were found in water from 10 percent of the wells. Seventeen percent of the samples that were positive for total coliform also were positive for E. coli. The presence of E. coli bacteria was more likely in water from nonsanitary wells. Additionally, the presence of E. coli bacteria was more likely in ground water from wells underlain by carbonate bedrock. A further breakdown of the data into four groups on the basis of sanitary construction and bedrock type indicated the presence of E. coli was more likely in water from nonsanitary wells in areas underlain by carbonate bedrock. Statistical analysis of other well-construction characteristics that might relate to occurrence of bacteria showed that the presence of total coliform bacteria was related to the depth to water-bearing zone in both sanitary and nonsanitary wells in areas underlain by carbonate bedrock

  3. Work stress and patient safety: observer-rated work stressors as predictors of characteristics of safety-related events reported by young nurses.

    PubMed

    Elfering, A; Semmer, N K; Grebner, S

    This study investigates the link between workplace stress and the 'non-singularity' of patient safety-related incidents in the hospital setting. Over a period of 2 working weeks 23 young nurses from 19 hospitals in Switzerland documented 314 daily stressful events using a self-observation method (pocket diaries); 62 events were related to patient safety. Familiarity of safety-related events and probability of recurrence, as indicators of non-singularity, were the dependent variables in multilevel regression analyses. Predictor variables were both situational (self-reported situational control, safety compliance) and chronic variables (job stressors such as time pressure, or concentration demands and job control). Chronic work characteristics were rated by trained observers. The most frequent safety-related stressful events included incomplete or incorrect documentation (40.3%), medication errors (near misses 21%), delays in delivery of patient care (9.7%), and violent patients (9.7%). Familiarity of events and probability of recurrence were significantly predicted by chronic job stressors and low job control in multilevel regression analyses. Job stressors and low job control were shown to be risk factors for patient safety. The results suggest that job redesign to enhance job control and decrease job stressors may be an important intervention to increase patient safety. PMID:16717004

  4. The Influence of Health and Lifestyle Characteristics on the Relation of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D With Risk of Colorectal and Breast Cancer in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Neuhouser, Marian L.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Millen, Amy; Pettinger, Mary; Margolis, Karen; Jacobs, Elizabeth T.; Shikany, James M.; Vitolins, Mara; Adams-Campbell, Lucile; Liu, Simin; LeBlanc, Erin; Johnson, Karen C.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2012-01-01

    The authors’ objective was to discern whether lifestyle or health-related factors were confounders, effect modifiers, or irrelevant with regard to understanding observational associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) with colorectal and breast cancer. The authors conducted nested case-control studies of colorectal cancer (310 cases, 310 controls) and breast cancer (1,080 cases, 1,080 controls) in the Women’s Health Initiative Calcium and Vitamin D Clinical Trial (1994–2005). Case-control matching factors included age, latitude, race/ethnicity, and blood collection date. Serum 25(OH)D was assayed in baseline fasting blood. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios for each cancer by serum 25(OH)D concentration, comparing the relative effects of successively adding body mass index, physical activity, and other health and lifestyle characteristics particular to each cancer. In models with matching factors only, low (vs. high) serum 25(OH)D was associated with a colorectal cancer odds ratio of 2.72 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.55, 4.77) and a breast cancer odds ratio of 1.33 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.72). In multivariate-adjusted models for colorectal cancer, the association strengthened (OR = 4.45, 95% CI: 1.96, 10.10). However, in multivariate-adjusted breast cancer models, associations were no longer significant (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.78, 1.43). Adjusting for health and lifestyle characteristics has differential effects depending on the cancer site; when modeling such relations, investigators should take these factors into account. PMID:22362582

  5. Relative geo-effectiveness of high-speed solar-wind streams associated with different plasma and field characteristics: 1996-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badruddin, B.; Aslam, O. P. M.; Kumar, Anand

    The high speed streams in the solar-wind plasma are recognized as those ejected from solar active regions during the time of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and those coming from diverging and unipolar field regions called Coronal Holes (CH). The duration of these high speed streams, as seen in solar wind time profile, is not equal; it varies between 2 to 20 days. Their speed varies between 400 km/sec and 1000 km/sec. The observed streams may be due to; (i) a single coronal hole, (ii) a single CME, (iii) multiple coronal holes, (iv) multiple CMEs, and (v) it may be a compound stream due to coronal hole(s) and CME(s). Since streams, (a) associated with different solar sources/interplanetary structures, (b) of different duration and (c) of different speed are expected to show different response in geomagnetic activity fluctuations, both in magnitude and time profile, we study different characteristics to infer about the relative geo-effectiveness of streams of (a) different sources, (b) different duration and (c) different speed. For the analysis we utilize interplanetary plasma (speed, density, dynamic pressure, plasma beta) and field (magnetic field, its variance and north-south component, electric field) parameters during the passage of streams with distinct plasma and field characteristics. We use the observed differences to distinguish about the various features of sources, and physical mechanism playing important role in modulating geomagnetic activity during passage of streams with different characteristics. Application of this study for space weather predictions is also discussed

  6. Evaluation of aquatic biota in relation to environmental characteristics measured at multiple scales in agricultural streams of the Midwest, 1993-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hambrook Berkman, Julie A.; Scudder, Barbara C.; Lutz, Michelle A.; Harris, Mitchell A.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the relations between algal, invertebrate, and fish assemblages and physical environmental characteristics of streams at the reach, segment, and watershed scale in agricultural settings in the Midwest. The 86 stream sites selected for study were in predominantly agricultural watersheds sampled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Species abundance and over 130 biological metrics were used to determine which aspects of the assemblages were most sensitive to change at the three spatial scales. Digital orthophotograph-based riparian land use/land cover was used for analyses of riparian conditions at the reach and segment scales. The percentage area of different land-use/land-cover types was also determined for each watershed. Out of over 230 environmental characteristics examined, those that best explained variation in the biotic assemblages at each spatial scale include the following: 1) reach: bank vegetative cover, fine silty substrate, and open canopy angle; 2) segment: woody vegetation and cropland in the 250-m riparian buffer, and average length of undisturbed buffer; and 3) watershed: land use/land cover (both total forested and row crop), low-permeability soils, slope, drainage area, and latitude. All three biological assemblages, especially fish, correlated more with land use/land cover and other physical characteristics at the watershed scale than at the reach or segment scales. This study identifies biotic measures that can be used to evaluate potential improvements resulting from agricultural best-management practices and other conservation efforts, as well as evaluate potential impairment from urban development or other disturbances.

  7. Are Inflammatory and Coagulation Biomarkers Related to Sleep Characteristics in Mid-Life Women?: Study of Women's Health Across the Nation Sleep Study

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Karen A.; Zheng, Huiyong; Kravitz, Howard M.; Sowers, MaryFran; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Owens, Jane F.; Sanders, Mark; Hall, Martica

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: Inflammation and pro-coagulation biomarkers may be a link between sleep characteristics and risk for cardiometabolic disorders. We tested the hypothesis that worse sleep characteristics would be associated with C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, factor VIIc, and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 in a multi-ethnic subsample of mid-life women enrolled in the Study of Women's Health across the Nation. Design: Cross-sectional. Measurements and Results: African American, Chinese, and Caucasian women (N = 340) participated in 3 days of in-home polysomnographic (PSG) monitoring and had measures of inflammation and coagulation. Regression analyses revealed that each of the biomarkers were associated with indicators of sleep disordered breathing after adjusting for age, duration between sleep study and blood draw, site, menopausal status, ethnicity, residualized body mass index, smoking status, and medications that affect sleep or biomarkers. Among African American women, those who had higher levels of CRP had shorter PSG-sleep duration and those who had higher levels of fibrinogen had less efficient sleep in multivariate models. Conclusions: These results suggest that inflammation and pro-coagulation processes may be an important pathway connecting sleep disordered breathing and cardiometabolic disorders in women of these ethnic groups and that inflammation may be a particularly important pathway in African Americans. Citation: Matthews KA; Zheng H; Kravitz HM; Sowers M; Bromberger JT; Buysse DJ; Owens JF; Sanders M; Hall M. Are inflammatory and coagulation biomarkers related to sleep characteristics in mid-life women?: Study of Women's Health Across the Nation Sleep Study. SLEEP 2010;33(12):1649-1655. PMID:21120127

  8. Characteristic on the thermal stresses near apex in dissimilar materials (Relation between the intensity of stress field and the bonded wedge angle)

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, T.; Koguchi, H.

    1995-11-01

    The characteristic of thermal stresses near the apex in dissimilar materials under a uniform temperature change is theoretically and numerically investigated. The materials are composed of two isotropic homogeneous wedges with arbitrary angles. The dominant factor of thermal stresses near the apex is represented by Kr{sup p{minus}1}, where p{minus}1 is the order of the stress singularity and K indicates the intensity of the stress field. For the bonded structures of Cu/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, the relationship between the wedge angle {var_phi}{sub 1} of material 1 and the total angle {var_phi}{sub 1} + {var_phi}{sub 2} of the bonded wedge, in which K becomes zero, is clarified theoretically. Also, it is shown that the distribution of the intensity K for each root p is divided into two forms. Finally, a relation between the distribution of the thermal stresses near apex and characteristic length of the bonded structure is examined by FEM.

  9. Assessing genetic divergence in interspecific hybrids of Aechmea gomosepala and A. recurvata var. recurvata using inflorescence characteristics and sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, F; Ge, Y Y; Wang, W Y; Shen, X L; Yu, X Y

    2012-01-01

    Conventional hybridization and selection techniques have aided the development of new ornamental crop cultivars. However, little information is available on the genetic divergence of bromeliad hybrids. In the present study, we investigated the genetic variability in interspecific hybrids of Aechmea gomosepala and A. recurvata var. recurvata using inflorescence characteristics and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers. The morphological analysis showed that the putative hybrids were intermediate between both parental species with respect to inflorescence characteristics. The 16 SRAP primer combinations yield 265 bands, among which 154 (57.72%) were polymorphic. The genetic similarity was an average of 0.59 and ranged from 0.21 to 0.87, indicating moderate genetic divergence among the hybrids. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA)-based cluster analysis distinguished the hybrids from their parents with a genetic distance coefficient of 0.54. The cophenetic correlation was 0.93, indicating a good fit between the dendrogram and the original distance matrix. The two-dimensional plot from the principal coordinate analysis showed that the hybrids were intermediately dispersed between both parents, corresponding to the results of the UPGMA cluster and the morphological analysis. These results suggest that SRAP markers could help to identify breeders, characterize F(1) hybrids of bromeliads at an early stage, and expedite genetic improvement of bromeliad cultivars. PMID:23079994

  10. How coordinate and categorical spatial relations combine with egocentric and allocentric reference frames in a motor task: effects of delay and stimuli characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ruotolo, Francesco; van der Ham, Ineke; Postma, Albert; Ruggiero, Gennaro; Iachini, Tina

    2015-05-01

    This study explores how people represent spatial information in order to accomplish a visuo-motor task. To this aim we combined two fundamental components of the human visuo-spatial system: egocentric and allocentric frames of reference and coordinate and categorical spatial relations. Specifically, participants learned the position of three objects and then had to judge the distance (coordinate information) and the relation (categorical information) of a target object with respect to themselves (egocentric frame) or with respect to another object (allocentric frame). They gave spatial judgments by reaching and touching the exact position or the side previously occupied by the target object. The possible influence of stimuli characteristics (3D objects vs. 2D images) and delay between learning phase and testing phase (1.5 vs. 5s) was also assessed. Results showed an advantage of egocentric coordinate judgments over the allocentric coordinate ones independently from the kind of stimuli used and the temporal parameters of the response, whereas egocentric categorical judgments were more accurate than allocentric categorical ones only with 3D stimuli and when an immediate response was requested. This pattern of data is discussed in the light of the "perception-action" model by Milner and Goodale [13] and of neuroimaging evidence about frames of reference and spatial relations. PMID:25698602

  11. Bioinformatics Analysis Reveals Distinct Molecular Characteristics of Hepatitis B-Related Hepatocellular Carcinomas from Very Early to Advanced Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Stages

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei; Kou, Yan-Bo; You, Hong-Juan; Liu, Xiao-Mei; Zheng, Kui-Yang; Tang, Ren-Xian

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)is the fifth most common malignancy associated with high mortality. One of the risk factors for HCC is chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The treatment strategy for the disease is dependent on the stage of HCC, and the Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) staging system is used in most HCC cases. However, the molecular characteristics of HBV-related HCC in different BCLC stages are still unknown. Using GSE14520 microarray data from HBV-related HCC cases with BCLC stages from 0 (very early stage) to C (advanced stage) in the gene expression omnibus (GEO) database, differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including common DEGs and unique DEGs in different BCLC stages, were identified. These DEGs were located on different chromosomes. The molecular functions and biology pathways of DEGs were identified by gene ontology (GO) analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, and the interactome networks of DEGs were constructed using the NetVenn online tool. The results revealed that both common DEGs and stage-specific DEGs were associated with various molecular functions and were involved in special biological pathways. In addition, several hub genes were found in the interactome networks of DEGs. The identified DEGs and hub genes promote our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of HBV-related HCC through the different BCLC stages, and might be used as staging biomarkers or molecular targets for the treatment of HCC with HBV infection. PMID:27454179

  12. Dough properties and bread-making quality-related characteristics of Yumechikara near-isogenic wheat lines carrying different Glu-B3 alleles

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Miwako; Maruyama-Funatsuki, Wakako; Ikeda, Tatsuya M.; Nishio, Zenta; Nagasawa, Koichi; Tabiki, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the relationships of three allelic variations in Glu-B3 (ab, g, and h) with dough properties and bread-making quality-related characteristics using near-isogenic lines (NILs) of ‘Yumechikara’ that commonly carry Glu-A1a, Glu-B1b, Glu-D1d, Glu-A3f, Glu-B3ab and Glu-D3a. Measurement of peak time (PT) in a 2-g mixograph indicated that Glu-B3g was the most effective for a strong dough property, followed by Glu-B3ab, with Glu-B3h being the least effective. The results of measurement of mixing time during bread-making were similar to those for PTs, i.e., the lines carrying Glu-B3g showed the longest mixing time, followed by those of Glu-B3ab, and those of Glu-B3h showed the shortest mixing time. Since two parameters of bread-making quality, loaf volume (LV) and specific loaf volume (SLV), were affected by flour protein contents in all groups of the Glu-B3 genotype, we compared the effects of the three Glu-B3 alleles on those parameters using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to remove the effect of protein content. The results indicated that the Glu-B3h group showed the largest SLV, followed by the Glu-B3ab group, and the Glu-B3g group showed the smallest SLV. These results suggest that the introduction of Glu-B3h into ‘Yumechikara’ makes it possible to breed varieties with good bread-making quality-related characteristics. PMID:26175621

  13. Regional Relations in Bankfull Channel Characteristics determined from flow measurements at selected stream-gaging stations in West Virginia, 1911-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Messinger, Terence; Wiley, Jeffrey B.

    <