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Sample records for granulosa cell tumor

  1. Pseudopapillary Granulosa Cell Tumor: A Case of This Rare Subtype.

    PubMed

    Heller, Debra; Haddad, Andrew; Cracchiolo, Bernadette

    2016-08-01

    Background The pseudopapillary pattern of granulosa cell tumor is rare. Case We describe the case of a 35-year-old woman who presented with an initial diagnosis of papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma. Results Evaluation, including immunohistochemistry, led to the diagnosis of pseudopapillary granulosa cell tumor. Conclusion The pseudopapillary pattern of granulosa cell tumor is rare and must be suspected in order to utilize appropriate immunohistochemistry and reach the correct diagnosis. Inhibin positivity is particularly helpful. PMID:27020373

  2. Displaced granulosa cells in the fallopian tube mistaken for metastatic granulosa cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Daniel L; Rambally, Brooke S; Lininger, Ruth A; DiFurio, Megan J

    2013-01-01

    A 44-yr-old woman underwent a total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingectomy secondary to uterine leiomyomas. Gross examination of the fallopian tubes revealed no masses or lesions; however, 2 small foci of granulosa cells were identified microscopically within one of the fallopian tubes. These foci were suspicious for granulosa cell tumor metastases. The patient subsequently underwent a bilateral oophorectomy, which revealed no primary granulosa cell tumor. Immunohistochemical studies were used to help support the benign nature of the granulosa cells within the fallopian tube. A review of the literature revealed only 1 similar case report of displaced benign granulosa cells within the fallopian tubes. The ovaries in both this case and the previous case report were found to contain multiple cystic follicles, suggesting ovulation as the likely mechanism of displacement. Knowledge of this rare occurrence and the use of immunohistochemical staining are paramount to making a correct diagnosis, thus preventing a misdiagnosis of malignancy and possible unnecessary treatment. PMID:23202782

  3. FOXO1/3 and PTEN Depletion in Granulosa Cells Promotes Ovarian Granulosa Cell Tumor Development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhilin; Ren, Yi A; Pangas, Stephanie A; Adams, Jaye; Zhou, Wei; Castrillon, Diego H; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Richards, JoAnne S

    2015-07-01

    The forkhead box (FOX), FOXO1 and FOXO3, transcription factors regulate multiple functions in mammalian cells. Selective inactivation of the Foxo1 and Foxo3 genes in murine ovarian granulosa cells severely impairs follicular development and apoptosis causing infertility, and as shown here, granulosa cell tumor (GCT) formation. Coordinate depletion of the tumor suppressor Pten gene in the Foxo1/3 strain enhanced the penetrance and onset of GCT formation. Immunostaining and Western blot analyses confirmed FOXO1 and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) depletion, maintenance of globin transcription factor (GATA) 4 and nuclear localization of FOXL2 and phosphorylated small mothers against decapentaplegic (SMAD) 2/3 in the tumor cells, recapitulating results we observed in human adult GCTs. Microarray and quantitative PCR analyses of mouse GCTs further confirmed expression of specific genes (Foxl2, Gata4, and Wnt4) controlling granulosa cell fate specification and proliferation, whereas others (Emx2, Nr0b1, Rspo1, and Wt1) were suppressed. Key genes (Amh, Bmp2, and Fshr) controlling follicle growth, apoptosis, and differentiation were also suppressed. Inhbb and Grem1 were selectively elevated, whereas reduction of Inha provided additional evidence that activin signaling and small mothers against decapentaplegic (SMAD) 2/3 phosphorylation impact GCT formation. Unexpectedly, markers of Sertoli/epithelial cells (SRY [sex determining region Y]-box 9/keratin 8) and alternatively activated macrophages (chitinase 3-like 3) were elevated in discrete subpopulations within the mouse GCTs, indicating that Foxo1/3/Pten depletion not only leads to GCTs but also to altered granulosa cell fate decisions and immune responses. Thus, analyses of the Foxo1/3/Pten mouse GCTs and human adult GCTs provide strong evidence that impaired functions of the FOXO1/3/PTEN pathways lead to dramatic changes in the molecular program within granulosa cells, chronic activin signaling in the presence of

  4. Adult granulosa cell tumor of the testis masquerading as hydrocele

    PubMed Central

    Vallonthaiel, Archana George; Kakkar, Aanchal; Singh, Animesh; Dogra, Prem N; Ray, Ruma

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adult testicular granulosa cell tumor is a rare, potentially malignant sex cord-stromal tumor, of which 30 cases have been described to date. We report the case of a 43-year-old male who complained of a left testicular swelling. Scrotal ultrasound showed a cystic lesion, suggestive of hydrocele. However, due to a clinical suspicion of a solid-cystic neoplasm, a high inguinal orchidectomy was performed, which, on pathological examination, was diagnosed as adult granulosa cell tumor. Adult testicular granulosa cell tumors have aggressive behaviour as compared to their ovarian counterparts. They may rarely be predominantly cystic and present as hydrocele. Lymph node and distant metastases have been reported in few cases. Role of MIB-1 labelling index in prognostication is not well defined. Therefore, their recognition and documentation of their behaviour is important from a diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic point of view. PMID:26742984

  5. [Hormonal therapy of advanced or relapsed ovarian granulosa cell tumor].

    PubMed

    Sun, H; Bai, P

    2016-07-01

    Ovarian granulosa cell tumor is a rare gynecologic malignancy with hormonal activity. Surgical excision is the standard treatment for this disease. Most patients present excellent short term prognosis, however, late relapse often occurs, even after many years. Viable treatments of advanced or relapsed granulosa cell tumor are still limited, and the optimal therapy method has not been established. Compared with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, hormonal therapy is a well-tolerated treatment which can be administrated over a long period of time without serious side effects, and the combined application of hormones may achieve a better outcome. Therefore, hormonal therapy has been suggested as a potential treatment option for patients with advanced or relapsed granulosa cell tumor, and to extend the tumor-free interval and attenuate the disease progression. Future researches should be focused on the identification of the hormonal therapy which may provide the greatest clinical benefit, comparing and analyzing the effects of different combined therapeutic regimens of hormone drugs, and on the synthesis of drugs highly activating estrogen receptor β expressed in the granulosa cell tumor cells. PMID:27531259

  6. Retreatment with aromatase inhibitor therapy in the management of granulosa cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Melissa; Huang, Gloria S

    2016-01-01

    •Over 90% of granulosa cell tumors have a FOXL2 mutation that contributes to aromatase upregulation.•Chemotherapy has demonstrated limited efficacy in the treatment of granulosa cell tumors.•A patient with recurrent granulosa cell tumor responded briefly to anastrazole treatment.•Retreatment with another aromatase inhibitor letrozole led to a durable response of 24 months. PMID:26937482

  7. A Case of Adult Granulosa Cell Tumor of the Testis

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Stephen B.; Morilla, Dan B.; Schaber, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Female, 22 Final Diagnosis: Testis granulosa cell tumor Symptoms: Pain in testicles • swelling of epididymides • tenderness of epididymiides Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Urology Objective: Rare disease Background: Adult granulosa cell tumors of the testis (AGCTT) are classified as sex cord-stromal tumors. Only 31 cases have been reported. Typical presentation includes a slowly enlarging, painless testicular mass. Associated findings are gynecomastia, decreased libido, and erectile dysfunction. Immunohistochemistry can be used to confirm the diagnosis. Case Rrport: A 22-year-old male presented with complaint of mild pain in both testicles. A testicular ultrasound revealed a 4.0×3.8×4.6 mm hypoechoic lesion within the left testicle. Serum tumor markers (STM) included lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) measuring 146 IU/L (98–192), serum alpha-1-fetoprotein (AFP), 2.89 ng/mL (0–9), and plasma beta human chorionic gonadotropin (Beta HCG) measuring less than 0.50 mIU/mL (<0.50–2.67). Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis with oral and intravenous contrast was normal. A radical orchiectomy was recommended but the patient refused. He agreed to surveillance with imaging and serum tumor markers (STM). The patient’s testicular ultrasound showed the mass to be stable in size and STMs remained negative. The patient agreed to an orchiectomy 9 months after his diagnosis. This case is the first reported with c-kit-positive immunohistochemistry. His post-operative course has been unremarkable. Conclusions: AGCTT is a rare tumor and information regarding its presentation, gross and microscopic morphology, and immunohistochemical characteristics is lacking. This report provides an update of the immunohistochemical findings and adds to the available data concerning this tumor. Based on the results of this case, future reports that include c-kit immunohistochemistry would be beneficial to evaluate its utility in diagnosing AGCTT. PMID

  8. Juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the testis: prenatal diagnosis and prescrotal approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal testicular tumors are rare and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of newborn scrotal masses. Juvenile granulosa cell tumor (JGCT) accounts for about 5% of all prepubertal testis tumors. As a benign neoplasm, radical orchiectomy is sufficient for treatment. We report a case of a newborn with a prenatal diagnosis of scrotal mass. After surgery, the histological diagnosis was juvenile granulosa cell tumor. To date the patient is healthy. PMID:23217189

  9. Glomus tumor of the ovary masquerading as granulosa cell tumor: case report.

    PubMed

    Slone, Stephen P; Moore, Grace D; Parker, Lynn P; Rickard, Kyle A; Nixdorf-Miller, Allison S

    2010-01-01

    A solid right adnexal mass in a 73-year-old woman bled profusely with mobilization mimicking a granulosa cell tumor. There was almost complete replacement of the ovary by a circumscribed, 4.0 cm tumor with a hemorrhagic, solid cut surface. Morphologic and phenotypic correlation supported a diagnosis of glomus tumor. Large gaping vessels and small sinusoidal-type vessels formed an anastomotic vascular network with an inner endothelial lining (CD31+/CD34+) and an outer layer of glomocytes (actin+/desmin-/inhibin-). The hemangiopericytoma-like vasculature accounted for bleeding during surgery. PMID:19952942

  10. Insights into granulosa cell tumors using spontaneous or genetically engineered mouse models

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are rare sex cord-stromal tumors that have been studied for decades. However, their infrequency has delayed efforts to research their etiology. Recently, mutations in human GCTs have been discovered, which has led to further research aimed at determining the molecular mechanisms underlying the disease. Mouse models have been important tools for studying GCTs, and have provided means to develop and improve diagnostics and therapeutics. Thus far, several genetically modified mouse models, along with one spontaneous mouse model, have been reported. This review summarizes the phenotypes of these mouse models and their applicability in elucidating the mechanisms of granulosa cell tumor development. PMID:27104151

  11. Impact of FOXL2 mutations on signaling in ovarian granulosa cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Leung, Dilys T H; Fuller, Peter J; Chu, Simon

    2016-03-01

    Granulosa cell tumors (GCT) are unique sex-cord stromal tumors which account for ∼8% of all ovarian malignancies. They exhibit morphological, biochemical and hormonal features similar to proliferating granulosa cells of the preovulatory follicle, including estrogen and inhibin synthesis. A somatic missense mutation in the forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) gene (C134W) is unique to adult GCT, and absent in other ovarian cancers. FOXL2 is a transcription factor that plays a critical role in ovarian function, in particular, proliferation and differentiation of granulosa cells. The molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of the mutant FOXL2 remain unresolved. Here we review the molecular alterations known to be associated with mutant FOXL2 and the potential signaling implications. Several studies suggest that dysregulated FOXL2 function may alter cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Further insights into the molecular mechanism of GCT pathophysiology may identify therapeutic targets for the treatment of these tumors. PMID:26791928

  12. SALL4 and SF-1 are sensitive and specific markers for distinguishing granulosa cell tumors from yolk sac tumors.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shuting; Wei, Shi; Ziober, Amy; Yao, Yuan; Bing, Zhanyong

    2013-04-01

    Granulosa cell tumors are classified as juvenile and adult types. They may be misinterpreted as a yolk sac tumor when they exhibit a "reticular" growth pattern and contain prominent mitotic activity. In this study, the authors performed immunohistochemical stains for SALL4 and steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) on 27 cases of yolk sac tumors and 24 granulosa cell tumors. Nuclear stains for both antibodies were considered as positive and the intensity of staining was graded as negative, weak, moderate, and strong. All the yolk sac tumors were positive for SALL4 (100%) with moderate to strong grade staining and negative for SF-1 (100%). In contrast, all the granulosa cell tumors were positive for SF-1 (85% moderate to strong grade staining and 15% weak staining) and negative for SALL4 (100%). The difference was significant (P < .01, Student's t test). This result indicates that these 2 markers could be used to distinguish these 2 tumors in a difficult situation. PMID:22832114

  13. Surgical removal of a mammary adenocarcinoma and a granulosa cell tumor in an African pygmy hedgehog

    PubMed Central

    Wellehan, James F.X.; Southorn, Erin; Smith, Dale A.; Taylor, Michael

    2003-01-01

    A 3-year-old, female African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) was referred with a history of hematuria. Hyperglycemia and glucosuria were found at presentation. Mammary adenocarcinoma and a granulosa cell tumor were found and removed surgically. Glucosuria and hematuria resolved, and the hedgehog has done well for 10 mo postoperatively. PMID:12677695

  14. Surgical removal of a mammary adenocarcinoma and a granulosa cell tumor in an African pygmy hedgehog.

    PubMed

    Wellehan, James F X; Southorn, Erin; Smith, Dale A; Taylor, W Michael

    2003-03-01

    A 3-year-old, female African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) was referred with a history of hematuria. Hyperglycemia and glucosuria were found at presentation. Mammary adenocarcinoma and a granulosa cell tumor were found and removed surgically. Glucosuria and hematuria resolved, and the hedgehog has done well for 10 mo postoperatively. PMID:12677695

  15. Soy Promotes Juvenile Granulosa Cell Tumor Development in Mice and in the Human Granulosa Cell Tumor-Derived COV434 Cell Line1

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri-Attia, Nadéra; James, Rebecca; Ligon, Alysse; Li, Xiaohui; Pangas, Stephanie A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Soy attracts attention for its health benefits, such as lowering cholesterol or preventing breast and colon cancer. Soybeans contain isoflavones, which act as phytoestrogens. Even though isoflavones have beneficial health effects, a role for isoflavones in the initiation and progression of diseases including cancer is becoming increasingly recognized. While data from rodent studies suggest that neonatal exposure to genistein (the predominant isoflavone in soy) disrupts normal reproductive function, its role in ovarian cancers, particularly granulosa cell tumors (GCT), is largely unknown. Our study aimed to define the contribution of a soy diet in GCT development using a genetically modified mouse model for juvenile GCTs (JGCT; Smad1 Smad5 conditional double knockout mice) as well as a human JGCT cell line (COV434). While dietary soy cannot initiate JGCT development in mice, we show that it has dramatic effects on GCT growth and tumor progression compared to a soy-free diet. Loss of Smad1 and Smad5 alters estrogen receptor alpha (Esr1) expression in granulosa cells, perhaps sensitizing the cells to the effects of genistein. In addition, we found that genistein modulates estrogen receptor expression in the human JGCT cell line and positively promotes cell growth in part by suppressing caspase-dependent apoptosis. Combined, our work suggests that dietary soy consumption has deleterious effects on GCT development. PMID:25165122

  16. Soy promotes juvenile granulosa cell tumor development in mice and in the human granulosa cell tumor-derived COV434 cell line.

    PubMed

    Mansouri-Attia, Nadéra; James, Rebecca; Ligon, Alysse; Li, Xiaohui; Pangas, Stephanie A

    2014-10-01

    Soy attracts attention for its health benefits, such as lowering cholesterol or preventing breast and colon cancer. Soybeans contain isoflavones, which act as phytoestrogens. Even though isoflavones have beneficial health effects, a role for isoflavones in the initiation and progression of diseases including cancer is becoming increasingly recognized. While data from rodent studies suggest that neonatal exposure to genistein (the predominant isoflavone in soy) disrupts normal reproductive function, its role in ovarian cancers, particularly granulosa cell tumors (GCT), is largely unknown. Our study aimed to define the contribution of a soy diet in GCT development using a genetically modified mouse model for juvenile GCTs (JGCT; Smad1 Smad5 conditional double knockout mice) as well as a human JGCT cell line (COV434). While dietary soy cannot initiate JGCT development in mice, we show that it has dramatic effects on GCT growth and tumor progression compared to a soy-free diet. Loss of Smad1 and Smad5 alters estrogen receptor alpha (Esr1) expression in granulosa cells, perhaps sensitizing the cells to the effects of genistein. In addition, we found that genistein modulates estrogen receptor expression in the human JGCT cell line and positively promotes cell growth in part by suppressing caspase-dependent apoptosis. Combined, our work suggests that dietary soy consumption has deleterious effects on GCT development. PMID:25165122

  17. FOXL2-induced follistatin attenuates activin A-stimulated cell proliferation in human granulosa cell tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Jung-Chien; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Qiu, Xin; Fang, Lanlan; Leung, Peter C.K.

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •Activin A stimulates cell proliferation in KGN human granulosa cell tumor-derived cell line. •Cyclin D2 mediates activin A-induced KGN cell proliferation. •FOXL2 induces follistatin expression in KGN cells. •FOXL2-induced follistatin attenuates activin A-stimulated KGN cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Human granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are rare, and their etiology remains largely unknown. Recently, the FOXL2 402C > G (C134W) mutation was found to be specifically expressed in human adult-type GCTs; however, its function in the development of human GCTs is not fully understood. Activins are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, which has been shown to stimulate normal granulosa cell proliferation; however, little is known regarding the function of activins in human GCTs. In this study, we examined the effect of activin A on cell proliferation in the human GCT-derived cell line KGN. We show that activin A treatment stimulates KGN cell proliferation. Treatment with the activin type I receptor inhibitor SB431542 blocks activin A-stimulated cell proliferation. In addition, our results show that cyclin D2 is induced by treatment with activin A and is involved in activin A-stimulated cell proliferation. Moreover, the activation of Smad signaling is required for activin A-induced cyclin D2 expression. Finally, we show that the overexpression of the wild-type FOXL2 but not the C134W mutant FOXL2 induced follistatin production. Treatment with exogenous follistatin blocks activin A-stimulated cell proliferation, and the overexpression of wild-type FOXL2 attenuates activin A-stimulated cell proliferation. These results suggest that FOXL2 may act as a tumor suppressor in human adult-type GCTs by inducing follistatin expression, which subsequently inhibits activin-stimulated cell proliferation.

  18. YAP Regulates Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Steroidogenesis in Adult Granulosa Cell Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Fu, David; Lv, Xiangmin; Hua, Guohua; He, Chunbo; Dong, Jixin; Lele, Subodh M.; Li, David Wan-Cheng; Zhai, Qiongli; Davis, John S.; Wang, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The Hippo signaling pathway has been implicated as a conserved regulator of organ size in both Drosophila and mammals. Yes associated protein (YAP), the central component of the Hippo signaling cascade, functions as an oncogene in several malignancies. Ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCT) are characterized by enlargement of ovary, excess production of estrogen, high frequency of recurrence and potential of malignancy and metastasis. Whether the Hippo pathway plays a role in the pathogenesis of GCT is unknown. This study was conducted to examine the expression of YAP in human adult GCTs and to determine the role of YAP in the proliferation and steroidogenesis of GCT cells. Compared with age-matched normal human ovaries, GCT tissues exhibited higher levels of YAP expression. YAP protein was predominantly expressed in the nucleus of tumor cells, whereas the non-tumor ovarian stromal cells expressed very low levels of YAP. YAP was also expressed in cultured primary human granulosa cells and in KGN and COV434 GCT cell lines. siRNA-mediated knockdown of YAP in KGN cells resulted in a significant reduction in cell proliferation (P<0.001). Conversely, overexpression of wild-type YAP or a constitutively active YAP mutant resulted in a significant increase in KGN cell proliferation and migration. Moreover, YAP knockdown reduced FSH-induced aromatase (CYP19A1) protein expression and estrogen production in KGN cells. These results demonstrate that YAP plays an important role in regulating GCT cell proliferation, migration and steroidogenesis. Targeting the Hippo/YAP pathway may provide a novel therapeutic approach for GCT. PMID:24389730

  19. Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary: retrospective analysis of 45 cases.

    PubMed

    Uygun, Kazim; Aydiner, Adnan; Saip, Pinar; Basaran, Mert; Tas, Faruk; Kocak, Zafer; Dincer, Maktav; Topuz, Erkan

    2003-10-01

    Adult granulosa cell tumors of the ovary are rare neoplasms, accounting for less than 5% of all ovarian malignancies. In addition to the tumor stage, residual disease, patient age, tumor size, extent of surgery, and also some histologic factors have been reported to be of prognostic importance. Tumor registries were screened for all patients treated between 1979 and 1998 for ovarian tumors at the University of Istanbul. There were 952 ovarian carcinomas, of which 47 were granulosa cell tumors. All charts were reviewed, and the clinical data were extracted. Prognostic factors and treatment results were evaluated retrospectively. The median follow-up was 84 (range: 6-141 months) months. According to univariate analysis, there were only two significant factors for overall survival (OS): stage and presence of residual disease. The OS of the 23 patients with early stage (mean, 122 months; median, unreached) was significantly (p = 0.0001) better than the OS of the 22 patients with advanced stage (mean, 34 months; median, 21 months). A significant difference (p = 0.0004) in OS was also observed between patients with residual (mean, 42 months; median, 21 months) and nonresidual (mean, 108 months; median, unreached) disease. In a multivariate analysis, only stage remained statistically significant (p = 0.0001). The overall 5-year survival rate was 55% and median survival after recurrence was 21 months. Despite the small number of patients, the study showed that stage and macroscopic residual disease are significant prognostic factors. The benefit of chemotherapy and radiotherapy remains controversial. PMID:14528083

  20. [Diagnosis and follow-up observation of granulosa cell tumor of the ovary are becoming more precise].

    PubMed

    Färkkilä, Anniina; Unkila-Kallio, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary is a rare, hormonally active ovarian cancer, typical symptoms of which include various gynecological bleeding disorders. Adult granulosa cell tumor is most commonly detected at stage I, whereupon the prognosis is good. The disease, however, recurs in one third of stage I patients and leads to death in half of these. Conventional cytotoxic agents may be ineffective in the treatment of relapsed tumors. Inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone have proven to be sensitive and accurate markers. Knowledge about the disease mechanisms has improved the diagnostics and follow-up observation of the patients. PMID:27400589

  1. Characterization of the inhibitor of kappaB kinase (IKK) complex in granulosa cell tumors of the ovary and granulosa cell tumor-derived cell lines.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Stacey; Fuller, Peter J

    2013-10-01

    Granulosa cell tumors of the ovary (GCT) are a distinct, hormonally active subset of ovarian cancers. Although it has recently been shown that ∼97 % of all adult GCT harbor a novel somatic missense mutation in the FOXL2 gene, given its almost universal presence, it does not explain differences in tumor stage and/or recurrence. The nuclear factor kappaB (NFκB) transcription factor is constitutively active in two human GCT-derived cell lines, COV434 and KGN, which are useful in vitro models to investigate juvenile and adult GCT, respectively. This study aimed to determine the molecular basis and pathogenetic significance of this aberrant NFκB activity. Selective chemical inhibitors were used to target candidate components of the pathway. The constitutive activity was blocked by two independent inhibitors of IκBα phosphorylation, suggesting that aberrant activation occurs upstream of this point. NFκB inhibition resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in cell proliferation and viability and a dose-dependent increase in apoptosis. Inhibitors of earlier components of the pathway were without effect. Two independent inhibitors of inhibitor of kappaB kinase (IKK)β, a catalytic subunit of the NFκB activation complex, were unable to inhibit the constitutive activity, but surprisingly also ligand-induced activity. These findings suggest a central role for IKKβ; however, no mutations or altered expression of the IKKβ, IKKα, or IKKγ genes was observed in the cell lines or in a panel of human GCT samples. This study highlights unresolved issues in understanding the pathogenesis of GCT and in the use of the COV434 and KGN cells lines as model systems. PMID:23674259

  2. Sensitivity of human granulosa cell tumor cells to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Noora; Anttonen, Mikko; Färkkilä, Anniina; Pihlajoki, Marjut; Bützow, Ralf; Unkila-Kallio, Leila; Heikinheimo, Markku

    2014-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is implicated in the progression of many human cancers, but its significance in ovarian granulosa cell tumor (GCT) pathobiology remains poorly understood. We assessed the EGFR gene copy number, surveyed the mRNA and protein expression patterns of EGFR in 90 adult GCTs, and assessed the in vitro sensitivity of GCT cells to EGFR inhibition. Low-level amplification of EGFR gene was observed in five GCTs and high-level amplification in one sample. EGFR mRNA was robustly expressed in GCTs. Most tumors expressed both unphosphorylated and phosphorylated EGFR protein, but the protein expression did not correlate with clinical parameters, including the risk of recurrence. Small-molecule EGFR inhibitors reduced the EGF-induced activation of EGFR and its downstream signaling molecules at nanomolar doses, but cell viability was reduced, and caspase-3/7 was activated in GCT cells only at micromolar doses. Based on the present results, EGFR is active and abundantly expressed in the majority of GCTs, but probably has only minor contribution to GCT cell growth. Given the high doses of EGFR inhibitors required to reduce GCT cell viability in vitro, they are not likely to be effective for GCT treatment as single agents; they should rather be tested as part of combination therapies for these malignancies. PMID:24463098

  3. Metastatic Granulosa Cell Tumor of the Testis: Clinical Presentation and Management

    PubMed Central

    Han, Min; Figenshau, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) of the testis are rare sex cord-stromal tumors that are present in both juvenile and adult subtypes. While most adult GCTs are benign, those that present with distant metastases manifest a grave prognosis. Treatments for aggressive GCTs are not well established. Options that have been employed in previous cases include retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND), radiation, chemotherapy, or a combination thereof. We describe the case of a 57-year-old man who presented with a painless left testicular mass and painful gynecomastia. Serum tumor markers (alpha fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, and lactate dehydrogenase) and computed tomography of the chest and abdomen were negative. The patient underwent left radical orchiectomy. Immunohistochemical staining was consistent with a testicular GCT. He underwent a left-template laparoscopic RPLND which revealed 2/19 positive lymph nodes. Final pathological stage was IIA. He remains free of disease 32 months after surgery. PMID:27293952

  4. TLR4 activates NF-{kappa}B in human ovarian granulosa tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, Dori C.; Johnson, A.L.

    2011-06-17

    Highlights: {yields} TLR4 is expressed in human ovarian granulosa tumor cells. {yields} Acting through TLR4, LPS and HSP60 induce a NF{kappa}B signaling cascade in human ovarian granulosa tumor cells. {yields} NF{kappa}B activation or inhibition did not alter chemosensitivity to TRAIL or cisplatin. -- Abstract: Previous studies have demonstrated expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the surface epithelium of normal ovaries (OSE) and in epithelial ovarian tumors. Most notably, OSE-derived cancers express TLR4, which activates the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) signaling cascade as a mediator of inflammatory response. Currently, there is considerable interest in elucidating the role of TLR-mediated signaling in cancers. Nevertheless, the expression of TLRs in granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) of the ovary, and the extent to which GCT expression of TLRs may influence cell-signaling pathways and/or modulate the efficacy of chemotherapeutics, has yet to be determined. In the present study, human GCT lines (COV434 and KGN) were utilized to evaluate expression of functional TLR4. TLR4 is expressed in GCT cell lines and ligation of TLR4 with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) led to I{kappa}B degradation and activation of NF-{kappa}B. NF-{kappa}B activation was confirmed by nuclear localization of NF-{kappa}B p65 following treatment with LPS and the naturally occurring ligand, HSP60. Notably, immunoneutralization of TLR4 blocked nuclear localization, and inhibition of NF-{kappa}B signaling attenuated LPS-induced TNF{alpha} plus increased doubling time in both cell lines. Contradictory to reports using human OSE cell lines, inhibition of NF-{kappa}B signaling failed to sensitize GCT lines to TRAIL or cisplatin. In summary, findings herein are the first to demonstrate a functional TLR-signaling pathway specifically in GCTs, and indicate that in contrast to OSE-derived cancers, inhibition of NF-{kappa}B does not sensitize GCTs to TRAIL or cisplatin.

  5. Granulosa cell tumor presenting with ovarian torsion and de novo borderline mucinous ovarian tumor in the contralateral ovary.

    PubMed

    Ates, S; Sevket, O; Sudolmus, S; Sonmez, F C; Dansuk, R

    2015-01-01

    The authors report a case of 25-year-old women with a rare acute presentation of granulosa cell tumor (GCT) as an ovarian torsion. Right salpingoo-ooferectomy was performed. The pathological diagnosis was GCT One month after the surgery there was a three-cm ovarian cyst in the contralateral ovary and the tumor size increased to six cm in diameter in the following month. Serum inhibin-B levels progressively increased. Cystectomy was performed to contralateral ovary as frozen-section examination indicated mucinous tumor. Final histopathological examination revealed borderline mucinous tumor. Regarding her request, the patient was reoperated again and unilateral oophorectomy and hysterectomy were performed. Clinicians must be aware of the possibility of an underlying malignancy associated with adnexal torsion even in young patients. Frozen section will be helpful in order to avoid incomplete surgeries. Cyst rapidly growing in the ovary in young women should raise the suspicion of a de novo malignancy. PMID:26189271

  6. Role of Adjuvant Radiotherapy in Granulosa Cell Tumors of the Ovary

    SciTech Connect

    Hauspy, Jan; Beiner, Mario E.; Harley, Ian; Rosen, Barry; Murphy, Joan; Chapman, William; Le, Lisa W.; Fyles, Anthony; Levin, Wilfred

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: To review the role of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) in the outcome and recurrence patterns of granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) of the ovary. Methods and Materials: The records of all patients with GCTs referred to the Princess Margaret Hospital University Health Network between 1961 and 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. The patient, tumor, and treatment factors were assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses using disease-free survival (DFS) as the endpoint. Results: A total of 103 patients with histologically confirmed GCTs were included in the present study. The mean duration of follow-up was 100 months (range, 1-399). Of the 103 patients, 31 received adjuvant RT. A total of 39 patients developed tumor recurrence. The tumor size, incidence of intraoperative rupture, and presence of concurrent endometrial cancer were not significant risk factors for DFS. The median DFS was 251 months for patients who underwent adjuvant RT compared with 112 months for patients who did not (p = .02). On multivariate analysis, adjuvant RT remained a significant prognostic factor for DFS (p = .004). Of the 103 patients, 12 had died and 44 were lost to follow-up. Conclusion: Ovarian GCTs can be indolent, with patients achieving long-term survival. In our series, adjuvant RT resulted in a significantly longer DFS. Ideally, randomized trials with long-term follow-up are needed to define the role of adjuvant RT for ovarian GCTs.

  7. Molecularly Defined Adult Granulosa Cell Tumor of the Ovary: The Clinical Phenotype.

    PubMed

    McConechy, Melissa K; Färkkilä, Anniina; Horlings, Hugo M; Talhouk, Aline; Unkila-Kallio, Leila; van Meurs, Hannah S; Yang, Winnie; Rozenberg, Nirit; Andersson, Noora; Zaby, Katharina; Bryk, Saara; Bützow, Ralf; Halfwerk, Johannes B G; Hooijer, Gerrit K J; van de Vijver, Marc J; Buist, Marrije R; Kenter, Gemma G; Brucker, Sara Y; Krämer, Bernhard; Staebler, Annette; Bleeker, Maaike C G; Heikinheimo, Markku; Kommoss, Stefan; Blake Gilks, C; Anttonen, Mikko; Huntsman, David G

    2016-11-01

    The histopathologic features of adult granulosa cell tumors (AGCTs) are relatively nonspecific, resulting in misdiagnosis of other cancers as AGCT, a problem that has not been well characterized. FOXL2 mutation testing was used to stratify 336 AGCTs from three European centers into three categories: 1) FOXL2 mutant molecularly defined AGCT (MD-AGCT) (n = 256 of 336), 2) FOXL2 wild-type AGCT (n = 17 of 336), 3) misdiagnosed other tumor types (n = 63 of 336). All statistical tests were two-sided. The overall and disease-specific survival of the misdiagnosed cases was lower than in the MD-AGCTs (P < .001). The misdiagnosed cases accounted for 71.9% of disease-specific deaths within five years. In the population-based cohort, overall survival of MD-AGCT patients was not different from age-matched, population-based controls. Even though 35.2% of all the MD-AGCT patients in our study experienced a relapse, AGCT is usually an indolent disease. The historical, premolecular data underpinning our clinical understanding of AGCT was likely skewed by inclusion of misdiagnosed cases, and future management strategies should reflect the potential for surgical cure and long survival even after relapse. PMID:27297428

  8. Transcriptomic analysis of stage 1 versus advanced adult granulosa cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Dilys; Gould, Jodee A.; Jobling, Tom; Fuller, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCT) are hormonally-active neoplasms characterized, in the adult-subtype, by a mutation in the FOXL2 gene (C134W). They exhibit an indolent course with an unexplained propensity for late recurrence; ∼80% of patients with aggressive, advanced stage tumors die from their disease; aside from surgery, therapeutic options are limited. To identify the molecular basis of advanced stage disease we have used whole transcriptome analysis of FOXL2 C134W mutation positive adult (a)GCT to identify genes that are differentially expressed between early (stage 1) and advanced (stage 3) aGCT. Transcriptome profiles for early (n = 6) and stage 3 (n = 6) aGCT, and for the aGCT-derived KGN, cell line identified 24 genes whose expression significantly differs between the early and stage 3 aGCT. Of these, 16 were more abundantly expressed in the stage 3 aGCT and 8 were higher in the stage 1 tumors. These changes were further examined for the genes which showed the greatest fold change: the cytokine CXCL14, microfibrillar-associated protein 5, insulin-like 3 and desmin. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis identified overexpression of genes on chromosome 7p15 which includes the homeobox A gene locus. The analysis therefore identifies a small number of genes with clearly discriminate patterns of expression arguing that the clinicopathological-derived distinction of the tumor stage is robust, whilst confirming the relative homogeneity of expression for many genes across the cohort and hence of aGCT. The expression profiles do however identify several overexpressed genes in both stage 1 and/or stage 3 aGCT which warrant further study as possible therapeutic targets. PMID:26893359

  9. TLR4 activates NFkB in human ovarian granulosa tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Dori C.; White, Yvonne A. R.; Dau, Caroline; Johnson, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the surface epithelium of normal ovaries (OSE) and in epithelial ovarian tumors. Most notably, OSE-derived cancers express TLR4, which activates the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling cascade as a mediator of inflammatory response. Currently, there is considerable interest in elucidating the role of TLR-mediated signaling in cancers. Nevertheless, the expression of TLRs in granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) of the ovary, and the extent to which GCT expression of TLRs may influence cell-signaling pathways and/or modulate the efficacy of chemotherapeutics, has yet to be determined. In the present study, human GCT lines (COV434 and KGN) were utilized to evaluate expression of functional TLR4. TLR4 is expressed in GCT cell lines and ligation of TLR4 with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) led to IκB degradation and activation of NF-κB. NF-κB activation was confirmed by nuclear localization of NF-κB p65 following treatment with LPS and the naturally occurring ligand, HSP60. Notably, immunoneutralization of TLR4 blocked nuclear localization, and inhibition of NF-κB signaling attenuated LPS-induced TNFαplus increased doubling time in both cell lines. Contradictory to reports using human OSE cell lines, inhibition of NF-κB signaling failed to sensitize GCT lines to TRAIL or cisplatin. In summary, findings herein are the first to demonstrate a functional TLR-signaling pathway specifically in GCTs, and indicate that in contrast to OSE-derived cancers, inhibition of NF-κB does not sensitize GCTs to TRAIL or cisplatin. PMID:21616060

  10. FOXL2 molecular status in adult granulosa cell tumors of the ovary: A study of primary and metastatic cases

    PubMed Central

    Zannoni, Gian Franco; Improta, Giuseppina; Petrillo, Marco; Pettinato, Angela; Scambia, Giovanni; Fraggetta, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) of the ovary are uncommon neoplasms, accounting for ~5% of all malignant ovarian tumors. GCTs are a relatively homogeneous group of tumors, categorized into two distinct subtypes, juvenile GCT and adult GCT (AGCT), likely arising from a limited set of molecular events usually involving the disruption of pathways that regulate granulosa cell proliferation. In the present study, the presence of forkheadbox L2 (FOXL2) c.402C>G mutation was investigated in a series of 42 samples of primary and metastatic AGCT of the ovary. The samples consisted of 37 primary and 5 metastatic ovarian AGCTs from 37 patients. FOXL2 mutational status was evaluated using a pyrosequencing approach on 2.5-µm sections of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. FOXL2 c.402C>G mutation was found in 33/37 (89.2%) primary AGCTs and in 4/5 (80.0%) metastases, with the molecular status of the metastases recapitulating that of the primary tumors (4 mutated cases and 1 wild-type case). Overall, FOXL2 mutation is present in the majority of primary and metastatic AGCTs, and could be used as a valid tool in the diagnosis of the disease and in cases of metastatic lesions from an unknown primary origin. Moreover the concordance of FOXL2 molecular status in primary and associated metastases suggests its early appearance and genomic stability in AGCT tumorigenesis. PMID:27446412

  11. Juvenile granulosa cell tumors of the testis: a clinicopathologic study of 70 cases with emphasis on its wide morphologic spectrum.

    PubMed

    Kao, Chia-Sui; Cornejo, Kristine M; Ulbright, Thomas M; Young, Robert H

    2015-09-01

    The clinical and pathologic features of 70 juvenile granulosa cell tumors (JGCTs) of the testis are presented. The patients were from 30 weeks gestational age to 10 years old; 60 of 67 (90%) whose ages are known to us were 6 months old or younger. Sixty-two underwent gonadectomy, 6 wedge excision, and 2 only biopsy. Twenty-six tumors were left sided and 22 right sided. Six occurred in an undescended testis and 2 in dysgenetic gonads. The most common presentation was a testicular mass (65%), followed by an "enlarging testis" (25%). Six of 14 patients in whom it was measured had "elevated" serum α-fetoprotein (AFP), likely physiologically, and 1 had gynecomastia. The tumors measured 0.5 to 5 cm (mean, 1.7 cm; median, 1.5 cm) and were most commonly well circumscribed and typically yellow-tan; approximately 2/3 had a cystic component, whereas 1/3 were entirely solid. Microscopic examination typically showed a lobular growth, punctuated in 67 cases by variably sized and shaped follicles containing material that was basophilic (21%), eosinophilic (44%), or of both characters (35%); 3 lacked follicles. In nonfollicular areas, the tumor cells typically grew diffusely but occasionally had a corded arrangement (26%) or reticular appearance (29%). The stroma was either fibrous or fibromyxoid; hemorrhage associated with hemosiderin-laden macrophages was focally seen in 16%. The tumor cells were mostly small to medium sized with round to oval nuclei containing inconspicuous nucleoli and moderate to abundant, but occasionally scant, pale to lightly eosinophilic, sometimes vacuolated, cytoplasm; nuclear grooves were infrequent (6%). Focal columnar morphology was seen in 27% of the tumors. Mitoses were plentiful in 37%, and apoptosis was prominent in 46%. Intratubular tumor was seen in 43% and entrapped seminiferous tubules in 70%. Lymphovascular invasion was present in 2 cases, rete testis involvement in 4, and necrosis in 1. Rare features/patterns included: regressed tumor with

  12. A Hot-spot of In-frame Duplications Activates the Oncoprotein AKT1 in Juvenile Granulosa Cell Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Bessière, Laurianne; Todeschini, Anne-Laure; Auguste, Aurélie; Sarnacki, Sabine; Flatters, Delphine; Legois, Bérangère; Sultan, Charles; Kalfa, Nicolas; Galmiche, Louise; Veitia, Reiner A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ovarian granulosa cell tumors are the most common sex-cord stromal tumors and have juvenile (JGCTs) and adult forms. In a previous study we reported the occurrence of activating somatic mutations of Gαs, which transduces mitogenic signals, in 30% of the analyzed JGCTs. Methods We have searched for alterations in other proteins involved in ovarian mitogenic signaling. We focused on the PI3K–AKT axis. As we found mutations in AKT1, we analyzed the subcellular localization of the mutated proteins and performed functional explorations using Western-blot and luciferase assays. Findings We detected in-frame duplications affecting the pleckstrin-homology domain of AKT1 in more than 60% of the tumors occurring in girls under 15 years of age. The somatic status of the mutations was confirmed when peritumoral DNA was available. The JGCTs without duplications carried point mutations affecting highly conserved residues. Several of these substitutions were somatic lesions. The mutated proteins carrying the duplications had a non-wild-type subcellular distribution, with a marked enrichment at the plasma membrane. This led to a striking degree of AKT1 activation demonstrated by a strong phosphorylation level and by reporter assays. Interpretation Our study incriminates somatic mutations of AKT1 as a major event in the pathogenesis of JGCTs. The existence of AKT inhibitors currently tested in clinical trials opens new perspectives for targeted therapies for these tumors, which are currently treated with standard non-specific chemotherapy protocols. PMID:26137586

  13. Betaglycan alters NFκB-TGFβ2 cross talk to reduce survival of human granulosa tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Bilandzic, Maree; Chu, Simon; Wang, Yao; Tan, Han L; Fuller, Peter J; Findlay, Jock K; Stenvers, Kaye L

    2013-03-01

    The molecular pathways controlling granulosa cell tumor (GCT) survival are poorly understood. In many cell types, nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) and TGFβ coordinately regulate cell survival to maintain tissue homeostasis. Because GCT cell lines exhibit constitutively activated NFκB, we hypothesized that NFκB blocks TGFβ-mediated cell death in GCT cells. To test this hypothesis, we used the human GCT cell line KGN, which exhibits loss of betaglycan, a TGFβ co-receptor. After inhibition of NFκB in KGN cells, re-expression of betaglycan resulted in a decrease in cell viability, which was further decreased by TGFβ2. Intriguingly, TGFβ2 increased NFκB reporter activity in control cells, but betaglycan expression suppressed both basal and TGFβ2-stimulated NFκB activity. Chemical inhibition of Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2/3 (SMAD2/3) signaling or SMAD2/3 gene silencing revealed that both SMADs contributed to cell survival. Furthermore, inhibiting NFκB activity resulted in a specific reduction in SMAD3 expression. Conversely, overexpression of SMAD3 increased basal NFκB activity and countered betaglycan-mediated suppression of NFκB activity. Finally, ERK1/2 activation emerged as the point of convergence of NFκB, SMAD3, and TGFβ2/betaglycan governance of GCT cell viability. Key findings in KGN cells were reproduced in a second GCT cell line, COV434. Collectively, our data establish that both SMAD2/3 and NFκB signaling pathways support GCT cell viability and suggest the existence of a positive feedback loop between NFκB and SMAD3 signaling in late-stage GCT. Furthermore, our data suggest that loss of betaglycan during tumor progression in GCT alters the functional outcomes generated by NFκB and TGFβ pathway cross talk. PMID:23322721

  14. FOXL2, GATA4, and SMAD3 Co-Operatively Modulate Gene Expression, Cell Viability and Apoptosis in Ovarian Granulosa Cell Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Anttonen, Mikko; L'Hôte, David; Vattulainen, Sanna; Färkkilä, Anniina; Unkila-Kallio, Leila; Veitia, Reiner A.; Heikinheimo, Markku

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant ovarian granulosa cell proliferation and apoptosis may lead to granulosa cell tumors (GCT), the pathogenesis of which involves transcription factors GATA4, FOXL2, and SMAD3. FOXL2 gene harbors a point mutation (C134W) in a vast majority of GCTs. GATA4 is abundantly expressed in GCTs and its expression correlates with poor prognosis. The TGF-β mediator SMAD3 promotes GCT cell survival through NF-κB activation, and interacts with FOXL2. Here, we find that the expression patterns of these factors overlap in the normal human ovary and 90 GCTs, and positively correlate with each other and with their mutual target gene CCND2, which is a key factor for granulosa cell proliferation. We have explored the molecular interactions of FOXL2, GATA4, and SMAD3 and their roles in the regulation of CCND2 using co-immunoprecipitation, promoter transactivation, and cell viability assays in human GCT cells. We found that not only SMAD3, but also GATA4 physically interact with both wild type and C134W-mutated FOXL2. GATA4 and SMAD3 synergistically induce a 8-fold increase in CCND2 promoter transactivation, which is 50% reduced by both FOXL2 types. We confirmed that wild type FOXL2 significantly decreases cell viability. Interestingly, GATA4 and SMAD3 caused a marked reduction of GCT cell apoptosis induced by wild type FOXL2. Thus, the effects of GATA4 and SMAD3 on both cell viability and apoptosis are distinct from those of wild type FOXL2; a perturbation of this balance due to the oncogenic FOXL2 mutation is likely to contribute to GCT pathogenesis. PMID:24416423

  15. FOXL2, GATA4, and SMAD3 co-operatively modulate gene expression, cell viability and apoptosis in ovarian granulosa cell tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Anttonen, Mikko; Pihlajoki, Marjut; Andersson, Noora; Georges, Adrien; L'hôte, David; Vattulainen, Sanna; Färkkilä, Anniina; Unkila-Kallio, Leila; Veitia, Reiner A; Heikinheimo, Markku

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant ovarian granulosa cell proliferation and apoptosis may lead to granulosa cell tumors (GCT), the pathogenesis of which involves transcription factors GATA4, FOXL2, and SMAD3. FOXL2 gene harbors a point mutation (C134W) in a vast majority of GCTs. GATA4 is abundantly expressed in GCTs and its expression correlates with poor prognosis. The TGF-β mediator SMAD3 promotes GCT cell survival through NF-κB activation, and interacts with FOXL2. Here, we find that the expression patterns of these factors overlap in the normal human ovary and 90 GCTs, and positively correlate with each other and with their mutual target gene CCND2, which is a key factor for granulosa cell proliferation. We have explored the molecular interactions of FOXL2, GATA4, and SMAD3 and their roles in the regulation of CCND2 using co-immunoprecipitation, promoter transactivation, and cell viability assays in human GCT cells. We found that not only SMAD3, but also GATA4 physically interact with both wild type and C134W-mutated FOXL2. GATA4 and SMAD3 synergistically induce a 8-fold increase in CCND2 promoter transactivation, which is 50% reduced by both FOXL2 types. We confirmed that wild type FOXL2 significantly decreases cell viability. Interestingly, GATA4 and SMAD3 caused a marked reduction of GCT cell apoptosis induced by wild type FOXL2. Thus, the effects of GATA4 and SMAD3 on both cell viability and apoptosis are distinct from those of wild type FOXL2; a perturbation of this balance due to the oncogenic FOXL2 mutation is likely to contribute to GCT pathogenesis. PMID:24416423

  16. Anti-Müllerian hormone profiles as a novel biomarker to diagnose granulosa-theca cell tumors in cattle.

    PubMed

    Kitahara, Go; Nambo, Yasuo; El-Sheikh Ali, Hossam; Kajisa, Makoto; Tani, Mineto; Nibe, Kazumi; Kamimura, Shunichi

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the blood profile and tissue expression of Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) as a biomarker for granulosa-theca cell tumors (GTCTs) in cattle. Five cases with unilateral ovarian GTCTs (GTCT group) were investigated in comparison to other groups of Japanese Black cows, which had either cystic ovarian disease (COD group, n=5), a functional corpus luteum on Days 9 to 11 of the estrous cycle (Day 0=estrus; CL group, n=13) or received superovulation treatment (SOT group, n=13). We used transrectal ultrasonography and measured plasma AMH, estradiol-17β (E(2)), progesterone (P(4)) and testosterone (T) levels. Moreover, GTCT tissues were collected and examined by immunohistochemical staining (IHC) for AMH. In the GTCT group, ultrasound images of GTCTs were variable and not definitive. However, the AMH level in the GTCT group (n=3, 58.1 ± 66.3 ng/ml) was significantly higher than in the COD, CL and SOT groups (0.1 ± 0.1 ng/ml for GTCT vs. COD, P<0.05; 0.2 ± 0.1 and 0.3 ± 0.2 ng/ml, respectively for GTCT vs. CL and SOT, P<0.01). The other hormonal levels in the GTCT group had no significant differences compared with the COD or SOT group. Neoplastic granulosa cells labeled with AMH antibody clearly demonstrated a variety of tissue patterns in all cases by IHC. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the blood profile and IHC of AMH in bovine GTCTs. Our findings indicate that AMH may be a novel biomarker to diagnose GTCTs in cattle. PMID:22052009

  17. Effects of an inhibitor of the γ-secretase complex on proliferation and apoptotic parameters in a FOXL2-mutated granulosa tumor cell line (KGN).

    PubMed

    Irusta, Griselda; Pazos, Maria Camila; Maidana, Camila Pazos; Abramovich, Dalhia; De Zúñiga, Ignacio; Parborell, Fernanda; Tesone, Marta

    2013-07-01

    Ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) represent 3%-5% of all ovarian malignancies. Treatments have limited proven efficacy and biologically targeted treatment is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Notch signaling in the proliferation, steroidogenesis, apoptosis, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway in a FOXL2-mutated granulosa tumor cell line (KGN) representative of the adult form of GCTs. When Notch signaling is initiated, the receptors expose a cleavage site in the extracellular domain to the metalloproteinase TACE and, following this cleavage, Notch undergoes another cleavage mediated by the presenilin-gamma-secretase complex. To achieve our goal, DAPT, an inhibitor of the gamma-secretase complex, was used to investigate the role of the Notch system in parameters associated with cell growth and death, using a human granulosa cell tumor line (KGN) as an experimental model. We observed that JAGGED1, DLL4, NOTCH1, and NOTCH4 were highly expressed in KGN cells as compared to granulosa-lutein cells obtained from assisted reproductive techniques patients. The proliferation and viability of KGN cells, as well as progesterone and estradiol production, decreased in the presence of 20 μM DAPT. Apoptotic parameters like PARP and caspase 8 cleavages, BAX, and BCLXs increased in KGN cells cultured with DAPT, whereas others such as BCL2, BCLXl, FAS, and FAS ligand did not change. AKT phosphorylation decreased and PTEN protein increased when Notch signaling was inhibited in KGN cells. We conclude that the Notch system acts as a survival pathway in KGN cells, and might be interacting with the PI3K/AKT pathway. PMID:23699387

  18. 3,4-Dihydroxybenzaldehyde Derived from Prunus mume Seed Inhibits Oxidative Stress and Enhances Estradiol Secretion in Human Ovarian Granulosa Tumor Cells.

    PubMed

    Kono, Ryohei; Nomura, Sachiko; Okuno, Yoshiharu; Nakamura, Misa; Maeno, Akihiro; Kagiya, Tomoko; Tokuda, Akihiko; Inada, Ken-Ichi; Matsuno, Akira; Utsunomiya, Tomoko; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi

    2014-06-28

    Granulosa cells form ovarian follicles and play important roles in the growth and maturation of oocytes. The protection of granulosa cells from cellular injury caused by oxidative stress is an effective therapy for female infertility. We here investigated an effective bioactive compound derived from Prunus mume seed extract that protects granulosa cells from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis. We detected the bioactive compound, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (3,4-DHBA), via bioactivity-guided isolation and found that it inhibited the H2O2-induced apoptosis of granulosa cells. We also showed that 3,4-DHBA promoted estradiol secretion in granulosa cells and enhanced the mRNA expression levels of steroidogenic factor 1, a promoter of key steroidogenic enzymes. These results suggest that P. mume seed extract may have clinical potential for the prevention and treatment of female infertility. PMID:25320407

  19. TGFβ signaling promotes juvenile granulosa cell tumorigenesis by suppressing apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Mansouri-Attia, Nadéra; Tripurani, Swamy K; Gokul, Nisha; Piard, Hermann; Anderson, Matthew L; Eldin, Karen; Pangas, Stephanie A

    2014-11-01

    Molecular changes that give rise to granulosa cell tumors of the ovary are not well understood. Previously, we showed that deletion in granulosa cells of the bone morphogenetic protein receptor-signaling transcription factors, Smad1 and Smad5, causes development of metastatic granulosa cell tumors that phenocopy the juvenile form of granulosa cell tumors (JGCTs) in humans. The TGFβ-SMAD2/3 pathway is active in JGCTs, but its role is unknown. We tested the in vivo contribution of TGFβ-SMAD signaling to JGCT development by genetically deleting the common Smad4 from Smad1/5 double knockout mice. Smad1/5/4 triple knockout mice were sterile and had significantly increased survival and delayed tumor development compared to those for the Smad1/5 double knockout mice. The few tumors that did develop were smaller, showed no evidence of metastasis, and had increased apoptosis. In the human JGCT cell line COV434, TGFβ1 increased viability by inhibiting apoptosis through a TGFβ type I receptor-dependent repression of caspase activity and inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. These data support a tumor-promoting function of TGFβ in JGCTs through its ability to repress apoptosis. PMID:25243859

  20. The four and a half LIM domains 2 (FHL2) regulates ovarian granulosa cell tumor progression via controlling AKT1 transcription

    PubMed Central

    Hua, G; He, C; Lv, X; Fan, L; Wang, C; Remmenga, S W; Rodabaugh, K J; Yang, L; Lele, S M; Yang, P; Karpf, A R; Davis, J S; Wang, C

    2016-01-01

    The four and a half LIM domains 2 (FHL2) has been shown to play important roles in the regulation of cell proliferation, survival, adhesion, motility and signal transduction in a cell type and tissue-dependent manner. However, the function of FHL2 in ovarian physiology and pathology is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the role and functional mechanism of FHL2 in the progression of ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCTs). Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that FHL2 was overexpressed in GCT tissues. Cellular localization of FHL2 in GCT cells was cell cycle dependent. Knockdown of FHL2 suppressed GCT cell growth, reduced cell viability and inhibited cell migration. Consistently, ectopic expression of FHL2 in GCT cells with very low endogenous FHL2 promoted cell growth, improved cell viability and enhance cell migration. Importantly, overexpression of FHL2 promoted GCT progression in vivo. Mechanistic studies indicated that FHL2 regulates AKT1 gene expression in vitro and in vivo. Knockdown of FHL2 or AKT1 in GCT cell lines induced very similar phenotypes. Ectopic expression of constitutively active AKT1 rescued FHL2 knockdown-induced arrest of GCT cell growth and reduction of GCT cell viability, suggesting that FHL2 regulates GCT cell growth and viability through controlling AKT1 expression. Finally, co-immunoprecipitation and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses indicated that FHL2 functions as a co-activator of NFκB and AP-1 to regulate AKT1 gene transcription. In conclusion, results from the present study indicate that FHL2 exerts its oncogenic action in GCT cells via controlling AKT1 gene expression. FHL2 is a promising target for the development of novel drugs against ovarian granulosa cell tumor. PMID:27415427

  1. The four and a half LIM domains 2 (FHL2) regulates ovarian granulosa cell tumor progression via controlling AKT1 transcription.

    PubMed

    Hua, G; He, C; Lv, X; Fan, L; Wang, C; Remmenga, S W; Rodabaugh, K J; Yang, L; Lele, S M; Yang, P; Karpf, A R; Davis, J S; Wang, C

    2016-01-01

    The four and a half LIM domains 2 (FHL2) has been shown to play important roles in the regulation of cell proliferation, survival, adhesion, motility and signal transduction in a cell type and tissue-dependent manner. However, the function of FHL2 in ovarian physiology and pathology is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the role and functional mechanism of FHL2 in the progression of ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCTs). Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that FHL2 was overexpressed in GCT tissues. Cellular localization of FHL2 in GCT cells was cell cycle dependent. Knockdown of FHL2 suppressed GCT cell growth, reduced cell viability and inhibited cell migration. Consistently, ectopic expression of FHL2 in GCT cells with very low endogenous FHL2 promoted cell growth, improved cell viability and enhance cell migration. Importantly, overexpression of FHL2 promoted GCT progression in vivo. Mechanistic studies indicated that FHL2 regulates AKT1 gene expression in vitro and in vivo. Knockdown of FHL2 or AKT1 in GCT cell lines induced very similar phenotypes. Ectopic expression of constitutively active AKT1 rescued FHL2 knockdown-induced arrest of GCT cell growth and reduction of GCT cell viability, suggesting that FHL2 regulates GCT cell growth and viability through controlling AKT1 expression. Finally, co-immunoprecipitation and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses indicated that FHL2 functions as a co-activator of NFκB and AP-1 to regulate AKT1 gene transcription. In conclusion, results from the present study indicate that FHL2 exerts its oncogenic action in GCT cells via controlling AKT1 gene expression. FHL2 is a promising target for the development of novel drugs against ovarian granulosa cell tumor. PMID:27415427

  2. 17β-estradiol inhibits spreading of metastatic cells from granulosa cell tumors through a non-genomic mechanism involving GPER1

    PubMed Central

    François, Charlotte M.; Wargnier, Richard; Petit, Florence; Goulvent, Thibaut; Rimokh, Ruth; Treilleux, Isabelle; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Zazzu, Valeria; Cohen-Tannoudji, Joëlle; Guigon, Céline J.

    2015-01-01

    Granulosa cell tumor (GCT) is a rare and severe form of sex-cord stromal ovarian tumor that is characterized by its long natural history and tendency to recur years after surgical ablation. Because there is no efficient curative treatment beyond surgery, ~20% of patients die of the consequences of their tumor. However, very little is known of the molecular etiology of this pathology. About 70% of GCT patients present with elevated circulating estradiol (E2). Because this hormone is known to increase tumor growth and progression in a number of cancers, we investigated the possible role of E2 in GCTs. Cell-based studies with human GCT metastases and primary tumor-derived cells, ie KGN and COV434 cells, respectively, aimed at evaluating E2 effect on cell growth, migration and invasion. Importantly, we found that E2 did not affect GCT cell growth, but that it significantly decreased the migration and matrix invasion of metastatic GCT cells. Noteworthy, our molecular studies revealed that this effect was accompanied by the inhibition through non-genomic mechanisms of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), which is constitutively activated in GCTs. By using pharmacological and RNA silencing approaches, we found that E2 action was mediated by G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1) signaling pathway. Analyses of GPER1 expression on tissue microarrays from human GCTs confirmed its expression in ~90% of GCTs. Overall, our study reveals that E2 would act via non-classical pathways to prevent metastasis spreading in GCTs and also reveals GPER1 as a possible target in this disease. PMID:25823895

  3. 17β-estradiol inhibits spreading of metastatic cells from granulosa cell tumors through a non-genomic mechanism involving GPER1.

    PubMed

    François, Charlotte M; Wargnier, Richard; Petit, Florence; Goulvent, Thibaut; Rimokh, Ruth; Treilleux, Isabelle; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Zazzu, Valeria; Cohen-Tannoudji, Joëlle; Guigon, Céline J

    2015-05-01

    Granulosa cell tumor (GCT) is a rare and severe form of sex-cord stromal ovarian tumor that is characterized by its long natural history and tendency to recur years after surgical ablation. Because there is no efficient curative treatment beyond surgery, ~20% of patients die of the consequences of their tumor. However, very little is known of the molecular etiology of this pathology. About 70% of GCT patients present with elevated circulating estradiol (E2). Because this hormone is known to increase tumor growth and progression in a number of cancers, we investigated the possible role of E2 in GCTs. Cell-based studies with human GCT metastases and primary tumor-derived cells, ie KGN and COV434 cells, respectively, aimed at evaluating E2 effect on cell growth, migration and invasion. Importantly, we found that E2 did not affect GCT cell growth, but that it significantly decreased the migration and matrix invasion of metastatic GCT cells. Noteworthy, our molecular studies revealed that this effect was accompanied by the inhibition through non-genomic mechanisms of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), which is constitutively activated in GCTs. By using pharmacological and RNA silencing approaches, we found that E2 action was mediated by G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1) signaling pathway. Analyses of GPER1 expression on tissue microarrays from human GCTs confirmed its expression in ~90% of GCTs. Overall, our study reveals that E2 would act via non-classical pathways to prevent metastasis spreading in GCTs and also reveals GPER1 as a possible target in this disease. PMID:25823895

  4. Ovarian stimulation and granulosa-cell tumour.

    PubMed

    Willemsen, W; Kruitwagen, R; Bastiaans, B; Hanselaar, T; Rolland, R

    1993-04-17

    Ovarian stimulation in the treatment of infertility is far from physiological because patients and their ovaries are exposed to high concentrations of gonadotropins. Many studies have focused on the two most common side-effects of ovarian stimulation--ie, hyperstimulation and multiple pregnancy. We describe 12 patients in whom granulosa-cell tumour was discovered after ovarian stimulation treatment with clomiphene citrate and/or gonadotropins. Although we cannot prove a causal link between the tumour and the medication, investigations in animals have shown a relation between gonadotropin exposition and the development of granulosa-cell tumours. The possible relation of ovarian stimulation and granulosa-cell tumours in human beings has not been published before. We postulate three explanations for this finding; first, the granulosa-cell tumour is present in the ovary, waiting for a hormonal trigger; second, increased follicle stimulating hormone concentrations are oncogenic to granulosa cell; and third, the onset of the granulosa-cell tumour during ovarian stimulation is coincidental. We recommend that ovarian stimulation is done only if there is a valid indication after proper assessment of the ovaries, and that women who have had ovarian stimulation are followed for longer than at present. PMID:8096944

  5. Downregulation of microRNA‑146a inhibits ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis by simultaneously targeting interleukin‑1 receptor‑associated kinase and tumor necrosis factor receptor‑associated factor 6.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Xie, Mingxuan; Liu, Da; Shi, Ke

    2015-10-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF), an ovarian disorder of multifactorial origin, is defined as the occurrence of amenorrhea, hypergonadotropism and hypoestrogenism in females <40 years old. Apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells is important in POF and understanding the regulatory mechanism underlying ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis may be beneficial for the management of POF. Increasing evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRs) have a regulatory function in oocyte maturation and ovarian follicular development. In the present study, the expression of miR‑146a in plasma and ovarian granulosa cells obtained from patients with POF, its effect on the apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells and the possible underlying mechanisms were examined. The present study demonstrated that compared with the control groups, the expression of miR‑146a in the plasma and in ovarian granulosa cells of patients with POF was significantly upregulated. Furthermore, it was found that miR‑146a simultaneously targeted interleukin‑1 receptor‑associated kinase (IRAK1) and tumor necrosis factor receptor‑associated factor 6 (TRAF6), which regulated the activity of nuclear factor‑κB and IκBα. In addition, the results demonstrated that inhibition of the caspase cascade by caspase inhibitors attenuated the effects of miR‑146a on ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest that miR‑146a has an important promoting effect on the apoptosis of granulosa cells by targeting IRAK1 and TRAF6 via the caspase cascade pathway. These results may be useful for the management of POF. PMID:26151128

  6. Synergistic effects of Pten loss and WNT/CTNNB1 signaling pathway activation in ovarian granulosa cell tumor development and progression

    PubMed Central

    Laguë, Marie-Noëlle; Paquet, Marilène; Fan, Heng-Yu; Kaartinen, M. Johanna; Chu, Simon; Jamin, Soazik P.; Behringer, Richard R.; Fuller, Peter J.; Mitchell, Andrew; Doré, Monique; Huneault, Louis M.; Richards, JoAnne S.; Boerboom, Derek

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms of granulosa cell tumor (GCT) development may involve the dysregulation of signaling pathways downstream of follicle-stimulating hormone, including the phosphoinosite-3 kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. To test this hypothesis, a genetically engineered mouse model was created to derepress the PI3K/AKT pathway in granulosa cells by conditional targeting of the PI3K antagonist gene Pten (Ptenflox/flox;Amhr2cre/+). The majority of Ptenflox/flox;Amhr2cre/+ mice featured no ovarian anomalies, but occasionally (∼7%) developed aggressive, anaplastic GCT with pulmonary metastases. The expression of the PI3K/AKT downstream effector FOXO1 was abrogated in Ptenflox/flox;Amhr2cre/+ GCT, indicating a mechanism by which GCT cells may increase proliferation and evade apoptosis. To relate these findings to spontaneously occurring GCT, analyses of PTEN and phospho-AKT expression were performed on human and equine tumors. Although PTEN loss was not detected, many GCT (2/5 human, 7/17 equine) featured abnormal nuclear or perinuclear localization of phospho-AKT, suggestive of altered PI3K/AKT activity. As inappropriate activation of WNT/CTNNB1 signaling causes late-onset GCT development and cross talk between the PI3K/AKT and WNT/CTNNB1 pathways has been reported, we tested whether these pathways could synergize in GCT. Activation of both the PI3K/AKT and WNT/CTNNB1 pathways in the granulosa cells of a mouse model (Ptenflox/flox;Ctnnb1flox(ex3)/+;Amhr2cre/+) resulted in the development of GCT similar to those observed in Ptenflox/flox;Amhr2cre/+ mice, but with 100% penetrance, perinatal onset, extremely rapid growth and the ability to spread by seeding into the abdominal cavity. These data indicate a synergistic effect of dysregulated PI3K/AKT and WNT/CTNNB1 signaling in the development and progression of GCT and provide the first animal models for metastatic GCT. PMID:18687666

  7. Juvenile Granulosa Cell Tumour: Anaplastic Variant with Omental Deposits

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Anuradha C.K.; Monappa, Vidya

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile Granulosa Cell Tumour (JGCT) of ovary represents a small fraction of all primary ovarian malignancies. It is a subtype of granulosa cell tumour that is almost always found during the first three decades of life. Histologically, it differs from the typical adult type of granulosa cell tumour. It accounts for 5-15% of all granulosa cell tumours, majority being unilateral. Herein, we describe an unusual histopathological variant of JGCT with numerous large cystic spaces, anaplasia and focal syncytiotrophoblast like giant cells. PMID:27042471

  8. Excessive Ovarian Production of Nerve Growth Factor Elicits Granulosa Cell Apoptosis by Setting in Motion a Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha/Stathmin$Mediated Death Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Rudaz, Cecilia; Dorfman, Mauricio; Nagalla, Srinivasa; Svechnikov, Konstantin; Söder, Olle; Ojeda, Sergio R.; Dissen, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    Excessive nerve growth factor (NGF) production by the ovary, achieved via a transgenic approach, results in arrested antral follicle growth, reduced ovulatory capacity, and a predisposition to cyst formation in response to mildly elevated LH levels. Two salient features in these mutant mice (termed 17NF) are an elevated production of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP4), testosterone (T4) and estradiol (E2) in response to gonadotropins, and an increased frequency of granulosa cell (GC) apoptosis. Here we show that the increase in steroidal response is associated with enhanced expression of Cyp17a1, Hsd17b, and Cyp19a1, which encode the enzymes catalyzing the synthesis of 17-OHP4, T4 and E2, respectively. Using a proteomic approach, we identified stathmin (STMN1), as a protein that is overproduced in 17NF ovaries. In its phosphorylated state, STMN1 mediates a cell death signal initiated by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF). STMN1 is expressed in GCs and excessive NGF increases its abundance as well as that of its forms phosphorylated at serine (Ser) 16, 25 and 38. TNF synthesis is also increased in 17NF ovaries, and this change is abolished by blocking neurotrophic tyrosine kinase (NTRK) receptors. Inhibiting TNF actions in vivo by administering a soluble TNF receptor prevented the increase in total and phosphorylated STMN1 production, as well as GC apoptosis in NGF-overproducing ovaries. These results indicate that an excess of NGF in the ovary promotes steroidogenesis by enhancing the expression of enzyme genes involved in 17-OHP4, T4 and E2 synthesis, and causes GC apoptosis by activating a TNF/STMN1-mediated cell death pathway. PMID:21646391

  9. Non-canonical Progesterone Signaling in Granulosa Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Peluso, John J.; Pru, James K.

    2014-01-01

    It has been known for over three decades that progesterone (P4) suppresses follicle growth. It has been assumed that P4 acts directly on granulosa cells of developing follicles to slow their development, since P4 inhibits both mitosis and apoptosis of cultured granulosa cells. However, granulosa cells of developing follicles of mice, rats, monkeys and humans do not express the A or B form of the classic nuclear receptor for progesterone (PGR). In contrast, these granulosa cells express other progesterone binding proteins, one of which is referred to as Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 (PGRMC1). PGRMC1 specifically binds P4 with high affinity and mediates P4’s anti-mitotic and anti-apoptotic action as evidenced by the lack of these P4-dependent effects in PGRMC1-depleted cells. In addition, mice in which PGRMC1 is conditionally depleted in granulosa cells show diminished follicle development. While the mechanism through which P4 activation of PGRMC1 affects granulosa cell function is not well defined, it appears that PGRMC1 controls granulosa cell function in part by regulating gene expression in T cell specific transcription factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (Tcf/Lef)-dependent manner. Clinically, altered PGRMC1 expression has been correlated with premature ovarian failure/insufficiency, polycystic ovarian syndrome and infertility. These collective studies provide strong evidence that PGRMC1 functions as a receptor for P4 in granulosa cells and that altered expression results in compromised reproductive capacity. Ongoing studies seek to define the components of the signal transduction cascade through which P4-activation of PGRMC1 results in the regulation of granulosa cell function. PMID:24516175

  10. Non-canonical progesterone signaling in granulosa cell function.

    PubMed

    Peluso, John J; Pru, James K

    2014-05-01

    It has been known for over 3 decades that progesterone (P4) suppresses follicle growth. It has been assumed that P4 acts directly on granulosa cells of developing follicles to slow their development, as P4 inhibits both mitosis and apoptosis of cultured granulosa cells. However, granulosa cells of developing follicles of mice, rats, monkeys, and humans do not express the A or B isoform of the classic nuclear receptor for P4 (PGR). By contrast, these granulosa cells express other P4 binding proteins, one of which is referred to as PGR membrane component 1 (PGRMC1). PGRMC1 specifically binds P4 with high affinity and mediates P4's anti-mitotic and anti-apoptotic action as evidenced by the lack of these P4-dependent effects in PGRMC1-depleted cells. In addition, mice in which PGRMC1 is conditionally depleted in granulosa cells show diminished follicle development. While the mechanism through which P4 activation of PGRMC1 affects granulosa cell function is not well defined, it appears that PGRMC1 controls granulosa cell function in part by regulating gene expression in T-cell-specific transcription factor/lymphoid enhancer factor-dependent manner. Clinically, altered PGRMC1 expression has been correlated with premature ovarian failure/insufficiency, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and infertility. These collective studies provide strong evidence that PGRMC1 functions as a receptor for P4 in granulosa cells and that altered expression results in compromised reproductive capacity. Ongoing studies seek to define the components of the signal transduction cascade through which P4 activation of PGRMC1 results in the regulation of granulosa cell function. PMID:24516175

  11. Growth differentiation factor 8 down-regulates pentraxin 3 in human granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsun-Ming; Fang, Lanlan; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Klausen, Christian; Sun, Ying-Pu; Leung, Peter C K

    2015-03-15

    Growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8), also known as myostatin, is highly expressed in the mammalian musculoskeletal system and plays critical roles in the regulation of skeletal muscle growth. Though not exclusively expressed in the musculoskeletal system, the expression and biological function of GDF8 has never been examined in the human ovary. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) plays a key role in the assembly of extracellular matrix, which is essential for cumulus expansion, ovulation and in vivo fertilization. The aim of this study was to investigate GDF8 expression and function in human granulosa cells and to examine its underlying molecular determinants. An established immortalized human granulosa cell line (SVOG), granulosa cell tumor cell line (KGN) and primary granulosa-lutein cells were used as study models. We now demonstrate for the first time that GDF8 is expressed in human granulosa cells and follicular fluid. All 16 follicular fluid samples tested contained GDF8 protein at an average concentration of 3 ng/ml. In addition, GDF8 treatment significantly decreased PTX3 mRNA and protein levels. These suppressive effects, along with the induction of SMAD2/3 phosphorylation, were abolished by co-treatment with the ALK4/5/7 inhibitor SB431542. Knockdown of ALK5, ACVR2A/ACVR2B or SMAD4 reversed the effects of GDF8-induced PTX3 suppression. These results indicate that GDF8 down-regulates PTX3 expression via ACVR2A/ACVR2B-ALK5-mediated SMAD-dependent signaling in human granulosa cells. These novel findings support a potential role for GDF8 in the regulation of follicular function, likely via autocrine effects on human granulosa cells. PMID:25641196

  12. Apoptosis of postovulatory cumulus granulosa cells of the rat.

    PubMed

    Szołtys, M; Tabarowski, Z; Pawlik, A

    2000-12-01

    The process of apoptosis in the postovulatory cumulus granulosa cells was investigated in pregnant rats. Mature female Wistar rats, exhibiting a regular 4-day oestrous cycle, were placed with males on the day of pro-oestrus. The following day, on which spermatozoa were found in vaginal smears, was designated day 1 of pregnancy. The animals were killed just before ovulation (24.00 hours), on days 1 (5.00, 11.00, and 18.00 hours), and 2 ( 11.00 hours) of pregnancy. Excised ovaries and oviducts were submitted to a routine histological procedure and paraplast sections were subjected to detection of apoptotic cells using the TUNEL method. The cumulus granulosa cells of preovulatory follicles (24.00 hours) were negative for apoptotic staining. However, 5 h later a positive staining was observed in the oviduct ampulla and included the cumulus granulosa cells lying in the peripheral parts of postovulatory cumuli oophori, and the oviductal epithelial cells of this region. On the evening of day 1 almost all cumulus granulosa cells showed strong immunostaining while on day 2 at 11.00 hours only immunonegative clusters of remnants of cumulus granulosa cells were present in the distended ampulla region, while naked, two or more cell embryos were present in the further parts of oviduct. These results indicate that in the rat apoptosis of cumulus granulosa cells starts shortly after ovulation in the peripheral region. Epithelial ampullary cells surrounding ovulated cumuli show a massive apoptosis. PMID:11131018

  13. Effect of mercury on porcine ovarian granulosa cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Roychoudhury, Shubhadeep; Massanyi, Peter; Slivkova, Jana; Formicki, Grzegorz; Lukac, Norbert; Slamecka, Jaroslav; Slama, Petr; Kolesarova, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to examine dose-dependent changes in the secretion activity [progesterone (P4) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)] of porcine ovarian granulosa cells after experimental mercury (Hg) administration, including its apoptotic potential so as to ascertain the possible involvement of Hg in steroidogenesis. Ovarian granulosa cells were incubated with mercuric chloride [mercury (II) chloride or HgCl2] at the doses 50-250 μg mL(-1) for 18 h and compared with control group without Hg addition. Release of P4 and IGF-I by ovarian granulosa cells was assessed by RIA and apoptosis by TUNEL assay. Observations show that P4 release by granulosa cells was significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited at all the doses, while IGF-I release was not affected at any of the doses used, although a decreasing trend in the release of IGF-I was noted in comparison to control. An increasing trend of apoptosis of granulosa cells was noted, the difference being significant (P < 0.05) only at the dose 130 μg mL(-1) HgCl2, in comparison to control. Obtained data suggest a direct effect of Hg on the release of steroid hormone progesterone but not growth factor IGF-I, and a dose-dependent effect on apoptosis of porcine ovarian granulosa cells. Results indicate the interference of Hg in the pathways of steroidogenesis and apoptosis of porcine ovarian granulosa cells. PMID:26030690

  14. Prohibitin( PHB) roles in granulosa cell physiology.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Indrajit; Thomas, Kelwyn; Thompson, Winston E

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian granulosa cells (GC) play an important role in the growth and development of the follicle in the process known as folliculogenesis. In the present review, we focus on recent developments in prohibitin (PHB) research in relation to GC physiological functions. PHB is a member of a highly conserved eukaryotic protein family containing the repressor of estrogen activity (REA)/stomatin/PHB/flotillin/HflK/C (SPFH) domain (also known as the PHB domain) found in diverse species from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. PHB is ubiquitously expressed in a circulating free form or is present in multiple cellular compartments including mitochondria, nucleus and plasma membrane. In mitochondria, PHB is anchored to the mitochondrial inner membrane and forms complexes with the ATPases associated with proteases having diverse cellular activities. PHB continuously shuttles between the mitochondria, cytosol and nucleus. In the nucleus, PHB interacts with various transcription factors and modulates transcriptional activity directly or through interactions with chromatin remodeling proteins. Many functions have been attributed to the mitochondrial and nuclear PHB complexes such as cellular differentiation, anti-proliferation, morphogenesis and maintenance of the functional integrity of the mitochondria. However, to date, the regulation of PHB expression patterns and GC physiological functions are not completely understood. PMID:26496733

  15. Binding of progesterone to cell surfaces of human granulosa-lutein cells.

    PubMed

    Younglai, Edward V; Wu, Yanjing; Foster, Warren G; Lobb, Derek K; Price, Thomas M

    2006-09-01

    Progesterone is produced by granulosa cells under the influence of luteinizing hormone. Nuclear progesterone receptors have been found in rat granulosa cells. Human granulosa-lutein cells rapidly respond to progesterone with an increase in intracellular calcium suggesting the existence of a nongenomic mechanism. This study was conducted to determine whether binding of progesterone to granulosa cells could occur at the membrane. Granulosa cells were obtained from an in vitro fertilization program and examined immunohistochemically with an antiserum to membrane progesterone receptors. Approximately 14-70% of freshly harvested or cultured granulosa cells of six patients showed a positive reaction to the antiserum, limited to the cell membrane. Western blot analysis of homogenates of granulosa cells and a granulosa cell tumour confirmed the presence of progesterone receptors A, B and C and low amounts of a putative membrane receptor. These results demonstrate that the plasma membranes of human granulosa cells possess binding components for progesterone which may be involved in its nongenomic mechanism of action. PMID:16905308

  16. The fungicide mancozeb induces toxic effects on mammalian granulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Paro, Rita; Tiboni, Gian Mario; Buccione, Roberto; Rossi, Gianna; Cellini, Valerio; Canipari, Rita; Cecconi, Sandra

    2012-04-15

    The ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate mancozeb is a widely used fungicide with low reported toxicity in mammals. In mice, mancozeb induces embryo apoptosis, affects oocyte meiotic spindle morphology and impairs fertilization rate even when used at very low concentrations. We evaluated the toxic effects of mancozeb on the mouse and human ovarian somatic granulosa cells. We examined parameters such as cell morphology, induction of apoptosis, and p53 expression levels. Mouse granulosa cells exposed to mancozeb underwent a time- and dose-dependent modification of their morphology, and acquired the ability to migrate but not to proliferate. The expression level of p53, in terms of mRNA and protein content, decreased significantly in comparison with unexposed cells, but no change in apoptosis was recorded. Toxic effects could be attributed, at least in part, to the presence of ethylenthiourea (ETU), the main mancozeb catabolite, which was found in culture medium. Human granulosa cells also showed dose-dependent morphological changes and reduced p53 expression levels after exposure to mancozeb. Altogether, these results indicate that mancozeb affects the somatic cells of the mammalian ovarian follicles by inducing a premalignant-like status, and that such damage occurs to the same extent in both mouse and human GC. These results further substantiate the concept that mancozeb should be regarded as a reproductive toxicant. Highlights: ► The fungicide mancozeb affects oocyte spindle morphology and fertilization rate. ► We investigated the toxic effects of mancozeb on mouse and human granulosa cells. ► Granulosa cells modify their morphology and expression level of p53. ► Mancozeb induces a premalignant-like status in exposed cells.

  17. Effect of Holothuria leucospilota extracted saponin on maturation of mice oocyte and granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Moghadam, Fereshteh Delghandi; Baharara, Javad; Balanezhad, Saeedeh Zafar; Jalali, Mohsen; Amini, Elaheh

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumbers saponins are triterpenoid glycosides which exert beneficial biomedical effects. This study was performed to assess the effect of saponin extracted from sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilota (H. leucospilota) on maturation of mice oocytes and granulosa cells. The germinal vesicles oocytes were collected from 6-8 weeks old Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice ovaries, randomly divided into untreated and four experimental groups and cultured In vitro. Maturation medium was supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 μg/ml saponin for 12 days. The rates of maturation were recorded through morphological observation by measurement of follicle diameter during treatment. After 4 days, the effects of saponin on granulosa cells were investigated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement, super oxide dismutase (SOD) activity, caspase assay and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) expression. The oocyte maturation rate was significantly higher in treated groups (1 μg/ml). The ROS and SOD assays demonstrated the antioxidant potential of saponin. The caspase assay exhibited that optimum concentrations of saponin (1, 2 μg/ml) reduced caspase activity in granulosa cells. Flow cytometry showed that optimum concentration of saponin promoted oocyte maturation via down regulation of TNF-α as follicular degenerative factor in nursing cells. These results proposed that maturation rate were obtained after the incorporation of 1 μg/ml sea cucumber saponin. Moreover, the extracted saponin at concentrations of 1, 2 μg/ml enhanced follicle growth which is accompanied by attenuating ROS formation, elevating SOD activity and reducing TNF-α expression in granulosa cells. But, further examinations are required to understand precise mechanisms of saponin action on oocyte and granulosa cells. PMID:27168752

  18. Effect of Holothuria leucospilota extracted saponin on maturation of mice oocyte and granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, Fereshteh Delghandi; Baharara, Javad; Balanezhad, Saeedeh Zafar; Jalali, Mohsen; Amini, Elaheh

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumbers saponins are triterpenoid glycosides which exert beneficial biomedical effects. This study was performed to assess the effect of saponin extracted from sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilota (H. leucospilota) on maturation of mice oocytes and granulosa cells. The germinal vesicles oocytes were collected from 6–8 weeks old Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice ovaries, randomly divided into untreated and four experimental groups and cultured In vitro. Maturation medium was supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 μg/ml saponin for 12 days. The rates of maturation were recorded through morphological observation by measurement of follicle diameter during treatment. After 4 days, the effects of saponin on granulosa cells were investigated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement, super oxide dismutase (SOD) activity, caspase assay and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) expression. The oocyte maturation rate was significantly higher in treated groups (1 μg/ml). The ROS and SOD assays demonstrated the antioxidant potential of saponin. The caspase assay exhibited that optimum concentrations of saponin (1, 2 μg/ml) reduced caspase activity in granulosa cells. Flow cytometry showed that optimum concentration of saponin promoted oocyte maturation via down regulation of TNF-α as follicular degenerative factor in nursing cells. These results proposed that maturation rate were obtained after the incorporation of 1 μg/ml sea cucumber saponin. Moreover, the extracted saponin at concentrations of 1, 2 μg/ml enhanced follicle growth which is accompanied by attenuating ROS formation, elevating SOD activity and reducing TNF-α expression in granulosa cells. But, further examinations are required to understand precise mechanisms of saponin action on oocyte and granulosa cells. PMID:27168752

  19. Role of leptin receptors in granulosa cells during ovulation.

    PubMed

    Dupuis, Lisa; Schuermann, Yasmin; Cohen, Tamara; Siddappa, Dayananda; Kalaiselvanraja, Anitha; Pansera, Melissa; Bordignon, Vilceu; Duggavathi, Raj

    2014-02-01

    Leptin is an important hormone influencing reproductive function. However, the mechanisms underpinning the role of leptin in the regulation of reproduction remain to be completely deciphered. In this study, our objective is to understand the mechanisms regulating the expression of leptin receptor (Lepr) and its role in ovarian granulosa cells during ovulation. First, granulosa cells were collected from superovulated mice to profile mRNA expression of Lepr isoforms (LeprA and LeprB) throughout follicular development. Expression of LeprA and LeprB was dramatically induced in the granulosa cells of ovulating follicles at 4 h after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) treatment. Relative abundance of both mRNA and protein of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (Cebpβ) increased in granulosa cells from 1 to 7 h post-hCG. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay confirmed the recruitment of Cebpβ to Lepr promoter. Thus, hCG-induced transcription of Lepr appears to be regulated by Cebpβ, which led us to hypothesise that Lepr may play a role during ovulation. To test this hypothesis, we used a recently developed pegylated superactive mouse leptin antagonist (PEG-SMLA) to inhibit Lepr signalling during ovulation. I.p. administration of PEG-SMLA (10 μg/g) to superovulated mice reduced ovulation rate by 65% compared with control treatment. Although the maturation stage of the ovulated oocytes remained unaltered, ovulation genes Ptgs2 and Has2 were downregulated in PEG-SMLA-treated mice compared with control mice. These results demonstrate that Lepr is dramatically induced in the granulosa cells of ovulating follicles and this induction of Lepr expression requires the transcription factor Cebpβ. Lepr plays a critical role in the process of ovulation by regulating, at least in part, the expression of the important genes involved in the preovulatory maturation of follicles. PMID:24256641

  20. Association of luteinizing hormone receptor gene expression with cell cycle progression in granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Jennifer D.; Seekallu, Srinivas V.; VandeVoort, Catherine A.; Chaffin, Charles L.

    2009-01-01

    During hormonally induced ovarian follicle growth, granulosa cell proliferation increases and returns to baseline prior to the administration of an ovulatory stimulus. Several key genes appear to follow a similar pattern, including the luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR), suggesting an association between cell cycle progression and gene expression. The expression of LHCGR mRNA in granulosa cells isolated from immature rats and treated in culture with FSH increased in a time-dependent manner, whereas administration of the cell cycle inhibitor mimosine completely suppressed expression. Although forskolin was able to induce luteinization in cells treated with mimosine, human chorionic gonadotropin had no effect, indicating the functional loss of LHCGR. The effects of mimosine on cell cycle progression and LHCGR mRNA expression were reversible within 24 h of mimosine removal. Cell cycle inhibition did not alter the stability of LHCGR mRNA, indicating that the primary effect was at the transcriptional level. To determine whether the relationship between LHCGR expression and cell cycle were relevant in vivo, immature rats were given a bolus of PMSG, followed by a second injection of either saline or PMSG 24 h later to augment levels of proliferation. The expression of LHCGR mRNA was elevated in the ovaries of animals receiving a supplement of PMSG. Mimosine also blocked cell cycle progression and LHCGR mRNA expression in macaque granulosa cells isolated following controlled ovarian stimulation cycles and in two different mouse Leydig tumor lines. These data collectively indicate that LHCGR mRNA is expressed as a function of the passage of cells across the G1-S phase boundary. PMID:19293332

  1. Genotoxicity of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Granulosa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pöttler, Marina; Staicu, Andreas; Zaloga, Jan; Unterweger, Harald; Weigel, Bianca; Schreiber, Eveline; Hofmann, Simone; Wiest, Irmi; Jeschke, Udo; Alexiou, Christoph; Janko, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles that are aimed at targeting cancer cells, but sparing healthy tissue provide an attractive platform of implementation for hyperthermia or as carriers of chemotherapeutics. According to the literature, diverse effects of nanoparticles relating to mammalian reproductive tissue are described. To address the impact of nanoparticles on cyto- and genotoxicity concerning the reproductive system, we examined the effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) on granulosa cells, which are very important for ovarian function and female fertility. Human granulosa cells (HLG-5) were treated with SPIONs, either coated with lauric acid (SEONLA) only, or additionally with a protein corona of bovine serum albumin (BSA; SEONLA-BSA), or with dextran (SEONDEX). Both micronuclei testing and the detection of γH2A.X revealed no genotoxic effects of SEONLA-BSA, SEONDEX or SEONLA. Thus, it was demonstrated that different coatings of SPIONs improve biocompatibility, especially in terms of genotoxicity towards cells of the reproductive system. PMID:26540051

  2. Effects of melatonin on the proliferation and apoptosis of sheep granulosa cells under thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yao; He, Chang-Jiu; Ji, Peng-Yun; Zhuo, Zhi-Yong; Tian, Xiu-Zhi; Wang, Feng; Tan, Dun-Xian; Liu, Guo-Shi

    2014-01-01

    The cross-talk between oocyte and somatic cells plays a crucial role in the regulation of follicular development and oocyte maturation. As a result, granulosa cell apoptosis causes follicular atresia. In this study, sheep granulosa cells were cultured under thermal stress to induce apoptosis, and melatonin (MT) was examined to evaluate its potential effects on heat-induced granulosa cell injury. The results demonstrated that the Colony Forming Efficiency (CFE) of granulosa cells was significantly decreased (heat 19.70% ± 1.29% vs. control 26.96% ± 1.81%, p < 0.05) and the apoptosis rate was significantly increased (heat 56.16% ± 13.95% vs. control 22.80% ± 12.16%, p < 0.05) in granulosa cells with thermal stress compared with the control group. Melatonin (10⁻⁷ M) remarkably reduced the negative effects caused by thermal stress in the granulosa cells. This reduction was indicated by the improved CFE and decreased apoptotic rate of these cells. The beneficial effects of melatonin on thermal stressed granulosa cells were not inhibited by its membrane receptor antagonist luzindole. A mechanistic exploration indicated that melatonin (10⁻⁷ M) down-regulated p53 and up-regulated Bcl-2 and LHR gene expression of granulosa cells under thermal stress. This study provides evidence for the molecular mechanisms of the protective effects of melatonin on granulosa cells during thermal stress. PMID:25405739

  3. Somatic cell-oocyte interactions in mouse oogenesis: stage-specific regulation of mouse oocyte protein phosphorylation by granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Colonna, R; Cecconi, S; Tatone, C; Mangia, F; Buccione, R

    1989-05-01

    The relative rate of synthesis of a number of proteins and the protein phosphorylation pattern of growing and fully grown oocytes were influenced by the presence of granulosa cells. In particular, a 74-kDa phosphorylated protein was detected only in granulosa cell-enclosed growing mouse oocytes. When reaggregated with granulosa cells, the growing oocyte displayed the phosphorylated form of the 74-kDa protein but when oocytes were cultured on Sertoli cell monolayers or in granulosa cell-conditioned medium the 74-kDa protein was not phosphorylated. We propose that (1) granulosa cells regulate protein phosphorylation in mouse oocytes; (2) a 74-kDa protein is phosphorylated only in growing oocytes when surrounded by granulosa cells; and (3) granulosa cells, but not Sertoli cells, are competent to send the appropriate "signal" to the growing oocyte. PMID:2707483

  4. A low-testosterone state associated with endometrioma leads to the apoptosis of granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Ono, Yoshihiro J; Tanabe, Akiko; Nakamura, Yoko; Yamamoto, Hikaru; Hayashi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Tomohito; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Masami; Terai, Yoshito; Ohmichi, Masahide

    2014-01-01

    Although endometriosis is suspected to be a cause of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI), the mechanism(s) underlying this process have not been elucidated. Recently, androgens were shown to promote oocyte maturation and to play a role in folliculogenesis. In addition, several reports have documented low testosterone levels in the follicular fluid obtained from endometriosis patients. We therefore examined whether the low levels of serum testosterone are associated with the apoptosis of granulosa cells in follicles obtained from endometriosis patients. Serum samples were collected from 46 patients with endometriosis and from 62 patients without endometriosis who received assisted reproductive therapy. Specimens of the ovaries obtained from 10 patients with endometrioma were collected using laparoscopy. The mean serum testosterone concentration in the patients with endometriosis was significantly lower than that observed in the patients without endometriosis. Furthermore, high expression of a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 member, BimEL, in the follicles was found to be associated with a low serum testosterone level. We clarified the underlying mechanisms using a basic approach employing human immortalized granulosa cells derived from a primary human granulosa cell tumor, the COV434 cell line. The in vitro examination demonstrated that testosterone inhibited apoptosis induced by sex steroids depletion via the PI3K/Akt-FoxO3a pathway in the COV434 cells. In conclusion, we elucidated the mechanism underlying the anti-apoptotic effects of testosterone on granulosa cells, and found that a low-testosterone status is a potentially important step in the development of premature ovarian insufficiency in patients with endometriosis. PMID:25536335

  5. The clinical utility of serum anti-Müllerian hormone in the follow-up of ovarian adult-type granulosa cell tumors--A comparative study with inhibin B.

    PubMed

    Färkkilä, Anniina; Koskela, Sanna; Bryk, Saara; Alfthan, Henrik; Bützow, Ralf; Leminen, Arto; Puistola, Ulla; Tapanainen, Juha S; Heikinheimo, Markku; Anttonen, Mikko; Unkila-Kallio, Leila

    2015-10-01

    Ovarian adult-type granulosa cell tumors (AGCTs) require prolonged follow-up, but evidence regarding the optimal follow-up marker is lacking. The objective of our study was to validate the clinical usefulness of serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and the current marker inhibin B as single and combined markers of AGCTs. We conducted a longitudinal, partially prospective cohort study of 123 premenopausal and postmenopausal AGCT patients with a median follow-up time of 10.5 years (range 0.3-50.0 years). Serum AMH and inhibin B levels were measured from 560 pretreatment and follow-up serum samples by using immunoenzymometric assays. We found that serum AMH and inhibin B levels were significantly elevated in patients with primary or recurrent AGCTs. The levels of both markers positively correlated to tumor size (p < 0.05). AMH and inhibin B performed similarly in receiving operator characteristic analyses; area under the curve (AUC) values were 0.92 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88-0.95] for AMH, and 0.94 (95% CI 0.90-0.96) for inhibin B. AMH was highly sensitive (92%) and specific (81%) in detecting a macroscopic AGCT. However, in AUC comparison analyses, the combination of the markers was superior to inhibin B alone. In conclusion, serum AMH is a sensitive and specific marker of AGCT, and either AMH or inhibin B can be monitored during follow-up. However, combining AMH and inhibin B in AGCT patient follow-up improves the detection of recurrent disease. PMID:25808251

  6. Meta-analysis of gene expression profiles in granulosa cells during folliculogenesis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Daulat Raheem; Fournier, Éric; Dufort, Isabelle; Richard, François J; Singh, Jaswant; Sirard, Marc-André

    2016-06-01

    Folliculogenesis involves coordinated profound changes in different follicular compartments and significant modifications of their gene expression patterns, particularly in granulosa cells. Huge datasets have accumulated from the analyses of granulosa cell transcriptomic signatures in predefined physiological contexts using different technological platforms. However, no comprehensive overview of folliculogenesis is available. This would require integration of datasets from numerous individual studies. A prerequisite for such integration would be the use of comparable platforms and experimental conditions. The EmbryoGENE program was created to study bovine granulosa cell transcriptomics under different physiological conditions using the same platform. Based on the data thus generated so far, we present here an interactive web interface called GranulosaIMAGE (Integrative Meta-Analysis of Gene Expression), which provides dynamic expression profiles of any gene of interest and all isoforms thereof in granulosa cells at different stages of folliculogenesis. GranulosaIMAGE features two kinds of expression profiles: gene expression kinetics during bovine folliculogenesis from small (6 mm) to pre-ovulatory follicles under different hormonal and physiological conditions and expression profiles of granulosa cells of dominant follicles from post-partum cows in different metabolic states. This article provides selected examples of expression patterns along with suggestions for users to access and generate their own patterns using GranulosaIMAGE. The possibility of analysing gene expression dynamics during the late stages of folliculogenesis in a mono-ovulatory species such as bovine should provide a new and enriched perspective on ovarian physiology. PMID:26980808

  7. Genotoxicity of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Granulosa Cells.

    PubMed

    Pöttler, Marina; Staicu, Andreas; Zaloga, Jan; Unterweger, Harald; Weigel, Bianca; Schreiber, Eveline; Hofmann, Simone; Wiest, Irmi; Jeschke, Udo; Alexiou, Christoph; Janko, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles that are aimed at targeting cancer cells, but sparing healthy tissue provide an attractive platform of implementation for hyperthermia or as carriers of chemotherapeutics. According to the literature, diverse effects of nanoparticles relating to mammalian reproductive tissue are described. To address the impact of nanoparticles on cyto- and genotoxicity concerning the reproductive system, we examined the effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) on granulosa cells, which are very important for ovarian function and female fertility. Human granulosa cells (HLG-5) were treated with SPIONs, either coated with lauric acid (SEONLA) only, or additionally with a protein corona of bovine serum albumin (BSA; SEON(LA-BSA)), or with dextran (SEON(DEX)). Both micronuclei testing and the detection of γH2A.X revealed no genotoxic effects of SEON(LA-BSA), SEON(DEX) or SEON(LA). Thus, it was demonstrated that different coatings of SPIONs improve biocompatibility, especially in terms of genotoxicity towards cells of the reproductive system. PMID:26540051

  8. Phagocytosis mechanism of apoptotic granulosa cells regulated by milk-fat globule-EGF factor 8.

    PubMed

    Naka, Mayumi; Kusakabe, Ken; Takeshita, Ai; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Ito, Yuko; Shibata, Masa-Aki; Otsuki, Yoshinori

    2009-09-01

    In the process of ovary sexual maturation, most immature ovarian follicles degrade into atretic follicles accompanied by apoptosis in granulosa cells. Macrophages can recognize apoptotic cells through specific binding with phosphatidylserine (PS), exposed on the surface of apoptotic cells, which is mediated by milk-fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8). In the present research, we examined the involvement of the MFG-E8-dependent phagocytosis system in the atretic follicles of developing mouse ovaries. The number of atretic follicles and DNA-fragmented granulosa cells significantly increased in B6C3F1 mice during 2 to 6 weeks. Chromatin-condensed granulosa cells were engulfed by macrophages, which existed in the stroma or atretic follicles, or by neighboring normal granulosa cells. MFG-E8 mRNA increased in ovaries during 2 to 6 weeks, and immunoreactivity of MFG-E8 was detected at the surface of apoptotic cells existing around the antrum. Immunoelectron microscopic study revealed MFG-E8-positive signals on the membrane of apoptotic cells near macrophages, but apoptotic cells engulfed by neighboring granulosa cells showed few signals. Anti-Fas antibody elevated the annexin-V-positive reaction in isolated granulosa cells from 3-week-old mouse ovaries. MFG-E8 seems to act on the phagocytosis of apoptotic granulosa cells via macrophages and contribute to the regression process of atretic follicles. PMID:19784740

  9. The endocannabinoid system in the human granulosa cell line KGN.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Jana; Grabiec, Urszula; Greither, Thomas; Fischer, Bernd; Dehghani, Faramarz

    2016-03-01

    Ovarian steroidogenesis is embedded in a sensitive network of regulatory mechanisms crucial for human fertility. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) represents an intrinsic modulating system involved in the regulation of endocrine functions. In the present study we characterized the ECS in the human granulosa cell line KGN and its impact on gonadotropin sensitivity and steroid hormone synthesis under basal and FSH-stimulated conditions. Expression studies were performed and estradiol was measured. CB1, CB2, DAGL, FAAH, GPR55, MAGL, NAPE-PLD and TRPV1 were expressed without FSH-dependent effects. Treatment with selective cannabinoid receptor agonists reduced basal but not FSH-stimulated estradiol and CYP19. Progesterone was not altered by ECS manipulation. CB1 agonist changed the expression of miRNAs associated with granulosa cell function, e.g. miR-23a, miR-24, miR-181a and miR-320a. Present data indicate a modulating role of the intrinsic ovarian ECS in the regulation of estradiol synthesis. PMID:26773729

  10. Leptin inhibits steroid biosynthesis by human granulosa-lutein cells.

    PubMed

    Ghizzoni, L; Barreca, A; Mastorakos, G; Furlini, M; Vottero, A; Ferrari, B; Chrousos, G P; Bernasconi, S

    2001-06-01

    Absence of leptin secretion compromises reproductive function and fertility in the ob/ob mouse which, when given leptin, shows a rise in serum LH levels and becomes fertile. Recently, the long and active isoform of the leptin receptor was detected in the ovary, indicating that leptin may also show direct gonad-related activity. To examine this, we studied the effect of graded doses of human leptin on estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) concentrations in the culture media of human granulosa-lutein cells obtained from follicular fluid of women undergoing in vitro fertilization. We also evaluated the mRNA expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), aromatase, and cytochrome P450 17alpha (CYP17) in these cells at baseline and after exposure to leptin. Estradiol levels were significantly decreased in the media 24 hours after incubation of the cells with increasing hLeptin concentrations (10(-11) - 10(-7) mol/l). The maximal 30% decrease in E2 production was caused by the 10(-9) mol/l hLeptin concentration; however, P4 levels in the media were not influenced by leptin. Exposure of granulosa-lutein cells to 10(-9) mol/l hLeptin did not produce any measurable changes on StAR, aromatase, or CYP17 mRNA expression. When hLeptin (10(-9) mol/l) was co-incubated with increasing concentrations of hCG (1.25 - 10 mlU/ml), IGF-II (15-60 ng/ml) or 1-6 desaminated IGF-II (deslGF-II; 15-60 ng/ml), it did not modify the elevation of E2 concentrations caused by each of the different stimuli. We conclude that leptin suppresses E2 secretion by human granulosa-lutein cells but does not impair the stimulatory effects of hCG and IGFs on these cells. Leptin may play a minor, but direct regulatory role on unstimulated human ovarian steroidogenesis by interfering with either the translational or post-translational steps of the baseline CYP17 and/or aromatase synthesis and/or the activation of the enzymes. PMID:11456279

  11. Removal of glycosaminoglycans from bovine granulosa cells contributes to increased binding of hydrogen-3 heparin

    SciTech Connect

    Ax, R.L.; Stodd, C.M.; Boehm, S.K.; Bellin, M.E.

    1986-02-01

    Granulosa cells from small or large bovine follicles were pretreated with enzymes that hydrolyze various glycosaminoglycans, and binding of (/sup 3/H)-heparin to the granulosa was measured. Binding of (/sup 3/H) heparin increased significantly after enzymatic pretreatments with chondroitinase ABC and fungal hyaluronidase, and similar results were obtained with granulosa from small and large follicles. No changes in binding of (/sup 3/H) heparin were detected after hydrolyses with chondroitinase AC and heparinase in either follicle size. Heparitinase, which hydrolyzes heparan sulfate, led to a significant 50% increase in binding of (/sup 3/H) heparin to granulosa from large follicles but was without effect in small follicles. These results suggest that the lower binding of (/sup 3/H) heparin, which has been reported with follicular enlargement, may be due to heparan sulfate occupying or obstructing binding sites for heparin on granulosa from large follicles.

  12. Co-expression of cytokeratin and vimentin filaments in mesothelial, granulosa and rete ovarii cells of the human ovary.

    PubMed

    Czernobilsky, B; Moll, R; Levy, R; Franke, W W

    1985-05-01

    uncommon in epithelial tissues. The presence of cytokeratins in granulosa cells in all types of human follicles is discussed with regard to the development of these cells. In contrast, granulosa cells of the other two mammalian species only display vimentin IF. Such differences between different mammalian species in IF composition of ovarian components present an example which precludes extrapolation of data from one species to another. The results are discussed in relation to current views of the histogenesis of various ovarian tumors. PMID:3896804

  13. Expression of CCT6A mRNA in chicken granulosa cells is regulated by progesterone.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qingqing; Zhu, Guiyu; Cui, Xinxing; Kang, Li; Cao, Dingguo; Jiang, Yunliang

    2013-08-01

    CCT6A, the zeta subunit of the chaperonin containing TCP1 complex, is the only cytosolic chaperonin in eukaryotes and is estimated to assist in the folding of multiple proteins including actin, tubulin, cyclin E, myosin, transducin and the Von Hippel Lindau tumor suppressor. In this study, we examined the expression of CCT6A and progesterone receptor (PGR) mRNA in various tissues of chickens and the regulation of CCT6A and PGR mRNA in ovarian granulosa cells. Northern blot analysis revealed that CCT6A had one transcript and was highly expressed in the ovary tissues from chickens at both the sexually immature and mature stages. CCT6A mRNA expression was increased maximally from pre-hierarchy follicles to F5 follicles and subsequently declined in pre-ovulatory and post-ovulatory follicles. The expression of PGR mRNA exhibited the similar pattern to CCT6A. In granulosa cells isolated from pre-ovulatory follicles, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) inhibited the expression of CCT6A mRNA, whereas progesterone activated CCT6A and suppressed PGR expression in a time-dependent manner. We further investigated the regulation of CCT6A transcription by progesterone by constructing various progressive deletions and mutants and identified the core promoter element of CCT6A and the binding region of progesterone, which is located from -2056 to -2051. Taken together, our results indicate that CCT6A likely plays an important role in follicle growth, and in granulosa cells, progesterone activates CCT6A transcription via a progesterone response element (PRE) located in the distal promoter of CCT6A. PMID:23644154

  14. Apoptosis occurs in granulosa cells but not cumulus cells in the atretic antral follicles in pig ovaries.

    PubMed

    Manabe, N; Imai, Y; Ohno, H; Takahagi, Y; Sugimoto, M; Miyamoto, H

    1996-07-15

    The porcine antral follicles, 3-6 mm in diameter, were dissected from the ovaries of mature pigs, and then granulosa and cumulus cells were isolated from each follicle. In atretic follicles, high activity of neutral Ca2+/Mg2+-dependent endonuclease and DNA ladder formation, estimated by electrophoresis, were noted in granulosa cells but not in cumulus cells. Extremely low activity of the endonuclease and no DNA ladder formation were observed in both types of cells obtained from healthy follicles. Moreover, apoptotic cells were observed histochemically among granulosa cells only. A good correlation (r = 0.987) between the endonuclease activity of granulosa cells and the progesterone/estradiol ratio of follicular fluid in each follicle was found. These results suggest that apoptosis occurs in granulosa cells but not cumulus cells in the atretic antral follicles in pigs. PMID:8698104

  15. Gene expression patterns in granulosa cells and oocytes at various stages of follicle development as well as in in vitro grown oocyte-and-granulosa cell complexes

    PubMed Central

    MUNAKATA, Yasuhisa; KAWAHARA-MIKI, Ryoka; SHIRATSUKI, Shogo; TASAKI, Hidetaka; ITAMI, Nobuhiko; SHIRASUNA, Koumei; KUWAYAMA, Takehito; IWATA, Hisataka

    2016-01-01

    Follicle development is accompanied by proliferation of granulosa cells and increasing oocyte size. To obtain high-quality oocytes in vitro, it is important to understand the processes that occur in oocytes and granulosa cells during follicle development and the differences between in vivo and in vitro follicle development. In the present study, oocytes and granulosa cells were collected from early antral follicles (EAFs, 0.5–0.7 mm in diameter), small antral follicles (SAFs, 1–3 mm in diameter), large antral follicles (LAFs, 3–7 mm in diameter), and in vitro grown oocyte-and-granulosa cell complexes (OGCs), which were cultured for 14 days after collection from EAFs. Gene expression was analyzed comprehensively using the next-generation sequencing technology. We found top upstream regulators during the in vivo follicle development and compared them with those in in vitro developed OGCs. The comparison revealed that HIF1 is among the top regulators during both in vivo and in vitro development of OGCs. In addition, we found that HIF1-mediated upregulation of glycolysis in granulosa cells is important for the growth of OGCs, but the cellular metabolism differs between in vitro and in vivo grown OGCs. Furthermore, on the basis of comparison of upstream regulators between in vivo and in vitro development of OGCs, we believe that low expression levels of FLT1 (VEGFA receptor), SPP1, and PCSK6 can be considered causal factors of the suboptimal development under in vitro culture conditions. PMID:27108636

  16. Opposing actions of TGF{beta} and MAP kinase signaling in undifferentiated hen granulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, Dori C.; Haugen, Morgan J.; Johnson, A.L. . E-mail: johnson.128@nd.edu

    2005-10-21

    The present studies were conducted to establish interactions between transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta} and the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family members, TGF{alpha} and betacellulin (BTC), relative to proliferation and differentiation of granulosa cells in hen ovarian follicles. Results presented demonstrate expression of TGF{beta} isoforms, plus TGF{alpha}, BTC, and ErbB receptors in prehierarchal follicles, thus establishing the potential for autocrine/paracrine signaling and cross-talk within granulosa cells at the onset of differentiation. Treatment with TGF{alpha} or BTC increases levels of TGF{beta}1 mRNA in undifferentiated granulosa cells, while the selective inhibitor of mitogen activated protein kinase signaling, U0126, reverses these effects. Moreover, TGF{beta}1 attenuates c-myc mRNA expression and granulosa cell proliferation, while TGF{alpha} blocks both these inhibitory effects. Collectively, these data provide evidence that EGF family ligands regulate both the expression and biological actions of TGF{beta}1 in hen granulosa cells, and indicate that the timely interaction of these opposing factors is an important modulator of both granulosa cell proliferation and differentiation.

  17. Fractalkine restores the decreased expression of StAR and progesterone in granulosa cells from patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shuo; Pang, Yanli; Yan, Jie; Lin, Shengli; Zhao, Yue; Lei, Li; Yan, Liying; Li, Rong; Ma, Caihong; Qiao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Low progesterone levels are associated with luteal phase deficiency in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The mechanisms regulating progesterone biosynthesis in the granulosa cells from women with PCOS is largely unknown. Fractalkine is expressed in human ovaries, and is reported to regulate progesterone production in granulosa cells of healthy women. In the current study, we aimed to examine the role of fractalkine in women with PCOS. Reduced fractalkine levels were found in follicular fluid and granulosa cells, accompanied by decreased progesterone production and reduced steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression in the granulosa cells of patients with PCOS. Administration of fractalkine reversed the inhibition of progesterone and StAR expression. The mechanism mediating these effects may be associated with the inhibition of ERK activity in the granulosa cells from women with PCOS. Our findings revealed that fractalkine regulated steroidogenesis in follicular granulosa cells of women with PCOS. PMID:27386819

  18. Fractalkine restores the decreased expression of StAR and progesterone in granulosa cells from patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shuo; Pang, Yanli; Yan, Jie; Lin, Shengli; Zhao, Yue; Lei, Li; Yan, Liying; Li, Rong; Ma, Caihong; Qiao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Low progesterone levels are associated with luteal phase deficiency in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The mechanisms regulating progesterone biosynthesis in the granulosa cells from women with PCOS is largely unknown. Fractalkine is expressed in human ovaries, and is reported to regulate progesterone production in granulosa cells of healthy women. In the current study, we aimed to examine the role of fractalkine in women with PCOS. Reduced fractalkine levels were found in follicular fluid and granulosa cells, accompanied by decreased progesterone production and reduced steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression in the granulosa cells of patients with PCOS. Administration of fractalkine reversed the inhibition of progesterone and StAR expression. The mechanism mediating these effects may be associated with the inhibition of ERK activity in the granulosa cells from women with PCOS. Our findings revealed that fractalkine regulated steroidogenesis in follicular granulosa cells of women with PCOS. PMID:27386819

  19. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) receptor type II expression and AMH activity in bovine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Poole, Daniel H; Ocón-Grove, Olga M; Johnson, Alan L

    2016-09-15

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) produced by granulosa cells has previously been proposed to play a role in regulating granulosa cell differentiation and follicle selection. Although AMH receptor type II (AMHR2) dimerizes with a type I receptor to initiate AMH signaling, little is known about the regulation of AMHR2 expression in bovine granulosa cells and the role of AMH in follicle development. The primary objectives of this study were to: (1) characterize AMHR2 expression in granulosa cells during follicle development; (2) identify factors that regulate AMHR2 mRNA expression in granulosa cells; and (3) examine the role of AMH signaling in granulosa cell differentiation and proliferation. Bovine granulosa cells were isolated from 5- to 8-mm follicles before selection and deviation, as well as from 9- to 12-mm and 13- to 24-mm follicles after selection. Analyses revealed that expression of AMHR2 was greater in 5- to 8-mm follicles compared with 13- to 24-mm follicles (P < 0.05). Granulosa cells treated with bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) or BMP15, but not BMP2, significantly increased AMHR2 expression when compared with control cultured cells (P < 0.05). In addition, expression of AMH was greater in granulosa cells cultured with BMP2, BMP6, or BMP15 when compared with controls (P < 0.05). Finally, treatment with recombinant human AMH, in vitro, inhibited CYP19A1 expression in a dose-related (10-100 ng/mL) fashion, and reduced granulosa cell proliferation at 48 and 72 hours (P < 0.05). Results from these studies indicate that AMH signaling plays a role in both regulating granulosa cell proliferation and preventing granulosa cells from 5- to 8-mm follicles from undergoing premature differentiation before follicle selection. PMID:27268296

  20. Effects of progesterone and its metabolites on human granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Pietrowski, D; Gong, Y; Mairhofer, M; Gessele, R; Sator, M

    2014-02-01

    The corpus luteum (CL) is under control of gonadotrophic hormones and produces progesterone, which is necessary for endometrial receptivity. Recent studies have shown that progesterone and its metabolites are involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis of cancer cells. Here weanalyzed the role of progesterone and its meta-bolites on luteinized granulosa cells (LGC) by FACS analysis and quantitative Real-Time PCR. We detected the mRNA of the progesterone metabolizing genes SRD5A1, AKR1C1, and AKR1C2 in LGC. The stimulation of LGC with progesterone or progesterone metabolites did not show any effect on the mRNA expression of these genes. However, a downregulation of Fas expression was found to be accomplished by progesterone and human chorionic gonadotropin. Our findings do not support the concept of an effect of progesterone metabolites on LGCs. However, it suggests an antiapoptotic effect of hCG and progesterone during corpus luteum development by downregulation of Fas. PMID:24136781

  1. Signaling by the Extracellular Matrix Protein Reelin Promotes Granulosa Cell Proliferation in the Chicken Follicle*

    PubMed Central

    Eresheim, Christine; Leeb, Christian; Buchegger, Patricia; Nimpf, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Chicken oocytes develop in follicles and reach an enormous size because of a massive uptake of yolk precursors such as very low density lipoprotein and vitellogenin. Oocyte growth is supported by theca cells and granulosa cells, which establish dynamic and highly organized cell layers surrounding the oocyte. The signaling processes orchestrating the development of these layered structures are largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that the Reelin pathway, which determines the development of layered neuronal structures in the brain, is also active in chicken follicles. Reelin, which is expressed in theca cells, triggers a signal in granulosa cells via apolipoprotein E receptor 2 and the very low density lipoprotein receptor, resulting in the phosphorylation of disabled-1 and consecutive activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. This signaling pathway supports the proliferation of differentiated granulosa cells to keep up with the demand of cells to cover the rapidly increasing surface of the giant germ cell. PMID:24573679

  2. Steroidogenesis in bovine granulosa cells: the effect of short-term changes in dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, D G; Gong, J G; Gardner, J O; Baxter, G; Hogg, C O; Webb, R

    2002-03-01

    The nutritional status of a cow is a key factor in the regulation of both follicle growth and oocyte quality. In this study, the effect of diets designed to increase circulating insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) concentrations on steroid production by granulosa cells in vitro was examined to analyse the mechanisms through which these changes occur. Hereford x Friesian heifers (n = 24) were offered maintenance or twice maintenance diets during the experimental period (17 days). Circulating concentrations of FSH did not differ between the two dietary groups, whereas insulin and IGF-I concentrations showed significant diet x day of oestrous cycle interactions. Ovaries were collected on day 3 of the first follicle wave after synchronization of oestrus. Granulosa cells were isolated from small (1-4 mm) and medium-sized (4-8 mm) follicles and cultured in the presence of long R3-IGF-I or bFSH or both. After 4 days in culture, granulosa cells isolated from small follicles, but not medium-sized follicles, collected from cattle offered the twice maintenance diet secreted significantly higher (P < 0.05) amounts of oestradiol compared with granulosa cells collected from cattle offered the maintenance diet. The effect was apparent in either the presence or absence of FSH and long R3-IGF-I. This nutritional effect on aromatase activity in granulosa cells was not apparent after day 6 of culture. There was no effect of diet on progesterone production by granulosa cells after 4 or 6 days of culture. These results support the hypothesis that dietary-induced changes in circulating insulin and IGF-I concentrations have a direct effect on the steroidogenic potential of bovine granulosa cells from small follicles. The dietary-induced increases in aromatase activity in small follicles combined with the increased concentration of metabolic hormones are possible mechanisms through which short-term changes in nutrition may affect follicle dynamics. PMID:11882014

  3. Polysialylation takes place in granulosa cells during apoptotic processes of atretic tertiary follicles.

    PubMed

    Kaese, Miriam; Galuska, Christina E; Simon, Peter; Braun, Beate C; Cabrera-Fuentes, Hector A; Middendorff, Ralf; Wehrend, Axel; Jewgenow, Katarina; Galuska, Sebastian P

    2015-12-01

    In the neuronal system, polysialic acid (polySia) is known to be involved in several cellular processes such as the modulation of cell-cell interactions. This highly negatively-charged sugar moiety is mainly present as a post-translational modification of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). More than 20 years ago, differently glycosylated forms of NCAM were detected in the ovaries. However, the exact isoform of NCAM, as well as its biological function, remained unknown. Our analysis revealed that granulosa cells of feline tertiary follicles express the polysialylated form of NCAM-140. Unexpectedly, polySia was only expressed in the granulosa layers of atretic follicles and not of healthy follicles. By contrast, only the un-polysialylated form of NCAM was present on the membrane of granulosa cells of healthy follicles. To study a possible cellular function of polySia in feline follicles, a primary granulosa cell culture model was used. Interestingly, loss of polySia leads to a significant inhibition of apoptosis, demonstrating that polySia is involved during atretic processes in granulosa cells. Thus, polySia might not only directly influence regeneration processes as shown, for example, in the neuronal system, but also apoptosis. PMID:26392163

  4. Transmission electron microscopic analysis of malathion-induced cytotoxicity in granulosa cells of caprine antral follicles.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Jitender Kumar; Saraf, Priyanka

    2016-01-01

    Malathion, one of the most abundantly used organophosphate pesticides, has immoderate potency as a cytotoxic and genotoxic compound that induces toxicity in granulosa cells, resulting in its apoptosis. Thus, the present study aims to employ ultrastructural analysis for assessing the cytotoxicity of malathion at nanomolar concentrations (1 nM and 10 nM) in granulosa cells of caprine antral follicles at different exposure durations. Transmission electron microscopy revealed diminished cell-cell contact and cellular integrity, presence of crescent-shaped nucleus, chromatin condensation, and pyknosis with nuclear membrane folding, accumulation of lipid droplets with occurrence of cytoplasmic protrusions in granulosa cells treated with 1 nM malathion, whereas at 10 nM concentration, along with apoptotic attributes, prominent association of nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and lipid droplets, nucleus invagination into lipid droplets, apical localization of lipid bodies, and occurrence of autophagic body were observed as compared to healthy granulosa cells in control with normal intact cellular integrity, well-developed cellular association, and doubled membrane nuclear lamina with homogenously dispersed chromatin surrounded by intact mitochondria with well-developed cristae. Thus, the results of ultrastructural analysis clearly suggest that nanomolar concentration of malathion induces apoptotic hallmarks within the granulosa cells of antral follicles that play a consequential role in increasing the incidence of follicular atresia, thereby affecting the overall fertility. PMID:26513701

  5. Protein Kinase A: A Master Kinase of Granulosa Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Pawan; Little-Ihrig, Lynda; Chandran, Uma; Law, Nathan C.; Hunzicker-Dunn, Mary; Zeleznik, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Activation of protein kinase A (PKA) by follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) transduces the signal that drives differentiation of ovarian granulosa cells (GCs). An unresolved question is whether PKA is sufficient to initiate the complex program of GC responses to FSH. We compared signaling pathways and gene expression profiles of GCs stimulated with FSH or expressing PKA-CQR, a constitutively active mutant of PKA. Both FSH and PKA-CQR stimulated the phosphorylation of proteins known to be involved in GC differentiation including CREB, ß-catenin, AKT, p42/44 MAPK, GAB2, GSK-3ß, FOXO1, and YAP. In contrast, FSH stimulated the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase but PKA-CQR did not. Microarray analysis revealed that 85% of transcripts that were up-regulated by FSH were increased to a comparable extent by PKA-CQR and of the transcripts that were down-regulated by FSH, 76% were also down-regulated by PKA-CQR. Transcripts regulated similarly by FSH and PKA-CQR are involved in steroidogenesis and differentiation, while transcripts more robustly up-regulated by PKA-CQR are involved in ovulation. Thus, PKA, under the conditions of our experimental approach appears to function as a master upstream kinase that is sufficient to initiate the complex pattern of intracellular signaling pathway and gene expression profiles that accompany GC differentiation. PMID:27324437

  6. In vitro changes in porcine ovarian granulosa cells induced by copper.

    PubMed

    Roychoudhury, Shubhadeep; Bulla, Jozef; Sirotkin, Alexander V; Kolesarova, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Objective of this in vitro study was to examine the secretion activity (progesterone and insulin-like growth factor I) of porcine ovarian granulosa cells after copper (Cu) addition and to outline a potential intracellular mediator (cyclin B1) of its effects. It also aimed at investigating the apoptotic potential of Cu on porcine ovarian granulosa cells after addition in vitro. Ovarian granulosa cells were incubated with copper sulphate (CuSO4·5H2O) at the doses 0.33, 0.40, 0.50, 1.0 and 2.0 μL mL(-1) for 18 h and compared with control group without Cu addition. Release of progesterone (P4) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) by granulosa cells was assessed by RIA, expression of cyclin B1 by immunocytochemistry and apoptosis by TUNEL assay. Observations show that P4 release by granulosa cells was inhibited while the release of IGF-I and cyclin B1 was stimulated significantly (P < 0.05) by CuSO4·5H2O addition at the dose 2.0 μL mL(-1). Also, addition of CuSO4.5H2O at the lowest dose used in the study (0.33 μL mL(-1)) significantly (P < 0.05) decreased apoptosis in granulosa cells. In conclusion, results indicate dose dependent effect of Cu on (1) secretion of steroid hormone progesterone and growth factor IGF-I, (2) expression of cyclin B1 as marker of proliferation of porcine ovarian granulosa cells, (3) apoptosis of porcine ovarian granulosa cells and, (4) that the effect of Cu on ovarian cell proliferation could be mediated by IGF-I and cyclin B1. Obtained data suggest interference of Cu in the pathways of proliferation of porcine ovarian granulosa cells through hormonal and intracellular peptide cyclin B1. PMID:24521407

  7. mTOR Controls Ovarian Follicle Growth by Regulating Granulosa Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, James; Yaba, Aylin; Kasiman, Corinna; Thomson, Travis; Johnson, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    We have shown that inhibition of mTOR in granulosa cells and ovarian follicles results in compromised granulosa proliferation and reduced follicle growth. Further analysis here using spontaneously immortalized rat granulosa cells has revealed that mTOR pathway activity is enhanced during M-phase of the cell cycle. mTOR specific phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase and 4E-BP, and expression of Raptor are all enhanced during M-phase. The predominant effect of mTOR inhibition by the specific inhibitor Rapamycin (RAP) was a dose-responsive arrest in the G1 cell cycle stage. The fraction of granulosa cells that continued to divide in the presence of RAP exhibited a dose-dependent increase in aberrant mitotic figures known as anaphase bridges. Strikingly, estradiol consistently decreased the incidence of aberrant mitotic figures. In mice treated with RAP, the mitotic index was reduced compared to controls, and a similar increase in aberrant mitotic events was noted. RAP injected during a superovulation regime resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in the numbers of eggs ovulated. Implications for the real-time regulation of follicle growth and dominance, including the consequences of increased numbers of aneuploid granulosa cells, are discussed. PMID:21750711

  8. Human luteinized granulosa cells secrete apoB100-containing lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Gautier, Thomas; Becker, Steffi; Drouineaud, Véronique; Ménétrier, Franck; Sagot, Paul; Nofer, Jerzy-Roch; von Otte, Sören; Lagrost, Laurent; Masson, David; Tietge, Uwe J F

    2010-08-01

    Thus far, liver, intestine, heart, and placenta have been shown to secrete apolipoprotein (apo)B-containing lipoproteins. In the present study, we first investigated lipoproteins in human follicular fluid (FF), surrounding developing oocytes within the ovary, as well as in corresponding plasma samples (n = 12). HDL cholesterol within FF correlated well with plasma HDL cholesterol (r = 0.80, P < 0.01), whereas VLDL cholesterol did not, indicating that VLDL in FF might originate directly from the granulosa cells producing FF. Primary human granulosa cells expressed apoB, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, and apoE, but not the apoB-editing enzyme apobec-1. Using (3)H-leucine, we show that granulosa cells secrete apoB100-containing lipoproteins and that secretion can be stimulated by adding oleate to the medium (+83%). With electron microscopy, apoB-containing lipoproteins within the secretory pathway of human granulosa cells were directly visualized. Finally, we found a positive relationship between apoB levels in FF and improved fertility parameters in a population of 27 women undergoing in vitro fertilization. This study demonstrates that human granulosa cells assemble and secrete apoB100-containing lipoproteins, thereby identifying a novel cell type equipped with these properties. These results might have important implications for female infertility phenotypes as well as for the development of drugs targeting the VLDL production pathway. PMID:20407020

  9. Paracrine effects of oocyte secreted factors and stem cell factor on porcine granulosa and theca cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Brankin, Victoria; Mitchell, Marcus RP; Webb, Bob; Hunter, Morag G

    2003-01-01

    Oocyte control of granulosa and theca cell function may be mediated by several growth factors via a local feedback loop(s) between these cell types. This study examined both the role of oocyte-secreted factors on granulosa and thecal cells, cultured independently and in co-culture, and the effect of stem cell factor (SCF); a granulosa cell derived peptide that appears to have multiple roles in follicle development. Granulosa and theca cells were isolated from 2–6 mm healthy follicles of mature porcine ovaries and cultured under serum-free conditions, supplemented with: 100 ng/ml LR3 IGF-1, 10 ng/ml insulin, 100 ng/ml testosterone, 0–10 ng/ml SCF, 1 ng/ml FSH (granulosa), 0.01 ng/ml LH (theca) or 1 ng/ml FSH and 0.01 ng/ml LH (co-culture) and with/without oocyte conditioned medium (OCM) or 5 oocytes. Cells were cultured in 96 well plates for 144 h, after which viable cell numbers were determined. Medium was replaced every 48 h and spent medium analysed for steroids. Oocyte secreted factors were shown to stimulate both granulosa cell proliferation (P < 0.001) and oestradiol production (P < 0.001) by granulosa cells throughout culture. In contrast, oocyte secreted factors suppressed granulosa cell progesterone production after both 48 and 144 hours (P < 0.001). Thecal cell numbers were increased by oocyte secreted factors (P = 0.02), together with a suppression in progesterone and androstenedione synthesis after 48 hours (P < 0.001) and after 144 hours (P = 0.02), respectively. Oocyte secreted factors also increased viable cell numbers (P < 0.001) in co-cultures together with suppression of progesterone (P < 0.001) and oestradiol (P < 0.001). In granulosa cell only cultures, SCF increased progesterone production in a dose dependent manner (P < 0.001), whereas progesterone synthesis by theca cells was reduced in a dose dependent manner (P = 0.002). Co-cultured cells demonstrated an increase in progesterone production with increasing SCF dose (P < 0.001) and an

  10. Biochanin A affects steroidogenesis and estrogen receptor-β expression in porcine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Nynca, Anna; Swigonska, Sylwia; Piasecka, Joanna; Kolomycka, Agnieszka; Kaminska, Barbara; Radziewicz-Pigiel, Marta; Gut-Nagel, Marta; Ciereszko, Renata E

    2013-10-15

    Biochanin A, similar to other isoflavones, is present in soy and soy-based food, but predominantly in red clover. Red clover extract and biochanin A were reported to affect reproductive processes as well as to demonstrate menopause relief and anticancerogenic properties. Because porcine granulosa cells provide a suitable in vitro model for studying the intracellular mechanism of phytoestrogen action in the ovary, the objective of the study was to evaluate the in vitro effects of biochanin A on the following: (1) progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) secretion by granulosa cells, (2) viability of the granulosa cells, and (3) mRNA and protein expression of estrogen receptors α (ERα) and β (ERβ) in the granulosa cells harvested from both medium (3-6 mm) and large (≥8 mm) porcine ovarian follicles. RIA, alamarBlue assay, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and immunocytochemistry were used in the study to address the objectives. Biochanin A significantly inhibited P4 and did not affect E2 secretion by porcine granulosa cells regardless of the size of follicles that served as the source of the cells. Cell viability was not affected by the treatment. Biochanin A did not alter ERα and ERβ mRNA levels in the cultured porcine granulosa cells. In contrast, this isoflavone increased (P < 0.05) the immunoexpression of ERβ in the cells from both follicle types. In summary, biochanin A, similar to genistein and daidzein, affects follicular steroidogenesis and ER expression. Its effect on ERβ protein was more intense compared with other previously examined phytoestrogens. PMID:23953692

  11. Oxidative status in granulosa cells of infertile women undergoing IVF.

    PubMed

    Karuputhula, Narendra Babu; Chattopadhyay, Ratna; Chakravarty, Baidyanath; Chaudhury, Koel

    2013-04-01

    Studies on elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in granulosa cells (GC) and its subsequent effect on fertilization are limited. Oxidative stress (OS) mediated alterations in GC of infertile women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) was investigated. GC were obtained from 28 women with endometriosis (Group A), 26 women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) (Group B), and 32 women with tubal factor infertility (Group C). GC characteristics including cell count, viability, morphology and number of oocytes retrieved, and oocyte quality were assessed. OS parameters such as ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and DNA fragmentation were also studied and IVF outcome parameters assessed. An ∼20 fold increase in GC ROS generation was observed in Group B as compared to Group C. Though not as high as Group B, Group A also showed significantly high ROS levels compared with Group C. More than 100-fold decrease in MMP in Group B compared with Group C was observed. A similar trend was observed in Group A, where MMP decreased 7 fold. Significant apoptosis was evident in Groups A and B supported by depolarization of MMP and significant increase in DNA damage. IVF outcome parameters including fertilization rate, good quality embryo formation rate, and pregnancy outcome were adversely affected in Group B. It is hypothesized that ∼20 fold increase in ROS generation in GC of PCOS women plays an adverse role in affecting the IVF success rate. It was of note that the IVF outcome parameters of women with endometriosis were not affected. PMID:23278116

  12. Mouse Oocyte Control of Granulosa Cell Development and Function: Paracrine Regulation of Cumulus Cell Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Su, You-Qiang; Sugiura, Koji; Eppig, John J.

    2009-01-01

    Bi-directional communication between oocytes and the companion granulosa cells is essential for the development and functions of both compartments. Oocytes are deficient in their ability to transport certain amino acids and in carrying out glycolysis and cholesterol biosynthesis, and require that cumulus cells provide them with the specific amino acids and the products in these metabolic pathways. Oocytes control metabolic activities in cumulus cells by promoting the expression of genes in cumulus cells encoding specific amino acid transporters and enzymes essential for the oocyte-deficient metabolic processes. Hence, oocytes outsource metabolic functions to cumulus cells to compensate for oocyte metabolic deficiencies. Oocyte control of granulosa cell metabolism may also participate in regulating the rate of follicular development in coordination with endocrine, paracrine and autocrine signals. Oocytes influence granulosa cell development mainly by secretion of paracrine factors although juxtacrine signals probably also participate. Key oocyte-derived paracine factors include growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) 15, and fibroblast growth factor 8B (FGF8B). PMID:19197803

  13. Effects of melatonin on follicular atresia and granulosa cell apoptosis in the porcine.

    PubMed

    He, Yamei; Deng, Honghui; Jiang, Zhongliang; Li, Qingwang; Shi, Meihong; Chen, Huali; Han, Zengsheng

    2016-08-01

    The accumulation of reactive oxygen species is detrimental to the health of the ovarian follicle. The protective, antioxidant properties of melatonin, an endogenous component of porcine follicular fluid, on apoptosis of granulosa cells were evaluated in this study. Porcine granulosa cells from medium-sized (3-5 mm), healthy follicles were cultured in serum-free conditions with melatonin (0, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 10, and 100 ng/mL) with or without its receptor antagonist, luzindole, followed by evaluation of apoptotic markers in the treated cells. Results revealed that endogenous, intrafollicular melatonin concentration decreased as follicular atresia progressed, whereas the percentage of apoptotic granulosa cells increased. Spontaneous apoptosis of granulosa cells, triggered by serum deprivation in vitro, was remarkably blocked by melatonin (1.0 ng/mL melatonin, 32.7 ± 0.5%, vs. control, 47.0 ± 1.0%; P < 0.05). Treatment with 1.0 ng/mL of melatonin also significantly elevated MT2, SOD1, and GPX4 while lowering FASL, CHOP, and GRP78 mRNA abundance compared to the untreated control. The anti-apoptotic effect and some changes of apoptotic-relevant genes in granulosa cells invoked by melatonin supplementation were markedly blocked by luzindole, suggesting that melatonin could prevent the apoptosis of porcine granulosa cells during follicular atresia via its membrane receptors and its free-radical-scavenging activity. These findings provide new insights into the regulatory mechanism of melatonin in follicular atresia-related functions. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 692-700, 2016 © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27391761

  14. Human granulosa-luteal cells initiate an innate immune response to pathogen-associated molecules.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Laila A; Kramer, Joseph M; Williams, R Stan; Bromfield, John J

    2016-10-01

    The microenvironment of the ovarian follicle is key to the developmental success of the oocyte. Minor changes within the follicular microenvironment can significantly disrupt oocyte development, compromising the formation of competent embryos and reducing fertility. Previously described as a sterile environment, the ovarian follicle of women has been shown to contain colonizing bacterial strains, whereas in domestic species, pathogen-associated molecules are concentrated in the follicular fluid of animals with uterine infection. The aim of this study is to determine whether human granulosa-luteal cells mount an innate immune response to pathogen-associated molecules, potentially disrupting the microenvironment of the ovarian follicle. Human granulosa-luteal cells were collected from patients undergoing assisted reproduction. Cells were cultured in the presence of pathogen-associated molecules (LPS, FSL-1 and Pam3CSK4) for 24h. Supernatants and total RNA were collected for assessment by PCR and ELISA. Granulosa-luteal cells were shown to express the molecular machinery required to respond to a range of pathogen-associated molecules. Expression of TLR4 varied up to 15-fold between individual patients. Granulosa-luteal cells increased the expression of the inflammatory mediators IL1B, IL6 and CXCL8 in the presence of the TLR4 agonist E. coli LPS. Similarly, the TLR2/6 ligand, FSL-1, increased the expression of IL6 and CXCL8. Although no detectable changes in CYP19A1 or STAR expression were observed in granulosa-luteal cells following challenge, a significant reduction in progesterone secretion was measured after treatment with FSL-1. These findings demonstrate the ability of human granulosa-luteal cells to respond to pathogen-associated molecules and generate an innate immune response. PMID:27512120

  15. Melatonin modulates the functions of porcine granulosa cells via its membrane receptor MT2 in vitro.

    PubMed

    He, Ya-Mei; Deng, Hong-Hui; Shi, Mei-Hong; Bodinga, Bello Musa; Chen, Hua-Li; Han, Zeng-Sheng; Jiang, Zhong-Liang; Li, Qing-Wang

    2016-09-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is documented as a hormone involved in the circadian regulation of physiological and neuroendocrine function in mammals. Herein, the effects of melatonin on the functions of porcine granulosa cells in vitro were investigated. Porcine granulosa cells were cultivated with variable concentrations of melatonin (0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10ng/mL) for 48h. Melatonin receptor agonist (IIK7) and antagonist (Luzindole, 4P-PDOT) were used to further examine the action of melatonin. The results showed optimum cell viability and colony-forming efficiency of porcine granulosa cells at 0.01ng/mL melatonin for 48-h incubation period. The percentage of apoptotic granulosa cells was significantly reduced by 0.01 and 0.1ng/mL melatonin within the 48-h incubation period as compared with the rest of the treatments. Estradiol biosynthesis was significantly stimulated by melatonin supplementation and suppressed for the progesterone secretion; the minimum ratio of progesterone to estradiol was 1.82 in 0.01ng/mL melatonin treatment after 48h of cultivation. Moreover, the expression of BCL-2, CYP17A1, CYP19A1, SOD1, and GPX4 were up-regulated by 0.01ng/mL melatonin or combined with IIK7, but decreased for the mRNA levels of BAX, P53, and CASPASE-3, as compared with control or groups treated with Luzindole or 4P-PDOT in the presence of melatonin. In conclusion, the study demonstrated that melatonin mediated proliferation, apoptosis, and steroidogenesis in porcine granulosa cells predominantly through the activation of melatonin receptor MT2 in vitro, which provided evidence of the beneficial role of melatonin as well as its functional mechanism in porcine granulosa cells in vitro. PMID:27477115

  16. Transcriptome comparisons identify new cell markers for theca interna and granulosa cells from small and large antral ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Hatzirodos, Nicholas; Hummitzsch, Katja; Irving-Rodgers, Helen F; Rodgers, Raymond J

    2015-01-01

    In studies using isolated ovarian granulosa and thecal cells it is important to assess the degree of cross contamination. Marker genes commonly used for granulosa cells include FSHR, CYP19A1 and AMH while CYP17A1 and INSL3 are used for thecal cells. To increase the number of marker genes available we compared expression microarray data from isolated theca interna with that from granulosa cells of bovine small (n = 10 for both theca and granulosa cells; 3-5 mm) and large (n = 4 for both theca and granulosa cells, > 9 mm) antral follicles. Validation was conducted by qRT-PCR analyses. Known markers such as CYP19A1, FSHR and NR5A2 and another 11 genes (LOC404103, MGARP, GLDC, CHST8, CSN2, GPX3, SLC35G1, CA8, CLGN, FAM78A, SLC16A3) were common to the lists of the 50 most up regulated genes in granulosa cells from both follicle sizes. The expression in theca interna was more consistent than in granulosa cells between the two follicle sizes. Many genes up regulated in theca interna were common to both sizes of follicles (MGP, DCN, ASPN, ALDH1A1, COL1A2, FN1, COL3A1, OGN, APOD, COL5A2, IGF2, NID1, LHFP, ACTA2, DUSP12, ACTG2, SPARCL1, FILIP1L, EGFLAM, ADAMDEC1, HPGD, COL12A1, FBLN5, RAMP2, COL15A1, PLK2, COL6A3, LOXL1, RARRES1, FLI1, LAMA2). Many of these were stromal extracellular matrix genes. MGARP, GLDC, CHST8, GPX3 were identified as new potential markers for granulosa cells, while FBLN5, OGN, RAMP2 were significantly elevated in the theca interna. PMID:25775029

  17. Transcriptome Comparisons Identify New Cell Markers for Theca Interna and Granulosa Cells from Small and Large Antral Ovarian Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Hatzirodos, Nicholas; Hummitzsch, Katja; Irving-Rodgers, Helen F.; Rodgers, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    In studies using isolated ovarian granulosa and thecal cells it is important to assess the degree of cross contamination. Marker genes commonly used for granulosa cells include FSHR, CYP19A1 and AMH while CYP17A1 and INSL3 are used for thecal cells. To increase the number of marker genes available we compared expression microarray data from isolated theca interna with that from granulosa cells of bovine small (n = 10 for both theca and granulosa cells; 3-5 mm) and large (n = 4 for both theca and granulosa cells, > 9 mm) antral follicles. Validation was conducted by qRT-PCR analyses. Known markers such as CYP19A1, FSHR and NR5A2 and another 11 genes (LOC404103, MGARP, GLDC, CHST8, CSN2, GPX3, SLC35G1, CA8, CLGN, FAM78A, SLC16A3) were common to the lists of the 50 most up regulated genes in granulosa cells from both follicle sizes. The expression in theca interna was more consistent than in granulosa cells between the two follicle sizes. Many genes up regulated in theca interna were common to both sizes of follicles (MGP, DCN, ASPN, ALDH1A1, COL1A2, FN1, COL3A1, OGN, APOD, COL5A2, IGF2, NID1, LHFP, ACTA2, DUSP12, ACTG2, SPARCL1, FILIP1L, EGFLAM, ADAMDEC1, HPGD, COL12A1, FBLN5, RAMP2, COL15A1, PLK2, COL6A3, LOXL1, RARRES1, FLI1, LAMA2). Many of these were stromal extracellular matrix genes. MGARP, GLDC, CHST8, GPX3 were identified as new potential markers for granulosa cells, while FBLN5, OGN, RAMP2 were significantly elevated in the theca interna. PMID:25775029

  18. In vivo analysis of undocked connexin43 gap junction hemichannels in ovarian granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Tong, Dan; Li, Tony Y; Naus, Kathryn E; Bai, Donglin; Kidder, Gerald M

    2007-11-15

    Connexin43 (Cx43, encoded by Gja1) is required for ovarian follicle development in the mouse. It is strongly expressed in granulosa cells, in which it forms intercellular gap junction channels that couple the cells metabolically. However, recent evidence indicates that undocked gap junction hemichannels can also have physiological roles such as mediating the release of small messenger molecules, including ATP. In this study, the presence of undocked Cx43 hemichannels in granulosa cells was revealed by dye uptake induced either by mechanical stimulation or by the reduction of extracellular divalent cations, both of which are known triggers for hemichannel opening. ATP release was also detected, and could be abolished by connexin-channel blockers. None of these putative hemichannel-mediated activities were detected in Cx43-deficient granulosa cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that hemichannels account for the essential role of Cx43 in folliculogenesis. To test this, a Cx43 mutant lacking the conserved cysteines on the extracellular loops (cys-less Cx43), reported to form hemichannels but not intercellular channels, was retrovirally expressed in Cx43-deficient granulosa cells. The infected cells were then combined with wild-type oocytes to make reaggregated ovaries, which were grafted into host kidneys. Although re-introduction of wild-type Cx43 rescued folliculogenesis, introduction of cys-less Cx43 did not. Therefore, although Cx43 gap junction hemichannels might play a role in ovarian folliculogenesis, their contribution does not supplant the need for intercellular gap junction channels. PMID:17971414

  19. Androgen and FSH synergistically stimulate lipoprotein degradation and utilization by ovary granulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, J.R.; Nakamura, K.; Schmit, V.; Weinstein, D.B.

    1984-01-01

    Androgen can directly modulate the induction of steroidogenic enzymes by FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) in ovary granulosa cells. In studies of its mechanism of action, the authors examined the androgen effect on granulosa cell interaction with lipoproteins, the physiologic source of cholesterol. After granulosa cells were cultured for 48 hours with and without androgen and/or FSH, the cells were incubated for 24 hours with /sup 125/I-lipoproteins (human high density lipoprotein (HDL), rat HDL, or human low density lipoprotein (LDL)). The media were then analyzed for lipoprotein protein coat degradation products (mainly /sup 125/I-monoiodotyrosine) and progestin (mainly 20 alpha-dihydroprogesterone (20 alpha-DHP)). In the absence of FSH and androgen, 2 X 10(5) granulosa cells degraded basal levels of all three lipoproteins, but produced no measurable 20 alpha-DHP. The addition of 10(-7) M androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), or 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) had no effect on lipoprotein protein degradation or 20 alpha-DHP production. FSH alone stimulated lipoprotein protein degradation by 50 to 300% while the addition of androgen synergistically augmented the FSH-stimulated 20 alpha-DHP production as well as protein coat degradation of all three lipoproteins. DHT and T were both effective, indicating that androgens themselves, and not estrogen products, were responsible for the effect on lipoprotein protein degradation and 20 alpha-DHP production.

  20. Expression, Regulation, and Functional Characterization of FST Gene in Porcine Granulosa Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, QuanYong; Wan, MingChun; Wei, QiPeng; Song, QiongLi; Xiong, LiGen; Huo, JunHong; Huang, JiangNan

    2016-10-01

    Proliferation, differentiation, and estrogen secretion of granulosa cells are the key factors affecting the estrous after weaning in sows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the expression of Follistatin (FST) in the ovary of Xiushui Hang and Duroc sows at weaning and estrus, the effect of FSH on transcript abundance of FST gene in granulosa cells and the role of FST gene in the weaning to estrus using siRNAs targeted to FST gene. In the present study, expression of the FST mRNA was evaluated by real time PCR. The FST mRNA levels showed a reduction from weaning to the estrus in both Xiushui Hang and Duroc sows, and the mRNA levels in Duroc ovary was higher than in Xiushui Hang sows at the beginning of estrus. Granulosa cells were obtained from the two largest follicles around follicular deviation, FST expression was decreased sharply after treatment with FSH (250 ng/ml). Knockdown of FST by siRNA in porcine granulosa cells significantly increased cell proliferation and estrogen secretion. These results indicate that FST gene is a negative regulator of follicle growth and function during the weaning-estrus interval. PMID:27565874

  1. Inhibition of NF-κB promotes autophagy via JNK signaling pathway in porcine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hui; Lin, Lu; Haq, Ihtesham Ul; Zeng, Shen-Ming

    2016-04-22

    The transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) plays an important role in diverse processes, including cell proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis and inflammation. However, the role of NF-κB in porcine follicle development is not clearly elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) increased the level of inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) protein and promoted the cytoplasmic localization of p65, indicating that FSH inhibits the activation of NF-κB in porcine granulosa cells. Moreover, inhibition of NF-κB by FSH or another specific inhibitor of NF-κB, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), could activate JNK signaling and enhance autophagic activity in porcine granulosa cells. Knockdown of RelA (p65) Subunit of NF-κB by RNA interference abrogated the activation of JNK signaling pathway and the increase of autophagic protein expression by FSH. Meanwhile, the functional significance of FSH or PDTC-mediated autophagy were further investigated. Our results demonstrated that the increased autophagy promoted progesterone secretion in porcine granulosa cells. Blockage of autophagy by chloroquine obviated the FSH or PDTC-induced progesterone production. Taken together, these results indicate that inhibition of NF-κB increased autophagy via JNK signaling, and promote steroidogenesis in porcine granulosa cells. Our results provide new insights into the regulation and function of autophagy in mammalian follicle development. PMID:27016483

  2. Effect of vitamin D3 on production of progesterone in porcine granulosa cells by regulation of steroidogenic enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Hong, So-Hye; Lee, Jae-Eon; Kim, Hong Sung; Jung, Young-Jin; Hwang, DaeYoun; Lee, Jae Ho; Yang, Seung Yun; Kim, Seung-Chul; Cho, Seong-Keun; An, Beum-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD3), an active form of Vitamin D, is photosynthesized in the skin of vertebrates in response to solar ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B). VD3 deficiency can cause health problems such as immune disease, metabolic disease, and bone disorders. It has also been demonstrated that VD3 is involved in reproductive functions. Female sex hormones such as estrogen and progesterone are biosynthesized mainly in ovarian granulosa cells as the ovarian follicle develops. The functions of sex hormones include regulation of the estrus cycle and puberty as well as maintenance of pregnancy in females. In this study, we isolated granulosa cells from porcine ovaries and cultured them for experiments. To examine the effects of VD3 on ovarian granulosa cells, the mRNA and protein levels of genes were analyzed by Real-time PCR and Western blotting assay. Production of progesterone from granulosa cells was also measured by ELISA assay. As a result, transcriptional and translational regulation of progesterone biosynthesis-related genes in granulosa cells was significantly altered by VD3. Furthermore, progesterone concentrations in porcine granulosa cell-cultured media decreased in response to VD3. These results show that VD3 was a strong regulator of sex steroid hormone production in porcine granulosa cells, suggesting that vitamin D deficiency may result in inappropriate sexual development of industrial animals and eventually economic loss. PMID:27533930

  3. Effect of vitamin D3 on production of progesterone in porcine granulosa cells by regulation of steroidogenic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Hong, So-Hye; Lee, Jae-Eon; Kim, Hong Sung; Jung, Young-Jin; Hwang, DaeYoun; Lee, Jae Ho; Yang, Seung Yun; Kim, Seung-Chul; Cho, Seong-Keun; An, Beum-Soo

    2016-05-01

    1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD3), an active form of Vitamin D, is photosynthesized in the skin of vertebrates in response to solar ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B). VD3 deficiency can cause health problems such as immune disease, metabolic disease, and bone disorders. It has also been demonstrated that VD3 is involved in reproductive functions. Female sex hormones such as estrogen and progesterone are biosynthesized mainly in ovarian granulosa cells as the ovarian follicle develops. The functions of sex hormones include regulation of the estrus cycle and puberty as well as maintenance of pregnancy in females. In this study, we isolated granulosa cells from porcine ovaries and cultured them for experiments. To examine the effects of VD3 on ovarian granulosa cells, the mRNA and protein levels of genes were analyzed by Real-time PCR and Western blotting assay. Production of progesterone from granulosa cells was also measured by ELISA assay. As a result, transcriptional and translational regulation of progesterone biosynthesis-related genes in granulosa cells was significantly altered by VD3. Furthermore, progesterone concentrations in porcine granulosa cell-cultured media decreased in response to VD3. These results show that VD3 was a strong regulator of sex steroid hormone production in porcine granulosa cells, suggesting that vitamin D deficiency may result in inappropriate sexual development of industrial animals and eventually economic loss. PMID:27533930

  4. Lipopolysaccharide initiates inflammation in bovine granulosa cells via the TLR4 pathway and perturbs oocyte meiotic progression in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Bromfield, John J.; Sheldon, I. Martin

    2012-01-01

    Infections of the reproductive tract or mammary gland with Gram-negative bacteria perturb ovarian function, follicular growth and fecundity in cattle. We hypothesised that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria stimulates an inflammatory response by ovarian granulosa cells that is mediated by TLR4. The present study tested the capacity of bovine ovarian granulosa cells to initiate an inflammatory response to pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and determined subsequent effects on the in vitro maturation of oocytes. Granulosa cells elicited an inflammatory response to PAMPs (LPS, lipoteichoic acid, peptidoglycan or Pam3CSK4) with accumulation of the cytokine IL-6, and the chemokine IL-8, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Granulosa cells responded acutely to LPS with rapid phosphorylation of TLR signaling components, p38 and ERK, and increased expression of IL6 and IL8 mRNA, although nuclear translocation of p65 was not evident. Targeting TLR4 with siRNA, attenuated granulosa cell accumulation of IL-6 in response to LPS. Endocrine function of granulosa cells is regulated by FSH, but here FSH also enhanced responsiveness to LPS, increasing IL-6 and IL-8 accumulation. Furthermore, LPS stimulated IL-6 secretion and expansion by cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs), and increased rates of meiotic arrest and germinal vesicle breakdown failure. In conclusion, bovine granulosa cells initiate an innate immune response to LPS via the TLR4 pathway leading to inflammation and to perturbation of meiotic competence. PMID:21990308

  5. Robo1/2 regulate follicle atresia through manipulating granulosa cell apoptosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiangchao; Ye, Yuxiang; Zhang, Renli; Zhang, Lili; Hu, Xiwen; Han, Dong; Chen, Jiayuan; He, Xiaodong; Wang, Guang; Yang, Xuesong; Wang, Lijing

    2015-01-01

    Secreted Slit proteins and their Roundabout (Robo) receptors act as a repulsive cue to prevent axons from migrating to inappropriate locations during the development of the nervous system. Slit/Robo has also been implicated in reproductive system development, but the molecular mechanism of the Slit/Robo pathway in the reproductive system remains poorly understood. Using a transgenic mouse model, we investigated the function of the Slit/Robo pathway on ovarian follicle development and atresia. We first demonstrated that more offspring were born to mice with a partial knockout of the Robo1/2 genes in mice. We next showed that Robo1 and Robo2 are strongly expressed in ovarian granulosa cells. Apoptosis in granulosa cells was reduced when Robo1/2 were partially knocked out, and this observation was further verified by in vitro Robo1/2 knockout experiments in mouse and human granulosa cells. We also found that ovarian angiogenesis was enhanced by a partial lack of Robo1/2 genes. In summary, our data suggest that the Slit/Robo pathway can impact follicle development and atresia by influencing granulosa cell apoptosis. PMID:25988316

  6. Differential processing of the two subunits of human choriogonadotropin by granulosa cells. II. In vivo studies

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, K.L.; Bagavandoss, P.; Byrne, M.D.; Jonassen, J.A.; Landefeld, T.D.; Quasney, M.W.; Sanders, M.M.; Midgley, A.R. Jr.

    1981-12-01

    Luteal and interstitial/thecal elements of the ovary failed to show preferential accumulation of the label originally associated with the beta-subunit. Measurement of both radioactivities in crude subfractions of the ovarian tissues revealed that granulosa cells retain the excess of beta-subunit label in a plasma membrane/vesicular component. No such preferential retention of label was seen in any of the subfractions obtained from luteal or interstitial/thecal tissues. The radiolabeled components associated with the granulosa cells were shown to be mainly macromolecular by their precipitability with 13% trichloroacetic acid. Luteal tissue degraded the components associated with each label more rapidly than granulosa cells. In contrast, interstitial/thecal tissue degraded very little of the bound labeled components. The differential processing of individual hCG subunits by granulosa cells was shown not to result from different kinetics of binding of serum-borne hormone by two methods. Thus, changes over time in the ability of circulating hormone to bind to LH receptor in vitro were shown not to be a function of the hCG subunit having the label. Moreover, blockade of further radiolabel uptake by injection of a large excess of unlabeled hCG 30 min after radiolabel administration did not alter the rise in the ratio of beta-subunit label to alpha-subunit label normally observed in granulosa cells. The ability of kidney tissue to accumulate and metabolize hCG also varied with the physiological state. These studies demonstrate that differences exist in the metabolism of hCG by the various target cells of the ovary and that changes in processing occur during luteinization.

  7. Targeted Disruption of Nrg1 in Granulosa Cells Alters the Temporal Progression of Oocyte Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, Ikko; Umehara, Takashi; Noma, Noritaka; Kawai, Tomoko; Shitanaka, Manami

    2014-01-01

    Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) is induced in granulosa cells by LH and acts on granulosa and cumulus cells during ovulation. In this study, we sought to determine the role of NRG1 in oocyte maturation by generating a granulosa cell–specific Nrg1 knockout mouse (Nrg1flox/flox;Cyp19a1Cre mice [gcNrg1KO]). In the gcNrg1KO mice, meiosis was induced 2 hours earlier than in control mice. More than 60% of the oocytes in the mutant mice spontaneously re-resumed meiosis beyond the MII stage. The percentage of successful fertilization was comparable in oocytes of both genotypes collected at 14 or 16 hours after human chorionic gonadotropin injection but was significantly lower in oocytes of the gcNrg1KO mice at 18 or 20 hours. The number of pups per litter was significantly decreased in gcNrg1KO mice. To determine the molecular events associated with the abnormal progression of meiosis in the gcNrg1KO mouse oocytes, the defects of cumulus/granulosa cell functions were analyzed. The expression of genes involved in luteinization and cumulus expansion was significantly higher at 2 hours after human chorionic gonadotropin injection in the gcNrg1KO mice; this was related to abnormal activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and phosphorylation of connexin-43 in cumulus cells. Changes in connexin-43 by PKC might lead to early meiotic resumption of oocytes in gcNrg1KO mice. We conclude that NRG1 is induced by LH in mural granulosa cells and exerts an important regulatory role in oocyte meiotic maturation and competence by reducing PKC activation in cumulus cells and preventing premature progression to the MII stage that leads to abnormal fertilization and fertility. PMID:24650175

  8. Biosynthesis of the canine zona pellucida requires the integrated participation of both oocytes and granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Blackmore, Daniel G; Baillie, Lucan R; Holt, Janet E; Dierkx, Lynda; Aitken, R John; McLaughlin, Eileen A

    2004-08-01

    In the dog, attempts to localize the expression of zona pellucida (ZP) proteins during folliculogenesis have failed to demonstrate conclusively whether any or all of the zona proteins are synthesized in the oocyte or the granulosa cells. Probing of paraformaldehyde-fixed prepubertal canine ovarian tissue sections with a panel of fluorescently conjugated lectins localized the expression of glycoproteins during folliculogenesis. We confirm that six lectins (PSA, s-WGA, ECL, GSL-II, LEL, and STL) consistently labeled the ZP and adjacent granulosa cells of the developing follicle and that canine ZP expresses beta-gal(1,4)glcNAc, beta-gal(1,3)galNac, alpha-mannose, and terminal sialic acid residues in a developmentally specific manner. Riboprobes for canine ZPA and ZPC genes were produced and used for in situ hybridization studies of mRNA expression in canine folliculogenesis. In addition, we isolated a partial cDNA transcript from total ovarian RNA for the canine ZPB gene having a high degree of sequence identity with the felid and porcine ZPB homologues. Subsequently, the ZPA gene transcripts were localized to the cytoplasm of oocytes in primordial, primary, and early secondary follicles. We then localized expression of ZPB and ZPC gene transcripts to the granulosa cells of growing follicles, but not in squamous granulosa cells of primordial follicles or oocytes. These observations indicate that in the juvenile canine ovary, the oocyte is responsible for synthesis of the ZPA protein and directing synthesis of the ZPB and ZPC proteins by the granulosa cells and that ZP gene transcription occurs in a sequential manner during folliculogenesis. PMID:15115719

  9. Evidence for ovarian granulosa stem cells: telomerase activity and localization of the telomerase ribonucleic acid component in bovine ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Lavranos, T C; Mathis, J M; Latham, S E; Kalionis, B; Shay, J W; Rodgers, R J

    1999-08-01

    We have previously postulated that granulosa cells of developing follicles arise from a population of stem cells. Stem cells and cancer cells can divide indefinitely partly because they express telomerase. Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that repairs the ends of telomeres that otherwise shorten progressively upon each successive cell division. In this study we carried out cell cycle analyses and examined telomerase expression to examine our hypothesis. Preantral (60-100 microm) and small (1 mm) follicles, as well as granulosa cells from medium-sized (3 mm) and large (6-8 mm) follicles, were isolated. Cell cycle analyses and expression of Ki-67, a cell cycle-related protein, were undertaken on follicles of each size (n = 3) by flow cytometry; 12% to 16% of granulosa cells in all follicles were in the S phase, and less than 2% were in the G(2)/M phase. Telomerase activity (n = 3) was highest in the small preantral follicles, declining at the 1-mm stage and even further at the 3-mm stage. In situ hybridization histochemistry was carried out on bovine ovaries, and telomerase RNA was detected in the granulosa cells of growing follicles but not primordial follicles. Two major patterns of staining were observed in the membrana granulosa of antral follicles: staining in the middle and antral layers, and staining in the middle and basal layers. No staining was detected in oocytes. Our results strongly support our hypothesis that granulosa cells arise from a population of stem cells. PMID:10411512

  10. Mouse oocytes suppress miR-322-5p expression in ovarian granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    SUMITOMO, Jun-ichi; EMORI, Chihiro; MATSUNO, Yuta; UENO, Mizuki; KAWASAKI, Kurenai; ENDO, Takaho A.; SHIROGUCHI, Katsuyuki; FUJII, Wataru; NAITO, Kunihiko; SUGIURA, Koji

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that oocyte-derived paracrine factors (ODPFs) regulate miRNA expression in mouse granulosa cells. Expression of mmu-miR-322-5p (miR-322) was higher in mural granulosa cells (MGCs) than in cumulus cells of the Graafian follicles. The expression levels of miR-322 decreased when cumulus cells or MGCs were co-cultured with oocytes denuded of their cumulus cells. Inhibition of SMAD2/3 signaling by SB431542 increased miR-322 expression by cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). Moreover, the cumulus cells but not the MGCs in Bmp15–/–/Gdf9+/– (double-mutant) mice exhibited higher miR-322 expression than those of wild-type mice. Taken together, these results show that ODPFs suppress the expression of miR-322 in cumulus cells. Gene ontology analysis of putative miR-322 targets whose expression was detected in MGCs with RNA-sequencing suggested that multiple biological processes are affected by miR-322 in MGCs. These results demonstrate that ODPFs regulate miRNA expression in granulosa cells and that this regulation may participate in the differential control of cumulus cell versus MGC functions. Therefore, the ODPF-mediated regulation of cumulus cells takes place at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. PMID:27180925

  11. Mouse oocytes suppress miR-322-5p expression in ovarian granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Sumitomo, Jun-Ichi; Emori, Chihiro; Matsuno, Yuta; Ueno, Mizuki; Kawasaki, Kurenai; Endo, Takaho A; Shiroguchi, Katsuyuki; Fujii, Wataru; Naito, Kunihiko; Sugiura, Koji

    2016-08-25

    This study tested the hypothesis that oocyte-derived paracrine factors (ODPFs) regulate miRNA expression in mouse granulosa cells. Expression of mmu-miR-322-5p (miR-322) was higher in mural granulosa cells (MGCs) than in cumulus cells of the Graafian follicles. The expression levels of miR-322 decreased when cumulus cells or MGCs were co-cultured with oocytes denuded of their cumulus cells. Inhibition of SMAD2/3 signaling by SB431542 increased miR-322 expression by cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). Moreover, the cumulus cells but not the MGCs in Bmp15(-/-)/Gdf9(+/-) (double-mutant) mice exhibited higher miR-322 expression than those of wild-type mice. Taken together, these results show that ODPFs suppress the expression of miR-322 in cumulus cells. Gene ontology analysis of putative miR-322 targets whose expression was detected in MGCs with RNA-sequencing suggested that multiple biological processes are affected by miR-322 in MGCs. These results demonstrate that ODPFs regulate miRNA expression in granulosa cells and that this regulation may participate in the differential control of cumulus cell versus MGC functions. Therefore, the ODPF-mediated regulation of cumulus cells takes place at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. PMID:27180925

  12. Paracrine Regulation of Steroidogenesis in Theca Cells by Granulosa Cells Derived from Mouse Preantral Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoqiang; Qiao, Pengyun; Jiang, Aifang; Jiang, Junyi; Han, Haiyan; Wang, Li; Ren, Chune

    2015-01-01

    Interaction partners of follicular cells play a significant role in steroidogenesis, follicular formation, and development. Androgen secreted by theca cells (TCs) can initiate follicle development and ovulation and provide precursor materials for estrogen synthesis. Therefore, studies on ovarian microenvironment will not only lead to better understanding of the steroidogenesis but also have clinical significance for ovarian endocrine abnormalities such as hyperandrogenism in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This study applied the Transwell coculture model to investigate if the interaction between granulosa and theca cells may affect androgen production in theca cells. Concentrations of testosterone and androstenedione in the spent medium were measured by radioimmunoassay and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The results show that the coculture with granulosa cells (GCs) increases steroidogenesis in TCs. In addition, testosterone and androstenedione productions in response to LH stimulation were also increased in the coculture model. Significantly increased mRNA expressions of steroidogenic enzymes (Star, Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1, and Hsd3b2) were observed in the cocultured TCs. Thus, GCs were capable of promoting steroidogenesis and LH responsiveness in TCs. This study provided a basis for further exploration of ovarian endocrine mechanism and pathologies. PMID:26357661

  13. Growth differentiation factor 9 signaling requires ERK1/2 activity in mouse granulosa and cumulus cells.

    PubMed

    Sasseville, Maxime; Ritter, Lesley J; Nguyen, Thao M; Liu, Fang; Mottershead, David G; Russell, Darryl L; Gilchrist, Robert B

    2010-09-15

    Ovarian folliculogenesis is driven by the combined action of endocrine cues and paracrine factors. The oocyte secretes powerful mitogens, such as growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), that regulate granulosa cell proliferation, metabolism, steroidogenesis and differentiation. This study investigated the role of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2; also known as MAPK3/1) signaling pathway on GDF9 action on granulosa cells. Results show that mitogenic action of the oocyte is prevented by pharmacological inhibition of the EGFR-ERK1/2 pathway. Importantly, EGFR-ERK1/2 activity as well as rous sarcoma oncogene family kinases (SFK) are required for signaling through SMADs, mediating GDF9, activin A and TGFbeta1 mitogenic action in granulosa cells. GDF9 could not activate ERK1/2 or affect EGF-stimulated ERK1/2 in granulosa cells. However, induction of the SMAD3-specific CAGA reporter by GDF9 in granulosa cells required active EGFR, SFKs and ERK1/2 as did GDF9-responsive gene expression. Finally, the EGFR-SFKs-ERK1/2 pathway was shown to be required for the maintenance of phosphorylation of the SMAD3 linker region. Together our results suggest that receptivity of granulosa cells to oocyte-secreted factors, including GDF9, is regulated by the level of activation of the EGFR and resulting ERK1/2 activity, through the requisite permissive phosphorylation of SMAD3 in the linker region. Our results indicate that oocyte-secreted TGFbeta-like ligands and EGFR-ERK1/2 signaling are cooperatively required for the unique granulosa cell response to the signal from oocytes mediating granulosa cell survival and proliferation and hence the promotion of follicle growth and ovulation. PMID:20736313

  14. Advanced glycation end-products and insulin signaling in granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Chatzigeorgiou, Antonios; Papageorgiou, Efstathia; Koundouras, Dimitrios; Koutsilieris, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) may interfere with insulin intracellular signaling and glucose transport in human granulosa cells, potentially affecting ovarian function, follicular growth, linked with diminished fertility. The potential interaction of AGEs with insulin signaling pathways and glucose transport was investigated in human granulosa KGN cells. KGN cells were cultured with variable concentrations of human glycated albumin (HGA, 50-200 µg/mL) or insulin (100 ng/mL). Combined treatments of KGN cells with insulin (100 ng/mL) and HGA (200 µg/mL) were also performed. p-AKT levels and glucose transporter type 4 (Glut-4) translocation analysis were performed by Western blot. Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-specific signaling was checked by using the PI3K-inhibitor, LY294002. p-AKT levels were significantly increased following insulin treatment compared to basal levels or HGA exposure. This insulin-mediated AKT-phosphorylation was PI3K-specific and it was inhibited after combined treatment of insulin and HGA. Furthermore, Glut-4 translocation from the cytoplasm to the membrane compartments of KGN cells was remarkably reduced after the combined treatment of insulin and HGA. The present findings support that AGEs interfere with insulin signaling in granulosa cells and prevent Glut-4 membrane translocation suggesting that intra ovarian AGEs accumulation, from endogenous or exogenous sources, may contribute to the pathophysiology of states characterized with anovulation and insulin resistance such as polycystic ovary syndrome. PMID:25956684

  15. An increase of granulosa cell apoptosis mediates aqueous neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract-induced oocyte apoptosis in rat

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Anima; Shrivastav, Tulsidas G; Chaube, Shail K

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Neem plant (Azadirachta indica) has been extensively used in Ayurvedic system of medicine for female fertility regulation for a long time, but its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Hence, the present study was aimed to determine whether an increase of granulosa cell apoptosis is associated with aqueous neem leaf extract (NLE)-induced oocyte apoptosis. Materials and Methods: Sexually immature female rats of 20 days old were fed NLE (50 mg/day) for 10 days and then subjected to superovulation induction protocol. The morphological changes in cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs), rate of oocyte apoptosis, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), total nitrite, and cytochrome c concentrations, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cytochrome c, p53, Bcl2 and Bax expressions, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation, and estradiol 17β level in granulosa cells collected from preovulatory COCs were analyzed. Results: Aqueous NLE increased H2O2 concentration and decreased catalase activity, increased iNOS expression and total nitrite concentration, increased p53, Bax, and p53 expressions but decreased Bcl2 expression, increased cytochrome c concentration and induced DNA fragmentation in granulosa cells. An increased granulosa cell apoptosis resulted in reduced estradiol 17β concentration and induced apoptosis in ovulated oocytes. Conclusion: We conclude that aqueous NLE-induced granulosa cell apoptosis through the mitochondria-mediated pathway, reduced estradiol 17β concentration and induced apoptosis in ovulated oocytes. Thus, granulosa cell apoptosis mediates NLE-induced oocyte apoptosis during female fertility regulation in rat. PMID:23776837

  16. Role of leptin in the regulation of sterol/steroid biosynthesis in goose granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shenqiang; Gan, Chao; Wen, Rui; Xiao, Qihai; Gou, Hua; Liu, Hehe; Zhang, Yingying; Li, Liang; Wang, Jiwen

    2014-09-15

    Leptin is critical for reproductive endocrinology. The aim of this study is to assess the expression patterns of leptin receptor (Lepr) during ovarian follicle development and to reveal the mechanism by which leptin affects steroid hormone secretion in goose granulosa cells. Transcripts of Lepr were ubiquitous in all tested tissues, with pituitary and adrenal glands being the predominant sites. Goose ovarian follicles were divided into several groups by diameter including prehierarchical (4 to 6, 6 to 8, and 8 to 10 mm) and hierarchical (F5-F1) follicles. Lepr gene expression was significantly higher in granulosa cells than in theca cells from follicles of 4 to 8 mm in diameter. Expression of Lepr in granulosa cells decreased gradually as follicles developed, with fluctuating expression in F5 and F3 follicles. Lepr mRNA in theca cells underwent a slight decrease from the 6- to 8-mm cohorts to F5 follicle and then exhibited a transient increase and declined later. In vitro experiments in cultured goose granulosa cells showed that estradiol release was significantly stimulated, whereas progesterone increased slightly and testosterone decreased dramatically after leptin treatment. In accordance with the data for steroids, expression of Lepr, Srebp1, Cyp51, StAR, and Cyp19a1 were induced by the addition of leptin, and the concomitant changes in Hmgcs1, Dhcr24, Cyp11a1, 17β-hsd, Cyp17, and 3β-hsd gene expression were seen. These results suggested that leptin is involved in the development of goose ovarian follicles, and leptin's effect on steroid hormone secretion could be due to altered sterol/steroidogenic gene expression via interaction with its receptor. PMID:25016410

  17. GnRH receptors in human granulosa cells: Anatomical localization and characterization by autoradiographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Latouche, J.; Crumeyrolle-Arias, M.; Jordan, D.; Kopp, N.; Augendre-Ferrante, B.; Cedard, L.; Haour, F. )

    1989-09-01

    The presence of receptors for GnRH in human ovary has been investigated by quantitative autoradiography. Simultaneous visualization and characterization of specific receptors on frozen sections were obtained on six pairs of human ovaries. Among them only one exhibited a large preovulatory follicle. This dominant follicle exhibited a specific and high affinity binding capacity for {sup 125}I-GnRHa exclusively localized on the granulosa cell layer. Analysis of saturation curve indicates a Kd value of 0.22 nM and Bmax of 9.6 fmol/mg protein. In contrast LH-hCG binding sites were present in all antral follicles. These data demonstrate for the first time the presence of high affinity GnRH receptors in human granulosa cells at a late stage of follicular maturation.

  18. hCG-dependent regulation of angiogenic factors in human granulosa lutein cells.

    PubMed

    Phan, B; Rakenius, A; Pietrowski, D; Bettendorf, H; Keck, C; Herr, D

    2006-07-01

    As prerequisite for development and maintenance of many diseases angiogenesis is of particular interest in medicine. Pathologic angiogenesis takes place in chronic arthritis, collagen diseases, arteriosclerosis, retinopathy associated with diabetes, and particularly in cancers. However, angiogenesis as a physiological process regularly occurs in the ovary. After ovulation the corpus luteum is formed by rapid vascularization of initially avascular granulosa lutein cell tissue. This process is regulated by gonadotropic hormones. In order to gain further insights in the regulatory mechanisms of angiogenesis in the ovary, we investigated these mechanisms in cell culture of human granulosa lutein cells. In particular, we determined the expression and production of several angiogenic factors including tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), Leptin, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), meningioma-associated complimentary DNA (Mac25), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and Midkine. In addition, we showed that human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has distinct effects on their expression and production. hCG enhances the expression and production of TIMP-1, whereas it downregulates the expression of CTGF and Mac25. Furthermore it decreases the expression of Leptin. Our results provide evidence that hCG determines growth and development of the corpus luteum by mediating angiogenic pathways in human granulosa lutein cells. Hence we describe a further approach to understand the regulation of angiogenesis in the ovary. PMID:16596638

  19. Abnormal Mitochondrial Function and Impaired Granulosa Cell Differentiation in Androgen Receptor Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ruey-Sheng; Chang, Heng-Yu; Kao, Shu-Huei; Kao, Cheng-Heng; Wu, Yi-Chen; Yeh, Shuyuan; Tzeng, Chii-Reuy; Chang, Chawnshang

    2015-01-01

    In the ovary, the paracrine interactions between the oocyte and surrounded granulosa cells are critical for optimal oocyte quality and embryonic development. Mice lacking the androgen receptor (AR−/−) were noted to have reduced fertility with abnormal ovarian function that might involve the promotion of preantral follicle growth and prevention of follicular atresia. However, the detailed mechanism of how AR in granulosa cells exerts its effects on oocyte quality is poorly understood. Comparing in vitro maturation rate of oocytes, we found oocytes collected from AR−/− mice have a significantly poor maturating rate with 60% reached metaphase II and 30% remained in germinal vesicle breakdown stage, whereas 95% of wild-type AR (AR+/+) oocytes had reached metaphase II. Interestingly, we found these AR−/− female mice also had an increased frequency of morphological alterations in the mitochondria of granulosa cells with reduced ATP generation (0.18 ± 0.02 vs. 0.29 ± 0.02 µM/mg protein; p < 0.05) and aberrant mitochondrial biogenesis. Mechanism dissection found loss of AR led to a significant decrease in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) co-activator 1-β (PGC1-β) and its sequential downstream genes, nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), in controlling mitochondrial biogenesis. These results indicate that AR may contribute to maintain oocyte quality and fertility via controlling the signals of PGC1-β-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis in granulosa cells. PMID:25941928

  20. Characterization of human follicle-stimulating hormone binding to human granulosa cells by an immunoenzymological method.

    PubMed

    Perrotin, F; Royere, D; Roussie, M; Combarnous, Y; Lansac, J; Müh, J P

    1992-04-01

    An original, nonradiometric method has been developed for studying the binding parameters of native follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) to its specific receptors in human ovarian granulosa cells. After binding and washing of the cells, hFSH was desorbed from its receptors and quantitatively measured by a specific enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in which nonspecific binding was estimated in the presence of an excess of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG/PMSG), which binds to human FSH receptors but does not interfere in the hFSH EIA. This method makes use of native nonmodified hFSH molecules (in contrast to radiometric methods) and permits direct estimation of the binding parameters (Kd and total number of sites). The Kd of hFSH for its human granulosa receptors measured by this technique (4.8 +/- 0.3 x 10(-10) M) is close to that determined by other methods. However, we found a total number of specific FSH receptors per granulosa cell (1 to 6 x 10(4) higher than that reported by others by Scatchard analysis of competition dose-response curves in radioreceptor assays. The method is also sensitive enough to measure the in vivo occupancy of receptors by endogenous hFSH, which was found to be less than 6% in women undergoing hormonal treatment for in vitro fertilization. PMID:1621987

  1. Goose broodiness is involved in granulosa cell autophagy and homeostatic imbalance of follicular hormones.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Lou, Yaping; He, Ke; Yang, Songbai; Yu, Wensai; Han, Lu; Zhao, Ayong

    2016-05-01

    Broodiness is observed in most domestic fowls and influences egg production. The goose is one of the most important waterfowls, having strong broody behavior. However, whether autophagy and follicular internal environment play a role in the broodiness behavior of goose is unknown. In this report, we analyzed the follicular internal environment and granulosa cell autophagy of goose follicles. The results show that the contents of hormones, including prolactin (PRL), progesterone (P4), and estradiol (E2), increased in broody goose follicles. Most importantly, the level of granulosa cell autophagy in broody goose follicles was elevated, detected by electron microscopy and western blotting. Also, the expressions of positive regulators of autophagy, including miR-7, miR-29, miR-100, miR-181, PRLR, LC3, p53,Beclin1, Atg9, and Atg12, were up-regulated and the expressions of negative regulators of autophagy, including miR-34b and miR-34c, were down-regulated in broody goose follicles. Our results suggest that goose broodiness is involved in increased granulosa cell autophagy and homeostasis imbalance of internal environment in the follicles. This work contributes to our knowledge of goose broodiness and may influence egg production. PMID:26908882

  2. miR-22 inhibits mouse ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis by targeting SIRT1

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Fang; Hu, Lingqing; Zhang, Yun; Xiao, Xiao; Xiao, Juxia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Granulosa cell (GC) apoptosis has been shown to be involved in follicular atresia, which is a degenerative process in ovarian follicles of mammals. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of follicular atresia, particularly by microRNAs, is not well known. Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) was used to detect the expression level of miR-22 in healthy follicles (HF), early atretic follicles (EAF), and progressively atretic follicles (PAF). Flow cytometry was performed to assess the apoptosis of mouse granulosa cells (mGCs) treated with miR-22 mimics or negative control (NC) mimics. Regulation of the expression of SIRT1 by miR-22 was evaluated using a luciferase reporter assay system. To investigate the roles of SIRT1 in mGC apoptosis, the endogenous SIRT1 gene in mGCs was knocked down using an siRNA specific for SIRT1. miR-22 was increased during follicular atresia and suppressed granulosa cell apoptosis. The results of the luciferase reporter assay indicated that SIRT1 was a target gene of miR-22. In addition, knockdown of SIRT1 attenuated apoptosis in mGCs. miR-22 inhibits mGC apoptosis by downregulating SIRT1 directly in vitro. This study provides important insights into understanding the regulation mechanism of ovarian follicle atresia. PMID:26912776

  3. LOX-1 regulates estrogenesis via intracellular calcium release from bovine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Weitzel, J M; Vernunft, A; Krüger, B; Plinski, C; Viergutz, T

    2014-01-01

    Estradiol produced by ovarian granulosa cells triggers the luteinizing hormone surge which in turn initiates ovulation in female mammals. Disturbances in estradiol production from granulosa cells are a major reason for reproductive dysfunctions in dairy cows. Endogenous estradiol production might be altered by reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). Inhibition of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), a receptor of ox-LDL, leads to increased estrogenesis in granulosa cells. This activity is mediated by calcium release from endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-dependent and ER-independent calcium pools. Inhibition of the LOX-1 signal transduction pathway is followed by mitochondrial alterations. The membrane potential ΔΨ increases and the ROS production decreases in mitochondria after blocking LOX-1. Our data indicate that blocking the LOX-1 receptor signal pathway might be a promising way to improve steroid hormone concentrations in metabolically highly active female mammals and, therefore, to defend against reproductive dysfunctions in humans and animals. PMID:24115745

  4. miR-22 inhibits mouse ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis by targeting SIRT1.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Fang; Hu, Lingqing; Zhang, Yun; Xiao, Xiao; Xiao, Juxia

    2016-01-01

    Granulosa cell (GC) apoptosis has been shown to be involved in follicular atresia, which is a degenerative process in ovarian follicles of mammals. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of follicular atresia, particularly by microRNAs, is not well known. Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) was used to detect the expression level of miR-22 in healthy follicles (HF), early atretic follicles (EAF), and progressively atretic follicles (PAF). Flow cytometry was performed to assess the apoptosis of mouse granulosa cells (mGCs) treated with miR-22 mimics or negative control (NC) mimics. Regulation of the expression of SIRT1 by miR-22 was evaluated using a luciferase reporter assay system. To investigate the roles of SIRT1 in mGC apoptosis, the endogenous SIRT1 gene in mGCs was knocked down using an siRNA specific for SIRT1. miR-22 was increased during follicular atresia and suppressed granulosa cell apoptosis. The results of the luciferase reporter assay indicated that SIRT1 was a target gene of miR-22. In addition, knockdown of SIRT1 attenuated apoptosis in mGCs. miR-22 inhibits mGC apoptosis by downregulating SIRT1 directly in vitro. This study provides important insights into understanding the regulation mechanism of ovarian follicle atresia. PMID:26912776

  5. Zearalenone exposure affects mouse oocyte meiotic maturation and granulosa cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yan-Jun; Zhu, Cheng-Cheng; Xu, Yin-Xue; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2015-09-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a metabolite of Fusarium and is a common contaminant of grains and foodstuffs. ZEN acts as a xenoestrogen and is considered to be cytotoxic, tissue toxic, and genotoxic, which causes abortions and stillbirths in humans and animals. Since estrogens affect oocyte maturation during meiosis, in this study we investigated the effects of ZEN on mouse oocyte meiotic maturation and granulosa cell proliferation. Our results showed that ZEN-treated oocyte maturation rates were decreased, which might be due to the disrupted cytoskeletons: (1) ZEN treatment resulted in significantly more oocytes with abnormal spindle morphologies; (2) actin filament expression and distribution were also disrupted after ZEN treatment, which was confirmed by the aberrant distribution of actin regulatory proteins. In addition, cortical granule-free domains (CGFDs) were disrupted after ZEN treatment, which indicated that ZEN may affect mouse oocyte fertilization capability. ZEN reduced mouse granulosa cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner as determined by MTT assay and TUNEL apoptosis analysis, which may be another cause for the decreased oocyte maturation. Thus, our results demonstrated that exposure to zearalenone affected oocyte meiotic maturation and granulosa cell proliferation in mouse. PMID:24733567

  6. Thiazolidinediones decrease vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production by human luteinized granulosa cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Divya K.; Menon, K.M.J.; Cabrera, Lourdes M.; Vahratian, Anjel; Kavoussi, Shahryar K.; Lebovic, Dan I.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of thiazolidenedione derivatives (TZDs) on VEGF production by human luteinized granulosa cells and the morphologic development of murine embryos. Design Prospective, experimental, in vitro and in vivo study. Setting Research laboratory. Patients Follicular aspirates from ten women undergoing oocyte retrieval. Interventions Isolated human granulosa cells were treated with a DMSO control or ciglitazone, in the presence and absence of an hCG stimulus. Embryos extracted from superovulated B6C3F1 female mice were cultured in the presence of DMSO or pioglitazone. Main Outcome Measures VEGF concentrations at 24 and 48 hours. Morphologic development of murine embryos at 96 hours. Results Following an hCG stimulus, treatment with 20 uM or 40 uM ciglitazone decreased VEGF production in a statistically significant manner at both time intervals. Blastocyst development at 96 hours did not significantly differ between untreated zygotes and those treated with pioglitazone. Conclusions Ciglitazone significantly decreased VEGF production by human granulosa cells in an in vitro model. Pioglitazone did not adversely impact the development of cultured murine embryos. Although mechanistic evidence is not provided, the pivotal role of VEGF in ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome prompts investigation of TZDs as a novel treatment for this condition. PMID:19342033

  7. Dedifferentiated follicular granulosa cells derived from pig ovary can transdifferentiate into osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Oki, Yoshinao; Ono, Hiromasa; Motohashi, Takeharu; Sugiura, Nobuki; Nobusue, Hiroyuki; Kano, Koichiro

    2012-01-01

    Transdifferentiation is the conversion of cells from one differentiated cell type into another. How functionally differentiated cells already committed to a specific cell lineage can transdifferentiate into other cell types is a key question in cell biology and regenerative medicine. In the present study we show that porcine ovarian follicular GCs (granulosa cells) can transdifferentiate into osteoblasts in vitro and in vivo. Pure GCs isolated and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 20% FBS (fetal bovine serum) proliferated and dedifferentiated into fibroblast-like cells. We referred to these cells as DFOG (dedifferentiated follicular granulosa) cells. Microarray analysis showed that DFOG cells lost expression of GC-specific marker genes, but gained the expression of osteogenic marker genes during dedifferentiation. After osteogenic induction, DFOG cells underwent terminal osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization in vitro. Furthermore, when DFOG cells were transplanted subcutaneously into SCID mice, these cells formed ectopic osteoid tissue. These results indicate that DFOG cells derived from GCs can differentiate into osteoblasts in vitro and in vivo. We suggest that GCs provide a useful model for studying the mechanisms of transdifferentiation into other cell lineages in functionally differentiated cells. PMID:22839299

  8. Targeted Disruption of Pten in Ovarian Granulosa Cells Enhances Ovulation and Extends the Life Span of Luteal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Heng-Yu; Liu, Zhilin; Cahill, Nicola; Richards, JoAnne S.

    2008-01-01

    FSH activates the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/acute transforming retrovirus thymoma protein kinase pathway and thereby enhances granulosa cell differentiation in culture. To identify the physiological role of the PI3K pathway in vivo we disrupted the PI3K suppressor, Pten, in developing ovarian follicles. To selectively disrupt Pten expression in granulosa cells, Ptenfl/fl mice were mated with transgenic mice expressing cAMP response element recombinase driven by Cyp19 promoter (Cyp19-Cre). The resultant Pten mutant mice were fertile, ovulated more oocytes, and produced moderately more pups than control mice. These physiological differences in the Pten mutant mice were associated with hyperactivation of the PI3K/acute transforming retrovirus thymoma protein kinase pathway, decreased susceptibility to apoptosis, and increased proliferation of mutant granulosa cells. Strikingly, corpora lutea of the Pten mutant mice persisted longer than those of control mice. Although the follicular and luteal cell steroidogenesis in Ptenfl/fl;Cyp19-Cre mice was similar to controls, viable nonsteroidogenic luteal cells escaped structural luteolysis. These findings provide the novel evidence that Pten impacts the survival/life span of granulosa/luteal cells and that its loss not only results in the facilitated ovulation but also in the persistence of nonsteroidogenic luteal structures in the adult mouse ovary. PMID:18606860

  9. Lack of FSH support enhances LIF-STAT3 signaling in granulosa cells of atretic follicles in cattle.

    PubMed

    Ilha, Gustavo Freitas; Rovani, Monique T; Gasperin, Bernardo G; Antoniazzi, Alfredo Quites; Gonçalves, Paulo Bayard Dias; Bordignon, Vilceu; Duggavathi, Raj

    2015-10-01

    Subordinate follicles (SFs) of bovine follicular waves undergo atresia due to declining FSH concentrations; however, the signalling mechanisms have not been fully deciphered. We used an FSH-induced co-dominance model to determine the effect of FSH on signalling pathways in granulosa cells of the second-largest follicles (SF in control cows and co-dominant follicle (co-DF2) in FSH-treated cows). The SF was smaller than DF in control cows while diameters of co-DF1 and co-DF2 in FSH-treated cows were similar. The presence of cleaved CASP3 protein confirmed that granulosa cells of SFs, but not of DFs and co-DFs, were apoptotic. To determine the effect of FSH on molecular characteristics of the second-largest follicles, we generated relative variables for the second largest follicle in each cow. For this, variables of SF or co-DF2 were divided by the variables of the largest follicle DF or co-DF1 in each cow. There was higher transcript abundance of MAPK1/3 and AKT1/2/3 but lower abundance of phosphorylated MAPK3/1 in SF than co-DF2 granulosa cells. Abundance of mRNA and phosphorylated protein of STAT3 was higher in granulosa cells of control SF than FSH-treated co-DF2. SF granulosa cells had higher levels of LIFR and IL6ST transcripts, the two receptors involved in STAT3 activation. Further, lower transcript abundance of interleukin 6 receptor (IL6R), another receptor involved in STAT3 activation, indicated that STAT3 activation in SF granulosa cells could be mainly due to leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) signalling. These results indicate that atresia due to lack of FSH is associated with activated LIF-STAT3 signalling in SF granulosa cells, as FSH treatment reversed such activation. PMID:26336147

  10. Oxidative Stress Induced by Zearalenone in Porcine Granulosa Cells and Its Rescue by Curcumin In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xunsi; Cao, Mingjun; Lai, Fangnong; Yang, Fan; Ge, Wei; Zhang, Xifeng; Cheng, Shunfeng; Sun, Xiaofeng; Qin, Guoqing; Shen, Wei; Li, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS), as a signal of aberrant intracellular mechanisms, plays key roles in maintaining homeostasis for organisms. The occurrence of OS due to the disorder of normal cellular redox balance indicates the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or deficiency of antioxidants. Once the balance is broken down, repression of oxidative stress is one of the most effective ways to alleviate it. Ongoing studies provide remarkable evidence that oxidative stress is involved in reproductive toxicity induced by various stimuli, such as environmental toxicants and food toxicity. Zearalenone (ZEA), as a toxic compound existing in contaminated food products, is found to induce mycotoxicosis that has a significant impact on the reproduction of domestic animals, especially pigs. However, there is no information about how ROS and oxidative stress is involved in the influence of ZEA on porcine granulosa cells, or whether the stress can be rescued by curcumin. In this study, ZEA-induced effect on porcine granulosa cells was investigated at low concentrations (15 μM, 30 μM and 60 μM). In vitro ROS levels, the mRNA level and activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase were obtained. The results showed that in comparison with negative control, ZEA increased oxidative stress with higher ROS levels, reduced the expression and activity of antioxidative enzymes, increased the intensity of fluorogenic probes 2’, 7’-Dichlorodihydrofluorescin diacetate and dihydroethidium in flow cytometry assay and fluorescence microscopy. Meanwhile, the activity of glutathione (GSH) did not change obviously following 60 μM ZEA treatment. Furthermore, the underlying protective mechanisms of curcumin on the ZEA-treated porcine granulosa cells were investigated. The data revealed that curcumin pre-treatment significantly suppressed ZEA-induced oxidative stress. Collectively, porcine granulosa cells were sensitive to ZEA, which may induce oxidative

  11. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) system gene expression in granulosa cells: kinetics during terminal preovulatory follicle maturation in the mare

    PubMed Central

    Martoriati, Alain; Gérard, Nadine

    2003-01-01

    Background A growing body of evidences suggests that the ovary is a site of inflammatory reactions, and thus, ovarian cells could represent sources and targets of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) system. The purpose of this study was to examine the IL-1 system gene expressions in equine granulosa cells, and to study the IL-1β content in follicular fluid during the follicle maturation. For this purpose, granulosa cells and follicular fluids were collected from the largest follicle at the early dominance stage (diameter 24 ± 3 mm) or during the preovulatory maturation phase, at T0 h, T6 h, T12 h, T24 h and T34 h after induction of ovulation. Cells were analysed by RT-PCR and follicular fluids were studied by gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. Results We demonstrated that interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-1 receptor 2 (IL-1R2) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) genes are expressed in equine granulosa cells. We observed that the IL-1β and IL-1RA mRNA content changed in granulosa cells during the terminal follicular maturation whereas IL-1R2 mRNA did not vary. In follicular fluid, IL-1β content fluctuated few hours after induction of ovulation. Conclusions The expression of IL-1β gene in granulosa cells and the follicular fluid IL-1β content seem to be regulated by gonadotropins suggesting that IL-1β could be an intermediate paracrine factor involved in ovulation. PMID:12803652

  12. Modulation of cultured porcine granulosa cell responsiveness to follicle stimulating hormone and epidermal growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    Ovarian follicular development is dependent upon the coordinated growth and differentiation of the granulosa cells which line the follicle. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) induces granulosa cell differentiation both in vivo and in vitro. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates granulosa cell proliferation in vitro. The interaction of these two effectors upon selected parameters of growth and differentiation was examined in monolayer cultures of porcine granulose cells. Analysis of the EGF receptor by /sup 125/I-EGF binding revealed that the receptor was of high affinity with an apparent dissociation constant of 4-6 x 10/sup -10/ M. The average number of receptors per cell varied with the state of differentiation both in vivo and in vitro; highly differentiated cells bound two-fold less /sup 125/I-EGF and this effect was at least partially induced by FSH in vitro. EGF receptor function was examined by assessing EGF effects on cell number and /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation. EGF stimulated thymidine incorporation in both serum-free and serum-supplemented culture, but only in serum-supplemented conditions was cell number increased. EGF receptor function was inversely related to the state of differentiation and was attenuated by FSH. The FSH receptor was examined by /sup 125/I-FSH binding. EGF increased FSH receptor number, and lowered the affinity of the receptor. The function of these receptors was assessed by /sup 125/I-hCG binding and progesterone radioimmunoassay. If EGF was present continuously in the cultures. FSH receptor function was attenuated regardless of FSH receptor number. A preliminary effort to examine the mechanism of this interaction was performed by analyzing hormonally controlled protein synthesis with /sup 35/S-methionine labeling, SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography. FSH promoted the expression of a 27,000 dalton protein. This effect was attenuated by EGF.

  13. Cyclophosphamide-induced apoptosis in COV434 human granulosa cells involves oxidative stress and glutathione depletion.

    PubMed

    Tsai-Turton, Miyun; Luong, Brian T; Tan, Youming; Luderer, Ulrike

    2007-07-01

    The anticancer drug cyclophosphamide induces granulosa cell apoptosis and is detoxified by glutathione (GSH) conjugation. We previously showed that both cyclophosphamide treatment and GSH depletion induced granulosa cell apoptosis in rats, but the role of GSH in apoptosis in human ovarian cells has not been studied. Using the COV434 human granulosa cell line, we tested the hypotheses that (1) GSH depletion or treatment with 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide (4HC), a preactivated form of cyclophosphamide, induces apoptosis, (2) GSH depletion potentiates 4HC-induced apoptosis, and (3) 4HC-induced apoptosis is mediated by GSH depletion and oxidative stress. Cells were treated with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), a specific inhibitor of GSH synthesis, with or without follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) or serum. A significant increase in the number of apoptotic cells, assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxy-uridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) and Hoechst 33342 staining, occurred with BSO treatment. Treatment with 4HC dose-dependently induced apoptosis by TUNEL, Hoechst staining, and caspase 3 activation. Treatment with 4HC caused an increase in reactive oxygen species generation, measured by dichlorofluorescein fluorescence, oxidative DNA damage, measured by 8-hydroxyguanosine immunostaining, and an oxidation of the redox potential for the oxidized glutathione/reduced glutathione couple. Total intracellular GSH declined after 4HC treatment, preceding the onset of cell death. Treatment with antioxidants inhibited 4HC-induced apoptosis. Combined treatment with BSO and 4HC caused greater induction of apoptosis than either treatment alone. These findings are consistent with roles for oxidative stress and GSH depletion in mediating the induction of apoptosis in COV434 cells by cyclophosphamide. PMID:17434952

  14. Steroid productions by co-cultures of granulosa cells with inner and outer theca cells in preovulatory follicles of gonadotropin stimulated calves.

    PubMed

    Bosc, M J; Nicolle, A

    1997-06-01

    Granulosa, interna and externa theca cells were isolated from large follicles of equine-chorionic-gonadotropin (eCG)-primed calves and co-cultured during 3 days in the absence or in the presence of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Co-cultures were performed by adding defined numbers of theca and/or granulosa cells which represented 0, 10, 20, 50 or 100% of total cells per well. Secretion of oestradiol-17beta (E2), androstenedione (A4) and progesterone (P4) depended on the type of theca cells (P < 0.001), on the percentage of seeded granulosa cells (P < 0.001) and on the day of culture (P < 0.001). DHEA increased (P < 0.001) E2 and A4, but not P4 (P > 0.05) productions. Interactions existed between these factors (P < 0.01). On day 1, A4 production was nil in granulosa cells alone. E2 production was negligible in theca cells alone but it increased when granulosa cells were added. E2 and A4 varied in an opposite manner according to the percentage of granulosa cells and with the type of theca cells. On day 3, without DHEA, E2 and A4 were low. On day 3 with DHEA, E2 production was maintained in granulosa cells alone but not with any combination of theca cells. In these conditions, A4 production was maintained in the presence of theca cells but not in granulosa cells alone. Granulosa cells alone secreted more P4 than theca cells. P4 increased as a function of the percentage of granulosa in co-cultures with externa but not interna theca cells with which it remained low. In conclusion, theca cells in culture have two effects in relation to the granulosa cells, which differ according to the steroid concerned and to the cell combination. Both types of theca cells have an inhibitory effect on E2 secretion whereas only interna theca cells are able to alter P4 production. PMID:9393957

  15. In vitro culture of oocytes and granulosa cells collected from normal, obese, emaciated and metabolically stressed ewes.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, S K; Farman, M; Nandi, S; Mondal, S; Gupta, Psp; Kumar, V Girish

    2016-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the oocyte morphology, its fertilizing capacity and granulosa cell functions in ewes (obese, normal, metabolic stressed and emaciated). Ewes (Ovis aries) of approximately 3 years of age (Bellary breed) from a local village were screened, chosen and categorized into a) normal b) obese but not metabolically stressed, c) Emaciated but not metabolically stressed d) Metabolically stressed based on body condition scoring and blood markers. Oocytes and granulosa cells were collected from ovaries of the ewes of all categories after slaughter and were classified into good (oocytes with more than three layers of cumulus cells and homogenous ooplasm), fair (oocytes one or two layers of cumulus cells and homogenous ooplasm) and poor (denuded oocytes or with dark ooplasm). The good and fair quality oocytes were in vitro matured and cultured with fresh semen present and the fertilization, cleavage and blastocyst development were observed. The granulosa cells were cultured for evaluation of metabolic activity by use of the MTT assay, and cell viability, cell number as well as estrogen and progesterone production were assessed. It was observed that the good and fair quality oocytes had greater metabolic activity when collected from normal and obese ewes compared with those from emaciated and metabolically stressed ewes. No significant difference was observed in oocyte quality and maturation amongst the oocytes collected from normal and obese ewes. The cleavage and blastocyst production rates were different for the various body condition classifications and when ranked were: normal>obese>metabolically stressed>emaciated. Lesser metabolic activity was observed in granulosa cells obtained from ovaries of emaciated ewes. However, no changes were observed in viability and cell number of granulosa cells obtained from ewes with the different body condition categories. Estrogen and progesterone production from cultured granulosa cells were

  16. Palmitic acid in chicken granulosa cell death-lipotoxic mechanisms mediate reproductive inefficacy of broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Xie, Y-L; Pan, Y-E; Chang, C-J; Tang, P-C; Huang, Y-F; Walzem, R L; Chen, S-E

    2012-12-01

    In vivo and in vitro approaches were used to elucidate mechanisms of palmitate-induced cytotoxicity of follicle granulosa cells in fuel-overloaded broiler hens. In contrast to their energy-restricted counterparts, broiler breeder hens fed ad libitum for 2 wk had dyslipidemia, atresia within hierarchical ovarian follicles, and a 34% reduction in egg production (P < 0.05). Based on vital staining of freshly isolated granulosa cells with annexin V/propidium iodide, there were increases in apoptosis consistent with suppressed Akt activation (P < 0.05). Supplementing primary granulosa cell cultures with 0.5 mM palmitate for 48 or 96 h increased apoptosis (P < 0.05). Palmitate-induced cell death was accompanied by increased acyl-CoA oxidase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, serine palmitoyl transferase, and sphingomyelinase transcripts and increased concentrations of proinflammatory interleukin-1β (P < 0.05). Triacsin-C inhibition of fatty acyl-CoA synthesis blunted interleukin-1β production and rescued granulosa cultures from palmitate-induced cell death. That there was partial to complete prevention of cell death with addition of the free radical scavenger pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, the sphingomyelinase inhibitor imipramine, or the de novo ceramide synthesis inhibitor fumonisin B1, supported the notion that palmitate-induced granulosa cell cytotoxicity operated through a palmitate-derived metabolite. Palmitoyl-CoA may be channeled into β-oxidation and/or into bioactive metabolites that increase free radical generation, an inflammatory response, and ceramide production. In conclusion, palmitate-derived metabolites activated apoptotic machinery in avian granulosa cells, which caused ovarian follicular atresia and reduced egg production in fuel-overloaded broiler breeder hens. PMID:23058789

  17. MicroRNA-183-96-182 Cluster Regulates Bovine Granulosa Cell Proliferation and Cell Cycle Transition by Coordinately Targeting FOXO1.

    PubMed

    Gebremedhn, Samuel; Salilew-Wondim, Dessie; Hoelker, Michael; Rings, Franca; Neuhoff, Christiane; Tholen, Ernst; Schellander, Karl; Tesfaye, Dawit

    2016-06-01

    Large-scale expression profiling of micro-RNAs (miRNAs) in bovine granulosa cells from dominant and subordinate follicles on Day 19 of the estrous cycle revealed enriched micro-RNA-183-96-182 cluster miRNAs in preovulatory dominant follicles that coordinately regulate the forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) gene. However, little is known about the role of this cluster in bovine granulosa cell function. We used an in vitro granulosa cell culture model to investigate this role. Granulosa cells aspirated from small growing follicles (3-5 mm in diameter) were cultured in Dulbecco modified Eagle medium/F-12 medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum and transfected with locked nucleic acid-based miRNA mimics, inhibitors, and corresponding negative controls. Overexpression of the miRNA cluster resulted in suppression of FOXO1 mRNA and protein, whereas inhibition of the cluster increased expression of FOXO1 mRNA. Overexpression also increased the relative rate of cell proliferation, whereas inhibition slowed it down. Similarly, the proportion of cells under G0/G1 arrest declined, whereas the ratio of cells in S phase increased in response to miR-183-96-182 overexpression. Selective knockdown of FOXO1 mRNA using anti-FOXO1 small interfering RNA increased the rate of granulosa cell proliferation, decreased the proportion of cells under G0/G1 arrest, and increased the proportion of cells in the S phase of cell cycle. Our data suggest that miR-183-96-182 cluster miRNAs promote proliferation and G1/S transition of bovine granulosa cells by coordinately targeting FOXO1, suggesting a critical role in granulosa cell function. MicroRNA-183-96-182 cluster regulates bovine granulosa cell function by targeting FOXO1 gene. PMID:27122636

  18. EGF-like ligands mediate progesterone's anti-apoptotic action on macaque granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Puttabyatappa, Muraly; Brogan, Rebecca S; Vandevoort, Catherine A; Chaffin, Charles L

    2013-01-01

    A local autocrine/paracrine role for progesterone is an absolute requirement for corpus luteum formation in primates. Despite this, the mechanism(s) remain obscure, although existing data suggest an anti-apoptotic action to be central. There are a limited number of progestin-regulated gene targets identified in the luteinizing primate follicle, suggesting that a small number of important genes may mediate progesterone action. Possible gene targets could be the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family members amphiregulin (AREG) and epiregulin (EREG). Using macaques undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation cycles, we show that the phosphorylation of EGF receptor (EGFR), ERK 1/2, and AKT increases 6 h after an ovulatory human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulus and remains activate through 24 h. Immunoreactive EREG and AREG ligands in the follicular fluid both increased in a time frame commensurate with EGFR phosphorylation. The mRNA expression of AREG and EREG in nonluteinized granulosa cells (NLGC) was induced in culture with hCG, an effect blocked by progesterone receptor (PGR) antagonists. Overexpression of PGR B in NLGC and treatment with a nonmetabolizable progestin did not increase either gene, indicating both progesterone and luteinizing hormone/CG are necessary. Addition of EGF and EGF-like ligands did not promote steroidogenesis in vitro by granulosa cells in the presence of gonadotropin, but were able to partially reverse RU486-induced cell death. These data suggest that progesterone promotes the expression of AREG and EREG, which in turn maintain viability of luteinizing granulosa cells, representing one possible mechanism whereby progesterone promotes corpus luteum formation in the primate. PMID:23136296

  19. In vitro production of estradiol by bovine granulosa cells: evaluation of culture condition, stage of follicular development, and location of cells within follicles.

    PubMed

    Roberts, A J; Echternkamp, S E

    1994-08-01

    In vitro estradiol (E2) production by bovine granulosa cells was evaluated under several culture conditions, which included the presence or absence of fetal bovine serum (FBS; 2.5 and 10%), serum substitutes (1% Nutridoma [Boehringer-Mannheim, Indianapolis, IN], 2% UltroSer G [IBF Biotechnics, Villenue-la Garenne, France]), selenium (Se; 10 ng/ml), lipoprotein (0.25% Excyte/ml), O2 concentration (5 and 20%), and two attachment factors (Pronectin F and PepTite-2000). Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's medium:Ham's F-12 medium (1:1 mixture) containing 1 microM androstenedione, 1 microgram/ml insulin, and 0.1% BSA was the basal medium evaluated. The optimum conditions determined were the basal medium in 5% O2. These conditions were then used to ascertain whether or not E2 production by granulosa cells varied with respect to location of cells within a follicle. Follicular fluid was aspirated and centrifuged to obtain granulosa cells expected to be primarily luminal and cumulus cells. Follicles were then bisected, and remaining mural granulosa cells were removed by scraping the follicle wall with a fine plastic loop. Aspirated granulosa cells secreted more (p < 0.01) E2 than scraped cells. Production of E2 during Days 0 to 2 of culture by aspirated (0.15 +/- 0.05 ng/microgram DNA) and scraped (0.02 +/- 0.01 ng/microgram DNA) granulosa cells from small follicles (< 8 mm) was less than that by aspirated (6.30 +/- 2.20 ng/micrograms DNA) and scraped cells (1.90 +/- 1.00 ng/microgram DNA) from large follicles (> or = 8 mm). During Days 2 to 4 of culture when compared to Days 0 to 2, E2 production increased for aspirated (but not scraped) granulosa cells from small follicles (0.66 +/- 0.23 ng/microgram DNA)). In contrast, E2 production decreased (p < 0.05) over time in culture for aspirated (2.10 +/- 0.50 ng/microgram DNA) and scraped (0.16 +/- 0.07 ng/microgram DNA) granulosa cells from large follicles. Thus, granulosa cells proximal to the basement membrane may be less

  20. miR-23a and miR-27a promote human granulosa cell apoptosis by targeting SMAD5.

    PubMed

    Nie, Mingyue; Yu, Song; Peng, Sha; Fang, Ying; Wang, Hongmei; Yang, Xiaokui

    2015-10-01

    In mammals, follicular atresia can be partially triggered by granulosa cell apoptosis. However, very little is known about the functions of miRNAs in granulosa cell apoptosis. We previously reported that hsa-mir-23a (miR-23a) and hsa-mir-27a (miR-27a) were highly expressed in the plasma of patients with premature ovarian failure, but the action of these two miRNAs in follicular development was unclear. In this study, we explored the roles of miR-23a and miR-27a in the granulosa cells of women undergoing in vitro fertilization/embryo transfer. Using Hoechst staining, we found that miR-23a and miR-27a promoted apoptosis in human granulosa cells. In addition, the Western blotting results suggested that the miR-23a/miR-27a-mediated apoptosis occurred via the FasL-Fas pathway. Based on the results of a luciferase-reporter assay and quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses, we found that SMAD5 is a target gene of both miR-23a and miR-27a. Furthermore, knocking down SMAD5 expression increased the rate of apoptosis, as well as the levels of Fas, FasL, cleaved caspase-8, and cleaved caspase-3 protein. Taken together, these data suggest that miR-23a and miR-27a target SMAD5 and regulate apoptosis in human granulosa cells via the FasL-Fas pathway. These findings provide an improved understanding of the mechanisms underlying granulosa cell apoptosis, which could potentially be used for future clinical applications. PMID:26400397

  1. Herp depletion arrests the S phase of the cell cycle and increases estradiol synthesis in mouse granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, Fenglei; WANG, Nan; YANG, Diqi; WEN, Xin; MAHMOUD, Tagwa Norain; ZHOU, Dong; TANG, Keqiong; LIN, Pengfei; WANG, Aihua; JIN, Yaping

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response has been implicated in the development, atresia and luteinization of ovarian follicles. However, there have been few reports concerning the role of Herp, an ER stress-induced protein, in follicular development. The present study aims to detect the distribution and cyclic variations of Herp during the estrous cycle and to reveal the roles of Herp in regulating the cell cycle, apoptosis and steroid hormone biosynthesis in mouse granulosa cells. In this study, immunohistochemistry staining showed that Herp expression was primarily in the granulosa cells and oocytes. Furthermore, we constructed recombinant lentiviral vectors for Herp short hairpin interfering RNA (shRNA) expression; immunofluorescence staining, real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis revealed that Herp was successfully knocked down. Flow cytometry showed that knockdown of Herp arrested granulosa cells at the S phase of the cell cycle. More importantly, ELISA analysis revealed that Herp knockdown significantly upregulated the concentration of estradiol (E2) in the culture supernatants. RT-qPCR was performed to determine the regulatory mechanism of Herp knockdown in the cell cycle, and in steroid synthesis, RT-qPCR analysis revealed that Herp knockdown upregulated the mRNA expression of steroidogenic enzymes (Cyp19a1) and downregulated metabolic enzymes (Cyp1b1) and cell cycle factors (cyclin A1, cyclin B1 and cyclin D2). These results suggest that Herp may regulate the cell cycle and hormone secretions in mouse granulosa cells. The present study helps to elucidate the physiological functions of Herp as they relate to reproduction. PMID:26781490

  2. Herp depletion arrests the S phase of the cell cycle and increases estradiol synthesis in mouse granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fenglei; Wang, Nan; Yang, Diqi; Wen, Xin; Mahmoud, Tagwa Norain; Zhou, Dong; Tang, Keqiong; Lin, Pengfei; Wang, Aihua; Jin, Yaping

    2016-04-22

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response has been implicated in the development, atresia and luteinization of ovarian follicles. However, there have been few reports concerning the role of Herp, an ER stress-induced protein, in follicular development. The present study aims to detect the distribution and cyclic variations of Herp during the estrous cycle and to reveal the roles of Herp in regulating the cell cycle, apoptosis and steroid hormone biosynthesis in mouse granulosa cells. In this study, immunohistochemistry staining showed that Herp expression was primarily in the granulosa cells and oocytes. Furthermore, we constructed recombinant lentiviral vectors for Herp short hairpin interfering RNA (shRNA) expression; immunofluorescence staining, real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis revealed that Herp was successfully knocked down. Flow cytometry showed that knockdown of Herp arrested granulosa cells at the S phase of the cell cycle. More importantly, ELISA analysis revealed that Herp knockdown significantly upregulated the concentration of estradiol (E2) in the culture supernatants. RT-qPCR was performed to determine the regulatory mechanism of Herp knockdown in the cell cycle, and in steroid synthesis, RT-qPCR analysis revealed that Herp knockdown upregulated the mRNA expression of steroidogenic enzymes (Cyp19a1) and downregulated metabolic enzymes (Cyp1b1) and cell cycle factors (cyclin A1, cyclin B1 and cyclin D2). These results suggest that Herp may regulate the cell cycle and hormone secretions in mouse granulosa cells. The present study helps to elucidate the physiological functions of Herp as they relate to reproduction. PMID:26781490

  3. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin alters steroid secretion but does not affect cell viability and the incidence of apoptosis in porcine luteinised granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Jablonska, Olga; Piasecka-Srader, Joanna; Nynca, Anna; Kołomycka, Agnieszka; Robak, Anna; Wąsowska, Barbara; Ciereszko, Renata E

    2014-09-01

    The compound 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a by-product of human industrial activity, was found to affect ovarian steroidogenesis in animals, but the mechanism of its action is still unclear. The aims of the study were to examine the effect of TCDD on (1) progesterone (P4) and oestradiol (E2) production by granulosa cells isolated from medium (3-6 mm) and preovulatory (≥ 8 mm) porcine follicles, (2) the viability of the cells, and (3) the incidence of apoptosis. Porcine granulosa cells were cultured (48 h) with or without TCDD (100 pM, 100 nM). Steroid hormone concentrations in the medium were determined by radioimmunoassay. The viability of granulosa cells was tested spectrophotometrically (alamarBlue™ assay). Apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry using Annexin V and by TUNEL assay. The higher dose of TCDD (100 nM) significantly inhibited P4 and stimulated E2 production by luteinised granulosa cells isolated from medium follicles. The lower dose of TCDD (100 pM) significantly stimulated P4 and inhibited E2 secretion by the cells isolated from preovulatory follicles. None of the two TCDD doses affected cell viability or induced apoptosis in granulosa cells. In conclusion, TCDD directly affected steroid production by granulosa cells obtained from mature pigs, but the effect of TCDD was not due to its cytotoxicity. PMID:25038954

  4. The effect of mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on apoptosis of rat ovarian granulosa cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Liu, Keqiang; Yuan, Haitao; Zhu, Jian; Yu, Guangyan; Xie, Jingli; Fu, Songpo; Guo, Kun; Ye, Lin

    2015-03-01

    Mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), the active metabolite of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), is considered to be a reproductive toxicant. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of MEHP on apoptosis of rat ovarian granulosa cells and explore potential mechanism. Granulosa cells were treated with MEHP (0, 25, 50, and 100 μmol/l). Inhibited cell viability and increased apoptosis rate were observed in 50 and 100 μmol/l groups. CASPASE3 activity and BAX expression were significantly raised in all MEHP-treated groups; BCL2 expression was elevated in 25 μmol/l group, while inhibited in 50 and 100 μmol/l groups; BAX/BCL2 ratio was increased in a typical dose-effect relationship. In conclusion, this study showed that MEHP exposure induced cell viability decrease and apoptosis, associated with increase of CASPASE3 activity and BAX/BCL2 ratio. Moreover, CASPASE3 activity showed a reversed dose-dependent effect in MEHP-treated groups, indicating there might exist other CASPASE-independent pathway involved in MEHP-induced apoptosis. PMID:25681707

  5. Effects of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol on steroidogenesis and apoptosis in granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Netro, Hilda M; Chorfi, Younès; Price, Christopher A

    2015-06-01

    Mycotoxins can reduce fertility and development in livestock, notably in pigs and poultry, although the effect of most mycotoxins on reproductive function in cattle has not been established. One major mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON), not only targets immune cells and activates the ribotoxic stress response (RSR) involving MAPK activation, but also inhibits oocyte maturation in pigs. In this study, we determined the effect of DON on bovine granulosa cell function using a serum-free culture system. Addition of DON inhibited estradiol and progesterone secretion, and reduced levels of mRNA encoding estrogenic (CYP19A1) but not progestogenic (CYP11A1 and STAR) proteins. Cell apoptosis was increased by DON, which also increased FASLG mRNA levels. The mechanism of action of DON was assessed by western blotting and PCR experiments. Addition of DON rapidly and transiently increased phosphorylation of MAPK3/1, and resulted in a more prolonged phosphorylation of MAPK14 (p38) and MAPK8 (JNK). Activation of these pathways by DON resulted in time- and dose-dependent increases in abundance of mRNA encoding the transcription factors FOS, FOSL1, EGR1, and EGR3. We conclude that DON is deleterious to granulosa cell function and acts through a RSR pathway. PMID:25731188

  6. Robo1/2 regulate follicle atresia through manipulating granulosa cell apoptosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiangchao; Ye, Yuxiang; Zhang, Renli; Zhang, Lili; Hu, Xiwen; Han, Dong; Chen, Jiayuan; He, Xiaodong; Wang, Guang; Yang, Xuesong; Wang, Lijing

    2015-01-01

    Secreted Slit proteins and their Roundabout (Robo) receptors act as a repulsive cue to preventaxons from migrating to inappropriate locations during the development of the nervous system. Slit/Robo has also been implicated in reproductive system development, but the molecular mechanism of the Slit/Robo pathway in the reproductive system remains poorly understood. Using a transgenic mouse model, we investigated the function of the Slit/Robo pathway on ovarian follicle development and atresia. We first demonstrated that more offspring were born to mice with a partial knockout of the Robo1/2 genes in mice. We next showed that Robo1 and Robo2 are strongly expressed in ovarian granulosacells. Apoptosis in granulosa cells was reduced when Robo1/2 were partially knocked out, and this observation was further verified by in vitro Robo1/2 knockout experiments in mouse and human granulosa cells. We also found that ovarian angiogenesis wasenhanced by a partial lack of Robo1/2 genes. In summary, our data suggest that the Slit/Robo pathway can impact follicle development and atresia by influencinggranulosa cell apoptosis. PMID:25988316

  7. PCSK6 regulated by LH inhibits the apoptosis of human granulosa cells via activin A and TGFβ2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Fan, Deng-Xuan; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Ming-Qing; Wu, Hai-Xia; Jin, Li-Ping

    2014-07-01

    Mammalian proprotein convertases (PCs) play an important role in folliculogenesis, as they proteolytically activate a variety of substrates such as the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) superfamily. PC subtilism/kexin 6 (PCSK6) is a member of the PC family and is ubiquitously expressed and implicated in many physiological and pathological processes. However, in human granulosa cells, the expression of the PC family members, their hormonal regulation, and the function of PCs are not clear. In this study, we found that PCSK6 is the most highly expressed PC family member in granulosa cells. LH increased PCSK6 mRNA level and PCSK6 played an anti-apoptosis function in KGN cells. Knockdown of PCSK6 not only increased the secretion of activin A and TGFβ2 but also decreased the secretion of follistatin, estrogen, and the mRNA levels of FSH receptor (FSHR) and P450AROM (CYP19A1). We also found that, in the KGN human granulosa cell line, TGFβ2 and activin A could promote the apoptosis of KGN cells and LH could regulate the follistatin level. These data indicate that PCSK6, which is regulated by LH, is highly expressed in human primary granulosa cells of pre-ovulatory follicles and plays important roles in regulating a series of downstream molecules and apoptosis of KGN cells. PMID:24860148

  8. Circadian Clock genes Per2 and clock regulate steroid production, cell proliferation, and luteinizing hormone receptor transcription in ovarian granulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, Takashi; Hirai, Yuko; Murayama, Chiaki; Miyamoto, Akio; Miyazaki, Hitoshi; Miyazaki, Koyomi

    2011-08-19

    Highlights: {yields} Treatment with Per2 and Clock siRNAs decreased the number of granulosa cells and LHr expression. {yields}Per2 siRNA treatment did not stimulate the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom. {yields} Clock siRNA treatment inhibited the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom mRNA. {yields}Per2 and Clock siRNA treatment increased and unchanged, respectively, progesterone production in FSH-treated granulosa cells. {yields} The expression of StAR mRNA was increased by Per2 siRNA and unchanged by Clock siRNA. -- Abstract: Circadian Clock genes are associated with the estrous cycle in female animals. Treatment with Per2 and Clock siRNAs decreased the number of granulosa cells and LHr expression in follicle-stimulating hormone FSH-treated granulosa cells. Per2 siRNA treatment did not stimulate the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom, whereas Clock siRNA treatment inhibited the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom mRNA. Per2 and Clock siRNA treatment increased and unchanged, respectively, progesterone production in FSH-treated granulosa cells. Similarly, expression of StAR mRNA was increased by Per2 siRNA and unchanged by Clock siRNA. Our data provide a new insight that Per2 and Clock have different action on ovarian granulosa cell functions.

  9. Growth differentiation factor 8 suppresses cell proliferation by up-regulating CTGF expression in human granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsun-Ming; Pan, Hui-Hui; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Zhu, Yi-Min; Leung, Peter C K

    2016-02-15

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a matricellular protein that plays a critical role in the development of ovarian follicles. Growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8) is mainly, but not exclusively, expressed in the mammalian musculoskeletal system and is a potent negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of GDF8 and CTGF on the regulation of cell proliferation in human granulosa cells and to examine its underlying molecular determinants. Using dual inhibition approaches (inhibitors and small interfering RNAs), we have demonstrated that GDF8 induces the up-regulation of CTGF expression through the activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)4/5-mediated SMAD2/3-dependent signaling pathways. In addition, the increase in CTGF expression contributes to the GDF8-induced suppressive effect on granulosa cell proliferation. Our findings suggest that GDF8 and CTGF may play critical roles in the regulation of proliferative events in human granulosa cells. PMID:26577677

  10. Effects of reaggregated granulosa cells and oocytes derived from early antral follicles on the properties of oocytes grown in vitro.

    PubMed

    Oi, Ayano; Tasaki, Hidetaka; Munakata, Yasuhisa; Shirasuna, Koumei; Kuwayama, Takehito; Iwata, Hisataka

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of reconstructed oocyte-granulosa cell complexes (OGCs) on the development of porcine oocytes derived from early antral follicles (EAFs; 0.5-0.7 mm in diameter). When denuded oocytes were cocultured with granulosa cells derived from other EAFs, the oocytes and granulosa cells aggregated to form OGCs after 2 days of culture. After 14 days of culture, we compared cell number, oocyte diameter, and oocyte chromatin configuration in unmanipulated (natural) OGCs, reconstructed OGCs, and OGCs collected from antral follicles (AFs, 3.0-6.0 mm in diameter). The diameters of oocytes from reconstructed OGCs grown in vitro were not different from those of oocytes from natural OGCs, although they were significantly smaller than those of oocytes from antral follicle (AF) OGCs. Oocyte chromatin configuration did not differ among the 3 OGC groups, but the oocyte nuclear maturation rate was lower in the reconstructed OGCs and higher in the AF OGCs. However, when the in vitro culture period for the reconstructed OGCs was extended by 2 days, the nuclear maturation rate of oocytes from reconstructed OGCs was similar to that of oocytes from natural OGCs. In addition, blastocysts were successfully obtained from oocytes from reconstructed OGCs. In conclusion, we established an innovative culture method that allows oocytes and granulosa cells from EAFs to reaggregate as reconstructed OGCs, which yield oocytes with the ability to develop to the blastocyst stage. PMID:25740588

  11. Phosphorylation of Serine Residues in the C-terminal Cytoplasmic Tail of Connexin43 Regulates Proliferation of Ovarian Granulosa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dyce, Paul W.; Norris, Rachael P.; Lampe, Paul D.; Kidder, Gerald M.

    2013-01-01

    Connexin43 (Cx43) forms 22 s gap junctions that couple the granulosa cells of ovarian follicles. In Cx43 knockout mice, follicle growth is restricted due to impaired granulosa cell proliferation. We have used these mice to examine the importance of specific Cx43 phosphorylation sites in follicle growth. Serines at residues 255, 262, 279 and 282 are MAP kinase substrates that, when phosphorylated, reduce junctional conductance. Mutant forms of Cx43 were constructed with these serines replaced with amino acids that cannot be phosphorylated. These mutants were transduced into Cx43 knockout ovarian somatic cells which were combined with wildtype oocytes and grafted into immunocompromised female mice permitting follicle growth in vivo. Despite residues 255 or 262 being mutated to prevent their being phosphorylated, recombinant ovaries constructed with these mutants were able to rescue the null phenotype, restoring complete folliculogenesis. In contrast, Cx43 with serine to alanine mutations at both residues 279 and 282 or at all four residues failed to rescue folliculogenesis; the mutant molecules were largely confined to intracellular sites, with few gap junctions. Using an in vitro proliferation assay, we confirmed a decrease in proliferation of granulosa cells expressing the double mutant construct. These results indicate that Cx43 phosphorylation by MAP kinase at serines 279 and 282 occurs in granulosa cells of early follicles and that this is involved in regulating follicle development. PMID:22729691

  12. Effects of reaggregated granulosa cells and oocytes derived from early antral follicles on the properties of oocytes grown in vitro

    PubMed Central

    OI, Ayano; TASAKI, Hidetaka; MUNAKATA, Yasuhisa; SHIRASUNA, Koumei; KUWAYAMA, Takehito; IWATA, Hisataka

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of reconstructed oocyte–granulosa cell complexes (OGCs) on the development of porcine oocytes derived from early antral follicles (EAFs; 0.5–0.7 mm in diameter). When denuded oocytes were cocultured with granulosa cells derived from other EAFs, the oocytes and granulosa cells aggregated to form OGCs after 2 days of culture. After 14 days of culture, we compared cell number, oocyte diameter, and oocyte chromatin configuration in unmanipulated (natural) OGCs, reconstructed OGCs, and OGCs collected from antral follicles (AFs, 3.0–6.0 mm in diameter). The diameters of oocytes from reconstructed OGCs grown in vitro were not different from those of oocytes from natural OGCs, although they were significantly smaller than those of oocytes from antral follicle (AF) OGCs. Oocyte chromatin configuration did not differ among the 3 OGC groups, but the oocyte nuclear maturation rate was lower in the reconstructed OGCs and higher in the AF OGCs. However, when the in vitro culture period for the reconstructed OGCs was extended by 2 days, the nuclear maturation rate of oocytes from reconstructed OGCs was similar to that of oocytes from natural OGCs. In addition, blastocysts were successfully obtained from oocytes from reconstructed OGCs. In conclusion, we established an innovative culture method that allows oocytes and granulosa cells from EAFs to reaggregate as reconstructed OGCs, which yield oocytes with the ability to develop to the blastocyst stage. PMID:25740588

  13. Differential actions of fibroblast growth factors on intracellular pathways and target gene expression in bovine ovarian granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhongliang; Price, Christopher A

    2012-11-01

    Several fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), including FGF1, FGF4 and FGF10, alter ovarian granulosa cell function. These ligands exhibit different patterns of receptor activation, and their mechanisms of action on granulosa cells remain unknown. The objective of this study was to identify the major pathways and target genes activated by FGF1, FGF4 and FGF10 in primary oestrogenic granulosa cells cultured under serum-free conditions. FGF1 and FGF4 increased levels of mRNA encoding Sprouty family members, SPRY2 and SPRY4, and the orphan nuclear receptors NR4A1 and NR4A3. Both FGF1 and FGF4 decreased levels of mRNA encoding SPRY3 and the pro-apoptotic factor BAX. FGF1 but not FGF4 stimulated expression of the cell cycle regulator, GADD45B. In contrast, FGF10 altered the expression of none of these genes. Western blot demonstrated that FGF4 activated ERK1/2 and Akt signalling rapidly and transiently, whereas FGF10 elicited a modest and delayed activation of ERK1/2. These data show that FGF1 and FGF4 activate typical FGF signalling pathways in granulosa cells, whereas FGF10 activates atypical pathways. PMID:22956519

  14. Transforming growth factor-β1 increases lysyl oxidase expression by downregulating MIR29A in human granulosa lutein cells.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ying; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Klausen, Christian; Leung, Peter C K; Yang, Xiaokui

    2016-09-01

    Lysyl oxidase (LOX), a key enzyme in the formation and stabilization of the extracellular matrix, is expressed in granulosa cells and plays a critical role in the regulation of granulosa cell differentiation, oocyte maturation and ovulation. To date, the regulation of LOX expression in human granulosa cells remains largely unknown. In this study, using primary and immortalized human granulosa lutein cells, we demonstrated that transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 (TGFB1) upregulated LOX expression and downregulated microRNA-29a (MIR29A) expression via a TGF-β type I receptor-mediated signaling pathway. Additionally, we showed that MIR29A downregulated the expression of LOX in both types of cells. Furthermore, the downregulation of MIR29A contributed to the TGFB1-induced increase in LOX expression because the inhibition of MIR29A with a MIR29A inhibitor not only reversed the MIR29A-induced downregulation of LOX but also enhanced the TGFB1-induced upregulation of LOX. Our findings suggest that TGFB1 and MIR29A may play essential roles in the regulation of extracellular matrix remodeling during the periovulatory phase. PMID:27335131

  15. Transcriptome profiling of granulosa cells from bovine ovarian follicles during atresia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The major function of the ovary is to produce oocytes for fertilisation. Oocytes mature in follicles surrounded by nurturing granulosa cells and all are enclosed by a basal lamina. During growth, granulosa cells replicate and a large fluid-filled cavity (the antrum) develops in the centre. Only follicles that have enlarged to over 10 mm can ovulate in cows. In mammals, the number of primordial follicles far exceeds the numbers that ever ovulate and atresia or regression of follicles is a mechanism to regulate the number of oocytes ovulated and to contribute to the timing of ovulation. To better understand the molecular basis of follicular atresia, we undertook transcriptome profiling of granulosa cells from healthy (n = 10) and atretic (n = 5) bovine follicles at early antral stages (< 5 mm). Results Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and hierarchical classification of the signal intensity plots for the arrays showed primary clustering into two groups, healthy and atretic. These analyses and size-frequency plots of coefficients of variation of signal intensities revealed that the healthy follicles were more heterogeneous. Examining the differentially-expressed genes the most significantly affected functions in atretic follicles were cell death, organ development, tissue development and embryonic development. The overall processes influenced by transcription factor gene TP53 were predicted to be activated, whereas those of MYC were inhibited on the basis of known interactions with the genes in our dataset. The top ranked canonical pathway contained signalling molecules common to various inflammatory/fibrotic pathways such as the transforming growth factor-β and tumour necrosis factor-α pathways. The two most significant networks also reflect this pattern of tissue remodelling/fibrosis gene expression. These networks also contain molecules which are present in the canonical pathways of hepatic fibrosis/hepatic stellate cell activation and transforming

  16. Effects of testosterone on the expression levels of AMH, VEGF and HIF-1α in mouse granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Shan-Feng; Zheng, Jin-Dan; Zhao, Chun-Bo; Zhang, Yi-Nan; Liu, Li-Li; Huang, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of testosterone on mouse granulosa cell morphology, and the expression levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). Mouse granulosa cells were isolated and identified, and their morphology was examined using hematoxylin and eosin, F-actin, and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor staining. The mRNA expression levels of AMH, VEGF and HIF-1α were examined using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and their protein secretion levels were investigated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Testosterone treatment did not affect granulosa cell morphology; however, it significantly increased the mRNA expression levels of AMH and VEGF, and the protein secretion levels of AMH, VEGF and HIF-1α. These results suggested that testosterone was able to regulate the functions of granulosa cells by upregulating the expression levels of AMH, VEGF and HIF-1α. PMID:27446291

  17. Effect of mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on steroid production of human granulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Reinsberg, Jochen Wegener-Toper, Petra; Ven, Katrin van der; Ven, Hans van der; Klingmueller, Dietrich

    2009-08-15

    The phthalate ester mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) is the active metabolite of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, a high-production-volume chemical used as a plasticizer and solvent in numerous consumer products. MEHP has been demonstrated to be a reproductive toxicant in rodents decreasing estradiol and progesterone production in preovulatory granulosa cells. In the present study, we examined the effect of MEHP on steroid production of human granulosa-lutein (GL) cells. Human GL cells collected from women undergoing in vitro fertilization were cultured in medium containing FSH, hCG and 8-Br-cAMP, respectively, together with various concentrations of MEHP (0-500 {mu}mol L{sup -1}). After incubation for 48 h estradiol and progesterone were assayed in the spent culture medium. Furthermore, aromatase activity and mRNA levels of GL cells were determined. Basal as well as FSH-, hCG- and 8-Br-cAMP-stimulated estradiol production of GL cells was suppressed by MEHP in a dose-dependent manner (IC{sub 50} = 105 {mu}mol L{sup -1}, 138 {mu}mol L{sup -1}, 49 {mu}mol L{sup -1} and 78 {mu}mol L{sup -1}). Furthermore aromatase activity and mRNA levels were reduced in GL cells cultured with MEHP. In contrast, MEHP did not alter the production of progesterone up to a concentration of 167 {mu}mol L{sup -1}. The present data indicate that MEHP is a specific inhibitor of estradiol production in human GL cells with a post-cAMP site of action. The inhibition of estradiol production obviously results from a reduction of aromatase activity on the transcript level. As the in vitro effective doses of MEHP are within the range of real environmental exposure levels an inhibitory effect on estrogen production in vivo seems to be possi0009b.

  18. RNAi-mediated knockdown of INHBB increases apoptosis and inhibits steroidogenesis in mouse granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    M’BAYE, Mohamed; HUA, Guohua; KHAN, Hamid Ali; YANG, Liguo

    2015-01-01

    Inhibins are members of the TGFβ superfamily and act as suppressors of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion from pituitary glands via a negative feedback mechanism to regulate folliculogenesis. In this study, the INHBB gene was knocked down by three RNAi-Ready pSIREN-RetroQ-ZsGreen vector- mediated recombinant plasmids to explore the effects of INHBB silencing on granulosa cell (GC) cell cycle, apoptosis and steroid production in vitro. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, flow cytometry and ELISA were performed to evaluate the role of INHBB in the mouse GC cell cycle, apoptosis and steroid production in vitro. The results showed that the relative mRNA and protein expression of INHBB in mouse GCs can be significantly reduced by RNAi with pshRNA-B1, pshRNA-B2 and pshRNA-B3 plasmids, with pshRNA-B3 having the best knockdown efficiency. Downregulation of the expression of INHBB significantly arrests cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and increases the apoptosis rate in GCs. This was further confirmed by downregulation of the protein expressions of Cyclin D1, Cyclin E and Bcl2, while the protein expression of Bax was upregulated. In addition, specific downregulation of INHBB markedly decreased the concentration of estradiol and progesterone, which was further validated by the decrease in the mRNA levels of CYP19A1and CYP11A1. These findings suggest that inhibin βB is important in the regulation of apoptosis and cell cycle progression in granulosa cells. Furthermore, the inhibin βB subunit has a role in the regulation of steroid hormone biosynthesis. Evidence is accumulating to support the concept that inhibin βB is physiologically essential for early folliculogenesis in the mouse. PMID:26063610

  19. Targeted loss of androgen receptor signaling in murine granulosa cells of preantral and antral follicles causes female subfertility.

    PubMed

    Walters, Kirsty A; Middleton, Linda J; Joseph, Shai R; Hazra, Rasmani; Jimenez, Mark; Simanainen, Ulla; Allan, Charles M; Handelsman, David J

    2012-06-01

    Ovarian granulosa cells display strong androgen receptor (AR) expression, suggesting a functional role for direct AR-mediated actions within developing mammalian follicles. By crossing AR-floxed and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)-Cre recombinase mice, we generated granulosa cell-specific androgen receptor knockout mice (GCARKO). Cre expression, assessed by lacZ activity, localized to 70%-100% of granulosa cells in most preantral to antral follicles, allowing for selected evaluation of granulosa cell AR-dependent actions during follicle development. Relative to wild-type (WT) females, GCARKO females were subfertile, producing a 24% reduction in the number of litters (P < 0.05) over 6 mo and an age-dependent decrease in total number of pups born, evident from 6 mo of age (P < 0.05). Follicle dynamics were altered in GCARKO ovaries at 3 mo of age, with a significant reduction in large preantral and small antral follicle numbers compared to WT ovaries (P < 0.05). Global premature follicle depletion was not observed, but increased follicular atresia was evident in GCARKO ovaries at 6 mo of age, with an 81% increase in unhealthy follicles and zona pellucida remnants (P < 0.01). Cumulus cell expansion was decreased (P < 0.01) and oocyte viability was diminished in GCARKO females, with a significant reduction in the percentage of oocytes fertilized after natural mating and, thus, in the rate of progression to the two-cell embryo stage (P < 0.05). In addition, compared with age-matched WT females, 6-mo-old GCARKO females exhibited significantly prolonged estrous cycles (P ≤ 0.05), suggesting altered hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal feedback signaling. In conclusion, our findings revealed that selective loss of granulosa cell AR actions during preantral and antral stages of development leads to a premature reduction in female fecundity through reduced follicle health and oocyte viability. PMID:23115271

  20. The Effects of Phytoestrogen Genistein on Steroidogenesis and Estrogen Receptor Expression in Porcine Granulosa Cells of Large Follicles.

    PubMed

    Nynca, Anna; Sadowska, Agnieszka; Orlowska, Karina; Jablonska, Monika; Ciereszko, Renata E

    2015-01-01

    Genistein is a biologically active isoflavone with estrogenic or antiestrogenic activity which can be found in a variety of soy products. Since in pigs' diet soy is the main source of protein, genistein may affect the reproductive/endocrine systems in these animals. Genistein has been shown to alter porcine ovarian and adrenal steroidogenesis but the mechanism of this action is still not clear. It is known that genistein binds to both estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ), although it has a higher affinity to ERβ. Moreover, this phytoestrogen was demonstrated to posses the activity of protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitor. The aim of the study was to examine the in vitro effects of genistein on: (1) progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) secretion by porcine luteinized granulosa cells harvested from large follicles, and (2) the mRNA and protein expression of ERa and ERβ in these cells. In addition, to verify the role of PTK-dependent mechanisms possibly involved in genistein biological action, we tested the effects of lavendustin C, the nonsteroidal PTK inhibitor, on granulosa cell steroidogenesis. Genistein significantly inhibited P4 and did not affect E2 secretion by porcine luteinized granulosa cells isolated from large follicles. Lavendustin C did not affect basal steroids secretion by examined cells. Genistein did not alter ERa but increased ERβ mRNA levels in the cultured porcine granulosa cells. In contrast to medium follicles, the expression of ERβ protein was unaffected by genistein in granulosa cells of large follicles. To conclude, the soy phytoestrogen genistein acts directly on the porcine ovary to decrease progesterone production and to increase the expression of ERβ mRNA. Moreover, genistein-induced changes in follicular steroidogenesis and granulosal sensitivity to estrogens in pigs may depend on maturity of the follicles. PMID:26255463

  1. Localisation and endocrine control of hyaluronan synthase (HAS) 2, HAS3 and CD44 expression in sheep granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Chavoshinejad, R; Marei, W F A; Hartshorne, G M; Fouladi-Nashta, A A

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the hormonal regulation of hyaluronan (HA) components in sheep granulosa cells. HA components are present in the reproductive tract and have a range of physical and signalling properties related to reproductive function in several species. First, abattoir-derived ovaries of sheep were used to determine the localisation of HA synthase (HAS) 1-3 and CD44 proteins in antral follicles. Staining for HAS1-3 and CD44 proteins was most intense in the granulosa layer. Accordingly, the expression of HAS2, HAS3 and CD44 mRNA was measured in cultured granulosa cells exposed to 0-50ngmL(-1) of 17β-oestradiol and different combinations of oestradiol, gonadotropins, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and insulin for 48-96h (1ngmL(-1) FSH, 10ngmL(-1) insulin, 10ngmL(-1) IGF-1, 40ngmL(-1) E2 and 25ngmL(-1) LH.). mRNA expression was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction using a fold induction method. The results revealed that the hormones tested generally stimulated mRNA expression of the genes of interest in cultured granulosa cells. Specifically, oestradiol, when combined with IGF-1, insulin and FSH, stimulated HAS2 mRNA expression. Oestradiol and LH had synergistic effects in increasing HAS3 mRNA expression. In conclusion, we suggest that the hormones studied differentially regulate HAS2, HAS3 and CD44 in ovine granulosa cells in vitro. Further work is needed to address the signalling pathways involved. PMID:25427133

  2. Embryonic Stem Cell–Derived Granulosa Cells Participate in Ovarian Follicle Formation In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Dori C.; White, Yvonne A. R.; Niikura, Yuichi; Kiatpongsan, Sorapop; Lee, Ho-Joon

    2013-01-01

    Differentiating embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can form ovarian follicle-like structures in vitro, consisting of an oocyte-like cell surrounded by somatic cells capable of steroidogenesis. Using a dual-fluorescence reporter system in which mouse ESCs express green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of a germ cell–specific Pou5f1 gene promoter and red fluorescent protein (Discosoma sp red [DsRed]) driven by the granulosa cell–specific Forkhead box L2 (Foxl2) gene promoter, we first confirmed in vitro formation of follicle-like structures containing GFP-positive cells surrounded by DsRed-positive cells. Isolated DsRed-positive cells specified from ECSs exhibited a gene expression profile consistent with granulosa cells, as revealed by the detection of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) for Foxl2, follistatin (Fst), anti-Müllerian hormone (Amh), and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (Fshr) as well as by production of both progesterone and estradiol. In addition, treatment of isolated DsRed-expressing cells with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) significantly increased estradiol production over basal levels, confirming the presence of functional FSH receptors in these cells. Last, ESC-derived DsRed-positive cells injected into neonatal mouse ovaries became incorporated within the granulosa cell layer of immature follicles. These studies demonstrate that Foxl2-expressing ovarian somatic cells derived in vitro from differentiating ESCs express granulosa cell markers, actively associate with germ cells in vitro, synthesize steroids, respond to FSH, and participate in folliculogenesis in vivo. PMID:23536570

  3. Expression of Tachykinins and Tachykinin Receptors and Interaction with Kisspeptin in Human Granulosa and Cumulus Cells.

    PubMed

    García-Ortega, Jordán; Pinto, Francisco M; Prados, Nicolás; Bello, Aixa R; Almeida, Teresa A; Fernández-Sánchez, Manuel; Candenas, Luz

    2016-06-01

    The neurokinin B/NK3 receptor (NK3R) and kisspeptin/kisspeptin receptor (KISS1R), two systems which are essential for reproduction, are coexpressed in human mural granulosa (MGC) and cumulus cells (CCs). However, little is known about the presence of other members of the tachykinin family in the human ovary. In the present study, we analyzed the expression of substance P (SP), hemokinin-1 (HK-1), NK1 receptor (NK1R), and NK2 receptor (NK2R) in MGCs and CCs collected from preovulatory follicles of oocyte donors at the time of oocyte retrieval. RT-PCR, quantitative RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, and Western blotting were used to investigate the patterns of expression of tachykinin and tachykinin receptor mRNAs and proteins and the possible interaction between the tachykinin family and kisspeptin. Intracellular free Ca(2+) levels ([Ca(2+)]i) in MGCs after exposure to SP or kisspeptin in the presence of SP were also measured. We found that SP, HK-1, the truncated NK1R isoform NK1R-Tr, and NK2R were all expressed in MGCs and CCs. NK1R-Tr mRNA and NK2R mRNA and protein levels were higher in MGCs than in CCs from the same patients. Treatment of cells with kisspeptin modulated the expression of HK-1, NK3R, and KISS1R mRNAs, whereas treatment with SP regulated kisspeptin mRNA levels and reduced the [Ca(2+)]i response produced by kisspeptin. These data demonstrate that the whole tachykinin system is expressed and acts in coordination with kisspeptin to regulate granulosa cell function in the human ovary. PMID:27146034

  4. Analysis of porcine granulosa cell death signaling pathways induced by vinclozolin.

    PubMed

    Knet, Malgorzata; Wartalski, Kamil; Hoja-Lukowicz, Dorota; Tabarowski, Zbigniew; Slomczynska, Maria; Duda, Malgorzata

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that disturbing androgen-signaling pathways in porcine ovarian follicles may cause granulosa cell (GC) death. For this reason, we investigated which apoptotic pathway is initiated after GC exposure to an environmental antiandrogen, vinclozolin (Vnz), in vitro. Immunocytochemistry, Western blots, and fluorometric assays were used to quantify caspase-3 and -9 expression and activity. To elucidate the specific mechanism of Vnz action and toxicity, GCs were assessed for viability, cytotoxicity, and apoptotic activity using the ApoTox-Glo Triplex Assay. To further determine the mechanism of GC death induced by Vnz, we used the Apoptosis Antibody Array Kit. In response to Vnz stimulus, we found an increased level of caspase-3 protein expression (P ≤ 0.001) and an increase in caspase-3 proteolytic activity (P ≤ 0.001), confirming that Vnz is a potent proapoptotic factor. The strong immunoreaction of caspase-9 after Vnz treatment (P ≤ 0.001) suggests that intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis pathway was activated during GC death. On the other hand, caspase-8, being a part of the extrinsic receptor pathway, was also activated (P ≤ 0.001). Therefore, it is possible that Vnz induces porcine granulosal apoptosis also through a parallel pathway. Activation of these two pathways was confirmed by the Apoptosis Antibody Array Kit. In conclusion, it is possible that the intrinsic signaling pathway may not act as an initial trigger for GC apoptosis but might contribute to the amplification and propagation of apoptotic cell death in the granulosa layer after treatment with this antiandrogen. Moreover, Vnz disturbs the physiological process of programmed cell death. Consequently, this could explain why atretic follicles are rapidly removed and suggests that normal function of the ovarian follicle may be destroyed. PMID:26141531

  5. Expression of vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor by human granulosa and theca lutein cells. Role in corpus luteum development.

    PubMed Central

    Kamat, B. R.; Brown, L. F.; Manseau, E. J.; Senger, D. R.; Dvorak, H. F.

    1995-01-01

    Vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor (VPF/VEGF) is a cytokine that is overexpressed in many tumors, in healing wounds, and in rheumatoid arthritis. VPF/VEGF is thought to induce angiogenesis and accompanying connective tissue stroma in two ways: 1), by increasing microvascular permeability, thereby modifying the extracellular matrix and 2), as an endothelial cell mitogen. VPF/VEGF has been reported in animal corpora lutea and we investigated the possibility that it might be present in human ovaries and have a role in corpus luteum formation. We here report that VPF/VEGF mRNA and protein are expressed by human ovarian granulosa and theca cells late in follicle development and, subsequent to ovulation, by granulosa and theca lutein cells. Therefore, VPF/VEGF is ideally positioned to provoke the increased permeability of thecal blood vessels that occurs shortly before ovulation. VPF/VEGF likely also contributes to the angiogenesis and connective tissue stroma generation that accompany corpus luteum/corpus albicans formation. Finally, VPF/VEGF was overexpressed in the hyperthecotic ovarian stroma of Stein-Leventhal syndrome in which it may also have a pathophysiological role. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7531945

  6. Pancreatic islet cell tumor

    MedlinePlus

    Islet cell tumors; Islet of Langerhans tumor; Neuroendocrine tumors ... In the healthy pancreas, cells called islet cells produce hormones that regulate a several bodily functions. These include blood sugar level and the production of ...

  7. Transcriptome profiling of granulosa cells of bovine ovarian follicles during growth from small to large antral sizes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background At later stages of folliculogenesis, the mammalian ovarian follicle contains layers of epithelial granulosa cells surrounding an antral cavity. During follicle development granulosa cells replicate, secrete hormones and support the growth of the oocyte. In cattle, the follicle needs to grow > 10 mm in diameter to allow an oocyte to ovulate, following which the granulosa cells cease dividing and differentiate into the specialised cells of the corpus luteum. To better understand the molecular basis of follicular growth and granulosa cell maturation, we undertook transcriptome profiling of granulosa cells from small (< 5 mm; n = 10) and large (> 10 mm, n = 4) healthy bovine follicles using Affymetrix microarrays (24,128 probe sets). Results Principal component analysis for the first two components and hierarchical clustering showed clustering into two groups, small and large, with the former being more heterogeneous. Size-frequency distributions of the coefficient of variation of the signal intensities of each probe set also revealed that small follicles were more heterogeneous than the large. IPA and GO enrichment analyses revealed that processes of axonal guidance, immune signalling and cell rearrangement were most affected in large follicles. The most important networks were associated with: (A) Notch, SLIT/ROBO and PI3K signalling, and (B) ITGB5 and extracellular matrix signalling through extracellular signal related kinases (ERKs). Upstream regulator genes which were predicted to be active in large follicles included STAT and XBP1. By comparison, developmental processes such as those stimulated by KIT, IHH and MEST were most active in small follicles. MGEA5 was identified as an upstream regulator in small follicles. It encodes an enzyme that modifies the activity of many target proteins, including those involved in energy sensing, by removal of N-acetylglucosamine from serine and threonine residues. Conclusions Our data suggest that as

  8. Evidence of Spontaneous Recovery of Granulosa-Theca Cell Tumour in a Heifer: A Retrospective Report.

    PubMed

    El-Sheikh Ali, H; Kitahara, G; Torisu, S; Nibe, K; Kaneko, Y; Hidaka, Y; Osawa, T

    2015-08-01

    A 14-month-old Japanese Black heifer was evaluated on Day 0 (D 0) for enlargement of the right ovary (RO). Transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) revealed that the RO was markedly enlarged and multicystic, while the left ovary (LO) was small and inactive. The presumptive diagnosis was granulosa-theca cell tumour (GTCT), which was confirmed by markedly elevated plasma anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) of 4.42 ng/ml. Therefore, ovariectomy of the RO was the treatment of choice. The heifer was checked by TRUS and blood sampling on D 42, D 63 and immediately before ovariectomy on D 85. On D 42, TRUS did not show marked changes in either ovary in comparison with D 0. However, on D 63, the RO had transformed into a single cyst, and on D 85, the LO had resumed cyclic activity. The RO was extracted on D 85 by hand-assisted laparoscopic ovariectomy to allow better control. Unexpectedly, histopathology revealed the lesion to be a fluid-filled cystic structure, with no neoplastic proliferation of follicular epithelium that would indicate GTCT. The wall of the cystic structure consisted of collagen fibres and a few degenerated granulosa cells. The retrospective hormonal analysis revealed that the AMH concentrations had markedly dropped on D 63 and 85, which coincided with resumption of cyclicity in the LO. These findings suggest that the GTCT had self-cured and transformed into a cyst-like structure. The heifer then received an oestrous synchronization regime on D 105, was artificially inseminated on D 115 and became pregnant. PMID:26095590

  9. IGF-1 attenuates LPS induced pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Onnureddy, K; Ravinder; Onteru, Suneel Kumar; Singh, Dheer

    2015-03-01

    Interaction between immune and endocrine system is a diverse process influencing cellular function and homeostasis in animals. Negative energy balance (NEB) during postpartum period in dairy animals usually suppresses these systems resulting in reproductive tract infection and infertility. These negative effects could be due to competition among endocrine and immune signaling pathways for common signaling molecules. The present work studied the effect of IGF-1 (50 ng/ml) on LPS (1 μg/ml) mediated pro-inflammatory cytokine expression (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6) and aromatase (CYP19A1) genes' expressions as well as proliferation of buffalo granulosa cells. The crosstalk between LPS and IGF-1 was also demonstrated through studying the activities of downstream signaling molecules (ERK1/2, Akt, NF-κB) by western blot and immunostaining. Gene expression analysis showed that IGF-1 significantly reduced the LPS induced expression of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6. LPS alone inhibited the CYP19A1 expression. However, co-treatment with IGF-1 reversed the inhibitory effect of LPS on CYP19A1 expression. LPS alone did not affect granulosa cell proliferation, but co-treatment with IGF-1, and IGF-1 alone enhanced the proliferation. Western blot results demonstrated that LPS caused the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB and increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt maximum at 15 min and 60 min, respectively. Nonetheless, co-treatment with IGF-1 delayed LPS induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (peak at 120 min), while promoting early Akt phosphorylation (peak at 5 min) with no effect on NF-κB translocation. Overall, IGF-1 delayed and reversed the effects of LPS, suggesting that high IGF-1 levels may combat infection during critical periods like NEB in postpartum dairy animals. PMID:25433435

  10. Ovarian reserve status in young women is associated with altered gene expression in membrana granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    Skiadas, Christine C.; Duan, Shenghua; Correll, Mick; Rubio, Renee; Karaca, Nilay; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S.; Quackenbush, John; Racowsky, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) is a challenging diagnosis of infertility, as there are currently no tests to predict who may become affected with this condition, or at what age. We designed the present study to compare the gene expression profile of membrana granulosa cells from young women affected with DOR with those from egg donors of similar age and to determine if distinct genetic patterns could be identified to provide insight into the etiology of DOR. Young women with DOR were identified based on FSH level in conjunction with poor follicular development during an IVF cycle (n = 13). Egg donors with normal ovarian reserve (NOR) comprised the control group (n = 13). Granulosa cells were collected following retrieval, RNA was extracted and microarray analysis was conducted to evaluate genetic differences between the groups. Confirmatory studies were undertaken with quantitative RT–PCR (qRT–PCR). Multiple significant differences in gene expression were observed between the DOR patients and egg donors. Two genes linked with ovarian function, anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR), were further analyzed with qRT–PCR in all patients. The average expression of AMH was significantly higher in egg donors (adjusted P-value = 0.01), and the average expression of LHCGR was significantly higher in DOR patients (adjusted P-value = 0.005). Expression levels for four additional genes, progesterone receptor membrane component 2 (PGRMC2), prostaglandin E receptor 3 (subtype EP3) (PTGER3), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), and StAR-related lipid transfer domain containing 4 (StarD4), were validated in a group consisting of five NOR and five DOR patients. We conclude that gene expression analysis has substantial potential to determine which young women may be affected with DOR. More importantly, our analysis suggests that DOR patients fall into two distinct subgroups based on gene expression profiles, indicating that different

  11. Involvement of ERK1/2 signaling pathway in atrazine action on FSH-stimulated LHR and CYP19A1 expression in rat granulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fa, Svetlana; Pogrmic-Majkic, Kristina; Samardzija, Dragana; Glisic, Branka; Kaisarevic, Sonja; Kovacevic, Radmila; Andric, Nebojsa

    2013-07-01

    Worldwide used herbicide atrazine is linked to reproductive dysfunction in females. In this study, we investigated the effects and the mechanism of atrazine action in the ovary using a primary culture of immature granulosa cells. In granulosa cells, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) activates both cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) cascades, with cAMP pathway being more important for luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and aromatase (CYP19A1) mRNA expression. We report that 48 h after atrazine exposure the FSH-stimulated LHR and CYP19A1 mRNA expression and estradiol synthesis were decreased, with LHR mRNA being more sensitive to atrazine than CYP19A1 mRNA. Inadequate acquisition of LHR in the FSH-stimulated and atrazine-exposed granulosa cells renders human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) ineffective to stimulate amphiregulin (Areg), epiregulin (Ereg), and progesterone receptor (Pgr) mRNA expression, suggesting anti-ovulatory effect of atrazine. To dissect the signaling cascade involved in atrazine action in granulosa cells, we used U0126, a pharmacological inhibitor of ERK1/2. U0126 prevents atrazine-induced decrease in LHR and CYP19A1 mRNA levels and estradiol production in the FSH-stimulated granulosa cells. ERK1/2 inactivation restores the ability of hCG to induce expression of the ovulatory genes in atrazine-exposed granulosa cells. Cell-based ELISA assay revealed that atrazine does not change the FSH-stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation in granulosa cells. The results from this study reveal that atrazine does not affect but requires ERK1/2 phosphorylation to cause decrease in the FSH-induced LHR and CYP19A1 mRNA levels and estradiol production in immature granulosa cells, thus compromising ovulation and female fertility. - Highlights: • Atrazine inhibits estradiol production in FSH-stimulated granulosa cells. • Atrazine inhibits LHR and Cyp19a1 mRNA expression in FSH-stimulated granulosa cells. • Atrazine

  12. Cell proliferation and progesterone synthesis depend on lipid metabolism in bovine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Elis, Sebastien; Desmarchais, Alice; Maillard, Virginie; Uzbekova, Svetlana; Monget, Philippe; Dupont, Joëlle

    2015-03-15

    In dairy cows, lipids are essential to support energy supplies for all biological functions, especially during early lactation. Lipid metabolism is crucial for sustaining proper reproductive function. Alteration of lipid metabolism impacts follicular development and affects oocyte developmental competence. Indeed, nonesterified fatty acids are able to decrease granulosa cell (GC) proliferation and affect estradiol synthesis, thus potentially affecting follicular growth and viability. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of lipid metabolism on bovine GCs, through the use of the lipid metabolism inhibitors etomoxir, an inhibitor of fatty acid (FA) oxidation through inhibition of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT1), and C75, an inhibitor of FA synthesis through inhibition of fatty acid synthase. We showed that etomoxir and C75 significantly inhibited DNA synthesis in vitro; C75 also significantly decreased progesterone synthesis. Both inhibitors significantly reduced AMPK (5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphorylation. Etomoxir also affected the AKT (protein kinase B) signaling pathway. Combined, these data suggest that both FA oxidation and synthesis are important for the bovine GCs to express a proliferative and steroidogenic phenotype and, thus, for sustaining follicular growth. Despite these findings, it is important to note that the changes caused by the inhibitors of FA metabolism on GCs in vitro are globally mild, suggesting that lipid metabolism is not as critical in GCs as was observed in the oocyte-cumulus complex. Further studies are needed to investigate the detailed mechanisms by which lipid metabolism interacts with GC functions. PMID:25583222

  13. Changes in granulosa cells' gene expression associated with increased oocyte competence in bovine.

    PubMed

    Nivet, Anne-Laure; Vigneault, Christian; Blondin, Patrick; Sirard, Marc-André

    2013-06-01

    One of the challenges in mammalian reproduction is to understand the basic physiology of oocyte quality. It is believed that the follicle status is linked to developmental competence of the enclosed oocyte. To explore the link between follicles and competence in cows, previous research at our laboratory has developed an ovarian stimulation protocol that increases and then decreases oocyte quality according to the timing of oocyte recovery post-FSH withdrawal (coasting). Using this protocol, we have obtained the granulosa cells associated with oocytes of different qualities at selected times of coasting. Transcriptome analysis was done with Embryogene microarray slides and validation was performed by real-time PCR. Results show that the major changes in gene expression occurred from 20 to 44  h of coasting, when oocyte quality increases. Secondly, among upregulated genes (20-44  h), 25% were extracellular molecules, highlighting potential granulosa signaling cascades. Principal component analysis identified two patterns: one resembling the competence profile and another associated with follicle growth and atresia. Additionally, three major functional changes were identified: (i) the end of follicle growth (BMPR1B, IGF2, and RELN), involving interactions with the extracellular matrix (TFPI2); angiogenesis (NRP1), including early hypoxia, and potentially oxidative stress (GFPT2, TF, and VNN1) and (ii) apoptosis (KCNJ8) followed by iii) inflammation (ANKRD1). This unique window of analysis indicates a progressive hypoxia during coasting mixed with an increase in apoptosis and inflammation. Potential signaling pathways leading to competence have been identified and will require downstream testing. This preliminary analysis supports the potential role of the follicular differentiation in oocyte quality both during competence increase and decrease phases. PMID:23564726

  14. Human pituitary and placental hormones control human insulin-like growth factor II secretion in human granulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ramasharma, K.; Li, C.H.

    1987-05-01

    Human granulosa cells cultured with calf serum actively proliferated for 18-20 generations and secreted progesterone into the medium; progesterone levels appeared to decline with increase in generation number. Cells cultured under serum-free conditions secreted significant amounts of progesterone and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). The progesterone secretion was enhanced by the addition of human follitropin, lutropin, and chorionic gonadotropin but not by growth hormone. These cells, when challenged to varying concentrations of human growth hormone, human chorionic somatomammotropin, human prolactin, chorionic gonadotropin, follitropin, and lutropin, secreted IGF-II into the medium as measured by specific IGF-II RIA. Among these human hormones, chorionic gonadotropin, follitropin, and lutropin were most effective in inducing IGF-II secretion from these cells. When synthetic lutropin-releasing hormone and ..cap alpha..-inhibin-92 were tested, only lutropin-releasing hormone was effective in releasing IGF-II. The results described suggest that cultured human granulosa cells can proliferate and actively secrete progesterone and IGF-II into the medium. IGF-II production in human granulosa cells was influenced by a multi-hormonal complex including human growth hormone, human chorionic somatomammotropin, and prolactin.

  15. Acute pancreatitis following granulosa cell tumor removal in a mare

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Diego E.; Radtke, Catherine L.; Russell, Lauren A.; Lopez, Alfonso; Wichtel, Maureen W.

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a rare disease in horses and is often associated with gastrointestinal disorders. Accurate diagnosis is challenging due to the presence of nonspecific clinical signs. This case represents the first documentation of acute pancreatitis in a horse following surgery of the reproductive tract. PMID:26483579

  16. Critical Role of FoxO1 in Granulosa Cell Apoptosis Caused by Oxidative Stress and Protective Effects of Grape Seed Procyanidin B2

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jia-Qing; Gao, Bin-Wen; Wang, Jing; Ren, Qiao-Ling; Chen, Jun-Feng; Ma, Qiang; Zhang, Zi-Jing; Xing, Bao-Song

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are closely related to the follicular granulosa cell apoptosis. Grape seed procyanidin B2 (GSPB2) has been reported to possess potent antioxidant activity. However, the GSPB2-mediated protective effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms in granulosa cell apoptosis process remain unknown. In this study, we showed for the first time that GSPB2 treatment decreased FoxO1 protein level, improved granulosa cell viability, upregulated LC3-II protein level, and reduced granulosa cell apoptosis rate. Under a condition of oxidative stress, GSPB2 reversed FoxO1 nuclear localization and increased its level in cytoplasm. In addition, FoxO1 knockdown inhibited the protective effects of GSPB2 induced. Our findings suggest that FoxO1 plays a pivotal role in regulating autophagy in granulosa cells, GSPB2 exerts a potent and beneficial role in reducing granulosa cell apoptosis and inducing autophagy process, and targeting FoxO1 could be significant in fighting against oxidative stress-reduced female reproductive system diseases. PMID:27057282

  17. Critical Role of FoxO1 in Granulosa Cell Apoptosis Caused by Oxidative Stress and Protective Effects of Grape Seed Procyanidin B2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia-Qing; Gao, Bin-Wen; Wang, Jing; Ren, Qiao-Ling; Chen, Jun-Feng; Ma, Qiang; Zhang, Zi-Jing; Xing, Bao-Song

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are closely related to the follicular granulosa cell apoptosis. Grape seed procyanidin B2 (GSPB2) has been reported to possess potent antioxidant activity. However, the GSPB2-mediated protective effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms in granulosa cell apoptosis process remain unknown. In this study, we showed for the first time that GSPB2 treatment decreased FoxO1 protein level, improved granulosa cell viability, upregulated LC3-II protein level, and reduced granulosa cell apoptosis rate. Under a condition of oxidative stress, GSPB2 reversed FoxO1 nuclear localization and increased its level in cytoplasm. In addition, FoxO1 knockdown inhibited the protective effects of GSPB2 induced. Our findings suggest that FoxO1 plays a pivotal role in regulating autophagy in granulosa cells, GSPB2 exerts a potent and beneficial role in reducing granulosa cell apoptosis and inducing autophagy process, and targeting FoxO1 could be significant in fighting against oxidative stress-reduced female reproductive system diseases. PMID:27057282

  18. Glucose-regulated protein, 78-kilodalton is a modulator of luteinizing hormone receptor expression in luteinizing granulosa cells in rats.

    PubMed

    Kogure, Kayoko; Nakamura, Kazuto; Ikeda, Sadatomo; Kitahara, Yoshikazu; Nishimura, Toshio; Iwamune, Masayuki; Minegishi, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Glucose-regulated protein, 78-kilodalton (GRP78) is a molecular chaperone that exists in the endoplasmic reticulum and is involved in the assembly, transportation, and folding of proteins. Previously, GRP78 was reported to associate with gonadotropin receptors. However, little is known about how GRP78 is involved in the regulation of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR). Thus, in this study, we investigated the significance of GRP78 for the induction of LHR in rat luteinizing granulosa cells. Western blot analysis of rat LHR expressed in HEK293 cells revealed that the protein levels of LHR were increased, depending on the increment of GRP78 protein. In both in vivo and in vitro experiments, the GRP78 mRNA level peaked while LHR mRNA was down-regulated by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). To examine the time-dependent localization of GRP78 in vivo, immunohistochemistry was performed. GRP78 was expressed mainly in granulosa cells, and the GRP78 protein peaked 18 h after the ovulatory dose of hCG injection in equine chorionic gonadotropin-primed immature rats. To ascertain the role of GRP78 in LHR after down-regulation, small interfering GRP78 was transfected to cultured rat granulosa cells, demonstrating that knockdown of the GRP78 protein level impaired the recovery of cell surface LHR from down-regulation that negatively affected progesterone synthesis. Moreover, luciferase assays showed that CRE mediated the hCG-induced promoter activity of GRP78 in rat luteinizing granulosa cells. These results reveal a novel mechanism of LHR by GRP78 in the early stage of corpus lustrum formation, which may be an important factor in the recovery of LHR after the down-regulation. PMID:23175774

  19. The production of VEGF involving MAP kinase activation by low level laser therapy in human granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    Utsunomiya-Kai, Yufuko; Kai, Kentaro; Miyakawa, Isao; Ohshiro, Toshio; Narahara, Hisashi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The function of granulosa cells is regulated by various hormones and growth factors. Our aim is to clarify the regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) induced by low level laser therapy (LLLT) in human granulosa cells. Methods: A human granulosa cell line, KGN cells, were cultured and incubated after LLLT (60mW, GaAlAs 830nm). The levels of VEGF in the culture media were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The activation of MAP kinase in KGN cells was detected by western blot analysis. Results: VEGF production was significantly increased by LLLT in a time-dependent manner. MAP kinase activity was increased by LLLT. In addition it was enhanced by LLLT and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulation. Conclusions: The results suggested that VEGF is induced by LLLT through mechanisms involving MAPK. The increase in VEGF may contribute to neovascularization, which in turn would promote various ovulation phenomena as well as follicular growth. PMID:24511196

  20. Transcriptomic Diversification of Developing Cumulus and Mural Granulosa Cells in Mouse Ovarian Follicles1

    PubMed Central

    Wigglesworth, Karen; Lee, Kyung-Bon; Emori, Chihiro; Sugiura, Koji; Eppig, John J.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cumulus cells and mural granulosa cells (MGCs) have functionally distinct roles in antral follicles, and comparison of their transcriptomes at a global and systems level can propel future studies on mechanisms underlying their functional diversity. These cells were isolated from small and large antral follicles before and after stimulation of immature mice with gonadotropins, respectively. Both cell types underwent dramatic transcriptomic changes, and differences between them increased with follicular growth. Although cumulus cells of both stages of follicular development are competent to undergo expansion in vitro, they were otherwise remarkably dissimilar with transcriptomic changes quantitatively equivalent to those of MGCs. Gene ontology analysis revealed that cumulus cells of small follicles were enriched in transcripts generally associated with catalytic components of metabolic processes, while those from large follicles were involved in regulation of metabolism, cell differentiation, and adhesion. Contrast of cumulus cells versus MGCs revealed that cumulus cells were enriched in transcripts associated with metabolism and cell proliferation while MGCs were enriched for transcripts involved in cell signaling and differentiation. In vitro and in vivo models were used to test the hypothesis that higher levels of transcripts in cumulus cells versus MGCs is the result of stimulation by oocyte-derived paracrine factors (ODPFs). Surprisingly ∼48% of transcripts higher in cumulus cells than MGCs were not stimulated by ODPFs. Those stimulated by ODPFs were mainly associated with cell division, mRNA processing, or the catalytic pathways of metabolism, while those not stimulated by ODPFs were associated with regulatory processes such as signaling, transcription, phosphorylation, or the regulation of metabolism. PMID:25376232

  1. Activin A, B and AB decrease progesterone production by down-regulating StAR in human granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsun-Ming; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Huang, He-Feng; Shi, Feng-Tao; Leung, Peter C K

    2015-09-01

    Activins are homo- or heterodimers of inhibin β subunits that play important roles in the reproductive system. Our previous work has shown that activins A (βAβA), B (βBβB) and AB (βAβB) induce aromatase/estradiol, but suppress StAR/progesterone production in human granulosa-lutein cells. However, the underlying molecular determinants of these effects have not been examined. In this continuing study, we used immortalized human granulosa cells (SVOG) to investigate the effects of activins in regulating StAR/progesterone and the potential mechanisms of action. In SVOG cells, activins A, B and AB produced comparable down-regulation of StAR expression and progesterone production. In addition, all three activin isoforms induced equivalent phosphorylation of both SMAD2 and SMAD3. Importantly, the activin-induced down-regulation of StAR, increase in SMAD2/3 phosphorylation, and decrease in progesterone were abolished by the TGF-β type I receptor inhibitor SB431542. Interestingly, the small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of ALK4 but not ALK5 reversed the activin-induced suppression of StAR. Furthermore, the knockdown of SMAD4 or SMAD2 but not SMAD3 abolished the inhibitory effects of all three activin isoforms on StAR expression. These results provide evidence that activins A, B and AB down-regulate StAR expression and decrease progesterone production in human granulosa cells, likely via an ALK4-mediated SMAD2/SMAD4-dependent pathway. Our findings provide important insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulatory effects of activins on human granulosa cell steroidogenesis. PMID:26001835

  2. Changes in granulosa cells gene expression associated with growth, plateau and atretic phases in medium bovine follicles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to build the transcriptomic profile of granulosa cells originating from follicles 6 to 9 mm in diameter in dairy cattle using microarrays. Methods Granulosa cells originating from three different phases of antral follicle growth were compared: growing (G), plateau (P) and atresia (A), as categorized by flow cytometry profiles of DNA. The growing and atretic conditions were each hybridized against the plateau condition as a reference in order to understand the specific biological mechanisms modulated in this class of follicles. Results 2,942 genes were differentially expressed (P < 0.05) in P vs. G and 1,974 in A vs. P. A clear segregation of the 3 phases was confirmed by between group analysis (BGA). The first characteristic of the plateau phase is the activation of the upstream regulators TP53 and PTEN which participate in the reduction of cell growth through MYC, FOS and E2F1-2-3. We also observed the down-regulation of steroidogenesis genes: CYP11A1 and CYP19A1, in the granulosa cells of the plateau phase relative to the growth phase. On the other hand, the A vs. P contrast showed up-regulation of multiple transcripts associated to apoptosis: CCT2, DAB2, DSG2 and TGM2. Conclusions This study offers multiple candidate genes to be further studied in order to elucidate their role in the modulation of follicular development and, ultimately, of oocyte quality. PMID:24955130

  3. Transcriptomic Analysis and Meta-Analysis of Human Granulosa and Cumulus Cells

    PubMed Central

    Burnik Papler, Tanja; Vrtacnik Bokal, Eda; Maver, Ales; Kopitar, Andreja Natasa; Lovrečić, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Specific gene expression in oocytes and its surrounding cumulus (CC) and granulosa (GC) cells is needed for successful folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation. The aim of the present study was to compare genome-wide gene expression and biological functions of human GC and CC. Individual GC and CC were derived from 37 women undergoing IVF procedures. Gene expression analysis was performed using microarrays, followed by a meta-analysis. Results were validated using quantitative real-time PCR. There were 6029 differentially expressed genes (q < 10−4); of which 650 genes had a log2 FC ≥ 2. After the meta-analysis there were 3156 genes differentially expressed. Among these there were genes that have previously not been reported in human somatic follicular cells, like prokineticin 2 (PROK2), higher expressed in GC, and pregnancy up-regulated nonubiquitous CaM kinase (PNCK), higher expressed in CC. Pathways like inflammatory response and angiogenesis were enriched in GC, whereas in CC, cell differentiation and multicellular organismal development were among enriched pathways. In conclusion, transcriptomes of GC and CC as well as biological functions, are distinctive for each cell subpopulation. By describing novel genes like PROK2 and PNCK, expressed in GC and CC, we upgraded the existing data on human follicular biology. PMID:26313571

  4. Transcriptional regulation of cyclin D2 by the PKA pathway and inducible cAMP early repressor in granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Muñiz, Luis C; Yehia, Ghassan; Mémin, Elisabeth; Ratnakar, Pillarisetty V A L; Molina, Carlos A

    2006-08-01

    Cyclin D2 (Ccnd2) is an essential gene for folliculogenesis, as null mutation in mice impairs granulosa cell proliferation in response to FSH. Ccnd2 mRNA is induced during the estrus cycle by FSH and is rapidly inhibited by LH. Yet, the responsive elements and transcription factors accounting for the gene expression of cyclin D2 in the ovary have not been fully characterized. Using primary cultures of rat granulosa cells and immortalized mouse granulosa cells, we demonstrate a mechanism for the regulation of cyclin D2 at the level of transcription via a PKA-dependent signaling mechanism. The promoter activity of cyclin D2 was shown to be induced by FSH and the catalytic alpha subunit of PKA (PRKACA), and this activity was repressible by inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER), a cAMP response element (CRE) modulator isoform. In silico analysis of the mouse, rat, and human cyclin D2 promoters identified two CRE-binding protein sites, a conserved proximal element and a less conserved distal element relative to the translation start site. The mutation on the proximal element drastically decreases the effects of PRKACA and ICER on the promoter activity, whereas the mutation on the distal element did not contribute to the decrease in the promoter activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and deoxyribonuclease footprint analysis confirmed ICER binding to the proximal element, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated the occurrence of this binding in vivo. These results showed a CRE within the upstream region of Ccnd2 that is (at least partly) implicated in the stimulation and repression of cyclin D2 transcription. Finally, our data suggest that ICER involvement in the regulation of granulosa cell proliferation as overexpression of ICER results in the inhibition of PRKACA-induced DNA synthesis. PMID:16625003

  5. Effects of 3, 5, 3'-triiodothyronine (t3) and follicle stimulating hormone on apoptosis and proliferation of rat ovarian granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Guo, Li; Zhu, Baochang; Feng, Yun; Yu, Shangyu; An, Na; Wang, Xiaoxia

    2013-10-31

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is important for normal reproductive functions and dysregulation of TH support is associated with reproductive disorders. We have previously reported that 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T₃) increases follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)-induced preantral follicle growth in vitro. Interaction of hormones with apoptosis and proliferation of granulosa cells is poorly understood. The present study investigated the role and the mechanism of T₃ and/or FSH on granulosa cell apoptosis and proliferation. Granulosa cells harvested from DES-primed immature rats were exposed to T₃ (1 nM) and/or FSH (100 ng/ml) for 24-48 h. We demonstrated by TUNEL assays that the hormones prevented cells from C8-ceramide-induced apoptosis. The Src/PI3K/Akt pathway was involved in the regulation of granulosa cell survival. While ineffective alone, T₃ significantly enhanced the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) content of FSH-induced granulosa cells, consistent with the cell number pattern after treatment. Moreover, the action of the hormones on cell proliferation was also shown to be mediated by the Src/PI3K/Akt pathway. Taken together, these results suggest that T₃ potentiates the cell survival action of FSH through inhibiting cell apoptosis and promoting cell proliferation. Moreover, the protective and survival effects of hormones are mediated by the activation of Src/PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:24032715

  6. Modulation of Steroidogenic Pathway in Rat Granulosa Cells with Subclinical Cd Exposure and Insulin Resistance: An Impact on Female Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Belani, Muskaan; Purohit, Nupur; Pillai, Prakash; Gupta, Sharad; Gupta, Sarita

    2014-01-01

    Changes in lifestyle lead to insulin resistance (IR) in females ultimately predisposing them towards infertility. In addition, cadmium (Cd), an environmental endocrine disruptor, is reported for detrimental effects on granulosa cells, thus leading to ovarian dysfunction. A combination of these factors, lifestyle and environment, seems to play a role in etiology of idiopathic infertility that accounts for 50% amongst the total infertility cases. To address this issue, we made an attempt to investigate the extent of Cd impact on insulin-resistant (IR) granulosa cells. We exposed adult female Charles Foster rats to dexamethasone and confirmed IR condition by fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI). On treatment of IR rats with Cd, the preliminary studies demonstrated prolonged estrous cyclicity, decrease in serum estradiol concentrations, abnormal histology of ovary, and increased granulosa cell death. Further gene and protein expression studies of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD), and cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19A1) were performed. Protein expression studies demonstrated significant decrease in treated groups when compared with control. Study revealed that, in spite of the molecular parameters being affected at varied level, overall ovarian physiology is maximally affected in IR and Cd coexposed group, thus mimicking the condition similar to those prevailing in infertile females. PMID:25210711

  7. Juvenile granulosa cell tumour of the ovary presenting with hyperprolactinaemic amenorrhoea and galactorrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Ahmed; Lubina-Solomon, Alexandra; Kew, Fiona M; Webster, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Summary Secondary amenorrhoea and galactorrhoea represent a common endocrine presentation. We report a case of an oestrogen-producing juvenile granulosa cell tumour (JGCT) of the ovary in a 16-year-old post-pubertal woman with hyperprolactinaemia amenorrhoea and galactorrhoea which resolved following surgical resection of the tumour. This patient presented with a 9-month history of secondary amenorrhoea and a 2-month history of galactorrhoea. Elevated serum prolactin at 7081 mIU/l and suppressed gonadotropins (LH <0.1 U/l; FSH <0.1 U/l) were detected. Serum oestradiol was significantly elevated at 7442 pmol/l with undetectable β-human chorionic gonadotropin. MRI showed a bulky pituitary with no visible adenoma. MRI of the abdomen showed a 4.8 cm mass arising from the right ovary with no evidence of metastatic disease. Serum inhibin B was elevated at 2735 ng/l. A right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed, and histology confirmed the diagnosis of a JGCT, stage International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 1A. Immunohistochemical staining for prolactin was negative. Post-operatively, oestrogen and prolactin levels were normalised, and she subsequently had a successful pregnancy. In summary, we present a case of an oestrogen-secreting JGCT with hyperprolactinaemia manifesting clinically with galactorrhoea and secondary amenorrhoea. We postulate that observed hyperprolactinaemia was caused by oestrogenic stimulation of pituitary lactotroph cells, a biochemical state analogous to pregnancy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of hyperprolactinaemia as a result of excessive oestrogen production in the context of a JGCT. Learning points Hyperprolactinaemia with bilateral galactorrhoea and secondary amenorrhoea has a wide differential diagnosis and is not always caused by a prolactin secreting pituitary adenoma.Significantly elevated serum oestradiol levels in the range seen in this case, in the absence of pregnancy, are indicative

  8. STMN1 Promotes Progesterone Production Via StAR Up-regulation in Mouse Granulosa Cells.

    PubMed

    Dou, Yun-De; Zhao, Han; Huang, Tao; Zhao, Shi-Gang; Liu, Xiao-Man; Yu, Xiao-Chen; Ma, Zeng-Xiang; Zhang, Yu-Chao; Liu, Tao; Gao, Xuan; Li, Lei; Lu, Gang; Chan, Wai-Yee; Gao, Fei; Liu, Hong-Bin; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Stathmin 1 (STMN1) is a biomarker in several types of neoplasms. It plays an important role in cell cycle progression, mitosis, signal transduction and cell migration. In ovaries, STMN1 is predominantly expressed in granulosa cells (GCs). However, little is known about the role of STMN1 in ovary. In this study, we demonstrated that STMN1 is overexpressed in GCs in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In mouse primary GCs, the overexpression of STMN1 stimulated progesterone production, whereas knockdown of STMN1 decreased progesterone production. We also found that STMN1 positively regulates the expression of Star (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein) and Cyp11a1 (cytochrome P450 family 11 subfamily A member 1). Promoter and ChIP assays indicated that STMN1 increased the transcriptional activity of Star and Cyp11a1 by binding to their promoter regions. The data suggest that STMN1 mediates the progesterone production by modulating the promoter activity of Star and Cyp11a1. Together, our findings provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of STMN1 in ovary GC steroidogenesis. A better understanding of this potential interaction between STMN1 and Star in progesterone biosynthesis in GCs will facilitate the discovery of new therapeutic targets in PCOS. PMID:27270953

  9. Transcriptional effect of the LH surge in bovine granulosa cells during the peri-ovulation period.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Isabelle; Robert, Claude; Dieleman, Steph; Blondin, Patrick; Sirard, Marc-André

    2011-02-01

    The LH surge induces a multitude of events that are essential for ovulation and corpus luteum formation. The transcriptional responses to the LH surge of preovulatory granulosa cells (GCs) are complex and still poorly understood. In this study, a genome-wide bovine oligo array was used to determine how the gene expression profile of GCs is modulated by the LH surge. GCs from three different stages were used to assess the short- and long-term effects of this hormone on follicle differentiation: 1) 2 h before induction of the LH surge, 2) 6 h and 3) 22 h after the LH surge. The results obtained were a list of differentially expressed transcripts for each GC group. To provide a comprehensive understanding of the processes at play, biological annotations were used to reveal the different functions of transcripts, confirming that the LH surge acts in a temporal manner. The pre-LH group is involved in typical tasks such as cell division, development, and proliferation, while the early response to the LH surge included features such as response to stimulus, vascularization, and lipid synthesis, which are indicative of cells preparing for ovulation. The late response of GCs revealed terms associated with protein localization and intracellular transport, corresponding to the future secretion task that will be required for the transformation of GCs into corpus luteum. Overall, results described in this study provide new insights into the different transcriptional steps that GCs go through during ovulation and before luteinization. PMID:21123518

  10. STMN1 Promotes Progesterone Production Via StAR Up-regulation in Mouse Granulosa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Yun-De; Zhao, Han; Huang, Tao; Zhao, Shi-Gang; Liu, Xiao-Man; Yu, Xiao-Chen; Ma, Zeng-Xiang; Zhang, Yu-Chao; Liu, Tao; Gao, Xuan; Li, Lei; Lu, Gang; Chan, Wai-Yee; Gao, Fei; Liu, Hong-Bin; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Stathmin 1 (STMN1) is a biomarker in several types of neoplasms. It plays an important role in cell cycle progression, mitosis, signal transduction and cell migration. In ovaries, STMN1 is predominantly expressed in granulosa cells (GCs). However, little is known about the role of STMN1 in ovary. In this study, we demonstrated that STMN1 is overexpressed in GCs in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In mouse primary GCs, the overexpression of STMN1 stimulated progesterone production, whereas knockdown of STMN1 decreased progesterone production. We also found that STMN1 positively regulates the expression of Star (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein) and Cyp11a1 (cytochrome P450 family 11 subfamily A member 1). Promoter and ChIP assays indicated that STMN1 increased the transcriptional activity of Star and Cyp11a1 by binding to their promoter regions. The data suggest that STMN1 mediates the progesterone production by modulating the promoter activity of Star and Cyp11a1. Together, our findings provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of STMN1 in ovary GC steroidogenesis. A better understanding of this potential interaction between STMN1 and Star in progesterone biosynthesis in GCs will facilitate the discovery of new therapeutic targets in PCOS. PMID:27270953

  11. Tissue localization of GM-CSF receptor in bovine ovarian follicles and its role on glucose uptake by mural granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Peralta, O A; Bucher, D; Angulo, C; Castro, M A; Ratto, M H; Concha, Il

    2016-07-01

    The granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a multifunctional cytokine implicated in proliferation, differentiation, and activation of several cell types including those involved in hematopoiesis and reproduction. In the present study, the expression of the α- and β-subunit genes of GM-CSF receptor during follicular development in cattle was assessed. The spatial association of α- and β-subunits of GM-CSF with follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), and the temporal associations with gene expression of hexose transporters (GLUTs) in granulosa cells of cattle were also evaluated. The effect of GM-CSF on the functionality of hexose transporters was also determined in an in vitro primary culture of granulosa cells. The spatial association of subunits of the GM-CSF receptor with 3β-HSD and FSHR suggests a potential steroidogenic regulation of GM-CSF in granulosa cells. Immunodetection of GLUTs and uptake kinetic assays confirmed expression and functionality of these genes for hexose transporters in granulosa cells of cattle. Treatment of granulosa cells with GM-CSF, FSH or insulin- like growth factor-I (IGF-I) alone increased 2-deoxyglucose (DOG) or 3-0-methylglucose (OMG) uptake; however, when cells were treated with various combination of these factors there were no additive effect. Unexpectedly, the combination of GM-CSF and FSH decreased DOG uptake compared to FSH treatment alone. Thus, the expression pattern of GM-CSF receptor subunit genes during follicle development in cattle and promotion of DOG and OMG uptake in granulosa cells indicate a role for GM-CSF, FSH and/or IGF-I alone in regulating granulosa cell metabolic activity, specifically by promoting glucose uptake. PMID:27236376

  12. Granulosa cell-oocyte interactions: the phosphorylation of specific proteins in mouse oocytes at the germinal vesicle stage is dependent upon the differentiative state of companion somatic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cecconi, S.; Tatone, C.; Buccione, R.; Mangia, F.; Colonna, R. )

    1991-05-01

    The role of granulosa cells in the regulation of mouse ovarian oocyte metabolism was investigated. Fully grown antral oocytes, isolated from surrounding cumulus cells, were cultured on monolayers of preantral granulosa cells in the presence of dbcAMP to prevent the resumption of meiosis. Under these conditions metabolic cooperativity was established between the two cell types as early as 1 hr after seeding. Moreover, cocultured oocytes phosphorylated two polypeptides of 74 and 21 kDa which are normally phosphorylated in follicle-enclosed growing oocytes but not in cumulus cell-enclosed fully grown oocytes at the germinal vesicle stage. When cocultured oocytes were allowed to resume meiosis, the 74 and 21 kDa proteins were synthesized but no longer phosphorylated even though intercellular coupling between the two cell types was maintained during radiolabeling. It appears therefore: (a) that the different protein kinase activity of growing and fully grown germinal vesicle-stage mouse oocytes is related to the differentiative state of granulosa cells, and (b) that the regulation of oocyte protein phosphorylation activity by granulosa cells is dependent on the meiotic stage of the oocyte.

  13. Differential regulation of pig theca cell steroidogenesis by LH, insulin-like growth factor I and granulosa cells in serum-free culture.

    PubMed

    Shores, E M; Picton, H M; Hunter, M G

    2000-03-01

    The regulation of pig theca cell steroidogenesis was studied by the development of a physiological serum-free culture system, which was subsequently extended to investigate potential theca-granulosa cell interactions. Theca cells were isolated from antral follicles 6-9 mm in diameter and the effects of plating density (50-150x10(3) viable cells per well), LH (0.01-1.0 ng ml(-1)), Long R3 insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) (10, 100 ng ml(-1)) and insulin (1, 10 ng ml(-1)) on the number of cells and steroidogenesis were examined. The purity of the theca cell preparation was verified biochemically and histologically. Co-cultures contained 50x10(3) viable cells per well in granulosa to theca cell ratio of 4:1. Wells containing granulosa cells only were supplemented with 'physiological' doses of androstenedione or 100 ng ml(-1). Oestradiol production by co-cultures was compared with the sum of the oestradiol synthesized by granulosa and theca cells cultured separately. Oestradiol and androstenedione production continued throughout culture. High plating density decreased steroid production (P < 0.01). LH increased androstenedione (P < 0.001) and oestradiol (P < 0.05) synthesis and the sensitivity of the cells increased with time in culture. Oestradiol production was increased by 10 ng IGF-I ml(-1) (P < 0.001) but androstenedione required 100 ng ml(-1) (P < 0.001). Co-cultures produced more oestradiol than the sum of oestradiol synthesized by theca and granulosa cells cultured separately (P < 0. 001), irrespective of the androstenedione dose. This serum-free culture system for pig theca cells maintained in vivo steroidogenesis and gonadotrophin responsiveness. Thecal androstenedione and oestradiol production were differentially regulated and were primarily stimulated by LH and IGF-I, respectively. Theca-granulosa cell interactions stimulated oestradiol synthesis and this interaction was mediated by factors additional to the provision of thecal androgen substrate to

  14. Plasminogen activator and serine protease inhibitor-E2 (protease nexin-1) expression by bovine granulosa cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cao, Mingju; Sahmi, Malha; Lussier, Jacques G; Price, Christopher A

    2004-09-01

    Remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) occurs during antral follicle growth, and the plasminogen activators (PA) have been implicated in this process in rodents. In the present study, we measured the expression and secretion of PA and the PA inhibitor protease nexin-1 (SerpinE2) in antral and basal bovine granulosa cells from small (<6 mm), medium (6-8 mm), and large follicles (>8 mm) during 6 days of culture in serum-free medium. Casein zymography revealed that the cells secreted predominantly tissue-type PA (tPA) with urokinase (uPA) being associated mainly with cell lysates, and Western blot demonstrated that the cells secreted SerpinE2. Overall, secreted tPA activity was higher in cultures of cells from small follicles compared with large follicles, and secreted SerpinE2 levels were higher in cultures of cells from large follicles. In cultures of cells from small follicles, secreted tPA levels increased with time of culture for antral but not basal cells, and SerpinE2 levels increased with time for basal but not antral cells. In cultures of granulosa cells from large follicles, tPA activity increased significantly with time of culture, whereas SerpinE2 levels decreased. Cell-associated uPA activity decreased with time in cells from medium and large follicles. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Northern blot analysis showed that SerpinE2 secretion was regulated largely at the transcriptional level, whereas tPA secretion was not. The data suggest stage-dependent regulation of granulosa cell PA and SerpinE2 production, consistent with a role in ECM remodeling during follicle growth. PMID:15128599

  15. Granulosa Cell Apoptosis Induced by a Novel FSH Binding Inhibitory Peptide From Human Ovarian Follicular Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Chitnis, Swati S.; Navlakhe, Rajshri M.; Shinde, Gayatri C.; Barve, Sharmila J.; D'Souza, Serena; Mahale, Smita D.; Nandedkar, Tarala D.

    2008-01-01

    Pituitary gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, are the key regulators of ovarian folliculogenesis; these are known to be directly or indirectly modulated by many intraovarian factors. Our group has identified and studied one such novel peptide from human ovarian follicular fluid. Its partial N-terminal eight amino acid sequence has been deduced, referred to as octapeptide (OP). OP induces follicular atresia in mice and interferes with normal ovarian function in non-human primates, this action being similar to the native peptide. Thus, in this study, an attempt has been made to elucidate the mechanism of action of the synthetic OP by studying the pathway of follicular atresia in mouse ovary. Changes in granulosa cells were studied using various apoptotic markers by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. An increase in apoptotic cell population in atretic- and peptide-treated groups was observed compared with normal controls. Interestingly, both these groups exhibited differences in the apoptotic pathway. Results showed that the mitochondrial pathway was predominant in the atretic group, whereas the Fas-FasL pathway was predominant in the peptide-treated groups. The ultrastructural study also showed apoptotic changes in the OP-treated and atretic groups; the pattern of apoptosis differed at the subcellular level. (J Histochem Cytochem 56:961–968, 2008) PMID:18645207

  16. Heat stress impairs mice granulosa cell function by diminishing steroids production and inducing apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Man; Li, Lian; Xiao, Cheng; Sun, Yu; Wang, Gen-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian injury can be induced by heat stress. Mice granulosa cells (GCs) are critical for normal ovarian function and they synthesize a variety of growth factors and steroids for the follicle. Furthermore, the growth, differentiation, and maturate of theca cells and oocyte are dependent upon the synthesis of GCs. Due to the critical biological functions of GCs, we hypothesized that the apoptosis and dysfunction of GCs could also be induced by heat stress. We analyzed GCs apoptosis and evaluated the expression of apoptosis-related genes (caspase-3, Bax, Bcl-2) after heat treatment. Radio immunity assay was used to measure the secretion of 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4). RT-PCR was used to evaluate the expression of steroids-related genes (Star, CYP11A1, CYP19A1). Our data suggested that heat stress inhibited GCs proliferation, induced GCs apoptosis, decreased E2 and P4 secretion, reduced the steroids-related genes mRNA expression. Besides, our results indicated that heat treatment-induced apoptosis of GCs through the mitochondrial pathway, which involved caspase-3 and Bax. The reduction in steroids secretion and mRNA expression of Star, CYP11A1, and CYP19A1 might also play a role in heat-induced GCs apoptosis and ovarian injury. PMID:26602771

  17. Metabolic actions of insulin in ovarian granulosa cells were unaffected by hyperandrogenism.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shidou; Xu, Haijing; Cui, Yuqian; Wang, Wenting; Qin, Yingying; You, Li; Chan, Wai-Yee; Sun, Yun; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2016-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients have intra-ovarian hyperandrogenism and granulosa cells (GCs) from PCOS patients have impaired insulin-dependent glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. The purpose of this study is to determine whether excess androgen affects glucose metabolism and induces insulin resistance of GCs. We firstly explored the insulin metabolic signaling pathway and glucose metabolism in cultured GCs. The Akt phosphorylation and lactate production were increased after insulin treatment. Pre-treatment with PI3-K inhibitor attenuated insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt and lactate accumulation. However, after treating GCs with different concentrations of testosterone for 5 days, insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt and lactate production showed no significant change comparing with those of control cells. Finally, mRNA expression of insulin signaling mediators including INSR, IRS-1, IRS-2, and GLUT-4 in GCs was also not significantly altered after testosterone treatment. In conclusion, insulin activates PI3-K/Akt signaling pathway and promotes lactate production in ovarian GCs, but high androgen exerted no obvious influence on insulin signaling pathway and metabolic effect in GCs, suggesting that metabolic actions of insulin in ovarian GCs were unaffected by hyperandrogenism directly. PMID:27060006

  18. Safety of brilliant cresyl blue staining protocols on human granulosa and cumulus cells.

    PubMed

    Alcoba, Diego Duarte; Conzatti, Maiara; Ferreira, Gustavo Dias; Pimentel, Anita Mylius; Kussler, Ana Paula; Capp, Edison; von Eye Corleta, Helena; Brum, Ilma Simoni

    2016-02-01

    The selection of human immature oocytes destined for in vitro maturation (IVM) is performed according to their cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) morphology. In animal models, oocyte pre-selection with brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) staining improves fertilization and blastocyst rates and even increases the number of calves born. As the granulosa cells and cumulus cells (GCs and CCs) have a close relationship with the oocyte and are available in in vitro fertilization (IVF) programs, applying BCB staining to these cells may help to elucidate whether BCB shows toxicity to human oocytes and to determine the safest protocol for this dye. GCs and CCs were isolated from 24 patients who underwent controlled ovarian stimulation. After 48 h, cells were exposed to: Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) with or without phenol red, DPBS and mDPBS for 60 min; 13, 20 and 26 μM BCB for 60 min; and 60, 90 or 120 min to 13 μM BCB. Cellular viability was tested using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and trypan blue assays. The 20 and 26 μM BCB exposures resulted in lower cell viability, similar to when cells were exposed to BCB for 90 or 120 min. GCs and CCs viabilities were equal among control group and 13 μM BCB group after 60 min. BCB staining was not toxic to GCs and CCs when the regime of 13 μM BCB for 60 min was used. Due to the close molecular/biochemical relationship between these cells and the gamete, we propose that it is unlikely that the use of BCB could interfere with the viability/health of human oocytes. PMID:25921213

  19. PGRMC1 participates in late events of bovine granulosa cells mitosis and oocyte meiosis.

    PubMed

    Terzaghi, L; Tessaro, I; Raucci, F; Merico, V; Mazzini, G; Garagna, S; Zuccotti, M; Franciosi, F; Lodde, V

    2016-08-01

    Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 (PGRMC1) is expressed in both oocyte and ovarian somatic cells, where it is found in multiple cellular sub-compartments including the mitotic spindle apparatus. PGRMC1 localization in the maturing bovine oocytes mirrors its localization in mitotic cells, suggesting a possible common action in mitosis and meiosis. To test the hypothesis that altering PGRMC1 activity leads to similar defects in mitosis and meiosis, PGRMC1 function was perturbed in cultured bovine granulosa cells (bGC) and maturing oocytes and the effect on mitotic and meiotic progression assessed. RNA interference-mediated PGRMC1 silencing in bGC significantly reduced cell proliferation, with a concomitant increase in the percentage of cells arrested at G2/M phase, which is consistent with an arrested or prolonged M-phase. This observation was confirmed by time-lapse imaging that revealed defects in late karyokinesis. In agreement with a role during late mitotic events, a direct interaction between PGRMC1 and Aurora Kinase B (AURKB) was observed in the central spindle at of dividing cells. Similarly, treatment with the PGRMC1 inhibitor AG205 or PGRMC1 silencing in the oocyte impaired completion of meiosis I. Specifically the ability of the oocyte to extrude the first polar body was significantly impaired while meiotic figures aberration and chromatin scattering within the ooplasm increased. Finally, analysis of PGRMC1 and AURKB localization in AG205-treated oocytes confirmed an altered localization of both proteins when meiotic errors occur. The present findings demonstrate that PGRMC1 participates in late events of both mammalian mitosis and oocyte meiosis, consistent with PGRMC1's localization at the mid-zone and mid-body of the mitotic and meiotic spindle. PMID:27260975

  20. Potential role of hCG in apoptosis of human luteinized granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Rei; Hojo, Takuo; Sano, Masahiro; Hayashi, Nobuyoshi; Okuda, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The corpus luteum (CL) forms after ovulation and acts as a temporary endocrine gland that produces progesterone (P4), a hormone that is essential for implantation and maintenance of pregnancy in mammals. In pregnant women, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) secreted by the conceptus prevents luteolysis. hCG also increases the survival of cultured human luteinized granulosa cells (hLGCs). To clarify the maintenance mechanism of the human CL, we investigated the effects of hCG and P4 receptor antagonists, onapristone (OP) and RU486, on the viability of hLGCs. With the patients' consent, hLGCs were isolated from follicular aspirates for in vitro fertilization. The cells were cultured with hCG (0.1, 1, 10, 100 IU/ml), OP (10, 25, 50, 100 μM), RU486 (100 μM), P4 (1, 10, 25, 50 μM) or some combination of the four for 24 h. Cell viability was significantly increased by hCG (100 IU/ml) and significantly decreased by OP (100 μM) compared with the control. Cells treated with hCG and OP together were significantly less viable than the control and OP-treated cells. The combined treatment also significantly increased CASP3 activity and cleaved CASP3 protein expression. Furthermore, P4 addition reversed the reduction in cell viability caused by the combination of hCG and OP treatment. The overall findings suggest that hCG cooperates with P4 to increase survival of hLGCs and to induce apoptosis when P4 action supported by hCG is attenuated in the human CL. PMID:25451535

  1. The effect of androgens on ovarian follicle maturation: Dihydrotestosterone suppress FSH-stimulated granulosa cell proliferation by upregulating PPARγ-dependent PTEN expression.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mei-Jou; Chou, Chia-Hung; Chen, Shee-Uan; Yang, Wei-Shiung; Yang, Yu-Shih; Ho, Hong-Nerng

    2015-01-01

    Intraovarian hyperandrogenism is one of the determining factors of follicular arrest in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Using androgenized rat models, we investigated the effects of androgens on metabolism, as well as on factors involved in follicular arrest and the reduced number of estrus cycles. The dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-treated rats had fewer estrus cycles, higher numbers of large arrested follicles and an increased in body weight gain compared with the dehydroepiandrostenedione (DHEA)- and placebo-treated rats. In cultured rat granulosa cells, DHT suppressed follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)-induced granulosa cell proliferation and increased the accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase. DHT decreased phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) and cyclin D1 levels through increasing PTEN. DHT-promoted PTEN expression was regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in granulosa cells. Meanwhile, in the large follicles of the DHT-treated rats, the expressions of PPARγ and PTEN were higher, but the expression of p-Akt and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were lower. Conclusively, DHT and DHEA produced differential effects on metabolism in prepubertal female rats like clinical manifestations of women with PCOS. DHT treatment may affect ovarian follicular maturation by altering granulosa cell proliferation through the regulation of enhancing PPARγ dependent PTEN/p-Akt expression in the granulosa cells. PMID:26674985

  2. Expression of endothelin-1 gene and protein in human granulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Magini, A.; Granchi, S.; Susini, T.

    1996-04-01

    Previous studies in animal models indicated an autocrine/paracrine action of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the ovary. We now report evidence on the presence of ET-1 in human ovary during reproductive life. Immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization studies demonstrated a positive signal into cytoplasm of granulosa cells (GC) of follicles at different growth stages. The concentration of ET-1-like immunoreactivity (ET-1-Li) was also measured by a specific RIA in human follicular fluid (FF). FF samples were obtained from women in an in vitro fertilization program undergoing gonadotropin stimulation (group A; n = 24) or no treatment (group B; n = 7). The mean ({+-}SD) ET-1-LI FF level in group A (4.85 {+-} 2.06 pg/mL) was significantly higher than that in group B (1.29 {+-} 0.43 pg/mL; P < 0.01), whereas the corresponding mean plasma levels were not significantly different and were not correlated to respective FF values. Our results indicate for the first time the presence of ET-1 and its messenger ribonucleic acid in the GC of the human ovary. The higher ET-1-LI levels found in the FF from women undergoing gonadotropin treatment suggest a modulation by gonadotropins and/or ovarian steroids of ET-1 production by GC. 19 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Moxibustion Reduces Ovarian Granulosa Cell Apoptosis Associated with Perimenopause in a Natural Aging Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiao-Lan; Zhao, Chen; Yang, Shuai; Hu, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Shi-Min

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, concerns about the adverse effects of hormone replacement therapy have increased interest in alternative therapies for the management of the symptoms of perimenopause. Here, we investigated the effects of moxibustion, a traditional Chinese practice that is involved in heated Artemisia vulgaris (mugwort) stimulation, on hormonal imbalance and ovarian granulosa cell (GC) apoptosis in a rat model of perimenopause. Our results showed that mild warm moxibustion (MWM) modulated the circulating levels of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone and their receptors and inhibited apoptosis in the ovaries of perimenopausal rats, similar to the effect of estrogen. Further investigation revealed that the effects of MWM on ovary tissues and cultured GCs were mediated by the modulation of the activity of Forkhead box protein O1 and involved the JAK2/STAT3 pathway. Our results provide information on the factors and pathways modulated by MWM and shed light on the mechanism underlying the beneficial effect of moxibustion on the symptoms of perimenopause. PMID:26550020

  4. Aging-related premature luteinization of granulosa cells is avoided by early oocyte retrieval.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan-Guang; Barad, David H; Kushnir, Vitaly A; Lazzaroni, Emanuela; Wang, Qi; Albertini, David F; Gleicher, Norbert

    2015-09-01

    Why IVF pregnancy rates decline sharply after age 43 is unknown. In this study, we compared granulosa cell (GC) function in young oocyte donors (n=31, ages 21-29), middle-aged (n=64, ages 30-37) and older infertile patients (n=41, ages 43-47). Gene expressions related to gonadotropin activity, steroidogenesis, apoptosis and luteinization were examined by real-time PCR and western blot in GCs collected from follicular fluid. FSH receptor (FSHR), aromatase (CYP19A1) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD17B) expression were found down regulated with advancing age, while LH receptor (LHCGR), P450scc (CYP11A1) and progesterone receptor (PGR) were up regulated. Upon in vitro culture, GCs were found to exhibit lower proliferation and increased apoptosis with aging. While FSH supplementation stimulated GCs growth and prevented luteinization in vitro. These observations demonstrate age-related functional declines in GCs, consistent with premature luteinization. To avoid premature luteinization in women above age 43, we advanced oocyte retrieval by administering human chorionic gonadotropin at maximal leading follicle size of 16  mm (routine 19-21  mm). Compared to normal cycles in women of similar age, earlier retrieved patients demonstrated only a marginal increase in oocyte prematurity, yet exhibited improved embryo numbers as well as quality and respectable clinical pregnancy rates. Premature follicular luteinization appears to contribute to rapidly declining IVF pregnancy chances after age 43, and can be avoided by earlier oocyte retrieval. PMID:26264981

  5. Leptin inhibits gonadotrophin-stimulated granulosa cell progesterone production by antagonizing insulin action.

    PubMed

    Brannian, J D; Zhao, Y; McElroy, M

    1999-06-01

    Recent evidence has demonstrated that expression of leptin and leptin receptors is expected in the human ovary, and that leptin alters ovarian steroidogenesis in animal models. This study was designed to determine whether leptin modulates basal, gonadotrophin-, and insulin-stimulated progesterone production by human luteinized granulosa cells (GC). GC were recovered from follicular aspirates obtained during transvaginal ultrasound-guided oocyte retrieval for in-vitro fertilization-embryo transfer, and cultured in defined medium with various combinations of chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG; 0 or 100 ng/ml), insulin (0-30 microg/ml), and leptin (0-100 ng/ml). Progesterone concentrations in media were determined at various time points (2 h to 6 days). Leptin time- and dose-dependently inhibited (P < 0.05) HCG-stimulated progesterone production by human luteinized GC, but did not alter basal steroidogenesis. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of leptin on gonadotrophin-stimulated progesterone production was only manifested in the presence of insulin. Leptin suppression of insulin-supported steroidogenesis was also time- and dose-dependent. We conclude that leptin inhibits gonadotrophin-stimulated GC progesterone production apparently by antagonizing insulin action. Leptin suppression of progesterone production by human luteinized GC is consistent with recent data from animal models, and supports the possible role of leptin as a regulator of human ovarian function. PMID:10357956

  6. Effect of addition of human follicular fluid on progesterone secretion by cultured sheep granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Kumari, G L; Vohra, S; Raghavan, V

    1982-10-01

    The effect of addition of human follicular fluid to cultures of granulosa cells of large sheep follicles (4-6 mm in diameter) on basal and LH-stimulated progesterone secretion was investigated. Both luteinization and progesterone secretion were inhibited by addition of 10% (w/v) charcoal-treated follicular fluid from medium (2-6 mm) and large (7-16 mm) follicles which had low concentrations of estradiol-17 beta, progesterone and LH. In comparison, the fluid from large follicles, having high levels of the same hormones, stimulated both the parameters, and addition of LH along with the fluid had no further effect. Fluid collected from cystic follicles appeared to be stimulatory which also had elevated levels of estradiol-17 beta and progesterone. These findings indicate the presence of both the inhibitors and stimulators of luteinization in human follicular fluid. The effectiveness of any of them either to inhibit or stimulate luteinization probably will depend upon the composition of the follicular fluid and the stage of maturation of the follicles from which it was collected. PMID:6218983

  7. Functional microarray analysis of differentially expressed genes in granulosa cells from women with polycystic ovary syndrome related to MAPK/ERK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Chen-Wei; Chen, Mei-Jou; Tai, Kang-Yu; Yu, Danny CW; Yang, Yu-Chieh; Jan, Pey-Shynan; Yang, Yu-Shih; Chen, Hsin-Fu; Ho, Hong-Nerng

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. Although its aetiology and pathogenesis remain unclear, recent studies suggest that the dysfunction of granulosa cells may partly be responsible. This study aimed to use cDNA microarray technology to compare granulosa cell gene expression profiles in women with and without PCOS to identify genes that may be aetiologically implicated in the pathogenesis of PCOS. The study cohort included 12 women undergoing in vitro fertilization, six with PCOS and six without PCOS. Differential gene expression profiles were classified by post-analyses of microarray data, followed by western blot analyses to confirm the microarray data of selected genes. In total, 243 genes were differentially expressed (125 upregulated and 118 downregulated) between the PCOS and non-PCOS granulosa cells. These genes are involved in reproductive system development, amino acid metabolism and cellular development and proliferation. Comparative analysis revealed genes involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) signaling pathways. Western blot analyses confirmed that mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 4 and phospho-ERK1/2 were decreased in PCOS granulosa cells. This study identified candidate genes involved in MAPK/ERK signaling pathways that may influence the function of granulosa cells in PCOS. PMID:26459919

  8. Elevated Levels of FMR1 mRNA in Granulosa Cells Are Associated with Low Ovarian Reserve in FMR1 Premutation Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Elizur, Shai E.; Lebovitz, Oshrit; Derech-Haim, Sanaz; Dratviman-Storobinsky, Olga; Feldman, Baruch; Dor, Jehoshua; Orvieto, Raoul; Cohen, Yoram

    2014-01-01

    Aim To assess the role of mRNA accumulation in granulosa cells as the cause of low ovarian response among FMR1 premutation carriers undergoing pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Design Case control study in an academic IVF unit. Twenty-one consecutive FMR1 premutation carriers and 15 control women were included. After oocyte retrieval the granulosa cells mRNA levels of FMR1 was measured using RT-PCR. Results In FMR1 premutation carriers, there was a significant non-linear association between the number of CGG repeats and the number of retrieved oocytes (p<0.0001) and a trend to granulosa cells FMR1 mRNA levels (p = 0.07). The lowest number of retrieved oocytes and the highest level of mRNA were seen in women with mid-size CGG repeats (80–120). A significant negative linear correlation was observed between the granulosa cells FMR1 mRNA levels and the number of retrieved oocytes (R2 linear = 0.231, P = 0.02). Conclusion We suggest that there is a no-linear association between the number of CGG repeats and ovarian function, resulting from an increased granulosa cells FMR1 mRNA accumulation in FMR1 carriers in the mid-range (80–120 repeats). PMID:25153074

  9. Connective tissue growth factor mediates growth differentiation factor 8-induced increase of lysyl oxidase activity in human granulosa-lutein cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsun-Ming; Fang, Ying; Liu, Pang-Pin; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Yang, Xiaokui; Leung, Peter C K

    2016-10-15

    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an essential enzyme for the stabilization of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the subsequent follicle and oocyte maturation. Currently, there is limited information pertaining to the regulation of LOX activity in human ovarian tissue. Growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8) is a unique member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily that is expressed in human granulosa cells and has important roles in regulating a variety of ovarian functions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of GDF8 on the regulation of LOX expression and activity in human granulosa cells and to examine the underlying molecular determinants. An established immortalized human granulosa cell line (SVOG) and primary granulosa-lutein cells were used as study models. Using dual inhibition approaches (TGF-β type I inhibitor SB505124 and small interfering RNAs) and ChIP analyses, we have demonstrated that GDF8 up-regulated the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) through the activin receptor-like kinase 5-mediated SMAD2/3-SMAD4 signaling pathways. In addition, the increase in CTGF expression contributed to the GDF8-induced increase in LOX expression and activity. Our findings suggest that GDF8 and CTGF may play critical roles in the regulation of ECM formation in human granulosa cells. PMID:27392496

  10. Differential Granulosa Cell Gene Expression in Young Women with Diminished Ovarian Reserve

    PubMed Central

    Greenseid, Keri; Jindal, Sangita; Hurwitz, Joshua; Santoro, Nanette; Pal, Lubna

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate if a diagnosis of diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) is associated with a differential gene profile of ovarian granulosa cells (GCs) in infertile women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). Design: Prospective Cohort Study. Setting: Academic IVF Program. Patients: Infertile women <38 years were prospectively enrolled into 2 groups: normal ovarian reserve (NOR, follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH] < 10 mIU/mL, n = 4) and DOR (FSH ≥ 10.0 mIU/mL, n = 4). Interventions: Cumulus (C) and mural (M) GCs were isolated at egg retrieval; messenger RNA was extracted and transcribed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Differential gene expression in cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) in the 2 groups was assessed by cDNA microarray. Microarray findings were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRTPCR) in CGCs and explored in multinucleated giant cells (MGCs). Results: Of the 1256 differentially regulated genes identified in CGCs of women with DOR, the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) family was a biologically relevant gene family of a priori interest. Downregulation of IGF1 and IGF2 ligands (−3.28- and −2.54–fold, respectively), and their receptors, (−3.53- and −1.32-fold downregulation of IGF1R and IGF2R, respectively) was identified in luteinized CGCs in women with DOR compared to those with NOR. Downregulation of both IGF1 and IGF 2 ligands (−4.35- and 3.89-fold, respectively) was furthermore observed in MGCs in women with DOR compared to those with NOR; no differences in the expression of respective receptors were however observed in MGCs in the 2 groups. Conclusions: Components of the IGF gene family are downregulated in GCs of women with DOR. These findings maybe contributory to the reproductive compromise observed in women with DOR, and merit further exploration. PMID:21846690

  11. Prohibitin (PHB) acts as a potent survival factor against ceramide induced apoptosis in rat granulosa cells*

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Indrajit; Branch, Alicia; Olatinwo, Moshood; Thomas, Kelwyn; Matthews, Roland; Thompson, Winston E.

    2011-01-01

    Aim Ceramide is a key factor in inducing germ cell apoptosis by translocating from cumulus cells into the adjacent oocyte and lipid rafts through gap junctions. Therefore studies designed to elucidate the mechanistic pathways in ceramide induced granulosa cell (GC) apoptosis and follicular atresia may potentially lead to the development of novel lipid-based therapeutic strategies that will prevent infertility and premature menopause associated with chemo and/or radiation therapy in female cancer patients. Our previous studies have shown that Prohibitin (PHB) is intimately involved in GCs differentiation, atresia, and luteolysis. Main methods In the present study, we have examined the functional effects of loss-/gain-of-function of PHB using adenoviral technology in delaying apoptosis induced by the physiological ligand ceramide in rat GCs. Key findings Under these experimental conditions, exogenous ceramide C-8 (50μM) augmented the expression of mitochondrial PHB and subsequently cause the physical destruction of GC by the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and activation of caspase-3. In further studies, silencing of PHB expression by adenoviral small interfering RNA (shRNA) sensitized GCs to ceramide C8-induce apoptosis. In contrast, adenovirus (Ad) directed overexpression of PHB in GCs resulted in increased PHB content in mitochondria and delayed the onset of ceramide induced apoptosis in the infected GCs. Significance Taken together, these results provide novel evidences that a critical level of PHB expression within the mitochondria plays a key intra-molecular role in GC fate by mediating the inhibition of apoptosis and may therefore, contribute significantly to ceramide induced follicular atresia. PMID:21763324

  12. BMSCs reduce rat granulosa cell apoptosis induced by cisplatin and perimenopause

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on the apoptosis of granulosa cells (GCs) in rats. BMSCs and GCs were isolated from rats. GCs were separated into one of the following three groups: an untreated control group (control), a cisplatin (5 mg/L) treatment group (cisplatin), and group co-cultured with BMSCs and treated with cisplatin (BMSC). GC apoptosis was analyzed by annexin V staining and real-time PCR analysis for apoptosis-related genes. The effect of BMSCs was also determined in 9 to 10 month-old perimenopausal rats that were separated into the following groups: saline control, BMSC transplantation (1–2 × 106 cells), and estrogen treatment (0.158 mg/kg/d) groups. A young group consisting of 3 to 4 month-old rats that were treated with saline was also evaluated as a control. After 1 and 3 months, GC apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL analysis. Results Cisplatin increased GC apoptosis from 0.59% to 13.04% in the control and cisplatin treatment groups, respectively, which was significantly reduced upon co-culture with BMSCs to 4.84%. Cisplatin treatment increased p21 and bax and decreased c-myc mRNA expression, which was reversed upon co-culture with BMSCs. As compared to young rats, increased apoptosis was observed in the perimenopausal rats (P < 0.001). After 3 months, the apoptosis rate in the BMSC group was significantly lower than that of the control group (P = 0.007). Conclusions BMSC therapy may protect against GC apoptosis induced by cisplatin and perimenopause. Further studies are necessary to evaluate therapeutic efficacy of BMSCs. PMID:23510080

  13. WNT5a is required for normal ovarian follicle development and antagonizes gonadotropin responsiveness in granulosa cells by suppressing canonical WNT signaling.

    PubMed

    Abedini, Atefeh; Zamberlam, Gustavo; Lapointe, Evelyne; Tourigny, Catherine; Boyer, Alexandre; Paquet, Marilène; Hayashi, Kanako; Honda, Hiroaki; Kikuchi, Akira; Price, Christopher; Boerboom, Derek

    2016-04-01

    Whereas the roles of the canonical wingless-type MMTV (mouse mammary tumor virus) integration site family (WNT) signaling pathway in the regulation of ovarian follicle growth and steroidogenesis are now established, noncanonical WNT signaling in the ovary has been largely overlooked. Noncanonical WNTs, including WNT5a and WNT11, are expressed in granulosa cells (GCs) and are differentially regulated throughout follicle development, but their physiologic roles remain unknown. Using conditional gene targeting, we found that GC-specific inactivation ofWnt5a(but notWnt11) results in the female subfertility associated with increased follicular atresia and decreased rates of ovulation. Microarray analyses have revealed that WNT5a acts to down-regulate the expression of FSH-responsive genesin vitro, and corresponding increases in the expression of these genes have been found in the GCs of conditional knockout mice. Unexpectedly, we found that WNT5a regulates its target genes not by signalingviathe WNT/Ca(2+)or planar cell polarity pathways, but rather by inhibiting the canonical pathway, causing both β-catenin (CTNNB1) and cAMP responsive element binding (CREB) protein levels to decreaseviaa glycogen synthase kinase-3β-dependent mechanism. We further found that WNT5a prevents follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing protein from up-regulating the CTNNB1 and CREB proteins and their target genes, indicating that WNT5a functions as a physiologic inhibitor of gonadotropin signaling. Together, these findings identify WNT5a as a key regulator of follicle development and gonadotropin responsiveness.-Abedini, A., Zamberlam, G., Lapointe, E., Tourigny, C., Boyer, A., Paquet, M., Hayashi, K., Honda, H., Kikuchi, A., Price, C., Boerboom, D. WNT5a is required for normal ovarian follicle development and antagonizes gonadotropin responsiveness in granulosa cells by suppressing canonical WNT signaling. PMID:26667040

  14. Transfection of isolated rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, granulosa cells through chemical transfection and electroporation at 12°C.

    PubMed

    Marivin, E; Mourot, B; Loyer, P; Rime, H; Bobe, J; Fostier, A

    2015-09-15

    Over-expression or inhibition of gene expression can be efficiently used to analyse the functions and/or regulation of target genes. Modulation of gene expression can be achieved through transfection of exogenous nucleic acids into target cells. Such techniques require the development of specific protocols to transfect cell cultures with nucleic acids. The aim of this study was to develop a method of transfection suitable for rainbow trout granulosa cells in primary culture. After the isolation of rainbow trout granulosa cells, chemical transfection of cells with a fluorescent morpholino oligonucleotide (MO) was tested using FuGENE HD at 12 °C. Electroporation was also employed to transfect these cells with either a plasmid or MO. Transfection was more efficient using electroporation (with the following settings: 1200 V/40 ms/1p) than chemical transfection, but electroporation by itself was deleterious, resulting in a decrease of the steroidogenic capacity of the cells, measured via estradiol production from its androgenic substrate. The disturbance of cell biology induced by the transfection method per se should be taken into account in data interpretation when investigating the effects of under- or over-expression of candidate genes. PMID:25957917

  15. The effect of monosaccharide sugars and pyruvate on the differentiation and metabolism of sheep granulosa cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Campbell, B K; Onions, V; Kendall, N R; Guo, L; Scaramuzzi, R J

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of three monosaccharides or pyruvate on the ability of gonadotrophins to induce cellular proliferation and differentiation of cultured sheep granulosa cells. Lactate production and levels of mRNA expression for the glucose transporters SLC2A1, SLC2A4, SLC2A5 and SLC2A8 were also determined. No energy source in the culture media reduced cell number (50%) and oestradiol (E(2)) production. Dose and type of monosaccharide had a highly significant (P<0.001) effect on FSH-induced differentiation of the granulosa cells, and there was a highly significant interaction (P<0.001). Glucose supported higher levels of E(2) production than fructose, which was in turn higher than galactose (P<0.001). In contrast, pyruvate at low doses supported similar levels of E(2) production as glucose, but higher doses were markedly inhibitory to E(2) production (P<0.001). Cells responded positively to insulin (P<0.001) in the presence of all three monosaccharides. Glucose and the high doses of fructose resulted in the accumulation of lactate (P<0.001), but pyruvate, galactose and the low dose of fructose resulted in low lactate production. SLC2A5 expression was not detected and SLC2A8 expression was not affected, but SLC2A1 and SLC2A4 expression was depressed (P<0.05) by culture in the presence of fructose and glucose. These data show that glucose, metabolised under anoxic conditions to lactate, is the preferred energy substrate to support the gonadotrophin-induced differentiation of ovine granulosa cells in vitro, and that fructose and pyruvate, but not galactose, are alternative energy substrates despite marked differences in the way these substrates are metabolised. PMID:20634389

  16. A role for retinoids in human oocyte fertilization: regulation of connexin 43 by retinoic acid in cumulus granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Best, Monica W; Wu, Juanjuan; Pauli, Samuel A; Kane, Maureen A; Pierzchalski, Keely; Session, Donna R; Woods, Dori C; Shang, Weirong; Taylor, Robert N; Sidell, Neil

    2015-06-01

    Retinoids are essential for ovarian steroid production and oocyte maturation in mammals. Oocyte competency is known to positively correlate with efficient gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) among granulosa cells in the cumulus-oocyte complex. Connexin 43 (C x 43) is the main subunit of gap junction channels in human cumulus granulosa cells (CGC) and is regulated by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in other hormone responsive cell types. The objectives of this study were to quantify retinoid levels in human CGC obtained during IVF oocyte retrievals, to investigate the potential relationship between CGC ATRA levels and successful oocyte fertilization, and to determine the effects of ATRA on C x 43 protein expression in CGC. Results showed that CGC cultures actively metabolize retinol to produce ATRA. Grouped according to fertilization rate tertiles, mean ATRA levels were 2-fold higher in pooled CGC from women in the highest versus the lowest tertile (P < 0.05). ATRA induced a rapid dephosphorylation of C x 43 in CGC and granulosa cell line (KGN) cultures resulting in a >2-fold increase in the expression of the functional non-phosphorylated (P0) species (P < 0.02). Similar enhancement of P0 by ATRA was shown in CGC and KGN cultures co-treated with LH or hCG which, by themselves, enhanced the protein levels of C x 43 without altering its phosphorylation profile. Correspondingly, the combination of ATRA+hCG treatment of KGN caused a significant increase in GJIC compared with single agent treatments (P < 0.025) and a doubling of GJIC from that seen in untreated cells (P < 0.01). These findings indicate that CGC are a primary site of retinoid uptake and ATRA biosynthesis. Regulation of C x 43 by ATRA may serve an important role in folliculogenesis, development of oocyte competency, and successful fertilization by increasing GJIC in CGC. PMID:25877907

  17. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone and Estradiol Interact to Stimulate Glutathione Synthesis in Rat Ovarian Follicles and Granulosa Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Yvonne D.; Nakamura, Brooke N.; Luderer, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH), the most abundant intracellular nonprotein thiol, is critical for many cellular functions. The rate-limiting step in GSH synthesis is catalyzed by glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), a heterodimer composed of a catalytic (GCLC) and a modifier (GCLM) subunit. The tissue-specific regulation of GSH synthesis is poorly understood. We showed previously that gonadotropin hormones regulate ovarian GSH synthesis. In the present study, we sought to clarify the ovarian cell type-specific effects of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol on GSH synthesis. Immature female rats were treated with estradiol to stimulate development of small antral follicles. Granulosa cells (GCs) from these follicles or whole follicles were cultured in serum-free media, with or without FSH and 17beta-estradiol. The GSH and GCLC protein and mRNA levels increased in GCs treated with FSH alone. The effects of FSH on GCLC and GCLM protein and mRNA levels, GCL enzymatic activity, and GSH concentrations in GCs were significantly enhanced by the addition of estradiol. Estradiol alone had no effects on GSH. Dibromo-cAMP mimicked and protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors prevented FSH stimulation of GCL subunit protein levels. In cultured small antral follicles, FSH stimulated estradiol synthesis and robustly increased GCL subunit mRNA and protein levels and GSH concentrations. The GCL subunit mRNA expression increased in both the granulosa cells and theca cells of follicles with FSH stimulation. These data demonstrate that maximal stimulation of GSH synthesis by FSH in granulosa cells and follicles requires estradiol. Without estradiol, FSH causes lesser increases in GCL subunit expression via a PKA-dependent pathway. PMID:19516019

  18. Granulosa Cell-Specific Androgen Receptors Are Critical Regulators of Ovarian Development and Function

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Aritro; Hammes, Stephen R.

    2010-01-01

    The physiological significance of androgens in female reproduction was unclear until female mice with global knockout of androgen receptor (AR) expression were found to have reduced fertility with abnormal ovarian function. However, because ARs are expressed in a myriad of reproductive tissues, including the hypothalamus, pituitary, and various ovarian cells, the role of tissue-specific ARs in regulating female fertility remained unknown. To examine the importance of ovarian ARs in female reproduction, we generated granulosa cell (GC)- and oocyte-specific AR-knockout (ARKO) mice by crossing AR-flox mice with MisRIIcre (GC-specific) or growth differentiation factor growth differentiation factor-9cre (oocyte-specific) mice. Relative to heterozygous and wild-type mice, GC-specific ARKO mice had premature ovarian failure and were subfertile, with longer estrous cycles and fewer ovulated oocytes. In addition, ovaries from GC-specific knockout mice contained more preantral and atretic follicles, with fewer antral follicles and corpus lutea. Finally, in vitro growth of follicles from GC-specific AR-null mice was slower than follicles from wild-type animals. In contrast to GC-specific AR-null mice, fertility, estrous cycles, and ovarian morphology of oocyte-specific ARKO mice were normal, although androgens no longer promoted oocyte maturation in these animals. Together, our data indicate that nearly all reproductive phenotypes observed in global ARKO mice can be explained by the lack of AR expression in GCs. These GC-specific ARs appear to promote preantral follicle growth and prevent follicular atresia; thus they are essential for normal follicular development and fertility. PMID:20501640

  19. Peroxisome Proliferator–Activated Receptor-γ Mediates Bisphenol A Inhibition of FSH-Stimulated IGF-1, Aromatase, and Estradiol in Human Granulosa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kwintkiewicz, Jakub; Nishi, Yoshihiro; Yanase, Toshihiko; Giudice, Linda C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical used as a plasticizer, is a potent endocrine disruptor that, even in low concentrations, disturbs normal development and functions of reproductive organs in different species. Objectives We investigated whether BPA affects human ovarian granulosa cell function. Methods We treated KGN granulosa cells and granulosa cells from subjects undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), BPA, or BPA plus FSH in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We then evaluated expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), aromatase, and transcription factors known to mediate aromatase induction by FSH [including steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1), GATA4, cAMP response element binding protein-1 (CREB-1), and peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-γ (PPARγ)], as well as 17β-estradiol (E2) secretion. KGN cells were transfected with a PPARγ-containing vector, followed by assessment of aromatase and IGF-I expression. Results BPA reduced FSH-induced IGF-1 and aromatase expression and E2 secretion in a dose-dependent fashion. Similar effects on aromatase were observed in IVF granulosa cells. SF-1 and GATA4, but not CREB-1, were reduced after BPA treatment, although PPARγ, an inhibitor of aromatase, was significantly up-regulated by BPA in a dose-dependent manner, with simultaneous decrease of aromatase. Overexpression of PPARγ in KGN cells reduced FSH-stimulated aromatase and IGF-1 mRNAs, with increasing concentrations of the transfected expression vector, mimicking BPA action. Also, BPA reduced granulosa cell DNA synthesis without changing DNA fragmentation, suggesting that BPA does not induce apoptosis. Conclusions Overall, the data demonstrate that BPA induces PPARγ, which mediates down-regulation of FSH-stimulated IGF-1, SF-1, GATA4, aromatase, and E2 in human granulosa cells. These observations support a potential role of altered steroidogenesis and proliferation within the ovarian follicular

  20. Effects of intramuscular administration of folic acid and vitamin B12 on granulosa cells gene expression in postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, A; Khan, D R; Sirard, M-A; Girard, C L; Laforest, J-P; Richard, F J

    2015-11-01

    The fertility of dairy cows is challenged during early lactation, and better nutritional strategies need to be developed to address this issue. Combined supplementation of folic acid and vitamin B12 improve energy metabolism in the dairy cow during early lactation. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the effects of this supplement on gene expression in granulosa cells from the dominant follicle during the postpartum period. Multiparous Holstein cows received weekly intramuscular injection of 320 mg of folic acid and 10 mg of vitamin B12 (treated group) beginning 24 (standard deviation=4) d before calving until 56 d after calving, whereas the control group received saline. The urea plasma concentration was significantly decreased during the precalving period, and the concentration of both folate and vitamin B12 were increased in treated animals. Milk production and dry matter intake were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Plasma concentrations of folates and vitamin B12 were increased in treated animals. Daily dry matter intake was not significantly different between the 2 groups before [13.5 kg; standard error (SE)=0.5] and after (23.6 kg; SE=0.9) calving. Average energy-corrected milk tended to be greater in vitamin-treated cows, 39.7 (SE=1.4) and 38.1 (SE=1.3) kg/d for treated and control cows, respectively. After calving, average plasma concentration of β-hydroxybutyrate tended to be lower in cows injected with the vitamin supplement, 0.47 (SE=0.04) versus 0.55 (SE=0.03) for treated and control cows, respectively. The ovarian follicle ≥12 mm in diameter was collected by ovum pick-up after estrus synchronization. Recovered follicular fluid volumes were greater in the vitamin-treated group. A microarray platform was used to investigate the effect of treatment on gene expression of granulosa cells. Lower expression of genes involved in the cell cycle and higher expression of genes associated with granulosa cell differentiation

  1. Granulosa cell apoptosis, aromatase activity, cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate response to gonadotropins, and follicular fluid steroid levels during spontaneous and induced follicular atresia in ewes.

    PubMed

    Jolly, P D; Tisdall, D J; De'ath, G; Heath, D A; Lun, S; Hudson, N L; McNatty, K P

    1997-04-01

    The aims of the present study in ewes were 1) to test the hypothesis that apoptosis in granulosa cells is one of the processes involved in the structural demise of follicles and 2) to define the temporal relationships among the occurrence and degree of apoptosis in granulosa cells, aromatase activity, production of cyclic AMP (cAMP) by granulosa cells in response to FSH or LH, concentrations of estradiol 17 beta (E2) and progesterone in follicular fluid, and the characteristic morphometric changes associated with the process of follicular atresia. To address these aims, ewes were treated with either saline or steroid-free bovine follicular fluid (bFF) at 60 h after estrus, and ovarian follicles > or = 3 mm diameter were recovered at 0, 12, 18, or 24 h later. Apoptotic granulosa cells were identified by the presence of oligonucleosomes after 3'-end labeling of extracted DNA with [32P]alpha dideoxy ATP (ddATP). The degree of oligonucleosome formation, based on the intensity of radiolabeling, was given an apoptosis score (AP) of 0 (nondetectable), 1 (slight), 2 (moderate), or 3 (marked). Moreover, a labeling index (LI) was calculated from the amount of radiolabeled ddATP incorporated into low-molecular weight (< 4.2 kb) DNA fragments. On the basis of morphometric criteria, 73% (141 of 194) of the follicles classified as healthy had apoptotic granulosa cells compared to 86% (18 of 21) of the follicles classified as atretic. In the bFF-but not saline-treated ewes, the concentrations of plasma FSH had declined to basal values at 12 h after treatment. At the beginning of the treatment period, the degree of granulosa cell apoptosis was either undetectable (AP = 0, 47% of follicles) or slight (AP = 1, 44% of follicles) in the majority of follicles. After 12 h from the bFF but not the saline injection, there was a significant increase in the proportion of follicles (> or = 3 mm diameter) per ewe containing apoptotic granulosa cells (p < 0.001) and a significant decrease in

  2. New insights into the pathogenesis of cystic follicles in cattle: microarray analysis of gene expression in granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Grado-Ahuir, J A; Aad, P Y; Spicer, L J

    2011-06-01

    Ovarian follicular growth and development are regulated by extraovarian and intraovarian factors, which influence granulosa cell proliferation and differentiation. However, the molecular mechanisms that drive follicular growth are not completely understood. Ovarian follicular cysts are one of the most common causes of reproductive failure in dairy cattle. Nevertheless, the primary cause of cyst formation has not been clearly established. A gene expression comparison may aid in elucidating the causes of ovarian cyst disease. Our objective was to identify differentially expressed genes in ovarian granulosa cells between normal dominant and cystic follicles of cattle. Granulosa cells and follicular fluid were isolated from dominant and cystic follicles collected via either ultrasound-guided aspiration from dairy cows (n = 24) or slaughterhouse ovaries from beef cows (n = 23). Hormonal analysis for progesterone, estradiol, and androstenedione in follicular fluid was performed by RIA. Total RNA was extracted and hybridized to 6 Affymetrix GeneChip Bovine Genome Arrays (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA). Abundance of mRNA for differentially expressed selected genes was determined through quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR. Follicular cysts showed greater (P < 0.05) progesterone, lesser (P < 0.05) estradiol, and no differences (P > 0.10) in androstenedione concentrations compared with noncystic follicles. A total of 163 gene sequences were differentially expressed (P < 0.01), with 19 upregulated and 144 downregulated. From selected target genes, quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR confirmed angiogenin, PGE(2) receptor 4, and G-protein coupled receptor 34 genes as upregulated in cystic follicles, and Indian hedgehog protein precursor and secreted frizzled-related protein 4 genes as downregulated in cystic follicles. Further research is required to elucidate the role of these factors in follicular development and cyst formation. PMID:21239663

  3. The effect of energy balance on the transcriptome of bovine granulosa cells at 60 days postpartum.

    PubMed

    Girard, Annie; Dufort, Isabelle; Sirard, Marc-André

    2015-11-01

    Dairy cows expend great amounts of energy during the lactation peak to cope with milk production. A state of negative energy balance (NEB) was suggested as a cause for the suboptimal fertility observed during this period, via an interaction with ovarian function. The objective of this study was to identify the impact of NEB on gene expression in granulosa cells of dairy cows at 60 days postpartum and to suggest a potential treatment to improve ovarian function. Dairy cows at 60 days postpartum from 10 typical medium-sized farms were synchronized using a single injection of prostaglandin. Dominant follicles  were collected 42 hours later by transvaginal aspiration. Blood concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) on the day of aspiration were used to classify animals into two groups: severe NEB (high BHB, n = 12) and mild NEB (low BHB, n = 12). The transcriptomes of granulosa cells from both groups were contrasted using microarrays, and the differentially expressed genes were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis to identify affected functions and potential upstream regulators. Genes linked with cellular organization (KRT4 and PPL), proliferation (TACSTD2), and fatty acids metabolism (VNN2) were downregulated in granulosa cells from animals with severe NEB. Several genes linked to decitabine, a hypomethylating agent, and with beta-estradiol, were downregulated in the severe NEB group. Numerous genes linked to vitamins A and D were also downregulated in this group of cows, suggesting a potential deficiency of these vitamins in dairy cows during the postpartum period. This study supports the idea that energy balance has an impact on follicular dynamics which could be detrimental to resumption of fertility after calving. PMID:26316219

  4. Involvement of the Up-regulated FoxO1 Expression in Follicular Granulosa Cell Apoptosis Induced by Oxidative Stress*

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Ming; Lin, Fei; Zhang, Jiaqing; Tang, Yiting; Chen, Wei-Kang; Liu, Honglin

    2012-01-01

    Follicular atresia is common in female mammalian ovaries, where most follicles undergo degeneration at any stage of growth and development. Oxidative stress gives rise to triggering granulosa cell apoptosis, which has been suggested as a major cause of follicular atresia. However, the underlying mechanism by which the oxidative stress induces follicular atresia remains unclear. FoxO transcription factors are known as critical mediators in the regulation of oxidative stress and apoptosis. In this study, the involvement of FoxO1 in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of mouse follicular granulosa cells (MGCs) was investigated in vivo and in vitro. It was observed that increased apoptotic signals correlated with elevated expression of FoxO1 in MGCs when mice were treated with the oxidant. Correspondingly, the expressions of FoxO1 target genes, such as proapoptotic genes and antioxidative genes, were also up-regulated. In primary cultured MGCs, treatment with H2O2 led to FoxO1 nuclear translocation. Further studies with overexpression and knockdown of FoxO1 demonstrated the critical role of FoxO1 in the induction of MGC apoptosis by oxidative stress. Finally, inactivation of FoxO1 by insulin treatment confirmed that FoxO1 induced by oxidative stress played a pivotal role in up-regulating the expression of downstream apoptosis-related genes in MGCs. Our results suggest that up-regulation of FoxO1 by oxidative stress leads to apoptosis of granulosa cells, which eventually results in follicular atresia in mice. PMID:22669940

  5. Oleic acid induces specific alterations in the morphology, gene expression and steroid hormone production of cultured bovine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Yenuganti, Vengala Rao; Viergutz, Torsten; Vanselow, Jens

    2016-06-01

    After parturition, one of the major problems related to nutritional management that is faced by the majority of dairy cows is negative energy balance (NEB). During NEB, excessive lipid mobilization takes place and hence the levels of free fatty acids, among them oleic acid, increase in the blood, but also in the follicular fluid. This accumulation can be associated with serious metabolic and reproductive disorders. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of physiological concentrations of oleic acid on cell morphology, apoptosis, necrosis, proliferation and steroid production, and on the abundance of selected transcripts in cultured bovine granulosa cells. Increasing oleic acid concentrations induced intracellular lipid droplet accumulation, thus resulting in a foam cell-like morphology, but had no effects on apoptosis, necrosis or proliferation. Oleic acid also significantly reduced the transcript abundance of the gonadotropin hormone receptors, FSHR and LHCGR, steroidogenic genes STAR, CYP11A1, HSD3B1 and CYP19A1, the cell cycle regulator CCND2, but not of the proliferation marker PCNA. In addition, treatment increased the transcript levels of the fatty acid transporters CD36 and SLC27A1, and decreased the production of 17-beta-estradiol and progesterone. From these data it can be concluded that oleic acid specifically affects morphological and physiological features and gene expression levels thus altering the functionality of granulosa cells. Suggestively, these effects might be partly due to the reduced expression of FSHR and thus the reduced responsiveness to FSH stimulation. PMID:27118706

  6. Adult-type granulosa cell tumour of the testis: Report of a case and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Al-Alao, Osama; Gul, Tawiz; Al-Ani, Ammar; Bozom, Issam A.; Al-Jalham, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Granulosa cell tumours (GCTs) can be either juvenile or adult type, and more commonly occur in the ovaries. Adult-type GCTs of the testis (AGCTT) are very rare and only 46 cases have previously been reported. We report here on a 48-year-old Filipino man with a left testicular AGCTT, which measured 1.2 × 1.2 × 1.0 cm. He underwent radical orchidectomy with postoperative surveillance for 1 year, which included computed tomography with oral intravenous contrast and clinical examinations, which have been unremarkable. The previously reported AGCTTs were briefly reviewed. PMID:26966593

  7. Paraoxonase (PON) 1, 2 and 3 expression in granulosa cells and PON1 activity in follicular fluid of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Schneider, A; Absalon-Medina, V A; Esposito, G; Corrêa, M N; Butler, W R

    2013-12-01

    Normal metabolic activity in ovarian follicles may result in oxidative stress and damage to oocytes. The aim of this study was to evaluate expression of the natural anti-oxidants paraoxonase (PON) 1, 2 and 3 in granulosa cells and PON1 activity in follicular fluid (FF) and plasma of dairy cows. For the first experiment, ovaries were collected from cows at slaughter, after which follicles were dissected and classified as oestrogen active (EAF) or atretic (ATF). Expression of PON1, PON2 and PON3 mRNA was evaluated in granulosa cells, and activity of PON1 was measured in FF. PON1 mRNA was undetectable in granulosa cells, PON2 mRNA expression was not different between follicle types, and PON3 mRNA tended to be higher in EAF (p = 0.11). The activity of PON1 in FF was higher (p = 0.01) for EAF (82.6 ± 8.0 kU/L) than ATF (53.9 ± 6.8 kU/L), as were high-density lipoproteins (HDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and total cholesterol concentrations. In the second experiment, we aimed to compare plasma and FF PON1 activity in early lactation Holstein cows (n = 15) with pre-ovulatory EAF. Activity of PON1 was twofold higher (p < 0.0001) in plasma (122.5 ± 11.1 kU/L) than in FF (61.4 ± 5.2 kU/L). Plasma concentrations were also higher (p < 0.0001) for HDL, LDL and total cholesterol when compared to FF. In conclusion, FF concentrations of PON1, HDL, LDL and total cholesterol were higher in healthy oestrogen active bovine follicles than in atretic follicles. PON1 was not expressed by granulosa cells indicating that high PON1 activity in bovine FF is apparently derived by transfer from blood in association with HDL. PMID:23758560

  8. miR-26b Promotes Granulosa Cell Apoptosis by Targeting ATM during Follicular Atresia in Porcine Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fei; Li, Ran; Pan, Zeng xiang; Zhou, Bo; Yu, De bing; Wang, Xu guang; Ma, Xue shan; Han, Jing; Shen, Ming; Liu, Hong lin

    2012-01-01

    More than 99% of ovarian follicles undergo atresia in mammals, but the mechanism of follicular atresia remains to be elucidated. In this study, we explored microRNA (miRNA) regulation of follicular atresia in porcine ovary. A miRNA expression profile was constructed for healthy, early atretic, and progressively atretic follicles, and the differentially expressed miRNAs were selected and analyzed. We found that miR-26b, which was upregulated during follicular atresia, increased the number of DNA breaks and promoted granulosa cell apoptosis by targeting the ataxia telangiectasia mutated gene directly in vitro. PMID:22737216

  9. No differences in sheep somatic cell nuclear transfer outcomes using serum-starved or actively growing donor granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Peura, T T; Hartwich, K M; Hamilton, H M; Walker, S K

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare serum-starved and non-starved donor cells in sheep nuclear transfer with a special emphasis on cloning outcomes. Sheep oocytes, derived either in vivo or in vitro, were fused with cultured serum-starved or actively growing adult granulosa cells. Resulting blastocysts were transferred to recipients fresh or after vitrification, and subsequent pregnancies followed to term. Donor cell treatment did not significantly affect preimplantation development, pregnancy rates, fetal loss or neonate survival rates. Of 22 lambs born, ten survived the immediate perinatal period but all succumbed at various timepoints within the first few weeks of life. The results of the study suggest that the use of serum-starved cells offers no advantages or disadvantages to cloning outcomes. Neither were significant differences in outcomes observed when using either in vivo- or in vitro-derived oocytes or embryos transferred fresh or after vitrification. Yet, these results continue to highlight problems associated with somatic cell cloning as indicated by offspring mortality. It remains unclear whether the high offspring mortality in the current study was related to species, associated with the cell lines used or the result of other causes. PMID:12921702

  10. Metabolism of testosterone by human granulosa cells in culture: influence of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Y.S.; Duleba, A.; Leung, P.C.; Gomel, V.

    1982-03-15

    Human granulosa cells were isolated from follicles (8 to 15 mm) and cultivated for 24 hours in the presence or absence of follicle-stimulating hormone (NIH-FSH-HS-1, 1 microgram/ml) and luteinizing hormone (NIAMDD-hLH-1, 1 microgram/ml). Testosterone -4-14C was added subsequently to all cultures for 4-, 6-, and 24-hour periods. Of the seven metabolites of testosterone studied, 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1) were the major products. In all patients, levels of E2 were three to ten times higher than those of E1. Production of E2, but not E1, was stimulated by either follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) or luteinizing hormone (LH). The cells of the largest follicle (15 mm) showed greater response to LH than to FSH. Production of the other C19 and C18 metabolites was very low or negligible. These results further suggest that FSH regulates the aromatization of testosterone in human granulosa cells, and that LH may have the same effect on the matured follicle during the preovulatory period.

  11. Amphiregulin mediates hCG-induced StAR expression and progesterone production in human granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Lanlan; Yu, Yiping; Zhang, Ruizhe; He, Jingyan; Sun, Ying-Pu

    2016-01-01

    Progesterone plays critical roles in maintaining a successful pregnancy at the early embryonic stage. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) rapidly induces amphiregulin (AREG) expression. However, it remains unknown whether AREG mediates hCG-induced progesterone production. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the role of AREG in hCG-induced progesterone production and the underlying molecular mechanism in human granulosa cells; primary cells were used as the experimental model. We demonstrated that the inhibition of EGFR and the knockdown of AREG abolished hCG-induced steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression and progesterone production. Importantly, follicular fluid AREG levels were positively correlated with progesterone levels in the follicular fluid and serum. Treatment with AREG increased StAR expression and progesterone production, and these stimulatory effects were abolished by EGFR inhibition. Moreover, activation of ERK1/2, but not PI3K/Akt, signaling was required for the AREG-induced up-regulation of StAR expression and progesterone production. Our results demonstrate that AREG mediates hCG-induced StAR expression and progesterone production in human granulosa cells, providing novel evidence for the role of AREG in the regulation of steroidogenesis. PMID:27113901

  12. Competence Classification of Cumulus and Granulosa Cell Transcriptome in Embryos Matched by Morphology and Female Age

    PubMed Central

    Thuesen, Lea Langhoff; Andersen, Claus Yding; Nyboe-Andersen, Anders; Ziebe, Søren; Winther, Ole; Grøndahl, Marie Louise

    2016-01-01

    Objective By focussing on differences in the mural granulosa cell (MGC) and cumulus cell (CC) transcriptomes from follicles resulting in competent (live birth) and non-competent (no pregnancy) oocytes the study aims on defining a competence classifier expression profile in the two cellular compartments. Design: A case-control study. Setting: University based facilities for clinical services and research. Patients: MGC and CC samples from 60 women undergoing IVF treatment following the long GnRH-agonist protocol were collected. Samples from 16 oocytes where live birth was achieved and 16 age- and embryo morphology matched incompetent oocytes were included in the study. Methods MGC and CC were isolated immediately after oocyte retrieval. From the 16 competent and non-competent follicles, mRNA was extracted and expression profile generated on the Human Gene 1.0 ST Affymetrix array. Live birth prediction analysis using machine learning algorithms (support vector machines) with performance estimation by leave-one-out cross validation and independent validation on an external data set. Results We defined a signature of 30 genes expressed in CC predictive of live birth. This live birth prediction model had an accuracy of 81%, a sensitivity of 0.83, a specificity of 0.80, a positive predictive value of 0.77, and a negative predictive value of 0.86. Receiver operating characteristic analysis found an area under the curve of 0.86, significantly greater than random chance. When applied on 3 external data sets with the end-point outcome measure of blastocyst formation, the signature resulted in 62%, 75% and 88% accuracy, respectively. The genes in the classifier are primarily connected to apoptosis and involvement in formation of extracellular matrix. We were not able to define a robust MGC classifier signature that could classify live birth with accuracy above random chance level. Conclusion We have developed a cumulus cell classifier, which showed a promising performance on

  13. High fat diet triggers cell cycle arrest and excessive apoptosis of granulosa cells during the follicular development.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanqing; Zhang, Zhenghong; Liao, Xinghui; Wang, Zhengchao

    2015-10-23

    The regulatory mechanism of granulosa cells (GCs) proliferation during the follicular development is complicated and multifactorial, which is essential for the oocyte growth and normal ovarian functions. To investigate the role of high fat diet (HFD) on the proliferation of GCs, 4-week old female mice were fed with HFD or normal control diet (NC) for 15 weeks or 20 weeks and then detected the expression level of some regulatory molecules of cell cycle and apoptosis. The abnormal ovarian morphology was observed at 20 weeks. Further mechanistic studies indicated that HFD induced-obesity caused elevated apoptotic levels in GCs of the ovaries in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, cell cycle progress was also impacted after HFD fed. The cell cycle inhibitors, p27(Kip1) and p21(Cip1), were significantly induced in the ovaries from the mice in HFD group when compared with that in the ovaries from the mice in NC group. Subsequently, the expression levels of Cyclin D1, D3 and CDK4 were also significantly influenced in the ovaries from the mice fed with HFD in a time-dependent manner. The present results suggested that HFD induced-obesity may trigger cell cycle arrest and excessive apoptosis of GCs, causing the abnormal follicular development and ovarian function failure. PMID:26399684

  14. Follicle-stimulating Hormone Regulates Pro-apoptotic Protein Bcl-2-interacting Mediator of Cell Death-Extra Long (BimEL)-induced Porcine Granulosa Cell Apoptosis*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xian-Long; Wu, Yi; Tan, Lu-Bin; Tian, Zhen; Liu, Jing-Hao; Zhu, De-Sheng; Zeng, Shen-Ming

    2012-01-01

    The pro-apoptotic protein Bim (B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2)-interacting modulator of cell death) has recently been identified and shown to promote cell death in response to several stimuli. In this report, we investigated the role of Bim in porcine follicular atresia. Initially, Bim cDNA was cloned and characterized from porcine ovarian tissue. Porcine Bim had three alternative splicing variants (Bim-extra long, Bim-long, and Bim-short), all containing the consensus Bcl-2 homology 3 domain. We then found the Bim-extra long (BimEL) protein, the most abundant isoform of Bim, was strongly expressed and co-localized with apoptotic (TUNEL-positive) granulosa cells from porcine atretic follicles. Furthermore, overexpression of BimEL triggered apoptosis in granulosa cells. In primary granulosa cell cultures under basal conditions, we observed that BimEL expression was dampened by treatment with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). The role of the PI3K/Akt pathway in the regulation of repression was clarified by the use of the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, and by transfection with Akt siRNA. Forkhead Box Protein O3a (FoxO3a), a well defined transcriptional activator of Bim, was phosphorylated at Ser-253 and inactivated after FSH stimulation. Also, FSH abolished FoxO3a nuclear accumulation in response to LY294002. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that FoxO3a directly bound and activated the bim promoter. Taken together, we conclude that BimEL induces porcine granulosa cell apoptosis during follicular atresia, and its expression is regulated by FSH via the PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a pathway. PMID:22235114

  15. Modulating Intrafollicular Hormonal Milieu in Controlled Ovarian Stimulation: Insights From PPAR Expression in Human Granulosa Cells.

    PubMed

    Tatone, Carla; Benedetti, Elisabetta; Vitti, Maurizio; Di Emidio, Giovanna; Ciriminna, Rosanna; Vento, Maria Elena; Cela, Vito; Borzì, Placido; Carta, Gaspare; Lispi, Monica; Cimini, Anna Maria; Artini, Paolo Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) leading to ovulation of multiple follicles is a crucial aspect of biomedical infertility care. Nevertheless, biomarkers useful for COS management are still lacking. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors relevant to steroid metabolism in granulosa cells (GCs). We investigated whether PPARs and their steroidogenic targets were differentially expressed in GCs differentiated under different recombinant or urinary gonadotropin preparations. GCs from women subjected to COS with r-hFSH, r-hFSH/r-hLH, or hMG-HP were processed to assess expression of PPARα, PPARβ/δ, PPARγ, and steroidogenic enzymes under PPAR modulation. As an evidence of their activation, all PPAR isotypes with their coactivators, the retinoic-X-receptors (RXRs), localized in the nucleus. When GCs from r-hFSH/r-hLH group were compared with r-hFSH, a significant reduction of PPARα protein was observed. By contrast, an increase of PPARβ/δ at both protein and mRNA levels along with that of PPARγ protein were detected. The steroidogenic enzymes 17βHSD IV, 3βHSD II, and HMG-CoA red were downregulated in the r-hFSH/r-hLH group in comparison to r-hFSH unlike CYP19A1 that remained unchanged. In GCs from urinary FSH-LH stimulation (hMG-HP), PPARα was more expressed in comparison with r-hFSH/r-hLH group. Likewise, 3βHSD II and 17βHSD IV were increased suggesting that hMG-HP partially mimicked r-hFSH/r-hLH effects. In summary, transcript analysis associated to protein investigation revealed differential effects of COS protocols on PPARs and their steroidogenic targets in relation to LH and gonadotropin source. These observations candidate PPARs as new biomarkers of follicle competence opening new hypotheses on COS effects on ovarian physiology. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 908-914, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26332656

  16. Differential antibacterial response of chicken granulosa cells to invasion by Salmonella serovars.

    PubMed

    Babu, Uma S; Harrison, Lisa M; Patel, Isha R; Ramirez, Gerardo A; Williams, Kristina M; Pereira, Marion; Balan, Kannan V

    2016-06-01

    In the United States, Salmonella enterica ser. Enteritidis (SE) is among the leading bacterial cause of foodborne illness via consumption of raw or undercooked eggs. The top Salmonella serovars implicated in U.S. foodborne outbreaks associated with chicken consumption include SE, Typhimurium (ST), Heidelberg (SH), Montevideo, Mbandka, Braenderup, and Newport. While enforcement actions target the eradication of SE from layer hens, there is a growing concern that other serovars could occupy this niche and be a cause of egg-transmitted human salmonellosis. Therefore, we tested the invasion and survival of SE, SH, ST, and Salmonella enterica ser. Hadar (S. Hadar) at 4 and 20 h post infection (hpi) in chicken ovarian granulosa cells (cGC); a cellular layer which surrounds the previtelline layer and central yolk in egg-forming follicles. We also evaluated cGC transcriptional changes, using an antibacterial response PCR array, to assess host response to intracellular SalmonellaWe observed that invasion of cGC by SE, SH, and ST was significantly higher than invasion by S. Hadar, with ST showing the highest level of invasion. The Bacterial Survival Index, defined as the ratio of intracellular bacteria at 20 and 4 h, were 18.94, 7.35, and 15.27 for SE, SH, and ST, respectively, with no significant difference in survival between SE or ST compared to SH. Evaluation of cGC anti-Salmonella gene responses indicated that at 4 hpi there was a significant decrease in Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 mRNA in cGC infected with SE, whereas TLR5 and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 were significantly down regulated across all serovars. At 4 hpi, invasion by Salmonella serovars resulted in significant upregulation of several antimicrobial genes, and proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines (PICs). At 20 hpi, all the serovars induced PICs with SH being the strongest inducer. Additionally, SE, SH and ST differentially induced signal transduction pathways. Although only a single

  17. Effects of sera, hormones and granulosa cells added to culture medium for in-vitro maturation, fertilization, cleavage and development of bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Y; Ono, H

    1989-07-01

    Sera (fetal calf serum: FCS; and oestrous cow serum: ECS), hormones (2.5 FSH micrograms/ml + 5 micrograms LH/ml + 1 microgram oestradiol/ml) and granulosa cells (5 x 10(6)/ml) were added to culture medium to determine the frequencies of in-vitro maturation, fertilization, cleavage (2- to 8-cell) and development into blastocysts of bovine follicular oocytes. The maturation rates after 24 h in culture were not significantly different among the three factors tested (56-72%). The fertilization rates were significantly affected by serum type and the addition of granulosa cells. FCS gave significantly higher rates of fertilization (57-71%) than did ECS (34-52%), but the proportions of polyspermic fertilization were significantly higher in the former (8-19%) than in the latter (2-3%). The addition of hormones did not affect fertilization, cleavage and development. Neither type of serum affected cleavage and development. The highest rates of blastocyst formation were obtained when granulosa cells alone were added (FCS, 17%; ECS, 16%). The cell numbers of the blastocysts obtained were 100-150, similar to those of blastocysts developed in vivo. Transfer of 6 blastocysts to 3 cows resulted in 1 pregnancy. The present results indicate that the co-culture with granulosa cells is the most important factor for in-vitro fertilization to development into blastocysts of bovine oocytes matured in vitro. PMID:2760879

  18. FOXL2 interacts with steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) and represses SF-1-induced CYP17 transcription in granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Mira; Shin, Eunkyoung; Won, Miae; Kim, Jae-Hong; Go, Hayoung; Kim, Hyun-Lee; Ko, Jeong-Jae; Lee, Kangseok; Bae, Jeehyeon

    2010-05-01

    Mutations in FOXL2 are responsible for blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES) type I, in which affected women exhibit premature ovarian failure. FOXL2-null mice showed defects in granulosa cell development during folliculogenesis. We screened a rat ovarian yeast two-hybrid cDNA library to identify FOXL2-interacting proteins and found steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1). Here, we show that human FOXL2 and SF-1 proteins interact in human granulosa cells and that FOXL2 negatively regulates the transcriptional activation of a steroidogenic enzyme, CYP17, by SF-1. Furthermore, FOXL2 mutants found in blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome type I patients lost the ability to repress CYP17 induction mediated by SF-1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and EMSA results further revealed that FOXL2 inhibited the binding of SF-1 to the CYP17 promoter, whereas the FOXL2 mutants failed to block this interaction. Therefore, this study identifies a novel regulatory role for FOXL2 on a key steroidogenic enzyme and provides a possible mechanism by which mutations in FOXL2 disrupt normal ovarian follicle development. PMID:20207836

  19. Luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotrophin receptor overexpressed in granulosa cells from polycystic ovary syndrome ovaries is functionally active.

    PubMed

    Kanamarlapudi, Venkateswarlu; Gordon, Uma D; López Bernal, Andrés

    2016-06-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is associated with anovulatory infertility. Luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotrophin receptor (LHCGR), which is critical for ovulation, has been suggested to be expressed prematurely in the ovarian follicles of women with PCOS. This study aimed to analyse the expression and activity of LHCGR in ovarian granulosa cells from PCOS patients and the involvement of ARF6 small GTPase in LHCGR internalization. Granulosa cells (GC) isolated from follicular fluid collected during oocyte retrieval from normal women (n = 19) and women with PCOS (n = 17) were used to study differences in LHCGR protein expression and activity between normal and PCOS patients. LHCGR expression is up-regulated in GC from PCOS women. LHCGR in PCOS GC is functionally active, as shown by increased cAMP production upon human gonadotrophin (HCG)-stimulation. Moreover, ARF6 is highly expressed in GC from PCOS patients and HCG-stimulation increases the concentrations of active ARF6. The inhibition of ARF6 activation attenuates HCG-induced LHCGR internalization in both normal and PCOS GC, indicating that there are no alterations in LHCGR internalisation in GC from PCOS. In conclusion, the expression and activation of LHCGR and ARF6 are up-regulated in GC from PCOS women but the mechanism of agonist-induced LHCGR internalization is unaltered. PMID:27061682

  20. Treatment with anticancer agents induces dysregulation of specific Wnt signaling pathways in human ovarian luteinized granulosa cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Ana Maria; Giorgione, Veronica; Viganò, Paola; Papaleo, Enrico; Candiani, Massimo; Mangili, Giorgia; Panina-Bordignon, Paola

    2013-11-01

    Chemotherapy has been associated with premature ovarian failure and infertility in women with cancer. It is well known that anticancer drugs reduce the primordial follicle pool and harm the ovarian blood vascularization leading to ovarian atrophy. However, their mechanism of injury still remains unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the cellular mechanisms involved in the toxicity of chemotherapy drugs belonging to different classes on human ovarian luteinized granulosa cells (LGCs). Treatment with doxorubicin (DXR), paclitaxel (PC), and cisplatin (CP) affected LGCs viability by inducing apoptosis and downregulating both estrogen receptor β and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor in a dose-dependent manner. Several members of the WNT signaling pathway are expressed in granulosa cells where they regulate follicle development, ovulation, and luteinization. Here we show that treatment with DXR, PC, and CP induced upregulation of WNT4 expression, whereas WNT3 expression was downregulated by DXR and PC and upregulated by CP. Analysis of the WNT3 downstream signaling pathway showed that total β-catenin protein levels were reduced upon treatment with DXR and PC. Additionally, restoration of β-catenin signaling by lithium chloride protected LGCs from the injury induced by chemotherapy. The in vitro LGC toxicity model described might represent a tool to identify components of specific signaling pathways, such as the Wnt pathway, that can be targeted in order to limit the follicular damage caused by chemotherapy. PMID:23956100

  1. Effect of sialylation and complexity of FSH oligosaccharides on inhibin production by granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Loreti, Nazareth; Ambao, Verónica; Andreone, Luz; Trigo, Romina; Bussmann, Ursula; Campo, Stella

    2013-02-01

    Granulosa cell (GC) inhibin A and B production is regulated by FSH and gonadal factors. This gonadotrophin is released as a mixture of glycoforms, which induce different biological responses in vivo and in vitro. Our aim was to determine the effect of recombinant human FSH (rhFSH) glycosylation variants on inhibin A and B production by rat GCs. Preparative isoelectro focusing was used to isolate more acidic/sialylated (pH <4.00) and less acidic/sialylated (pH >5.00) rhFSH charge analogues. Concanavalin A was used to isolate unbound and firmly bound rhFSH glycoforms on the basis of their oligosaccharide complexity. GCs, obtained from oestrogen-primed immature rats, were cultured with either native rhFSH or its glycosylation variants. Inhibin A and B were determined using specific ELISAs. Results were expressed as mean±s.e.m. Under basal conditions, inhibin A was the predominant dimer produced (inhibin A: 673±55; inhibin B: 80±4  pg/ml). More acidic/sialylated charge analogues stimulated inhibin B production when compared to inhibin A at all doses studied; by contrast, less acidic/sialylated charge analogues stimulated inhibin A production and elicited no effect on inhibin B. Glycoforms bearing complex oligosaccharides showed a potent stimulatory effect on inhibin B when compared to inhibin A production (i.e. dose 1  ng/ml: 4.9±0.5 vs 0.9±0.1-fold stimulation, P<0.001). Glycoforms bearing hybrid-type oligosaccharides favoured inhibin A production (i.e. dose 4  ng/ml 2.9±0.1 vs 1.6±0.1-fold stimulation, P<0.05). These results show that the sialylation degree as well as the complexity of oligosaccharides present in the rhFSH molecule may be considered additional factors that differentially regulate dimeric inhibin production by rat GCs. PMID:23166369

  2. Role of Notch signaling in granulosa cell proliferation and polyovular follicle induction during folliculogenesis in mouse ovary.

    PubMed

    Terauchi, Karin J; Shigeta, Yuri; Iguchi, Taisen; Sato, Tomomi

    2016-07-01

    In the fetal mouse ovary, oocytes are connected by an intercellular bridge and form germ cell cysts. Folliculogenesis begins after birth. To study the role of Notch signaling in folliculogenesis, double-immunohistochemical localization of laminin and Ki-67 was performed in mouse ovaries from embryonic day 17.5 (E17.5) to postnatal day 4 (P4). Most cysts and follicles contained Ki-67-negative cells; however, a few Ki-67-positive cells were present in cysts from E17.5 through P4, indicating that a small number of pre-granulosa cells continue to proliferate during folliculogenesis. To examine the effects of an inhibitor of Notch signaling (DAPT) and a synthetic estrogen (diethylstilbestrol [DES]) on folliculogenesis, an organ-culture system was established. The numbers of cysts, primordial follicles (PrFs) and primary follicles were unchanged by DES, whereas the total number of PrFs and of PrFs with Ki-67-negative cells was reduced by DAPT. In organ-cultured neonatal ovaries, only DAPT treatment increased degenerating cells defined as oocytes. On the contrary, the number of polyovular follicles (PFs) and the PF incidence were significantly increased in ovaries organ-cultured with DES at day 20 post-grafting. In organ-cultured fetal and neonatal ovaries, DAPT reduced Notch 3 and Hey2 mRNAs, whereas DES increased Hey2 mRNA. These results suggest that Notch signaling in fetal ovaries is involved with PrF assembly by the regulation of oocyte survival rather than by cell proliferation. In PF induction, as a result of the disruption of interactions between oocytes and pre-granulosa cells, DES and Notch signaling act independently. PMID:26899251

  3. Effects of ghrelin and its analogues on chicken ovarian granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Sirotkin, A V; Grossmann, R

    2008-02-01

    The aim of these in vitro experiments was (1) to examine the effects of ghrelin on the basic functions of ovarian cells (proliferation, apoptosis, secretory activity); (2) to determine the possible involvement of the GHS-R1a receptor and PKA- and MAPK-dependent post-receptor intracellular signalling cascades; (3) to identify the active part of the 28-amino acid molecule responsible for the effects of ghrelin on ovarian cells. We compared the effect of full-length ghrelin 1-28, a synthetic activator of GHS-R1a, GHRP6, and ghrelin molecular fragments 1-18 and 1-5 on cultured chicken ovarian cells. Indices of cell apoptosis (expression of the apoptotic peptide bax and the anti-apoptotic peptide bcl-2), proliferation (expression of proliferation-associated peptide PCNA), and expression of protein kinases (PKA and MAPK) within ovarian granulosa cells were analysed by immunocytochemistry. The secretion of progesterone (P(4)), testosterone (T), estradiol (E(2)) and arginine-vasotocin (AVT) by isolated ovarian follicular fragments was evaluated by RIA/EIA. It was observed that accumulation of bax was increased by ghrelin 1-28, GHRP6 and ghrelin 1-18, but not by ghrelin 1-5. Expression of bcl-2 was suppressed by addition of ghrelin 1-28, GHRP6 and ghrelin 1-5, but promoted by ghrelin 1-18. The occurrence of PCNA was reduced by ghrelin 1-28, GHRP6, ghrelin 1-18 and ghrelin 1-5. An increase in the expression of MAPK/ERK1, 2 was observed after addition of ghrelin 1-28, GHRP6 and ghrelin 1-18, but not ghrelin 1-5. The accumulation of PKA decreased after treatment with ghrelin 1-28 and increased after treatment with GHRP6 and ghrelin 1-18 but not ghrelin 1-5. Secretion of P(4) by ovarian follicular fragments was decreased after addition of ghrelin 1-28 or ghrelin 1-5 but stimulated by GHRP6 and ghrelin 1-18. Testosterone secretion was inhibited by ghrelins 1-28 and 1-18, but not by GHRP6 or ghrelin 1-5. Estradiol secretion was reduced after treatment with ghrelin 1-28 but

  4. Granulosa cells from bovine follicles activate different signal transduction pathways dependent on follicle health status and ability to convert androstenedione to estrogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since steroidogenesis is a critical component in the development of competent preovulatory follicles we hypothesized that granulosa cells from follicles of cows treated with normal levels of progesterone (CIDR) or with melengestrol acetate (MGA), which results in the development of persistent follic...

  5. Effect of ammonia-generating diet on ovine serum and follicular fluid ammonia and urea levels, serum oestrogen and progesterone concentrations and granulosa cell functions.

    PubMed

    Nandi, S; Mondal, S; Pal, D T; Gupta, P S P

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of ammonia-generating diet on serum and follicular fluid ammonia and urea levels, serum oestrogen and progesterone concentrations and granulosa cell growth and secretion parameters in ewes (Ovis aries). Ewes were fed with 14% CP diet (control) or ammonia-generating diet or ammonia-generating diet plus soluble sugar. The serum and follicular fluid ammonia and urea level, serum oestrogen and progesterone levels and granulosa cell (obtained from ovaries of slaughtered ewes) growth parameters and secretory activities were estimated. Ammonia-generating diet (high-protein diet) increased the serum ammonia and urea concentration. Supplementation of soluble sugar significantly reduced the ammonia concentration in serum with comparable levels as in control group; however, the urea level in the same group was higher than that observed in control group. Supplementation of soluble sugar significantly reduced the follicular fluid ammonia concentration; however, the level was significantly higher compared to control group. Supplementation of soluble sugar brought down the follicular fluid urea level comparable to that observed in control group. Oestrogen and progesterone levels remained unchanged in ewes fed with different types of diet. Oestrogen and progesterone secretion were significantly lowered from granulosa cells recovered from ewes fed with high ammonia-generating diet. Low metabolic activity and high incidence of apoptosis were observed in granulosa cells obtained from ovaries of ewes fed with ammonia-generating diet. PMID:26211538

  6. Establishment of a human nonluteinized granulosa cell line that transitions from the gonadotropin-independent to the gonadotropin-dependent status.

    PubMed

    Bayasula; Iwase, Akira; Kiyono, Tohru; Takikawa, Sachiko; Goto, Maki; Nakamura, Tomoko; Nagatomo, Yoshinari; Nakahara, Tatsuo; Kotani, Tomomi; Kobayashi, Hiroharu; Kondo, Mika; Manabe, Shuichi; Kikkawa, Fumitaka

    2012-06-01

    The ovary is a complex endocrine organ responsible for steroidogenesis and folliculogenesis. Follicles consist of oocytes and two primary steroidogenic cell types, the granulosa cells, and the theca cells. Immortalized human granulosa cells are essential for researching the mechanism of steroidogenesis and folliculogenesis. We obtained granulosa cells from a 35-yr-old female and immortalized them by lentivirus-mediated transfer of several genes so as to establish a human nonluteinized granulosa cell line (HGrC1). We subsequently characterized HGrC1 and investigated its steroidogenic performance. HGrC1 expressed enzymes related to steroidogenesis, such as steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, CYP11A, aromatase, and gonadotropin receptors. Stimulation with FSH increased the mRNA levels of aromatase, which consequently induced the aromatization of androstenedione to estradiol. Activin A increased the mRNA levels of the FSH receptor, which were synergistically up-regulated with FSH stimulation. HGrC1 also expressed a series of ligands and receptors belonging to the TGF-β superfamily. A Western blot analysis showed that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-4, BMP-6, and BMP-7 phosphorylated small mother against decapentaplegic (Smad)1/5/8, whereas growth differentiation factor-9 phosphorylated Smad2/3. BMP-15 and anti-Müllerian hormone phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 while also weakly phosphorylating Smad2/3. These results indicate that HGrC1 may possess the characteristics of granulosa cells belonging to follicles in the early stage. HGrC1 might also be capable of displaying the growth transition from a gonadotropin-independent status to gonadotropin-dependent one. PMID:22467494

  7. Hyaluronic acid promotes the expression of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 via epigenetic silencing of miR-139-5p in human and rat granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guangfeng; Zhou, Xue; Fang, Ting; Hou, Yayi; Hu, Yali

    2014-11-01

    Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a serious reproductive dysfunction in which the follicle pool is reduced and depleted. Abnormal apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells (GCs) is believed to result in follicle loss. Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), which is critical for GC survival, was reported to be reduced in POI patients, but the mechanism is unknown. In the present study, we found that PGRMC1 expression was correlated with the level of hyaluronic acid (HA) in POI patients. HA up-regulated PGRMC1 expression in GCs via suppression of miR-139-5p, which was proven by Western blotting and luciferase reporter assays to target PGRMC1. Consistent with these findings, levels of miR-139-5p were significantly increased and presented an inverse correlation with PGRMC1 in POI patients. Noticeably, HA inhibited CD44-mediated miR-139-5p expression but had no effect on luciferase activity after insertion of miR-139 promoter into luciferase plasmid. Interestingly, miR-139-5p was significantly up-regulated in KGN cells (GC tumor cell line) by the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A, indicating that HA down-regulated miR-139-5p expression via histone deacetylation. Taken together, we report an unrecognized mechanism of HA in the promotion of PGRMC1 expression, suggesting that HA may be a potential molecule for the prevention and treatment of POI. PMID:25232020

  8. T-2 toxin regulates steroid hormone secretion of rat ovarian granulosa cells through cAMP-PKA pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Tu, Di; Yuan, Li-Yun; Yi, Jin-e; Tian, Yanan

    2015-02-01

    T-2 toxin is a secondary metabolite produced by Fusarium genus and is a common contaminant in food and feedstuffs of cereal origin. In porcine granulosa cells(GC), T-2 toxin has been shown to inhibit the steroidogenesis; however, the mechanism has not been well understood. Gonadotropin-stimulated steroidogenesis is regulated by the cAMP-PKA pathway. In this study, we investigated potential mechanisms for T-2 toxin-induced reproductive toxicity focusing on the critical steps of the cAMP-PKA pathway affected by T-2 toxin. We first analyzed the effects of T-2 toxin on progesterone and estrogen production in rat granulosa cells. For this purpose the granulosa cells were cultured for 48 h in 10% fetal bovine serum-containing medium followed by 24h in serum-free medium containing FSH (10 ng/ml) and androstenedione (3 ng/ml), both are required for normal steroidogenesis. Treatment of these cells with T-2 toxin dose-dependently inhibited the growth of cells and the steroid hormone production. Cellular cyclic AMP levels were dose-dependently inhibited by T-2 toxin (0, 1, 10 and 100 nM, 24 h). Furthermore, we found that although the induction of progesterone by 8-Br-cAMP (a FSH mimetic) and 22R-HC (substrate for progesterone) could both be inhibited by T-2 toxin treatment, the T-2-imposed inhibitory effects could be reversed by increasing doses of 22R-HC, while increasing 8-Br-cAMP had no effects, suggesting that T2 toxin targeted at distinct mechanisms. cAMP-stimulated steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is a rate limiting protein in progesterone synthesis. Exposure to T2 toxin caused significant suppression of StAR expression as determined by Western blotting and semi-quantitative RT-PCR suggesting StAR is a sensitive target for T-2 toxin. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that T2 toxin inhibits steroidogenesis by suppressing cAMP-PKA pathway and StAR is a target for T-2-toxin. The antisteroidogenesis effects were observable at low T-2 dose (1 ng

  9. VISFATIN (NAMPT) Improves In Vitro IGF1-Induced Steroidogenesis and IGF1 Receptor Signaling Through SIRT1 in Bovine Granulosa Cells.

    PubMed

    Reverchon, Maxime; Rame, Christelle; Bunel, Audrey; Chen, Wenyong; Froment, Pascal; Dupont, Joëlle

    2016-03-01

    VISFATIN is a novel adipokine, also known as a nicotinamide phosphorybosyltransferase (NAMPT), that is able to modulate different processes, including lipid and glucose metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, and insulin resistance. Recent data suggest that it also plays a role in reproductive function in rats, humans, and chickens. Here we identified VISFATIN in the bovine ovary and investigated the in vitro effects of this hormone on granulosa cell steroidogenesis and proliferation and oocyte maturation. By RT-PCR, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry, we found VISFATIN in various ovarian cells, including granulosa and theca cells, corpus luteum, and oocytes. In cultured bovine granulosa cells, we showed that IGF1 (10(-8) M) and VISFATIN (10 and 100 ng/ml) but not FSH (10(-8) M) increased mRNA expression levels of NAMPT after 48 h of stimulation. Moreover, we observed that human recombinant VISFATIN (hVisf, 10 ng/ml, 48 h) increased the release of progesterone and estradiol secretion, and this was associated with an increase in the protein level of STAR, the HSD3B activity, and the phosphorylation levels of IGF1R and MAPK ERK1/2 in the presence or absence of IGF1 (10(-8) M). All these effects were abolished when NAMPT was knocked down and when the sirtuin pharmacological inhibitors CHIC-35 (60 nM) and EX-527 (0.5 μM) were preincubated in bovine granulosa cells. Thus, in cultured bovine granulosa cells, VISFATIN improves basal and IGF1-induced steroidogenesis and IGF1 receptor signaling through SIRT1. PMID:26792944

  10. Influence of ω-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid on IGF-1 and COX-2 gene expression in granulosa cells of PCOS women

    PubMed Central

    Shahnazi, Vahideh; Zaree, Mina; Nouri, Mohammad; Mehrzad-Sadaghiani, Mahzad; Fayezi, Shabnam; Darabi, Maryam; Khani, Sajjad; Darabi, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Background: The omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is currently used in the clinic as a nutritional supplement to improve infertility, particularly in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the effect of EPA on insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) gene expression in primary cultured granulosa cells from patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), and also to compare this effect with those in granulosa cells of PCOS patients. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, human granulosa cells were isolated from follicular fluid of normal and PCOS women undergoing IVF by hyaluronidase digestions, followed by Percoll gradient centrifugation. Cells were cultured in vitro, exposed to a range of concentrations of the EPA (25-100 µM) for 24 hr, and investigated with respect to COX-2 and IGF-1 gene expression by real time-PCR. Results: In both groups, all doses of the EPA significantly induced IGF-1 mRNA gene expression compared to the untreated control. High doses of EPA in the presence of recombinant (r) FSH produced a stimulatory effect on IGF-1 and a suppressive effect (p=0.01) on the COX-2 gene expression, which were more pronounced in granulosa cells from PCOS patients. Conclusion: EPA affect diversely the gene expression of IGF-1 and COX-2 in granulosa cells, which were more pronounced in PCOS compared to control. These findings represent the possible underlying molecular mechanisms for the positive impact of the ω-3 fatty acids on reproduction, especially in patients with PCOS. PMID:25999995

  11. Expression of 17beta- and 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein in non-luteinizing bovine granulosa cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sahmi, M; Nicola, E S; Silva, J M; Price, C A

    2004-08-31

    Granulosa cells of small follicles differentiate in vitro in serum-free medium, resulting in increased estradiol secretion and abundance of mRNA encoding cytochrome P450aromatase (P450arom). We tested the hypothesis that differentiation in vitro also involves increased expression of 3beta- and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSD) in the absence of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression, as has been observed in vivo. Granulosa cells from small (<6 mm diameter) follicles were cultured for up to 6 days, and mRNA levels quantified by Northern hybridization or RT-PCR. Estradiol and progesterone concentrations in medium increased with time in culture, as did mRNA encoding P450arom, 3beta- and 17beta-HSD but not P450scc. Both P450arom and 17beta-HSD were significantly correlated with estradiol accumulation in culture medium. Progesterone secretion was correlated with 3beta-HSD but not P450scc mRNA levels. StAR mRNA was detectable by RT-PCR, did not change with duration of culture and was not correlated with progesterone secretion. FSH significantly stimulated P450arom and 17beta-HSD mRNA levels. Cell origin (from the antral or the basal layer of the membrana granulosa) did not affect steroidogenesis. We conclude that under the present cell culture system granulosa cells do not luteinize, and show expression of key steroidogenic enzymes in patterns similar to those occurring in differentiating follicles in vivo. Further, the data suggest that 17beta-HSD may be as important as P450arom in regulating estradiol secretion, and that 3beta-HSD is more important than P450scc as a regulator of progesterone secretion in non-luteinizing granulosa cells. PMID:15279910

  12. The mycotoxins alternariol and alternariol methyl ether negatively affect progesterone synthesis in porcine granulosa cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tiemann, U; Tomek, W; Schneider, F; Müller, M; Pöhland, R; Vanselow, J

    2009-04-25

    Mycotoxins as contaminants of animal food can impair fertility in farm animals. In the regulation of female fertility the ovarian steroid hormone progesterone (P(4)) plays an important role. In the present study we have investigated the influence of the mycotoxins alternariol (AOH), alternariol mono-methyl ether (AME), and tenuazonic acid (TeA) on cell viability, P(4) synthesis, abundance of the key enzymes of P(4) synthesis, P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450SCC) and 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-beta-HSD), and of the corresponding Cyp11a1 and Hsd3b transcripts in cultured pig granulosa cells. Already 0.8 microM, AOH and AME inhibited P(4) secretion and 1.6 microM also significantly reduced cell viability. The abundance of P450scc protein but not of Cyp11a1 or Hsd3b transcripts was already significantly reduced by 0.8 microM AOH and AME. 1.6 microM AOH but not AME significantly reduced the abundance of alpha-tubulin and also clearly affected actin protein concentrations. TeA neither impaired viability nor P(4) secretion. Also mycotoxin extracts isolated from naturally occurring Alternaria strains by HPLC purification inhibited cell viability and P(4) synthesis, however at higher concentrations compared to AOH and AME. In conclusion, AOH and AME, but not TeA specifically inhibited P(4) secretion in cultured porcine granulosa cells. Alternaria toxin contaminated food may therefore affect reproductive performance in pig and other mammalian species. PMID:19429235

  13. Augmentation of Metastin/Kisspeptin mRNA Expression by the Proestrous Luteinizing Hormone Surge in Granulosa Cells of Rats: Implications for Luteinization.

    PubMed

    Laoharatchatathanin, Titaree; Terashima, Ryota; Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Kurusu, Shiro; Kawaminami, Mitsumori

    2015-07-01

    Variations in mRNA levels and sources of metastin/kisspeptin, neurokinin B (NKB), dynorphin, and kisspeptin receptor GPR54 were examined in the ovaries of cycling rats. Kisspeptin and dynorphin mRNAs dramatically increased at 2000 h of the proestrous day. NKB mRNA also increased, but the peak was delayed by 6 h. GPR54 mRNA declined inversely with kisspeptin. Whole-ovary expressions of kisspeptin and dynorphin mRNAs, but not of NKB mRNA, were augmented by the administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). By means of laser-capture microdissection, kisspeptin mRNA was shown mostly in follicles at 2000 h of proestrus, whereas NKB and dynorphin were expressed mainly in interstitial tissues. GPR54 mRNA was detected equally in follicles, corpora lutea, and interstitial tissues. The hCG stimulated the follicular expression of kisspeptin and interstitial tissue expression of dynorphin mRNA. In primary cultures of granulosa cells prepared from equine chorionic gonadotropin-pretreated immature rats, hCG stimulated the expression of kisspeptin, dynorphin, and NKB mRNAs. Distortion of the corpus luteum and surrounding tissue borders was sometimes seen after intra-ovarian bursa administration of kisspeptin antagonist p234 for 3 days from proestrus. Progesterone production stimulated by hCG in granulosa cell culture was suppressed by p234. These data demonstrate that significant amounts of kisspeptin are synthesized in granulosa cells and dynorphin in interstitial tissues, in response to the proestrous luteinizing hormone surge, whereas granulosa cells also contain dynorphin and NKB, suggesting at least a role for kisspeptin in the luteinization of granulosa cells. PMID:25995272

  14. Expression of antiapoptosis gene survivin in luteinized ovarian granulosa cells of women undergoing IVF or ICSI and embryo transfer: clinical correlations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of the study was to determine the incidence of survivin gene expression in human granulosa cells during ovarian stimulation in Greek women with normal FSH levels, undergoing IVF or ICSI and to discover any correlation between levels of gene expression and clinical parameters, efficacy of ovulation or outcomes of assisted reproduction. Methods Twenty nine women underwent ovulation induction for IVF or ICSI and ET with standard GnRH analogue-recombinant FSH protocol. Infertility causes were male and tubal factor. Cumulus–mature oocyte complexes were denuded and the granulosa cells were analyzed for each patient separately using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis for survivin gene expression with internal standard the ABL gene. Results The ABL and survivin mRNA were detected in granulosa cells in 93.1%. The expression levels of survivin were significantly lower in normal women (male infertility factor) compared to women with tubal infertility factor (p = 0.007). There was no additional statistically significant correlation between levels of survivin expression and estradiol levels or dosage of FSH for ovulation induction or number of dominant follicles aspirated or number of retrieved oocytes or embryo grade or clinical pregnancy rates respectively. Conclusions High levels of survivin mRNA expression in luteinized granulosa cells in cases with tubal infertility seem to protect ovaries from follicular apoptosis. A subpopulation of patients with low levels of survivin mRNA in granulosa cells might benefit with ICSI treatment to bypass possible natural barriers of sperm-oocyte interactions. PMID:22958786

  15. Overexpression of glutamate–cysteine ligase protects human COV434 granulosa tumour cells against oxidative and γ-radiation-induced cell death

    PubMed Central

    Cortes-Wanstreet, Mabel M.; Giedzinski, Erich; Limoli, Charles L.; Luderer, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is toxic to ovarian follicles and can cause infertility. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the toxicity of ionizing radiation in several cell types. We have shown that depletion of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) sensitizes follicles and granulosa cells to toxicant-induced apoptosis and that supplementation of GSH is protective. The rate-limiting reaction in GSH biosynthesis is catalysed by glutamate–cysteine ligase (GCL), which consists of a catalytic subunit (GCLC) and a regulatory subunit (GCLM). We hypothesized that overexpression of Gclc or Gclm to increase GSH synthesis would protect granulosa cells against oxidant- and radiation-induced cell death. The COV434 line of human granulosa tumour cells was stably transfected with vectors designed for the constitutive expression of Gclc, Gclm, both Gclc and Gclm or empty vector. GCL protein and enzymatic activity and total GSH levels were significantly increased in the GCL subunit-transfected cells. GCL-transfected cells were resistant to cell killing by treatment with hydrogen peroxide compared to control cells. Cell viability declined less in all the GCL subunit-transfected cell lines 1–8 h after 0.5 mM hydrogen peroxide treatment than in control cells. We next examined the effects of GCL overexpression on responses to ionizing radiation. ROS were measured using a redox-sensitive fluorogenic dye in cells irradiated with 0, 1 or 5 Gy of γ-rays. There was a dose-dependent increase in ROS within 30 min in all cell lines, an effect that was significantly attenuated in Gcl-transfected cells. Apoptosis, assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labelling and activated caspase-3 immunoblotting, was significantly decreased in irradiated Gclc-transfected cells compared to irradiated control cells. Suppression of GSH synthesis in Gclc-transfected cells reversed resistance to radiation. These findings show that

  16. MC-LR Exposure Leads to Subfertility of Female Mice and Induces Oxidative Stress in Granulosa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiang; Yuan, Mingming; Song, Yuefeng; Sun, Feng; Han, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Health risk of human exposure to microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR) has aroused more and more attention over the past few decades. In the present study, MC-LR was orally administered to female mice at 0, 1, 10 and 40 μg/L for three and six months. We found that chronic exposure to MC-LR at environmental levels could stimulate follicle atresia and lead to decreased developmental follicles, accompanied by a reduction of gonadosomatic index (GSI). In line with the irregular gonadal hormone level and estrus cycles, subfertility of female mice was also confirmed by analyzing numbers of litters and pups. The in vitro study suggested that granulosa cells could uptake MC-LR and should be the target of the toxicant. Oxidative stress in granulose cells induced by MC-LR promoted follicle atresia and eventually leads to female subfertility. PMID:26633508

  17. Toxicological effects of fumonisin B1 alone and in combination with other fusariotoxins on bovine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Albonico, Marco; Schütz, Luis F; Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina; Spicer, Leon J

    2016-08-01

    There is now overwhelming evidence of global contamination of commodities with Fusarium mycotoxins. Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a Fusarium mycotoxin frequently occurring in corn in combination with deoxynivalenol (DON), α-zearalenol (α-ZEA) and β-zearalenol (β-ZEA). The aim of this study was to determine if FB1, alone and combined with DON or α-ZEA or β-ZEA, can affect cell proliferation and steroid production of bovine granulosa cells (GC). A species-specific model with bovine granulosa cells (GC) was used to study the potential endocrine disruptor effects of FB1 alone and in co-exposure. In the presence of β-ZEA (30 ng/mL), FB1 at 30 ng/mL showed a stimulatory effect on GC numbers. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1)-stimulated cell proliferation was decreased after exposure to β-ZEA alone at 5.0 μg/mL and FB1 with α-ZEA and β-ZEA at the same concentration. Regarding steroid production, FB1 at 30 ng/mL and 100 ng/mL amplified the inhibitory effect of β-ZEA (30 ng/mL) on estradiol (E2) production, while FB1 alone increased (P < 0.05) IGF1-induced E2 production. α-ZEA alone decreased (P < 0.05) E2 production, whereas β-ZEA alone and in combination with FB1 decreased (P < 0.05) E2 production. These studies indicate for the first time that the Fusarium mycotoxin FB1 along with other mycotoxins can affect GC proliferation and steroid production, which ultimately could influence reproductive function in cattle. PMID:27108238

  18. Phosphoramide mustard exposure induces DNA adduct formation and the DNA damage repair response in rat ovarian granulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ganesan, Shanthi Keating, Aileen F.

    2015-02-01

    Phosphoramide mustard (PM), the ovotoxic metabolite of the anti-cancer agent cyclophosphamide (CPA), destroys rapidly dividing cells by forming NOR-G-OH, NOR-G and G-NOR-G adducts with DNA, potentially leading to DNA damage. A previous study demonstrated that PM induces ovarian DNA damage in rat ovaries. To investigate whether PM induces DNA adduct formation, DNA damage and induction of the DNA repair response, rat spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells (SIGCs) were treated with vehicle control (1% DMSO) or PM (3 or 6 μM) for 24 or 48 h. Cell viability was reduced (P < 0.05) after 48 h of exposure to 3 or 6 μM PM. The NOR-G-OH DNA adduct was detected after 24 h of 6 μM PM exposure, while the more cytotoxic G-NOR-G DNA adduct was formed after 48 h by exposure to both PM concentrations. Phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX), a marker of DNA double stranded break occurrence, was also increased by PM exposure, coincident with DNA adduct formation. Additionally, induction of genes (Atm, Parp1, Prkdc, Xrcc6, and Brca1) and proteins (ATM, γH2AX, PARP-1, PRKDC, XRCC6, and BRCA1) involved in DNA repair were observed in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. These data support that PM induces DNA adduct formation in ovarian granulosa cells, induces DNA damage and elicits the ovarian DNA repair response. - Highlights: • PM forms ovarian DNA adducts. • DNA damage marker γH2AX increased by PM exposure. • PM induces ovarian DNA double strand break repair.

  19. Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide-2 Attenuation of Protein Kinase C-Induced Inflammation in Human Ovarian Granulosa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Yi-Ning; Sun, David; Peng, Yen-Chun; Wu, Yuh-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) are two important inflammatory mediators in ovulation. Ghrelin may modulate inflammatory signaling via growth hormone secretagogue receptors. We investigated the role of ghrelin in KGN human ovarian granulosa cells using protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12, 13-didecanoate (PDD) and synthetic ghrelin analog growth hormone releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2). GHRP-2 attenuated PDD-induced expression of protein and mRNA, the promoter activity of COX-2 and IL-8 genes, and the secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and IL-8. GHRP-2 promoted the degradation of PDD-induced COX-2 and IL-8 proteins with the involvement of proteasomal and lysosomal pathways. PDD-mediated COX-2 production acts via the p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) pathways; PDD-mediated IL-8 production acts via the p38, JNK and ERK pathways. GHRP-2 reduced the PDD-induced phosphorylation of p38 and JNK and activator protein 1 (AP-1) reporter activation and PDD-induced NF-κB nuclear translocation and reporter activation. The inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) and protein phosphatase 2 (PP2A) reduced the inhibitory effect of GHRP-2 on PDD-induced COX-2 and IL-8 expression. Our findings demonstrate an anti-inflammatory role for ghrelin (GHRP-2) in PKC-mediated inflammation of granulosa cells, at least in part, due to its inhibitory effect on PKC-induced activation of p38, JNK and NF-κB, possibly by targeting to MKP-1 and PP2A. PMID:27548147

  20. Paclitaxel and Carboplatin or Bleomycin Sulfate, Etoposide Phosphate, and Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Advanced or Recurrent Sex Cord-Ovarian Stromal Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-16

    Ovarian Granulosa Cell Tumor; Ovarian Gynandroblastoma; Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor; Ovarian Sex Cord Tumor With Annular Tubules; Ovarian Sex Cord-Stromal Tumor; Ovarian Sex Cord-Stromal Tumor of Mixed or Unclassified Cell Types; Ovarian Steroid Cell Tumor

  1. High concentration of insulin promotes apoptosis of primary cultured rat ovarian granulosa cells via its increase in extracellular HMGB1.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xiao-Rong; Sun, Zhou-Jun; Hu, Guo-Hua; Wang, Rong-Hui

    2015-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age. Insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia is a prevalent finding in women with PCOS, which indicates that insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia may be an important player in the pathogenesis of the PCOS. However, the underlying mechanism of insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia on the pathogenesis of the PCOS remains elusive. In this study, we found an increased high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in the serum from women with PCOS having insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia. Furthermore, we discovered that high concentration of insulin, which mimics insulin resistance model, promoted apoptosis in primary cultured rat ovarian granulosa cells (GCs) via its effect on the increase in extracellular HMGB1. Our data presented the first evidence that increased HMGB1 induced by insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia promoted apoptosis of ovarian GCs, which provided new molecular basis for the PCOS pathogenesis. PMID:25228632

  2. The global effect of follicle-stimulating hormone and tumour necrosis factor α on gene expression in cultured bovine ovarian granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Oocytes mature in ovarian follicles surrounded by granulosa cells. During follicle growth, granulosa cells replicate and secrete hormones, particularly steroids close to ovulation. However, most follicles cease growing and undergo atresia or regression instead of ovulating. To investigate the effects of stimulatory (follicle-stimulating hormone; FSH) and inhibitory (tumour necrosis factor alpha; TNFα) factors on the granulosa cell transcriptome, bovine ovaries were obtained from a local abattoir and pools of granulosa cells were cultured in vitro for six days under defined serum-free conditions with treatments present on days 3–6. Initially dose–response experiments (n = 4) were performed to determine the optimal concentrations of FSH (0.33 ng/ml) and TNFα (10 ng/ml) to be used for the microarray experiments. For array experiments cells were cultured under control conditions, with FSH, with TNFα, or with FSH plus TNFα (n = 4 per group) and RNA was harvested for microarray analyses. Results Statistical analysis showed primary clustering of the arrays into two groups, control/FSH and TNFα/TNFα plus FSH. The effect of TNFα on gene expression dominated that of FSH, with substantially more genes differentially regulated, and the pathways and genes regulated by TNFα being similar to those of FSH plus TNFα treatment. TNFα treatment reduced the endocrine activity of granulosa cells with reductions in expression of FST, INHA, INBA and AMH. The top-ranked canonical pathways and GO biological terms for the TNFα treatments included antigen presentation, inflammatory response and other pathways indicative of innate immune function and fibrosis. The two most significant networks also reflect this, containing molecules which are present in the canonical pathways of hepatic fibrosis/hepatic stellate cell activation and transforming growth factor β signalling, and these were up regulated. Upstream regulator analyses also predicted TNF, interferons γ and

  3. Modulation of Cx43 and Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication by Androstenedione in Rat Polycystic Ovary and Granulosa Cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Talhouk, Rabih; Tarraf, Charbel; Kobrossy, Laila; Shaito, Abdallah; Bazzi, Samer; Bazzoun, Dana; El-Sabban, Marwan

    2012-01-01

    Background Gap-junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) is implicated in physicological processes and it is vitally important for granulosa cell (GC) differentiation and oocyte growth. We investigated the expression of connexin 43 (Cx43), a gap junctional protein, in normal and androstenedione-induced polycystic ovary (PCO), the effects of androstenedione on Cx43 expression, GJIC and progesterone production in granulosa cells in vitro. Methods Isolated GCs from rat ovary were supplemented with FSH and dripped with EHS-matrix (EHS-drip) in culture media, were treated with physiological (10−7 M) or pathological (10−5 M) androstenedione concentrations to induce differentiation. Cx43 protein levels were assessed by Western blotting. Immunohistochemistry was also used to determine the localization of Cx43 in GCs and corpus luteum (CL) of controls and PCOs. Differentiation of GCs was determined by progesterone assay and Lucifer yellow dye transfer for GJIC status. The degree of significance of variations between the results was analyzed by ANOVA using SPSS (version 11.5; 2002). Results Cx43 localized in the GC layer of both the control and PCOs. Its protein levels were upregulated in PCO rat ovaries. GCs in culture with or without androstenedione had a punctate membranous distribution of Cx43. However, androstenedione increased GJIC and upregulated progesterone and Cx43 protein levels. Inhibiting GJIC by 18-α GA in androstenedione-treated GCs caused partial inhibition of progesterone production, suggesting a possible role of GJIC in mediating the action of androstenedione on GC differentiation. Conclusion This study presented a suitable culture model for polycystic ovary syndrome and showed that Cx43 and GJIC might contribute to the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome. PMID:23926521

  4. Dietary omega-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids affect the composition and development of sheep granulosa cells, oocytes and embryos.

    PubMed

    Wonnacott, K E; Kwong, W Y; Hughes, J; Salter, A M; Lea, R G; Garnsworthy, P C; Sinclair, K D

    2010-01-01

    The evidence that omega-3 (n-3) and -6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have differential effects on ovarian function, oocytes and embryo quality is inconsistent. We report on the effects of n-3 versus n-6 PUFA-enriched diets fed to 36 ewes over a 6-week period, prior to ovarian stimulation and follicular aspiration, on ovarian steroidogenic parameters and embryo quality. Follicle number and size were unaltered by diet, but follicular-fluid progesterone concentrations were greater in n-3 PUFA-fed ewes than in n-6 PUFA-fed ewes. The percentage of saturated FAs (mostly stearic acid) was greater in oocytes than in either granulosa cells or plasma, indicating selective uptake and/or de novo synthesis of saturated FAs at the expense of PUFAs by oocytes. High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) fractionated from sera of these ewes increased granulosa cell proliferation and steroidogenesis relative to the FA-free BSA control during culture, but there was no differential effect of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on either oestradiol or progesterone production. HDL was ineffective in delivering FAs to embryos during culture, although n-6 PUFA HDL reduced embryo development. All blastocysts, irrespective of the treatment, contained high levels of unsaturated FAs, in particular linoleic acid. Transcripts for HDL and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors (SCARB1 and LDLR) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) are reported in sheep embryos. HDL reduced the expression of transcripts for LDLR and SCD relative to the BSA control. The data support a differential effect of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on ovarian steroidogenesis and pre-implantation development, the latter in the absence of a net uptake of FAs. PMID:19789173

  5. Canine mast cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Macy, D W

    1985-07-01

    Despite the fact that the mast cell tumor is a common neoplasm of the dog, we still have only a meager understanding of its etiology and biologic behavior. Many of the published recommendations for treatment are based on opinion rather than facts derived from careful studies and should be viewed with some skepticism. Because of the infrequent occurrence of this tumor in man, only a limited amount of help can be expected from human oncologists; therefore, burden of responsibility for progress in predicting behavior and developing treatment effective for canine mast cell tumors must fall on the shoulders of the veterinary profession. PMID:3929444

  6. Influence of FSH and hCG on the resumption of meiosis of bovine oocytes surrounded by cumulus cells connected to membrana granulosa.

    PubMed

    van Tol, H T; van Eijk, M J; Mummery, C L; van den Hurk, R; Bevers, M M

    1996-10-01

    Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) and cumulus oocyte complexes connected to a piece of the membrane granulosa (COCGs) were isolated from bovine antral follicles with a diameter of 2 to 8 mm. After culture of COCGs without gonadotrophic hormones for 22 hr approximately 50% of the oocytes were still in the germinal vesicle (GV) stage. Histology of the COCGs showed that the pieces of the membrana granulosa were free of thecal cells and parts of the basal membrane. This indicates that the membrana granulosa solely inhibits the progression of meiosis. To investigate the effect of gonadotropins on the resumption of meiosis of oocytes from small and medium sized antral follicles, COCs and COCGs were cultured with or without rec-hFSH or hCG. Addition of 0.05 IU rec-hFSH to the culture medium of COCGs resulted in germinal vesicle breakdown in 97.8% of the oocytes compared to 46% in the control group, and an increase of the diameter of the COCs (479 microns vs. 240 microns in the control group). Addition of 0.05 IU hCG to the culture medium had no effect on nuclear maturation (47.2% GV vs. 48.5% GV in the control group) nor on cumulus expansion (246 microns vs. 240 microns in the control group). RT-PCR on cDNA of the follicular wall, cumulus cells, granulosa cells, COCs, and oocytes revealed that mRNA for FSH receptor was present in all cell types except oocytes. mRNA of the LH receptor was detected exclusively in thecal cells. Nucleotide sequence analysis and alignment of the cloned PCR products showed the presence of two isoforms of the FSH receptor mRNA and two isoforms of the LH receptor mRNA. It is concluded that, in vitro, resumption of meiosis of oocytes, originating from small and medium sized antral follicles and meiotically arrested by the membrana granulosa, is triggered by FSH and not by LH. This is supported by the fact that receptors for FSH, but not for LH, are transcribed in the cumulus and granulosa cells of these follicles. PMID:8914080

  7. Brain tumor stem cells.

    PubMed

    Palm, Thomas; Schwamborn, Jens C

    2010-06-01

    Since the end of the 'no-new-neuron' theory, emerging evidence from multiple studies has supported the existence of stem cells in neurogenic areas of the adult brain. Along with this discovery, neural stem cells became candidate cells being at the origin of brain tumors. In fact, it has been demonstrated that molecular mechanisms controlling self-renewal and differentiation are shared between brain tumor stem cells and neural stem cells and that corruption of genes implicated in these pathways can direct tumor growth. In this regard, future anticancer approaches could be inspired by uncovering such redundancies and setting up treatments leading to exhaustion of the cancer stem cell pool. However, deleterious effects on (normal) neural stem cells should be minimized. Such therapeutic models underline the importance to study the cellular mechanisms implicated in fate decisions of neural stem cells and the oncogenic derivation of adult brain cells. In this review, we discuss the putative origins of brain tumor stem cells and their possible implications on future therapies. PMID:20370314

  8. Expression and localization of ghrelin and its receptor in ovarian follicles during different stages of development and the modulatory effect of ghrelin on granulosa cells function in buffalo.

    PubMed

    Gupta, M; Dangi, S S; Singh, G; Sarkar, M

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin, a hormone predominantly found in the stomach, was recently described as a factor that controls female reproductive function. The aim of our study was to investigate the expression and localization of ghrelin and its active receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a) in buffalo ovarian follicles of different follicular size and to investigate role of ghrelin on estradiol (E2) secretion, aromatase (CYP19A1), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and apoptosis regulator Bax gene expression on granulosa cell culture. Using real time PCR and western blot, we measured gene and protein expression of examined factors. Localization was done with immunofluorescence method. Expression of ghrelin increased with follicle size with significantly highest in dominant or pre-ovulatory follicle (P<0.05). Expression of GHS-R1a was comparable in medium and large follicle but was higher than small follicles (P<0.05). Both the factors were localized in granulosa and theca cells. Pattern of intensity of immunofluorescence was similar with mRNA and protein expression. In the in vitro study granulosa cells (GCs) were cultured and treated with ghrelin each at 1, 10 and 100ng/ml concentrations for two days after obtaining 75-80 per cent confluence. Ghrelin treatment significantly (P<0.05) inhibited E2 secretion, CYP19A1 expression, apoptosis and promoted cell proliferation. In conclusion, this study provides novel evidence for the presence of ghrelin and receptor GHS-R1a in ovarian follilcles and modulatory role of ghrelin on granulosa cell function in buffalo. PMID:25275756

  9. Luteinizing Hormone Receptor-Stimulated Progesterone Production by Preovulatory Granulosa Cells Requires Protein Kinase A-Dependent Activation/Dephosphorylation of the Actin Dynamizing Protein Cofilin

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Amelia B.; Maizels, Evelyn T.; Flynn, Maxfield P.; Jones, Jonathan C.; Shelden, Eric A.; Bamburg, James R.; Hunzicker-Dunn, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Activation of the LH receptor (LHR) on preovulatory granulosa cells stimulates the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway to regulate expression of genes required for ovulation and luteinization. LHR signaling also initiates rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton. Because disruption of the actin cytoskeleton has been causally linked to steroidogenesis in various cell models, we sought to identify the cellular mechanisms that may modulate reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and to determine whether cytoskeletal reorganization is required for steroidogenesis. Herein we report that LHR signaling in preovulatory granulosa cells promotes rapid dephosphorylation of the actin-depolymerizing factor cofilin at Ser3 that is dependent on PKA. The LHR-stimulated dephosphorylation of cofilin(Ser3) switches on cofilin activity to bind actin filaments and enhance their dynamics. Basal phosphorylation of cofilin(Ser3) is mediated by active/GTP-bound Rho and downstream protein kinases; LHR signaling promotes a decrease in active/GTP-bound Rho by a PKA-dependent mechanism. LHR-dependent Rho inactivation and subsequent activation of cofilin does not involve ERK, epidermal growth factor receptor, or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways downstream of PKA. To understand the biological significance of cofilin activation, preovulatory granulosa cells were transduced with a mutant cofilin adenoviral vector in which Ser3 was mutated to Glu (S-E cofilin). Inactive S-E cofilin abolished LHR-mediated reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and caused a 70% decrease in LHR-stimulated progesterone that is obligatory for ovulation. Taken together, these results show that LHR signaling via PKA activates a cofilin-regulated rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton and that active cofilin is required to initiate progesterone secretion by preovulatory granulosa cells. PMID:20610540

  10. Testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Looijenga, Leendert H J

    2014-02-01

    Human germ cell tumors are of interest because of their epidemiology, clinical behavior and pathobiology. Histologically, they are subdivided into various elements, with similarities to embryogenesis. Recent insights resulted in a division of five types of human germ cell tumors. In the context of male germ cells, three are relevant; Type I: teratomas and yolk sac tumors of neonates and infants; Type II: seminomas and nonseminomas of (predominantly) adolescents and adults; and Type III: spermatocytic seminomas of the elderly. Recent studies led to significant increases in understanding of the parameters involved in the earliest pathogenetic steps of human germ cells tumors, in particularly the seminomas and nonseminomas (Type II). In case of a disturbed gonadal physiology, either due to the germ cell itself, or the micro-environment, embryonic germ cells during a specific window of sensitization can be blocked in their maturation, resulting in carcinoma in situ or gonadoblastoma, the precursors of seminomas and nonseminomas. The level of testicularization of the gonad determines the histological composition of the precursor. These insights will allow better definition of individuals at risk to develop a germ cell malignancy, with putative preventive measurements, and allow better selection of scientific approaches to elucidate the pathogenesis. PMID:24683949

  11. Differential responsiveness of luteinized human granulosa cells to gonadotropins and insulin-like growth factor I for induction of aromatase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Christman, G.M.; Randolph, J.F. Jr.; Peegel, H.; Menon, K.M. )

    1991-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the in vitro responsiveness of cultured luteinized human granulosa cells over time to insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), human follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for the induction of aromatase activity. Granulosa cells were retrieved from preovulatory follicles in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization. Cells were cultured for a period of 72 hours or 10 days. The ability of hCG, human FSH, and/or IGF-I to induce aromatase activity was assayed by the stereospecific release of tritium from (1B-3H)androstenedione. Short-term cultures (72 hours) demonstrated a marked rise in aromatase activity in response to human FSH and IGF-I, whereas a smaller response to hCG was observed. In contrast, 10-day cultures demonstrated responsiveness predominantly to hCG rather than human FSH for the induction of aromatase activity with no remarkable effect of IGF-I. Luteinized human granulosa cells undergo a transformation from an initial human FSH and IGF-I responsive state to an hCG responsive state in long-term cultures.

  12. Sphingosine-1-phosphate induces COX-2 expression and PGE2 production in human granulosa cells through a S1P1/3-mediated YAP signaling.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jung-Chien; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Liu, Pang-Pin; Leung, Peter C K

    2016-06-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid that can regulate various physiological and pathological processes. The expression of S1P has been detected in human follicular fluid. In addition, two S1P receptors, S1P1 and S1P3, are expressed at a high level in human granulosa cells. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production plays a critical role in the regulation of ovulation. However, thus far, the effect of S1P on COX-2 expression and PGE2 production in human granulosa cells remains unknown. In the present study, our results demonstrated that treatment with S1P significantly induced COX-2, but not COX-1, expression and increased PGE2 production in human granulosa cells. The stimulatory effects of S1P on COX-2 expression and PGE2 production were attenuated by treatment with specific antagonist of S1P1 or S1P3 and siRNA-mediated knockdown of S1P1 or S1P3. In addition, the COX-2 expression was induced by S1P1 or S1P3 agonist treatment. Interestingly, treatment with S1P activated YAP signaling via S1P1 and S1P3. Moreover, knockdown of YAP partially attenuated S1P-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production. These results provide evidence that S1P induces COX-2 expression and PGE2 production in human granulosa cells through a S1P1/3-mediated YAP signaling pathway. PMID:26994820

  13. hCG-induced Sprouty2 mediates amphiregulin-stimulated COX-2/PGE2 up-regulation in human granulosa cells: a potential mechanism for the OHSS

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jung-Chien; Fang, Lanlan; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Sun, Ying-Pu; Leung, Peter C. K.

    2016-01-01

    Sprouty2 (SPRY2) is an important intracellular regulator for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated ERK1/2 signaling. In human granulosa cells, although SPRY2 is expressed, its regulation and function remains complete unknown and must be defined. Our previous study has shown that human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)/luteinizing hormone (LH) up-regulates the expression levels of EGF-like growth factor, amphiregulin (AREG), which subsequently contributes to the hCG/LH-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of hCG on SPRY2 expression and the role of hCG-induced SPRY2 in AREG-stimulated COX-2 expression and PGE2 production in human granulosa cells. Our results demonstrated that the expression of SPRY2 was up-regulated by hCG treatment. Using pharmacological inhibitors and siRNA knockdown, we showed that activation of ERK1/2 signaling was required for hCG-induced up-regulation of SPRY2 expression. Further, SPRY2 knockdown attenuated the AREG-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production by inhibiting AREG-activated ERK1/2 signaling. Interestingly, we showed that SPRY2 expression levels were significantly increased in granulosa cells of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) patients. These results for the first time elucidate the physiological roles of SPRY2 in human granulosa cells and suggest that aberrant expression of SPRY2 may contribute to the pathogenesis of OHSS. PMID:27539669

  14. Growth Differentiation Factor-8 Decreases StAR Expression Through ALK5-Mediated Smad3 and ERK1/2 Signaling Pathways in Luteinized Human Granulosa Cells.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lanlan; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Yu, Yiping; Leung, Peter C K; Sun, Ying-Pu

    2015-12-01

    Growth differentiation factor-8 (GDF-8) has been recently shown to be expressed in human granulosa cells, and the mature form of GDF-8 protein can be detected in the follicular fluid. However, the biological function and significance of this growth factor in the human ovary remains to be determined. Here, we investigated the effects of GDF-8 on steroidogenic enzyme expression and the potential mechanisms of action in luteinized human granulosa cells. We demonstrated that treatment with GDF-8 did not affect the mRNA levels of P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, whereas it significantly down-regulated steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression and decreased progesterone production. The suppressive effect of GDF-8 on StAR expression was abolished by the inhibition of the TGF-β type I receptor. In addition, treatment with GDF-8 activated both Smad2/3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. Furthermore, knockdown of activin receptor-like kinase 5 reversed the effects of GDF-8 on Smad2/3 phosphorylation and StAR expression. The inhibition of Smad3 or ERK1/2 signaling pathways attenuated the GDF-8-induced down-regulation of StAR and production of progesterone. Interestingly, the concentrations of GDF-8 were negatively correlated with those of progesterone in human follicular fluid. These results indicate a novel autocrine function of GDF-8 to down-regulate StAR expression and decrease progesterone production in luteinized human granulosa cells, most likely through activin receptor-like kinase 5-mediated Smad3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. Our findings suggest that granulosa cells might play a critical role in the regulation of progesterone production to prevent premature luteinization during the final stage of folliculogenesis. PMID:26393302

  15. Ovotoxic Effects of Galactose Involve Attenuation of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Bioactivity and Up-Regulation of Granulosa Cell p53 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sayani; Chakraborty, Pratip; Saha, Piyali; Bandyopadhyay, Soma Aditya; Banerjee, Sutapa; Kabir, Syed N.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical evidence suggests an association between galactosaemia and premature ovarian insufficiency (POI); however, the mechanism still remains unresolved. Experimental galactose toxicity in rats produces an array of ovarian dysfunction including ovarian development with deficient follicular reserve and follicular resistance to gonadotrophins that characterize the basic tenets of human POI. The present investigation explores if galactose toxicity in rats attenuates the bioactivity of gonadotrophins or interferes with their receptor competency, and accelerates the rate of follicular atresia. Pregnant rats were fed isocaloric food-pellets supplemented with or without 35% D-galactose from day-3 of gestation and continuing through weaning of the litters. The 35-day old female litters were autopsied. Serum galactose-binding capacity, galactosyltransferase (GalTase) activity, and bioactivity of FSH and LH together with their receptor competency were assessed. Ovarian follicular atresia was evaluated in situ by TUNEL. The in vitro effects of galactose were studied in isolated whole follicles in respect of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and expression of caspase 3, and in isolated granulosa cells in respect of mitochondrial membrane potential, expression of p53, and apoptosis. The rats prenatally exposed to galactose exhibited significantly decreased serum GalTase activity and greater degree of galactose-incorporation capacity of sera proteins. LH biopotency and LH-FSH receptor competency were comparable between the control and study population, but the latter group showed significantly attenuated FSH bioactivity and increased rate of follicular atresia. In culture, galactose increased follicular generation of ROS and expression of caspase 3. In isolated granulosa cells, galactose disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential, stimulated p53 expression, and induced apoptosis in vitro; however co-treatment with either FSH or estradiol significantly prevented

  16. Leptin exerts proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects on goose granulosa cells through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wen, Rui; Hu, Shenqiang; Xiao, Qihai; Han, Chunchun; Gan, Chao; Gou, Hua; Liu, Hehe; Li, Liang; Xu, Hengyong; He, Hua; Wang, Jiwen

    2015-05-01

    Leptin was known as a pivotal regulator for the control of food intake and energy expenditure. However, leptin has also been found to be involved in the regulation of female reproductive system through interactions with pathways in the hypothalamic-hypophyseal axis and direct action at the ovarian level. In the present study, granulosa cells from goose ovarian preovulatory (F1-F3) follicles were cultured with leptin (0, 1, 10 or 100ng/ml). The proliferative and anti-apoptotic actions of leptin in granulosa cells were revealed by CCK-8, BrdU and TUNEL assays. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analyses further indicated that leptin treatment led to increased expression of cyclin D1, cyclin D2, cyclin D3 and bcl-2, and decreased expression of p21 and caspase-3. The effects were involved in the activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, as leptin treatment enhanced the expression of PI3K, Akt1, Akt2, Raptor, mTOR, S6K and p-S6K. Moreover, blockade of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway attenuated the influences of leptin on proliferation and apoptosis of granulosa cells, considering that activated factors by leptin were inhibited in the presence of either 20μM LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) or 10μM rapamycin (an mTOR inhibitor). In addition, leptin had a modulatory effect on the expression of its receptor at the transcriptional and translational levels, and blockade of PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibited both basal and leptin-induced Lepr gene and protein expression. These findings suggest that leptin exerts its proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects on goose granulosa cells through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway via interaction with its receptor. PMID:25576904

  17. Expression and regulative function of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 in the goat ovary and its role in cultured granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jiayin; Xin, Haiyun; Han, Peng; Gao, Kexin; Gao, Teyang; Lei, Yingnan; Ji, Shengyue; An, Xiaopeng; Cao, Binyun

    2015-09-01

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3) played a key role in female reproduction. However, its expression and function in goat are still unclear. In the present study, the full-length cDNA of goat TIMP3 was cloned from adult goat ovary; meanwhile, we demonstrated that putative TIMP3 protein shared a highly conserved amino acid sequence with known mammalian homologs. Real-time PCR results showed that TIMP3 was widely expressed in the tissues of adult goat. In the ovary, increasing expression of TIMP3 mRNA was discovered during the growth process of follicle and corpus luteum. Immunohistochemistry results suggested that TIMP3 protein existed in oocytes of all types of follicles, corpus luteum and granulosa and theca cells of primary, secondary, and antral but not primordial follicles. In vitro, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulated the expression of TIMP3 in goat granulosa cells. hCG-induced TIMP3 mRNA expression was reduced by the inhibitors of protein kinase A, protein kinase C, MAPK kinase, or p38 kinase. Functionally, over-expression of TIMP3 significantly increased apoptosis and decreased the viability of cultured granulosa cells. Knockdown of TIMP3 could decrease hCG-induced progesterone secretion and the mRNA abundance of key steroidogenic enzymes (StAR, p450scc and HSD3B) as well as ECM proteins (DCN and FN). These findings provided evidence that the hCG induced expression of TIMP3 may play an important role in regulating goat granulosa cell survival and steroidogenesis. PMID:26054746

  18. Morphological and molecular changes of human granulosa cells exposed to 5-azacytidine and addressed toward muscular differentiation.

    PubMed

    Brevini, Tiziana A L; Pennarossa, Georgia; Rahman, Mahbubur M; Paffoni, Alessio; Antonini, Stefania; Ragni, Guido; deEguileor, Magda; Tettamanti, Gianluca; Gandolfi, Fulvio

    2014-10-01

    Converting adult cells from one cell type to another is a particularly interesting idea for regenerative medicine. Terminally differentiated cells can be induced to de-differentiate in vitro to become multipotent progenitors. In mammals these changes do not occur naturally, however exposing differentiated adult cells to synthetic molecules capable of selectively reverting cells from their lineage commitment to a more plastic state makes it possible to re-address their fate. Only scattered information are available on the morphological changes and ultrastructural remodeling taking place when cells convert into a different and specific type. To better clarify these aspects, we derived human granulosa cell (GC) primary cultures and analyzed the morphological changes taking place in response to the exposure to the epigenetic modifier 5-azacytidine (5-aza-CR) and to the treatment with VEGF, as a stimulus for inducing differentiation into muscle cells. Ultrastructural modifications and molecular marker expression were analyzed at different intervals during the treatments. Our results indicate that the temporary up regulation of pluripotency markers is accompanied by the loss of GC-specific ultrastructural features, mainly through autophagocitosis, and is associated with a temporary chromatin decondensation. After exposure to VEGF the induction of muscle specific genes was combined with the appearance of multinucleated cells with a considerable quantity of non-spatially organized filaments. The detailed analysis of the morphological changes occurring in cells undergoing lineage re-addressing allows a better understanding of these process and may prove useful for refining the use of somatic cells in regenerative medicine and tissue replacement therapies. PMID:24858410

  19. SMARCA4 (BRG1) loss of expression is a useful marker for the diagnosis of ovarian small cell carcinoma of the hypercalcemic type (ovarian rhabdoid tumor): a comprehensive analysis of 116 rare gynecologic tumors, 9 soft tissue tumors, and 9 melanomas.

    PubMed

    Karanian-Philippe, Marie; Velasco, Valérie; Longy, Michel; Floquet, Anne; Arnould, Laurent; Coindre, Jean-Michel; Le Naoures-Méar, Cécile; Averous, Gerlinde; Guyon, Frédéric; MacGrogan, Gaëtan; Croce, Sabrina

    2015-09-01

    Ovarian small cell carcinoma of the hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT)/ovarian rhabdoid tumor is a rare and highly malignant tumor that typically occurs in young women. Up until now the diagnosis has been made on the basis of morphology without any specific immunohistochemical (IHC) markers. However, several authors have shown recently that SCCOHTs are characterized by inactivation of the SMARCA4 gene (encoding the BRG1 protein) resulting in a loss of BRG1 protein expression in IHC. We evaluated BRG1 and INI1 expression in 12 SCCOHTs and in a series of 122 tumors that could mimic SCCOHT morphologically: 9 juvenile granulosa cell tumors, 47 adult granulosa cell tumors, 33 high-grade ovarian serous carcinomas, 9 desmoplastic round cell tumors, 13 Ewing sarcomas (5 from the pelvis and 8 from soft tissues), 1 round cell sarcoma associated with CIC-DUX4 translocation from soft tissue (thigh), 1 case of high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma of the ovary, and 9 melanomas. Forty-four adult granulosa cell tumors were interpretable by IHC. All 12 SCCOHTs were devoid of BRG1 expression and expressed INI1. All other interpretable 119 tumors showed BRG1 nuclear positivity, with variable staining proportions, ranging from 10% to 100% of positive cells (mean: 77%, median: 80%), variable intensities (weak: 5%, moderate: 37%, strong: 58%), and distributions: diffuse in 82 cases (70%) and heterogenous in 36 cases (30%). BRG1 positivity was heterogenous in desmoplastic round cell tumors and adult granulosa cell tumors. Overall, BRG1 is a useful diagnostic marker in SCCOHT, showing the absence of expression in SCCOHT. Nevertheless, the possible heterogeneity and the variable intensity of this staining warrant caution in the interpretation of BRG1 staining in biopsy specimens. PMID:26135561

  20. Altered glycosylation in tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Reading, C.L. ); Hakomori, S. ); Marcus, D.M. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceeding on the following: Glycoconjugates of normal and tumor cells; Glycosyltransferases in normal and neoplastic cells; Mammalian lectins of normal tissues and tumor cells; and Immune recognition of carbohydrates and clinical applications.

  1. Impact of the LH surge on granulosa cell transcript levels as markers of oocyte developmental competence in cattle.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Isabelle; Robert, Claude; Vigneault, Christian; Blondin, Patrick; Sirard, Marc-André

    2012-06-01

    In the case of in vitro embryonic production, it is known that not all oocytes detain the developmental capacity to form an embryo. This capacity appears to be acquired through completion of folliculogenesis, during which the oocyte and follicular cells influence their respective destinies. The differentiation status of granulosa cells (GCs) could therefore offer an indicator of oocyte quality. The aim of this study was to compare mRNA transcript abundance in GCs associated with oocytes that subsequently reach or not the blastocyst stage. GCs were collected from cattle following an ovarian stimulation protocol that did or did not include the administration of LH. GCs were classified according to the developmental stage achieved by the associated oocytes. Transcript abundance was measured by microarray. Follicles (n=189) obtained from cows before and after the LH surge were essentially similar and the rates of oocytes reaching the blastocyst stage were not significantly different (52 vs 41%), but blastocyst quality was significantly better in the post-LH-surge group. In GCs from the pre-LH-surge group and associated with developmentally competent oocytes, 18 overexpressed and 22 underexpressed transcripts were found, including novel uncharacterized transcripts, whereas no differentially expressed transcripts were associated with developmentally different oocytes in the post-LH-surge group. The novel transcriptomic response associated with LH appeared to mask the difference. Based on oocyte developmental competence, the period prior to the LH surge appears best suited for studying competence-associated mRNA transcripts in bovine follicle cells. PMID:22457433

  2. Tumor heterogeneity and circulating tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chufeng; Guan, Yan; Sun, Yulan; Ai, Dan; Guo, Qisen

    2016-05-01

    In patients with cancer, individualized treatment strategies are generally guided by an analysis of molecular biomarkers. However, genetic instability allows tumor cells to lose monoclonality and acquire genetic heterogeneity, an important characteristic of tumors, during disease progression. Researchers have found that there is tumor heterogeneity between the primary tumor and metastatic lesions, between different metastatic lesions, and even within a single tumor (either primary or metastatic). Tumor heterogeneity is associated with heterogeneous protein functions, which lowers diagnostic precision and consequently becomes an obstacle to determining the appropriate therapeutic strategies for individual cancer patients. With the development of novel testing technologies, an increasing number of studies have attempted to explore tumor heterogeneity by examining circulating tumor cells (CTCs), with the expectation that CTCs may comprehensively represent the full spectrum of mutations and/or protein expression alterations present in the cancer. In addition, this strategy represents a minimally invasive approach compared to traditional tissue biopsies that can be used to dynamically monitor tumor evolution. The present article reviews the potential efficacy of using CTCs to identify both spatial and temporal tumor heterogeneity. This review also highlights current issues in this field and provides an outlook toward future applications of CTCs. PMID:26902424

  3. Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component-1 (PGRMC1) and PGRMC-2 Interact to Suppress Entry into the Cell Cycle in Spontaneously Immortalized Rat Granulosa Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Peluso, John J.; Griffin, Daniel; Liu, Xiufang; Horne, Meghan

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) and PGRMC2 are expressed in rat granulosa cells and spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells (SIGCs) but their biological roles are not well defined. The present studies demonstrate that depleting either Pgrmc1 or Pgrmc2 in SIGCs increases entry into the cell cycle but does not increase cell proliferation. Rather, PGRMC1 and/or PGRMC2-deplete cells accumulate in metaphase and undergo apoptosis. Because both PGRMC1 and PGRMC2 localize to the mitotic spindle, their absence likely accounts for cells arresting in metaphase. Moreover, pull-down assays, colocalization studies and in situ proximity ligation assays (PLA) indicate that PGRMC1 binds PGRMC2. Disrupting the PGRMC1:PGRMC2 complex through the use of siRNA or the cytoplasmic delivery of a PGRMC2 antibody increases entry into the cell cycle. Conversely, overexpressing either PGRMC1-GFP or GFP-PGRMC2 fusion protein inhibits entry into the cell cycle. Subsequent studies reveal that depleting PGRMC1 and/or PGRMC2 reduces the percentage of cells in G0 and increases the percentage of cells in G1. These observations indicate that in addition to their role at metaphase, PGRMC1 and PGRMC2 are involved in regulating entry into the G1 stage of the cell cycle. Interestingly, both PGRMC1 and PGRMC2 bind GTPase-activating protein-binding protein 2 (G3BP2) as demonstrated by pull-down assays, colocalization assays, and PLAs. G3bp2 siRNA treatment also promotes entry into the G1 stage. This implies that dynamic changes in the interaction among PGRMC1, PGRMC2, and G3BP2 play an important protein regulating the rate at which SIGCs enter into the cell cycle. PMID:25253729

  4. Flow cytometric analysis of FSHR, BMRR1B, LHR and apoptosis in granulosa cells and ovulation rate in merino sheep.

    PubMed

    Regan, Sheena L P; McFarlane, James R; O'Shea, Tim; Andronicos, Nicholas; Arfuso, Frank; Dharmarajan, Arun; Almahbobi, Ghanim

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the direct cause of the mutation-induced, increased ovulation rate in Booroola Merino (BB) sheep. Granulosa cells were removed from antral follicles before ovulation and post-ovulation from BB (n=5) and WT (n=12) Merino ewes. Direct immunofluorescence measurement of mature cell surface receptors using flow cytometry demonstrated a significant up-regulation of FSH receptor (FSHR), transforming growth factor beta type 1, bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMPR1B), and LH receptor (LHR) in BB sheep. The increased density of FSHR and LHR provide novel evidence of a mechanism for increasing the number of follicles that are recruited during dominant follicle selection. The compounding increase in receptors with increasing follicle size maintained the multiple follicles and reduced the apoptosis, which contributed to a high ovulation rate in BB sheep. In addition, we report a mutation-independent mechanism of down-regulation to reduce receptor density of the leading dominant follicle in sheep. The suppression of receptor density coincides with the cessation of mitogenic growth and steroidogenic differentiation as part of the luteinization of the follicle. The BB mutation-induced attenuation of BMPR1B signaling led to an increased density of the FSHR and LHR and a concurrent reduction in apoptosis to increase the ovulation rate. The role of BMPs in receptor modulation is implicated in the development of multiple ovulations. PMID:25948249

  5. The Expression Pattern of microRNAs in Granulosa Cells of Subordinate and Dominant Follicles during the Early Luteal Phase of the Bovine Estrous Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Gebremedhn, Samuel; Sahadevan, Sudeep; Hossain, MD Munir; Rings, Franca; Hoelker, Michael; Tholen, Ernst; Neuhoff, Christiane; Looft, Christian; Schellander, Karl; Tesfaye, Dawit

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the miRNA expression patterns in granulosa cells of subordinate (SF) and dominant follicle (DF) during the early luteal phase of the bovine estrous cycle. For this, miRNA enriched total RNA isolated from granulosa cells of SF and DF obtained from heifers slaughtered at day 3 and day 7 of the estrous cycle was used for miRNAs deep sequencing. The results revealed that including 17 candidate novel miRNAs, several known miRNAs (n = 291–318) were detected in SF and DF at days 3 and 7 of the estrous cycle of which 244 miRNAs were common to all follicle groups. The let-7 families, bta-miR-10b, bta-miR-26a, bta-miR-99b and bta-miR-27b were among abundantly expressed miRNAs in both SF and DF at both days of the estrous cycle. Further analysis revealed that the expression patterns of 16 miRNAs including bta-miR-449a, bta-miR-449c and bta-miR-222 were differentially expressed between the granulosa cells of SF and DF at day 3 of the estrous cycle. However, at day 7 of the estrous cycle, 108 miRNAs including bta-miR-409a, bta-miR-383 and bta-miR-184 were differentially expressed between the two groups of granulosa cell revealing the presence of distinct miRNA expression profile changes between the two follicular stages at day 7 than day 3 of the estrous cycle. In addition, unlike the SF, marked temporal miRNA expression dynamics was observed in DF groups between day 3 and 7 of the estrous cycle. Target gene prediction and pathway analysis revealed that major signaling associated with follicular development including Wnt signaling, TGF-beta signaling, oocyte meiosis and GnRH signaling were affected by differentially expressed miRNAs. Thus, this study highlights the miRNA expression patterns of granulosa cells in subordinate and dominant follicles that could be associated with follicular recruitment, selection and dominance during the early luteal phase of the bovine estrous cycle. PMID:25192015

  6. Differential steroidogenic response of subpopulations of porcine granulosa cells to insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) or IGF-1 analogs.

    PubMed

    Howard, H J; Ford, J J

    1994-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine responses of porcine granulosa cells to insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) or IGF-1 analogs (des [1-3] and Long R3) that have reduced affinity for IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP). Both experiments evaluated estradiol and IGFBP production by granulosa cells after separation of cells into subpopulations that maintain long-term estradiol production in vitro (tightly bound) and those that do not (weakly associated). Granulosa cells were obtained from medium-sized follicles (4-6 mm) at random stages of the estrous cycle in experiment 1 and from the 10 largest follicles per ovary at 0 or 48 h after weaning in experiment 2. Follicle diameter and follicular fluid estradiol concentrations increased with time after weaning (p < 0.05). Tightly bound cells produced more estradiol than weakly associated cells at 24-120 h of culture in experiment 1 and from 0 to 48 h in experiment 2 (p < 0.05). In tightly bound but not weakly associated cells, IGF-1 stimulated estradiol production. The IGF analogs were more potent stimulators than IGF-1 in experiment 1 (p < 0.05); and in experiment 2, this response was restricted to cells collected at 48 h after weaning. Conversely, tightly bound cells obtained at 0 h after weaning responded similarly to IGF-1 and des (1-3). During the final 48 h of culture, weakly associated cells produced greater quantities of 28-30-kDa IGFBP than did tightly bound cells in response to IGF-1 or analogs (both experiments; p < 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7522591

  7. Tumor cell intravasation.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Serena P H; Cabrera, Ramon M; Segall, Jeffrey E

    2016-07-01

    The process of entering the bloodstream, intravasation, is a necessary step in the development of distant metastases. The focus of this review is on the pathways and molecules that have been identified as being important based on current in vitro and in vivo assays for intravasation. Properties of the vasculature which are important for intravasation include microvessel density and also diameter of the vasculature, with increased intravasation correlating with increased vessel diameter in some tumors. TGFB signaling can enhance intravasation at least in part through induction of EMT, and we discuss other TGFB target genes that are important for intravasation. In addition to TGFB signaling, a number of studies have demonstrated that activation of EGF receptor family members stimulates intravasation, with downstream signaling through PI3K, N-WASP, RhoA, and WASP to induce invadopodia. With respect to proteases, there is strong evidence for contributions by uPA/uPAR, while the roles of MMPs in intravasation may be more tumor specific. Other cells including macrophages, fibroblasts, neutrophils, and platelets can also play a role in enhancing tumor cell intravasation. The technology is now available to interrogate the expression patterns of circulating tumor cells, which will provide an important reality check for the model systems being used. With a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying intravasation, the goal is to provide new opportunities for improving prognosis as well as potentially developing new treatments. PMID:27076614

  8. The gene expression pattern induced by high plating density in cultured bovine and buffalo granulosa cells might be regulated by specific miRNA species

    PubMed Central

    YENUGANTI, Vengala Rao; BADDELA, Vijay Simha; BAUFELD, Anja; SINGH, Dheer; VANSELOW, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Precise regulation of cell type-specific gene expression profiles precedes the profound morphological reorganization of somatic cell layers during folliculogenesis, ovulation and luteinization. Cell culture models are essential to the study of corresponding molecular mechanisms of gene regulation. In a recent study, it was shown that an increased cell plating density can largely change gene expression profiles of cultured bovine granulosa cells. In our present study, we comparatively analyzed cell plating density effects on cultured bovine and buffalo granulosa cells. Cells were isolated from small- to medium-sized follicles (2–6 mm) and cultured under serum-free conditions at different plating densities. The abundance of selected marker transcripts and associated miRNA candidates was determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. We found in both species that the abundance of CYP19A1, CCNE1 and PCNA transcripts was remarkably lower at a high plating density, whereas VNN2 and RGS2 transcripts significantly increased. In contrast, putative regulators of CYP19A1, miR-378, miR-106a and let-7f were significantly higher in both species or only in buffalo, respectively. Also miR-15a, a regulator of CCNE1, was upregulated in both species. Thus, increased plating density induced similar changes of mRNA and miRNA expression in granulosa cells from buffalo and cattle. From these data, we conclude that specific miRNA species might be involved in the observed density-induced gene regulation. PMID:25740097

  9. Forkhead box O member FOXO1 regulates the majority of follicle-stimulating hormone responsive genes in ovarian granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Herndon, Maria K; Law, Nathan C; Donaubauer, Elyse M; Kyriss, Brandon; Hunzicker-Dunn, Mary

    2016-10-15

    FSH promotes maturation of ovarian follicles. One pathway activated by FSH in granulosa cells (GCs) is phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/AKT. The AKT target FOXO1 is reported to function primarily as a repressor of FSH genes, including Ccnd2 and Inha. Based on its broad functions in other tissues, we hypothesized that FOXO1 may regulate many more GC genes. We transduced GCs with empty adenovirus or constitutively active FOXO1 followed by treatment with FSH for 24 h, and conducted RNA deep sequencing. Results show that FSH regulates 3772 genes ≥2.0-fold; 60% of these genes are activated or repressed by FOXO1. Pathway Studio Analysis revealed enrichment of genes repressed by FOXO1 in metabolism, signaling, transport, development, and activated by FOXO1 in signaling, cytoskeletal functions, and apoptosis. Gene regulation was verified by q-PCR (eight genes) and ChIP analysis (two genes). We conclude that FOXO1 regulates the majority of FSH target genes in GCs. PMID:27328024

  10. Endometriosis as a detrimental condition for granulosa cell steroidogenesis and development: From molecular alterations to clinical impact.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Ana Maria; Somigliana, Edgardo; Vercellini, Paolo; Pagliardini, Luca; Candiani, Massimo; Vigano, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent chronic inflammatory condition that affects women in their reproductive period. Alterations in ovarian follicle morphology and function have been documented in affected women. The local intrafollicular environment has been as well examined by various groups. In the present review, we aimed to summarize the molecular evidence supporting the idea that endometriosis can negatively influence growth, steroidogenesis and the function of the granulosa cells (GCs). Reduced P450 aromatase expression, increased intracellular ROS generation and altered WNT signaling characterize the GCs of women with endometriosis. Clear evidence for an increased level of GC apoptosis has been provided in association with the downregulation of pro-survival factors. Other potentially negative effects include decreased progesterone production, locally decreased AMH production and lower inflammatory cytokine expression, although these have been only partially clarified. The possibility that endometriosis per se may influence IVF clinical results as a consequence of the detrimental impact on the local intrafollicular environment is also discussed. PMID:26407755

  11. IGF-I Signaling Is Essential for FSH Stimulation of AKT and Steroidogenic Genes in Granulosa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ping; Baumgarten, Sarah C.; Wu, Yanguang; Bennett, Jill; Winston, Nicola; Hirshfeld-Cytron, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    FSH and IGF-I synergistically stimulate gonadal steroid production; conversely, silencing the FSH or the IGF-I genes leads to infertility and hypogonadism. To determine the molecular link between these hormones, we examined the signaling cross talk downstream of their receptors. In human and rodent granulosa cells (GCs), IGF-I potentiated the stimulatory effects of FSH and cAMP on the expression of steroidogenic genes. In contrast, inhibition of IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) activity or expression using pharmacological, genetic, or biochemical approaches prevented the FSH- and cAMP-induced expression of steroidogenic genes and estradiol production. In vivo experiments demonstrated that IGF-IR inactivation reduces the stimulation of steroidogenic genes and follicle growth by gonadotropins. FSH or IGF-I alone stimulated protein kinase B (PKB), which is also known as AKT and in combination synergistically increased AKT phosphorylation. Remarkably, blocking IGF-IR expression or activity decreased AKT basal activity and abolished AKT activation by FSH. In GCs lacking IGF-IR activity, FSH stimulation of Cyp19 expression was rescued by overexpression of constitutively active AKT. Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that in human, mouse, and rat GCs, the well-known stimulatory effect of FSH on Cyp19 and AKT depends on IGF-I and on the expression and activation of the IGF-IR. PMID:23340251

  12. Activin A-induced increase in LOX activity in human granulosa-lutein cells is mediated by CTGF.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsun-Ming; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Liu, Yingtao; Klausen, Christian; Xu, Congjian; Leung, Peter C K

    2016-10-01

    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is the key enzyme involved in the crosslinking of collagen and elastin that is essential for the formation of extracellular matrix (ECM). LOX-mediated ECM remodeling plays a critical role in follicle development, oocyte maturation and corpus luteum formation. To date, the regulation of LOX in human ovary has never been elucidated. Activin A and its functional receptors are highly expressed in ovarian follicles from an early developmental stage. They locally regulate follicle progression. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of activin A on the expression of LOX and its extracellular enzyme activity in primary and immortalized human granulosa-lutein cells obtained from patients undergoing an in vitro fertilization procedure. We demonstrated that activin A significantly upregulated the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and LOX via an activin/TGF-β type I receptor mediated-signaling pathway. Using a target depletion small interfering RNA knockdown approach, we further confirmed that the upregulation of CTGF expression resulted in an activin-A-induced increases in LOX expression and activity. These findings may provide insight into the mechanisms by which intrafollicular growth factors regulate the expression of LOX for ECM formation and tissue remodeling in the human ovary. PMID:27530347

  13. Androgen receptor and miRNA-126* axis controls follicle-stimulating hormone receptor expression in porcine ovarian granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Xing; Li, Qiqi; Pan, Zengxiang; Li, Qifa

    2016-08-01

    Androgen, which acts via the androgen receptor (AR), plays crucial roles in mammalian ovarian function. Recent studies showed that androgen/AR signaling regulates follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) expression in follicles; however, the detailed mechanism underlying this regulation remained unknown. Here, we demonstrate that AR and miR-126* cooperate to inhibit FSHR expression and function in pig follicular granulosa cells (pGCs). In pGCs, overexpression of AR decreased, whereas knockdown increased, FSHR mRNA and protein expression; however, neither manipulation affected FSHR promoter activity. Using a dual-luciferase reporter assay, we found that the FSHR gene is a direct target of miR-126*, which inhibits FSHR expression and increases the rate of AR-induced apoptosis in pGCs. Collectively, our data show for the first time that the AR/miR-126* axis exerts synergetic effects in the regulation of FSHR expression and apoptosis in pGCs. Our findings thus define a novel pathway, AR/miR-126*/FSHR, that regulates mammalian GC functions. PMID:27222597

  14. Expression of PUMA in Follicular Granulosa Cells Regulated by FoxO1 Activation During Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ze-Qun; Shen, Ming; Wu, Wang-Jun; Li, Bo-Jiang; Weng, Qian-Nan; Li, Mei; Liu, Hong-Lin

    2015-06-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that oxidative stress-induced apoptosis is a main cause of follicular atresia. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced granulosa cell (GC) apoptosis is regulated by a variety of signaling pathways involving numerous genes and transcription factors. In this study, we found expression of the p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), a BH3-only Bcl-2 subfamily protein, in ovarian GCs during oxidative stress. By overexpression and knockdown of Forkhead box O1 (FoxO1), we found that FoxO1 regulates PUMA at the protein level. Moreover, as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) has been shown to activate FoxO1 by promoting its nuclear import, we used a JNK inhibitor to reduce FoxO1 activation and detected decreased PUMA messenger RNA expression and protein levels during oxidative stress. In addition, in vivo oxidative stress-induced upregulation of PUMA was found following injection of 3 nitropropionic acid in mice. In conclusion, oxidative stress increases PUMA expression regulated by FoxO1 in follicular GCs. PMID:25425107

  15. Let-7g induces granulosa cell apoptosis by targeting MAP3K1 in the porcine ovary.

    PubMed

    Cao, Rui; Wu, Wangjun; Zhou, Xiaolong; Liu, Kaiqing; Li, Bojiang; Huang, Xianju; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Honglin

    2015-11-01

    Follicular atresia mainly results from apoptosis of granulosa cells (GCs). Our previous microRNA array data indicated that the miRNA let-7g level increases significantly during porcine ovary follicular atresia. It is uncertain if GCs apoptosis is mediated by microRNA let-7g. In this study, the expression levels of the apoptosis-associated genes CASP3, BAX and BIM were significantly upregulated when let-7g mimic was transfected into porcine GCs, and the anti-apoptotic genes BCL-2 and MCL-1 were significantly downregulated. The apoptosis rate was measured by flow cytometry, and our results indicated that let-7g significantly enhanced GCs apoptosis. In further studies, we found that overexpression of let-7g induced the expression of FoxO1 in GCs and led to nuclear accumulation of dephosphorylated FoxO1. In addition, the effect of let-7g on FoxO1 expression and dephosphorylation resulted from repression of the expression of the MAP3K1 gene in porcine GCs. The site on MAP3K1 mRNA targeted by let-7g was confirmed by luciferase reporter assay. The anti-apoptotic effect of MAP3K1 was validated by silencing MAP3K1 using small interfering RNA technology. In conclusion, our data indicate that let-7g induces porcine GCs apoptosis by inhibiting the MAP3K1 gene, which promotes FoxO1 expression and dephosphorylation with nuclear accumulation. PMID:26299328

  16. [Mediastinal germ cell tumors].

    PubMed

    Bremmer, F; Ströbel, P

    2016-09-01

    The mediastinum is among the most frequent anatomic region in which germ cell tumors (GCT) arise, second only to the gonads. Mediastinal GCT (mGCT) account for 16 % of all mediastinal neoplasms. Although the morphology and (according to all available data) the molecular genetics of mediastinal and gonadal GCT are identical, a number of unique aspects exist. There is a highly relevant bi-modal age distribution. In pre-pubertal children of both sexes, mGCT consist exclusively of teratomas and yolk sac tumors. The prognosis is generally favorable with modern treatment. In post-pubertal adults, virtually all patients with malignant mGCT are males; the prognosis is more guarded and depends (among other factors) on the histological GCT components and is similar to GCT in other organs. So-called somatic type malignancies (i. e. clonally related, non-germ cell neoplasias arising in a GCT) are much more frequent in mGCT than in other organs, and the association between mediastinal yolk sac tumors and hematological malignancies, such as myelodysplasias and leukemias, is unique to mediastinal tumors. The prognosis of GCT with somatic type malignancies is generally dismal. PMID:27491549

  17. BMP-1 participates in the selection and dominance of buffalo follicles by regulating the proliferation and apoptosis of granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xiaocan; Cui, Kuiqing; Li, Zhipeng; Su, Jie; Jiang, Jianrong; Zhang, Haihang; Liu, Qingyou; Shi, Deshun

    2016-03-15

    BMP1/TLD-related metalloproteinases play a key role in morphogenesis via the proteolytic maturation of a number of extracellular matrix proteins and the activation of a subset of growth factors of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily. Recent data indicated that BMP1 is expressed in sheep ovarian follicles and showed a protease activity. The aim of the present study was to characterize the function of the buffalo BMP1 gene in folliculogenesis. A 3195-bp buffalo BMP1 mRNA fragment was firstly cloned and sequenced, which contained a whole 2967-bp codon sequence. The multialigned results suggested that BMP1 is highly conserved among different species both at the nucleic acid and the amino acid level. BMP1 is located in the oogonium of the fetal buffalo ovary and in the granulosa cells (GCs) and the oocytes of adult ovary from the primordial to the large antral follicles. Further study showed that BMP1 promoted cell cycle and proliferation and inhibited apoptosis in IVC GCs. Adding BMP1 recombinant protein to the culture medium of the GCs increased the expression of the key cell cycle regulators such as cyclin D1 and cyclin D2 and downregulated the expression of cell apoptosis pathway genes such as Cytochrome C, Fas, FasL, and Chop, both at the mRNA and at the protein levels. It also upregulated the expression of PAPP-A, IGF system, and VEGF, and so forth, which play important roles in the selection and dominance of growth follicles. The opposite results were observed by adding BMP1 antibody to the investigation groups. This study suggests that BMP1 regulates the proliferation and apoptosis of IVC GCs by changing the expression pattern of related genes and may potentially promote the selection and dominance of the buffalo follicles. PMID:26778140

  18. Transplantation of ovarian granulosa-like cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells for the treatment of murine premature ovarian failure

    PubMed Central

    LIU, TE; LI, QIONG; WANG, SUWEI; CHEN, CHUAN; ZHENG, JIN

    2016-01-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a common cause of female infertility, for which there are currently no ideal treatments or medications. Furthermore, apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells (OGCs) is an important mechanism underlying the decline in ovarian reserve and function. In the present study, several cellular growth factors and hormones were used to induce the differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into ovarian granulosa-like cells (OGLCs) in vitro. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that OGLCs derived from iPSCs strongly expressed granulosa cell markers, including anti-Müllerian hormone, inhibin α, inhibin β and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, but did not express stem cell markers, including octamer-binding transcription factor 4, SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2, Nanog and stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 12 days post-induction. In addition, a mouse model of POF was generated by cyclophosphamide treatment. Subsequently, iPSC-derived OGLCs were transplanted into the POF mice (OGLCs-iPSCs-POF group) in vivo. Results indicated that, compared with the control group (POF mice treated with phosphate-buffered saline), the growth state of OGLCs was markedly improved, and mature follicles could be detected in the ovarian tissue of the OGLCs-iPSCs-POF group. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that iPSC-derived OGLCs transplanted into POF mice not only exhibited substantial growth in murine ovarian tissues, but also strongly expressed OGC markers. Furthermore, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays indicated that the levels of the hormone estradiol in peripheral blood samples were significantly enhanced following transplantation of iPSC-derived OGLCs into POF mice. Furthermore, ovarian tissue weight was significantly higher in the OGLCs-iPSCs-POF group compared with in the control group, and the number of atretic follicles in OGLCs-iPSCs-POF mice was significantly reduced, as compared with in the control mice. These

  19. Dentinogenic ghost cell tumor

    PubMed Central

    Bafna, Sweety Sagarmal; Joy, Tabita; Tupkari, Jagdish Vishnu; Landge, Jayant Shivaji

    2016-01-01

    Dentinogenic ghost cell tumor (DGCT) is a rare, odontogenic neoplasm which is considered to be a solid variant of calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) with locally aggressive behavior. It accounts for only 2–14% of all COCs. To the best of our knowledge, only 88 cases of DGCT have been reported in the literature from 1968 to 2014. Herewith, we report a case of DGCT in a 68-year-old male patient with clinical presentation as a soft tissue growth over alveolar ridge and histopathologically characterized by ameloblastomatous epithelium, abundance of eosinophilic material and ghost cells. PMID:27194885

  20. Autocrine/paracrine proliferative effect of ovarian GH and IGF-I in chicken granulosa cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Ahumada-Solórzano, S Marisela; Martínez-Moreno, Carlos G; Carranza, Martha; Ávila-Mendoza, José; Luna-Acosta, José Luis; Harvey, Steve; Luna, Maricela; Arámburo, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    It is known that growth hormone (GH) and its receptor (GHR) are expressed in granulosa cells (GC) and thecal cells during the follicular development in the hen ovary, which suggests GH is involved in autocrine/paracrine actions in the female reproductive system. In this work, we show that the knockdown of local ovarian GH with a specific cGH siRNA in GC cultures significantly decreased both cGH mRNA expression and GH secretion to the media, and also reduced their proliferative rate. Thus, we analyzed the effect of ovarian GH and recombinant chicken GH (rcGH) on the proliferation of pre-hierarchical GCs in primary cultures. Incubation of GCs with either rcGH or conditioned media, containing predominantly a 15-kDa GH isoform, showed that both significantly increased proliferation as determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) quantification and ((3)H)-thymidine incorporation ((3)H-T) assays in a dose response fashion. Both, locally produced GH and rcGH also induced the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 in GC cultures. Furthermore, GH increased IGF-I synthesis and its release into the GC culture incubation media. These results suggest that GH may act through local IGF-I to induce GC proliferation, since IGF-I immunoneutralization completely abolished the GH-induced proliferative effect. These data suggest that GH and IGF-I may play a role as autocrine/paracrine regulators during the follicular development in the hen ovary at the pre-hierarchical stage. PMID:27174747

  1. The Anti-Epileptic Drug Valproic Acid (VPA) Inhibits Steroidogenesis in Bovine Theca and Granulosa Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Glister, Claire; Satchell, Leanne; Michael, Anthony E.; Bicknell, Andrew B.; Knight, Philip G.

    2012-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is used widely to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder. Women undergoing VPA treatment reportedly have an increased incidence of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)-like symptoms including hyperandrogenism and oligo- or amenorrhoea. To investigate potential direct effects of VPA on ovarian steroidogenesis we used primary bovine theca (TC) and granulosa (GC) cells maintained under conditions that preserve their ‘follicular’ phenotype. Effects of VPA (7.8–500 µg/ml) on TC were tested with/without LH. Effects of VPA on GC were tested with/without FSH or IGF analogue. VPA reduced (P<0.0001) both basal (70% suppression; IC50 67±10 µg/ml) and LH-induced (93% suppression; IC50 58±10 µg/ml) androstenedione secretion by TC. VPA reduced CYP17A1 mRNA abundance (>99% decrease; P<0.0001) with lesser effects on LHR, STAR, CYP11A1 and HSD3B1 mRNA (<90% decrease; P<0.05). VPA only reduced TC progesterone secretion induced by the highest (luteinizing) LH dose tested; TC number was unaffected by VPA. At higher concentrations (125–500 µg/ml) VPA inhibited basal, FSH- and IGF-stimulated estradiol secretion (P<0.0001) by GC without affecting progesterone secretion or cell number. VPA reversed FSH-induced upregulation of CYP19A1 and HSD17B1 mRNA abundance (P<0.001). The potent histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors trichostatin A and scriptaid also suppressed TC androstenedione secretion and granulosal cell oestrogen secretion suggesting that the action of VPA reflects its HDAC inhibitory properties. In conclusion, these findings refute the hypothesis that VPA has a direct stimulatory action on TC androgen output. On the contrary, VPA inhibits both LH-dependent androgen production and FSH/IGF-dependent estradiol production in this in vitro bovine model, likely by inhibition of HDAC. PMID:23152920

  2. Embryonic Poly(A)-Binding Protein (EPAB) Is Required for Granulosa Cell EGF Signaling and Cumulus Expansion in Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cai-Rong; Lowther, Katie M; Lalioti, Maria D; Seli, Emre

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic poly(A)-binding protein (EPAB) is the predominant poly(A)-binding protein in Xenopus, mouse, and human oocytes and early embryos before zygotic genome activation. EPAB is required for translational activation of maternally stored mRNAs in the oocyte and Epab(-/-) female mice are infertile due to impaired oocyte maturation, cumulus expansion, and ovulation. The aim of this study was to characterize the mechanism of follicular somatic cell dysfunction in Epab(-/-) mice. Using a coculture system of oocytectomized cumulus oophorus complexes (OOXs) with denuded oocytes, we found that when wild-type OOXs were cocultured with Epab(-/-) oocytes, or when Epab(-/-) OOXs were cocultured with WT oocytes, cumulus expansion failed to occur in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF). This finding suggests that oocytes and cumulus cells (CCs) from Epab(-/-) mice fail to send and receive the necessary signals required for cumulus expansion. The abnormalities in Epab(-/-) CCs are not due to lower expression of the oocyte-derived factors growth differentiation factor 9 or bone morphogenetic protein 15, because Epab(-/-) oocytes express these proteins at comparable levels with WT. Epab(-/-) granulosa cells (GCs) exhibit decreased levels of phosphorylated MEK1/2, ERK1/2, and p90 ribosomal S6 kinase in response to lutenizing hormone and EGF treatment, as well as decreased phosphorylation of the EGF receptor. In conclusion, EPAB, which is oocyte specific, is required for the ability of CCs and GCs to become responsive to LH and EGF signaling. These results emphasize the importance of oocyte-somatic communication for GC and CC function. PMID:26492470

  3. Ammonia concentrations in different size classes of ovarian follicles of sheep (Ovis aries): Possible mechanisms of accumulation and its effect on oocyte and granulosa cell growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nandi, S; Gupta, P S P; Mondal, S

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigated the concentrations and the mechanisms of accumulation of ammonia in different sizes of ovarian follicles and the effect of ammonia on oocyte and granulosa cell growth and functions in vitro with sheep (Ovis aries) as an animal model. The effects of cyclicity, seasonality, phases of the estrous cycle, and seasons (environmental) on ammonia concentrations in follicular fluid were also investigated. The effect of ammonia on in vitro development of oocytes (maturation rate, viability rate, cleavage rate, morulae/blastocysts yield) recovered from different sizes of follicles was examined at the levels of 0, 50, 100, 150, 250, 300, and 500 μM. Same concentrations of ammonia were examined on growth parameters (metabolic activity, viability, cell number increment, monolayer formation, apoptosis rate) and hormone (progesterone, estrogen) secretion activity of granulosa cells in vitro. Results suggested as the follicle size increased, ammonia concentrations decreased. The ammonia concentrations in ovine follicular fluid were found to be 261.5 ± 32.4, 157.7 ± 19.2, and 42.9 ± 8.3 μM, respectively, for small, medium, and large follicles. The corresponding ranges were 290 to 238 μM, 184 to 142 μM, and 70 to 22 μM. The differences were due to more accumulation of fluid, less metabolic activity of granulosa cells, and elevation of protein, potassium, and chloride as the follicle size increased. The seasonality and phases of the estrous cycle did not have any effect on ammonia level in ovarian follicles. Ammonia concentrations in all size classes of follicles examined were significantly reduced in ewes during hot seasons compared to cold seasons and in acyclic animals compared to cyclic ones. Ammonia impaired oocyte development at 300 μM when the oocytes were isolated from small follicles and at 250 μM when the oocytes were isolated from medium and large follicles. In contrast, ammonia caused the negative impact on granulosa cells growth

  4. Norepinephrine stimulates progesterone production in highly estrogenic bovine granulosa cells cultured under serum-free, chemically defined conditions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Since noradrenergic innervation was described in the ovarian follicle, the actions of the intraovarian catecholaminergic system have been the focus of a variety of studies. We aimed to determine the gonadotropin-independent effects of the catecholamine norepinephrine (NE) in the steroid hormone profile of a serum-free granulosa cell (GC) culture system in the context of follicular development and dominance. Methods Primary bovine GCs were cultivated in a serum-free, chemically defined culture system supplemented with 0.1% polyvinyl alcohol. The culture features were assessed by hormone measurements and ultrastructural characteristics of GCs. Results GCs produced increasing amounts of estradiol and pregnenolone for 144h and maintained ultrastructural features of healthy steroidogenic cells. Progesterone production was also detected, although it significantly increased only after 96h of culture. There was a highly significant positive correlation between estradiol and pregnenolone production in high E2-producing cultures. The effects of NE were further evaluated in a dose–response study. The highest tested concentration of NE (10 (−7) M) resulted in a significant increase in progesterone production, but not in estradiol or pregnenolone production. The specificity of NE effects on progesterone productio n was further investigated by incubating GCs with propranolol (10 (−8) M), a non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Conclusions The present culture system represents a robust model to study the impact of intrafollicular factors, such as catecholamines, in ovarian steroidogenesis and follicular development. The results of noradrenergic effects in the steroidogenesis of GC have implications on physiological follicular fate and on certain pathological ovarian conditions such as cyst formation and anovulation. PMID:23171052

  5. Expression Levels of PPARγ and CYP-19 in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Primary Granulosa Cells: Influence of ω-3 Fatty Acid

    PubMed Central

    Zaree, Mina; Shahnazi, Vahideh; Fayezi, Shabnam; Darabi, Maryam; Mehrzad-Sadaghiani, Mahzad; Darabi, Masoud; Khani, Sajjad; Nouri, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background The omega-3 fatty acid (ω-3 fatty acid) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is currently used in the clinic as a nutritional supplement in the treatment of poly- cystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The present study was designed to investigate the ef- fect of EPA on the expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and cytochrome P450 aromatase (encoded by the CYP-19) in primary cultured granulosa cells (GC) from patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), and also to compare these effects with those in GC of PCOS patients. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, human GC were isolated, pri- mary cultured in vitro, exposed to a range of concentrations of the EPA and in- vestigated with respect to gene expression levels of PPARγ and CYP-19 using real time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The participants (n=30) were the patients admitted to the IVF Center in February-March 2013 at Alzahra Hospital, Tabriz, Iran, who were divided into two groups as PCOS (n=15) and non-PCOS (n=15) women (controls). Results All doses of the EPA significantly induced PPARγ mRNA gene expression level as compared to the control recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH) alone condi- tion. High doses of EPA in the presence of rFSH produced a stimulatory effect on expres- sion level of PPARγ (2.15-fold, P=0.001) and a suppressive effect (0.56-fold, P=0.01) on the expression level of CYP-19, only in the PCOS GC. Conclusion EPA and FSH signaling pathway affect differentially on the gene ex- pression levels of PPARγ and CYP-19 in PCOS GC. Altered FSH-induced PPARγ activity in PCOS GC may modulate the CYP-19 gene expression in response to EPA, and possibly modulates the subsequent steroidogenesis of these cells. PMID:26246878

  6. Melatonin protects the integrity of granulosa cells by reducing oxidative stress in nuclei, mitochondria, and plasma membranes in mice

    PubMed Central

    TANABE, Manabu; TAMURA, Hiroshi; TAKETANI, Toshiaki; OKADA, Maki; LEE, Lifa; TAMURA, Isao; MAEKAWA, Ryo; ASADA, Hiromi; YAMAGATA, Yoshiaki; SUGINO, Norihiro

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin protects luteinized granulosa cells (GCs) from oxidative stress in the follicle during ovulation. However, it is unclear in which cellular components (e.g., nuclei, mitochondria, or plasma membranes) melatonin works as an antioxidant. GCs from immature (3 wks) ICR mice were incubated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 mM) in the presence or absence of melatonin (100 μg/ml) for 2 h. DNA damage was assessed by fluorescence-based immunocytochemistry using specific antibodies for 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), an indicator of oxidative guanine base damage in DNA, and for histone H2AX phosphorylation (γH2AX), a marker of double-strand breaks of DNA. Mitochondrial function was assessed by the fluorescence intensity of MitoTracker Red probes, which diffuse across the membrane and accumulate in mitochondria with active membrane potentials. Lipid peroxidation of plasma membranes was analyzed by measuring hexanoyl-lysine (HEL), a oxidative stress marker for lipid peroxidation. Apoptosis of GCs was assessed by nuclear fragmentation using DAPI staining, and apoptotic activities were evaluated by caspase-3/7 activities. H2O2 treatment significantly increased the fluorescence intensities of 8-OHdG and γH2AX, reduced the intensity of MitoTracker Red in the mitochondria, increased HEL concentrations in GCs, and enhanced the number of apoptotic cells and caspase-3/7 activities. All these changes were significantly decreased by melatonin treatment. Melatonin reduced oxidative stress-induced DNA damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, lipid peroxidation, and apoptosis in GCs, suggesting that melatonin protects GCs by reducing oxidative stress of cellular components including nuclei, mitochondria, and plasma membranes. Melatonin helps to maintain the integrity of GCs as an antioxidant in the preovulatory follicle. PMID:25366368

  7. Role of calcium in the modulation of ornithine decarboxylase activity in isolated pig granulosa cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Hammond, James M.

    1981-01-01

    We examined the role of Ca2+ in the control of basal and hormone-stimulated ornithine decarboxylase activity in isolated pig granulosa cells maintained under chemically defined conditions in vitro. Omission of Ca2+ from the incubation medium (measured Ca2+ concentration 5μm) decreased basal enzymic activity, and significantly (P<0.01) impaired the response to maximally stimulating doses of either lutropin or follitropin. No significant alteration occurred in the concentration of either gonadotropin required to elicit half-maximal effects. The addition of EGTA (1.27–2.0mm) to chelate residual extracellular Ca2+ further decreased hormone-induced rises in ornithine decarboxylase activity. Despite the presence of 1.27mm concentrations of extracellular Ca2+, the administration of presumptive Ca2+ antagonists, believed to impair trans-membrane Ca2+ influx [verapamil (10–100μm), nifedipine (1–100μm) or CoCl2 (1mm)] suppressed hormone-stimulated ornithine decarboxylase activity. The inhibitory effects of verapamil or of Ca2+ omission from the medium were not overcome by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (0.25mm), or by cholera toxin, or by an exogenously supplied cyclic AMP analogue, 8-bromo cyclic AMP. Conversely, micromolar concentrations of a putative bivalent-cation ionophore, A23187, increased significantly the stimulation of ornithine decarboxylase activity by saturating concentrations of lutropin or 8-bromo cyclic AMP. Thus the present observations implicate Ca2+ ions in the modulation of hormone action and cellular function in normal ovarian cells. PMID:6172119

  8. Transcriptome analysis of bovine granulosa cells of preovulatory follicles harvested 30, 60, 90, and 120 days postpartum.

    PubMed

    Golini, V E; Stradaioli, G; Sirard, M A

    2014-09-01

    The nutritional requirements of high-producing dairy cows increase rapidly in the weeks postpartum due to elevated milk production, and most cows enter a state of negative energy balance (NEB). Cows in this condition may preferentially divert nutrients away from reproduction, thereby experiencing a period of anovulatory anestrus, delayed ovulation of large follicles, and impaired fertility. To better understand the changes occurring in these large follicles as a function of time postpartum, granulosa cells from preovulatory follicles were collected at different times after calving: 30 days, 60 days, 90 days, and 120 days from a minimum of six animals at each time point. Three subjects for each period were selected for the analysis of the transcriptome, which was performed using a global bovine oligoarray microarray to identify differences in gene expression and cellular functions that occur in the follicular microenvironment during the progressive recovery from NEB in dairy cows. The time point 120 days was chosen as a reference period, as cows are then fully recovered from NEB. Data clustering indicated that the most different period from 120 days was 60 days with several 100 genes deregulated at that time. The principal cellular functions affected were cell proliferation, which was reduced, and deregulation of steroidogenesis, indicating immaturity of the follicles from the 60-day period relative to 120 days. One of the most interesting downregulated pathways was p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, which is sensitive to the amount of retinoic acid or vitamin A, suggesting a possible treatment to improve postpartum fertility. PMID:24985356

  9. Involvement of Sp1 and SREBP-1a in transcriptional activation of the LDL receptor gene by insulin and LH in cultured porcine granulosa-luteal cells.

    PubMed

    Sekar, Natesampillai; Veldhuis, Johannes D

    2004-07-01

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) and insulin stimulate transcriptional activity of the porcine low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) promoter supra-additively in primary cultures of granulosa-luteal cells. The mechanistic basis of this bihormonal interaction is unknown. The pig LDLR gene promoter includes three putative Sp1/Sp3-binding sites and one sterol response element (SRE) site 5' upstream to the transcriptional start site. To assess the role of SRE-binding protein (SREBP) in LDLR gene regulation, swine granulosa-luteal cells were cotransfected with CMV/SREBP-1a or SREBP-2 and the pLDLR1076/luc promoter. SREBP-1a and SREBP-2 stimulated LDLR gene transcription eight- and fourfold, respectively. LH alone augmented stimulation by SREBP-1 twofold. Conversely, cotransfection of a dominant-negative mutant form of SREBP-1a repressed basal and hormonally stimulated LDLR promoter activity by >80% (P < 0.01). Mutation of the SRE -167 ATCACCCCATG -157 to -167 ATCACCgCATG -157 bp decreased basal expression by 50% and LH + insulin- and LH + IGF-I-stimulated transcriptional activity by 80% and >90%, respectively (both P < 0.01). Mutations within each of the three flanking putative Sp1/Sp3 sites at -216/-211, -201/-196, and -151/-146 bp in the LDLR gene promoter also reduced basal activity (by >85%) and hormonal responsiveness (>95%, P < 0.05). EMSA confirmed that presumptive SRE-1 and Sp1/Sp3 elements bind respective peptides. Mithramycin, an inhibitor of Sp1/Sp3 protein(s) binding, blocked hormonally induced LDLR promoter expression by 80%. Basal transcription and supra-additive stimulation of porcine LDLR gene transcription by LH and insulin in granulosa-luteal cells require SREBP-1a and Sp1/Sp3-binding elements. PMID:14998783

  10. Exposure of Lactating Dairy Cows to Acute Pre-Ovulatory Heat Stress Affects Granulosa Cell-Specific Gene Expression Profiles in Dominant Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Vanselow, Jens; Vernunft, Andreas; Koczan, Dirk; Spitschak, Marion; Kuhla, Björn

    2016-01-01

    High environmental temperatures induce detrimental effects on various reproductive processes in cattle. According to the predicted global warming the number of days with unfavorable ambient temperatures will further increase. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of acute heat stress during the late pre-ovulatory phase on morphological, physiological and molecular parameters of dominant follicles in cycling cows during lactation. Eight German Holstein cows in established lactation were exposed to heat stress (28°C) or thermoneutral conditions (15°C) with pair-feeding for four days. After hormonal heat induction growth of the respective dominant follicles was monitored by ultrasonography for two days, then an ovulatory GnRH dose was given and follicular steroid hormones and granulosa cell-specific gene expression profiles were determined 23 hrs thereafter. The data showed that the pre-ovulatory growth of dominant follicles and the estradiol, but not the progesterone concentrations tended to be slightly affected. mRNA microarray and hierarchical cluster analysis revealed distinct expression profiles in granulosa cells derived from heat stressed compared to pair-fed animals. Among the 255 affected genes heatstress-, stress- or apoptosis associated genes were not present. But instead, we found up-regulation of genes essentially involved in G-protein coupled signaling pathways, extracellular matrix composition, and several members of the solute carrier family as well as up-regulation of FST encoding follistatin. In summary, the data of the present study show that acute pre-ovulatory heat stress can specifically alter gene expression profiles in granulosa cells, however without inducing stress related genes and pathways and suggestively can impair follicular growth due to affecting the activin-inhibin-follistatin system. PMID:27532452

  11. Exposure of Lactating Dairy Cows to Acute Pre-Ovulatory Heat Stress Affects Granulosa Cell-Specific Gene Expression Profiles in Dominant Follicles.

    PubMed

    Vanselow, Jens; Vernunft, Andreas; Koczan, Dirk; Spitschak, Marion; Kuhla, Björn

    2016-01-01

    High environmental temperatures induce detrimental effects on various reproductive processes in cattle. According to the predicted global warming the number of days with unfavorable ambient temperatures will further increase. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of acute heat stress during the late pre-ovulatory phase on morphological, physiological and molecular parameters of dominant follicles in cycling cows during lactation. Eight German Holstein cows in established lactation were exposed to heat stress (28°C) or thermoneutral conditions (15°C) with pair-feeding for four days. After hormonal heat induction growth of the respective dominant follicles was monitored by ultrasonography for two days, then an ovulatory GnRH dose was given and follicular steroid hormones and granulosa cell-specific gene expression profiles were determined 23 hrs thereafter. The data showed that the pre-ovulatory growth of dominant follicles and the estradiol, but not the progesterone concentrations tended to be slightly affected. mRNA microarray and hierarchical cluster analysis revealed distinct expression profiles in granulosa cells derived from heat stressed compared to pair-fed animals. Among the 255 affected genes heatstress-, stress- or apoptosis associated genes were not present. But instead, we found up-regulation of genes essentially involved in G-protein coupled signaling pathways, extracellular matrix composition, and several members of the solute carrier family as well as up-regulation of FST encoding follistatin. In summary, the data of the present study show that acute pre-ovulatory heat stress can specifically alter gene expression profiles in granulosa cells, however without inducing stress related genes and pathways and suggestively can impair follicular growth due to affecting the activin-inhibin-follistatin system. PMID:27532452

  12. MicroRNA Profile of Granulosa Cells after Ovarian Stimulation Differs According to Maturity of Retrieved Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Y. J.; Ku, S.-Y.; Kim, Y. Y.; Suh, C. S.; Kim, S. H.; Choi, Y. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent animal studies demonstrated that regulating the microRNA (miRNA) in granulosa cells (GCs) modulates the meiotic competence of oocytes. However, the difference in expression profiles of miRNAs in human GCs according to the maturity of the oocyte still remains to be elucidated. Objective: This observational study investigated whether the miRNA profile of human GCs differs according to the maturity of the retrieved oocyte after controlled ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization (IVF). Methods: Ten women who underwent ovarian stimulation cycles with GnRH agonist long protocols were recruited. The follicular fluid (FF) from dominant follicles was individually aspirated at oocyte retrieval. Oocytes were divided into two groups according to oocyte maturity (“mature group” vs. “immature group”). GCs were collected from the FF and miRNA was analyzed using real-time PCR. Results: Mean number of MII oocytes in the mature group was 1.6 ± 0.9 with none in the immature group (p = 0.008). Mean number of MI oocytes was 5.6 ± 2.1 in the mature group and 1.0 ± 0.0 in the immature group (p = 0.008). The total number of retrieved oocytes was 8.8 ± 1.9 in the mature group and 2.0 ± 1.2 in the immature group (p = 0.008). The GCs of the mature group showed a significantly lower expression of hsa-let-7b compared to the GCs of the immature group (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Taken together, the miRNA expression profiles of human GCs obtained from dominant follicles are associated with maturity of the adjacent oocyte and may be useful as a prognosticator of IVF outcome. PMID:27365541

  13. The effect of heat stress on gene expression, synthesis of steroids, and apoptosis in bovine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Lian; Wu, Jie; Luo, Man; Sun, Yu; Wang, Genlin

    2016-05-01

    Summer heat stress (HS) is a major contributing factor in low fertility in lactating dairy cows in hot environments. Heat stress inhibits ovarian follicular development leading to diminished reproductive efficiency of dairy cows during summer. Ovarian follicle development is a complex process. During follicle development, granulosa cells (GCs) replicate, secrete hormones, and support the growth of the oocyte. To obtain an overview of the effects of heat stress on GCs, digital gene expression profiling was employed to screen and identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs; false discovery rate (FDR) ≤ 0.001, fold change ≥2) of cultured GCs during heat stress. A total of 1211 DEGs including 175 upregulated and 1036 downregulated ones were identified, of which DEGs can be classified into Gene Ontology (GO) categories and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The results suggested that heat stress triggers a dramatic and complex program of altered gene expression in GCs. We hypothesized that heat stress could induce the apoptosis and dysfunction of GCs. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to evaluate the expression of steroidogenic genes (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (Star), cytochrome P-450 (CYP11A1), CYP19A1, and steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1)) and apoptosis-related genes (caspase-3, BCL-2, and BAX). Radio immunoassay (RIA) was used to analyze the level of 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4). We also assessed the apoptosis of GCs by flow cytometry. Our data suggested that heat stress induced GC apoptosis through the BAX/BCL-2 pathway and reduced the steroidogenic gene messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and E2 synthesis. These results suggest that the decreased function of GCs may cause ovarian dysfunction and offer an improved understanding of the molecular mechanism responsible for the low fertility in cattle in summer. PMID:26847372

  14. Luteinizing Hormone-Induced RUNX1 Regulates the Expression of Genes in Granulosa Cells of Rat Periovulatory Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Misung; Curry, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    The LH surge induces specific transcription factors that regulate the expression of a myriad of genes in periovulatory follicles to bring about ovulation and luteinization. The present study determined 1) the localization of RUNX1, a nuclear transcription factor, 2) regulation of Runx1 mRNA expression, and 3) its potential function in rat ovaries. Up-regulation of mRNA and protein for RUNX1 is detected in preovulatory follicles after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) injection in gonadotropin-treated immature rats as well as after the LH surge in cycling animals by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses. The regulation of Runx1 mRNA expression was investigated in vitro using granulosa cells from rat pre-ovulatory ovaries. Treatments with hCG, forskolin, or phorbol 12 myristate 13-acetate stimulated Runx1 mRNA expression. The effects of hCG were reduced by inhibitors of protein kinase A, MAPK kinase, or p38 kinase, indicating that Runx1 expression is regulated by the LH-initiated activation of these signaling mediators. In addition, hCG-induced Runx1 mRNA expression was inhibited by a progesterone receptor antagonist and an epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, whereas amphiregulin stimulated Runx1 mRNA expression, demonstrating that the expression is mediated by the activation of the progesterone receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor. Finally, knockdown of Runx1 mRNA by small interfering RNA decreased progesterone secretion and reduced levels of mRNA for Cyp11a1, Hapln1, Mt1a, and Rgc32. The hormonally regulated expression of Runx1 in periovulatory follicles, its involvement in progesterone production, and regulation of preovulatory gene expression suggest important roles of RUNX1 in the periovulatory process. PMID:16675540

  15. Increased expression of pentraxin 3 after in vivo and in vitro stimulation with gonadotropins in porcine oocyte-cumulus complexes and granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Nagyova, E; Kalous, J; Nemcova, L

    2016-07-01

    It has been previously shown that multimeric pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a key component of the cumulus oophorus extracellular matrix (ECM) in mice. In response to the ovulatory LH surge, the cumulus cells assemble a unique ECM that envelopes the oocyte and cumulus cell complex. Importantly, cumuli from PTX3(-/-) mice were defective in their ECM organization and their fertility was impaired. It has been demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 6 catalyzes the formation of heavy chains of (inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor) -hyaluronan complexes and these are then cross-linked via PTX3. This process is tightly regulated and requires the proteins to meet/interact in the correct order. Finally, in this way, the above-listed proteins form the cumulus oophorus ECM. We investigated whether PTX3 is expressed in the porcine preovulatory follicle. Porcine oocyte-cumulus complexes (OCC) and mural granulosa cells (MGC) from gilts were obtained either after stimulation in vivo with eCG/hCG (4, 8, 16, 24, and 32 h) or culture in vitro (4, 24, and 44 h) in FSH/LH-supplemented medium. The methods performed were real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, and immunostaining. The expression of PTX3 transcripts was significantly increased 24 h after either in vivo hCG stimulation or in vitro FSH/LH treatment in both OCC and MGC. Western blot analysis with PTX3 antibody revealed that not only matrix extracts from in vivo-stimulated gilts contain high levels of PTX3 protein but also matrix extracts of FSH/LH-stimulated OCC cultured in medium supplemented either with follicular fluid or with porcine serum. The localization of PTX3 in the cumulus oocyte complex was confirmed by immunostaining. In conclusion, PTX3 is produced by porcine OCC and MGC both in vivo and in vitro with gonadotropin stimuli inducing cumulus expansion. PMID:26986845

  16. General Information about Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Islet Cell Tumors) Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors) Go ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  17. Chromium-VI arrests cell cycle and decreases granulosa cell proliferation by down-regulating cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) and cyclins and up-regulating CDK-Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Jone A.; Lee, JeHoon; Nithy, Thamizh K.; Arosh, Joe A.; Burghardt, Robert C.; Banu, Sakhila K.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental contamination with hexavalent chromium (CrVI) has been increasing in the drinking water of the USA and developing countries. CrVI causes various health problems including menstrual disorders and infertility. Recently, we reported that CrVI causes granulosa cell apoptosis through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Our previous studies showed that postnatal exposure to CrVI arrests follicle development. In order to explore the underlying mechanism, primary and immortalized granulosa cells from rats were treated with 10 μM potassium dichromate and analyses of the cell cycle, and cell cycle regulatory proteins were performed. CrVI decreased cell proliferation as a result of cell cycle arrest and down-regulated cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK), cyclins, and PCNA while up-regulating CDK-inhibitors and down-regulating FSH receptor and ERβ. Vitamin C mitigated the effects of CrVI. This study shows that CrVI causes cell cycle arrest in granulosa cells by altering cell cycle regulatory proteins with potential intervention by vitamin C. PMID:21621607

  18. Differential activation of noncanonical SMAD2/SMAD3 signaling by bone morphogenetic proteins causes disproportionate induction of hyaluronan production in immortalized human granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Han; Tian, Shen; Klausen, Christian; Zhu, Hua; Liu, Ruizhi; Leung, Peter C K

    2016-06-15

    Successful fertilization depends upon proper cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) expansion. Synthesized by hyaluronan synthases (HASs), hyaluronan forms the backbone of the COC matrix and plays a critical role in COC expansion. This study investigated the effects and mechanisms of ovarian BMPs on HAS expression and hyaluronan production in human granulosa cells. Treatment with BMP4, BMP6, BMP7 or BMP15 induced differing levels of noncanonical SMAD2/3, but equal levels of canonical SMAD1/5/8, phosphorylation which were mirrored by differing levels of HAS2 up-regulation and hyaluronan production. The effects of BMP4 and BMP15 on HAS2 mRNA were partially reversed by knockdown of SMAD3, and blocked by knockdown of SMAD2+SMAD3 or SMAD4. BMP4-induced SMAD2/3 phosphorylation and HAS2 mRNA up-regulation were mediated by both BMP and activin/transforming growth factor-β type I receptors. Our results suggest differential activation of noncanonical SMAD2/SMAD3 signaling by BMPs causes disproportionate induction of HAS2 expression and hyaluronan production in immortalized human granulosa cells. PMID:26992562

  19. Urinary Bisphenol A Concentrations and Cytochrome P450 19 A1 (Cyp19) Gene Expression in Ovarian Granulosa Cells: An in vivo Human Study

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, Shelley; Williams, Paige L.; Hauser, Russ; Missmer, Stacey A.; Peretz, Jackye; Calafat, Antonia M.; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical widely used in consumer products, has been associated with in vitro Cyp19 gene expression. Objective To evaluate an in vivo human model of Cyp19 gene expression in granulosa cells. Study Design A subset of an ongoing prospective cohort study of women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) at Massachusetts General Hospital. Methods Mixed effect models were used to evaluate the association of urinary BPA concentrations with granulosa cell Cyp19 mRNA expression. Results In 61 women undergoing 76 IVF cycles, adjusted changes in mean Cyp19 expression (β estimate (95% CI)) for quartiles 2,3 and 4 as compared to the lowest quartile were: −0.97 (− 2.22, 0.28); −0.97 (−2.18, 0.24) and −0.38 (−1.58, 0.82). Conclusions An in vivo model for evaluation of Cyp19 gene expression was developed for use in epidemiologic studies. In this pilot study, we found no statistically significant linear association between urinary BPA concentrations and Cyp19 expression. PMID:23850856

  20. Maintenance of oestradiol production and expression of cytochrome P450 aromatase enzyme mRNA in long-term serum-free cultures of pig granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Picton, H M; Campbell, B K; Hunter, M G

    1999-01-01

    Studies were carried out to investigate the conditions required for maintenance of aromatase activity and expression in long-term cultures of pig granulosa cells. Cells from large (> 2 mm) and small (< or = 2 mm) follicles were cultured at 37 degrees C with 5% CO2 in McCoys 5a medium supplemented with 0.1% (w/v) BSA, testosterone (100 micrograms l-1), insulin (10 micrograms l-1) and long R3 insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) (100 micrograms l-1). Cells were cultured with five concentrations of USDA pFSH-I-2 (0-100 micrograms l-1) for 48, 96 or 144 h with or without fetal calf serum (FCS). The number of cells and oestradiol, progesterone and inhibin production were measured. In marked contrast to oestradiol production from cells cultured in plates precoated with FCS, 1 microgram FSH l-1 was optimal for the maintenance of high oestradiol production by granulosa cells from large follicles after 144 h of serum-free culture. Culture with FCS promoted cell proliferation, reduced oestradiol production, and supported FSH-dependent (P < 0.01) increased progesterone and inhibin production indicating cellular luteinization. Northern blot analysis of total RNA from cells cultured with 1 microgram FSH l-1 detected 2.5 and 1.8 kb transcripts encoding aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom) and cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 (P450scc), respectively. Transcript expression was hormone sensitive, irrespective of the presence of FCS. High concentrations of FSH (100 micrograms l-1) stimulated expression of P450scc, but inhibited P450arom expression as the cells luteinized after 144 h of culture. This serum-free system, which maintains the aromatase enzyme complex, is fundamental if physiologically relevant observations are to be made of the mechanisms regulating follicle hierarchy development from long-term cultures of pig cells. PMID:10341724

  1. Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Terstappen, Leon W. M. M.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing number of treatment options for patients with metastatic carcinomas has created an accompanying need for methods to determine if the tumor will be responsive to the intended therapy and to monitor its effectiveness. Ideally, these methods would be noninvasive and provide quantitative real-time analysis of tumor activity in a variety of carcinomas. Assessment of circulating tumor cells shed into the blood during metastasis may satisfy this need. Here we review the CellSearch technology used for the detection of circulating tumor cells and discuss potential future directions for improvements. PMID:25133014

  2. Insulin and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) stimulate production of IGF-binding proteins by ovarian granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Grimes, R W; Hammond, J M

    1992-08-01

    Ligand blot analysis of granulosa cell (GC)-conditioned culture medium revealed several easily measurable insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding proteins (IGFBPs), including IGFBP-3 [40-44 kilodaltons (kDa)] and IGFBP-2 (34 kDa). In the present study, IGF-I, in a dose-dependent manner, significantly stimulated the production of these IGFBPs. Insulin, but not IGF-II, mimicked IGF-I's action on IGFBP-3 and -2 production, but was less potent. The synthetic IGF, long R3-IGF-I, which has very low affinity for IGFBPs and only slightly reduced affinity for the IGF-I (type I) receptor, had significantly greater potency in stimulating IGFBP-3 and -2 production compared to IGF-I. Des-(1-3)-IGF-I had similar effects. IGF-I, IGF-II, and the IGF-I analogs, but not insulin, also induced production of an unidentified 30-kDa IGFBP not normally detectable in these cultures. However, in the presence of epidermal growth factor (which was without independent effect on the 30-kDa IGFBP), insulin also induced this 30-kDa IGFBP. By Northern analysis the expression of IGFBP-3 mRNA was found to be significantly stimulated by IGF-I. In summary, insulin stimulated IGFBP-3 and -2 production in a manner that mimics that of IGF-I and the more potent long R3-IGF-I. However, its low potency suggested that IGFBP production is regulated via the IGF-I (type I) receptor. The much higher potency of long R3-IGF-I compared to that of IGF-I suggests that the IGFBPs themselves modulate the action of IGFs by sequestering exogenous IGFs. Thus, one cellular response to IGF stimulation is the production of IGFBPs, which, in turn, reduce or negate the biological activity of the IGFs. The effects of insulin-like peptides are exerted at least in part by increasing levels of mRNA for specific BPs. PMID:1379161

  3. Deformability of Tumor Cells versus Blood Cells.

    PubMed

    Shaw Bagnall, Josephine; Byun, Sangwon; Begum, Shahinoor; Miyamoto, David T; Hecht, Vivian C; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Stott, Shannon L; Toner, Mehmet; Hynes, Richard O; Manalis, Scott R

    2015-01-01

    The potential for circulating tumor cells (CTCs) to elucidate the process of cancer metastasis and inform clinical decision-making has made their isolation of great importance. However, CTCs are rare in the blood, and universal properties with which to identify them remain elusive. As technological advancements have made single-cell deformability measurements increasingly routine, the assessment of physical distinctions between tumor cells and blood cells may provide insight into the feasibility of deformability-based methods for identifying CTCs in patient blood. To this end, we present an initial study assessing deformability differences between tumor cells and blood cells, indicated by the length of time required for them to pass through a microfluidic constriction. Here, we demonstrate that deformability changes in tumor cells that have undergone phenotypic shifts are small compared to differences between tumor cell lines and blood cells. Additionally, in a syngeneic mouse tumor model, cells that are able to exit a tumor and enter circulation are not required to be more deformable than the cells that were first injected into the mouse. However, a limited study of metastatic prostate cancer patients provides evidence that some CTCs may be more mechanically similar to blood cells than to typical tumor cell lines. PMID:26679988

  4. Deformability of Tumor Cells versus Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shaw Bagnall, Josephine; Byun, Sangwon; Begum, Shahinoor; Miyamoto, David T.; Hecht, Vivian C.; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Stott, Shannon L.; Toner, Mehmet; Hynes, Richard O.; Manalis, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    The potential for circulating tumor cells (CTCs) to elucidate the process of cancer metastasis and inform clinical decision-making has made their isolation of great importance. However, CTCs are rare in the blood, and universal properties with which to identify them remain elusive. As technological advancements have made single-cell deformability measurements increasingly routine, the assessment of physical distinctions between tumor cells and blood cells may provide insight into the feasibility of deformability-based methods for identifying CTCs in patient blood. To this end, we present an initial study assessing deformability differences between tumor cells and blood cells, indicated by the length of time required for them to pass through a microfluidic constriction. Here, we demonstrate that deformability changes in tumor cells that have undergone phenotypic shifts are small compared to differences between tumor cell lines and blood cells. Additionally, in a syngeneic mouse tumor model, cells that are able to exit a tumor and enter circulation are not required to be more deformable than the cells that were first injected into the mouse. However, a limited study of metastatic prostate cancer patients provides evidence that some CTCs may be more mechanically similar to blood cells than to typical tumor cell lines. PMID:26679988

  5. Association between the expression of LHR, FSHR and CYP19 genes, cellular distribution of encoded proteins and proliferation of porcine granulosa cells in real-time.

    PubMed

    Kempisty, B; Ziółkowska, A; Ciesiółka, S; Piotrowska, H; Antosik, P; Bukowska, D; Nowicki, M; Brüssow, K P; Zabel, M

    2014-01-01

    The process of granulosa cell luteinization is part of the main process determining growth, differentiation and proliferation of these cells. Although the mechanisms underlying the regulation of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) and cytochrome P450 aromatase expression in mammalian granulosa cells is well understood, still little is known about the expression of mRNA and encoded proteins in relation to cell proliferation and luteinization in vitro. Porcine granulosa cells were observed in vitro at a168-h period while undergoing real-time proliferation using an RTCA system. Furthermore, LHR, FSHR and CYP19 mRNA expression were detected using RQ-PCR after 168 h of in vitro culture (IVC) at 24-h intervals, and LHR, FSHR and P450arom were examined by confocal microscopic observation at 0 h, 24 h, 48 h, 96 h, and 168 h of IVC. We found increased expression of LHR and CYP19 mRNA at 24 h and 48 h of IVC compared to the other stages (P less than 0.01, P less than 0.001), whereas FSHR mRNA was higher only at 0 h (P less than 0.001). In contrast, LHR, FSHR and P450arom protein expression was significantly higher at the end of the 168-h IVC period compared to 0 h, 24 h, 48 h and 96 h (P less than 0.001). LHR, FSHR and P450arom were distributed in the cytoplasm of porcine GCs at each time point of IVC. When analyzing cell proliferation, differences in cell index were observed (at least P less than 0.05) between the first (0-24 h) and the last period (144-168 h) of IVC; however, soon after 24 h of IVC a logarithmic increase in proliferation was also seen. We assume that the expression of LHR, FSHR and CYP19 mRNAs depends on the period of in vitro cultivation and may be linked with the luteinization process of porcine GCs. Furthermore, the patterns of mRNA and protein expression suggest a post-transcriptional regulation of LHR, FSHR and P450arom. In summary, it can be presumed that mRNA and protein expression and in vitro

  6. Anti-angiogenic VEGFA164B isoform mRNA is more abundant in E2-inactive, atretic follicles while expression of angiogenic VEGFA isoforms is greater in granulosa cells from developing bovine follicles prior to the LH surge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) is expressed by granulosa cells of the follicle and if its actions are blocked, ovulation and antral follicle development is inhibited. However, the role of anti-angiogenic VEGFA isoforms in bovine dominant follicle development, especially prior to and a...

  7. Advanced stage ovarian juvenile granuloza cell tumor causing acute abdomen: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bedir, Recep; Mürtezaoğlu, Afşin Rahman; Calapoğlu, Ahmet Salih; Şehitoğlu, İbrahim; Yurdakul, Cüneyt

    2014-09-01

    Ovary juvenile granulosa cell tumors (JGCT) are rare sex cord-stromal tumors that are most commonly encountered in prepubertal girls. These tumors can be of the adult type (95%) and juvenile type (5%). The main causes of complaint are abdominal distention and abdominal pain. Definitive diagnosis is confirmed by histopathologal and immunohistochemical examinations. A 10-year old girl presented with massive abdominal distention, acute abdomen findings and ascites. Abdominopelvic magnetic resonance imaging showed masses with multiple cysts and solid components in the left ovary. Tumor markers were normal, but serum estradiol level was elevated. The patient underwent mass resection with left salpingo-oophorectomy and total omentectomy. Final histopathological diagnosis was JGCT. We herein reporte an extremely rare case of advanced stage JGCT causing massive ascites and acute abdomen. PMID:25204485

  8. The transcription factor FOXL2 mobilizes estrogen signaling to maintain the identity of ovarian granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    Georges, Adrien; L'Hôte, David; Todeschini, Anne Laure; Auguste, Aurélie; Legois, Bérangère; Zider, Alain; Veitia, Reiner A

    2014-01-01

    FOXL2 is a lineage determining transcription factor in the ovary, but its direct targets and modes of action are not fully characterized. In this study, we explore the targets of FOXL2 and five nuclear receptors in murine primary follicular cells. We found that FOXL2 is required for normal gene regulation by steroid receptors, and we show that estrogen receptor beta (ESR2) is the main vector of estradiol signaling in these cells. Moreover, we found that FOXL2 directly modulates Esr2 expression through a newly identified intronic element. Interestingly, we found that FOXL2 repressed the testis-determining gene Sox9 both independently of estrogen signaling and through the activation of ESR2 expression. Altogether, we show that FOXL2 mobilizes estrogen signaling to establish a coherent feed-forward loop repressing Sox9. This sheds a new light on the role of FOXL2 in ovarian maintenance and function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04207.001 PMID:25369636

  9. MicroRNA Expression Profile in Bovine Granulosa Cells of Preovulatory Dominant and Subordinate Follicles during the Late Follicular Phase of the Estrous Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Gebremedhn, Samuel; Salilew-Wondim, Dessie; Ahmad, Ijaz; Sahadevan, Sudeep; Hossain, Md Munir; Hoelker, Michael; Rings, Franca; Neuhoff, Christiane; Tholen, Ernst; Looft, Christian; Schellander, Karl; Tesfaye, Dawit

    2015-01-01

    In bovine, ovarian follicles grow in a wave-like fashion with commonly 2 or 3 follicular waves emerging per estrous cycle. The dominant follicle of the follicular wave which coincides with the LH-surge becomes ovulatory, leaving the subordinate follicles to undergo atresia. These physiological processes are controlled by timely and spatially expressed genes and gene products, which in turn are regulated by post-transcriptional regulators. MicroRNAs, a class of short non-coding RNA molecules, are one of the important posttranscriptional regulators of genes associated with various cellular processes. Here we investigated the expression pattern of miRNAs in granulosa cells of bovine preovulatory dominant and subordinate follicles during the late follicular phase of bovine estrous cycle using Illumina miRNA deep sequencing. In addition to 11 putative novel miRNAs, a total of 315 and 323 known miRNAs were detected in preovulatory dominant and subordinate follicles, respectively. Moreover, in comparison with the subordinate follicles, a total of 64 miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in preovulatory dominant follicles, of which 34 miRNAs including the miR-132 and miR-183 clusters were significantly enriched, and 30 miRNAs including the miR-17-92 cluster, bta-miR-409a and bta-miR-378 were significantly down regulated in preovulatory dominant follicles. In-silico pathway analysis revealed that canonical pathways related to oncogenesis, cell adhesion, cell proliferation, apoptosis and metabolism were significantly enriched by the predicted target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs. Furthermore, Luciferase reporter assay analysis showed that one of the differentially regulated miRNAs, the miR-183 cluster miRNAs, were validated to target the 3´-UTR of FOXO1 gene. Moreover FOXO1 was highly enriched in granulosa cells of subordinate follicles in comparison with the preovulatory dominant follicles demonstrating reciprocal expression pattern with miR-183

  10. Involvement of microRNA Mir15a in control of human ovarian granulosa cell proliferation, apoptosis, steroidogenesis, and response to FSH.

    PubMed

    Sirotkin, Alexander V; Kisová, Gabriela; Brenaut, Pauline; Ovcharenko, Dmitriy; Grossmann, Roland; Mlyncek, Milos

    2014-01-01

    Our study aimed to examine the role of micro RNA Mir15a in control of basic ovarian cell functions: proliferation, apoptosis, and secretory activity. In the first series of experiments, primary human ovarian granulosa cells were transfected with antisense construct blocking Mir15a (anti-Mir15a) and cultured without hormonal treatments. Accumulation of markers of proliferation (MAPK/ERK1,2 and PCNA) and apoptosis (caspase 3 and bax), and release of steroid hormones (progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol) were evaluated by immunocytochemical analysis and by enzyme immunoassay. In the second series of experiments, granulosa cells were transfected with gene construct encoding Mir15a precursor (pre-Mir15a) and cultured with and without follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH; 0, 1, 10, and 100 ng/ml). Expression of markers of proliferation (MAPK/ERK1,2) apoptosis (caspase 3), and steroidogenesis (release of progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol) were evaluated. Transfection of cells with anti-Mir15a resulted in a significant increase in accumulation of both proliferation and apoptosis markers, a reduction in progesterone and testosterone release, and an increase in estradiol release. Transfection of cells with pre-Mir15a had an opposite effect: it reduced accumulation of proliferation- and apoptosis-related proteins MAPK/ERK1,2 and caspase 3, and promoted release of progesterone and testosterone, but not estradiol. Moreover, pre-Mir15a reversed the effect of FSH on caspase 3, progesterone, and testosterone, but not on MAPK/ERK1,2 and estradiol. Our observations demonstrate involvement of Mir15a in control of multiple ovarian functions: proliferation, apoptosis, release of progesterone, androgen, and estrogen, and response to gonadotropin. Moreover, this is the first demonstration that miRNAs can affect response of cells to hormonal regulators. We propose that Mir15 could potentially be used for control of different reproductive processes. PMID:25069510

  11. Efficient differentiation of steroidogenic and germ-like cells from epigenetically-related iPSCs derived from ovarian granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Anchan, Raymond; Gerami-Naini, Behzad; Lindsey, Jennifer S; Ho, Joshua W K; Kiezun, Adam; Lipskind, Shane; Ng, Nicholas; LiCausi, Joseph A; Kim, Chloe S; Brezina, Paul; Tuschl, Thomas; Maas, Richard; Kearns, William G; Williams, Zev

    2015-01-01

    To explore restoration of ovarian function using epigenetically-related, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), we functionally evaluated the epigenetic memory of novel iPSC lines, derived from mouse and human ovarian granulosa cells (GCs) using c-Myc, Klf4, Sox2 and Oct4 retroviral vectors. The stem cell identity of the mouse and human GC-derived iPSCs (mGriPSCs, hGriPSCs) was verified by demonstrating embryonic stem cell (ESC) antigen expression using immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR analysis, as well as formation of embryoid bodies (EBs) and teratomas that are capable of differentiating into cells from all three germ layers. GriPSCs' gene expression profiles associate more closely with those of ESCs than of the originating GCs as demonstrated by genome-wide analysis of mRNA and microRNA. A comparative analysis of EBs generated from three different mouse cell lines (mGriPSCs; fibroblast-derived iPSC, mFiPSCs; G4 embryonic stem cells, G4 mESCs) revealed that differentiated mGriPSC-EBs synthesize 10-fold more estradiol (E2) than either differentiated FiPSC- or mESC-EBs under identical culture conditions. By contrast, mESC-EBs primarily synthesize progesterone (P4) and FiPSC-EBs produce neither E2 nor P4. Differentiated mGriPSC-EBs also express ovarian markers (AMHR, FSHR, Cyp19a1, ER and Inha) as well as markers of early gametogenesis (Mvh, Dazl, Gdf9, Boule and Zp1) more frequently than EBs of the other cell lines. These results provide evidence of preferential homotypic differentiation of mGriPSCs into ovarian cell types. Collectively, our data support the hypothesis that generating iPSCs from the desired tissue type may prove advantageous due to the iPSCs' epigenetic memory. PMID:25751620

  12. Effects of BMAL1-SIRT1-positive cycle on estrogen synthesis in human ovarian granulosa cells: an implicative role of BMAL1 in PCOS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaou; Liu, Jiansheng; Zhu, Kai; Hong, Yan; Sun, Yun; Zhao, Xiaoming; Du, Yanzhi; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2016-08-01

    Brain and muscle ARNT-like protein 1 (BMAL1) is necessary for fertility and has been found to be essential to follicle growth and steroidogenesis. Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) has been reported to interact with BMAL1 and function in a circadian manner. Evidence has shown that SIRT1 regulates aromatase expression in estrogen-producing cells. We aimed to ascertain if there is a relationship between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and BMAL1, and whether and how BMAL1 takes part in estrogen synthesis in human granulosa cells (hGCs). Twenty-four women diagnosed with PCOS and 24 healthy individuals undergoing assisted reproduction were studied. BMAL1 expression in their granulosa cells (GCs) was observed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The level of expression in the PCOS group was lower than that of the group without PCOS (p < 0.05). We also analyzed estrogen synthesis and aromatase expression in KGN cell lines. Both were downregulated after BMAL1 and SIRT1 knock-down and, conversely, upregulated after overexpression treatments of these two genes in KGN cells. Both BMAL1 and SIRT1 had a mutually positive regulation, as did the phosphorylation of JNK. Furthermore, JNK overexpression increased estrogen synthesis activity and the expression levels of aromatase, BMAL1, and SIRT1. In KGN and hGCs, estrogen synthesis and aromatase expression were downregulated after treatment with JNK and SIRT1 inhibitors. In addition, BMAL1, SIRT1, and JNK expression levels were all downregulated. Our results demonstrate the effects of BMAL1 on estrogen synthesis in hGCs and suggest a BMAL1-SIRT1-JNK positive feedback cycle in this process, which points out an important role of BMAL1 in the development of PCOS. PMID:27117143

  13. A Mixture Reflecting Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) Profiles Detected in Human Follicular Fluid Significantly Affects Steroidogenesis and Induces Oxidative Stress in a Female Human Granulosa Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, Pavine L C; Wade, Mike; Goodyer, Cindy; Hales, Barbara F; Robaire, Bernard

    2016-07-01

    Brominated flame retardants are incorporated into consumer products to prevent flame propagation. These compounds leach into the domestic environment, resulting in chronic exposure. Pregnancy failure is associated with high levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a major class of brominated flame retardants, in human follicular fluid, raising serious questions regarding their impact on female fertility. Our goal was to elucidate the effects of a mixture of PBDEs, similar to the profile found in human follicular fluid, on an immortalized human granulosa cell line, the KGN cell line. We showed that cell viability was altered and oxidative stress was induced as reflected by increased reactive oxygen species formation at 100 μM of the PBDE mixture. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that PBDE treatments of 1, 5, and 20 μM altered the expression of several genes involved in the reactive oxygen species signaling pathway. Significant dose-dependent reductions in progesterone and estradiol levels in the culture medium were measured after PBDE treatment; in parallel, the expression of genes involved in estradiol metabolism, namely CYP1A1, was up-regulated by 5 and 20 μM of the PBDE mixture. Treatment with 20 μM PBDE also increased the expression and secretion of the proinflammatory factor, IL-6, into the KGN cell culture medium. Our results demonstrate that PBDEs can alter human granulosa cell functions by inducing oxidative stress and disrupting steroidogenesis. These results indicate that PBDEs may be detrimental to ovarian functions and thus may adversely affect female reproductive health after chronic exposure. PMID:27219277

  14. Expression of insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA), but not IGF-I mRNA, in human preovulatory granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Geisthovel, F; Moretti-Rojas, I; Asch, R H; Rojas, F J

    1989-11-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) play an important role as intra-ovarian regulators in several mammalian species. Recently, we and others have reported the presence of both IGF-I and IGF-II in human follicular fluid. The source of these follicular IGFs, however, has not been determined. In this study, we have evaluated the possibility that human ovarian granulosa cells are a production site of IGFs in vivo. We used cDNA probes to analyse directly IGF-I and IGF-II gene expression at the level of mRNA content in granulosa cells from preovulatory follicles of women undergoing either gamete intra-Fallopian transfer or in-vitro fertilization. Samples of granulosa cell RNA enriched for polyadenylated RNA [poly(A)+RNA] were hybridized with probes for human IGF-I, human IGF-II and human actin (as a control). Transfer blot analysis revealed that the enriched poly(A)+RNA of human granulosa cells from preovulatory follicles contained no detectable IGF-I mRNA. In contrast, three species of IGF-II mRNA of approximately 6.1, 4.9 and 2.1 kb were detected. These data suggest that IGF-II mRNA, but not IGF-I mRNA, is expressed in human granulosa cells collected immediately before ovulation. Our results support the concept that human ovarian IGF-II is produced locally and may function in an autocrine or paracrine fashion in the human ovary in vivo. PMID:2613863

  15. Cell density-mediated pericellular hypoxia and the local dynamic regulation of VEGF-a splice variants in ovine ovarian granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Marsters, Peter; Alhamdan, Rana; Campbell, Bruce K

    2014-08-01

    The primary aims of this study were to utilize a specialized culture system to further elucidate the functional significance of pericellular hypoxia within the granulosa cell (GC) compartment of growing follicles, and to clarify its effects on the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A isoforms and steroid hormones. Multilaminar clusters formed rapidly in ovine GCs seeded at high density (HD), and Hypoxyprobe-1 protein adducts appeared markedly more abundant and HIF-1 activation significantly (P < 0.001) greater than in cells seeded at low density (LD). Four proangiogenic VEGF mRNA transcript variants were identified in cultured GCs. Most abundant were VEGF120 and VEGF164, but VEGF182 and VEGF188 were also detected. Total VEGF mRNA was shown to be up-regulated transiently in the HD cells (P < 0.001) and VEGF164 mRNA appeared to contribute most to this. The hypoxia mimetic cobalt chloride also induced marked increases in HIF-1 activation (P < 0.01) and total VEGF mRNA (P < 0.01) production. HD cells increased levels of HIF-1alpha (P < 0.001) and VEGF receptor type 1 (P < 0.05), but not VEGF receptor type 2 mRNA, compared to LD cells or cells grown under chemically induced hypoxia. Both 17beta-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) were markedly lower (P < 0.001) in the HD, cells but though cobalt chloride treatment accompanied significantly reduced P4 production (P < 0.05), E2 levels remained similar to those in untreated cells. These outcomes suggest that pericellular hypoxia may be an important mediator of VEGF production in the GCs of growing follicles, but that local regulation is complex and may involve multiple mechanisms such as mediation by steroid hormones and differential variant mRNA production. PMID:24966396

  16. Knockdown of CEBPβ by RNAi in porcine granulosa cells resulted in S phase cell cycle arrest and decreased progesterone and estradiol synthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Yan-Hong; Wang, Li; Riaz, Hasan; Wu, Jia-Bin; Yuan, Yi-Feng; Han, Li; Wang, Yan-Ling; Zhao, Yi; Dan, Yi; Huo, Li-Jun

    2014-09-01

    Cultured ovarian granulosa cells (GCs) are essential models to study molecular mechanisms of gene regulation during folliculogenesis. CCAAT enhancer binding proteins β (CEBPβ) has been identified in the ovary and is critical for follicular growth, ovulation and luteinization in mice. In the present study, hormonal treatment indicated that luteinizing hormone (LH) and exogenous human chorionic gonadotropins (hCG) significantly increased the expression of CEBPβ in porcine GCs. By RNAi-Ready pSIREN-RetroQ-ZsGreen Vector mediated recombinant pshRNA vectors, CEBPβ gene was successfully knocked down in porcine GCs, confirmed by mRNA and protein level analyzed by real time PCR and western blot, respectively. We further found that knockdown of CEBPβ significantly increased the expression of p-ERK1/2. Furthermore, CEBPβ knockdown arrested the GCs at S phase of cell cycle, but had no effects on cell apoptosis. More importantly, it markedly down regulated the concentration of estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) in the culture medium. To uncover the regulatory mechanism of CEBPβ knockdown on cell cycle and steroids synthesis, we found that the mRNA expression of bcl-2 (anti-apoptosis), StAR and Runx2 (steroid hormone synthesis) was up-regulated, while genes related to apoptosis (Caspase-3 and p53), hormonal synthesis (CYP11A1) and cell cycle (cyclinA1, cyclinB1, cyclinD1) were down-regulated, suggesting that knockdown of CEBPβ may inhibit apoptosis, regulate cell cycle and hormone secretions at the transcriptional level in porcine GCs. Furthermore, knockdown of CEBPβ significantly increased the expression of PTGS2 and decreased the expression of IGFBP4, Has2 and PTGFR which are important for folliculogenesis in porcine GCs. In conclusion, this study reveals that CEBPβ is a key regulator of porcine GCs through modulation of cell cycle, apoptosis, steroid synthesis, and other regulators of folliculogenesis. PMID:24607812

  17. Novel effects of the cyclooxygenase-2-selective inhibitor NS-398 on IL-1β-induced cyclooxygenase-2 and IL-8 expression in human ovarian granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Ou, Hui-Ling; Sun, David; Peng, Yen-Chun; Wu, Yuh-Lin

    2016-08-01

    Ovulation is a critical inflammation-like event that is central to ovarian physiology. IL-1β is an immediate early pro-inflammatory cytokine that regulates production of several other inflammatory mediators, such as cyclooxygenase 2 (COX)-2 and IL-8. NS-398 is a selective inhibitor of COX-2 bioactivity and thus this drug is able to mitigate the COX-2-mediated production of downstream prostaglandins and the subsequent inflammatory response. Here we have investigated the action of NS-398 using a human ovarian granulosa cell line, KGN, by exploring IL-1β-regulated COX-2 and IL-8 expression. First, NS-398, instead of reducing inflammation, appeared to further enhance IL-1β-mediated COX-2 and IL-8 production. Using selective inhibitors targeting various signaling molecules, MAPK and NF-κB pathways both seemed to be involved in the impact of NS-398 on IL-1β-induced COX-2 and IL-8 expression. NS-398 also promoted IL-1β-mediated NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation but had no effect on IL-1β-activated MAPK phosphorylation. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that NS-398, in combination with IL-1β, significantly enhanced cell cycle progression involving IL-8. Our findings demonstrate a clear pro-inflammatory function for NS-398 in the IL-1β-mediated inflammatory response of granulosa cells, at least in part, owing to its augmenting effect on the IL-1β-induced activation of NF-κB. PMID:27312705

  18. Tumor angiogenesis--characteristics of tumor endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hida, Kyoko; Maishi, Nako; Torii, Chisaho; Hida, Yasuhiro

    2016-04-01

    Tumor blood vessels provide nutrition and oxygen to the tumor, resulting in tumor progression. They also act as gatekeepers, inducing tumor metastasis. Thus, targeting tumor blood vessels is an important strategy in cancer therapy. Tumor endothelial cells (TECs), which line the inner layer of blood vessels of the tumor stromal tissue, are the main targets of anti-angiogenic therapy. Because new tumor blood vessels generally sprout from pre-existing vasculature, they have been considered to be the same as normal blood vessels. However, tumor blood vessels demonstrate a markedly abnormal phenotype that includes several important morphological changes. The degree of angiogenesis is determined by the balance between the angiogenic stimulators and inhibitors released by the tumor and host cells. Recent studies have revealed that TECs also exhibit altered characteristics which depend on the tumor microenvironment. Here, we review recent studies on TEC abnormalities and heterogeneity with respect to tumor progression and consider their therapeutic implications. PMID:26879652

  19. MAPK3/1 is conducive to luteinizing hormone-mediated C-type natriuretic peptide decrease in bovine granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    YANG, Lei; WEI, Qiang; GE, Junbang; ZHAO, Xiaoe; MA, Baohua

    2015-01-01

    C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) plays a role as an oocyte maturation inhibitor (OMI) in many species, including the bovine. However, the effects of luteinizing hormone (LH) on CNP expression and its potential mechanisms have not reported in the bovine. In the present study, we aimed to study the effects of LH on CNP expression and to illuminate the potential molecular mechanism in this process. Our results showed that LH induced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) phosphorylation, mitogen-activated protein kinase3/1 (MAPK3/1) activation and CNP mRNA decrease in cultured bovine granulosa cells. Further study revealed that LH suppressed CNP expression via the MAPK3/1 signaling pathway, which was activated by the EGFR pathway. In conclusion, our research suggested that MAPK3/1 is involved in LH-mediated decrease of CNP and that this process is related to the EGFR and MAPK3/1 signal pathways. PMID:26655567

  20. [Ovarian germ cell tumors in girls].

    PubMed

    Nechushkina, I V; Karseladze, A I

    2015-01-01

    Morphological structure of tumor influences on the clinical course of the disease in children with germ cell tumors. Patients with ovarian dysgerminoma at the time of diagnosis are significantly older than patients with immature teratoma and yolk sac tumor. Immature teratoma and mixed germ cell tumors are significantly larger compared to other germ cell tumors. Yolk sac tumor and embryonal carcinoma are the most common cause of emergency surgical interventions and are accompanied by rupture of tumor capsule. PMID:26087605

  1. Hexavalent chromium-induced apoptosis of granulosa cells involves selective sub-cellular translocation of Bcl-2 members, ERK1/2 and p53

    SciTech Connect

    Banu, Sakhila K.; Stanley, Jone A.; Lee, JeHoon; Stephen, Sam D.; Arosh, Joe A.; Hoyer, Patricia B.; Burghardt, Robert C.

    2011-03-15

    Hexavalent chromium (CrVI) has been widely used in industries throughout the world. Increased usage of CrVI and atmospheric emission of CrVI from catalytic converters of automobiles, and its improper disposal causes various health hazards including female infertility. Recently we have reported that lactational exposure to CrVI induced a delay/arrest in follicular development at the secondary follicular stage. In order to investigate the underlying mechanism, primary cultures of rat granulosa cells were treated with 10 {mu}M potassium dichromate (CrVI) for 12 and 24 h, with or without vitamin C pre-treatment for 24 h. The effects of CrVI on intrinsic apoptotic pathway(s) were investigated. Our data indicated that CrVI: (i) induced DNA fragmentation and increased apoptosis, (ii) increased cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to cytosol, (iii) downregulated anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, HSP70 and HSP90; upregulated pro-apoptotic BAX and BAD, (iv) altered translocation of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, BAX, BAD, HSP70 and HSP90 to the mitochondria, (v) upregulated p-ERK and p-JNK, and selectively translocated p-ERK to the mitochondria and nucleus, (vi) activated caspase-3 and PARP, and (vii) increased phosphorylation of p53 at ser-6, ser-9, ser-15, ser-20, ser-37, ser-46 and ser-392, increased p53 transcriptional activation, and downregulated MDM-2. Vitamin C pre-treatment mitigated CrVI effects on apoptosis and related pathways. Our study, for the first time provides a clear insight into the effect of CrVI on multiple pathways that lead to apoptosis of granulosa cells which could be mitigated by vitamin C.

  2. Loss of GATA-6 and GATA-4 in Granulosa Cells Blocks Folliculogenesis, Ovulation, and Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor Expression Leading to Female Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Jill; Wu, Yan-Guang; Gossen, Jan; Zhou, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Single GATA-6 (G6gcko), GATA-4 (G4gcko), and double GATA-4/6 (G4/6gcko) granulosa cell-specific knockout mice were generated to further investigate the role of GATA transcription factors in ovarian function in vivo. No reproductive defects were found in G6gcko animals. G4gcko animals were subfertile as indicated by the reduced number of pups per litter and the release of significantly fewer oocytes at ovulation. In marked contrast, G4/6gcko females fail to ovulate and are infertile. Furthermore, G4/6gcko females had irregular estrous cycles, which correlate with the abnormal ovarian histology found in unstimulated adult G4/6gcko females showing lack of follicular development and increased follicular atresia. Moreover, treatment with exogenous gonadotropins did not rescue folliculogenesis or ovulation in double-knockout G4/6gcko mice. In addition, ovary weight and estradiol levels were significantly reduced in G4gcko and G4/6gcko animals when compared with control and G6gcko mice. Aromatase, P450scc, and LH receptor expression was significantly lower in G4gcko and G4/6gcko mice when compared with control animals. Most prominently, FSH receptor (FSHR) protein was undetectable in granulosa cells of G4gcko and G4/6gcko. Accordingly, gel shift and reporter assays revealed that GATA-4 binds and stimulates the activity of the FSHR promoter. These results demonstrate that GATA-4 and GATA-6 are needed for normal ovarian function. Our data are consistent with a role for GATA-4 in the regulation of the FSHR gene and provide a possible molecular mechanism to explain the fertility defects observed in animals with deficient GATA expression in the ovary. PMID:22434075

  3. Changes in expression of differentiation markers between normal ovarian cells and derived tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Van Niekerk, C. C.; Ramaekers, F. C.; Hanselaar, A. G.; Aldeweireldt, J.; Poels, L. G.

    1993-01-01

    The marker profile of 18 samples of normal human ovarian tissues and 138 samples of their derived tumors was established using 51 monoclonal antibodies directed against intermediate filaments, ovarian carcinoma-specific antigens, general tumor-associated antigens and MHC-I/II antigens. Our data show that vimentin and keratins 7, 8, 18, and 19 were found in both epithelial and some nonepithelial ovarian tumors. Several tumor samples contained additional keratins 4, 10, 13, and 14, as well as desmin. BW 495/36 and to a lesser extent HMFG-2 were usually found in all ovarian tumors that contained simple epithelial keratins, except the absence of HMFG-2 in gonadal tumors as well as in dysgerminomas. In contrast to the keratin antibodies, these two panepithelial antibodies were negative in normal mesothelial cells and granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles. In general, the marker TAG-72 appeared useful for its discrimination between positively stained mucinous adenomas, the ovarian carcinomas as well as germ cell tumors, and the negatively stained gonadal tumors, serous adenomas, and cystomas. OV632 appeared useful in the distinction between negatively stained serous adenomas and positively stained serous carcinomas. In contrast, the monoclonal antibodies OC 125, OV-TL 3, OV-TL 16, and MOv 18 can be considered as pan-ovarian carcinoma markers, however without the discriminative capability as seen for OV632. These ovarian carcinoma-associated antigens were hardly found expressed in gonadal and germ cell tumors, except in the group of endodermal sinus tumors. HLA-I was found to be expressed in almost all nucleated cells, although loss of HLA-I expression was seen in areas of tumor cells. HLA-DR was negative in normal ovarian tissue, but heterogeneous expression was noticed in most of the epithelial tumors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7678716

  4. Cytoskeleton reorganization mediates alpha6beta1 integrin-associated actions of laminin on proliferation and survival, but not on steroidogenesis of ovine granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    Bellego, Frédérique Le; Fabre, Stéphane; Pisselet, Claudine; Monniaux, Danielle

    2005-01-01

    Background Laminin (LN) is one of the most abundant extracellular matrix components of the basal lamina and granulosa cell layers of ovarian follicles. Culture of ovine granulosa cells (GC) on LN substratum induces cell spreading, enhances cell survival and proliferation, and promotes luteinization. Previous investigations have shown that these effects are mostly mediated by the alpha6beta1 integrin, but its signalization pathways have not been investigated. This study aimed to assess the importance of the cytoskeleton in the alpha6beta1 integrin-mediated actions of laminin on survival, proliferation and steroidogenesis of ovine GC. Methods The relationships between morphology and functions of ovine GC cultured on substrata containing LN or/and RGD peptides were investigated. The effects of (1) cytochalasin D, an actin cytoskeleton-disrupting drug, (2) a specific function-blocking antibody raised against alpha6 integrin subunit (anti-alpha6 IgG), and (3) an inhibitor of the ERK1/2 signalization pathway (PD98059) were assessed for GC shape, pyknosis and proliferation rates, oestradiol and progesterone secretions. Results Cytoskeleton disruption by cytochalasin D induced cell rounding, inhibited proliferation, promoted pyknosis, inhibited progesterone secretion and enhanced oestradiol secretion by GC cultured on LN. When GC were cultured on various substrata containing LN and/or RGD peptides in the presence or absence of anti-alpha6 IgG, both the existence of close correlations between the percentage of round cells, and the GC proliferation rate (r = -0.87) and pyknotic rate (r = 0.76) were established, but no relationship was found between cell shape and steroidogenesis. Inhibition of the ERK1/2 signalization pathway by PD98059 had no effect on GC shape, proliferation or pyknotic rates. However, it dramatically reduced progesterone secretion, expression of cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage and 3beta-hydroxysteroid deshydrogenase enzymes, and enhanced

  5. Study on connexin gene and protein expression and cellular distribution in relation to real-time proliferation of porcine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Kempisty, B; Ziółkowska, A; Ciesiółka, S; Piotrowska, H; Antosik, P; Bukowska, D; Nowicki, M; Brüssow, K P; Zabel, M

    2014-01-01

    Granulosa cells (GCs) play an important role during follicle growth and development in preovulatory stage. Moreover, the proteins such as connexins are responsible for formation of protein channel between follicular-cumulus cells and oocyte. This study was aimed to investigate the role of connexin expression in porcine GCs in relation to their cellular distribution and real-time cell proliferation. In the present study, porcine GCs were isolated from the follicles of puberal gilts and then cultured in a real-time cellular analyzer (RTCA) system for 168 h. The expression levels of connexins (Cxs) Cx36, Cx37, Cx40 and Cx43 mRNA were measured by RQ-PCR analysis, and differences in the expression and distribution of Cx30, Cx31, Cx37, Cx43 and Cx45 proteins were analyzed by confocal microscopic visualization. We found higher level of Cx36, Cx37, and Cx43 mRNA expression in GCs at recovery (at 0 h of in vitro culture, IVC) compared to all analyzed time periods of IVC (24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144 and 168 h; P<0.001). On the other hand, the expression level of Cx40 transcripts was higher after 24 h of IVC compared to 0 h and the other times of IVC (P<0.001). Similarly to mRNAs, the expression levels of Cx31, Cx37 and Cx45 proteins were higher before (0 h) compared to after 168 h of IVC. The expression of Cx30 and Cx43, however, did not vary between the groups. In all, the proteins were distributed throughout the cell membrane rather than in the cytoplasm both before and after IVC. After 24 h of IVC, we observed a significant increase in the proliferation of GCs (log phase). We found differences in the proliferation index between 72-96 and 96- 140 h within the same population of GCs. In conclusion, the decrease in the expression of Cx mRNAs and proteins following IVC could be associated with a breakdown in gap-junction connections (GJCs), and leads to the decreased of their activity, which may be a reason of non-functional existence of connexon in follicular granulosa cells

  6. The LIM domain protein FHL2 interacts with the NR5A family of nuclear receptors and CREB to activate the inhibin-α subunit gene in ovarian granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Matulis, Christina K; Mayo, Kelly E

    2012-08-01

    Nuclear receptor transcriptional activity is enhanced by interaction with coactivators. The highly related nuclear receptor 5A (NR5A) subfamily members liver receptor homolog 1 and steroidogenic factor 1 bind to and activate several of the same genes, many of which are important for reproductive function. To better understand transcriptional activation by these nuclear receptors, we sought to identify interacting proteins that might function as coactivators. The LIM domain protein four and a half LIM domain 2 (FHL2) was identified as interacting with the NR5A receptors in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a human ovary cDNA library. FHL2, and the closely related FHL1, are both expressed in the rodent ovary and in granulosa cells. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of FHL1 and FHL2 in primary mouse granulosa cells reduced expression of the NR5A target genes encoding inhibin-α and P450scc. In vitro assays confirmed the interaction between the FHL and NR5A proteins and revealed that a single LIM domain of FHL2 is sufficient for this interaction, whereas determinants in both the ligand binding domain and DNA binding domain of NR5A proteins are important. FHL2 enhances the ability of both liver receptor homolog 1 and steroidogenic factor 1 to activate the inhibin-α subunit gene promoter in granulosa cells and thus functions as a transcriptional coactivator. FHL2 also interacts with cAMP response element-binding protein and substantially augments activation of inhibin gene expression by the combination of NR5A receptors and forskolin, suggesting that FHL2 may facilitate integration of these two signals. Collectively these results identify FHL2 as a novel coactivator of NR5A nuclear receptors in ovarian granulosa cells and suggest its involvement in regulating target genes important for mammalian reproduction. PMID:22734036

  7. Enhanced response of granulosa and theca cells from sheep carriers of the FecB mutation in vitro to gonadotropins and bone morphogenic protein-2, -4, and -6.

    PubMed

    Campbell, B K; Souza, C J H; Skinner, A J; Webb, R; Baird, D T

    2006-04-01

    The FecB (Booroola) mutation, which leads to increased ovulation rates and multiple births in sheep, is now known to occur in the signaling domain of the bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-1B receptor. We examined the effect of the mutation on the responsiveness of granulosa (GC) and theca cells (TC) to BMPs and other local regulators using tissue from animals with (Fec(B/B)) and without (Fec(+/+)) the FecB mutation. Experiments examined the effect of BMP-2, -4, and -6 (0.005-50 ng/ml), and their interaction with IGF-I (0.1-10 ng/ml LR3 analog) and gonadotropins, on the proliferation and differentiation of GCs and TCs isolated from small (<2 mm) antral follicles and maintained in serum-free culture for up to 8 d. Dose-finding studies using ovaries from wild-type sheep obtained from the abbattoir showed no difference among the different BMPs in stimulating (P < 0.001) estradiol (E2) production by GCs cultured with FSH (10 ng/ml), but there was a clear interaction (P < 0.001) with IGF-I. BMPs had no effect on GC proliferation or the sensitivity of GCs to FSH. In contrast, higher doses of BMPs (5-50 ng/ml) inhibited LH-stimulated androstenedione production by TCs, whereas lower doses (0.005-0.05 ng/ml) stimulated TC proliferation (P < 0.01). Regardless of dose of IGF-I, at the end of culture (96-192 h) hormone production by GCs (E2, inhibin A) and TCs (androstenedione) was 4- to 5-fold greater (P < 0.001) by cells from Fec(B/B), compared with Fec(+/+) ewes exposed to the same dose of gonadotropin. In the presence of low concentrations of IGF-I (0.1 ng/ml), the maximum increase in the production of E2 and inhibin A by GCs from FF ewes in response to BMPs was observed at doses that were 3- to 10-fold lower (3-10 ng/ml) than ++ (30 ng/ml; P < 0.001). Low doses of BMPs stimulated proliferation of TCs from ++ (P < 0.01) but not FF ewes. Immunohistochemistry confirmed BMP-6 protein expression in the oocyte, granulosa, and thecal layers of antral follicles from both genotypes

  8. Interaction of MSC with tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Catharina; Yang, Yuanyuan; Hass, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Tumor development and tumor progression is not only determined by the corresponding tumor cells but also by the tumor microenvironment. This includes an orchestrated network of interacting cell types (e.g. immune cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and mesenchymal stroma/stem cells (MSC)) via the extracellular matrix and soluble factors such as cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and various metabolites. Cell populations of the tumor microenvironment can interact directly and indirectly with cancer cells by mutually altering properties and functions of the involved partners. Particularly, mesenchymal stroma/stem cells (MSC) play an important role during carcinogenesis exhibiting different types of intercellular communication. Accordingly, this work focusses on diverse mechanisms of interaction between MSC and cancer cells. Moreover, some functional changes and consequences for both cell types are summarized which can eventually result in the establishment of a carcinoma stem cell niche (CSCN) or the generation of new tumor cell populations by MSC-tumor cell fusion. PMID:27608835

  9. FSH-induced p38-MAPK-mediated dephosphorylation at serine 727 of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 decreases Cyp1b1 expression in mouse granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Xue-Hai; Zhou, Xiao-Long; Cao, Rui; Xiao, Peng; Teng, Yun; Ning, Cai-Bo; Liu, Hong-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Most mammalian follicles undergo atresia at various stages before ovulation, and granulosa cell apoptosis is a major cause of antral follicular atresia. Estradiol is an essential mitogen for granulosa cell proliferation in vivo and inhibition of apoptosis. The estradiol-producing capacity and metabolism levels are important for follicle health, and sufficient estradiol is necessary for follicle development and ovulation. Cyp1b1, a member of the cytochrome P450 1 subfamily, is responsible for the metabolism of a wide variety of halogenated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in diverse tissues. In mouse follicles, Cyp1b1 converts estradiol to 4-hydroxyestradiol. We investigated mouse granulosa cells (MGCs) in vivo and in vitro and found that Cyp1b1 played a crucial role in estradiol metabolism in dominant follicles. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) decreased estrogen metabolism by reducing Cyp1b1 mRNA and protein levels in MGCs. Furthermore, FSH regulated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), a significant transcription factor of Cyp1b1, by mediating the dephosphorylation of STAT1 on serine 727 (Ser(727)) in MGCs. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) may be involved in the FSH-induced dephosphorylation of STAT1 on Ser(727) in MGCs. These results suggested that FSH functions via p38 MAPK-induced dephosphorylation at Ser(727) of STAT1 to downregulate Cyp1b1 expression and maintain the estradiol levels in mouse dominant follicles. PMID:25315223

  10. Palifosfamide in Treating Patients With Recurrent Germ Cell Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-11

    Adult Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Adult Teratoma; Malignant Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Malignant Extragonadal Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Extragonadal Seminoma; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Extragonadal Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Extragonadal Seminoma; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor

  11. Disruption of follistatin by RNAi increases apoptosis, arrests S-phase of cell cycle and decreases estradiol production in bovine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Chong, Zhenlu; Dong, Ping; Riaz, Hasan; Shi, Lei; Yu, Xue; Cheng, Ying; Yang, Liguo

    2015-04-01

    Follistatin (FST), a local regulator of gonadal functions is a powerful inhibitor of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion. In the present study, the expression of FST was partially silenced at both transcriptional and translational levels by RNAi-Ready pSIREN-RetroQ-ZsGreen Vector mediated recombinant pshRNA vectors in bovine granulosa cells (bGCs). The results showed that transfection with FST-1 and FST-2 vectors significantly down-regulated mRNA and protein expressions of follistatin by 51% (P = 0.0093) and 72% (P = 0.0078) respectively. After down-regulation of FST in bGCs, cell cycle was arrested at S-phase (9.2 ± 0.6 vs 12.5 ± 0.2, P = 0.0055), and apoptosis was significantly (21.3 ± 2.7 vs 13.9 ± 2.5, P = 0.0051) increased. These findings were further verified by down-regulation of protein level of B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (Bcl2, P = 0.0423), and up-regulation of caspase-3 (P = 0.0362), p21 (P = 0.0067) and mRNA levels of Bcl2-associated X protein (Bax, P = 0.041). Knockdown of FST in bGCs significantly increased activin A concentration in culture medium, while level of estradiol (E2) was suppressed without affecting progesterone production. In addition, mRNA levels of all activin receptor subtypes [activin receptor types I (ACRI) and II (ACRIIA and ACRIIB)] and inhibin α-subunit were augmented (P < 0.05) without altering both inhibin β-subunits. These findings suggest that follistatin may participate in caspase3-dependent apoptosis through Bcl2/Bax gene family in bovine GCs, whereas, activin and its receptors are associated with its regulation. Activin-induced up-regulation of inhibin-α subunit in bGCs seems to be involved in the regulation of steroidogenesis. PMID:25728901

  12. Alterations in bone morphogenetic protein 15, growth differentiation factor 9, and gene expression in granulosa cells in preovulatory follicles of dairy cows given porcine LH.

    PubMed

    Behrouzi, Amir; Colazo, Marcos Germán; Ambrose, Divakar Justus

    2016-04-15

    In a previous work, using porcine LH (pLH) in lieu of GnRH for synchronizing ovulation in dairy cows improved pregnancy rates without increasing plasma progesterone concentrations after ovulation. The LH profile is known to remain elevated above basal concentrations (≥1 ng/mL) for up to 20 hours in pLH-treated cows compared to less than 6 hours in GnRH-treated cows. Because LH triggers a cascade of signaling networks in the preovulatory follicle to promote final maturation and support oocyte competence, we hypothesized that dissimilar LH profiles will differentially regulate the intrafollicular factors and expression of downstream genes associated with improved oocyte competence. Specific objectives were to determine differences in the abundance of oocyte-secreted factors in the preovulatory follicular fluid and target genes in granulosa cells associated with oocyte competence, in response to exogenous porcine LH or GnRH-induced endogenous bovine LH exposure, in dairy cows. Follicular contents were aspirated by a transvaginal ultrasound-guided procedure from the preovulatory follicle of cyclic, nonlactating Holstein cows 21 ± 1 hour after administration of either pLH (25-mg) or GnRH (100-μg). Mature forms of bone morphogenetic protein 15, growth differentiation factor 9, and transforming growth factorβ1 were approximately 2-fold more abundant in pLH-treated cows which were exposed to an extended, low LH profile, than in GnRH-treated cows that had a short, high LH profile. The relative abundance of messenger RNA for cyclooxygenase-2, LH receptor, and progesterone receptor in granulosa cells, was about two-, eight-, and two-fold higher, respectively, in cows subjected to pLH than GnRH treatment. We infer that the improved pregnancy rate after pLH-induced ovulation reported previously, occurred through greater activation of intrafollicular transforming growth factor-β1 superfamily members, as these proteins promote cumulus expansion and oocyte competence

  13. Data in support of FSH induction of IRS-2 in human granulosa cells: Mapping the transcription factor binding sites in human IRS-2 promoter

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Surleen; Anjali, G.; Bhardwaj, Priya; Taneja, Jyoti; Singh, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2) plays critical role in the regulation of various metabolic processes by insulin and IGF-1. The defects in its expression and/or function are linked to diseases like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), insulin resistance and cancer. To predict the transcription factors (TFs) responsible for the regulation of human IRS-2 gene expression, the transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) and the corresponding TFs were investigated by analysis of IRS-2 promoter sequence using MatInspector Genomatix software (Cartharius et al., 2005 [1]). The ibid data is part of author׳s publication (Anjali et al., 2015 [2]) that explains Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) mediated IRS-2 promoter activation in human granulosa cells and its importance in the pathophysiology of PCOS. Further analysis was carried out for binary interactions of TF regulatory genes in IRS-2 network using Cytoscape software tool and R-code. In this manuscript, we describe the methodology used for the identification of TFBSs in human IRS-2 promoter region and provide details on experimental procedures, analysis method, validation of data and also the raw files. The purpose of this article is to provide the data on all TFBSs in the promoter region of human IRS-2 gene as it has the potential for prediction of the regulation of IRS-2 gene in normal or diseased cells from patients with metabolic disorders and cancer. PMID:26858982

  14. Data in support of FSH induction of IRS-2 in human granulosa cells: Mapping the transcription factor binding sites in human IRS-2 promoter.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Surleen; Anjali, G; Bhardwaj, Priya; Taneja, Jyoti; Singh, Rita

    2016-03-01

    Insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2) plays critical role in the regulation of various metabolic processes by insulin and IGF-1. The defects in its expression and/or function are linked to diseases like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), insulin resistance and cancer. To predict the transcription factors (TFs) responsible for the regulation of human IRS-2 gene expression, the transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) and the corresponding TFs were investigated by analysis of IRS-2 promoter sequence using MatInspector Genomatix software (Cartharius et al., 2005 [1]). The ibid data is part of author׳s publication (Anjali et al., 2015 [2]) that explains Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) mediated IRS-2 promoter activation in human granulosa cells and its importance in the pathophysiology of PCOS. Further analysis was carried out for binary interactions of TF regulatory genes in IRS-2 network using Cytoscape software tool and R-code. In this manuscript, we describe the methodology used for the identification of TFBSs in human IRS-2 promoter region and provide details on experimental procedures, analysis method, validation of data and also the raw files. The purpose of this article is to provide the data on all TFBSs in the promoter region of human IRS-2 gene as it has the potential for prediction of the regulation of IRS-2 gene in normal or diseased cells from patients with metabolic disorders and cancer. PMID:26858982

  15. The let-7g microRNA promotes follicular granulosa cell apoptosis by targeting transforming growth factor-β type 1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jilong; Liu, Jiying; Pan, Zengxiang; Du, Xing; Li, Xinyu; Ma, Baiquan; Yao, Wang; Li, Qifa; Liu, Honglin

    2015-07-01

    The intronic microRNA let-7g controls cell differentiation and proliferation during angiogenesis and oncogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that let-7g regulates granulosa cell (GC) apoptosis and follicular atresia in the pig ovary. Bioinformatics analyses and luciferase reporter assays showed that transforming growth factor-β type 1 receptor (TGFBR1) is a let-7g target. Overexpression of let-7g induced apoptosis of porcine GCs in vitro and repressed the mRNA and protein levels of TGFBR1, as well as the level of phosphorylated SMAD3 (p-SMAD3) protein. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of TGFBR1 and inhibitor LY2157299-mediated blocking of TGFBR1 significantly increased the rate of apoptosis of GCs and Caspase-3 activity. In addition, treatment of porcine GCs with TGF-β1 reduced the level of let-7g and increased the levels of the TGFBR1 mRNA and proteins significantly. Overall, these results demonstrate that let-7g regulates the apoptosis of GCs in the pig ovary by targeting TGFBR1 and down-regulating the TGF-β signaling pathway. PMID:25817543

  16. Menoprogen, a TCM Herbal Formula for Menopause, Increases Endogenous E2 in an Aged Rat Model of Menopause by Reducing Ovarian Granulosa Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu; Ma, Hong; Lu, Ye; Tan, B. J.; Xu, L.; Lawal, Temitope O.; Mahady, Gail B.; Liu, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The effect of Menoprogen (MPG) on ovarian granulosa cell (GC) apoptosis was investigated in vitro and in vivo in an aged rat model of menopause. Intragastric administration of Menoprogen or estradiol valerate to 14-month-old senile female rats for eight weeks increased plasma E2 levels, as well as the weight of both ovarian and uterine tissues. Flow cytometric (FCM) analysis of isolated GCs from MPG-treated aged rats showed reductions in the G0/G1 ratio and apoptotic peaks. Isolated GCs also exhibited an increase in cell size and the number of cytoplastic organelles and intracellular gap junctions, the reappearance of secretory granules, and a lack of apoptotic bodies as determined by TEM. Results from a TdT-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay revealed a reduction in TUNEL-positive GCs after MPG treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a downregulation of proapoptotic Bax proteins and an upregulation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. The addition of MPG-medicated serum to the media of cultured GCs also reduced cadmium chloride-induced apoptosis and downregulated caspase-3 protein expression. This work demonstrates that Menoprogen inhibits GC apoptosis in aged female rats and thereby increases E2 production. This represents a novel mechanism of action for this herbal medicine in the treatment of menopausal symptoms. PMID:26981526

  17. Menoprogen, a TCM Herbal Formula for Menopause, Increases Endogenous E2 in an Aged Rat Model of Menopause by Reducing Ovarian Granulosa Cell Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Ma, Hong; Lu, Ye; Tan, B J; Xu, L; Lawal, Temitope O; Mahady, Gail B; Liu, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The effect of Menoprogen (MPG) on ovarian granulosa cell (GC) apoptosis was investigated in vitro and in vivo in an aged rat model of menopause. Intragastric administration of Menoprogen or estradiol valerate to 14-month-old senile female rats for eight weeks increased plasma E2 levels, as well as the weight of both ovarian and uterine tissues. Flow cytometric (FCM) analysis of isolated GCs from MPG-treated aged rats showed reductions in the G0/G1 ratio and apoptotic peaks. Isolated GCs also exhibited an increase in cell size and the number of cytoplastic organelles and intracellular gap junctions, the reappearance of secretory granules, and a lack of apoptotic bodies as determined by TEM. Results from a TdT-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay revealed a reduction in TUNEL-positive GCs after MPG treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a downregulation of proapoptotic Bax proteins and an upregulation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. The addition of MPG-medicated serum to the media of cultured GCs also reduced cadmium chloride-induced apoptosis and downregulated caspase-3 protein expression. This work demonstrates that Menoprogen inhibits GC apoptosis in aged female rats and thereby increases E2 production. This represents a novel mechanism of action for this herbal medicine in the treatment of menopausal symptoms. PMID:26981526

  18. General Information about Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors Go to Health ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  19. General Information about Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Go to Health ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  20. Patient-Derived Antibody Targets Tumor Cells

    Cancer.gov

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog on an antibody derived from patients that killed tumor cells in cell lines of several cancer types and slowed tumor growth in mouse models of brain and lung cancer without evidence of side effects.

  1. A comprehensive transcriptomic view on the role of SMAD4 gene by RNAi-mediated knockdown in porcine follicular granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lifan; Du, Xing; Wei, Shengjuan; Li, Dongfeng; Li, Qifa

    2016-07-01

    As a key mediator of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling pathway, which plays a pivotal role in regulating mammalian reproductive performance, Sma- and Mad-related protein 4 (SMAD4) is closely associated with the development of ovarian follicular. However, current knowledge of the genome-wide view on the role of SMAD4 gene in mammalian follicular granulosa cells (GCs) is still largely unknown. In the present study, RNA-Seq was performed to investigate the effects of SMAD4 knockdown by RNA interference (SMAD4-siRNA) in porcine follicular GCs. A total of 1025 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 530 upregulated genes and 495 downregulated genes, were identified in SMAD4-siRNA treated GCs compared with that treated with NC-siRNA. Furthermore, functional enrichment analysis indicated that upregulated DEGs in SMAD4-siRNA treated cells were mainly enriched in cell-cycle related processes, interferon signaling pathway, and immune system process, while downregulated DEGs in SMAD4-siRNA treated cells were mainly involved in extracellular matrix organization/disassembly, pathogenesis, and cell adhesion. In particular, cell cycle and TGF-β signaling pathway were discovered as the canonical pathways changed under SMAD4-silencing. Taken together, our data reveals SMAD4 knockdown alters the expression of numerous genes involved in key biological processes of the development of follicular GCs and provides a novel global clue of the role of SMAD4 gene in porcine follicular GCs, thus improving our understanding of regulatory mechanisms of SMAD4 gene in follicular development. PMID:27107035

  2. Dynamics of the membrana granulosa during expansion of the ovarian follicular antrum.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, R J; Irving-Rodgers, H F; van Wezel, I L; Krupa, M; Lavranos, T C

    2001-01-22

    As an endocrine organ, the ovary has some unique characteristics. The formation, the maturation and the regression of the hormone producing cells really determine the timing, the amount and the type of hormone secreted. Here, we focus on the granulosa cells of ovarian follicles which express 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and cytochrome P450 aromatase. Follicles only produce estradiol late in follicular development before either ovulation or atresia ensues. We discuss the evidence that the membrana granulosa has many characteristics in common with other epithelia, including that it arises from stem cells. The corollary of this is that individual cells within the membrana granulosa are of different ages or stages of specialization. This is evident as regional differences across the membrana granulosa in terms of cell ages, shapes, gene expression, and even behaviour on cell death. We discuss theoretical considerations of the effects of antrum formation on the behavior of the membrana granulosa, and show evidence for differences between follicles in cell shapes, basal lamina phenotypes and location of younger cells, which we speculate is due to different rates of antrum expansion. Clearly, the membrana granulosa is dynamic, and this could explain much about the differences in the behaviors of cells from within the membrana granulosa, and between ovarian follicles. PMID:11165009

  3. Increased Expression of Kindlin 2 in Luteinized Granulosa Cells Correlates With Androgen Receptor Level in Patients With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Having Hyperandrogenemia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mei; Du, Juan; Lu, Danyu; Ren, Caixia; Shen, Huan; Qiao, Jie; Zhang, Hongquan

    2014-01-01

    Hyperandrogenemia is the leading defect in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and considered to be involved in the ovulation dysfunction of PCOS. During the process of ovulation, granulosa cells (GCs) undergo epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), and integrin-interacting protein kindlin 2 is a well-known regulator in EMT. Therefore, our objective here was to compare the expression levels of kindlin 2 in luteinized GCs between patients with PCOS and control women and the relationship between kindlin 2 and PCOS pathogenesis. In this study, kindlin 2 expression was significantly increased in luteinized GCs from patients with PCOS, and kindlin 2 could be induced by testosterone both in vitro and in vivo. Meanwhile, kindlin 2 was positively correlated with androgen receptor (AR) in PCOS GCs. Taken together, kindlin 2 may play a role in luteinized GCs, especially in the case of excess androgen. Further studies are required to assess the specific role of kindlin 2 in follicular development and PCOS pathogenesis. PMID:24336678

  4. Extracellular matrix of the bovine ovarian membrana granulosa.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, R J; Irving Rodgers, H F

    2002-05-31

    Much is known about the control of the development of ovarian follicles by growth factors and hormones. The study of extracellular matrix in the ovary, though, is a relatively new area. To date much research has focused on identifying the matrix components present, and more recently, its production and the physiological roles. In this review we focus on the changes that occur in the follicular basal lamina from primordial follicles through to ovulation and formation of the corpus luteum, the changes that occur during follicular atresia, and we discuss our observations of a novel matrix which forms in the membrana granulosa. The follicular basal lamina changes considerably during follicular development in its expression pattern of type IV collagens. Of the laminin chains examined, there appears only to be an increase in amount, except for laminin alpha2. It is expressed only in a small proportion of healthy antral follicles and in the majority of atretic antral follicles. Call-Exner bodies have the same composition as the basal lamina, except they do not contain laminin alpha2, even when the follicular basal lamina does. The novel matrix that develops within the membrana granulosa is similar in composition to Call-Exner bodies which occur predominantly in preantral follicles, except that it is far more common in large antral follicles, does not induce polarization of the surrounding granulosa cells, and does not contain follicular fluid-like material as the Call-Exner bodies of some species do. The expression of this matrix occurs prior to and during the time when granulosa cells express steroidogenic enzymes. It does not exist in corpora lutea. In addition large luteal cells, derived from granulosa cells, do not appear to have a basal lamina. These findings suggest that the maturational changes in the membrana granulosa are accompanied by changes in the matrix. PMID:12044919

  5. Differential Regulation of Gene and Protein Expression by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in Hen’s Ovarian Granulosa Cells: Specific Roles of Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yong; Li, Lan; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Shen, Wei; Liu, Jing; Yang, Fen-Fang; Liu, Hong-Bo; Hao, Zhi-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Annually, tons and tons of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are produced in the world. And they are applied in almost all aspects of our life. Their release from the products into environment may pose issue for human health. Although many studies have reported the adverse effects of ZnO NPs on organisms, little is known about the effects on female reproductive systems or the related mechanisms. Quantitative proteomics have not been applied although quantitative transcriptomics have been used in zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) research. Genes are very important players however proteins are the real actors in the biological systems. By using hen’s ovarian granulosa cells, it was found that ZnO-NP-5μg/ml and ZnSO4-10μg/ml treatments produced the same amount of intracellular Zn and resulted in similar cell growth inhibition. And NPs were found in the treated cells. However, ZnO-NP-5μg/ml specifically regulated the expression of genes and proteins compared with that in ZnSO4-10μg/ml treatment. For the first time, this investigation reports that intact NPs produce different impacts on the expression of genes and proteins involved in specific pathways compared to that by Zn2+. The findings enrich our knowledge for the molecular insights of zinc oxide nanoparticles effects on the female reproductive systems. This also may raise the health concern that ZnO NPs may adversely affect the female reproductive systems through regulation of specific signaling pathways. PMID:26460738

  6. Expression Levels of the Oxidative Stress Response Gene ALDH3A2 in Granulosa-Lutein Cells Are Related to Female Age and Infertility Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, Rebeca; Hernández, Jairo; Martín-Vasallo, Pablo; Puopolo, Maria; Palumbo, Angela; Ávila, Julio

    2016-05-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) plays an important role in all physiological processes. The effect of OS on cellular processes is modulated by the ability of the cell to express genes implicated in the reversal of lipid, protein, and DNA injury. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 3, member A2 (ALDH3A2) is a ubiquitous enzyme involved in lipid detoxification. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression ofALDH3A2in human granulosa-lutein (GL) cells of women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) and its relationship with age, infertility diagnosis, and IVF outcome variables. Relative expression levels ofALDH3A2were determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. To investigate the effect of age onALDH3A2expression, 72 women between 18 and 44 years of age with no ovarian factor (NOF) were analyzed. To evaluate the effect of infertility diagnosis onALDH3A2expression, the following groups were analyzed: 22 oocyte donors (ODs), 24 women >40 years old (yo) with tubal or male factor and no ovarian pathology, 18 poor responders (PRs), 19 cases with endometriosis (EM), and 18 patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). In NOF,ALDH3A2expression correlated positively with age and with the doses of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone administered and negatively with the number of total and mature oocytes. When different groups were analyzed,ALDH3A2expression levels were higher in patients >40 yo and in PR compared to OD. On the contrary, EM and PCOS levels were lower than expected for age. These data suggest that GL cellALDH3A2expression levels correlate with age, cause of infertility, and ovarian response to stimulation. PMID:26449735

  7. Treatment Option Overview (Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors)

    MedlinePlus

    ... hCG and LDH may be at any level. Poor prognosis A nonseminoma extragonadal germ cell tumor is in the poor prognosis group if: the tumor is in the ... extragonadal germ cell tumor does not have a poor prognosis group. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There ...

  8. Interaction of tumor cells with the microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in tumor biology have revealed that a detailed analysis of the complex interactions of tumor cells with their adjacent microenvironment (tumor stroma) is mandatory in order to understand the various mechanisms involved in tumor growth and the development of metastasis. The mutual interactions between tumor cells and cellular and non-cellular components (extracellular matrix = ECM) of the tumor microenvironment will eventually lead to a loss of tissue homeostasis and promote tumor development and progression. Thus, interactions of genetically altered tumor cells and the ECM on the one hand and reactive non-neoplastic cells on the other hand essentially control most aspects of tumorigenesis such as epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT), migration, invasion (i.e. migration through connective tissue), metastasis formation, neovascularisation, apoptosis and chemotherapeutic drug resistance. In this mini-review we will focus on these issues that were recently raised by two review articles in CCS. PMID:21914164

  9. Proteolytic degradation of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein-3 by porcine ovarian granulosa cells in culture: regulation by IGF-I.

    PubMed

    Grimes, R W; Hammond, J M

    1994-01-01

    Porcine ovarian granulosa cells in culture secrete glycosylated insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), which inhibits gonadotropin and IGF action in the ovary. Synthesis of IGFBP-3 is stimulated by IGF-I and attenuated by gonadotropin. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether IGFBP-3 levels were also regulated via proteolysis. Exogenously added nonglycosylated recombinant human IGFBP-3 (rhIGFBP-3) was significantly degraded over time by a soluble serine-specific protease, similar to plasmin, in control cultures and those treated with FSH, insulin, or several other classes of hormones. In contrast, degradation was greatly attenuated by the IGFs. Degraded rhIGFBP-3 exhibited much reduced affinity for [125I]IGF-II, suggesting that degradation could make available IGFs for cellular interaction. The mechanism of IGFBP-3 protease inhibition by IGFs is unclear. Mediation by IGF receptors is unlikely, as insulin at a dose that activated both insulin and type I IGF receptors did not alter intrinsic degradation of IGFBP-3 (as does IGF). Additionally, IGF-I attenuation of IGFBP-3 degradation was not inhibited by antagonism of receptor action with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Further, IGF-I inhibited degradation in cell-free conditioned medium. Direct stabilization of IGFBP-3 via binding of IGFs was suggested from these results. However, long R3 IGF-I attenuated IGFBP-3 degradation even though it has low affinity for IGFBPs. Inhibition of the protease by IGFs is also possible. We conclude that IGFs inhibit the degradation of exogenous nonglycosylated rhIGFBP-3. If active in vivo, this may serve to increase endogenous IGFBP-3 levels in follicular fluid. PMID:7506209

  10. Regulation of MicroRNAs, and the Correlations of MicroRNAs and Their Targeted Genes by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in Ovarian Granulosa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yong; Li, Lan; Min, Ling-Jiang; Zhu, Lian-Qin; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Liu, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Ge, Wei; Wang, Jun-Jie; Liu, Jing-Cai

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) have been applied in numerous industrial products and personal care products like sunscreens and cosmetics. The released ZnO NPs from consumer and household products into the environment might pose potential health issues for animals and humans. In this study the expression of microRNAs and the correlations of microRNAs and their targeted genes in ZnO NPs treated chicken ovarian granulosa cells were investigated. ZnSO4 was used as the sole Zn2+ provider to differentiate the effects of NPs from Zn2+. It was found that ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml specifically regulated the expression of microRNAs involved in embryonic development although ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml and ZnSO4-10 μg/ml treatments produced the same intracellular Zn concentrations and resulted in similar cell growth inhibition. And ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml also specifically regulated the correlations of microRNAs and their targeted genes. This is the first investigation that intact NPs in ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml treatment specifically regulated the expression of microRNAs, and the correlations of microRNAs and their targeted genes compared to that by Zn2+. This expands our knowledge for biological effects of ZnO NPs and at the same time it raises the health concerns that ZnO NPs might adversely affect our biological systems, even the reproductive systems through regulation of specific signaling pathways. PMID:27196542

  11. Cumulin, an Oocyte-secreted Heterodimer of the Transforming Growth Factor-β Family, Is a Potent Activator of Granulosa Cells and Improves Oocyte Quality.

    PubMed

    Mottershead, David G; Sugimura, Satoshi; Al-Musawi, Sara L; Li, Jing-Jie; Richani, Dulama; White, Melissa A; Martin, Georgia A; Trotta, Andrew P; Ritter, Lesley J; Shi, Junyan; Mueller, Thomas D; Harrison, Craig A; Gilchrist, Robert B

    2015-09-25

    Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) are oocyte-specific growth factors with central roles in mammalian reproduction, regulating species-specific fecundity, ovarian follicular somatic cell differentiation, and oocyte quality. In the human, GDF9 is produced in a latent form, the mechanism of activation being an open question. Here, we produced a range of recombinant GDF9 and BMP15 variants, examined their in silico and physical interactions and their effects on ovarian granulosa cells (GC) and oocytes. We found that the potent synergistic actions of GDF9 and BMP15 on GC can be attributed to the formation of a heterodimer, which we have termed cumulin. Structural modeling of cumulin revealed a dimerization interface identical to homodimeric GDF9 and BMP15, indicating likely formation of a stable complex. This was confirmed by generation of recombinant heterodimeric complexes of pro/mature domains (pro-cumulin) and covalent mature domains (cumulin). Both pro-cumulin and cumulin exhibited highly potent bioactivity on GC, activating both SMAD2/3 and SMAD1/5/8 signaling pathways and promoting proliferation and expression of a set of genes associated with oocyte-regulated GC differentiation. Cumulin was more potent than pro-cumulin, pro-GDF9, pro-BMP15, or the two combined on GC. However, on cumulus-oocyte complexes, pro-cumulin was more effective than all other growth factors at notably improving oocyte quality as assessed by subsequent day 7 embryo development. Our results support a model of activation for human GDF9 dependent on cumulin formation through heterodimerization with BMP15. Oocyte-secreted cumulin is likely to be a central regulator of fertility in mono-ovular mammals. PMID:26254468

  12. Regulation of MicroRNAs, and the Correlations of MicroRNAs and Their Targeted Genes by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in Ovarian Granulosa Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong; Li, Lan; Min, Ling-Jiang; Zhu, Lian-Qin; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Liu, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Ge, Wei; Wang, Jun-Jie; Liu, Jing-Cai; Hao, Zhi-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) have been applied in numerous industrial products and personal care products like sunscreens and cosmetics. The released ZnO NPs from consumer and household products into the environment might pose potential health issues for animals and humans. In this study the expression of microRNAs and the correlations of microRNAs and their targeted genes in ZnO NPs treated chicken ovarian granulosa cells were investigated. ZnSO4 was used as the sole Zn2+ provider to differentiate the effects of NPs from Zn2+. It was found that ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml specifically regulated the expression of microRNAs involved in embryonic development although ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml and ZnSO4-10 μg/ml treatments produced the same intracellular Zn concentrations and resulted in similar cell growth inhibition. And ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml also specifically regulated the correlations of microRNAs and their targeted genes. This is the first investigation that intact NPs in ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml treatment specifically regulated the expression of microRNAs, and the correlations of microRNAs and their targeted genes compared to that by Zn2+. This expands our knowledge for biological effects of ZnO NPs and at the same time it raises the health concerns that ZnO NPs might adversely affect our biological systems, even the reproductive systems through regulation of specific signaling pathways. PMID:27196542

  13. Granular Cell Tumor: An Uncommon Benign Neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Gayen, Tirthankar; Das, Anupam; Shome, Kaushik; Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata; Das, Dipti; Saha, Abanti

    2015-01-01

    Granular cell tumor is a distinctly rare neoplasm of neural sheath origin. It mainly presents as a solitary asymptomatic swelling in the oral cavity, skin, and rarely internal organs in the middle age. Histopathology is characteristic, showing polyhedral cells containing numerous fine eosinophilic granules with indistinct cell margins. We present a case of granular cell tumor on the back of a 48-year-old woman which was painful, mimicking an adnexal tumor. PMID:26120181

  14. Transactivation of MicroRNA-320 by MicroRNA-383 Regulates Granulosa Cell Functions by Targeting E2F1 and SF-1 Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Mianmian; Wang, Xiaorong; Yao, Guidong; Lü, Mingrong; Liang, Meng; Sun, Yingpu; Sun, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown that microRNA-320 (miR-320) is one of the most down-regulated microRNAs (miRNA) in mouse ovarian granulosa cells (GCs) after TGF-β1 treatment. However, the underlying mechanisms of miR-320 involved in GC function during follicular development remain unknown. In this study, we found that pregnant mare serum gonadotropin treatment resulted in the suppression of miR-320 expression in a time-dependent manner. miR-320 was mainly expressed in GCs and oocytes of mouse ovarian follicles in follicular development. Overexpression of miR-320 inhibited estradiol synthesis and proliferation of GCs through targeting E2F1 and SF-1. E2F1/SF-1 mediated miR-320-induced suppression of GC proliferation and of GC steroidogenesis. FSH down-regulated the expression of miR-320 and regulated the function of miR-320 in mouse GCs. miR-383 promoted the expression of miR-320 and enhanced miR-320-mediated suppression of GC proliferation. Injection of miR-320 into the ovaries of mice partially promoted the production of testosterone and progesterone but inhibited estradiol release in vivo. Moreover, the expression of miR-320 and miR-383 was up-regulated in the follicular fluid of polycystic ovarian syndrome patients, although the expression of E2F1 and SF-1 was down-regulated in GCs. These data demonstrated that miR-320 regulates the proliferation and steroid production by targeting E2F1 and SF-1 in the follicular development. Understanding the regulation of miRNA biogenesis and function in the follicular development will potentiate the usefulness of miRNA in the treatment of reproduction and some steroid-related disorders. PMID:24828505

  15. Conserved miR-26b enhances ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis through HAS2-HA-CD44-Caspase-3 pathway by targeting HAS2

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiying; Tu, Fei; Yao, Wang; Li, Xinyu; Xie, Zhuang; Liu, Honglin; Li, Qifa; Pan, Zengxiang

    2016-01-01

    The hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2)-hyaluronic acid (HA)-CD44-Caspase-3 pathway is involved in ovarian granulosa cell (GC) functions in mammals. HAS2 is a key enzyme required for HA synthesis and is the key factor in this pathway. However, the regulation of HAS2 and the HAS2-mediated pathway by microRNAs in GCs is poorly understood. Here, we report that miR-26b regulates porcine GC (pGC) apoptosis through the HAS2-HA-CD44-Caspase-3 pathway by binding directly to the 3′- untranslated region of HAS2 mRNA. Knockdown of miR-26b reduced pGC apoptosis. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that HAS2 is a direct target of miR-26b in pGCs. Knockdown and overexpression of miR-26b increased and decreased, respectively, HA content, and HAS2 and CD44 expression in pGCs. At the same time, inhibition and overexpression of miR-26b decreased and increased the expression of Caspase-3, a downstream factor in the HAS2-HA-CD44 pathway. Moreover, knockdown of HAS2 enhanced pGC apoptosis, reduced the inhibitory effects of a miR-26b inhibitor on pGC apoptosis, repressed HA content and CD44 expression, and promoted Caspase-3 expression. In addition, overexpression of HAS2 has a opposite effect. Collectively, miR-26b positively regulates pGC apoptosis via a novel HAS2-HA-CD44-Caspase-3 pathway by targeting the HAS2 gene. PMID:26887530

  16. Follicle-stimulating hormone potentiates the steroidogenic activity of chorionic gonadotropin and the anti-apoptotic activity of luteinizing hormone in human granulosa-lutein cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Casarini, Livio; Riccetti, Laura; De Pascali, Francesco; Nicoli, Alessia; Tagliavini, Simonetta; Trenti, Tommaso; La Sala, Giovanni Battista; Simoni, Manuela

    2016-02-15

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) and choriogonadotropin (hCG) are glycoprotein hormones regulating ovarian function and pregnancy, respectively. Since these molecules act on the same receptor (LHCGR), they were traditionally assumed as equivalent in assisted reproduction techniques (ART), although differences between LH and hCG were demonstrated at molecular and physiological level. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that co-treatment with a follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) dose in the ART therapeutic range potentiates different LH- and hCG-dependent responses in vitro, measured in terms of cAMP, phospho-CREB, -ERK1/2 and -AKT activation, gene expression, progesterone and estradiol production in human granulosa-lutein cells (hGLC). We show that in the presence of FSH, hCG biopotency is about 5-fold increased, in the presence of FSH, in terms of cAMP activation. Accordingly, CREB phosphorylation and steroid production is increased under hCG and FSH co-treatment. LH effects, evaluated as steroidogenic cAMP/PKA pathway activation, do not change in the presence of FSH, which, however, increases LH-dependent ERK1/2 and AKT, but not CREB phosphorylation, resulting in anti-apoptotic effects. The different modulatory activity of FSH on LH and hCG action in vitro corresponds to their different physiological functions, reflecting proliferative effects exerted by LH during the follicular phase and before trophoblast development, and the high steroidogenic potential of hCG requested to sustain pregnancy from the luteal phase onwards. PMID:26690776

  17. Induction of Cyclin D2 in Rat Granulosa Cells Requires FSH-dependent Relief from FOXO1 Repression Coupled with Positive Signals from Smad*

    PubMed Central

    Park, Youngkyu; Maizels, Evelyn T.; Feiger, Zachary J.; Alam, Hena; Peters, Carl A.; Woodruff, Teresa K.; Unterman, Terry G.; Lee, Eun Jig; Jameson, J. Larry; Hunzicker-Dunn, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Ovarian follicles undergo exponential growth in response to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), largely as a result of the proliferation of granulosa cells (GCs). In vitro under serum-free conditions, rat GCs differentiate in response to FSH but do not proliferate unless activin is also present. In the presence of FSH plus activin, GCs exhibit enhanced expression of cyclin D2 as well as inhibin-α, aromatase, steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1), cholesterol side chain (SCC), and epiregulin. In this report we sought to identify the signaling pathways by which FSH and activin promote GC proliferation and differentiation. Our results show that these responses are associated with prolonged Akt phosphorylation relative to time-matched controls and are dependent on phosphati-dylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) and Smad2/3 signaling, based on the ability of the PI 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 or infection with adenoviral dominant negative Smad3 (DN-Smad3) mutant to attenuate induction of cyclin D2, inhibin-α, aromatase, SCC, SF-1, and epiregulin. The DN-Smad3 mutant also abolished prolonged Akt phosphorylation stimulated by FSH plus activin 24 h post-treatment. Infection with the adenoviral constitutively active forkhead box-containing protein, O subfamily (FOXO)1 mutant suppressed induction of cyclin D2, aromatase, inhibin-α, SF-1, and epiregulin. Transient transfections of GCs with constitutively active FOXO1 mutant also suppressed cyclin D2, inhibin-α, and epiregulin promoter-reporter activities. Chromatin immunoprecipitation results demonstrate in vivo the association of FOXO1 with the cyclin D2 promoter in untreated GCs and release of FOXO1 from the cyclin D2 promoter upon addition of FSH plus activin. These results suggest that proliferation and differentiation of GCs in response to FSH plus activin requires both removal of FOXO1-dependent repression and positive signaling from Smad2/3. PMID:15613482

  18. The potential role of granulosa cells in the maturation rate of immature human oocytes and embryo development: A co-culture study

    PubMed Central

    Jahromi, Bahia Namavar; Mosallanezhad, Zahra; Matloob, Najmeh; Davari, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objective In order to increase the number of mature oocytes usable for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), we aimed to investigate the effect of co-culturing granulosa cells (GCs) on human oocyte maturation in vitro, the fertilization rate, and embryo development. Methods A total of 133 immature oocytes were retrieved and were randomly divided into two groups; oocytes that were cultured with GCs (group A) and oocytes that were cultured without GCs (group B). After in vitro maturation, only oocytes that displayed metaphase II (MII) underwent the ICSI procedure. The maturation and fertilization rates were analyzed, as well as the frequency of embryo development. Results The mean age of the patients, their basal levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, and the number of oocytes recovered from the patients were all comparable between the two study groups. The number of oocytes that reached MII (mature oocytes) was 59 out of 70 (84.28%) in group A, compared to 41 out of 63 (65.07%) in group B (p=0.011). No significant difference between fertilization rates was found between the two study groups (p=0.702). The embryo development rate was higher in group A (33/59, 75%) than in group B (12/41, 42.85%; p=0.006). The proportion of highest-quality embryos and the blastocyst formation rate were significantly lower in group B than in group A (p=0.003 and p<0.001, respectively). Conclusion The findings of the current study demonstrate that culturing immature human oocytes with GCs prior to ICSI improves the maturation rate and the likelihood of embryo development. PMID:26473111

  19. Conserved miR-26b enhances ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis through HAS2-HA-CD44-Caspase-3 pathway by targeting HAS2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiying; Tu, Fei; Yao, Wang; Li, Xinyu; Xie, Zhuang; Liu, Honglin; Li, Qifa; Pan, Zengxiang

    2016-01-01

    The hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2)-hyaluronic acid (HA)-CD44-Caspase-3 pathway is involved in ovarian granulosa cell (GC) functions in mammals. HAS2 is a key enzyme required for HA synthesis and is the key factor in this pathway. However, the regulation of HAS2 and the HAS2-mediated pathway by microRNAs in GCs is poorly understood. Here, we report that miR-26b regulates porcine GC (pGC) apoptosis through the HAS2-HA-CD44-Caspase-3 pathway by binding directly to the 3'- untranslated region of HAS2 mRNA. Knockdown of miR-26b reduced pGC apoptosis. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that HAS2 is a direct target of miR-26b in pGCs. Knockdown and overexpression of miR-26b increased and decreased, respectively, HA content, and HAS2 and CD44 expression in pGCs. At the same time, inhibition and overexpression of miR-26b decreased and increased the expression of Caspase-3, a downstream factor in the HAS2-HA-CD44 pathway. Moreover, knockdown of HAS2 enhanced pGC apoptosis, reduced the inhibitory effects of a miR-26b inhibitor on pGC apoptosis, repressed HA content and CD44 expression, and promoted Caspase-3 expression. In addition, overexpression of HAS2 has a opposite effect. Collectively, miR-26b positively regulates pGC apoptosis via a novel HAS2-HA-CD44-Caspase-3 pathway by targeting the HAS2 gene. PMID:26887530

  20. Tumor initiating cells in malignant gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Hadjipanayis, Costas G.; Van Meir, Erwin G.

    2009-01-01

    A rare subpopulation of cells within malignant gliomas, which shares canonical properties with neural stem cells (NSCs), may be integral to glial tumor development and perpetuation. These cells, also known as tumor initiating cells (TICs), have the ability to self-renew, develop into any cell in the overall tumor population (multipotency), and proliferate. A defining property of TICs is their ability to initiate new tumors in immunocompromised mice with high efficiency. Mounting evidence suggests that TICs originate from the transformation of NSCs and their progenitors. New findings show that TICs may be more resistant to chemotherapy and radiation than the bulk of tumor cells, thereby permitting recurrent tumor formation and accounting for the failure of conventional therapies. The development of new therapeutic strategies selectively targeting TICs while sparing NSCs may provide for more effective treatment of malignant gliomas. PMID:19189072

  1. Cell Fusion Connects Oncogenesis with Tumor Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaofeng; Merchak, Kevin; Lee, Woojin; Grande, Joseph P.; Cascalho, Marilia; Platt, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Cell fusion likely drives tumor evolution by undermining chromosomal and DNA stability and/or by generating phenotypic diversity; however, whether a cell fusion event can initiate malignancy and direct tumor evolution is unknown. We report that a fusion event involving normal, nontransformed, cytogenetically stable epithelial cells can initiate chromosomal instability, DNA damage, cell transformation, and malignancy. Clonal analysis of fused cells reveals that the karyotypic and phenotypic potential of tumors formed by cell fusion is established immediately or within a few cell divisions after the fusion event, without further ongoing genetic and phenotypic plasticity, and that subsequent evolution of such tumors reflects selection from the initial diverse population rather than ongoing plasticity of the progeny. Thus, one cell fusion event can both initiate malignancy and fuel evolution of the tumor that ensues. PMID:26066710

  2. Therapeutic Trial for Patients With Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumor and Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-01

    Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Ewing Sarcoma of Bone or Soft Tissue; Localized Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  3. Electric Field Analysis of Breast Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sree, V. Gowri; Udayakumar, K.; Sundararajan, R.

    2011-01-01

    An attractive alternative treatment for malignant tumors that are refractive to conventional therapies, such as surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, is electrical-pulse-mediated drug delivery. Electric field distribution of tissue/tumor is important for effective treatment of tissues. This paper deals with the electric field distribution study of a tissue model using MAXWELL 3D Simulator. Our results indicate that tumor tissue had lower electric field strength compared to normal cells, which makes them susceptible to electrical-pulse-mediated drug delivery. This difference could be due to the altered properties of tumor cells compared to normal cells, and our results corroborate this. PMID:22295214

  4. SYNOVIAL GIANT CELL TUMOR OF THE KNEE

    PubMed Central

    Abdalla, Rene Jorge; Cohen, Moisés; Nóbrega, Jezimar; Forgas, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Synovial giant cell tumor is a benign neoplasm, rarely reported in the form of malignant metastasis. Synovial giant cell tumor most frequently occurs on the hand, and, most uncommon, on the ankle and knee. In the present study, the authors describe a rare case of synovial giant cell tumor on the knee as well as the treatment approach. Arthroscopy has been shown, in this case, to be the optimal method for treating this kind of lesion, once it allowed a less aggressive approach, while providing good visualization of all compartments of knee joint and full tumor resection. PMID:27004193

  5. Immune Cells in Blood Recognize Tumors

    Cancer.gov

    NCI scientists have developed a novel strategy for identifying immune cells circulating in the blood that recognize specific proteins on tumor cells, a finding they believe may have potential implications for immune-based therapies.

  6. Evidence of a local negative role for cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), inhibins and low molecular weight insulin like growth factor binding proteins in regulation of granulosa cell estradiol production during follicular waves in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Jimenez-Krassel, Fermin; Ireland, James J; Smith, George W

    2006-01-01

    The ability of ovarian follicles to produce large amounts of estradiol is a hallmark of follicle health status. Estradiol producing capacity is lost in ovarian follicles before morphological signs of atresia. A prominent wave like pattern of growth of antral follicles is characteristic of monotocous species such as cattle, horses and humans. While our knowledge of the role of pituitary gonadotropins in support of antral follicle growth and development is well established, the intrinsic factors that suppress estradiol production and may help promote atresia during follicular waves are not well understood. Numerous growth factors and cytokines have been reported to suppress granulosa cell estradiol production in vitro, but the association of expression of many such factors in vivo with follicle health status and their physiological significance are not clear. The purpose of this review is to discuss the in vivo and in vitro evidence supporting a local physiological role for cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript, inhibins and low molecular weight insulin like growth factor binding proteins in negative regulation of granulosa cell estradiol production, with emphasis on evidence from the bovine model system. PMID:16611367

  7. CD44 enhances tumor aggressiveness by promoting tumor cell plasticity.

    PubMed

    Paulis, Yvette W J; Huijbers, Elisabeth J M; van der Schaft, Daisy W J; Soetekouw, Patricia M M B; Pauwels, Patrick; Tjan-Heijnen, Vivianne C G; Griffioen, Arjan W

    2015-08-14

    Aggressive tumor cells can obtain the ability to transdifferentiate into cells with endothelial features and thus form vasculogenic networks. This phenomenon, called vasculogenic mimicry (VM), is associated with increased tumor malignancy and poor clinical outcome. To identify novel key molecules implicated in the process of vasculogenic mimicry, microarray analysis was performed to compare gene expression profiles of aggressive (VM+) and non-aggressive (VM-) cells derived from Ewing sarcoma and breast carcinoma. We identified the CD44/c-Met signaling cascade as heavily relevant for vasculogenic mimicry. CD44 was at the center of this cascade, and highly overexpressed in aggressive tumors. Both CD44 standard isoform and its splice variant CD44v6 were linked to increased aggressiveness in VM. Since VM is most abundant in Ewing sarcoma tumors functional analyses were performed in EW7 cells. Overexpression of CD44 allowed enhanced adhesion to its extracellular matrix ligand hyaluronic acid. CD44 expression also facilitated the formation of vasculogenic structures in vitro, as CD44 knockdown experiments repressed migration and vascular network formation. From these results and the observation that CD44 expression is associated with vasculogenic structures and blood lakes in human Ewing sarcoma tissues, we conclude that CD44 increases aggressiveness in tumors through the process of vasculogenic mimicry. PMID:26189059

  8. The role of mitogen-activated protein kinase in insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) signaling cascades for progesterone and IGF-binding protein-1 production in human granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Seto-Young, Donna; Zajac, Jacek; Liu, Hung-Ching; Rosenwaks, Zev; Poretsky, Leonid

    2003-07-01

    Insulin and IGF-I participate in the regulation of ovulation, steroidogenesis, and IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) production in the ovary. Insulin and IGF-I actions in the ovary are closely related. For example, insulin may amplify IGF-I action in the ovary by up-regulating type I IGF receptors and inhibiting IGFBP-1 production, thus increasing the bioavailability of IGF-I. It is hypothesized that ovarian effects of insulin in insulin-resistant states are mediated via an insulin action pathway(s) distinct from those involved in glucose transport. We previously reported that insulin-induced stimulation of progesterone and inhibition of IGFBP-1 production in the human ovary are mediated by signaling pathways that are independent of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, the enzyme whose activation is crucial for glucose transport. We now examined whether activation of MAPK is necessary to mediate insulin-induced or IGF-I-induced stimulation of progesterone or inhibition of IGFBP-1 production in human granulosa cells. Human granulosa cells were obtained during in vitro fertilization. Cells (0.5-1 x 10(5)) were incubated for 24 h in the presence of 0, 10, 10(2), or 10(3) ng/ml insulin or 0, 0.5, 1, 2.5, or 5 ng/ml IGF-I and in the presence or absence of 1 micro M PD98059, a specific inhibitor of ERK1/2 MAPK. The progesterone concentration in the tissue culture medium was measured by RIA (Pantex, Santa Monica, CA), and the IGFBP-1 concentration was measured by immunoradiometric assay (DSL-7800, Diagnostic Systems Laboratories, Inc., Webster, TX). MAPK activity was assessed using the MAPK IP-Kinase assay kit (Upstate Biotechnology, Inc., Lake Placid, NY). ANOVA was used to compare mean values of progesterone or IGFBP-1 concentrations. MAPK was stimulated by insulin up to 350% of the baseline value. Progesterone production in human granulosa cells was stimulated by insulin in a dose-related manner to 123% of the control value (P < 0.001), and IGFBP-1 production was inhibited to 25

  9. Effects of the environmental contaminants DEHP and TCDD on estradiol synthesis and aryl hydrocarbon receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signalling in the human granulosa cell line KGN.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Jana; Jann, Johann-Christoph; Biemann, Ronald; Koch, Holger M; Fischer, Bernd

    2014-09-01

    Environmental contaminants binding to transcription factors, such as the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and the alpha and gamma peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), contribute to adverse effects on the reproductive system. Expressing both the AhR and PPARs, the human granulosa cell line KGN offers the opportunity to investigate the regulatory mechanisms involved in receptor crosstalk, independent of overriding hormonal control. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of two environmental contaminants, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, an AhR ligand) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP, a PPAR ligand), on gonadotrophin sensitivity and estrogen synthesis in KGN cells. Accumulation of the DEHP metabolite mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) in DEHP-exposed cells was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, thereby demonstrating DEHP metabolism to MEHP by KGN cells. By employing TCDD ( an AhR agonist), rosiglitazone (a PPARgamma agonist) or bezafibrate (a PPARalpha agonist), the presence of a functional AhR and PPAR cascade was confirmed in KGN cells. Cytotoxicity testing revealed no effect on KGN cell proliferation for the concentrations of TCDD and DEHP used in the current study. FSH-stimulated cells were exposed to TCDD, DEHP or a mix of both and estradiol synthesis was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and gene expression by quantitative RT-PCR. Exposure decreased estradiol synthesis (TCDD, DEHP, mix) and reduced the mRNA expression of CYP19 aromatase (DEHP, mix) and FSHR (DEHP). DEHP induced the expression of the alpha and gamma PPARs and AhR, an effect which was inhibited by selective PPAR antagonists. Studies in the human granulosa cell line KGN show that the action of endocrine-disrupting chemicals may be due to a direct activation of AhR, for example by TCDD, and by a transactivation via PPARs, for example by DEHP, inducing subsequent transcriptional changes with a broad

  10. Circulating tumor cells in germ cell tumors: are those biomarkers of real prognostic value? A review

    PubMed Central

    CEBOTARU, CRISTINA LIGIA; OLTEANU, ELENA DIANA; ANTONE, NICOLETA ZENOVIA; BUIGA, RARES; NAGY, VIORICA

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of circulating tumor cells from patients with different types of cancer is nowadays a fascinating new tool of research and their number is proven to be useful as a prognostic factor in metastatic breast, colon and prostate cancer patients. Studies are going beyond enumeration, exploring the circulating tumor cells to better understand the mechanisms of tumorigenesis, invasion and metastasis and their value for characterization, prognosis and tailoring of treatment. Few studies investigated the prognostic significance of circulating tumor cells in germ cell tumors. In this review, we examine the possible significance of the detection of circulating tumor cells in this setting. PMID:27152069

  11. Cytotoxicity and mitogenicity assays with real-time and label-free monitoring of human granulosa cells with an impedance-based signal processing technology intergrating micro-electronics and cell biology.

    PubMed

    Oktem, Ozgur; Bildik, Gamze; Senbabaoglu, Filiz; Lack, Nathan A; Akin, Nazli; Yakar, Feridun; Urman, Defne; Guzel, Yilmaz; Balaban, Basak; Iwase, Akira; Urman, Bulent

    2016-04-01

    A recently developed technology (xCelligence) integrating micro-electronics and cell biology allows real-time, uninterrupted and quantitative analysis of cell proliferation, viability and cytotoxicity by measuring the electrical impedance of the cell population in the wells without using any labeling agent. In this study we investigated if this system is a suitable model to analyze the effects of mitogenic (FSH) and cytotoxic (chemotherapy) agents with different toxicity profiles on human granulosa cells in comparison to conventional methods of assessing cell viability, DNA damage, apoptosis and steroidogenesis. The system generated the real-time growth curves of the cells, and determined their doubling times, mean cell indices and generated dose-response curves after exposure to cytotoxic and mitogenic stimuli. It accurately predicted the gonadotoxicity of the drugs and distinguished less toxic agents (5-FU and paclitaxel) from more toxic ones (cisplatin and cyclophosphamide). This platform can be a useful tool for specific end-point assays in reproductive toxicology. PMID:26746109

  12. Targeted Disruption of Mapk14 (p38MAPKα) in Granulosa Cells and Cumulus Cells Causes Cell-Specific Changes in Gene Expression Profiles that Rescue COC Expansion and Maintain Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhilin; Fan, Heng-Yu; Wang, Yibin; Richards, JoAnne S.

    2010-01-01

    MAPK14 (p38MAPKα) is critical for FSH and prostaglandin E (PGE)2 signaling cascades in granulosa cells (GCs) and cumulus cell-oocyte complexes (COCs) in culture, indicating that this kinase might impact follicular development and COC expansion in vivo. Because Mapk14 knockout mice are embryonic lethal, we generated GC specific Mapk14 knockout mice (Mapk14gc−/−) by mating Mapk14fl/fl and Cyp19-Cre mice. Unexpectedly, the Mapk14gc−/− female mice were fertile. Analyses of gene expression patterns showed that amphiregulin (Areg) and epiregulin (Ereg), two key regulators of ovulation and COC expansion, were up-regulated in the GCs but down-regulated in cumulus cells of the mutant mice in vivo. COCs from the mutant mice expanded and expressed matrix-related genes, if cultured with AREG, but not when cultured with forskolin or PGE2, the latter being a key factor regulating MAPK14 activity in cumulus cells. Conversely, when GCs from the Mapk14gc−/− mice were cultured with forskolin, they produced more Areg and Ereg mRNA than did wild-type GCs. These results indicate that disruption of Mapk14 selectively alters the expression of Areg and other genes in each cell type. Greater AREG and EREG produced by the GCs appears to by-pass and compensate for the critical need for MAPK14 signaling and induction of Areg/Ereg (and hence matrix genes) by PGE2 in cumulus cells of the mutant mice. In conclusion, although MAPK14 is not overtly essential for preovulatory follicle development or events associated with ovulation and luteinization in vivo, it does impact gene expression profiles. PMID:20610537

  13. Imaging Tumor Cell Movement In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Entenberg, David; Kedrin, Dmitriy; Wyckoff, Jeffrey; Sahai, Erik; Condeelis, John; Segall, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    This unit describes the methods that we have been developing for analyzing tumor cell motility in mouse and rat models of breast cancer metastasis. Rodents are commonly used both to provide a mammalian system for studying human tumor cells (as xenografts in immunocompromised mice) as well as for following the development of tumors from a specific tissue type in transgenic lines. The Basic Protocol in this unit describes the standard methods used for generation of mammary tumors and imaging them. Additional protocols for labeling macrophages, blood vessel imaging, and image analysis are also included. PMID:23456602

  14. Targeting tumor cell motility to prevent metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Trenis D.; Ashby, William J.; Lewis, John D.; Zijlstra, Andries

    2011-01-01

    Mortality and morbidity in patients with solid tumors invariably results from the disruption of normal biological function caused by disseminating tumor cells. Tumor cell migration is under intense investigation as the underlying cause of cancer metastasis. The need for tumor cell motility in the progression of metastasis has been established experimentally and is supported empirically by basic and clinical research implicating a large collection of migration-related genes. However, there are few clinical interventions designed to specifically target the motility of tumor cells and adjuvant therapy to specifically prevent cancer cell dissemination is severely limited. In an attempt to define motility targets suitable for treating metastasis, we have parsed the molecular determinants of tumor cell motility into five underlying principles including cell autonomous ability, soluble communication, cell-cell adhesion, cell-matrix adhesion, and integrating these determinants of migration on molecular scaffolds. The current challenge is to implement meaningful and sustainable inhibition of metastasis by developing clinically viable disruption of molecular targets that control these fundamental capabilities. PMID:21664937

  15. The effect of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide and Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha on ovarian function

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Erin J.; Sibley, Kelly; Miller, Aleisha N.; Lane, Elizabeth A.; Fishwick, John; Nash, Deborah M.; Herath, Shan; England, Gary CW; Dobson, Hilary; Sheldon, I. Martin

    2009-01-01

    Problem Pelvic inflammatory disease and metritis are important causes of infertility in humans and domestic animals. Uterine infection with Escherichia coli in cattle is associated with reduced ovarian follicle growth and decreased estradiol secretion. We hypothesized that this effect could be mediated by the bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). Method of study In vitro, bovine ovarian theca and granulosa cells were treated with LPS or TNFα and steroid secretion measured. In vivo, the effect of LPS or TNFα intrauterine infusion was determined by ovarian ultrasonography and measurement of hormones in cattle. Results LPS reduced granulosa cell estradiol secretion, whilst TNFα decreased theca and granulosa cell androstenedione and estradiol production, respectively. In vivo, fewer animals ovulated following intrauterine infusion with LPS or TNFα. Conclusion LPS and TNFα suppress ovarian cell function, supporting the concept that pelvic inflammatory disease and metritis are detrimental for bovine ovarian health. PMID:19238751

  16. RNAi-mediated knockdown of inhibin α subunit increased apoptosis in granulosa cells and decreased fertility in mice.

    PubMed

    Kadariya, Ishwari; Wang, Jiaxing; ur Rehman, Zia; Ali, Hamid; Riaz, Hasan; He, JiuYa; Bhattarai, Dinesh; Liu, Jia Jia; Zhang, Shu Jun

    2015-08-01

    Inhibin α (INHα), a member of TGFβ superfamily, is an important modulator of reproductive function that plays a vital role in follicular changes, cell differentiation, oocyte development, and ultimately in mammalian reproduction. However, the role of inhibin α in female fertility and ovarian function remains largely unknown. To define its role in reproduction, transgenic mice of RNAi-INHα that knock down the INHα expression by shRNAi were used. Inhibin α subunit gene was knocked down successfully at both transcriptional and translational levels by RNAi PiggyBac transposon (Pbi) mediated recombinant pshRNA vectors and purified DNA fragments were microinjected into mouse zygotes. Results showed that transgenic female mice were sub-fertile and exhibited 35.28% reduction in litter size in F1 generation relative to wild type. The decreased litter size associated with the reduction in the number of oocytes ovulated after puberty. Serum INHα level was significantly decreased in both 3 and 6 weeks; whereas, FSH was significantly increased in 3 weeks but not in 6 weeks. Furthermore, suppression of INHα expression significantly promoted apoptosis by up-regulating Caspase-3, bcl2, INHβB and GDF9 and down regulated Kitl and TGFβRIII genes both at transcriptional and translational levels. Moreover, it also dramatically reduced the progression of G1 phase of cell cycle and the number of cells in S phase as determined by flow cytometer. These results indicate that suppression of INHα expression in RNAi-transgenic mice leads to disruption of normal ovarian regulatory mechanism and causes reproductive deficiencies by promoting cellular apoptosis, arresting cellular progression and altering hormonal signaling. PMID:25998417

  17. Safety of targeting tumor endothelial cell antigens.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Samuel C; Riordan, Neil H; Ichim, Thomas E; Szymanski, Julia; Ma, Hong; Perez, Jesus A; Lopez, Javier; Plata-Munoz, Juan J; Silva, Francisco; Patel, Amit N; Kesari, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying discrimination between "self" and "non-self", a central immunological principle, require careful consideration in immune oncology therapeutics where eliciting anti-cancer immunity must be weighed against the risk of autoimmunity due to the self origin of tumors. Whole cell vaccines are one promising immunotherapeutic avenue whereby a myriad of tumor antigens are introduced in an immunogenic context with the aim of eliciting tumor rejection. Despite the possibility collateral damage to healthy tissues, cancer immunotherapy can be designed such that off target autoimmunity remains limited in scope and severity or completely non-existent. Here we provide an immunological basis for reconciling the safety of cancer vaccines, focusing on tumor endothelial cell vaccines, by discussing the following topics: (a) Antigenic differences between neoplastic and healthy tissues that can be leveraged in cancer vaccine design; (b) The layers of tolerance that control T cell responses directed against antigens expressed in healthy tissues and tumors; and, (c) The hierarchy of antigenic epitope selection and display in response to whole cell vaccines, and how antigen processing and presentation can afford a degree of selectivity against tumors. We conclude with an example of early clinical data utilizing ValloVax™, an immunogenic placental endothelial cell vaccine that is being advanced to target the tumor endothelium of diverse cancers, and we report on the safety and efficacy of ValloVax™ for inducing immunity against tumor endothelial antigens. PMID:27071457

  18. Human Ovarian Cancer Stroma Contains Luteinized Theca Cells Harboring Tumor Suppressor Gene GT198 Mutations*

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Min; Zhang, Hao; Jaafar, Lahcen; Risinger, John I.; Huang, Shuang; Mivechi, Nahid F.; Ko, Lan

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a highly lethal gynecological cancer, and its causes remain to be understood. Using a recently identified tumor suppressor gene, GT198 (PSMC3IP), as a unique marker, we searched for the identity of GT198 mutant cells in ovarian cancer. GT198 has germ line mutations in familial and early onset breast and ovarian cancers and recurrent somatic mutations in sporadic fallopian tube cancers. GT198 protein has been shown as a steroid hormone receptor coregulator and also as a crucial factor in DNA repair. In this study, using GT198 as a marker for microdissection, we find that ovarian tumor stromal cells harboring GT198 mutations are present in various types of ovarian cancer including high and low grade serous, endometrioid, mucinous, clear cell, and granulosa cell carcinomas and in precursor lesions such as inclusion cysts. The mutant stromal cells consist of a luteinized theca cell lineage at various differentiation stages including CD133+, CD44+, and CD34+ cells, although the vast majority of them are differentiated overexpressing steroidogenic enzyme CYP17, a theca cell-specific marker. In addition, wild type GT198 suppresses whereas mutant GT198 protein stimulates CYP17 expression. The chromatin-bound GT198 on the human CYP17 promoter is decreased by overexpressing mutant GT198 protein, implicating the loss of wild type suppression in mutant cells. Together, our results suggest that GT198 mutant luteinized theca cells overexpressing CYP17 are common in ovarian cancer stroma. Because first hit cancer gene mutations would specifically mark cancer-inducing cells, the identification of mutant luteinized theca cells may add crucial evidence in understanding the cause of human ovarian cancer. PMID:24097974

  19. DNA Tumor Viruses and Cell Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Mushtaq, Muhammad; Darekar, Suhas

    2016-01-01

    Viruses play an important role in cancerogenesis. It is estimated that approximately 20% of all cancers are linked to infectious agents. The viral genes modulate the physiological machinery of infected cells that lead to cell transformation and development of cancer. One of the important adoptive responses by the cancer cells is their metabolic change to cope up with continuous requirement of cell survival and proliferation. In this review we will focus on how DNA viruses alter the glucose metabolism of transformed cells. Tumor DNA viruses enhance “aerobic” glycolysis upon virus-induced cell transformation, supporting rapid cell proliferation and showing the Warburg effect. Moreover, viral proteins enhance glucose uptake and controls tumor microenvironment, promoting metastasizing of the tumor cells. PMID:27034740

  20. Tumor-associated macrophages (not tumor cells) are the determinants of photosensitizer tumor localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbelik, Mladen; Krosl, Gorazd

    1995-03-01

    The distribution of Photofrin and several other photosensitizers among major cellular populations contained in solid mouse tumors was examined using flow cytometry. Seven tumor models were included in the analysis: sarcomas EMT6, KHT, RIF, FsaR and FsaN, Lewis lung carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma SCCVII. In all these tumors, the highest photosensitizer levels were found in a subpopulation of tumor associated macrophages consisting of activated cells (as suggested by their increased size, granularity, and the number of interleukin 2 receptors). There was no evidence of selective photosensitizer accumulation in malignant tumor cells. Results consistent with these observations were also obtained with the carcinogen induced squamous cell carcinoma growing in hamster cheek pouch.

  1. Two natural products, trans-phytol and (22E)-ergosta-6,9,22-triene-3β,5α,8α-triol, inhibit the biosynthesis of estrogen in human ovarian granulosa cells by aromatase (CYP19)

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Jiajia; Yuan, Yun; Lu, Danfeng; Du, Baowen; Xiong, Liang; Shi, Jiangong; Yang, Lijuan; Liu, Wanli; Yuan, Xiaohong; Zhang, Guolin; Wang, Fei

    2014-08-15

    Aromatase is the only enzyme in vertebrates to catalyze the biosynthesis of estrogens. Although inhibitors of aromatase have been developed for the treatment of estrogen-dependent breast cancer, the whole-body inhibition of aromatase causes severe adverse effects. Thus, tissue-selective aromatase inhibitors are important for the treatment of estrogen-dependent cancers. In this study, 63 natural products with diverse structures were examined for their effects on estrogen biosynthesis in human ovarian granulosa-like KGN cells. Two compounds—trans-phytol (SA-20) and (22E)-ergosta-6,9,22-triene-3β,5α,8α-triol (SA-48)—were found to potently inhibit estrogen biosynthesis (IC{sub 50}: 1 μM and 0.5 μM, respectively). Both compounds decreased aromatase mRNA and protein expression levels in KGN cells, but had no effect on the aromatase catalytic activity in aromatase-overexpressing HEK293A cells and recombinant expressed aromatase. The two compounds decreased the expression of aromatase promoter I.3/II. Neither compound affected intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels, but they inhibited the phosphorylation or protein expression of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). The effects of these two compounds on extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and AKT/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway were examined. Inhibition of p38 MAPK could be the mechanism underpinning the actions of these compounds. Our results suggests that natural products structurally similar to SA-20 and SA-48 may be a new source of tissue-selective aromatase modulators, and that p38 MAPK is important in the basal control of aromatase in ovarian granulosa cells. SA-20 and SA-48 warrant further investigation as new pharmaceutical tools for the prevention and treatment of estrogen-dependent cancers. - Highlights: • Two natural products inhibited estrogen biosynthesis in human ovarian granulosa cells. • They

  2. Targeting regulatory T cells in tumors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Workman, Creg J; Vignali, Dario A A

    2016-07-01

    Regulatory T (Treg ) cells play a crucial role in maintaining peripheral tolerance and preventing autoimmunity. However, they also represent a major barrier to effective antitumor immunity and immunotherapy. Consequently, there has been considerable interest in developing approaches that can selectively or preferentially target Treg cells in tumors, while not impacting their capacity to maintain peripheral immune homeostasis. In this review, we describe our current understanding of the mechanisms underlying the recruitment, expansion, and suppressive activity of tumor-associated Treg cells, and discuss the approaches used and the challenges encountered in the immunotherapeutic targeting of Treg cells. In addition, we summarize the primary clinical targets and some emerging data on exciting new potential Treg cell-restricted targets. We propose that discovering and understanding mechanisms that are preferentially used by Treg cells within the tumor microenvironment will lead to strategies that selectively target Treg cell-mediated suppression of antitumor immunity while maintaining peripheral immune tolerance. PMID:26787424

  3. Ceramide Kinase Promotes Tumor Cell Survival and Mammary Tumor Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Ania W.; Pant, Dhruv K.; Pan, Tien-chi; Chodosh, Lewis A.

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent breast cancer is typically an incurable disease and, as such, is disproportionately responsible for deaths from this disease. Recurrent breast cancers arise from the pool of disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) that survive adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapy, and patients with detectable DTCs following therapy are at substantially increased risk for recurrence. Consequently, the identification of pathways that contribute to the survival of breast cancer cells following therapy could aid in the development of more effective therapies that decrease the burden of residual disease and thereby reduce the risk of breast cancer recurrence. We now report that Ceramide Kinase (Cerk) is required for mammary tumor recurrence following HER2/neu pathway inhibition and is spontaneously up-regulated during tumor recurrence in multiple genetically engineered mouse models for breast cancer. We find that Cerk is rapidly up-regulated in tumor cells following HER2/neu down-regulation or treatment with Adriamycin and that Cerk is required for tumor cell survival following HER2/neu down-regulation. Consistent with our observations in mouse models, analysis of gene expression profiles from over 2,200 patients revealed that elevated CERK expression is associated with an increased risk of recurrence in women with breast cancer. Additionally, although CERK expression is associated with aggressive subtypes of breast cancer, including those that are ER–, HER2+, basal-like, or high grade, its association with poor clinical outcome is independent of these clinicopathological variables. Together, our findings identify a functional role for Cerk in breast cancer recurrence and suggest the clinical utility of agents targeted against this pro-survival pathway. PMID:25164007

  4. Characterization of cell suspensions from solid tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Pallavicini, M.

    1985-07-10

    The desirable features of cells in suspension will necessarily be dependent upon the use for which the cells were prepared. Adequate cell yield or recovery is defined by the measurement to be performed. Retention of cellular morphology is important for microscopic identification of cell types in a heterogenous cell suspension, and may be used to determine whether the cells in suspension are representative of those in the tumor in situ. Different dispersal protocols may yield cells with different degrees of clonogenicity, as well as altered biochemical features, such as loss of cellular proteins, surface antigens, nucleotide pools, etc. The quality of the cell suspension can be judged by the degree of cell clumping and level of cellular debris, both of which impact on flow cytometric measurements and studies in which the number of cells be known accurately. Finally, if the data measured on the cells in suspension are to be extrapolated to phenomena occurring in the tumor in situ, it is desirable that the cells in suspension are representative of those in the solid tumor in vivo. This report compares characteristics of tumor cell suspensions obtained by different types of selected disaggregation methods. 33 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Tumor sialylation impedes T cell mediated anti-tumor responses while promoting tumor associated-regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Perdicchio, Maurizio; Cornelissen, Lenneke A. M.; Streng-Ouwehand, Ingeborg; Engels, Steef; Verstege, Marleen I.; Boon, Louis; Geerts, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    The increased presence of sialylated glycans on the tumor surface has been linked to poor prognosis, yet the effects on tumor-specific T cell immunity are hardly studied. We here show that hypersialylation of B16 melanoma substantially influences tumor growth by preventing the formation of effector T cells and facilitating the presence of high regulatory T cell (Treg) frequencies. Knock-down of the sialic acid transporter created “sialic acid low” tumors, that grew slower in-vivo than hypersialylated tumors, altered the Treg/Teffector balance, favoring immunological tumor control. The enhanced effector T cell response in developing “sialic acid low” tumors was preceded by and dependent on an increased influx and activity of Natural Killer (NK) cells. Thus, tumor hypersialylation orchestrates immune escape at the level of NK and Teff/Treg balance within the tumor microenvironment, herewith dampening tumor-specific T cell control. Reducing sialylation provides a therapeutic option to render tumors permissive to immune attack. PMID:26741508

  6. Tumor sialylation impedes T cell mediated anti-tumor responses while promoting tumor associated-regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Perdicchio, Maurizio; Cornelissen, Lenneke A M; Streng-Ouwehand, Ingeborg; Engels, Steef; Verstege, Marleen I; Boon, Louis; Geerts, Dirk; van Kooyk, Yvette; Unger, Wendy W J

    2016-02-23

    The increased presence of sialylated glycans on the tumor surface has been linked to poor prognosis, yet the effects on tumor-specific T cell immunity are hardly studied. We here show that hypersialylation of B16 melanoma substantially influences tumor growth by preventing the formation of effector T cells and facilitating the presence of high regulatory T cell (Treg) frequencies. Knock-down of the sialic acid transporter created "sialic acid low" tumors, that grew slower in-vivo than hypersialylated tumors, altered the Treg/Teffector balance, favoring immunological tumor control. The enhanced effector T cell response in developing "sialic acid low" tumors was preceded by and dependent on an increased influx and activity of Natural Killer (NK) cells. Thus, tumor hypersialylation orchestrates immune escape at the level of NK and Teff/Treg balance within the tumor microenvironment, herewith dampening tumor-specific T cell control. Reducing sialylation provides a therapeutic option to render tumors permissive to immune attack. PMID:26741508

  7. [Benign and malignant granular cell tumors. An immunohistochemical classification of tumor cells].

    PubMed

    Kuhn, A; Mahrle, G; Steigleder, G K

    1987-06-15

    Eight benign and three malignant granular cell tumors were characterized by means of antibodies and antisera against keratin, desmin, epithelial membrane antigen, factor VIII-related protein, lysozyme, myelin basic protein, myoglobin, neurone-specific enolase, S 100 protein, myelin-associated protein (Leu 7), glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin, and neurofilament. All benign granular cell tumours showed positive staining of the tumor cells to antibodies against vimentin, S 100 protein, and neurone-specific enolase; myelin-associated protein (Leu 7), in contrast, was only detectable in a few tumor sections. Histogenetically the granular cells may be classified as Schwann's cells which lost their expression of laminin. The three malignant granular cell tumors showed a staining pattern significantly different from that of the benign tumours. Thus, only neurone-specific enolase was detectable in all the tumors, whereas S 100 protein and vimentin could not be demonstrated but in one and two, resp., out of three tumors. PMID:3303714

  8. Tumor-Associated Endothelial Cells Promote Tumor Metastasis by Chaperoning Circulating Tumor Cells and Protecting Them from Anoikis.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Arti; Kumar, Bhavna; Yu, Jun-Ge; Old, Matthew; Teknos, Theodoros N; Kumar, Pawan

    2015-01-01

    Tumor metastasis is a highly inefficient biological process as millions of tumor cells are released in circulation each day and only a few of them are able to successfully form distal metastatic nodules. This could be due to the fact that most of the epithelial origin cancer cells are anchorage-dependent and undergo rapid anoikis in harsh circulating conditions. A number of studies have shown that in addition to tumor cells, activated endothelial cells are also released into the blood circulation from the primary tumors. However, the precise role of these activated circulating endothelial cells (CECs) in tumor metastasis process is not known. Therefore, we performed a series of experiments to examine if CECs promoted tumor metastasis by chaperoning the tumor cells to distal sites. Our results demonstrate that blood samples from head and neck cancer patients contain significantly higher Bcl-2-positive CECs as compared to healthy volunteers. Technically, it is challenging to know the origin of CECs in patient blood samples, therefore we used an orthotopic SCID mouse model and co-implanted GFP-labeled endothelial cells along with tumor cells. Our results suggest that activated CECs (Bcl-2-positive) were released from primary tumors and they co-migrated with tumor cells to distal sites. Bcl-2 overexpression in endothelial cells (EC-Bcl-2) significantly enhanced adhesion molecule expression and tumor cell binding that was predominantly mediated by E-selectin. In addition, tumor cells bound to EC-Bcl-2 showed a significantly higher anoikis resistance via the activation of Src-FAK pathway. In our in vivo experiments, we observed significantly higher lung metastasis when tumor cells were co-injected with EC-Bcl-2 as compared to EC-VC. E-selectin knockdown in EC-Bcl-2 cells or FAK/FUT3 knockdown in tumor cells significantly reversed EC-Bcl-2-mediated tumor metastasis. Taken together, our results suggest a novel role for CECs in protecting the tumor cells in circulation and

  9. Recognition of tumor cells by Dectin-1 orchestrates innate immune cells for anti-tumor responses

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Shiho; Ikushima, Hiroaki; Ueki, Hiroshi; Yanai, Hideyuki; Kimura, Yoshitaka; Hangai, Sho; Nishio, Junko; Negishi, Hideo; Tamura, Tomohiko; Saijo, Shinobu; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Taniguchi, Tadatsugu

    2014-01-01

    The eradication of tumor cells requires communication to and signaling by cells of the immune system. Natural killer (NK) cells are essential tumor-killing effector cells of the innate immune system; however, little is known about whether or how other immune cells recognize tumor cells to assist NK cells. Here, we show that the innate immune receptor Dectin-1 expressed on dendritic cells and macrophages is critical to NK-mediated killing of tumor cells that express N-glycan structures at high levels. Receptor recognition of these tumor cells causes the activation of the IRF5 transcription factor and downstream gene induction for the full-blown tumoricidal activity of NK cells. Consistent with this, we show exacerbated in vivo tumor growth in mice genetically deficient in either Dectin-1 or IRF5. The critical contribution of Dectin-1 in the recognition of and signaling by tumor cells may offer new insight into the anti-tumor immune system with therapeutic implications. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04177.001 PMID:25149452

  10. Ultrastructure of the basal lamina of bovine ovarian follicles and its relationship to the membrana granulosa.

    PubMed

    Irving-Rodgers, H F; Rodgers, R J

    2000-03-01

    Different morphological phenotypes of follicular basal lamina and of membrana granulosa have been observed. Ten preantral follicles (< 0. 1 mm), and 17 healthy and six atretic antral follicles (0.5-12 mm in diameter) were processed for light and electron microscopy to investigate the relationship the between follicular basal lamina and membrana granulosa. Within each antral follicle, the shape of the basal cells of the membrana granulosa was uniform, and either rounded or columnar. There were equal proportions of follicles cells and with rounded basal cells. Larger follicles had only rounded basal cells. Conventional basal laminae of a single layer adjacent to the basal granulosa cells were observed in healthy follicles at the preantral and antral stages. However, at the preantral stage, the conventional types of basal lamina were enlarged or even partially laminated. A second type of basal lamina, described as 'loopy', occurred in about half the preantral follicles and in half the antral follicles granulosa cells, but with additional layers or loops often branching from the innermost layer. Each loop was usually < 1 microm long and had vesicles (20-30 nm) attached to the inner aspect. Basal cellular processes were also common, and vesicles could be seen budding off from these processes. In antral follicles, conventional basal laminae occurred in follicles with rounded basal granulosa cells. Other follicles with columnar cells, and atretic follicles, had the 'loopy' basal lamina phenotype. Thus, follicles have different basal laminae that relate to the morphology of the membrana granulosa. PMID:10864785

  11. Energy and Redox Homeostasis in Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Marcus Fernandes; Amoêdo, Nívea Dias; Rumjanek, Franklin David

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cells display abnormal morphology, chromosomes, and metabolism. This review will focus on the metabolism of tumor cells integrating the available data by way of a functional approach. The first part contains a comprehensive introduction to bioenergetics, mitochondria, and the mechanisms of production and degradation of reactive oxygen species. This will be followed by a discussion on the oxidative metabolism of tumor cells including the morphology, biogenesis, and networking of mitochondria. Tumor cells overexpress proteins that favor fission, such as GTPase dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1). The interplay between proapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family that promotes Drp 1-dependent mitochondrial fragmentation and fusogenic antiapoptotic proteins such as Opa-1 will be presented. It will be argued that contrary to the widespread belief that in cancer cells, aerobic glycolysis completely replaces oxidative metabolism, a misrepresentation of Warburg's original results, mitochondria of tumor cells are fully viable and functional. Cancer cells also carry out oxidative metabolism and generally conform to the orthodox model of ATP production maintaining as well an intact electron transport system. Finally, data will be presented indicating that the key to tumor cell survival in an ROS rich environment depends on the overexpression of antioxidant enzymes and high levels of the nonenzymatic antioxidant scavengers. PMID:22693511

  12. Osteoclastic giant cell tumor of the pancreas☆

    PubMed Central

    Temesgen, Wudneh M.; Wachtel, Mitchell; Dissanaike, Sharmila

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Pancreatic giant cell tumors are rare, with an incidence of less than 1% of all pancreatic tumors. Osteoclastic giant cell tumor (OGCT) of the pancreas is one of the three types of PGCT, which are now classified as undifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells. PRESENTATION OF CASE The patient is a 57 year old woman who presented with a 3 week history of epigastric pain and a palpable abdominal mass. Imaging studies revealed an 18 cm × 15 cm soft tissue mass with cystic components which involved the pancreas, stomach and spleen. Exploratory laparotomy with distal pancreatectomy, partial gastrectomy and splenectomy was performed. Histology revealed undifferentiated pancreatic carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells with production of osteoid and glandular elements. DISCUSSION OGCT of the pancreas resembles benign-appearing giant cell tumors of bone, and contain osteoclastic-like multinucleated cells and mononuclear cells. OGCTs display a less aggressive course with slow metastasis and lymph node spread compared to pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Due to the rarity of the cancer, there is a lack of prospective studies on treatment options. Surgical en-bloc resection is currently considered first line treatment. The role of adjuvant therapy with radiotherapy or chemotherapy has not been established. CONCLUSION Pancreatic giant cell tumors are rare pancreatic neoplasms with unique clinical and pathological characteristics. Osteoclastic giant cell tumors are the most favorable sub-type. Surgical en bloc resection is the first line treatment. Long-term follow-up of patients with these tumors is essential to compile a body of literature to help guide treatment. PMID:24631915

  13. The combined effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and the phytoestrogen genistein on steroid hormone secretion, AhR and ERβ expression and the incidence of apoptosis in granulosa cells of medium porcine follicles.

    PubMed

    Piasecka-Srader, Joanna; Sadowska, Agnieszka; Nynca, Anna; Orlowska, Karina; Jablonska, Monika; Jablonska, Olga; Petroff, Brian K; Ciereszko, Renata E

    2016-02-20

    Low doses of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) used in combination may act in a manner different from that of individual compounds. The objective of the study was to examine in vitro effects of low doses of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; 100 pM) and genistein (500 nM) on: 1) progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) secretion (48 h); 2) dynamic changes in aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mRNA and protein expression (1, 3, 6, 24 and 48 h); 3) dynamic changes in estrogen receptor β (ERβ) mRNA and protein expression (1, 3, 6, 24 and 48 h); and 4) induction of apoptosis in porcine granulosa cells derived from medium follicles (3, 6 and 24 h). TCDD had no effect on P4 or E2 production, but potentiated the inhibitory effect of genistein on P4 production. In contrast to the individual treatments which did not produce any effects, TCDD and genistein administered together decreased ERβ and AhR protein expression in granulosa cells. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of TCDD on AhR mRNA expression was abolished by genistein. The treatments did not induce apoptosis in the cells. In summary, combined effects of low concentrations of TCDD and genistein on follicular function of pigs differed from that of individual compounds. The results presented in the current paper clearly indicate that effects exerted by low doses of EDCs applied in combination must be taken into consideration when studying potential risk effects of EDCs on biological processes. PMID:26568065

  14. Reversing drug resistance of soft tumor-repopulating cells by tumor cell-derived chemotherapeutic microparticles.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jingwei; Zhang, Yi; Tang, Ke; Zhang, Huafeng; Yin, Xiaonan; Li, Yong; Xu, Pingwei; Sun, Yanling; Ma, Ruihua; Ji, Tiantian; Chen, Junwei; Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Tianzhen; Luo, Shunqun; Jin, Yang; Luo, Xiuli; Li, Chengyin; Gong, Hongwei; Long, Zhixiong; Lu, Jinzhi; Hu, Zhuowei; Cao, Xuetao; Wang, Ning; Yang, Xiangliang; Huang, Bo

    2016-06-01

    Developing novel approaches to reverse the drug resistance of tumor-repopulating cells (TRCs) or stem cell-like cancer cells is an urgent clinical need to improve outcomes of cancer patients. Here we show an innovative approach that reverses drug resistance of TRCs using tumor cell-derived microparticles (T-MPs) containing anti-tumor drugs. TRCs, by virtue of being more deformable than differentiated cancer cells, preferentially take up T-MPs that release anti-tumor drugs after entering cells, which in turn lead to death of TRCs. The underlying mechanisms include interfering with drug efflux and promoting nuclear entry of the drugs. Our findings demonstrate the importance of tumor cell softness in uptake of T-MPs and effectiveness of a novel approach in reversing drug resistance of TRCs with promising clinical applications. PMID:27167569

  15. An overview of therapeutic approaches to brain tumor stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Primary and secondary malignant central nervous system (CNS) tumors are devastating invasive tumors able to give rise to many kinds of differentiated tumor cells. Glioblastoma multiform (GBM), is the most malignant brain tumor, in which its growth and persistence depend on cancer stem cells with enhanced DNA damage repair program that also induces recurrence and resists current chemo- and radiotherapies. Unlike non-tumor stem cells, tumor stem cells lack the normal mechanisms that regulate proliferation and differentiation, resulting in uncontrolled production and incomplete differentiation of tumor cells. In current paper recent developments and new researches in the field of brain tumor stem cells have been reviewed. PMID:23483074

  16. In vivo collection of follicular fluid and granulosa cells from individual follicles of different diameters in cattle by an adapted ovum pick-up system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most studies on granulosa cell (GC) function in cattle have been performed using GC and follicular fluid (FF) samples collected from slaughterhouse ovaries. Using this approach, the follicular developmental stage and functional status are unknown and indirectly inferred, limiting data interpretation. Ultrasound-guided follicle aspiration has previously been used to recover GC or FF samples, but this was mostly carried out in large follicles or pools of small follicles, without recording the efficiency of recovery. The present study was aimed at adapting and evaluating an ovum pick-up (OPU) system for the in vivo recovery of FF and GC from individual follicles of different diameters. Methods In the first trial, the losses of fluid inside the tubing system were calculated using a conventional or an adapted-OPU system. Blood plasma volumes equivalent to the amount of FF in follicles of different diameters were aspirated using a conventional OPU Teflon circuit. The OPU system was then adapted by connecting 0.25 mL straws to the circuit. A second trial evaluated the efficiency of FF recovery in vivo. Follicles ranging from 4.0 to 16.8 mm in diameter were aspirated individually using the conventional or adapted-OPU systems. A third trial assessed the in vivo recovery of GC and the subsequent amount of RNA obtained from the follicles of different diameters from Holstein and Gir cattle. Results In Trial I, the plasma recovery efficiency was similar (P > 0.05) for the volumes expected for 12 and 10 mm follicles, but decreased (P < 0.05) for smaller follicles (45.7+/−4.0%, 12.4+/−4.3% and 0.0+/−0.0% for 8, 6, and 4 mm follicles, respectively). Using the adaptation, the losses intrinsic to the aspiration system were similar for all follicle diameters. In Trial II, the expected and recovered volumes of FF were correlated (r = 0.89) and the efficiency of recovery was similar among follicles <12 mm, while larger follicles had a progressive increase

  17. One cell, multiple roles: contribution of mesenchymal stem cells to tumor development in tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of tissue reparative and immunosuppressive abilities of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has drawn more attention to tumor microenvironment and its role in providing the soil for the tumor cell growth. MSCs are recruited to tumor which is referred as the never healing wound and altered by the inflammation environment, thereby helping to construct the tumor microenvironment. The environment orchestrated by MSCs and other factors can be associated with angiogenesis, immunosuppression, inhibition of apoptosis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), survival of cancer stem cells, which all contribute to tumor growth and progression. In this review, we will discuss how MSCs are recruited to the tumor microenvironment and what effects they have on tumor progression. PMID:23336752

  18. Changes in brain ribonuclease (BRB) messenger RNA in granulosa cells (GCs) of dominant vs subordinate ovarian follicles of cattle and the regulation of BRB gene expression in bovine GCs.

    PubMed

    Dentis, J L; Schreiber, N B; Gilliam, J N; Schutz, L F; Spicer, L J

    2016-04-01

    Brain ribonuclease (BRB) is a member of the ribonuclease A superfamily that is constitutively expressed in a range of tissues and is the functional homolog of human ribonuclease 1. This study was designed to characterize BRB gene expression in granulosa cells (GCs) during development of bovine dominant ovarian follicles and to determine the hormonal regulation of BRB in GCs. Estrous cycles of Holstein cows (n = 18) were synchronized, and cows were ovariectomized on either day 3 to 4 or day 5 to 6 after ovulation during dominant follicle growth and selection. Ovaries were collected, follicular fluid (FFL) was aspirated, and GCs were collected for RNA isolation and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Follicles were categorized as small (1-5 mm; pooled per ovary), medium (5-8 mm; individually collected), or large (8.1-17 mm; individually collected) based on surface diameter. Estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in FFL. Abundance of BRB messenger RNA (mRNA) in GCs was 8.6- to 11.8-fold greater (P < 0.05) in small (n = 31), medium (n = 66), and large (n = 33) subordinate E2-inactive (FFL E2 < P4) follicles than in large (n = 16) dominant E2-active (FFL E2 > P4) follicles. In the largest 4 follicles, GCs BRB mRNA abundance was negatively correlated (P < 0.01) with FFL E2 (r = -0.65) and E2:P4 ratio (r = -0.46). In experiment 2, GCs from large (8-22 mm diameter) and small (1-5 mm diameter) follicles were treated with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1; 0 or 30 ng/mL) and/or tumor necrosis factor alpha (0 or 30 ng/mL); IGF1 increased (P < 0.05) BRB mRNA abundance, and tumor necrosis factor alpha decreased (P < 0.001) the IGF1-induced BRB mRNA abundance in large-follicle GCs. In experiment 3 to 6, E2, follicle-stimulating hormone, fibroblast growth factor 9, cortisol, wingless 3A, or sonic hedgehog did not affect (P > 0.10) abundance of BRB mRNA in GCs; thyroxine and luteinizing hormone increased (P < 0.05), whereas

  19. Whole tumor antigen vaccination using dendritic cells: comparison of RNA electroporation and pulsing with UV-irradiated tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Benencia, Fabian; Courrèges, Maria C; Coukos, George

    2008-01-01

    Because of the lack of full characterization of tumor associated antigens for solid tumors, whole antigen use is a convenient approach to tumor vaccination. Tumor RNA and apoptotic tumor cells have been used as a source of whole tumor antigen to prepare dendritic cell (DC) based tumor vaccines, but their efficacy has not been directly compared. Here we compare directly RNA electroporation and pulsing of DCs with whole tumor cells killed by ultraviolet (UV) B radiation using a convenient tumor model expressing human papilloma virus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncogenes. Although both approaches led to DCs presenting tumor antigen, electroporation with tumor cell total RNA induced a significantly higher frequency of tumor-reactive IFN-gamma secreting T cells, and E7-specific CD8+ lymphocytes compared to pulsing with UV-irradiated tumor cells. DCs electroporated with tumor cell RNA induced a larger tumor infiltration by T cells and produced a significantly stronger delay in tumor growth compared to DCs pulsed with UV-irradiated tumor cells. We conclude that electroporation with whole tumor cell RNA and pulsing with UV-irradiated tumor cells are both effective in eliciting antitumor immune response, but RNA electroporation results in more potent tumor vaccination under the examined experimental conditions. PMID:18445282

  20. Apoptin: specific killer of tumor cells?

    PubMed

    Tavassoli, M; Guelen, L; Luxon, B A; Gäken, J

    2005-08-01

    In the early 1990s it was discovered that the VP3/Apoptin protein encoded by the Chicken Anemia virus (CAV) possesses an inherent ability to specifically kill cancer cells. Apoptin was found to be located in the cytoplasm of normal cells while in tumor cells it was localized mainly in the nucleus.(1) These differences in the localization pattern were suggested to be the main mechanism by which normal cells show resistance to Apoptin-mediated cell killing. Although the mechanism of action of Apoptin is presently unknown, it seems to function by the induction of programmed cell death (PCD) after translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and arresting the cell cycle at G2/M, possibly by interfering with the cyclosome.(2) In addition, cancer specific phosphorylation of Threonine residue 108 has been suggested to be important for Apoptin's function to kill tumor cells.(3) In contrast to the large number of publications reporting that nuclear localization, induction of PCD and phosphorylation of Apoptin is restricted to cancer cells, several recent studies have shown that Apoptin has the ability to migrate to the nucleus and induce PCD in some of the normal cell lines tested. There is evidence that high protein expression levels as well as the cellular growth rate may influence Apoptin's ability to specifically kill tumor cells. Thus far both in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that Apoptin is a powerful apoptosis inducing protein with a promising prospective utility in cancer therapy. However, here we show that several recent findings contradict some of the earlier results on the tumor specificity of Apoptin, thus creating some controversy in the field. The aim of this article is to review the available data, some published and some unpublished, which either agree or contradict the reported "black and white" tumor cell specificity of Apoptin. Understanding what factors appear to influence its function should help to develop Apoptin into a potent anti

  1. Apoptin: Specific killer of tumor cells?

    PubMed Central

    Tavassoli, M.; Guelen, L.; Luxon, B. A.; Gäken, J.

    2010-01-01

    In the early 1990s it was discovered that the VP3/Apoptin protein encoded by the Chicken Anemia virus (CAV) possesses an inherent ability to specifically kill cancer cells. Apoptin was found to be located in the cytoplasm of normal cells while in tumor cells it was localized mainly in the nucleus.1 These differences in the localization pattern were suggested to be the main mechanism by which normal cells show resistance to Apoptin-mediated cell killing. Although the mechanism of action of Apoptin is presently unknown, it seems to function by the induction of programmed cell death (PCD) after translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and arresting the cell cycle at g2/M, possibly by interfering with the cyclosome.2 In addition, cancer specific phosphorylation of Threonine residue 108 has been suggested to be important for Apoptin’s function to kill tumor cells.3 In contrast to the large number of publications reporting that nuclear localization, induction of PCD and phosphorylation of Apoptin is restricted to cancer cells, several recent studies have shown that Apoptin has the ability to migrate to the nucleus and induce PCD in some of the normal cell lines tested. There is evidence that high protein expression levels as well as the cellular growth rate may influence Apoptin’s ability to specifically kill tumor cells. Thus far both in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that Apoptin is a powerful apoptosis inducing protein with a promising prospective utility in cancer therapy. However, here we show that several recent findings contradict some of the earlier results on the tumor specificity of Apoptin, thus creating some controversy in the field. The aim of this article is to review the available data, some published and some unpublished, which either agree or contradict the reported “black and white” tumor cell specificity of Apoptin. Understanding what factors appear to influence its function should help to develop Apoptin into a potent anti

  2. Tumor-Infiltrating Immune Cells Promoting Tumor Invasion and Metastasis: Existing Theories

    PubMed Central

    Man, Yan-gao; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Mason, Jeffrey; Avital, Itzhak; Bilchik, Anton; Bruecher, Bjoern; Protic, Mladjan; Nissan, Aviram; Izadjoo, Mina; Zhang, Xichen; Jewett, Anahid

    2013-01-01

    It is a commonly held belief that infiltration of immune cells into tumor tissues and direct physical contact between tumor cells and infiltrated immune cells is associated with physical destructions of the tumor cells, reduction of the tumor burden, and improved clinical prognosis. An increasing number of studies, however, have suggested that aberrant infiltration of immune cells into tumor or normal tissues may promote tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis. Neither the primary reason for these contradictory observations, nor the mechanism for the reported diverse impact of tumor-infiltrating immune cells has been elucidated, making it difficult to judge the clinical implications of infiltration of immune cells within tumor tissues. This mini-review presents several existing hypotheses and models that favor the promoting impact of tumor-infiltrating immune cells on tumor invasion and metastasis, and also analyzes their strength and weakness. PMID:23386907

  3. Molecular biology of testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Exposito, R; Merino, M; Aguayo, C

    2016-06-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most common solid tumors in young adult men. They constitute a unique pathology because of their embryonic and germ origin and their special behavior. Genetic predisposition, environmental factors involved in their development and genetic aberrations have been under study in many works throughout the last years trying to explain the susceptibility and the transformation mechanism of TGCTs. Despite the high rate of cure in this type of tumors because its particular sensitivity to cisplatin, there are tumors resistant to chemotherapy for which it is needed to find new therapies. In the present work, it has been carried out a literature review on the most important molecular aspects involved in the onset and development of such tumors, as well as a review of the major developments regarding prognostic factors, new prognostic biomarkers and the possibility of new targeted therapies. PMID:26482724

  4. Enhanced delivery of liposomes to lung tumor through targeting interleukin-4 receptor on both tumor cells and tumor endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chi, Lianhua; Na, Moon-Hee; Jung, Hyun-Kyung; Vadevoo, Sri Murugan Poongkavithai; Kim, Cheong-Wun; Padmanaban, Guruprasath; Park, Tae-In; Park, Jae-Yong; Hwang, Ilseon; Park, Keon Uk; Liang, Frank; Lu, Maggie; Park, Jiho; Kim, In-San; Lee, Byung-Heon

    2015-07-10

    A growing body of evidence suggests that pathological lesions express tissue-specific molecular targets or biomarkers within the tissue. Interleukin-4 receptor (IL-4R) is overexpressed in many types of cancer cells, including lung cancer. Here we investigated the properties of IL-4R-binding peptide-1 (IL4RPep-1), a CRKRLDRNC peptide, and its ability to target the delivery of liposomes to lung tumor. IL4RPep-1 preferentially bound to H226 lung tumor cells which express higher levers of IL-4R compared to H460 lung tumor cells which express less IL-4R. Mutational analysis revealed that C1, R2, and R4 residues of IL4RPep-1 were the key binding determinants. IL4RPep-1-labeled liposomes containing doxorubicin were more efficiently internalized in H226 cells and effectively delivered doxorubicin into the cells compared to unlabeled liposomes. In vivo fluorescence imaging of nude mice subcutaneously xenotransplanted with H226 tumor cells indicated that IL4RPep-1-labeled liposomes accumulate more efficiently in the tumor and inhibit tumor growth more effectively compared to unlabeled liposomes. Interestingly, expression of IL-4R was high in vascular endothelial cells of tumor, while little was detected in vascular endothelial cells of control organs including the liver. IL-4R expression in cultured human vascular endothelial cells was also up-regulated when activated by a pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α. Moreover, the up-regulation of IL-4R expression was observed in primary human lung cancer tissues. These results indicate that IL-4R-targeting nanocarriers may be a useful strategy to enhance drug delivery through the recognition of IL-4R in both tumor cells and tumor endothelial cells. PMID:25979323

  5. Action of defined mixtures of PCBs, p,p'-DDT and its metabolite p,p'-DDE, on co-culture of porcine theca and granulosa cells: steroid secretion, cell proliferation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Gregoraszczuk, Ewa L; Ptak, Anna; Karniewska, Magdalena; Ropstad, Erik

    2008-10-01

    We recently reported on a stimulatory effect of a mixture of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) extracted from the liver oil of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) on estradiol (E2) secretion by porcine ovarian follicular cells [Gregoraszczuk EL, Milczarek K, Wójtowicz A, Berg V, Skaare JU, Ropstad E. Steroid secretion following exposure of ovarian follicular cells to three different natural mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Reproductive Toxicol 2007;25:58-66]. The objective of the present study was to identify what compound or compounds within this natural mixture could be responsible for the stimulatory action on E2 secretion. Co-cultures of porcine ovarian theca and granulosa cells were exposed for 48h to individual congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) alone or in combination, at environmentally relevant concentrations (PCB153 at 8microg/ml; PCB118 at 3microg/ml; PCB138 at 8microg/ml; PCB180 at 3microg/ml; PCB126 at 8ng/ml; DDT at 5microg/ml; p,p'-DDE at 10microg/ml). At the end of culture media samples were collected and used for cell viability and steroid determination, and cells were used for the measurement of caspase-3 activity. A threefold decrease in E2 secretion was noted when PCB126 was added in combination with PCB153. Only DDT and DDE could reverse the action of PCB126. Stimulatory secretion of E2 occurred in parallel with a decrease in testosterone (T) secretion. Among the single congeners used in the present study, DDE had the strongest stimulatory action on E2 secretion. In conclusion, the present findings indicate that the overall effect on steroid secretion by ovarian follicular cells could be dependent on the concentration of DDE in environmental POPs and that the predicted effect of a mixture based on a sum of independent effects of individual congeners is higher than that noted under the influence of defined mixture. PMID:18692563

  6. Cathepsin S from both tumor and tumor-associated cells promote cancer growth and neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Small, Donna M; Burden, Roberta E; Jaworski, Jakub; Hegarty, Shauna M; Spence, Shaun; Burrows, James F; McFarlane, Cheryl; Kissenpfennig, Adrien; McCarthy, Helen O; Johnston, James A; Walker, Brian; Scott, Christopher J

    2013-11-01

    Recent murine studies have demonstrated that tumor-associated macrophages in the tumor microenvironment are a key source of the pro-tumorigenic cysteine protease, cathepsin S. We now show in a syngeneic colorectal carcinoma murine model that both tumor and tumor-associated cells contribute cathepsin S to promote neovascularization and tumor growth. Cathepsin S depleted and control colorectal MC38 tumor cell lines were propagated in both wild type C57Bl/6 and cathepsin S null mice to provide stratified depletion of the protease from either the tumor, tumor-associated host cells, or both. Parallel analysis of these conditions showed that deletion of cathepsin S inhibited tumor growth and development, and revealed a clear contribution of both tumor and tumor-associated cell derived cathepsin S. The most significant impact on tumor development was obtained when the protease was depleted from both sources. Further characterization revealed that the loss of cathepsin S led to impaired tumor vascularization, which was complemented by a reduction in proliferation and increased apoptosis, consistent with reduced tumor growth. Analysis of cell types showed that in addition to the tumor cells, tumor-associated macrophages and endothelial cells can produce cathepsin S within the microenvironment. Taken together, these findings clearly hig