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Sample records for grapevine vitis vinifera

  1. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Bouquet, Alain; Torregrosa, Laurent; Iocco, Pat; Thomas, Mark R

    2006-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis) is considered to be one of the major fruit crops in the world based on hectares cultivated and economic value. Grapes are used not only for wine but also for fresh fruit, dried fruit, and juice production. Wine is by far the major product of grapes and the focus of this chapter is on wine grape cultivars. Grapevine cultivars of Vitis vinifera L. have a reputation for producing premium quality wines. These premium quality wines are produced from a small number of cultivars that enjoy a high level of consumer acceptance and are firmly entrenched in the market place because of varietal name branding and the association of certain wine styles and regions with specific cultivars. In light of this situation, grapevine improvement by a transgenic approach is attractive when compared to a classical breeding approach. The transfer of individual traits as single genes with a minimum disruption to the original genome would leave the traditional characteristics of the cultivar intact. However, a reliable transformation system is required for a successful transgenic approach to grapevine improvement. There are three criteria for achieving an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system: (1) the production of highly regenerative transformable tissue, (2) optimal co-cultivation conditions for both grapevine tissue and Agrobacterium, and (3) an efficient selection regime for transgenic plant regeneration. In this chapter, we describe a grapevine transformation system which meets the above mentioned criteria. PMID:17033070

  2. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Torregrosa, Laurent; Vialet, Sandrine; Adivèze, Angélique; Iocco-Corena, Pat; Thomas, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis) is considered to be one of the major fruit crops in the world based on hectares cultivated and economic value. Grapes are used not only for wine but also for fresh fruit, dried fruit, and juice production. Wine is by far the major product of grapes, and the focus of this chapter is on wine grape cultivars. Grapevine cultivars of Vitis vinifera L. have a reputation for producing premium quality wines. These premium quality wines are produced from a small number of cultivars that enjoy a high level of consumer acceptance and are firmly entrenched in the market place because of varietal name branding and the association of certain wine styles and regions with specific cultivars. In light of this situation, grapevine improvement by a transgenic approach is attractive when compared to a classical breeding approach. The transfer of individual traits as single genes with a minimum disruption to the original genome would leave the traditional characteristics of the cultivar intact. However, a reliable transformation system is required for a successful transgenic approach to grapevine improvement. There are three criteria for achieving an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system: (1) the production of highly regenerative transformable tissue, (2) optimal cocultivation conditions for both grapevine tissue and Agrobacterium, and (3) an efficient selection regime for transgenic plant regeneration. In this chapter, we describe a grapevine transformation system that meets these criteria. We also describe a protocol for the production of transformed roots suitable for functional gene studies and for the production of semi-transgenic grafted plants. PMID:25416258

  3. Transport and accumulation of flavonoids in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Braidot, Enrico; Zancani, Marco; Petrussa, Elisa; Peresson, Carlo; Bertolini, Alberto; Patui, Sonia; Macrì, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    Flavonoids are a group of secondary metabolites widely distributed in plants that represent a huge portion of the soluble phenolics present in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). These compounds play different physiological roles and are often involved in protection against biotic and abiotic stress. Even if the flavonoid biosynthetic pathways have been largely characterized, the mechanisms of their transport and accumulation in cell wall and vacuole are still not completely understood. This review analyses the known mechanisms of flavonoid uptake and accumulation in grapevine, with reference to the transport models and membrane carrier proteins described in other plant species. The effect of different environmental factors on flavonoid biosynthesis and transporters is also discussed. PMID:19513253

  4. The accumulation and localization of chalcone synthase in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Huiling; Wang, Wei; Zhan, JiCheng; Yan, Ailing; Sun, Lei; Zhang, Guojun; Wang, Xiaoyue; Ren, Jiancheng; Huang, Weidong; Xu, Haiying

    2016-09-01

    Chalcone synthase (CHS, E.C.2.3.1.74) is the first committed enzyme in the flavonoid pathway. Previous studies have primarily focused on the cloning, expression and regulation of the gene at the transcriptional level. Little is yet known about the enzyme accumulation, regulation at protein level, as well as its localization in grapevine. In present study, the accumulation, tissue and subcellular localization of CHS in different grapevine tissues (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon) were investigated via the techniques of Western blotting, immunohistochemical localization, immunoelectron microscopy and confocal microscopy. The results showed that CHS were mainly accumulated in the grape berry skin, leaves, stem tips and stem phloem, correlated with flavonoids accumulation. The accumulation of CHS is developmental dependent in grape berry skin and flesh. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CHS were primarily localized in the exocarp and vascular bundles of the fruits during berry development; in palisade, spongy tissues and vascular bundles of the leaves; in the primary phloem and pith ray in the stems; in the growth point, leaf primordium, and young leaves of leaf buds; and in the endoderm and primary phloem of grapevine roots. Furthermore, at the subcellular level, the cell wall, cytoplasm and nucleus localized patterns of CHS were observed in the grapevine vegetative tissue cells. Results above indicated that distribution of CHS in grapevine was organ-specific and tissue-specific. This work will provide new insight for the biosynthesis and regulation of diverse flavonoid compounds in grapevine. PMID:27161583

  5. A forensic perspective on the genetic identification of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) varieties using STR markers.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sara; Oliveira, Manuela; Amorim, António; van Asch, Barbara

    2014-11-01

    The grapevine (Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera) is one of the most important agricultural crops worldwide. A long interest in the historical origins of ancient and cultivated current grapevines, as well as the need to establish phylogenetic relationships and parentage, solve homonymies and synonymies, fingerprint cultivars and clones, and assess the authenticity of plants and wines has encouraged the development of genetic identification methods. STR analysis is currently the most commonly used method for these purposes. A large dataset of grapevines genotypes for many cultivars worldwide has been produced in the last decade using a common set of recommended dinucleotide nuclear STRs. This type of marker has been replaced by long core-repeat loci in standardized state-of-the-art human forensic genotyping. The first steps toward harmonized grapevine genotyping have already been taken to bring the genetic identification methods closer to human forensic STR standards by previous authors. In this context, we bring forward a set of basic suggestions that reinforce the need to (i) guarantee trueness-to-type of the sample; (ii) use the long core-repeat markers; (iii) verify the specificity and amplification consistency of PCR primers; (iv) sequence frequent alleles and use these standardized allele ladders; (v) consider mutation rates when evaluating results of STR-based parentage and pedigree analysis; (vi) genotype large and representative samples in order to obtain allele frequency databases; (vii) standardize genotype data by establishing allele nomenclature based on repeat number to facilitate information exchange and data compilation. PMID:25146979

  6. Performance of several models for predicting budburst date of grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García de Cortázar-Atauri, Iñaki; Brisson, Nadine; Gaudillere, Jean Pierre

    2009-07-01

    The budburst stage is a key phenological stage for grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L.), with large site and cultivar variability. The objective of the present work was to provide a reliable agro-meteorological model for simulating grapevine budburst occurrence all over France. The study was conducted using data from ten cultivars of grapevine (Cabernet Sauvignon, Chasselas, Chardonnay, Grenache, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Riesling, Sauvignon, Syrah, Ugni Blanc) and five locations (Bordeaux, Colmar, Angers, Montpellier, Epernay). First, we tested two commonly used models that do not take into account dormancy: growing degree days with a base temperature of 10°C (GDD10), and Riou’s model (RIOU). The errors of predictions of these models ranged between 9 and 21 days. Second, a new model (BRIN) was studied relying on well-known formalisms for orchard trees and taking into account the dormancy period. The BRIN model showed better performance in predicting budburst date than previous grapevine models. Analysis of the components of BRIN formalisms (calculation of dormancy, use of hourly temperatures, base temperature) explained the better performances obtained with the BRIN model. Base temperature was the main driver, while dormancy period was not significant in simulating budburst date. For each cultivar, we provide the parameter estimates that showed the best performance for both the BRIN model and the GDD model with a base temperature of 5°C.

  7. VTCdb: a gene co-expression database for the crop species Vitis vinifera (grapevine)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gene expression datasets in model plants such as Arabidopsis have contributed to our understanding of gene function and how a single underlying biological process can be governed by a diverse network of genes. The accumulation of publicly available microarray data encompassing a wide range of biological and environmental conditions has enabled the development of additional capabilities including gene co-expression analysis (GCA). GCA is based on the understanding that genes encoding proteins involved in similar and/or related biological processes may exhibit comparable expression patterns over a range of experimental conditions, developmental stages and tissues. We present an open access database for the investigation of gene co-expression networks within the cultivated grapevine, Vitis vinifera. Description The new gene co-expression database, VTCdb (http://vtcdb.adelaide.edu.au/Home.aspx), offers an online platform for transcriptional regulatory inference in the cultivated grapevine. Using condition-independent and condition-dependent approaches, grapevine co-expression networks were constructed using the latest publicly available microarray datasets from diverse experimental series, utilising the Affymetrix Vitis vinifera GeneChip (16 K) and the NimbleGen Grape Whole-genome microarray chip (29 K), thus making it possible to profile approximately 29,000 genes (95% of the predicted grapevine transcriptome). Applications available with the online platform include the use of gene names, probesets, modules or biological processes to query the co-expression networks, with the option to choose between Affymetrix or Nimblegen datasets and between multiple co-expression measures. Alternatively, the user can browse existing network modules using interactive network visualisation and analysis via CytoscapeWeb. To demonstrate the utility of the database, we present examples from three fundamental biological processes (berry development, photosynthesis and

  8. Genome and transcriptome analysis of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) WRKY gene family

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Wang, Gang; Liang, Ying-Hai; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Zenoni, Sara; Cavallini, Erika; Pezzotti, Mario; Cheng, Zong-Ming (Max)

    2014-01-01

    The plant WRKY gene family represents an ancient and complex class of zinc-finger transcription factors (TFs) that are involved in the regulation of various physiological processes, such as development and senescence, and in plant response to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Despite the growing number of studies on the genomic organisation of WRKY gene family in different species, little information is available about this family in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). In the present study, a total number of 59 putative grapevine WRKY transcription factors (VvWRKYs) were identified based on the analysis of various genomic and proteomic grapevine databases. According to their structural and phylogentic features, the identified grapevine WRKY transcription factors were classified into three main groups. In order to shed light into their regulatory roles in growth and development as well as in response to biotic and abiotic stress in grapevine, the VvWRKYs expression profiles were examined in publicly available microarray data. Bioinformatics analysis of these data revealed distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns of VvWRKYs in various tissues, organs and developmental stages, as well as in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. To also extend our analysis to situations not covered by the arrays and to validate our results, the expression profiles of selected VvWRKYs in response to drought stress, Erysiphe necator (powdery mildew) infection, and hormone treatments (salicilic acid and ethylene), were investigated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). The present study provides a foundation for further comparative genomics and functional studies of this important class of transcriptional regulators in grapevine. PMID:26504535

  9. Multiple origins of cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa) based on chloroplast DNA polymorphisms.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The domestication of the Eurasian grape (Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa) from its wild ancestor (Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris) has long been claimed to have occurred in Transcaucasia where its greatest genetic diversity is found and where very early archaeological evidence, including grape pips and ar...

  10. Fungal Endophytic Communities in Grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) Respond to Crop Management

    PubMed Central

    Pancher, Michael; Ceol, Marco; Corneo, Paola Elisa; Longa, Claudia Maria Oliveira; Yousaf, Sohail; Pertot, Ilaria

    2012-01-01

    We studied the distribution of fungal endophytes of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) plants in a subalpine area of northern Italy, where viticulture is of high economic relevance. We adopted both cultivation-based and cultivation-independent approaches to address how various anthropic and nonanthropic factors shape microbial communities. Grapevine stems were harvested from several locations considering organic and integrated pest management (IPM) and from the cultivars Merlot and Chardonnay. Cultivable fungi were isolated and identified by internal-transcribed-spacer sequence analysis, using a novel colony-PCR method, to amplify DNA from fungal specimens. The composition of fungal communities was assessed using a cultivation-independent approach, automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA). Multivariate statistical analysis of both culture-dependent and culture-independent data sets was convergent and indicated that fungal endophytic communities in grapevines from organically managed farms were different from those from farms utilizing IPM. Fungal communities in plants of cv. Merlot and cv. Chardonnay overlapped when analyzed using culture-dependent approaches but could be partially resolved using ARISA fingerprinting. PMID:22492448

  11. Differentiation of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) conculta members based on molecular tools

    PubMed Central

    Bodor, Peter; Szoke, Antal; Toth-Lencses, Kitti; Veres, Aniko; Deak, Tamas; Kozma, Pal; Bisztray, Gyorgy Denes; Kiss, Erzsebet

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-seven grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) varieties within 12 putative berry colour variation groups (conculta) were genotyped with 14 highly polymorphic microsatellite (simple sequence repeats (SSR)) markers. Three additional oligonucleotide primers were applied for the detection of the Gret1 retroelement insertion in the promoter region of VvMybA1 transcription factor gene regulating the UFGT (UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase) activity. UFGT is the key enzyme of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. SSR results proved that the analysed cultivars can be grouped only into nine concultas, the other three putative berry colour variant groups consist of homonyms as a consequence of misnaming. In the case of Sárfehér-Sárpiros, Delaware red-Delaware white and Járdovány fekete-Járdovány fehér, it was attested that they are not bud sports, but homonyms. Some conculta members could be differentiated according to the presence or the absence of the Gret1 retroelement (Chasselas, Furmint and Lisztes), while others, Bajor, Bakator, Gohér and Traminer conculta members, remained indistinguishable either by the microsatellites or the Gret1-based method. PMID:26019484

  12. A candidate gene association study on muscat flavor in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The sweet, floral flavor typical of Muscat varieties (Muscats), due to high levels of monoterpenoids (geraniol, linalool and nerol), is highly distinct and has been greatly appreciated both in table grapes and in wine since ancient times. Muscat flavor determination in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) has up to now been studied by evaluating monoterpenoid levels through QTL analysis. These studies have revealed co-localization of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (VvDXS) with the major QTL positioned on chromosome 5. Results We resequenced VvDXS in an ad hoc association population of 148 grape varieties, which included muscat-flavored, aromatic and neutral accessions as well as muscat-like aromatic mutants and non-aromatic offsprings of Muscats. Gene nucleotide diversity and intragenic linkage disequilibrium (LD) were evaluated. Structured association analysis revealed three SNPs in moderate LD to be significantly associated with muscat-flavored varieties. We identified a putative causal SNP responsible for a predicted non-neutral substitution and we discuss its possible implications for flavor metabolism. Network analysis revealed a major star-shaped cluster of reconstructed haplotypes unique to muscat-flavored varieties. Moreover, muscat-like aromatic mutants displayed unique non-synonymous mutations near the mutated site of Muscat genotypes. Conclusions This study is a crucial step forward in understanding the genetic regulation of muscat flavor in grapevine and it also sheds light on the domestication history of Muscats. VvDXS appears to be a possible human-selected locus in grapevine domestication and post-domestication. The putative causal SNP identified in Muscat varieties as well as the unique mutations identifying the muscat-like aromatic mutants under study may be immediately applied in marker-assisted breeding programs aimed at enhancing fragrance and aroma complexity respectively in table grape and wine cultivars. PMID:21062440

  13. Phenolic Compounds and Bioactivity of Healthy and Infected Grapevine Leaf Extracts from Red Varieties Merlot and Vranac (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Anđelković, Marko; Radovanović, Blaga; Anđelković, Ana Milenkovic; Radovanović, Vladimir

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the phenolic composition, radical scavenging activity, and antimicrobial activity of grapevine leaf extracts from two red grape varieties, Vranac and Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.). The extracts were prepared from healthy grapevine leaves and those infected by Plasmopara viticola (downy mildew). The phenolic composition of the grapevine leaf extracts was determined using spectrophotometric assays and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The radical scavenging activity of grapevine leaf extracts was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay, and their antimicrobial activity was determined by microwell dilution tests. The total phenolic content was higher in healthy grapevine leaf extracts than in infected grapevine leaf extracts. The RP-HPLC analysis detected significant amounts of flavonols, phenolic acids, and flavan-3-ols, and small amounts of stilbenes in the grapevine leaf extracts. Compared with the infected grapevine leaf extracts, the healthy grapevine leaf extracts were richer in flavonols, phenolic acids, and flavan-3-ols, but had lower stilbenes contents. All extracts showed strong free radical scavenging activity, which was strongly correlated with the total phenolic content (R(2) = 0.978). The extracts showed a stronger antimicrobial activity towards Gram-positive bacterial strains than towards Gram-negative bacterial strains and yeast. The phenolic compounds in grapevine leaves were responsible for their strong radical scavenging and antimicrobial activities. Together, these results demonstrate that grapevine leaves have high nutritional value and can be used as a fresh food and to prepare extracts that can be used as additives in food and medicines. PMID:26174183

  14. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with grapevines, Vitis vinifera, in Washington and Idaho

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surveys were conducted in eastern Washington and Idaho to determine the plant-parasitic nematodes associated with wine grape (Vitis vinifera) vineyards. The most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington and Idaho wine grape vineyards were Meloidogyne hapla, Paratylenchus ...

  15. Branch Development Controls Leaf Area Dynamics in Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Growing in Drying Soil

    PubMed Central

    LEBON, ERIC; PELLEGRINO, ANNE; LOUARN, GAËTAN; LECOEUR, JEREMIE

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Soil water deficit is a major abiotic stress with severe consequences for the development, productivity and quality of crops. However, it is considered a positive factor in grapevine management (Vitis vinifera), as it has been shown to increase grape quality. The effects of soil water deficit on organogenesis, morphogenesis and gas exchange in the shoot were investigated. • Methods Shoot organogenesis was analysed by distinguishing between the various steps in the development of the main axis and branches. Several experiments were carried out in pots, placed in a greenhouse or outside, in southern France. Soil water deficits of various intensities were imposed during vegetative development of the shoots of two cultivars (‘Syrah’ and ‘Grenache N’). • Key Results All developmental processes were inhibited by soil water deficit, in an intensity-dependent manner, and sensitivity to water stress was process-dependent. Quantitative relationships with soil water were established for all processes. No difference was observed between the two cultivars for any criterion. The number of leaves on branches was particularly sensitive to soil water deficit, which rapidly and strongly reduced the rate of leaf appearance on developing branches. This response was not related to carbon availability, photosynthetic activity or the soluble sugar content of young expanding leaves. The potential number of branches was not a limiting factor for shoot development. • Conclusions The particularly high sensitivity to soil water deficit of leaf appearance on branches indicates that this process is a major determinant of the adaptation of plant leaf area to soil water deficit. The origin of this particular developmental response to soil water deficit is unclear, but it seems to be related to constitutive characteristics of branches rather than to competition for assimilates between axes differing in sink strength. PMID:16679414

  16. Recent amplification and impact of MITEs on the genome of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Benjak, Andrej; Boué, Stéphanie; Forneck, Astrid

    2009-01-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are a particular type of defective class II transposons present in genomes as highly homogeneous populations of small elements. Their high copy number and close association to genes make their potential impact on gene evolution particularly relevant. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the MITE families directly related to grapevine “cut-and-paste” transposons. Our results show that grapevine MITEs have transduplicated and amplified genomic sequences, including gene sequences and fragments of other mobile elements. Our results also show that although some of the MITE families were already present in the ancestor of the European and American Vitis wild species, they have been amplified and have been actively transposing accompanying grapevine domestication and breeding. We show that MITEs are abundant in grapevine and some of them are frequently inserted within the untranslated regions of grapevine genes. MITE insertions are highly polymorphic among grapevine cultivars, which frequently generate transcript variability. The data presented here show that MITEs have greatly contributed to the grapevine genetic diversity which has been used for grapevine domestication and breeding. PMID:20333179

  17. VvMJE1 of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera) VvMES Methylesterase family encodes for Methyl Jasmonate Esterase and has a role in stress response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The known members of the plant methyl esterase (MES) family catalyze hydrolysis of a C-O ester linkage of methyl esters of several phytohormones including indole-3-acetic acid, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid. The genome of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) was found to contain 15 MES genes, designated V...

  18. VvMJE1 of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera) VvMES methylesterase family encodes for methyl jasmonate esterase and has a role in stress response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The known members of the plant methyl esterase (MES) family catalyze hydrolysis of a C-O ester linkage of methyl esters of several phytohormones including indole-3-acetic acid, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid. The genome of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) was found to contain 15 MES genes, designated V...

  19. Bioarchaeological Insights into the Process of Domestication of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) during Roman Times in Southern France

    PubMed Central

    Bouby, Laurent; Figueiral, Isabel; Bouchette, Anne; Rovira, Nuria; Ivorra, Sarah; Lacombe, Thierry; Pastor, Thierry; Picq, Sandrine; Marinval, Philippe; Terral, Jean-Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera), one of the most important fruit species in the Classical Mediterranean world, is thought to have been domesticated first in South-Western Asia, during the Neolithic. However, the domestication process remains largely unknown. Crucial unanswered questions concern the duration of the process (rapid or slow?) and the related geographical area (single or multiple-origins?). Seeds from domesticated grapevine and from its wild ancestor are reported to differ according to shape. Our work aims, first, to confirm this difference and secondly to identify the extent of domestication in the grapes cultivated by Romans in Southern France during the period 50 BCE–500 CE. We had the opportunity to analyze uncharred waterlogged grape pips from 17 archaeological sites. Based on an extended reference sample of modern wild grapevines and cultivars our work shows that both subspecies can be discriminated using simple measurements. The elongation gradient of the pip’s body and stalk may be regarded as an indicator of the strength of the selection pressures undergone by domesticated grapes. Grapevines cultivated during the Roman period included a mix of morphotypes comprising wild, intermediate and moderately selected domesticated forms. Our data point to a relative shift towards more selected types during the Roman period. Domestication of the grapevine appears to have been a slow process. This could result from the recurrent incorporation into cultivation of plants originating from sexual reproduction, when grape cultivation essentially relies on vegetative propagation. PMID:23690998

  20. Data on antioxidant activity in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) following cryopreservation by vitrification

    PubMed Central

    Lazo-Javalera, María Fernanda; Tiznado-Hernández, Martín Ernesto; Vargas-Arispuro, Irasema; Valenzuela-Soto, Elisa; Rocha-Granados, María del Carmen; Martínez-Montero, Marcos Edel; Rivera-Domínguez, Marisela

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation is used for the long-term conservation of plant genetic resources. This technique very often induces lethal injury or tissue damage. In this study, we measured indicators of viability and cell damage following cryopreservation and vitrification-cryopreservation in Vitis vinifera L. axillary buds cv. “Flame seedless” stored in liquid nitrogen (LN) for: three seconds, one hour, one day, one week and one month; after LN thawed at 38 °C for three minutes. The enzymatic activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA), total protein and viability were assayed. PMID:26958607

  1. Data on antioxidant activity in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) following cryopreservation by vitrification.

    PubMed

    Lazo-Javalera, María Fernanda; Tiznado-Hernández, Martín Ernesto; Vargas-Arispuro, Irasema; Valenzuela-Soto, Elisa; Rocha-Granados, María Del Carmen; Martínez-Montero, Marcos Edel; Rivera-Domínguez, Marisela

    2015-12-01

    Cryopreservation is used for the long-term conservation of plant genetic resources. This technique very often induces lethal injury or tissue damage. In this study, we measured indicators of viability and cell damage following cryopreservation and vitrification-cryopreservation in Vitis vinifera L. axillary buds cv. "Flame seedless" stored in liquid nitrogen (LN) for: three seconds, one hour, one day, one week and one month; after LN thawed at 38 °C for three minutes. The enzymatic activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA), total protein and viability were assayed. PMID:26958607

  2. Surface disinfection procedure and in vitro regeneration of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) axillary buds.

    PubMed

    Lazo-Javalera, M F; Troncoso-Rojas, R; Tiznado-Hernández, M E; Martínez-Tellez, M A; Vargas-Arispuro, I; Islas-Osuna, M A; Rivera-Domínguez, M

    2016-01-01

    Establishment of an efficient explants surface disinfection protocol is essential for in vitro cell and tissue culture as well as germplasm conservation, such as the case of Grapevine (Vitis spp.) culture. In this research, different procedures for disinfection and regeneration of field-grown grapevine cv. 'Flame seedless' axillary buds were evaluated. The buds were disinfected using either NaOCl or allyl, benzyl, phenyl and 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanates. Two different media for shooting and four media for rooting were tested. Shoot and root development per buds were registered. The best disinfection procedure with 90 % of tissue survival involved shaking for 60 min in a solution containing 20 % Clorox with 50 drops/L Triton(®) X-100. These tissues showed the potential to regenerate a complete plant. Plant regeneration was conducted using full strength Murashigue and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 8 µM benzyl aminopurine for shoot induction and multiplication, whereas rooting was obtained on half strength MS supplemented with 2 mg L(-1) of indole-3-butyric acid and 200 mg L(-1) of activated charcoal. In this work, it was designed the protocols for obtaining sterile field-grown grapevine buds and in vitro plant development. This methodology showed potential to produce vigorous and healthy plants in 5 weeks for clonal grapevine propagation. Regenerated plants were successfully established in soil. PMID:27119057

  3. Gibberellin metabolism in Vitis vinifera L. during bloom and fruit-set: functional characterization and evolution of grapevine gibberellin oxidases.

    PubMed

    Giacomelli, Lisa; Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Masuero, Domenico; Acheampong, Atiako Kwame; Moretto, Marco; Caputi, Lorenzo; Vrhovsek, Urska; Moser, Claudio

    2013-11-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are involved in the regulation of flowering and fruit-set in grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but the molecular mechanisms behind this process are mostly unknown. In this work, the family of grapevine GA oxidases involved in the biosynthesis and deactivation of GAs was characterized. Six putative GA 20-oxidase (GA20ox), three GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox), and eight GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox) proteins, the latter further divided into five C19-GA 2ox and three C20-GA2ox proteins, were identified. Phylogenetic analyses suggest a common origin of the GA3ox and C19-GA2ox groups and challenge previous evolutionary models. In vitro analysis revealed that all GA3ox and GA20ox enzymes prefer substrates of the non-13-hydroxylation pathway. In addition, ectopic expression of GA2ox genes in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed the activity of their encoded proteins in vivo. The results show that bioactive GA1 accumulates in opening grapevine flowers, whereas at later developmental stages only GA4 is detected in the setting fruit. By studying the expression pattern of the grapevine GA oxidase genes in different organs, and at different stages of flowering and fruit-set, it is proposed that the pool of bioactive GAs is controlled by a fine regulation of the abundance and localization of GA oxidase transcripts. PMID:24006417

  4. Gibberellin metabolism in Vitis vinifera L. during bloom and fruit-set: functional characterization and evolution of grapevine gibberellin oxidases

    PubMed Central

    Giacomelli, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are involved in the regulation of flowering and fruit-set in grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but the molecular mechanisms behind this process are mostly unknown. In this work, the family of grapevine GA oxidases involved in the biosynthesis and deactivation of GAs was characterized. Six putative GA 20-oxidase (GA20ox), three GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox), and eight GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox) proteins, the latter further divided into five C19-GA 2ox and three C20-GA2ox proteins, were identified. Phylogenetic analyses suggest a common origin of the GA3ox and C19-GA2ox groups and challenge previous evolutionary models. In vitro analysis revealed that all GA3ox and GA20ox enzymes prefer substrates of the non-13-hydroxylation pathway. In addition, ectopic expression of GA2ox genes in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed the activity of their encoded proteins in vivo. The results show that bioactive GA1 accumulates in opening grapevine flowers, whereas at later developmental stages only GA4 is detected in the setting fruit. By studying the expression pattern of the grapevine GA oxidase genes in different organs, and at different stages of flowering and fruit-set, it is proposed that the pool of bioactive GAs is controlled by a fine regulation of the abundance and localization of GA oxidase transcripts. PMID:24006417

  5. Multiple origins of cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa) based on chloroplast DNA polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-García, R; Ruiz-García, L; Bolling, L; Ocete, R; López, M A; Arnold, C; Ergul, A; Söylemezoğlu, G; Uzun, H I; Cabello, F; Ibáñez, J; Aradhya, M K; Atanassov, A; Atanassov, I; Balint, S; Cenis, J L; Costantini, L; Goris-Lavets, S; Grando, M S; Klein, B Y; McGovern, P E; Merdinoglu, D; Pejic, I; Pelsy, F; Primikirios, N; Risovannaya, V; Roubelakis-Angelakis, K A; Snoussi, H; Sotiri, P; Tamhankar, S; This, P; Troshin, L; Malpica, J M; Lefort, F; Martinez-Zapater, J M

    2006-10-01

    The domestication of the Eurasian grape (Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa) from its wild ancestor (Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris) has long been claimed to have occurred in Transcaucasia where its greatest genetic diversity is found and where very early archaeological evidence, including grape pips and artefacts of a 'wine culture', have been excavated. Whether from Transcaucasia or the nearby Taurus or Zagros Mountains, it is hypothesized that this wine culture spread southwards and eventually westwards around the Mediterranean basin, together with the transplantation of cultivated grape cuttings. However, the existence of morphological differentiation between cultivars from eastern and western ends of the modern distribution of the Eurasian grape suggests the existence of different genetic contribution from local sylvestris populations or multilocal selection and domestication of sylvestris genotypes. To tackle this issue, we analysed chlorotype variation and distribution in 1201 samples of sylvestris and sativa genotypes from the whole area of the species' distribution and studied their genetic relationships. The results suggest the existence of at least two important origins for the cultivated germplasm, one in the Near East and another in the western Mediterranean region, the latter of which gave rise to many of the current Western European cultivars. Indeed, over 70% of the Iberian Peninsula cultivars display chlorotypes that are only compatible with their having derived from western sylvestris populations. PMID:17032268

  6. Glyphosate impacts on polyphenolic composition in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) berries and wine.

    PubMed

    Donnini, Silvia; Tessarin, Paola; Ribera-Fonseca, Alejandra; Di Foggia, Michele; Parpinello, Giuseppina Paola; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico

    2016-12-15

    Glyphosate is the most widespread herbicide for weed management, being extensively used in viticulture. In this study we tested, under field conditions, the effects of glyphosate applications on the quality of berry and wine, from cv. Ancellotta (Vitis vinifera L.), with particular regard to anthocyanin concentration and composition. Ripening and growth were monitored by analyzing berry technological parameters and weight. Additionally, microvinifications were performed, in order to analyze the concentration of anthocyanins, other flavonoids and phenolic acids in wine. Our findings indicated that, at harvest, both pH and anthocyanin concentration were significantly lower and titratable acidity higher in berries collected from vines of plots under glyphosate-treatment compared with those of non-treated parcels. Data suggest that treatment with glyphosate did not change the concentration of anthocyanins, other flavonoids and phenolic acids in the wine. Our results indicate that treatment with glyphosate may affect fruit metabolism and nutritional value in non-target plants. PMID:27451151

  7. The effects of cold stress on the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Król, A; Amarowicz, R; Weidner, S

    2015-09-15

    According to some estimates, a 70% increase in crop yield could be achieved if the environmental conditions were close to the optimum ones for a given plant, which is why the identification and control of adverse environmental effects is a top priority in many countries worldwide. This paper contains a discussion of the changes in selected elements of the secondary metabolism in the leaves of two grapevine varieties (Vitis vinifera L.) with a different degree of tolerance to cold stress during prolonged and constant low temperature stress. The analyses have shown that the more-tolerant variety was characterized by a higher content of phenolic compounds, better radical-scavenging capacity and stronger reducing power. However, the cold stress caused a decrease in the concentration of the phenolics and decreased the scavenging capacity in the leaves of both varieties. Four phenolic acids have been identified in the extracts from the leaves of both grapevines: caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and a caffeic acid derivative. Caffeic acid appeared in the highest concentrations in all the leaf extracts. Additionally, it has been noted that in the leaves of the varieties susceptible and tolerant to cold stress, the prolonged exposure to low temperature caused a considerable reduction of the content of all identified phenolic acids. The results of the analyses have demonstrated large differences in the functioning of the secondary metabolism in response to the same stressor. PMID:26555272

  8. Dynamics and Reversibility of the DNA Methylation Landscape of Grapevine Plants (Vitis vinifera) Stressed by In Vitro Cultivation and Thermotherapy.

    PubMed

    Baránek, Miroslav; Čechová, Jana; Raddová, Jana; Holleinová, Věra; Ondrušíková, Eva; Pidra, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    There is relatively little information concerning long-term alterations in DNA methylation following exposure of plants to environmental stress. As little is known about the ratio of non-heritable changes in DNA methylation and mitotically-inherited methylation changes, dynamics and reversibility of the DNA methylation states were investigated in grapevine plants (Vitis vinifera) stressed by in vitro cultivation. It was observed that significant part of induced epigenetic changes could be repeatedly established by exposure to particular planting and stress conditions. However, once stress conditions were discontinued, many methylation changes gradually reverted and plants returned to epigenetic states similar to those of maternal plants. In fact, in the period of one to three years after in vitro cultivation it was difficult to distinguish the epigenetic states of somaclones and maternal plants. Forty percent of the observed epigenetic changes disappeared within a year subsequent to termination of stress conditions ending and these probably reflect changes caused by transient and reversible stress-responsive acclimation mechanisms. However, sixty percent of DNA methylation diversity remained after 1 year and probably represents mitotically-inherited epimutations. Sequencing of regions remaining variable between maternal and regenerant plants revealed that 29.3% of sequences corresponded to non-coding regions of grapevine genome. Eight sequences (19.5%) corresponded to previously identified genes and the remaining ones (51.2%) were annotated as "hypothetical proteins" based on their similarity to genes described in other species, including genes likely to undergo methylation changes following exposure to stress (V. vinifera gypsy-type retrotransposon Gret1, auxin-responsive transcription factor 6-like, SAM-dependent carboxyl methyltransferase). PMID:25973746

  9. Dynamics and Reversibility of the DNA Methylation Landscape of Grapevine Plants (Vitis vinifera) Stressed by In Vitro Cultivation and Thermotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Baránek, Miroslav; Čechová, Jana; Raddová, Jana; Holleinová, Věra; Ondrušíková, Eva

    2015-01-01

    There is relatively little information concerning long-term alterations in DNA methylation following exposure of plants to environmental stress. As little is known about the ratio of non-heritable changes in DNA methylation and mitotically-inherited methylation changes, dynamics and reversibility of the DNA methylation states were investigated in grapevine plants (Vitis vinifera) stressed by in vitro cultivation. It was observed that significant part of induced epigenetic changes could be repeatedly established by exposure to particular planting and stress conditions. However, once stress conditions were discontinued, many methylation changes gradually reverted and plants returned to epigenetic states similar to those of maternal plants. In fact, in the period of one to three years after in vitro cultivation it was difficult to distinguish the epigenetic states of somaclones and maternal plants. Forty percent of the observed epigenetic changes disappeared within a year subsequent to termination of stress conditions ending and these probably reflect changes caused by transient and reversible stress-responsive acclimation mechanisms. However, sixty percent of DNA methylation diversity remained after 1 year and probably represents mitotically-inherited epimutations. Sequencing of regions remaining variable between maternal and regenerant plants revealed that 29.3% of sequences corresponded to non-coding regions of grapevine genome. Eight sequences (19.5%) corresponded to previously identified genes and the remaining ones (51.2%) were annotated as “hypothetical proteins” based on their similarity to genes described in other species, including genes likely to undergo methylation changes following exposure to stress (V. vinifera gypsy-type retrotransposon Gret1, auxin-responsive transcription factor 6-like, SAM-dependent carboxyl methyltransferase). PMID:25973746

  10. Distribution of Rotundone and Possible Translocation of Related Compounds Amongst Grapevine Tissues in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Wang, Yueying; Deng, Rui; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Barlow, Edward W R; Howell, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Rotundone is an attractive wine aroma compound, especially important for cool climate Shiraz. Its presence in wine is mainly from the grape skin, but can also be found in non-grape tissues, such as leaves and stems. Whether rotundone is produced independently within different grapevine tissues or transported amongst non-grape tissues and grape berries remains unclear. The current study investigated the distribution of this compound in different vine tissues during development and studied the most likely mode of rotundone translocation-via phloem-using stable isotope feeding. In addition, local production of rotundone induced by herbivore feeding was assessed. Results showed that rotundone was firstly detected in the petioles and peduncles/rachises within the development of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz. Different grapevine tissues had a similar pattern of rotundone production at different grape developmental stages. In the individual vine shoots, non-grape tissues contained higher concentrations and amounts of rotundone compared to berries, which showed that non-grape tissues were the larger pool of rotundone within the plant. This study confirmed the local production of rotundone in individual tissues and ruled out the possibility of phloem translocation of rotundone between different tissues. In addition, other terpenes, including one monoterpenoid (geraniol) and six sesquiterpenes (clovene, α-ylangene, β-copaene, α-muurolene, δ-cadinene, and cis/trans-calamenene) were, for the first time, detected in the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-facilitated petiole phloem exudates, with their originality unconfirmed. Unlike other herbivore-induced terpenes, herbivorous activity had limited influences on the concentration of rotundone in grapevine leaves. PMID:27446104

  11. A transcriptomic study of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet-Sauvignon) interaction with the vascular ascomycete fungus Eutypa lata

    PubMed Central

    Camps, Céline; Kappel, Christian; Lecomte, Pascal; Léon, Céline; Gomès, Eric; Coutos-Thévenot, Pierre; Delrot, Serge

    2010-01-01

    Eutypa dieback is a vascular disease that may severely affect vineyards throughout the world. In the present work, microarrays were made in order (i) to improve our knowledge of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet-Sauvignon) responses to Eutypa lata, the causal agent of Eutypa dieback; and (ii) to identify genes that may prevent symptom development. Qiagen/Operon grapevine microarrays comprising 14 500 probes were used to compare, under three experimental conditions (in vitro, in the greenhouse, and in the vineyard), foliar material of infected symptomatic plants (S+R+), infected asymptomatic plants (S–R+), and healthy plants (S–R–). These plants were characterized by symptom notation after natural (vineyard) or experimental (in vitro and greenhouse) infection, re-isolation of the fungus located in the lignified parts, and the formal identification of E. lata mycelium by PCR. Semi-quantitative real-time PCR experiments were run to confirm the expression of some genes of interest in response to E. lata. Their expression profiles were also studied in response to other grapevine pathogens (Erysiphe necator, Plasmopara viticola, and Botrytis cinerea). (i) Five functional categories of genes, that is those involved in metabolism, defence reactions, interaction with the environment, transport, and transcription, were up-regulated in S+R+ plants compared with S–R– plants. These genes, which cannot prevent infection and symptom development, are not specific since they were also up-regulated after infection by powdery mildew, downy mildew, and black rot. (ii) Most of the genes that may prevent symptom development are associated with the light phase of photosynthesis. This finding is discussed in the context of previous data on the mode of action of eutypin and the polypeptide fraction secreted by Eutypa. PMID:20190040

  12. Distribution of Rotundone and Possible Translocation of Related Compounds Amongst Grapevine Tissues in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Wang, Yueying; Deng, Rui; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Barlow, Edward W. R.; Howell, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Rotundone is an attractive wine aroma compound, especially important for cool climate Shiraz. Its presence in wine is mainly from the grape skin, but can also be found in non-grape tissues, such as leaves and stems. Whether rotundone is produced independently within different grapevine tissues or transported amongst non-grape tissues and grape berries remains unclear. The current study investigated the distribution of this compound in different vine tissues during development and studied the most likely mode of rotundone translocation—via phloem—using stable isotope feeding. In addition, local production of rotundone induced by herbivore feeding was assessed. Results showed that rotundone was firstly detected in the petioles and peduncles/rachises within the development of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz. Different grapevine tissues had a similar pattern of rotundone production at different grape developmental stages. In the individual vine shoots, non-grape tissues contained higher concentrations and amounts of rotundone compared to berries, which showed that non-grape tissues were the larger pool of rotundone within the plant. This study confirmed the local production of rotundone in individual tissues and ruled out the possibility of phloem translocation of rotundone between different tissues. In addition, other terpenes, including one monoterpenoid (geraniol) and six sesquiterpenes (clovene, α-ylangene, β-copaene, α-muurolene, δ-cadinene, and cis/trans-calamenene) were, for the first time, detected in the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-facilitated petiole phloem exudates, with their originality unconfirmed. Unlike other herbivore-induced terpenes, herbivorous activity had limited influences on the concentration of rotundone in grapevine leaves. PMID:27446104

  13. A framework map from grapevine V3125 (Vitis vinifera 'Schiava grossa' x 'Riesling') x rootstock cultivar 'Börner' (Vitis riparia x Vitis cinerea) to localize genetic determinants of phylloxera root resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junke; Hausmann, Ludger; Eibach, Rudolf; Welter, Leocir J; Töpfer, Reinhard; Zyprian, Eva M

    2009-10-01

    Grapevine rootstock cultivar 'Börner' is a hybrid of Vitis riparia and Vitis cinerea Arnold that shows high resistance to phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch). To localize the determinants of phylloxera root resistance, the susceptible grapevine V3125 (Vitis vinifera 'Schiava grossa' x 'Riesling') was crossed to 'Börner'. Genetic framework maps were built from the progeny. 235 microsatellite markers were placed on the integrated parental map. They cover 1,155.98 cM on 19 linkage groups with an average marker distance of 4.8 cM. Phylloxera resistance was scored by counting nodosities after inoculation of the root system. Progeny plants were triplicated and experimentally infected in 2 years. A scan of the genetic maps indicated a quantitative trait locus on linkage group 13. This region was targeted by six microsatellite-type markers newly developed from the V. vinifera model genome sequence. Two of these appear closely linked to the trait, and can be useful for marker-assisted breeding. PMID:19626311

  14. Regulation of cell wall remodeling in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) callus under individual mineral stress deficiency.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, João C; Goulao, Luis F; Amâncio, Sara

    2016-01-15

    Cell wall (CW) is a dynamic structure that determines the plant form, growth and response to environmental conditions. Vitis vinifera callus grown under nitrogen (-N), phosphorous (-P) and sulfur (-S) deficiency were used as a model system to address the influence of mineral stress in CW remodeling. Callus cells morphology was altered, mostly under -N, resulting in changes in cell length and width compared with the control. CW composition ascertained with specific staining and immuno-detection showed a decrease in cellulose and altered pattern of pectin methylesterification. Under mineral stress genes expression from candidate families disclosed mainly a downregulation of a glycosyl hydrolase family 9C (GH9C), xyloglucan transglycosylase/hydrolases (XTHs) with predicted hydrolytic activity and pectin methylesterases (PMEs). Conversely, upregulation of PMEs inhibitors (PMEIs) was observed. While methylesterification patterns can be associated to PME/PMEI gene expression, the lower cellulose content cannot be attributed to altered cellulose synthase (CesA) gene expression suggesting the involvement of other gene families. Salt extracts from -N and -P callus tissues increased plastic deformation in cucumber hypocotyls while no effect was observed with -S extracts. The lower endo-acting glycosyl hydrolase activity of -N callus extracts pinpoints a more expressive impact of -N on CW-remodeling. PMID:26735749

  15. Is stomatal conductance optimized over both time and space in plant crowns? A field test in grapevine (Vitis vinifera).

    PubMed

    Buckley, Thomas N; Martorell, Sebastia; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio; Tomàs, Magdalena; Medrano, Hipólito

    2014-12-01

    Crown carbon gain is maximized for a given total water loss if stomatal conductance (gs ) varies such that the marginal carbon product of water (∂A/∂E) remains invariant both over time and among leaves in a plant crown, provided the curvature of assimilation rate (A) versus transpiration rate (E) is negative. We tested this prediction across distinct crown positions in situ for the first time by parameterizing a biophysical model across 14 positions in four grapevine crowns (Vitis vinifera), computing optimal patterns of gs and E over a day and comparing these to the observed patterns. Observed water use was higher than optimal for leaves in the crown interior, but lower than optimal in most other positions. Crown carbon gain was 18% lower under measured gs than under optimal gs . Positive curvature occurred in 39.6% of cases due to low boundary layer conductance (gbw ), and optimal gs was zero in 11% of cases because ∂A/∂E was below the target value at all gs . Some conclusions changed if we assumed infinite gbw , but optimal and measured E still diverged systematically in time and space. We conclude that the theory's spatial dimension and assumption of positive curvature require further experimental testing. PMID:24689930

  16. Modulation of flavonoid biosynthetic pathway genes and anthocyanins due to virus infection in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Symptoms of grapevine leafroll disease (GLRD) in red-fruited wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars consist of green veins and red and reddish-purple discoloration of inter-veinal areas of leaves. The reddish-purple color of symptomatic leaves may be due to the accumulation of anthocyanins and could reflect an up-regulation of genes involved in their biosynthesis. Results We examined six putative constitutively expressed genes, Ubiquitin, Actin, GAPDH, EF1-a, SAND and NAD5, for their potential as references for normalization of gene expression in reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Using the geNorm program, a combination of two genes (Actin and NAD5) was identified as the stable set of reference genes for normalization of gene expression data obtained from grapevine leaves. By using gene-specific RT-qPCR in combination with a reliable normalization factor, we compared relative expression of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway genes between leaves infected with Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) and exhibiting GLRD symptoms and virus-free green leaves obtained from a red-fruited wine grape cultivar (cv. Merlot). The expression levels of these different genes ranged from two- to fifty-fold increase in virus-infected leaves. Among them, CHS3, F3'5'H, F3H1, LDOX, LAR1 and MybA1 showed greater than 10-fold increase suggesting that they were expressed at significantly higher levels in virus-infected symptomatic leaves. HPLC profiling of anthocyanins extracted from leaves indicated the presence of cyanidin-3-glucoside and malvidin-3-glucoside only in virus-infected symptomatic leaves. The results also showed 24% higher levels of flavonols in virus-infected symptomatic leaves than in virus-free green leaves, with quercetin followed by myricetin being the predominant compounds. Proanthocyanidins, estimated as total tannins by protein precipitation method, were 36% higher in virus-infected symptomatic

  17. Whole genome identification and analysis of FK506-binding protein family genes in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Shangguan, Lingfei; Kayesh, Emrul; Leng, Xiangpeng; Sun, Xin; Korir, Nicholas Kibet; Mu, Qian; Fang, Jinggui

    2013-06-01

    In plant and animal species FK506-binding protein (FKBP) family genes are important conserved genes and it is defined as the receptors of FK506 and rapamycin, where they work as PPIase and protein folding chaperones. FKBP have been isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, and Zea mays. In grape, twenty-three genes containing the FK506-binding domain (FKBP_C) were first time identified by HMMER and blast research, they were classified into three groups and 17 out of the 23 genes were located on 11 chromosomes (Chr1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, and 19). The predicted gene expression pattern and semi-quantitative RT-PCR results revealed that five VvFKBPs were expressed in all tissues, while seven VvFKBPs were expressed only in some of the tissues, and the remaining VvFKBPs were not expressed in leaf, stem, inflorescences, flowers, and a mixture of fruit tissues (small, medium and big-sized fruits). Most of the VvFKBPs in grapevine 'Summer Black' were similar to those predicted one in 'Pinot Noir' except for VvFKBP16-4 and VvFKBPa. VvFKBP12, FaFKBP12 and PpFKBP12 were cloned from 'Summer Black', 'Sweet Charlie' and 'Xiahui 6'. Protein structure analysis confirmed that homologous genes have some differences during the process of protein structure construction. In this study, we characterized and verified 23 FKBP family genes in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) as well as their sub-cellular and chromosome location. The successful cloning of CDS regions and protein structural analysis of VvFKBP12, FaFKBP12, and PpFKBP12 can provide useful information for further study. PMID:23269629

  18. Influence of constitutive phenolic compounds on the response of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves to infection by Plasmopara viticola.

    PubMed

    Latouche, Gwendal; Bellow, Sébastien; Poutaraud, Anne; Meyer, Sylvie; Cerovic, Zoran G

    2013-01-01

    Flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids are known to contribute to plant resistance against pathogens, but there are few reports on the implication of flavonols in the resistance of grapevine against Plasmopara viticola, and none on the involvement of hydroxycinnamic acids. In order to analyze the effect of flavonols on P. viticola infection, variable amounts of flavonols were induced by different light conditions in otherwise phenologically identical leaves. Differences in content of leaf hydroxycinnamic acids were induced at the same time. A non-invasive monitoring of flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids was performed with Dualex leaf-clip optical sensors. Whatever the light condition, there were no significant changes in flavonol or in hydroxycinnamic acid contents for control and inoculated leaves during the development of P. viticola until 6 days after inoculation. The violet-blue autofluorescence of stilbenes, the main phytoalexins of grapevine that accumulate in inoculated leaves, was used as an indicator of infection by P. viticola. The implication of leaf constitutive flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids in the defence of Vitis vinifera against P. viticola could be investigated in vivo thanks to this indicator. The increase in stilbene violet-blue autofluorescence started earlier for leaves with low flavonol content than for leaves with higher content, suggesting that constitutive flavonols are able to slow down the infection by P. viticola. On the contrary, constitutive hydroxycinnamic acids did not seem to play a role in defence against P. viticola. The non-destructive nature of the methods used alleviates the major problem of destructive experiments: the large variability in leaf phenolic contents. PMID:23080015

  19. Spatio-temporal relief from hypoxia and production of reactive oxygen species during bud burst in grapevine (Vitis vinifera)

    PubMed Central

    Meitha, Karlia; Konnerup, Dennis; Colmer, Timothy D.; Considine, John A.; Foyer, Christine H.; Considine, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Plants regulate cellular oxygen partial pressures (pO2), together with reduction/oxidation (redox) state in order to manage rapid developmental transitions such as bud burst after a period of quiescence. However, our understanding of pO2 regulation in complex meristematic organs such as buds is incomplete and, in particular, lacks spatial resolution. Methods The gradients in pO2 from the outer scales to the primary meristem complex were measured in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) buds, together with respiratory CO2 production rates and the accumulation of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, from ecodormancy through the first 72 h preceding bud burst, triggered by the transition from low to ambient temperatures. Key Results Steep internal pO2 gradients were measured in dormant buds with values as low as 2·5 kPa found in the core of the bud prior to bud burst. Respiratory CO2 production rates increased soon after the transition from low to ambient temperatures and the bud tissues gradually became oxygenated in a patterned process. Within 3 h of the transition to ambient temperatures, superoxide accumulation was observed in the cambial meristem, co-localizing with lignified cellulose associated with pro-vascular tissues. Thereafter, superoxide accumulated in other areas subtending the apical meristem complex, in the absence of significant hydrogen peroxide accumulation, except in the cambial meristem. By 72 h, the internal pO2 gradient showed a biphasic profile, where the minimum pO2 was external to the core of the bud complex. Conclusions Spatial and temporal control of the tissue oxygen environment occurs within quiescent buds, and the transition from quiescence to bud burst is accompanied by a regulated relaxation of the hypoxic state and accumulation of reactive oxygen species within the developing cambium and vascular tissues of the heterotrophic grapevine buds. PMID:26337519

  20. Berry morphology and composition in irrigated and non-irrigated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Sofo, Adriano; Nuzzo, Vitale; Tataranni, Giuseppe; Manfra, Michele; De Nisco, Mauro; Scopa, Antonio

    2012-07-15

    The present study was carried out in a 5-year-old vineyard (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Aglianico) located in Southern Italy. Half of the plants (IRR) were fully irrigated, whereas the other half were not irrigated (NIRR). In both of the treatments, plant water status, gas exchange, photosynthetic efficiency and productive performance were determined. The arid conditions resulted in significant decreases in stem water potential in NIRR (minimum values of -1.34 and -1.52 MPa in IRR and NIRR, respectively). The values of yield per plant, cluster weight and total berry weight were significantly higher in IRR. Grape berries were separated into four weight classes, and morphometric and microscopic analyses were carried out to measure and calculate berry skin characteristics. Irrigation determined a marked shift toward heavier (+23% in the class ≥ 1.25 g) and bigger (336.35 mm³ vs 299.15 mm³) berries, and induced significant changes in other morphometric berry parameters. No differences among berry weight classes and irrigation treatments were observed for berry skin thickness. In all of the berry weight classes, total anthocyanins extracted from berry skins were significantly higher in NIRR than in IRR (12301.53 and 9585.52 mg kg⁻¹ fresh berry skin, respectively), and appeared to be positively related to berry weight, whereas total flavonols were not significantly different between the two treatments. Qualitative changes in the levels of single anthocyanin and flavonol compounds were detected between IRR and NIRR. In addition, iron, copper and zinc, whose high concentration can negatively affect wine quality, were significantly higher in the IRR treatment. The results highlighted that the absence of irrigation did not determine decreases in grape quality. Such data can be of primary importance in environments where water availability is by far the most important limiting factor for plant growth. PMID:22583647

  1. Epigenetic repressor-like genes are differentially regulated during grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) development.

    PubMed

    Almada, Rubén; Cabrera, Nuri; Casaretto, José A; Peña-Cortés, Hugo; Ruiz-Lara, Simón; González Villanueva, Enrique

    2011-10-01

    Grapevine sexual reproduction involves a seasonal separation between inflorescence primordia (flowering induction) and flower development. We hypothesized that a repression mechanism implicating epigenetic changes could play a role in the seasonal separation of these two developmental processes in grapevine. Therefore, the expression of five grapevine genes with homology to the Arabidopsis epigenetic repressor genes FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM (FIE), EMBRYONIC FLOWER 2 (EMF2), CURLY LEAF (CLF), MULTICOPY SUPPRESSOR OF IRA 1 (MSI1) and SWINGER (SWN) was analyzed during the development of buds and vegetative and reproductive organs. During bud development, the putative grapevine epigenetic repressor genes VvCLF, VvEMF2, VvMSI1, VvSWN and VvFIE are mainly expressed in latent buds at the flowering induction period, but also detected during bud burst and inflorescence/flower development. The overlapping expression patterns of grapevine PcG-like genes in buds suggest that chromatin remodeling mechanisms could be operating during grapevine bud development for controlling processes such as seasonal flowering, dormancy and bud burst. Furthermore, the expression of grapevine PcG-like genes was also detected in fruits and vegetative organs, suggesting that epigenetic changes could be at the basis of the regulation of various proliferation-differentiation cell transitions that occur during grapevine development. PMID:21681473

  2. Impact of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) varieties on reproduction of the northern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are microscopic soil worms that attack the roots of grape plants and cause yield loss. One of the most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards is Meloidogyne hapla, the northern root-knot nematode. The selection of plant...

  3. Berry and phenology-related traits in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): From Quantitative Trait Loci to underlying genes

    PubMed Central

    Costantini, Laura; Battilana, Juri; Lamaj, Flutura; Fanizza, Girolamo; Grando, Maria Stella

    2008-01-01

    Background The timing of grape ripening initiation, length of maturation period, berry size and seed content are target traits in viticulture. The availability of early and late ripening varieties is desirable for staggering harvest along growing season, expanding production towards periods when the fruit gets a higher value in the market and ensuring an optimal plant adaptation to climatic and geographic conditions. Berry size determines grape productivity; seedlessness is especially demanded in the table grape market and is negatively correlated to fruit size. These traits result from complex developmental processes modified by genetic, physiological and environmental factors. In order to elucidate their genetic determinism we carried out a quantitative analysis in a 163 individuals-F1 segregating progeny obtained by crossing two table grape cultivars. Results Molecular linkage maps covering most of the genome (2n = 38 for Vitis vinifera) were generated for each parent. Eighteen pairs of homologous groups were integrated into a consensus map spanning over 1426 cM with 341 markers (mainly microsatellite, AFLP and EST-derived markers) and an average map distance between loci of 4.2 cM. Segregating traits were evaluated in three growing seasons by recording flowering, veraison and ripening dates and by measuring berry size, seed number and weight. QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci) analysis was carried out based on single marker and interval mapping methods. QTLs were identified for all but one of the studied traits, a number of them steadily over more than one year. Clusters of QTLs for different characters were detected, suggesting linkage or pleiotropic effects of loci, as well as regions affecting specific traits. The most interesting QTLs were investigated at the gene level through a bioinformatic analysis of the underlying Pinot noir genomic sequence. Conclusion Our results revealed novel insights into the genetic control of relevant grapevine features. They

  4. Characterization of a putative grapevine Zn transporter, VvZIP3, suggests its involvement in early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Zinc (Zn) deficiency is one of the most widespread mineral nutritional problems that affect normal development in plants. Because Zn cannot passively diffuse across cell membranes, it must be transported into intracellular compartments for all biological processes where Zn is required. Several members of the Zinc-regulated transporters, Iron-regulated transporter-like Protein (ZIP) gene family have been characterized in plants, and have shown to be involved in metal uptake and transport. This study describes the first putative Zn transporter in grapevine. Unravelling its function may explain an important symptom of Zn deficiency in grapevines, which is the production of clusters with fewer and usually smaller berries than normal. Results We identified and characterized a putative Zn transporter from berries of Vitis vinifera L., named VvZIP3. Compared to other members of the ZIP family identified in the Vitis vinifera L. genome, VvZIP3 is mainly expressed in reproductive tissue - specifically in developing flowers - which correlates with the high Zn accumulation in these organs. Contrary to this, the low expression of VvZIP3 in parthenocarpic berries shows a relationship with the lower Zn accumulation in this tissue than in normal seeded berries where its expression is induced by Zn. The predicted protein sequence indicates strong similarity with several members of the ZIP family from Arabidopsis thaliana and other species. Moreover, VvZIP3 complemented the growth defect of a yeast Zn-uptake mutant, ZHY3, and is localized in the plasma membrane of plant cells, suggesting that VvZIP3 has the function of a Zn uptake transporter. Conclusions Our results suggest that VvZIP3 encodes a putative plasma membrane Zn transporter protein member of the ZIP gene family that might play a role in Zn uptake and distribution during the early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L., indicating that the availability of this micronutrient may be relevant for

  5. High-throughput-sequencing-based identification of a grapevine fanleaf virus satellite RNA in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Chiumenti, Michela; Mohorianu, Irina; Roseti, Vincenzo; Saldarelli, Pasquale; Dalmay, Tamas; Minafra, Angelantonio

    2016-05-01

    A new satellite RNA (satRNA) of grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) was identified by high-throughput sequencing of high-definition (HD) adapter libraries from grapevine plants of the cultivar Panse precoce (PPE) affected by enation disease. The complete nucleotide sequence was obtained by automatic sequencing using primers designed based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) data. The full-length sequence, named satGFLV-PPE, consisted of 1119 nucleotides with a single open reading frame from position 15 to 1034. This satRNA showed maximum nucleotide sequence identity of 87 % to satArMV-86 and satGFLV-R6. Symptomatic grapevines were surveyed for the presence of the satRNA, and no correlation was found between detection of the satRNA and enation symptom expression. PMID:26873812

  6. Restructuring of endophytic bacterial communities in grapevine yellows-diseased and recovered Vitis vinifera L. plants.

    PubMed

    Bulgari, Daniela; Casati, Paola; Crepaldi, Paola; Daffonchio, Daniele; Quaglino, Fabio; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Bianco, Piero Attilio

    2011-07-01

    Length heterogeneity-PCR assays, combined with statistical analyses, highlighted that the endophytic bacterial community associated with healthy grapevines was characterized by a greater diversity than that present in diseased and recovered plants. The findings suggest that phytoplasmas can restructure the bacterial community by selecting endophytic strains that could elicit a plant defense response. PMID:21622794

  7. Xylem vessel relays contribute to radial connectivity in grapevine stems (Vitis vinifera and V. arizonica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Connectivity within xylem networks plays an important role in the movement of water and nutrients through plants, but also facilitates the spread of pathogens and embolisms that increase hydraulic resistance. This study describes a unique anatomical feature found in grapevine xylem that forms radial...

  8. The transcription factor VvWRKY33 is involved in the regulation of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) defense against the oomycete pathogen Plasmopara viticola.

    PubMed

    Merz, Patrick R; Moser, Tina; Höll, Janine; Kortekamp, Andreas; Buchholz, Günther; Zyprian, Eva; Bogs, Jochen

    2015-03-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera ssp. vinifera) is one of the most important fruit species; however, it is highly susceptible to various pathogens, which can cause severe crop losses in viticulture. It has been shown that several WRKY class transcription factors (TFs) are part of the signal transduction cascade, which leads to the activation of plant defense reactions against various pathogens. In the present investigation, a full-length cDNA was isolated from V. vinifera leaf tissue encoding a predicted protein, designated VvWRKY33, which shows the characteristics of group I WRKY protein family. VvWRKY33 induction correlates with the expression of VvPR10.1 (pathogenesis-related 10.1) gene in the leaves of the resistant cultivar 'Regent' after infection with Plasmopara viticola, whereas in the susceptible cultivar 'Lemberger' VvWRKY33 and VvPR10.1 are not induced. Corresponding expression of the TF and VvPR10.1 was even obtained in uninfected ripening berries. In planta, analysis of VvWRKY33 has been performed by ectopic expression of VvWRKY33 in grapevine leaves of greenhouse plants mediated via Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation. In consequence, VvWRKY33 strongly increases resistance to P. viticola in the susceptible cultivar 'Shiraz' and reduces pathogen sporulation of about 50-70%, indicating a functional role for resistance in grapevine. Complementation of the resistance-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia-0 (Col-0) mutant line wrky33-1 by constitutive expression of VvWRKY33 restores resistance against Botrytis cinerea to wild-type level and in some complemented mutant lines even exceeds the resistance level of the parental line Col-0. Our results support the involvement of VvWRKY33 in the defense reaction of grapevine against different pathogens. PMID:25132131

  9. Diversity of bacterial endophytes in 3 and 15 year-old grapevines of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina and their potential for plant growth promotion and phytopathogen control.

    PubMed

    Andreolli, Marco; Lampis, Silvia; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Angelini, Elisa; Vallini, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    This study represents the first investigation on ecology of endophytic bacteria isolated from 3 and 15 year-old vine stems of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina. The analysis was performed by means of culture-dependent techniques. The obtained results showed that new grapevine endophytic genera are being discovered. Moreover, Bacilli and Actinobacteria are frequently isolated from 3 year-old plants, whereas Alpha- and Gamma- Proteobacteria classes are more prevalent in the 15 year-old plants. Shannon-Wiener (H) index and analysis of rarefaction curves revealed greater genus richness in young grapevine plants. Furthermore, results evidenced an increase of genotypic group number within specific genera (e.g., Rhizobium and Pantoea). Among isolated strains from 3 and 15 year-old stems, respectively, 34 and 39% produce siderophores; 22 and 15% secrete ammonia; 22 and 21% produce indole-3-acetic acid; 8.7 and 41% solubilize phosphate. Besides, two strains isolated from 15 year-old grapevines showed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity. Antifungal activity analysis evidenced that two Bacillus strains possess growth antagonistic effect toward all the tested fungal strains. Therefore, the present study extends our knowledge of the diversity of the endophytic bacteria by providing new insights into the complexity of the grapevine microbiome. PMID:26805617

  10. Relative quantification of phosphoproteomic changes in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves in response to abscisic acid.

    PubMed

    Rattanakan, Supakan; George, Iniga; Haynes, Paul A; Cramer, Grant R

    2016-01-01

    In a previous transcriptomic analysis, abscisic acid (ABA) was found to affect the abundance of a number of transcripts in leaves of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines with roots that had been exposed to 10 μm ABA for 2 h. Other work has indicated that ABA affects protein abundance and protein phosphorylation as well. In this study we investigated changes in protein abundance and phosphorylation of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine leaves. Protein abundance was assessed by both label-free and isobaric-label quantitive proteomic methods. Each identified common proteins, but also additional proteins not found with the other method. Overall, several thousand proteins were identified and several hundred were quantified. In addition, hundreds of phosphoproteins were identified. Tens of proteins were found to be affected in the leaf after the roots had been exposed to ABA for 2 h, more than half of them were phosphorylated proteins. Many phosphosites were confirmed and several new ones were identified. ABA increased the abundance of some proteins, but the majority of the proteins had their protein abundance decreased. Many of these proteins were involved in growth and plant organ development, including proteins involved in protein synthesis, photosynthesis, sugar and amino-acid metabolism. This study provides new insights into how ABA regulates plant responses and acclimation to water deficits. PMID:27366326

  11. Relative quantification of phosphoproteomic changes in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves in response to abscisic acid

    PubMed Central

    Rattanakan, Supakan; George, Iniga; Haynes, Paul A; Cramer, Grant R

    2016-01-01

    In a previous transcriptomic analysis, abscisic acid (ABA) was found to affect the abundance of a number of transcripts in leaves of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines with roots that had been exposed to 10 μm ABA for 2 h. Other work has indicated that ABA affects protein abundance and protein phosphorylation as well. In this study we investigated changes in protein abundance and phosphorylation of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine leaves. Protein abundance was assessed by both label-free and isobaric-label quantitive proteomic methods. Each identified common proteins, but also additional proteins not found with the other method. Overall, several thousand proteins were identified and several hundred were quantified. In addition, hundreds of phosphoproteins were identified. Tens of proteins were found to be affected in the leaf after the roots had been exposed to ABA for 2 h, more than half of them were phosphorylated proteins. Many phosphosites were confirmed and several new ones were identified. ABA increased the abundance of some proteins, but the majority of the proteins had their protein abundance decreased. Many of these proteins were involved in growth and plant organ development, including proteins involved in protein synthesis, photosynthesis, sugar and amino-acid metabolism. This study provides new insights into how ABA regulates plant responses and acclimation to water deficits. PMID:27366326

  12. Impact of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Varieties on Reproduction of the Northern Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne hapla).

    PubMed

    Howland, Amanda D; Skinkis, Patricia A; Wilson, John H; Riga, Ekaterini; Pinkerton, John N; Schreiner, R Paul; Zasada, Inga A

    2015-06-01

    One of the most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards is Meloidogyne hapla; however, limited research exists on the impact of this nematode on V. vinifera. The objectives of this research were to determine the impact of M. hapla on Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon vine establishment and to determine the host status of V. vinifera varieties/clones predominantly grown in Washington to M. hapla. In a microplot experiment, Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon vines were planted into soil inoculated with different densities of M. hapla; population dynamics of M. hapla and vine performance were monitored over 3 yr. In greenhouse experiments, several clones representing five V. vinifera varieties, Chardonnay, Riesling, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Syrah, were evaluated as hosts for M. hapla. In both microplot and greenhouse experiments, white varieties were significantly better hosts than red varieties. In the greenhouse experiments, Chardonnay and Riesling had 40% higher reproduction factor values than Syrah and Merlot, however, all varieties/clones screened were good hosts for M. hapla (reproduction factors > 3). In the microplot experiment, M. hapla eggs/g root were 4.5 times greater in Chardonnay compared to Cabernet Sauvignon 3 yr after planting but there was no evident impact of M. hapla on vine establishment. PMID:26170476

  13. Impact of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Varieties on Reproduction of the Northern Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne hapla)

    PubMed Central

    Howland, Amanda D.; Skinkis, Patricia A.; Wilson, John H.; Riga, Ekaterini; Pinkerton, John N.; Schreiner, R. Paul; Zasada, Inga A.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards is Meloidogyne hapla; however, limited research exists on the impact of this nematode on V. vinifera. The objectives of this research were to determine the impact of M. hapla on Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon vine establishment and to determine the host status of V. vinifera varieties/clones predominantly grown in Washington to M. hapla. In a microplot experiment, Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon vines were planted into soil inoculated with different densities of M. hapla; population dynamics of M. hapla and vine performance were monitored over 3 yr. In greenhouse experiments, several clones representing five V. vinifera varieties, Chardonnay, Riesling, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Syrah, were evaluated as hosts for M. hapla. In both microplot and greenhouse experiments, white varieties were significantly better hosts than red varieties. In the greenhouse experiments, Chardonnay and Riesling had 40% higher reproduction factor values than Syrah and Merlot, however, all varieties/clones screened were good hosts for M. hapla (reproduction factors > 3). In the microplot experiment, M. hapla eggs/g root were 4.5 times greater in Chardonnay compared to Cabernet Sauvignon 3 yr after planting but there was no evident impact of M. hapla on vine establishment. PMID:26170476

  14. Molecular cloning and characterization of UDP-glucose: furaneol glucosyltransferase gene from grapevine cultivar Muscat Bailey A (Vitis labrusca × V. vinifera).

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kanako; Takase, Hideki; Kobayashi, Hironori; Matsuo, Hironori; Takata, Ryoji

    2015-10-01

    2,5-Dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol) is an important aroma compound in fruits, such as pineapple and strawberry, and is reported to contribute to the strawberry-like note in some wines. Several grapevine species are used in winemaking, and furaneol is one of the characteristic aroma compounds in wines made from American grape (Vitis labrusca) and its hybrid grape. Furaneol glucoside was recently isolated as an important furaneol derivative from the hybrid grapevine cultivar, Muscat Bailey A (V. labrusca × V. vinifera), and this was followed by its isolation from some fruits such as strawberry and tomato. Furaneol glucoside is a significant 'aroma precursor of wine' because furaneol is liberated from it during alcoholic fermentation. In this study, a glucosyltransferase gene from Muscat Bailey A (UGT85K14), which is responsible for the glucosylation of furaneol was identified. UGT85K14 was expressed in the representative grape cultivars regardless of species, indicating that furaneol glucoside content is regulated by the biosynthesis of furaneol. On the other hand, furaneol glucoside content in Muscat Bailey A berry during maturation might be controlled by the expression of UGT85K14 along with the biosynthesis of furaneol. Recombinant UGT85K14 expressed in Escherichia coli is able to transfer a glucose moiety from UDP-glucose to the hydroxy group of furaneol, indicating that this gene might be UDP-glucose: furaneol glucosyltransferase in Muscat Bailey A. PMID:26160581

  15. Responses of In vitro-Grown Plantlets (Vitis vinifera) to Grapevine leafroll-Associated Virus-3 and PEG-Induced Drought Stress.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhen-Hua; Bi, Wen-Lu; Hao, Xin-Yi; Xu, Yan; Li, Peng-Min; Walker, M Andrew; Wang, Qiao-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Stresses caused by viral diseases and drought have long threatened sustainable production of grapevine. These two stresses frequently occur simultaneously in many of grapevine growing regions of the world. We studied responses of in vitro-grown plantlets (Vitis vinifera) to Grapevine leafroll associated virus-3 (GLRaV-3) and PEG-induced drought stress. Results showed that stress induced by either virus infection or drought had negative effects on vegetative growth, caused significant decreases and increases in total soluble protein and free proline, respectively, induced obvious cell membrane damage and cell death, and markedly increased accumulations of [Formula: see text] and H2O2. Co-stress by virus and drought had much severer effects than single stress on the said parameters. Virus infection alone did not cause significant alternations in activities of POD, ROS, and SOD, and contents of MDA, which, however, markedly increased in the plantlets when grown under single drought stress and co-stress by the virus and drought. Levels of ABA increased, while those of IAA decreased in the plantlets stressed by virus infection or drought. Simultaneous stresses by the virus and drought had co-effects on the levels of ABA and IAA. Up-regulation of expressions of ABA biosynthesis genes and down-regulation of expressions of IAA biosynthesis genes were responsible for the alternations of ABA and IAA levels induced by either the virus infection or drought stress and co-stress by them. Experimental strategies established in the present study using in vitro system facilitate investigations on 'pure' biotic and abiotic stress on plants. The results obtained here provide new insights into adverse effects of stress induced by virus and drought, in single and particularly their combination, on plants, and allow us to re-orientate agricultural managements toward sustainable development of the agriculture. PMID:27313542

  16. Responses of In vitro-Grown Plantlets (Vitis vinifera) to Grapevine leafroll-Associated Virus-3 and PEG-Induced Drought Stress

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zhen-Hua; Bi, Wen-Lu; Hao, Xin-Yi; Xu, Yan; Li, Peng-Min; Walker, M. Andrew; Wang, Qiao-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Stresses caused by viral diseases and drought have long threatened sustainable production of grapevine. These two stresses frequently occur simultaneously in many of grapevine growing regions of the world. We studied responses of in vitro-grown plantlets (Vitis vinifera) to Grapevine leafroll associated virus-3 (GLRaV-3) and PEG-induced drought stress. Results showed that stress induced by either virus infection or drought had negative effects on vegetative growth, caused significant decreases and increases in total soluble protein and free proline, respectively, induced obvious cell membrane damage and cell death, and markedly increased accumulations of O2·- and H2O2. Co-stress by virus and drought had much severer effects than single stress on the said parameters. Virus infection alone did not cause significant alternations in activities of POD, ROS, and SOD, and contents of MDA, which, however, markedly increased in the plantlets when grown under single drought stress and co-stress by the virus and drought. Levels of ABA increased, while those of IAA decreased in the plantlets stressed by virus infection or drought. Simultaneous stresses by the virus and drought had co-effects on the levels of ABA and IAA. Up-regulation of expressions of ABA biosynthesis genes and down-regulation of expressions of IAA biosynthesis genes were responsible for the alternations of ABA and IAA levels induced by either the virus infection or drought stress and co-stress by them. Experimental strategies established in the present study using in vitro system facilitate investigations on ‘pure’ biotic and abiotic stress on plants. The results obtained here provide new insights into adverse effects of stress induced by virus and drought, in single and particularly their combination, on plants, and allow us to re-orientate agricultural managements toward sustainable development of the agriculture. PMID:27313542

  17. Low level of pollen-mediated gene flow from cultivated to wild grapevine: consequences for the evolution of the endangered subspecies Vitis vinifera L. subsp. silvestris.

    PubMed

    Di Vecchi-Staraz, Manuel; Laucou, Valérie; Bruno, Gérard; Lacombe, Thierry; Gerber, Sophie; Bourse, Thibaut; Boselli, Maurizio; This, Patrice

    2009-01-01

    A parentage and a paternity-based approach were tested for estimation of pollen-mediated gene flow in wild grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. subsp. silvestris), a wind-pollinated species occurring in Mediterranean Europe and southwestern Asia. For this purpose, 305 seedlings collected in 2 years at 2 locations in France from 4 wild female individuals and 417 wild individuals prospected from France and Italy were analyzed using 20 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci. Their profiles were compared with a database consisting of 3203 accessions from the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique Vassal collection including cultivars, rootstocks, interspecific hybrids, and other wild individuals. Paternity was assigned for 202 (66.2%) of the 305 seedlings, confirming the feasibility of the method. Most of the fertilizing pollen could be assigned to wild males growing nearby. Estimates of pollen immigration from the cultivated compartment (i.e., the totality of cultivars) ranged from 4.2% to 26% from nearby vineyards and from hidden pollinators such as cultivars and rootstocks that had escaped from farms. In an open landscape, the pollen flow was correlated to the distance between individuals, the main pollinator being the closest wild male (accounting for 51.4-86.2% of the pollen flow). In a closed landscape, more complex pollination occurred. Analysis of the parentage of the 417 wild individuals also revealed relationships between nearby wild individuals, but in the case of 12 individuals (3%), analysis revealed pollen immigration from vineyards, confirming the fitness of the hybrid seedlings. These pollen fluxes may have a significant effect on the evolution of wild populations: on the one hand, the low level of pollen-mediated gene flow from cultivated to wild grapevine could contribute to a risk of extinction of the wild compartment (i.e., the totality of the wild individuals). On the other hand, pollen dispersal within the wild populations may induce inbreeding

  18. Day and night heat stress trigger different transcriptomic responses in green and ripening grapevine (vitis vinifera) fruit

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Global climate change will noticeably affect plant vegetative and reproductive development. The recent increase in temperatures has already impacted yields and composition of berries in many grapevine-growing regions. Physiological processes underlying temperature response and tolerance of the grapevine fruit have not been extensively investigated. To date, all studies investigating the molecular regulation of fleshly fruit response to abiotic stress were only conducted during the day, overlooking possible critical night-specific variations. The present study explores the night and day transcriptomic response of grapevine fruit to heat stress at several developmental stages. Short heat stresses (2 h) were applied at day and night to vines bearing clusters sequentially ordered according to the developmental stages along their vertical axes. The recently proposed microvine model (DRCF-Dwarf Rapid Cycling and Continuous Flowering) was grown in climatic chambers in order to circumvent common constraints and biases inevitable in field experiments with perennial macrovines. Post-véraison berry heterogeneity within clusters was avoided by constituting homogenous batches following organic acids and sugars measurements of individual berries. A whole genome transcriptomic approach was subsequently conducted using NimbleGen 090818 Vitis 12X (30 K) microarrays. Results Present work reveals significant differences in heat stress responsive pathways according to day or night treatment, in particular regarding genes associated with acidity and phenylpropanoid metabolism. Precise distinction of ripening stages led to stage-specific detection of malic acid and anthocyanin-related transcripts modulated by heat stress. Important changes in cell wall modification related processes as well as indications for heat-induced delay of ripening and sugar accumulation were observed at véraison, an effect that was reversed at later stages. Conclusions This first day - night

  19. Functional Annotation, Genome Organization and Phylogeny of the Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Terpene Synthase Gene Family Based on Genome Assembly, FLcDNA Cloning, and Enzyme Assays

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Terpenoids are among the most important constituents of grape flavour and wine bouquet, and serve as useful metabolite markers in viticulture and enology. Based on the initial 8-fold sequencing of a nearly homozygous Pinot noir inbred line, 89 putative terpenoid synthase genes (VvTPS) were predicted by in silico analysis of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera) genome assembly [1]. The finding of this very large VvTPS family, combined with the importance of terpenoid metabolism for the organoleptic properties of grapevine berries and finished wines, prompted a detailed examination of this gene family at the genomic level as well as an investigation into VvTPS biochemical functions. Results We present findings from the analysis of the up-dated 12-fold sequencing and assembly of the grapevine genome that place the number of predicted VvTPS genes at 69 putatively functional VvTPS, 20 partial VvTPS, and 63 VvTPS probable pseudogenes. Gene discovery and annotation included information about gene architecture and chromosomal location. A dense cluster of 45 VvTPS is localized on chromosome 18. Extensive FLcDNA cloning, gene synthesis, and protein expression enabled functional characterization of 39 VvTPS; this is the largest number of functionally characterized TPS for any species reported to date. Of these enzymes, 23 have unique functions and/or phylogenetic locations within the plant TPS gene family. Phylogenetic analyses of the TPS gene family showed that while most VvTPS form species-specific gene clusters, there are several examples of gene orthology with TPS of other plant species, representing perhaps more ancient VvTPS, which have maintained functions independent of speciation. Conclusions The highly expanded VvTPS gene family underpins the prominence of terpenoid metabolism in grapevine. We provide a detailed experimental functional annotation of 39 members of this important gene family in grapevine and comprehensive information about gene structure and

  20. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar.

    PubMed

    Alabi, Olufemi J; Casassa, L Federico; Gutha, Linga R; Larsen, Richard C; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease. PMID:26919614

  1. Cytochrome P450 CYP71BE5 in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) catalyzes the formation of the spicy aroma compound (−)-rotundone

    PubMed Central

    Takase, Hideki; Sasaki, Kanako; Shinmori, Hideyuki; Shinohara, Akira; Mochizuki, Chihiro; Kobayashi, Hironori; Ikoma, Gen; Saito, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Hironori; Suzuki, Shunji; Takata, Ryoji

    2016-01-01

    (−)-Rotundone is a potent odorant molecule with a characteristic spicy aroma existing in various plants including grapevines (Vitis vinifera). It is considered to be a significant compound in wines and grapes because of its low sensory threshold and aroma properties. (−)-Rotundone was first identified in red wine made from the grape cultivar Syrah and here we report the identification of VvSTO2 as a α-guaiene 2-oxidase which can transform α-guaiene to (−)-rotundone in the grape cultivar Syrah. It is a cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme belonging to the CYP 71BE subfamily, which overlaps with the very large CYP71D family and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first functional characterization of an enzyme from this family. VvSTO2 was expressed at a higher level in the Syrah grape exocarp (skin) in accord with the localization of (−)-rotundone accumulation in grape berries. α-Guaiene was also detected in the Syrah grape exocarp at an extremely high concentration. These findings suggest that (−)-rotundone accumulation is regulated by the VvSTO2 expression along with the availability of α-guaiene as a precursor. VvSTO2 expression during grape maturation was considerably higher in Syrah grape exocarp compared to Merlot grape exocarp, consistent with the patterns of α-guaiene and (−)-rotundone accumulation. On the basis of these findings, we propose that VvSTO2 may be a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of (−)-rotundone in grapevines by acting as a α-guaiene 2-oxidase. PMID:26590863

  2. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar

    PubMed Central

    Gutha, Linga R.; Larsen, Richard C.; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F.; Naidu, Rayapati A.

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease. PMID:26919614

  3. Bacteria isolated from roots and rhizosphere of Vitis vinifera retard water losses, induce abscisic acid accumulation and synthesis of defense-related terpenes in in vitro cultured grapevine.

    PubMed

    Salomon, María Victoria; Bottini, Rubén; de Souza Filho, Gonçalo Apolinário; Cohen, Ana Carmen; Moreno, Daniela; Gil, Mariana; Piccoli, Patricia

    2014-08-01

    Eleven bacterial strains were isolated at different soil depths from roots and rhizosphere of grapevines from a commercial vineyard. By 16S rRNA gene sequencing 10 different genera and 8 possible at species level were identified. From them, Bacillus licheniformis Rt4M10 and Pseudomonas fluorescens Rt6M10 were selected according to their characteristics as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Both produced abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and the gibberellins A1 and A3 in chemically-defined medium. They also colonized roots of in vitro grown Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec plants. As result of bacterization ABA levels in 45 days-old in vitro plants were increased 76-fold by B. licheniformis and 40-fold by P. fluorescens as compared to controls. Both bacteria diminished plant water loss rate in correlation with increments of ABA. Twenty and 30 days post bacterization the plants incremented terpenes. The monoterpenes α-pinene, terpinolene, 4-carene, limonene, eucalyptol and lilac aldehyde A, and the sesquiterpenes α-bergamotene, α-farnesene, nerolidol and farnesol were assessed by gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry analysis. α-Pinene and nerolidol were the most abundant (µg per g of tissue in plants bacterized with P. fluorescens). Only α-pinene, eucalyptol and farnesol were identified at low concentration in non-bacterized plants treated with ABA, while no terpenes were detected in controls. The results obtained along with others from literature suggest that B. licheniformis and P. fluorescens act as stress alleviators by inducing ABA synthesis so diminishing water losses. These bacteria also elicit synthesis of compounds of plant defense via an ABA independent mechanism. PMID:24118032

  4. Alleyway Cover Crops have Little Influence on Pinot Noir Grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) in Two Western Oregon Vineyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven cover crop treatments were compared in two north Willamette Valley ‘Pinot noir’ vineyards over two years to test if alleyway cover crops that are mowed in spring and summer compete with grapevines for water or nutrients. Five different cover crop mixtures (planted in the fall of 2003) were com...

  5. Metabolic Consequences of Infection of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. "Modra frankinja" with Flavescence Dorée Phytoplasma.

    PubMed

    Prezelj, Nina; Covington, Elizabeth; Roitsch, Thomas; Gruden, Kristina; Fragner, Lena; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Chersicola, Marko; Vodopivec, Maja; Dermastia, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Flavescence dorée, caused by the quarantine phytoplasma FDp, represents the most devastating of the grapevine yellows diseases in Europe. In an integrated study we have explored the FDp-grapevine interaction in infected grapevines of cv. "Modra frankinja" under natural conditions in the vineyard. In FDp-infected leaf vein-enriched tissues, the seasonal transcriptional profiles of 14 genes selected from various metabolic pathways showed an FDp-specific plant response compared to other grapevine yellows and uncovered a new association of the SWEET17a vacuolar transporter of fructose with pathogens. Non-targeted metabolome analysis from leaf vein-enriched tissues identified 22 significantly changed compounds with increased levels during infection. Several metabolites corroborated the gene expression study. Detailed investigation of the dynamics of carbohydrate metabolism revealed significant accumulation of sucrose and starch in the mesophyll of FDp-infected leaves, as well as significant up-regulation of genes involved in their biosynthesis. In addition, infected leaves had high activities of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and, more significantly, sucrose synthase. The data support the conclusion that FDp infection inhibits phloem transport, resulting in accumulation of carbohydrates and secondary metabolites that provoke a source-sink transition and defense response status. PMID:27242887

  6. Effects of elevated CO2 on grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): volatile composition, phenolic content, and in vitro antioxidant activity of red wine.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Berta; Falco, Virgílio; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Bacelar, Eunice; Peixoto, Francisco; Correia, Carlos

    2009-01-14

    The impact of elevated carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) on the quality of berries, must, and red wine (with special reference to volatile composition, phenolic content, and antioxidant activity) made from Touriga Franca, a native grape variety of Vitis vinifera L. for Port and Douro wine manufacturing grown in the Demarcated Region of Douro, was investigated during 2005 and 2006. Grapevines were grown either in open-top chambers (OTC) with ambient (365 +/- 10 ppm) or elevated (500 +/-16 ppm) [CO2] or in an outside plot. In general, the increase of [CO2] did not affect berry characteristics, especially the total anthocyan and tannin concentrations. However, the total anthocyan and polyphenol concentrations of the red wine were inhibited under elevated [CO2]. The antioxidant capacity of the wines was determined by DPPH, ABTS, and TBARS assays and, despite the low concentrations of phenolics, the elevated [CO2] did not significantly change the total antioxidant capacity of the red wines. Thirty-five volatile compounds belonging to seven chemical groups were identified: C6 alcohols, higher alcohols, esters, terpenols, carbonyl compounds, acids, volatile phenols, and C13 norisoprenoids. Generally, the same volatile compounds were present in all of the wines, but the relative levels varied among the treatments. The effect of elevated [CO2] was significant because it was detected as an increase in ethyl 2-methylbutyrate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, butyric acid, and isovaleric acid concentrations and a decrease in ethyl acetate concentration when compared to wines produced in ambient [CO2] in 2005. In elevated [CO2], wines from 2006 had lower methionol, 1-octanol, and 4-ethylguaiacol and higher ethyl lactate and linalool concentrations. The increase in [CO2] did not significantly affect C6 alcohols, citronellol, carbonyl compounds, and beta-damascenone concentrations. This study showed that the predicted rise in [CO2] did not produce negative

  7. VvMJE1 of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera) VvMES methylesterase family encodes for methyl jasmonate esterase and has a role in stress response.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Nan; Lin, Hong; Lan, Suque; Jia, Qidong; Chen, Xinlu; Guo, Hong; Chen, Feng

    2016-05-01

    The known members of plant methyl esterase (MES) family catalyze the hydrolysis of a C-O ester linkage of methyl esters of several phytohormones including indole-3-acetic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid. The genome of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) was found to contain 15 MES genes, designated VvMES1-15. In this report, VvMES5 was selected for molecular, biochemical and structural studies. VvMES5 is most similar to tomato methyl jasmonate esterase. E. coli-expressed recombinant VvMES5 displayed methyl jasmonate (MeJA) esterase activity, it was renamed VvMJE1. Under steady-state conditions, VvMJE1 exhibited an apparent Km value of 92.9 μM with MeJA. VvMJE1 was also shown to have lower activity with methyl salicylate (MeSA), another known substrate of the MES family, and only at high concentrations of the substrate. To understand the structural basis of VvMJE1 in discriminating MeJA and MeSA, a homolog model of VvMJE1 was made using the X-ray structure of tobacco SABP2, which encodes for methyl salicylate esterase, as a template. Interestingly, two bulky residues at the binding site and near the surface of tobacco SABP2 are replaced by relatively small residues in VvMJE1. Such a change enables the accommodation of a larger substrate MeJA in VvMJE1. The expression of VvMJE1 was compared in control grape plants and grape plants treated with one of the three stresses: heat, cold and UV-B. While the expression of VvMJE1 was not affected by heat treatment, its expression was significantly up-regulated by cold treatment and UV-B treatment. This result suggests that VvMJE1 has a role in response of grape plants to these two abiotic stresses. PMID:26934101

  8. Severe drought stress is affecting selected primary metabolites, polyphenols, and volatile metabolites in grapevine leaves (Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot noir).

    PubMed

    Griesser, Michaela; Weingart, Georg; Schoedl-Hummel, Katharina; Neumann, Nora; Becker, Manuel; Varmuza, Kurt; Liebner, Falk; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Forneck, Astrid

    2015-03-01

    Extreme weather conditions with prolonged dry periods and high temperatures as well as heavy rain events can severely influence grapevine physiology and grape quality. The present study evaluates the effects of severe drought stress on selected primary metabolites, polyphenols and volatile metabolites in grapevine leaves. Among the 11 primary metabolites, 13 polyphenols and 95 volatiles which were analyzed, a significant discrimination between control and stressed plants of 7 primary metabolites, 11 polyphenols and 46 volatile metabolites was observed. As single parameters are usually not specific enough for the discrimination of control and stressed plants, an unsupervised (PCA) and a supervised (PLS-DA) multivariate approach were applied to combine results from different metabolic groups. In a first step a selection of five metabolites, namely citric acid, glyceric acid, ribose, phenylacetaldehyde and 2-methylbutanal were used to establish a calibration model using PLS regression to predict the leaf water potential. The model was strong enough to assign a high number of plants correctly with a correlation of 0.83. The PLS-DA provides an interesting approach to combine data sets and to provide tools for the specific evaluation of physiological plant stresses. PMID:25602440

  9. Deficit irrigation promotes arbuscular colonization of fine roots by mycorrhizal fungi in grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) in an arid climate.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, R Paul; Tarara, Julie M; Smithyman, Russell P

    2007-10-01

    Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) is a common practice applied in irrigated vineyards to control canopy growth and improve fruit quality, but little is known of how imposed water deficits may alter root growth and colonization by beneficial arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Thus, root growth and mycorrhizal colonization were determined throughout the growing season for 3 years in own-rooted, field-grown, 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevines exposed to three RDI treatments. Vines under standard RDI were irrigated at 60 to 70% of full-vine evapotranspiration (FVET) from 2 weeks after fruit set until harvest, a standard commercial practice. Early deficit vines were exposed to a more extreme deficit (30% FVET) during the period from 2 weeks after fruit set until the commencement of ripening (veraison), and thereafter reverted to standard RDI. Late deficit vines were under standard RDI until veraison, then exposed to a more extreme deficit (30% FVET) between veraison and harvest. The production of fine roots was reduced in both the early and late deficit treatments, but the reduction was more consistent in the early deficit vines because the additional deficit was imposed when roots were more rapidly growing. The frequency of arbuscules in fine roots was greater in both of the additional deficit treatments than in the standard RDI, a response that appeared chronic, as the higher frequency of arbuscules was observed throughout the season despite the additional deficits being applied at discrete times. It appears that grapevines compensated for a lower density of fine roots by stimulating arbuscular colonization. Irrigation did not affect yield or quality of grapes, but reduced whole-vine photosynthesis during the additional deficit periods. It appears that high-quality grapes can be produced in this region with less water than that applied under the current RDI practice because the root system of the vine may be more efficient due to greater arbuscular colonization by AMF

  10. A knowledge base for Vitis vinifera functional analysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Vitis vinifera (Grapevine) is the most important fruit species in the modern world. Wine and table grapes sales contribute significantly to the economy of major wine producing countries. The most relevant goals in wine production concern quality and safety. In order to significantly improve the achievement of these objectives and to gain biological knowledge about cultivars, a genomic approach is the most reliable strategy. The recent grapevine genome sequencing offers the opportunity to study the potential roles of genes and microRNAs in fruit maturation and other physiological and pathological processes. Although several systems allowing the analysis of plant genomes have been reported, none of them has been designed specifically for the functional analysis of grapevine genomes of cultivars under environmental stress in connection with microRNA data. Description Here we introduce a novel knowledge base, called BIOWINE, designed for the functional analysis of Vitis vinifera genomes of cultivars present in Sicily. The system allows the analysis of RNA-seq experiments of two different cultivars, namely Nero d'Avola and Nerello Mascalese. Samples were taken under different climatic conditions of phenological phases, diseases, and geographic locations. The BIOWINE web interface is equipped with data analysis modules for grapevine genomes. In particular users may analyze the current genome assembly together with the RNA-seq data through a customized version of GBrowse. The web interface allows users to perform gene set enrichment by exploiting third-party databases. Conclusions BIOWINE is a knowledge base implementing a set of bioinformatics tools for the analysis of grapevine genomes. The system aims to increase our understanding of the grapevine varieties and species of Sicilian products focusing on adaptability to different climatic conditions, phenological phases, diseases, and geographic locations. PMID:26050794

  11. Phenology, Canopy Aging and Seasonal Carbon Balance as Related to Delayed Winter Pruning of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sangiovese Grapevines.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Matteo; Pirez, Facundo J; Chiari, Giorgio; Tombesi, Sergio; Palliotti, Alberto; Merli, Maria C; Poni, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Manipulating or shifting annual grapevine growing cycle to offset limitations imposed by global warming is a must today, and delayed winter pruning is a tool to achieve it. However, no information is available about its physiological background, especially in relation to modifications in canopy phenology, demography and seasonal carbon budget. Mechanistic hypothesis underlying this work was that very late winter pruning (LWP) can achieve significant postponement of phenological stages so that ripening might occur in a cooler period and, concurrently, ripening potential can be improved due to higher efficiency and prolonged longevity of the canopy. Variability in the dynamics of the annual cycle was created in mature potted cv. Sangiovese grapevines subjected to either standard winter pruning (SWP) or late and very late winter pruning (LWP, VLWP) performed when apical shoots on the unpruned canes were at the stage of 2 and 7 unfolded leaves. Vegetative growth, phenology and canopy net CO2 exchange (NCER) were followed throughout the season. Despite LWP and VLWP induced a bud-burst delay of 17 and 31 days vs. SWP, the delay was fully offset at harvest for LWP and was reduced to 6 days in VLWP. LWP showed notably higher canopy efficiency as shorter time needed to reach maximum NCER/leaf area (22 days vs. 34 in SWP), highest maximum NCER/leaf area (+37% as compared to SWP) and higher NCER/leaf area rates from veraison to end of season. As a result, seasonal cumulated carbon in LWP was 17% higher than SWP. A negative functional relationship was also established between amount of leaf area removed at winter pruning and yield per vine and berry number per cluster. Although retarded winter pruning was not able to postpone late-season phenological stages under the warm conditions of this study, it showed a remarkable potential to limit yield while improving grape quality, thereby fostering the hypothesis that it could be used to replace time-consuming and costly cluster

  12. New stable QTLs for berry weight do not colocalize with QTLs for seed traits in cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In grapevine, as in other fruit crops, fruit size and seed content are key components of yield and quality; however, very few Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) for berry weight and seed content (number, weight, and dry matter percentage) have been discovered so far. To identify new stable QTLs for marker-assisted selection and candidate gene identification, we performed simultaneous QTL detection in four mapping populations (seeded or seedless) with various genetic backgrounds. Results For berry weight, we identified five new QTLs, on linkage groups (LGs) 1, 8, 11, 17 and 18, in addition to the known major QTL on LG 18. The QTL with the largest effect explained up to 31% of total variance and was found in two genetically distant populations on LG 17, where it colocalized with a published putative domestication locus. For seed traits, besides the major QTLs on LG 18 previously reported, we found four new QTLs explaining up to 51% of total variance, on LGs 4, 5, 12 and 14. The previously published QTL for seed number on LG 2 was found related in fact to sex. We found colocalizations between seed and berry weight QTLs only for the major QTL on LG 18 in a seedless background, and on LGs 1 and 13 in a seeded background. Candidate genes belonging to the cell number regulator CNR or cytochrome P450 families were found under the berry weight QTLs on LGs 1, 8, and 17. The involvement of these gene families in fruit weight was first described in tomato using a QTL-cloning approach. Several other interesting candidate genes related to cell wall modifications, water import, auxin and ethylene signalling, transcription control, or organ identity were also found under berry weight QTLs. Conclusion We discovered a total of nine new QTLs for berry weight or seed traits in grapevine, thereby increasing more than twofold the number of reliable QTLs for these traits available for marker assisted selection or candidate gene studies. The lack of colocalization between berry and

  13. Phenology, Canopy Aging and Seasonal Carbon Balance as Related to Delayed Winter Pruning of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sangiovese Grapevines

    PubMed Central

    Gatti, Matteo; Pirez, Facundo J.; Chiari, Giorgio; Tombesi, Sergio; Palliotti, Alberto; Merli, Maria C.; Poni, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Manipulating or shifting annual grapevine growing cycle to offset limitations imposed by global warming is a must today, and delayed winter pruning is a tool to achieve it. However, no information is available about its physiological background, especially in relation to modifications in canopy phenology, demography and seasonal carbon budget. Mechanistic hypothesis underlying this work was that very late winter pruning (LWP) can achieve significant postponement of phenological stages so that ripening might occur in a cooler period and, concurrently, ripening potential can be improved due to higher efficiency and prolonged longevity of the canopy. Variability in the dynamics of the annual cycle was created in mature potted cv. Sangiovese grapevines subjected to either standard winter pruning (SWP) or late and very late winter pruning (LWP, VLWP) performed when apical shoots on the unpruned canes were at the stage of 2 and 7 unfolded leaves. Vegetative growth, phenology and canopy net CO2 exchange (NCER) were followed throughout the season. Despite LWP and VLWP induced a bud-burst delay of 17 and 31 days vs. SWP, the delay was fully offset at harvest for LWP and was reduced to 6 days in VLWP. LWP showed notably higher canopy efficiency as shorter time needed to reach maximum NCER/leaf area (22 days vs. 34 in SWP), highest maximum NCER/leaf area (+37% as compared to SWP) and higher NCER/leaf area rates from veraison to end of season. As a result, seasonal cumulated carbon in LWP was 17% higher than SWP. A negative functional relationship was also established between amount of leaf area removed at winter pruning and yield per vine and berry number per cluster. Although retarded winter pruning was not able to postpone late-season phenological stages under the warm conditions of this study, it showed a remarkable potential to limit yield while improving grape quality, thereby fostering the hypothesis that it could be used to replace time-consuming and costly cluster

  14. Vitis vinifera terpenoid cyclases: functional identification of two sesquiterpene synthase cDNAs encoding (+)-valencene synthase and (-)-germacrene D synthase and expression of mono- and sesquiterpene synthases in grapevine flowers and berries.

    PubMed

    Lücker, Joost; Bowen, Pat; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2004-10-01

    Valencene is a volatile sesquiterpene emitted from flowers of grapevine, Vitis vinifera L. A full-length cDNA from the cultivar Gewürztraminer was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli and found to encode valencene synthase (VvVal). The two major products formed by recombinant VvVal enzyme activity with farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) as substrate are (+)-valencene and (-)-7-epi-alpha-selinene. Grapevine valencene synthase is closely related to a second sesquiterpene synthase from this species, (-)-germacrene D synthase (VvGerD). VvVal and VvGerD cDNA probes revealed strong signals in Northern hybridizations with RNA isolated from grapevine flower buds. Transcript levels were lower in open pre-anthesis flowers, flowers after anthesis, or at early onset of fruit development. Similar results were obtained using a third probe, (-)-alpha-terpineol synthase, a monoterpenol synthase. Sesquiterpene synthase and monoterpene synthase transcripts were not detected in the mesocarp and exocarp during early stages of fruit development, but transcripts hybridizing with VvVal appeared during late ripening of the berries. Sesquiterpene synthase transcripts were also detected in young seeds. PMID:15464152

  15. Genome Wide Transcriptional Profile Analysis of Vitis amurensis and Vitis vinifera in Response to Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Haiping; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Lina; Xiang, Yue; Fang, Linchuan; Li, Jitao; Sun, Xiaoming; Wang, Nian; Londo, Jason P.; Li, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Grape is one of the most important fruit crops worldwide. The suitable geographical locations and productivity of grapes are largely limited by temperature. Vitis amurensis is a wild grapevine species with remarkable cold-tolerance, exceeding that of Vitis vinifera, the dominant cultivated species of grapevine. However, the molecular mechanisms that contribute to the enhanced freezing tolerance of V. amurensis remain unknown. Here we used deep sequencing data from restriction endonuclease-generated cDNA fragments to evaluate the whole genome wide modification of transcriptome of V. amurensis under cold treatment. Vitis vinifera cv. Muscat of Hamburg was used as control to help investigate the distinctive features of V. amruensis in responding to cold stress. Approximately 9 million tags were sequenced from non-cold treatment (NCT) and cold treatment (CT) cDNA libraries in each species of grapevine sampled from shoot apices. Alignment of tags into V. vinifera cv. Pinot noir (PN40024) annotated genome identified over 15,000 transcripts in each library in V. amruensis and more than 16,000 in Muscat of Hamburg. Comparative analysis between NCT and CT libraries indicate that V. amurensis has fewer differential expressed genes (DEGs, 1314 transcripts) than Muscat of Hamburg (2307 transcripts) when exposed to cold stress. Common DEGs (408 transcripts) suggest that some genes provide fundamental roles during cold stress in grapes. The most robust DEGs (more than 20-fold change) also demonstrated significant differences between two kinds of grapevine, indicating that cold stress may trigger species specific pathways in V. amurensis. Functional categories of DEGs indicated that the proportion of up-regulated transcripts related to metabolism, transport, signal transduction and transcription were more abundant in V. amurensis. Several highly expressed transcripts that were found uniquely accumulated in V. amurensis are discussed in detail. This subset of unique candidate

  16. The coding region of the UFGT gene is a source of diagnostic SNP markers that allow single-locus DNA genotyping for the assessment of cultivar identity and ancestry in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitis vinifera L. is one of society’s most important agricultural crops with a broad genetic variability. The difficulty in recognizing grapevine genotypes based on ampelographic traits and secondary metabolites prompted the development of molecular markers suitable for achieving variety genetic identification. Findings Here, we propose a comparison between a multi-locus barcoding approach based on six chloroplast markers and a single-copy nuclear gene sequencing method using five coding regions combined with a character-based system with the aim of reconstructing cultivar-specific haplotypes and genotypes to be exploited for the molecular characterization of 157 V. vinifera accessions. The analysis of the chloroplast target regions proved the inadequacy of the DNA barcoding approach at the subspecies level, and hence further DNA genotyping analyses were targeted on the sequences of five nuclear single-copy genes amplified across all of the accessions. The sequencing of the coding region of the UFGT nuclear gene (UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-0-glucosyltransferase, the key enzyme for the accumulation of anthocyanins in berry skins) enabled the discovery of discriminant SNPs (1/34 bp) and the reconstruction of 130 V. vinifera distinct genotypes. Most of the genotypes proved to be cultivar-specific, and only few genotypes were shared by more, although strictly related, cultivars. Conclusion On the whole, this technique was successful for inferring SNP-based genotypes of grapevine accessions suitable for assessing the genetic identity and ancestry of international cultivars and also useful for corroborating some hypotheses regarding the origin of local varieties, suggesting several issues of misidentification (synonymy/homonymy). PMID:24298902

  17. Hybridization of cultivated Vitis vinifera with wild V. californica and V. girdiana in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The native wild grape species of northern California, Vitis californica Benth. (California wild grape), and V. girdiana Munson (desert wild grape) in southern California are under increasing pressure from loss of habitat and from interbreeding with the domesticated grapevine, V. vinifera L. For its...

  18. Effects of Grapevine Leafroll associated Virus 3 (GLRaV-3) and duration of infection on fruit composition and wine chemical profile of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc.

    PubMed

    Montero, R; Mundy, D; Albright, A; Grose, C; Trought, M C T; Cohen, D; Chooi, K M; MacDiarmid, R; Flexas, J; Bota, J

    2016-04-15

    In order to determine the effects of Grapevine Leafroll associated Virus 3 (GLRaV-3) on fruit composition and chemical profile of juice and wine from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc grown in New Zealand, composition variables were measured on fruit from vines either infected with GLRaV-3 (established or recent infections) or uninfected vines. Physiological ripeness (20.4°Brix) was the criterion established to determine the harvest date for each of the three treatments. Date of grape ripeness was strongly affected by virus infection. In juice and wine, GLRaV-3 infection prior to 2008 reduced titratable acidity compared with the uninfected control. Differences observed in amino acids from the three infection status groups did not modify basic wine chemical properties. In conclusion, GLRaV-3 infection slowed grape ripening, but at equivalent ripeness to result in minimal effects on the juice and wine chemistry. Time of infection produced differences in specific plant physiological variables. PMID:26675855

  19. Carbon balance, partitioning and photosynthetic acclimation in fruit-bearing grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo) grown under simulated climate change (elevated CO2, elevated temperature and moderate drought) scenarios in temperature gradient greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Parra, Carolina; Aranjuelo, Iker; Pascual, Inmaculada; Erice, Gorka; Sanz-Sáez, Álvaro; Aguirreolea, Jone; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel; Irigoyen, Juan José; Araus, José Luis; Morales, Fermín

    2015-02-01

    Although plant performance under elevated CO2 has been extensively studied in the past little is known about photosynthetic performance changing simultaneously CO2, water availability and temperature conditions. Moreover, despite of its relevancy in crop responsiveness to elevated CO2 conditions, plant level C balance is a topic that, comparatively, has received little attention. In order to test responsiveness of grapevine photosynthetic apparatus to predicted climate change conditions, grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo) fruit-bearing cuttings were exposed to different CO2 (elevated, 700ppm vs. ambient, ca. 400ppm), temperature (ambient vs. elevated, ambient +4°C) and irrigation levels (partial vs. full irrigation). Carbon balance was followed monitoring net photosynthesis (AN, C gain), respiration (RD) and photorespiration (RL) (C losses). Modification of environment (13)C isotopic composition (δ(13)C) under elevated CO2 (from -10.30 to -24.93‰) enabled the further characterization of C partitioning into roots, cuttings, shoots, petioles, leaves, rachides and berries. Irrespective of irrigation level and temperature, exposure to elevated CO2 induced photosynthetic acclimation of plants. C/N imbalance reflected the inability of plants grown at 700ppm CO2 to develop strong C sinks. Partitioning of labeled C to storage organs (main stem and roots) did not avoid accumulation of labeled photoassimilates in leaves, affecting negatively Rubisco carboxylation activity. The study also revealed that, after 20 days of treatment, no oxidative damage to chlorophylls or carotenoids was observed, suggesting a protective role of CO2 either at current or elevated temperatures against the adverse effect of water stress. PMID:25462972

  20. VitisNet: “Omics” Integration through Grapevine Molecular Networks

    PubMed Central

    Grimplet, Jérôme; Cramer, Grant R.; Dickerson, Julie A.; Mathiason, Kathy; Van Hemert, John; Fennell, Anne Y.

    2009-01-01

    Background Genomic data release for the grapevine has increased exponentially in the last five years. The Vitis vinifera genome has been sequenced and Vitis EST, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic tools and data sets continue to be developed. The next critical challenge is to provide biological meaning to this tremendous amount of data by annotating genes and integrating them within their biological context. We have developed and validated a system of Grapevine Molecular Networks (VitisNet). Methodology/Principal Findings The sequences from the Vitis vinifera (cv. Pinot Noir PN40024) genome sequencing project and ESTs from the Vitis genus have been paired and the 39,424 resulting unique sequences have been manually annotated. Among these, 13,145 genes have been assigned to 219 networks. The pathway sets include 88 “Metabolic”, 15 “Genetic Information Processing”, 12 “Environmental Information Processing”, 3 “Cellular Processes”, 21 “Transport”, and 80 “Transcription Factors”. The quantitative data is loaded onto molecular networks, allowing the simultaneous visualization of changes in the transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome for a given experiment. Conclusions/Significance VitisNet uses manually annotated networks in SBML or XML format, enabling the integration of large datasets, streamlining biological functional processing, and improving the understanding of dynamic processes in systems biology experiments. VitisNet is grounded in the Vitis vinifera genome (currently at 8x coverage) and can be readily updated with subsequent updates of the genome or biochemical discoveries. The molecular network files can be dynamically searched by pathway name or individual genes, proteins, or metabolites through the MetNet Pathway database and web-portal at http://metnet3.vrac.iastate.edu/. All VitisNet files including the manual annotation of the grape genome encompassing pathway names, individual genes, their genome identifier, and

  1. Wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) color associates with allelic variation in the domestication gene VvmybA1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the process of crop domestication and early selection, numerous changes occur in the genetic and physiological make-up of crop plants. In grapevine (Vitis vinifera) numerous changes have occurred as a result of human selection, including the emergence of hermaphroditism and greatly increased...

  2. Genome-wide identification of WRKY family genes and their response to cold stress in Vitis vinifera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    WRKY transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators in plants. WRKY genes are not only found to play significant roles in biotic and abiotic stress response, but also regulate growth and development. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) production is largely limited by str...

  3. Genetic variation in a grapevine progeny (Vitis vinifera L. cvs Grenache×Syrah) reveals inconsistencies between maintenance of daytime leaf water potential and response of transpiration rate under drought

    PubMed Central

    Coupel-Ledru, Aude; Lebon, Éric; Christophe, Angélique; Doligez, Agnès; Cabrera-Bosquet, Llorenç; Péchier, Philippe; Hamard, Philippe; This, Patrice; Simonneau, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    In the face of water stress, plants evolved with different abilities to limit the decrease in leaf water potential, notably in the daytime (ΨM). So-called isohydric species efficiently maintain high ΨM, whereas anisohydric species cannot prevent ΨM from dropping as soil water deficit develops. The genetic and physiological origins of these differences in (an)isohydric behaviours remain to be clarified. This is of particular interest within species such as Vitis vinifera L. where continuous variation in the level of isohydry has been observed among cultivars. With this objective, a 2 year experiment was conducted on the pseudo-F1 progeny from a cross between the two widespread cultivars Syrah and Grenache using a phenotyping platform coupled to a controlled-environment chamber. Potted plants of all the progeny were analysed for ΨM, transpiration rate, and soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance, under both well-watered and water deficit conditions. A high genetic variability was found for all the above traits. Four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected for ΨM under water deficit conditions, and 28 other QTLs were detected for the different traits in either condition. Genetic variation in ΨM maintenance under water deficit weakly correlated with drought-induced reduction in transpiration rate in the progeny, and QTLs for both traits did not completely co-localize. This indicates that genetic variation in the control of ΨM under water deficit was not due simply to variation in transpiration sensitivity to soil drying. Possible origins of the diversity in (an)isohydric behaviours in grapevine are discussed on the basis of concurrent variations in soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance and stomatal control of transpiration. PMID:25381432

  4. Characterization of VvSERK1, VvSERK2, VvSERK3 and VvL1L genes and their expression during somatic embryogenesis of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Schellenbaum, Paul; Jacques, Alban; Maillot, Pascale; Bertsch, Christophe; Mazet, Flore; Farine, Sibylle; Walter, Bernard

    2008-12-01

    Little is known about the genes expressed during grapevine somatic embryogenesis. Both groups of Somatic Embryogenesis Receptor Kinase (SERK) and Leafy Cotyledon (LEC and L1L) genes seem to play key roles during somatic embryogenesis in various plant species. Therefore, we identified and analysed the sequences of VvSERK and VvL1L (Leafy cotyledon1-Like) genes. The deduced amino acid sequences of VvSERK1, VvSERK2 and VvSERK3 are very similar to that of registered SERK proteins, with highest homologies for the kinase domain in the C-terminal region. The amino acid sequence of VvL1L presents all the domains that are characteristic for LEC1 and L1L proteins, particularly, the 16 amino acid residues that serve as signature of the B-domain. Phylogenetic analysis distinguishes members of subclass LEC1 and subclass L1L, and VvL1L is closely related to L1L proteins. Using semi-quantitative RT-PCR, we studied gene expression of VvSERK1, VvSERK2, VvSERK3 and VvL1L in calli and somatic embryos obtained from anther culture of Vitis vinifera L. cv Chardonnay. Expression of VvSERK2 is relatively stable during in vitro culture. In contrast, VvSERK1, VvSERK3 and VvL1L are expressed more 4 to 6 weeks after transfer of the calli onto embryo induction medium, before the visible appearance of embryos on the calli as seen by environmental scanning electron microscopy. Later on (8 weeks after transfer) VvSERK1 expression is maintained in the embryogenic calli and VvSERK3 in the embryos, whereas VvL1L expression is very low. All together, these data suggest the involvement of VvSERK and VvL1L genes in grapevine somatic embryogenesis. PMID:18766346

  5. Colour variation in red grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.): genomic organisation, expression of flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase, flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase genes and related metabolite profiling of red cyanidin-/blue delphinidin-based anthocyanins in berry skin

    PubMed Central

    Castellarin, Simone D; Di Gaspero, Gabriele; Marconi, Raffaella; Nonis, Alberto; Peterlunger, Enrico; Paillard, Sophie; Adam-Blondon, Anne-Francoise; Testolin, Raffaele

    2006-01-01

    Background Structural genes of the phenyl-propanoid pathway which encode flavonoid 3'- and 3',5'-hydroxylases (F3'H and F3'5'H) have long been invoked to explain the biosynthesis of cyanidin- and delphinidin-based anthocyanin pigments in the so-called red cultivars of grapevine. The relative proportion of the two types of anthocyanins is largely under genetic control and determines the colour variation among red/purple/blue berry grape varieties and their corresponding wines. Results Gene fragments of VvF3'H and VvF3'5'H, that were isolated from Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon' using degenerate primers designed on plant homologous genes, translated into 313 and 239 amino acid protein fragments, respectively, with up to 76% and 82% identity to plant CYP75 cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. Putative function was assigned on the basis of sequence homology, expression profiling and its correlation with metabolite accumulation at ten different ripening stages. At the onset of colour transition, transcriptional induction of VvF3'H and VvF3'5'H was temporally coordinated with the beginning of anthocyanin biosynthesis, the expression being 2-fold and 50-fold higher, respectively, in red berries versus green berries. The peak of VvF3'5'H expression was observed two weeks later concomitantly with the increase of the ratio of delphinidin-/cyanidin-derivatives. The analysis of structural genomics revealed that two copies of VvF3'H are physically linked on linkage group no. 17 and several copies of VvF3'5'H are tightly clustered and embedded into a segmental duplication on linkage group no. 6, unveiling a high complexity when compared to other plant flavonoid hydroxylase genes known so far, mostly in ornamentals. Conclusion We have shown that genes encoding flavonoid 3'- and 3',5'-hydroxylases are expressed in any tissues of the grape plant that accumulate flavonoids and, particularly, in skin of ripening red berries that synthesise mostly anthocyanins. The correlation between

  6. Genetic structure and differentiation in cultivated grapes, Vitis vinifera, L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    222 cultivated (Vitis vinifera) and 22 wild (V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris) grape accessions were analysed for genetic diversity and differentiation at eight microsatellite loci. A total of 94 alleles were detected, with extensive polymorphism among the accessions. Multivariate relationships among acc...

  7. Grapevine red blotch-associated virus is Present in Free-Living Vitis spp. Proximal to Cultivated Grapevines.

    PubMed

    Perry, Keith L; McLane, Heather; Hyder, Muhammad Z; Dangl, Gerald S; Thompson, Jeremy R; Fuchs, Marc F

    2016-06-01

    Red blotch is an emerging disease of grapevine associated with grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV). The virus spreads with infected planting stocks but no vector of epidemiological significance has been conclusively identified. A vineyard block of red-blotch-affected Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet franc' clone 214 was observed in California, with a clustering of infected, symptomatic vines focused along one edge of the field proximal to a riparian habitat with free-living Vitis spp. No genetic heterogeneity was observed in a 587-nucleotide region of the GRBaV genome in a population of 44 Cabernet franc clone 214 isolates. By contrast, genetic differences were observed in isolates from other cultivars and clones growing in adjacent blocks. GRBaV was confirmed infecting four free-living vines, two of which were shown to be V. californica × V. vinifera hybrids. The genomes of three free-living GRBaV vine isolates and seven from V. vinifera cultivars were compared; free-living vine isolates were shown to be more similar to each other and a 'Merlot' isolate than to the other cultivated vine isolates. The finding that GRBaV is present in free-living Vitis spp. indicates the virus can be spread by natural (nonhuman-mediated) means, and we hypothesize that in-field spread of GRBaV is occurring. PMID:26960112

  8. The Diversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Amplified from Grapevine Roots (Vitis vinifera L.) in Oregon Vineyards is Seasonally Stable and Influenced by Soil and Vine Age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with the roots of grapevines in 10 commercial Oregon vineyards was assessed by examining spores in soil and by amplifying mycorrhizal DNA from ‘Pinot noir’ root extracts. Seventeen spore morphotypes were found in the soil beneath the vin...

  9. Metabolic Consequences of Infection of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. “Modra frankinja” with Flavescence Dorée Phytoplasma

    PubMed Central

    Prezelj, Nina; Covington, Elizabeth; Roitsch, Thomas; Gruden, Kristina; Fragner, Lena; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Chersicola, Marko; Vodopivec, Maja; Dermastia, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Flavescence dorée, caused by the quarantine phytoplasma FDp, represents the most devastating of the grapevine yellows diseases in Europe. In an integrated study we have explored the FDp–grapevine interaction in infected grapevines of cv. “Modra frankinja” under natural conditions in the vineyard. In FDp-infected leaf vein-enriched tissues, the seasonal transcriptional profiles of 14 genes selected from various metabolic pathways showed an FDp-specific plant response compared to other grapevine yellows and uncovered a new association of the SWEET17a vacuolar transporter of fructose with pathogens. Non-targeted metabolome analysis from leaf vein-enriched tissues identified 22 significantly changed compounds with increased levels during infection. Several metabolites corroborated the gene expression study. Detailed investigation of the dynamics of carbohydrate metabolism revealed significant accumulation of sucrose and starch in the mesophyll of FDp-infected leaves, as well as significant up-regulation of genes involved in their biosynthesis. In addition, infected leaves had high activities of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and, more significantly, sucrose synthase. The data support the conclusion that FDp infection inhibits phloem transport, resulting in accumulation of carbohydrates and secondary metabolites that provoke a source-sink transition and defense response status. PMID:27242887

  10. Influence of Grapevine leafroll associated viruses (GLRaV-2 and -3) on the Fruit Composition of Oregon Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir: Phenolics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some of the ten known Grapevine leafroll associated viruses (GLRaVs) have negative impacts upon vine productivity and grape quality, though these negative influences are dependent on factors such as GLRaV, cultivar, clone, rootstock, and vine age. This is the first study to report on GLRaV-2 and GLR...

  11. Evolution and history of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) under domestication: new morphometric perspectives to understand seed domestication syndrome and reveal origins of ancient European cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Terral, Jean-Frédéric; Tabard, Elidie; Bouby, Laurent; Ivorra, Sarah; Pastor, Thierry; Figueiral, Isabel; Picq, Sandrine; Chevance, Jean-Baptiste; Jung, Cécile; Fabre, Laurent; Tardy, Christophe; Compan, Michel; Bacilieri, Roberto; Lacombe, Thierry; This, Patrice

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims In spite of the abundance of archaeological, bio-archaeological, historical and genetic data, the origins, historical biogeography, identity of ancient grapevine cultivars and mechanisms of domestication are still largely unknown. Here, analysis of variation in seed morphology aims to provide accurate criteria for the discrimination between wild grapes and modern cultivars and to understand changes in functional traits in relation to the domestication process. This approach is also used to quantify the phenotypic diversity in the wild and cultivated compartments and to provide a starting point for comparing well-preserved archaeological material, in order to elucidate the history of grapevine varieties. Methods Geometrical analysis (elliptic Fourier transform method) was applied to grapevine seed outlines from modern wild individuals, cultivars and well-preserved archaeological material from southern France, dating back to the first to second centuries. Key Results and Conclusions Significant relationships between seed shape and taxonomic status, geographical origin (country or region) of accessions and parentage of varieties are highlighted, as previously noted based on genetic approaches. The combination of the analysis of modern reference material and well-preserved archaeological seeds provides original data about the history of ancient cultivated forms, some of them morphologically close to the current ‘Clairette’ and ‘Mondeuse blanche’ cultivars. Archaeobiological records seem to confirm the complexity of human contact, exchanges and migrations which spread grapevine cultivation in Europe and in Mediterranean areas, and argue in favour of the existence of local domestication in the Languedoc (southern France) region during Antiquity. PMID:20034966

  12. [Genetic Diversity of Vitis vinifera L. in Azerbaijan].

    PubMed

    Salayeva, S J; Ojaghi, J M; Pashayeva, A N; Izzatullayeva, V I; Akhundova, E M; Akperov, Z I

    2016-04-01

    To examine the genetic diversity of Vitis vinifera L., growing in the Republic of Azerbaijan in the region near the Caspian Sea, nuclear genomes of 31 cultivated and 34 wild grapevine accessions were studied at population and individual levels using five ISSR primers. In total, 51 fragments were amplified, of which 45 were found to be polymorphic. A high level of polymorphism was revealed (the mean PPF and PIC values constituted 87.69% and 0.94, respectively). High values of the EMR, MI, and RP indices showed the effectiveness of the application of ISSR primers and the possibility of their use in further investigations in this direction. Cluster analysis based on Nei's genetic distance values showed that all genotypes could be grouped into seven main clusters. Furthermore, no differences between the wild and cultivated grape wine accessions were revealed. For instance, there was no distinct distribution of the accessions according to their geographical localization. On the basis of the PIC values, the group of cultivars from Absheron Peninsula--was distinguished by the highest polymorphism level (PIC = 0.36). Natural populations from the Guba and Shabran regions were characterized by a relatively low polymorphism level (PIC = 0.31 and PIC = 0.28, respectively); and a wild population from Nabran demonstrated the lowest polymorphism level (PIC = 0.25). The data obtained confirmed paleontological and historical data of different periods, provide the supposition that Azerbaijan is the center of diversity of V. vinifera L. In addition, our data indicate that Azerbaijan grape landraces originated from local wild forms. PMID:27529978

  13. A Three-dimensional Statistical Reconstruction Model of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Simulating Canopy Structure Variability within and between Cultivar/Training System Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Louarn, Gaëtan; Lecoeur, Jérémie; Lebon, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims In grapevine, canopy-structure-related variations in light interception and distribution affect productivity, yield and the quality of the harvested product. A simple statistical model for reconstructing three-dimensional (3D) canopy structures for various cultivar–training system (C × T) pairs has been implemented with special attention paid to balance the time required for model parameterization and accuracy of the representations from organ to stand scales. Such an approach particularly aims at overcoming the weak integration of interplant variability using the usual direct 3D measurement methods. Model This model is original in combining a turbid-medium-like envelope enclosing the volume occupied by vine shoots with the use of discrete geometric polygons representing leaves randomly located within this volume to represent plant structure. Reconstruction rules were adapted to capture the main determinants of grapevine shoot architecture and their variability. Using a simplified set of parameters, it was possible to describe (1) the 3D path of the main shoot, (2) the volume occupied by the foliage around this path and (3) the orientation of individual leaf surfaces. Model parameterization (estimation of the probability distribution for each parameter) was carried out for eight contrasting C × T pairs. Key Results and Conclusions The parameter values obtained in each situation were consistent with our knowledge of grapevine architecture. Quantitative assessments for the generated virtual scenes were carried out at the canopy and plant scales. Light interception efficiency and local variations of light transmittance within and between experimental plots were correctly simulated for all canopies studied. The approach predicted these key ecophysiological variables significantly more accurately than the classical complete digitization method with a limited number of plants. In addition, this model accurately reproduced the characteristics of a

  14. Flowering as the Most Highly Sensitive Period of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv Mourvèdre) to the Botryosphaeria Dieback Agents Neofusicoccum parvum and Diplodia seriata Infection

    PubMed Central

    Spagnolo, Alessandro; Larignon, Philippe; Magnin-Robert, Maryline; Hovasse, Agnès; Cilindre, Clara; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Clément, Christophe; Schaeffer-Reiss, Christine; Fontaine, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Botryosphaeria dieback is a fungal grapevine trunk disease that currently represents a threat for viticulture worldwide because of the important economical losses due to reduced yield of affected plants and their premature death. Neofusicoccum parvum and Diplodia seriata are among the causal agents. Vine green stems were artificially infected with N. parvum or D. seriata at the onset of three different phenological stages (G stage (separated clusters), flowering and veraison). Highest mean lesion lengths were recorded at flowering. Major proteome changes associated to artificial infections during the three different phenological stages were also reported using two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D)-based analysis. Twenty (G stage), 15 (flowering) and 13 (veraison) differentially expressed protein spots were subjected to nanoLC-MS/MS and a total of 247, 54 and 25 proteins were respectively identified. At flowering, a weaker response to the infection was likely activated as compared to the other stages, and some defense-related proteins were even down regulated (e.g., superoxide dismutase, major latex-like protein, and pathogenesis related protein 10). Globally, the flowering period seemed to represent the period of highest sensitivity of grapevine to Botryosphaeria dieback agent infection, possibly being related to the high metabolic activity in the inflorescences. PMID:24886812

  15. Flowering as the most highly sensitive period of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv Mourvèdre) to the Botryosphaeria dieback agents Neofusicoccum parvum and Diplodia seriata infection.

    PubMed

    Spagnolo, Alessandro; Larignon, Philippe; Magnin-Robert, Maryline; Hovasse, Agnès; Cilindre, Clara; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Clément, Christophe; Schaeffer-Reiss, Christine; Fontaine, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Botryosphaeria dieback is a fungal grapevine trunk disease that currently represents a threat for viticulture worldwide because of the important economical losses due to reduced yield of affected plants and their premature death. Neofusicoccum parvum and Diplodia seriata are among the causal agents. Vine green stems were artificially infected with N. parvum or D. seriata at the onset of three different phenological stages (G stage (separated clusters), flowering and veraison). Highest mean lesion lengths were recorded at flowering. Major proteome changes associated to artificial infections during the three different phenological stages were also reported using two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D)-based analysis. Twenty (G stage), 15 (flowering) and 13 (veraison) differentially expressed protein spots were subjected to nanoLC-MS/MS and a total of 247, 54 and 25 proteins were respectively identified. At flowering, a weaker response to the infection was likely activated as compared to the other stages, and some defense-related proteins were even down regulated (e.g., superoxide dismutase, major latex-like protein, and pathogenesis related protein 10). Globally, the flowering period seemed to represent the period of highest sensitivity of grapevine to Botryosphaeria dieback agent infection, possibly being related to the high metabolic activity in the inflorescences. PMID:24886812

  16. Alterations in primary and secondary metabolism in Vitis vinifera 'Malvasía de Banyalbufar' upon infection with Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3.

    PubMed

    Montero, Rafael; Pérez-Bueno, María Luisa; Barón, Matilde; Florez-Sarasa, Igor; Tohge, Takayuki; Fernie, Alisdair Robert; Ouad, Hanan El Aou; Flexas, Jaume; Bota, Josefina

    2016-08-01

    Plant defense mechanisms against pathogens result in differential regulation of various processes of primary and secondary metabolism. Imaging techniques, such as fluorescence imaging and thermography, are very valuable tools providing spatial and temporal information about these processes. In this study, effects of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) on grapevine physiology were analyzed in pot-grown asymptomatic plants of the white cultivar Malvasía de Banyalbufar. The virus triggered changes in the activity of photosynthesis and secondary metabolism. There was a decrease in the photorespiratory intermediates glycine and serine in infected plants, possibly as a defense response against the infection. The content of malate, which plays an important role in plant metabolism, also decreased. These results correlate with the increased non-photochemical quenching found in infected plants. On the other hand, the concentration of flavonols (represented by myricetin, kaempferol and quercetin derivatives) and hydroxycinnamic acids (which include derivatives of caffeic acid) increased following infection by the virus. These compounds could be responsible for the increase in multicolor fluorescence F440 (blue fluorescence) and F520 (green fluorescence) on the leaves, and changes in the fluorescence parameters F440/F680, F440/F740, F520/F680, F520/F740 and F680/F740. The combined analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics and blue-green fluorescence emitted by phenolics could constitute disease signatures allowing the discrimination between GLRaV-3 infected and non-infected plants at very early stage of infection, prior to the development of symptoms. PMID:26926417

  17. Naturalised Vitis rootstocks in Europe and consequences to native wild grapevine.

    PubMed

    Arrigo, Nils; Arnold, Claire

    2007-01-01

    The genus Vitis is represented by several coexisting species in Europe. Our study focuses on naturalised rootstocks that originate in viticulture. The consequences of their presence to the landscape and to native European species (Vitis vinifera ssp. silvestris) are evaluated. This study compares ecological traits (seven qualitative and quantitative descriptors) and the genetic diversity (10 SSR markers) of populations of naturalised rootstocks and native wild grapevines. 18 large naturalised rootstock populations were studied in the Rhône watershed. Wild European grapevines are present in four main habitats (screes, alluvial forests, hedges, and streamside hedges). In contrast, naturalised rootstock populations are mainly located in alluvial forests, but they clearly take advantage of alluvial system dynamics and connectivity at the landscape level. These latter populations appear to reproduce sexually, and show a higher genetic diversity than Vitis vinifera ssp. silvestris. The regrouping of naturalised rootstocks in interconnected populations tends to create active hybrid swarms of rootstocks. The rootstocks show characters of invasive plants. The spread of naturalised rootstocks in the environment, the acceleration of the decline of the European wild grapevine, and the propagation of genes of viticultural interest in natural populations are potential consequences that should be kept in mind when undertaking appropriate management measures. PMID:17565374

  18. Naturalised Vitis Rootstocks in Europe and Consequences to Native Wild Grapevine

    PubMed Central

    Arrigo, Nils; Arnold, Claire

    2007-01-01

    The genus Vitis is represented by several coexisting species in Europe. Our study focuses on naturalised rootstocks that originate in viticulture. The consequences of their presence to the landscape and to native European species (Vitis vinifera ssp. silvestris) are evaluated. This study compares ecological traits (seven qualitative and quantitative descriptors) and the genetic diversity (10 SSR markers) of populations of naturalised rootstocks and native wild grapevines. 18 large naturalised rootstock populations were studied in the Rhône watershed. Wild European grapevines are present in four main habitats (screes, alluvial forests, hedges, and streamside hedges). In contrast, naturalised rootstock populations are mainly located in alluvial forests, but they clearly take advantage of alluvial system dynamics and connectivity at the landscape level. These latter populations appear to reproduce sexually, and show a higher genetic diversity than Vitis vinifera ssp. silvestris. The regrouping of naturalised rootstocks in interconnected populations tends to create active hybrid swarms of rootstocks. The rootstocks show characters of invasive plants. The spread of naturalised rootstocks in the environment, the acceleration of the decline of the European wild grapevine, and the propagation of genes of viticultural interest in natural populations are potential consequences that should be kept in mind when undertaking appropriate management measures. PMID:17565374

  19. Climate change conditions (elevated CO2 and temperature) and UV-B radiation affect grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Tempranillo) leaf carbon assimilation, altering fruit ripening rates.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lüscher, J; Morales, F; Sánchez-Díaz, M; Delrot, S; Aguirreolea, J; Gomès, E; Pascual, I

    2015-07-01

    The increase in grape berry ripening rates associated to climate change is a growing concern for wine makers as it rises the alcohol content of the wine. The present work studied the combined effects of elevated CO2, temperature and UV-B radiation on leaf physiology and berry ripening rates. Three doses of UV-B: 0, 5.98, 9.66 kJm(-2)d(-1), and two CO2-temperature regimes: ambient CO2-24/14 °C (day/night) (current situation) and 700 ppm CO2-28/18 °C (climate change) were imposed to grapevine fruit-bearing cuttings from fruit set to maturity under greenhouse-controlled conditions. Photosynthetic performance was always higher under climate change conditions. High levels of UV-B radiation down regulated carbon fixation rates. A transient recovery took place at veraison, through the accumulation of flavonols and the increase of antioxidant enzyme activities. Interacting effects between UV-B and CO2-temperature regimes were observed for the lipid peroxidation, which suggests that UV-B may contribute to palliate the signs of oxidative damage induced under elevated CO2-temperature. Photosynthetic and ripening rates were correlated. Thereby, the hastening effect of climate change conditions on ripening, associated to higher rates of carbon fixation, was attenuated by UV-B radiation. PMID:26025530

  20. Analysis of the Molecular Dialogue Between Gray Mold (Botrytis cinerea) and Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) Reveals a Clear Shift in Defense Mechanisms During Berry Ripening.

    PubMed

    Kelloniemi, Jani; Trouvelot, Sophie; Héloir, Marie-Claire; Simon, Adeline; Dalmais, Bérengère; Frettinger, Patrick; Cimerman, Agnès; Fermaud, Marc; Roudet, Jean; Baulande, Sylvain; Bruel, Christophe; Choquer, Mathias; Couvelard, Linhdavanh; Duthieuw, Mathilde; Ferrarini, Alberto; Flors, Victor; Le Pêcheur, Pascal; Loisel, Elise; Morgant, Guillaume; Poussereau, Nathalie; Pradier, Jean-Marc; Rascle, Christine; Trdá, Lucie; Poinssot, Benoit; Viaud, Muriel

    2015-11-01

    Mature grapevine berries at the harvesting stage (MB) are very susceptible to the gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea, while veraison berries (VB) are not. We conducted simultaneous microscopic and transcriptomic analyses of the pathogen and the host to investigate the infection process developed by B. cinerea on MB versus VB, and the plant defense mechanisms deployed to stop the fungus spreading. On the pathogen side, our genome-wide transcriptomic data revealed that B. cinerea genes upregulated during infection of MB are enriched in functional categories related to necrotrophy, such as degradation of the plant cell wall, proteolysis, membrane transport, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and detoxification. Quantitative-polymerase chain reaction on a set of representative genes related to virulence and microscopic observations further demonstrated that the infection is also initiated on VB but is stopped at the penetration stage. On the plant side, genome-wide transcriptomic analysis and metabolic data revealed a defense pathway switch during berry ripening. In response to B. cinerea inoculation, VB activated a burst of ROS, the salicylate-dependent defense pathway, the synthesis of the resveratrol phytoalexin, and cell-wall strengthening. On the contrary, in infected MB, the jasmonate-dependent pathway was activated, which did not stop the fungal necrotrophic process. PMID:26267356

  1. Contrasting physiological effects of partial root zone drying in field-grown grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Monastrell) according to total soil water availability

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Pascual; Dodd, Ian C.; Martinez-Cutillas, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Different spatial distributions of soil moisture were imposed on field-grown grapevines by applying the same irrigation volumes to the entire (DI; deficit irrigation) or part of the (PRD; partial root zone drying) root zone. Five treatments were applied: controls irrigated at 60% ETc (crop evapotranspiration) for the whole season (308 mm year−1); DI-1 and PRD-1 that received the same irrigation as controls before fruit set, 30% ETc from fruit set to harvest and 45% ETc post-harvest (192 mm year−1); and DI-2 and PRD-2 that were the same, except that 15% ETc was applied from fruit set to harvest (142 mm year−1). Compared with DI-1, PRD-1 maintained higher leaf area post-veraison and increased root water uptake, whole-plant hydraulic conductance, leaf transpiration, stomatal conductance, and photosynthesis, but decreased intrinsic gas exchange efficiency without causing differences in leaf xylem abscisic acid (ABA) concentration. Compared with DI-2, PRD-2 increased leaf xylem ABA concentration and decreased root water uptake, whole-plant hydraulic conductance, leaf transpiration, stomatal conductance, and photosynthesis, mainly at the beginning of PRD cycles. Distinctive PRD effects (e.g. greater stomatal closure) depended on the volumetric soil water content of the wet root zone, as predicted from a model of root-to-shoot ABA signalling. PMID:22451721

  2. Expression of ABA synthesis and metabolism genes under different irrigation strategies and atmospheric VPDs is associated with stomatal conductance in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon).

    PubMed

    Speirs, Jim; Binney, Allan; Collins, Marisa; Edwards, Everard; Loveys, Brian

    2013-04-01

    The influence of different levels of irrigation and of variation in atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD) on the synthesis, metabolism, and transport of abscisic acid (ABA) and the effects on stomatal conductance were examined in field-grown Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines. Xylem sap, leaf tissue, and root tissue were collected at regular intervals during two seasons in conjunction with measurements of leaf water potential (Ψleaf) and stomatal conductance (gs). The different irrigation levels significantly altered the Ψleaf and gs of the vines across both seasons. ABA abundance in the xylem sap was correlated with gs. The expression of genes associated with ABA synthesis, NCED1 and NCED2, was higher in the roots than in the leaves throughout and highest in the roots in mid January, a time when soil moisture declined and VPD was at its highest. Their expression in roots was also inversely related to the levels of irrigation and correlated with ABA abundance in the roots, xylem sap, and leaves. Three genes encoding ABA 8'-hydroxylases were isolated and their identities confirmed by expression in yeast cells. The expression of one of these, Hyd1, was elevated in leaves when VPD was below 2.0-2.5 kPa and minimal at higher VPD levels. The results provide evidence that ABA plays an important role in linking stomatal response to soil moisture status and that changes in ABA catabolism at or near its site of action allows optimization of gas exchange to current environmental conditions. PMID:23630325

  3. Proteomic analysis indicates massive changes in metabolism prior to the inhibition of growth and photosynthesis of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in response to water deficit

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines were exposed to a progressive, increasing water defict over 16 days. Shoot elongation and photosynthesis were measured for physiological responses to water deficit. The effect of water deficit over time on the abundance of individual proteins in growing shoot tips (including four immature leaves) was analyzed using nanoflow liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS). Results Water deficit progressively decreased shoot elongation, stomatal conductance and photosynthesis after Day 4; 2277 proteins were identified by shotgun proteomics with an average CV of 9% for the protein abundance of all proteins. There were 472 out of 942 (50%) proteins found in all samples that were significantly affected by water deficit. The 472 proteins were clustered into four groups: increased and decreased abundance of early- and late-responding protein profiles. Vines sensed the water deficit early, appearing to acclimate to stress, because the abundance of many proteins changed before decreases in shoot elongation, stomatal conductance and photosynthesis. Predominant functional categories of the early-responding proteins included photosynthesis, glycolysis, translation, antioxidant defense and growth-related categories (steroid metabolism and water transport), whereas additional proteins for late-responding proteins were largely involved with transport, photorespiration, antioxidants, amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism. Conclusions Proteomic responses to water deficit were dynamic with early, significant changes in abundance of proteins involved in translation, energy, antioxidant defense and steroid metabolism. The abundance of these proteins changed prior to any detectable decreases in shoot elongation, stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Many of these early-responding proteins are known to be regulated by post-transcriptional modifications such as phosphorylation. The proteomics analysis indicates massive and

  4. Nondestructive diagnostic test for nitrogen nutrition of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) based on dualex leaf-clip measurements in the field.

    PubMed

    Cerovic, Zoran G; Ghozlen, Naïma Ben; Milhade, Charlotte; Obert, Mickaël; Debuisson, Sébastien; Le Moigne, Marine

    2015-04-15

    Crop nitrogen status is a major issue for crop yield and quality. It is usually assessed by destructive leaf or petiole tissue analysis. A quantitative nondestructive optical estimation of N sufficiency would be a great leap forward toward precision crop management. We therefore calibrated three optical indices against leaf nitrogen content: chlorophyll (Chl), epidermal flavonols, and the nitrogen balance index (NBI), which is the ratio of the former two indices. NBI was the best estimator of leaf N content measured by the Dumas or Kjeldahl method with a root-mean-square error smaller than 2 mg of N g(-1) dry weight, followed by Chl (3 mg g(-1)) and flavonols (4 mg g(-1)). This allowed us to propose the threshold values for the Dualex optical indices that characterize nitrogen supply to grapevines: the first is the threshold below which N supply to the vine can be considered deficient, and the second is the threshold above which N supply is excessive. For a putative optimal N content of 30 mg g(-1) < x < 40 mg g(-1), these thresholds are 30 μg cm(-2) < x < 40 μg cm(-2) for Chl and 11 < x < 18 for NBI at flowering. At bunch closure, for N thresholds of 22 < x < 32, Chl is 29 < x < 37 and NBI is 8 < x < 11, in respective units. These values should be verified and refined in the future for various growth regions and cultivars using the specified protocol. The sample size should be 36-60 leaves from a fixed node position, preferably node no. 5 from the tip of the shoot. An alternative to the use of the NBI would be to discard leaves that are not light exposed by checking their flavonol content and to deduce the N sufficiency directly from the Chl values. PMID:25801210

  5. Clone lineages of grape phylloxera differ in their performance on Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Herbert, K S; Umina, P A; Mitrovski, P J; Powell, K S; Viduka, K; Hoffmann, A A

    2010-12-01

    Grape phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch, is an important pest of grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) (Vitaceae). The distribution and frequency of phylloxera clone lineages vary within infested regions of Australia, suggesting the introduction of separate lineages of D. vitifoliae with host associations. Virulence levels of particular phylloxera clones may vary on V. vinifera, but much of this evidence is indirect. In this study, we directly tested the performance of phylloxera clones on V. vinifera using an established excised root assay and a new glasshouse vine assessment. In the root assay, grape phylloxera clones differed in egg production and egg to adult survivorship. In the vine assay, clones differed in the number of immature and adult life stages on roots. In addition vine characteristics, including mean stem weight, root weight, leaf chlorophyll and leaf area, were affected by different phylloxera clones. The two most widespread clones displayed high levels of virulence. These results point to only some phylloxera clones being highly virulent on V. vinifera, helping to explain patterns of field damage, phylloxera distributions and continued survival and production of V. vinifera vines in some infested areas. PMID:20482931

  6. Dissecting the Transcriptional Response to Elicitors in Vitis vinifera Cells

    PubMed Central

    Belchí-Navarro, Sarai; Bru, Roque; Martínez-Zapater, José M.; Lijavetzky, Diego; Pedreño, María A.

    2014-01-01

    The high effectiveness of cyclic oligosaccharides like cyclodextrins in the production of trans-resveratrol in Vitis vinifera cell cultures is enhanced in the presence of methyl jasmonate. In order to dissect the basis of the interactions among the elicitation responses triggered by these two compounds, a transcriptional analysis of grapevine cell cultures treated with cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate separately or in combination was carried out. The results showed that the activation of genes encoding enzymes from phenylpropanoid and stilbene biosynthesis induced by cyclodextrins alone was partially enhanced in the presence of methyl jasmonate, which correlated with their effects on trans-resveratrol production. In addition, protein translation and cell cycle regulation were more highly repressed in cells treated with cyclodextrins than in those treated with methyl jasmonate, and this response was enhanced in the combined treatment. Ethylene signalling was activated by all treatments, while jasmonate signalling and salicylic acid conjugation were activated only in the presence of methyl jasmonate and cyclodextrins, respectively. Moreover, the combined treatment resulted in a crosstalk between the signalling cascades activated by cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate, which, in turn, provoked the activation of additional regulatory pathways involving the up-regulation of MYB15, NAC and WRKY transcription factors, protein kinases and calcium signal transducers. All these results suggest that both elicitors cause an activation of the secondary metabolism in detriment of basic cell processes like the primary metabolism or cell division. Crosstalk between cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate-induced signalling provokes an intensification of these responses resulting in a greater trans-resveratrol production. PMID:25314001

  7. Identification and expression analysis of heat shock transcription factors in the wild Chinese grapevine (Vitis pseudoreticulata).

    PubMed

    Hu, Yang; Han, Yong-Tao; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Feng-Li; Li, Ya-Juan; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Yue-Jin; Wen, Ying-Qiang

    2016-02-01

    Heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) are known to play pivotal roles in the adaptation of plants to heat stress and other stress stimuli. While grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most important fruit crops worldwide, little is known about the Hsf family in Vitis spp. Here, we identified nineteen putative Hsf genes (VviHsfs) in Vitis spp based on the 12 × grape genome (V. vinifera L.). Phylogenetic analysis revealed three classes of grape Hsf genes (classes A, B, and C). Additional comparisons between grape and Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrated that several VviHsfs genes occurred in corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis. Moreover, we examined the expression profiles of the homologs of the VviHsfs genes (VpHsfs) in the wild Chinese Vitis pseudoreticulata accession Baihe-35-1, which is tolerant to various environmental stresses. Among the nineteen VpHsfs, ten VpHsfs displayed lower transcript levels under non-stress conditions and marked up-regulation during heat stress treatment; several VpHsfs also displayed altered expression levels in response to cold, salt, and hormone treatments, suggesting their versatile roles in response to stress stimuli. In addition, eight VpHsf-GFP fusion proteins showed differential subcellular localization in V. pseudoreticulata mesophyll protoplasts. Taken together, our data may provide an important reference for further studies of Hsf genes in Vitis spp. PMID:26689772

  8. Stable MSAP markers for the distinction of Vitis vinifera cv Pinot noir clones.

    PubMed

    Ocaña, Juan; Walter, Bernard; Schellenbaum, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Grapevine is one of the most economically important fruit crops. Molecular markers have been used to study grapevine diversity. For instance, simple sequence repeats are a powerful tool for identification of grapevine cultivars, while amplified fragment length polymorphisms have shown their usefulness in intra-varietal diversity studies. Other techniques such as sequence-specific amplified polymorphism are based on the presence of mobile elements in the genome, but their detection lies upon their activity. Relevant attention has been drawn toward epigenetic sources of variation. In this study, a set of Vitis vinifera cv Pinot noir clones were analyzed using the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism technique with isoschizomers MspI and HpaII. Nine out of fourteen selective primer combinations were informative and generated two types of polymorphic fragments which were categorized as "stable" and "unstable." In total, 23 stable fragments were detected and they discriminated 92.5 % of the studied clones. Detected stable polymorphisms were either common to several clones, restricted to a few clones or unique to a single clone. The identification of these stable epigenetic markers will be useful in clonal diversity studies. We highlight the relevance of stable epigenetic variation in V. vinifera clones and analyze at which level these markers could be applicable for the development of forthright techniques for clonal distinction. PMID:23723045

  9. Transmission of grapevine Pinot gris virus by Colomerus vitis (Acari: Eriophyidae) to grapevine.

    PubMed

    Malagnini, Valeria; de Lillo, Enrico; Saldarelli, Pasquale; Beber, Roberta; Duso, Carlo; Raiola, Alessandro; Zanotelli, Livia; Valenzano, Domenico; Giampetruzzi, Annalisa; Morelli, Massimiliano; Ratti, Claudio; Causin, Roberto; Gualandri, Valeria

    2016-09-01

    Grapevine Pinot gris virus (GPGV) is a new virus reported in Europe and several other grape-growing countries. In an attempt to identify a vector for GPGV, samples of the eriophyid mite Colomerus vitis collected from buds and erinea in GPGV-infected vines were analysed by RT-PCR, using specific primers. Molecular analysis revealed the presence of GPGV in C. vitis. Transmission trials were conducted using C. vitis collected from GPGV-infected vines. Mites were able to transmit GPGV to healthy grapevines, suggesting that C. vitis is a potential vector of this virus. PMID:27344161

  10. Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Çakır, Birsen; Kılıçkaya, Ozan

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important mechanisms to control cellular functions in response to external and endogenous signals. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are universal signaling molecules in eukaryotes that mediate the intracellular transmission of extracellular signals resulting in the induction of appropriate cellular responses. MAPK cascades are composed of four protein kinase modules: MAPKKK kinases (MAPKKKKs), MAPKK kinases (MAPKKKs), MAPK kinases (MAPKKs), and MAPKs. In plants, MAPKs are activated in response to abiotic stresses, wounding, and hormones, and during plant pathogen interactions and cell division. In this report, we performed a complete inventory of MAPK cascades genes in Vitis vinifera, the whole genome of which has been sequenced. By comparison with MAPK, MAPK kinases, MAPK kinase kinases and MAPK kinase kinase kinase kinase members of Arabidopsis thaliana, we revealed the existence of 14 MAPKs, 5 MAPKKs, 62 MAPKKKs, and 7 MAPKKKKs in Vitis vinifera. We identified orthologs of V. vinifera putative MAPKs in different species, and ESTs corresponding to members of MAPK cascades in various tissues. This work represents the first complete inventory of MAPK cascades in V. vinifera and could help elucidate the biological and physiological functions of these proteins in V. vinifera. PMID:26257761

  11. Gene Cloning, Expression and Enzyme Activity of Vitis vinifera Vacuolar Processing Enzymes (VvVPEs)

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Peijie; Li, Shuxiu; Wang, Yuejin; Zhang, Chaohong

    2016-01-01

    Vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs) have received considerable attention due to their caspase-1-like activity and ability to regulate programmed cell death (PCD), which plays an essential role in the development of stenospermocarpic seedless grapes ovules. To characterize VPEs and the relationship between stenospermocarpic grapes and the VPE gene family, we identified 3 Vitis vinifera VPE genes (VvβVPE, VvγVPE, and VvδVPE) from the PN40024 grape genome and cloned the full-length complementary DNAs (cDNAs) from the ‘Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir’ and ‘Vitis vinifera cv. Thompson Seedless’ varietals. Each of the VPEs contained a typical catalytic dyad [His (177), Cys (219)] and substrate binding pocket [Arg (112), Arg (389), Ser (395)], except that Ser (395) in the VvγVPE protein sequence was replaced with alanine. Phylogenetic analysis of 4 Arabidopsis thaliana and 6 Vitis vinifera VPEs revealed that the 10 VPEs form 3 major branches. Furthermore, the 6 grapevine VPEs share a similar gene structure, with 9 exons and 8 introns. The 6 grapevine VPEs are located on 3 different chromosomes. We also tested the enzymatic activity of recombinant VPEs expressed in the Pichia Pastoris expression system and found that the VvVPEs exhibit cysteine peptidase activity. Tissue-specific expression analysis showed that VvδVPE is only expressed in flowers, buds and ovules, that VvγVPE is expressed in various tissues, and that VvβVPE was expressed in roots, flowers, buds and ovules. The results of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) suggested that VvβVPE in seeded grapes increased significantly at 30 days after full-bloom (DAF), close to the timing of endosperm abortion at 32 DAF. These results suggested that VvβVPE is related to ovule abortion in seedless grapes. Our experiments provide a new perspective for understanding the mechanism of stenospermocarpic seedlessness and represent a useful reference for the further study of VPEs. PMID:27551866

  12. Gene Cloning, Expression and Enzyme Activity of Vitis vinifera Vacuolar Processing Enzymes (VvVPEs).

    PubMed

    Tang, Yujin; Wang, Ruipu; Gong, Peijie; Li, Shuxiu; Wang, Yuejin; Zhang, Chaohong

    2016-01-01

    Vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs) have received considerable attention due to their caspase-1-like activity and ability to regulate programmed cell death (PCD), which plays an essential role in the development of stenospermocarpic seedless grapes ovules. To characterize VPEs and the relationship between stenospermocarpic grapes and the VPE gene family, we identified 3 Vitis vinifera VPE genes (VvβVPE, VvγVPE, and VvδVPE) from the PN40024 grape genome and cloned the full-length complementary DNAs (cDNAs) from the 'Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir' and 'Vitis vinifera cv. Thompson Seedless' varietals. Each of the VPEs contained a typical catalytic dyad [His (177), Cys (219)] and substrate binding pocket [Arg (112), Arg (389), Ser (395)], except that Ser (395) in the VvγVPE protein sequence was replaced with alanine. Phylogenetic analysis of 4 Arabidopsis thaliana and 6 Vitis vinifera VPEs revealed that the 10 VPEs form 3 major branches. Furthermore, the 6 grapevine VPEs share a similar gene structure, with 9 exons and 8 introns. The 6 grapevine VPEs are located on 3 different chromosomes. We also tested the enzymatic activity of recombinant VPEs expressed in the Pichia Pastoris expression system and found that the VvVPEs exhibit cysteine peptidase activity. Tissue-specific expression analysis showed that VvδVPE is only expressed in flowers, buds and ovules, that VvγVPE is expressed in various tissues, and that VvβVPE was expressed in roots, flowers, buds and ovules. The results of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) suggested that VvβVPE in seeded grapes increased significantly at 30 days after full-bloom (DAF), close to the timing of endosperm abortion at 32 DAF. These results suggested that VvβVPE is related to ovule abortion in seedless grapes. Our experiments provide a new perspective for understanding the mechanism of stenospermocarpic seedlessness and represent a useful reference for the further study of VPEs. PMID:27551866

  13. Reference Gene Validation for Quantitative RT-PCR during Biotic and Abiotic Stresses in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Alexandre Filipe; Fonseca, Catarina; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; Lourenço, Ana Maria; Monteiro, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Grapevine is one of the most cultivated fruit crop worldwide with Vitis vinifera being the species with the highest economical importance. Being highly susceptible to fungal pathogens and increasingly affected by environmental factors, it has become an important agricultural research area, where gene expression analysis plays a fundamental role. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is currently amongst the most powerful techniques to perform gene expression studies. Nevertheless, accurate gene expression quantification strongly relies on appropriate reference gene selection for sample normalization. Concerning V. vinifera, limited information still exists as for which genes are the most suitable to be used as reference under particular experimental conditions. In this work, seven candidate genes were investigated for their stability in grapevine samples referring to four distinct stresses (Erysiphe necator, wounding and UV-C irradiation in leaves and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora colonization in wood). The expression stability was evaluated using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. In all cases, full agreement was not observed for the three methods. To provide comprehensive rankings integrating the three different programs, for each treatment, a consensus ranking was created using a non-weighted unsupervised rank aggregation method. According to the last, the three most suitable reference genes to be used in grapevine leaves, regardless of the stress, are UBC, VAG and PEP. For the P. chlamydospora treatment, EF1, CYP and UBC were the best scoring genes. Acquaintance of the most suitable reference genes to be used in grapevine samples can contribute for accurate gene expression quantification in forthcoming studies. PMID:25340748

  14. Grape (Vitis spp.) - Grapevine Red Blotch Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grapevine red blotch disease is caused by Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV), which was first reported in 2012 from New York and subsequently in California, Washington, Oregon, Idaho and elsewhere in the U.S. The discovery occurred when grapevines with red leaf symptoms that tested negati...

  15. Grapevine Fanleaf Disease in Washington State Vineyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are susceptible to a wide range of viruses. Among them, grapevine degeneration caused by Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) is considered as one of the most economically important virus diseases affecting grapevines worldwide. Infected grapevines show a range of foliar sy...

  16. Genetic transformation of Vitis vinifera via organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mezzetti, Bruno; Pandolfini, Tiziana; Navacchi, Oriano; Landi, Lucia

    2002-01-01

    Background Efficient transformation and regeneration methods are a priority for successful application of genetic engineering to vegetative propagated plants such as grape. The current methods for the production of transgenic grape plants are based on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation followed by regeneration from embryogenic callus. However, grape embryogenic calli are laborious to establish and the phenotype of the regenerated plants can be altered. Results Transgenic grape plants (V. vinifera, table-grape cultivars Silcora and Thompson Seedless) were produced using a method based on regeneration via organogenesis. In vitro proliferating shoots were cultured in the presence of increasing concentrations of N6-benzyl adenine. The apical dome of the shoot was removed at each transplantation which, after three months, produced meristematic bulk tissue characterized by a strong capacity to differentiate adventitious shoots. Slices prepared from the meristematic bulk were used for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of grape plants with the gene DefH9-iaaM. After rooting on kanamycin containing media and greenhouse acclimatization, transgenic plants were transferred to the field. At the end of the first year of field cultivation, DefH9-iaaM grape plants were phenotypically homogeneous and did not show any morphological alterations in vegetative growth. The expression of DefH9-iaaM gene was detected in transgenic flower buds of both cultivars. Conclusions The phenotypic homogeneity of the regenerated plants highlights the validity of this method for both propagation and genetic transformation of table grape cultivars. Expression of the DefH9-iaaM gene takes place in young flower buds of transgenic plants from both grape cultivars. PMID:12354328

  17. Life history and assessment of grapevine phylloxera leaf galling incidence on Vitis species in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Vidart, María Valeria; Mujica, María Valentina; Bao, Leticia; Duarte, Felicia; Bentancourt, Carlos María; Franco, Jorge; Scatoni, Iris Beatriz

    2013-12-01

    Grapevine phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch) (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae) is a worldwide pest of Vitis species. It has forms that feed on leaves and roots. Root forms predominate on Vitis vinifera (L.) cultivars, while leaf forms predominate on Vitis species from its native American range. Recently, high densities of D. vitifoliae infestations in leaves of V. vinifera in Brazil, Peru, and Uruguay have been reported. The aims of this study were to determine the seasonal development of grape phylloxera, quantify infestation levels on V. vinifera leaves, and compare them with infestation levels on leaves of a rootstock of American origin. Studies were conducted in two vineyards in Uruguay from 2004-2007. Terminal shoots of 3309 C and Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Tannat, Viognier, grafted onto resistant rootstock, were sampled weekly and leaves examined for gall presence and insect life stage. First galls were detected in early October; eggs began to appear within two weeks. Two oviposition peaks occurred by the end of December, and they coincided with bursts of shoot growth. On 3309C rootstock, oviposition peaks were more frequent than on the European cultivars. Based on thermal accumulation, D. vitifoliae could complete eight generations a year in Uruguay. Rootstock 3309C suffered the greatest damage but in some cases was similar to the European cultivars. Damage to Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon and Viognier were also high. There were no galls on Tannat. The 2005-2006 season was characterized by low infestation rates caused by a prolonged drought that affected vegetative growth. There were also differences between vineyards, where the vigorous plants suffering more damage. Leaf galling phylloxera incidence and damage were mainly associated to the cultivar but plant vigor and environmental factors also contributed to increase the incidence. PMID:23667822

  18. Metabolic and biological profile of autochthonous Vitis vinifera L. ecotypes.

    PubMed

    Impei, Stefania; Gismondi, Angelo; Canuti, Lorena; Canini, Antonella

    2015-05-01

    Vitis vinifera L. is a plant species rich in phenolic compounds that are usually associated with the health benefits of wine and grape consumption in the diet. Anthocyanins, catechins, flavonol, phenolic acids and stilbenes are key molecular constituents of the Vitis berries, affecting the quality of grape products. The purpose of this work was to identify the metabolic profiles of 37 genetically certified V. vinifera Latial accessions. In particular, qualitative and quantitative analyses of specific secondary metabolites and total phenolic and tannin contents were performed by LC-MS and spectrophotometric analysis. In addition, since plant molecules are well-known for their free radical scavenging properties, the antioxidant effects of the sample extracts were evaluated through two different antiradical assays: DPPH and FRAP tests. Finally, a preliminary screening of the antiproliferative activity of each specimen on HCT-116 human colorectal cancer cells was conducted. All the results showed a great variety and amount of phenolic compounds in all accessions; moreover, we observed a significant correlation in the extracts between the metabolite concentration and bioactivity. Besides, some samples presented extraordinary biological effects, such as reduction of tumor cell growth not associated with cytotoxicity, supporting their use as possible future adjuvants for cancer therapy. In conclusion, the present research increased the scientific knowledge about Italian autochthonous vine ecotypes in order to valorize them and support their reintroduction in the local economic system. PMID:25820686

  19. Vitis vinifera canes, a new source of antifungal compounds against Plasmopara viticola, Erysiphe necator, and Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Schnee, Sylvain; Queiroz, Emerson F; Voinesco, Francine; Marcourt, Laurence; Dubuis, Pierre-Henri; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Gindro, Katia

    2013-06-12

    Methanolic and ethanolic crude extracts of Vitis vinifera canes exhibited significant antifungal activity against the three major fungal pathogens affecting grapevines, Plasmopara viticola, Erysiphe necator and Botrytis cinerea. The active extracts were analyzed by LC-PDA-ESI-MS, and selected compounds were identified. Efficient targeted isolation using medium-pressure liquid chromatography afforded six pure constituents in one step. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by NMR and HRMS. Six identified compounds (ampelopsin A, hopeaphenol, trans-resveratrol, ampelopsin H, ε-viniferin, and E-vitisin B) presented antifungal activities against P. viticola. ε-Viniferin also exhibited a low antifungal activity against B. cinerea. None of the identified compounds inhibited the germination of E. necator. The potential to develop a novel natural fungicide against the three major fungal pathogens affecting V. vinifera from viticulture waste material is discussed. PMID:23730921

  20. The genes and enzymes of the carotenoid metabolic pathway in Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Carotenoids are a heterogeneous group of plant isoprenoids primarily involved in photosynthesis. In plants the cleavage of carotenoids leads to the formation of the phytohormones abscisic acid and strigolactone, and C13-norisoprenoids involved in the characteristic flavour and aroma compounds in flowers and fruits and are of specific importance in the varietal character of grapes and wine. This work extends the previous reports of carotenoid gene expression and photosynthetic pigment analysis by providing an up-to-date pathway analysis and an important framework for the analysis of carotenoid metabolic pathways in grapevine. Results Comparative genomics was used to identify 42 genes putatively involved in carotenoid biosynthesis/catabolism in grapevine. The genes are distributed on 16 of the 19 chromosomes and have been localised to the physical map of the heterozygous ENTAV115 grapevine sequence. Nine of the genes occur as single copies whereas the rest of the carotenoid metabolic genes have more than one paralogue. The cDNA copies of eleven corresponding genes from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinotage were characterised, and four where shown to be functional. Microarrays provided expression profiles of 39 accessions in the metabolic pathway during three berry developmental stages in Sauvignon blanc, whereas an optimised HPLC analysis provided the concentrations of individual carotenoids. This provides evidence of the functioning of the lutein epoxide cycle and the respective genes in grapevine. Similarly, orthologues of genes leading to the formation of strigolactone involved in shoot branching inhibition were identified: CCD7, CCD8 and MAX1. Moreover, the isoforms typically have different expression patterns, confirming the complex regulation of the pathway. Of particular interest is the expression pattern of the three VvNCEDs: Our results support previous findings that VvNCED3 is likely the isoform linked to ABA content in berries. Conclusions The

  1. Procedure for collecting and packaging grapevine samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grapevine yellows (GY) is a term that is used to refer to any of several diseases of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) that are caused by phytoplasmas. Around the globe, diverse ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’ species cause indistinguishable disease symptoms in V. vinifera and are spread by different species of ...

  2. In Vivo Visualizations of Drought-Induced Embolism Spread in Vitis vinifera1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Brodersen, Craig Robert; McElrone, Andrew Joseph; Choat, Brendan; Lee, Eric Franklin; Shackel, Kenneth Andrew; Matthews, Mark Allen

    2013-01-01

    Long-distance water transport through plant xylem is vulnerable to hydraulic dysfunction during periods of increased tension on the xylem sap, often coinciding with drought. While the effects of local and systemic embolism on plant water transport and physiology are well documented, the spatial patterns of embolism formation and spread are not well understood. Using a recently developed nondestructive diagnostic imaging tool, high-resolution x-ray computed tomography, we documented the dynamics of drought-induced embolism in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) plants in vivo, producing the first three-dimensional, high-resolution, time-lapse observations of embolism spread. Embolisms formed first in the vessels surrounding the pith at stem water potentials of approximately –1.2 megapascals in drought experiments. As stem water potential decreased, embolisms spread radially toward the epidermis within sectored vessel groupings via intervessel connections and conductive xylem relays, and infrequently (16 of 629 total connections) through lateral connections into adjacent vessel sectors. Theoretical loss of conductivity calculated from the high-resolution x-ray computed tomography images showed good agreement with previously published nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and hydraulic conductivity experiments also using grapevine. Overall, these data support a growing body of evidence that xylem organization is critically important to the isolation of drought-induced embolism spread and confirm that air seeding through the pit membranes is the principle mechanism of embolism spread. PMID:23463781

  3. Proteomic analysis of the compatible interaction between Vitis vinifera and Plasmopara viticola.

    PubMed

    Milli, Alberto; Cecconi, Daniela; Bortesi, Luisa; Persi, Anna; Rinalducci, Sara; Zamboni, Anita; Zoccatelli, Gianni; Lovato, Arianna; Zolla, Lello; Polverari, Annalisa

    2012-02-01

    We analyzed the proteome of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) leaves 24, 48 and 96 h post infection (hpi) with the downy mildew pathogen Plasmopara viticola. Total proteins were separated on 2-DE gels. By MS analysis, we identified 82 unique grapevine proteins differentially expressed after infection. Upregulated proteins were often included in the functional categories of general metabolism and stress response, while proteins related to photosynthesis and energy production were mostly downregulated. As expected, the activation of a defense reaction was observed more often at the late time point, consistent with the establishment of a compatible interaction. Most proteins involved in resistance were isoforms of different PR-10 pathogenesis-related proteins. Although >50 differentially expressed protein isoforms were observed at 24 and 96 hpi, only 18 were detected at 48 hpi and no defense-related proteins were among this group. This profile suggests a transient breakdown in defense responses accompanying the onset of disease, further supported by gene expression analyses and by a western blot analysis of a PR-10 protein. Our data reveal the complex modulation of plant metabolism and defense responses during compatible interactions, and provide insight into the underlying molecular processes which may eventually yield novel strategies for pathogen control in the field. PMID:22120121

  4. Vitis vinifera L. Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Detection with High-Resolution Melting Analysis Based on the UDP-Glucose:Flavonoid 3-O-Glucosyltransferase Gene.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Leonor; Martins-Lopes, Paula

    2015-10-21

    Vitis vinifera L. is a species with a large number of varieties, which differ in terms of anthocyanin content. The genes involved in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway have a direct effect in the anthocyanin profile of each variety, being potentially interesting for varietal identification. The current study aimed at the design of an assay suitable for the discrimination of the largest number of grapevine varieties. Two genes of the anthocyanin pathway, chalcone isomerase (CHI) and UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT), were sequenced in 22 grapevine varieties. The CHI gene presented 5 SNPs within the sequence. A total of 58 SNPs and 1 INDEL were found among the UFGT gene, allowing the discrimination of 18 different genotypes within the 22 grapevine varieties. A HRM assay designed for UFGT, containing 704 bp, produced differentiated melting curves for each of the 18 haplotypes. The developed HRM assay is efficient in grapevine varietal discrimination. PMID:26422991

  5. Novel functional microRNAs from virus-free and infected Vitis vinifera plants under water stress

    PubMed Central

    Pantaleo, Vitantonio; Vitali, Marco; Boccacci, Paolo; Miozzi, Laura; Cuozzo, Danila; Chitarra, Walter; Mannini, Franco; Lovisolo, Claudio; Gambino, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate the post-transcriptional control of several pathway intermediates, thus playing pivotal roles in plant growth, development and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In recent years, the grapevine genome release, small(s)-RNAseq and degradome-RNAseq together has allowed the discovery and characterisation of many miRNA species, thus rendering the discovery of additional miRNAs difficult and uncertain. Taking advantage of the miRNA responsiveness to stresses and the availability of virus-free Vitis vinifera plants and those infected only by a latent virus, we have analysed grapevines subjected to drought in greenhouse conditions. The sRNA-seq and other sequence-specific molecular analyses have allowed us to characterise conserved miRNA expression profiles in association with specific eco-physiological parameters. In addition, we here report 12 novel grapevine-specific miRNA candidates and describe their expression profile. We show that latent viral infection can influence the miRNA profiles of V. vinifera in response to drought. Moreover, study of eco-physiological parameters showed that photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and hydraulic resistance to water transport were significantly influenced by drought and viral infection. Although no unequivocal cause–effect explanation could be attributed to each miRNA target, their contribution to the drought response is discussed. PMID:26833264

  6. Spatial distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes in semi-arid Vitis vinifera vineyards in Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards are Meloidogyne hapla, Mesocriconema xenoplax, Pratylenchus spp., Xiphinema americanum, and Paratylenchus sp.; however, little is known about their distribution in the soil profile. The vertical an...

  7. Functional characterization and developmental expression profiling of gibberellin signalling components in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Acheampong, Atiako Kwame; Hu, Jianhong; Rotman, Ariel; Zheng, Chuanlin; Halaly, Tamar; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Lichter, Amnon; Sun, Tai-Ping; Or, Etti

    2015-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) regulate numerous developmental processes in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) such as rachis elongation, fruit set, and fruitlet abscission. The ability of GA to promote berry enlargement has led to its indispensable use in the sternospermocarpic (‘seedless’) table grape industry worldwide. However, apart from VvGAI1 (VvDELLA1), which regulates internode elongation and fruitfulness, but not berry size of seeded cultivars, little was known about GA signalling in grapevine. We have identified and characterized two additional DELLAs (VvDELLA2 and VvDELLA3), two GA receptors (VvGID1a and VvGID1b), and two GA-specific F-box proteins (VvSLY1a and VvSLY1b), in cv. Thompson seedless. With the exception of VvDELLA3-VvGID1b, all VvDELLAs interacted with the VvGID1s in a GA-dependent manner in yeast two-hybrid assays. Additionally, expression of these grape genes in corresponding Arabidopsis mutants confirmed their functions in planta. Spatiotemporal analysis of VvDELLAs showed that both VvDELLA1 and VvDELLA2 are abundant in most tissues, except in developing fruit where VvDELLA2 is uniquely expressed at high levels, suggesting a key role in fruit development. Our results further suggest that differential organ responses to exogenous GA depend on the levels of VvDELLA proteins and endogenous bioactive GAs. Understanding this interaction will allow better manipulation of GA signalling in grapevine. PMID:25588745

  8. The R2R3-MYB transcription factors MYB14 and MYB15 regulate stilbene biosynthesis in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Höll, Janine; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Czemmel, Stefan; D'Onofrio, Claudio; Walker, Amanda R; Rausch, Thomas; Lucchin, Margherita; Boss, Paul K; Dry, Ian B; Bogs, Jochen

    2013-10-01

    Plant stilbenes are phytoalexins that accumulate in a small number of plant species, including grapevine (Vitis vinifera), in response to biotic and abiotic stresses and have been implicated in many beneficial effects on human health. In particular, resveratrol, the basic unit of all other complex stilbenes, has received widespread attention because of its cardio-protective, anticarcinogenic, and antioxidant properties. Although stilbene synthases (STSs), the key enzymes responsible for resveratrol biosynthesis, have been isolated and characterized from several plant species, the transcriptional regulation underlying stilbene biosynthesis is unknown. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of two R2R3-MYB-type transcription factors (TFs) from grapevine, which regulate the stilbene biosynthetic pathway. These TFs, designated MYB14 and MYB15, strongly coexpress with STS genes, both in leaf tissues under biotic and abiotic stress and in the skin and seed of healthy developing berries during maturation. In transient gene reporter assays, MYB14 and MYB15 were demonstrated to specifically activate the promoters of STS genes, and the ectopic expression of MYB15 in grapevine hairy roots resulted in increased STS expression and in the accumulation of glycosylated stilbenes in planta. These results demonstrate the involvement of MYB14 and MYB15 in the transcriptional regulation of stilbene biosynthesis in grapevine. PMID:24151295

  9. Hybridization of cultivated Vitis vinifera with wild V. californica and V. girdiana in California.

    PubMed

    Dangl, Gerald S; Mendum, Mary Lou; Yang, Judy; Walker, M Andrew; Preece, John E

    2015-12-01

    Hybridization of introduced domesticates and closely related natives is well documented in annual crops. The widespread introduction of the domesticated grapevine, Vitis vinifera, into California where it overlaps with two native congenerics, with which it is interfertile, provides opportunity to investigate hybridization between woody perennials. Although geographically widespread, the introduction over the past two centuries has been limited to a few elite clonal cultivars, providing a unique opportunity to study the effects of hybridization on the native species. The amount of hybridization with V. vinifera and the genetic diversity of wild-growing Vitis californica and Vitis girdiana were examined using nineteen microsatellite markers. STRUCTURE analysis was used to define hybrid and introgressed individuals and to analyze genetic structure of the native species. FAMOZ software was used to identify which V. vinifera cultivars served as parents of F 1 hybrids. The three species were clearly distinguished by STRUCTURE analysis. Thirty percent of 119 V. californica vines were hybrids. The domesticated parent was identified for 16 F 1 hybrid vines; the original California cultivar, 'Mission', was the parent of eight. Backcrosses were also found, showing introgression into subsequent generations. Similar results were obtained for a small sample of V. girdiana. Removing hybrids greatly reduced the genetic variation of the presumed pure species, among which there was essentially no genetic structure. Limited genetic variability indicates the California natives may be threatened by genetic erosion. The discovery of F 1 hybrids of 'Mission', a cultivar not grown in the areas for ~100 years, suggests long generation times for wild vines that, often, grow into expansive liana and propagate by layering, all factors that limit recruitment in populations already disjunct by habitat lose. Hermaphroditic flowers and fruit that is more attractive to birds may favor the

  10. Comparing Wild American Grapes with Vitis vinifera: A Metabolomics Study of Grape Composition.

    PubMed

    Narduzzi, Luca; Stanstrup, Jan; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2015-08-01

    We analyzed via untargeted UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS the metabolome of the berry tissues (skin, pulp, seeds) of some American Vitis species (Vitis cinerea, Vitis californica, Vitis arizonica), together with four interspecific hybrids, and seven Vitis vinifera cultivars, aiming to find differences in the metabolomes of the American Vitis sp. versus Vitis vinifera. Apart from the known differences, that is, more complex content of anthocyanins and stilbenoids in the American grapes, we observed higher procyanidin accumulation (tens to hundreds of times) in the vinifera skin and seeds in comparison to American berries, and we confirmed this result via phloroglucinolysis. In the American grapes considered, we did not detect the accumulation of pleasing aroma precursors (terpenoids, glycosides), whereas they are common in vinifera grapes. We also found accumulation of hydrolyzable tannins and their precursors in the skin of the wild American grapes, which has never been reported earlier in any of the species under investigation. Such information is needed to improve the design of new breeding programs, lowering the risk of retaining undesirable characteristics in the chemical phenotype of the offspring. PMID:26158394

  11. Metabolic changes of Vitis vinifera berries and leaves exposed to Bordeaux mixture.

    PubMed

    Martins, Viviana; Teixeira, António; Bassil, Elias; Blumwald, Eduardo; Gerós, Hernâni

    2014-09-01

    Since the development of Bordeaux mixture in the late 1800's, copper-based fungicides have been widely used against grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) diseases, mainly in organic but also in conventional viticulture; however their intensive use has raised phytotoxicity concerns. In this study, the composition of grape berries and leaves upon Bordeaux mixture treatment was investigated during the fructification season by a metabolomic approach. Four applications of Bordeaux mixture till 3 weeks before harvest were performed following the regular management practices of organic viticulture. Results showed that the copper-based treatment affected the content in sugars, organic acids, lipids and flavan-3-ols of grapes and leaves at specific developmental stages. Nonetheless, the levels of sucrose, glucose and fructose, and of tartaric and malic acids were not significantly affected in mature grapes. In contrast, a sharp decrease in free natural amino acids was observed, together with a reduction in protein content and in mineral nitrogen forms. The treatment with Bordeaux mixture increased by 7-fold the copper levels in tissue extracts from surface-washed mature berries. PMID:25022258

  12. Structure and functional annotation of hypothetical proteins having putative Rubisco activase function from Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Rubisco is a very large, complex and one of the most abundant proteins in the world and comprises up to 50% of all soluble protein in plants. The activity of Rubisco, the enzyme that catalyzes CO2 assimilation in photosynthesis, is regulated by Rubisco activase (Rca). In the present study, we searched for hypothetical protein of Vitis vinifera which has putative Rubisco activase function. The Arabidopsis and tobacco Rubisco activase protein sequences were used as seed sequences to search against Vitis vinifera in UniprotKB database. The selected hypothetical proteins of Vitis vinifera were subjected to sequence, structural and functional annotation. Subcellular localization predictions suggested it to be cytoplasmic protein. Homology modelling was used to define the three-dimensional (3D) structure of selected hypothetical proteins of Vitis vinifera. Template search revealed that all the hypothetical proteins share more than 80% sequence identity with structure of green-type Rubisco activase from tobacco, indicating proteins are evolutionary conserved. The homology modelling was generated using SWISS-MODEL. Several quality assessment and validation parameters computed indicated that homology models are reliable. Further, functional annotation through PFAM, CATH, SUPERFAMILY, CDART suggested that selected hypothetical proteins of Vitis vinifera contain ATPase family associated with various cellular activities (AAA) and belong to the AAA+ super family of ring-shaped P-loop containing nucleoside triphosphate hydrolases. This study will lead to research in the optimization of the functionality of Rubisco which has large implication in the improvement of plant productivity and resource use efficiency. PMID:25780274

  13. Proteomic analysis of somatic embryogenesis in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Marsoni, Milena; Bracale, Marcella; Espen, Luca; Prinsi, Bhakti; Negri, Alfredo S; Vannini, Candida

    2008-02-01

    Two dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry has been used to study the somatic embryogenesis in Vitis vinifera, by comparing embryogenic and non embryogenic calluses of the Thompson seedless cv. More than 1,000 spots were reproducibly resolved in colloidal Coomassie brilliant blue stained gels over a pI nonlinear range of 3-10 in the first dimension and using homogeneous 12.5% polyacrylamide gels in the second dimension. The expression pattern of 35 spots differed significantly between the two samples. These spots were processed by mass spectrometry analysis and the protein identity was assigned by using both the non-redundant protein and EST databases. Several responsive proteins, some already known to be involved in the somatic embryogenesis process while others, for the first time put into relation with this process, have been described. Moreover, they have been subdivided in functional categories, and their putative role is discussed in terms of their relevance in the somatic embryogenesis process. PMID:17874111

  14. Anti-oxidant properties and polyphenolic profile screening of Vitis vinifera stems and leaves crude extracts grown in Perlis, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Nursyahda; Zulkifli, Razauden Mohamed; Akhir, Fazrena Nadia Md; Basar, Norazah

    2014-03-01

    Grape has become a fast growing agricultural sector in Malaysia producing between 0.62 kg to 2.03 kg waste per vinestock. This study aims to generate useful information on anti-oxidative properties as well as polyphenolic composition of grapevine waste. Stems and leaves of Vitis vinifera cultivated in Perlis, Malaysia were extracted using methanol, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether. Ethyl acetate stems extract exhibited highest total phenolic content. While in DPPH assay, methanolic stems extract show the highest antioxidant activities. This result indicates that total phenolic content in the extracts may not contribute directly to the antioxidant activities. Thin Layer Chromatograms of all crude extracts exhibited good separation under solvent system petroleum ether-ethyl acetate (2:3) resulted in detection of resveratrol in ethyl acetate stems crude extract.

  15. Genome-wide identification of WRKY family genes and their response to cold stress in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background WRKY transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators in plants. WRKY genes are not only found to play significant roles in biotic and abiotic stress response, but also regulate growth and development. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) production is largely limited by stressful climate conditions such as cold stress and the role of WRKY genes in the survival of grapevine under these conditions remains unknown. Results We identified a total of 59 VvWRKYs from the V. vinifera genome, belonging to four subgroups according to conserved WRKY domains and zinc-finger structure. The majority of VvWRKYs were expressed in more than one tissue among the 7 tissues examined which included young leaves, mature leaves, tendril, stem apex, root, young fruits and ripe fruits. Publicly available microarray data suggested that a subset of VvWRKYs was activated in response to diverse stresses. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) results demonstrated that the expression levels of 36 VvWRKYs are changed following cold exposure. Comparative analysis was performed on data from publicly available microarray experiments, previous global transcriptome analysis studies, and qRT-PCR. We identified 15 VvWRKYs in at least two of these databases which may relate to cold stress. Among them, the transcription of three genes can be induced by exogenous ABA application, suggesting that they can be involved in an ABA-dependent signaling pathway in response to cold stress. Conclusions We identified 59 VvWRKYs from the V. vinifera genome and 15 of them showed cold stress-induced expression patterns. These genes represented candidate genes for future functional analysis of VvWRKYs involved in the low temperature-related signal pathways in grape. PMID:24755338

  16. Reference Gene Selection and Validation for the Early Responses to Downy Mildew Infection in Susceptible and Resistant Vitis vinifera Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Filipa; Sebastiana, Mónica; Pais, Maria Salomé; Figueiredo, Andreia

    2013-01-01

    The pivotal role of cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in many countries economy is compromised by its high susceptibility to Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of downy mildew disease. Recent research has identified a set of genes related to resistance which may be used to track downy mildew infection. Quantification of the expression of these resistance genes requires normalizing qPCR data using reference genes with stable expression in the system studied. In this study, a set of eleven genes (VATP16, 60 S, UQCC, SMD3, EF1α, UBQ, SAND, GAPDH, ACT, PsaB, PTB2) was evaluated to identify reference genes during the first hours of interaction (6, 12, 18 and 24 hpi) between two V. vinifera genotypes and P. viticola. Two analyses were used for the selection of reference genes: direct comparison of susceptible, Trincadeira, and resistant, Regent, V. vinifera cultivars at 0 h, 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours post inoculation with P. viticola (genotype effect); and comparison of each genotype with mock inoculated samples during inoculation time-course (biotic stress effect). Three statistical methods were used, GeNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper, allowing to identify UBQ, EF1α and GAPDH as the most stable genes for the genotype effect. For the biotic stress effect, EF1α, SAND and SMD3 were the most constant for the susceptible cultivar Trincadeira and EF1α, GAPDH, UBQ for the resistant cultivar Regent. In addition, the expression of three defense-related transcripts, encoding for subtilisin-like protein, CYP and PR10, was analysed, for both datasets, during inoculation time-course. Taken together, our results provide guidelines for reference gene(s) selection towards a more accurate and widespread use of qPCR to study the first hours of interaction between different grapevine cultivars and P. viticola. PMID:24023800

  17. Reference gene selection and validation for the early responses to downy mildew infection in susceptible and resistant Vitis vinifera cultivars.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Filipa; Sebastiana, Mónica; Pais, Maria Salomé; Figueiredo, Andreia

    2013-01-01

    The pivotal role of cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in many countries economy is compromised by its high susceptibility to Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of downy mildew disease. Recent research has identified a set of genes related to resistance which may be used to track downy mildew infection. Quantification of the expression of these resistance genes requires normalizing qPCR data using reference genes with stable expression in the system studied. In this study, a set of eleven genes (VATP16, 60 S, UQCC, SMD3, EF1α, UBQ, SAND, GAPDH, ACT, PsaB, PTB2) was evaluated to identify reference genes during the first hours of interaction (6, 12, 18 and 24 hpi) between two V. vinifera genotypes and P. viticola. Two analyses were used for the selection of reference genes: direct comparison of susceptible, Trincadeira, and resistant, Regent, V. vinifera cultivars at 0 h, 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours post inoculation with P. viticola (genotype effect); and comparison of each genotype with mock inoculated samples during inoculation time-course (biotic stress effect). Three statistical methods were used, GeNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper, allowing to identify UBQ, EF1α and GAPDH as the most stable genes for the genotype effect. For the biotic stress effect, EF1α, SAND and SMD3 were the most constant for the susceptible cultivar Trincadeira and EF1α, GAPDH, UBQ for the resistant cultivar Regent. In addition, the expression of three defense-related transcripts, encoding for subtilisin-like protein, CYP and PR10, was analysed, for both datasets, during inoculation time-course. Taken together, our results provide guidelines for reference gene(s) selection towards a more accurate and widespread use of qPCR to study the first hours of interaction between different grapevine cultivars and P. viticola. PMID:24023800

  18. Direct ingestion method for enhancing production and bioavailability of resveratrol and other phytoalexins in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Leifer, Ari; Barberio, Dana M

    2016-03-01

    Phytoalexins such as resveratrol and pterostilbene, produced de novo by many plant species, including grapevine (Vitis vinifera), play a role in plant defense against injury and pathogens. In human cell lines and in animal studies, phytoalexins have been shown to be highly beneficial, with protective effects against cancer, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, hyperglycemia, as well as potential effects on longevity. However, in clinical studies, there are multiple factors that restrict this plethora of health benefits attributed to phytoalexins. One of these barriers is rapid metabolism in the intestines and liver. As a means to overcome this barrier, there is evidence that retaining resveratrol in the mouth for extended periods allows for higher plasma levels of resveratrol. Processing, transport or storage may cause degradation due to light and air exposure. When the berries have been picked, they may not be at their peak phytoalexin production due to lack of elicitor induction. To overcome these barriers inherent in phytoalexin production and uptake, it is proposed that berries and possibly the edible leaves be directly ingested off of a grapevine, without harvesting. In addition to the benefit of removing these barriers to potential health benefits, this method introduces a variety of known phytoalexin elicitors, in the form of plant wounding and human saliva, which may enhance the levels of phytoalexins dramatically. The combined effect of multiple phytoalexins may also play a role in enhanced health benefits. To test this hypothesis, experiments with direct ingestion would be performed, followed by testing the participants' plasma levels of resveratrol and potentially other phytoalexins. Proposed variables to be tested include: different subjects, elicitors, cultivars of grapevine, ripeness of fruit, and a range of time for the ingestion process. The potential implications include a direct means of obtaining, in clinically beneficial

  19. Interactive effects of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) and water stress on the physiology of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Malvasia de Banyalbufar and Giro-Ros.

    PubMed

    El Aou-Ouad, Hanan; Montero, Rafael; Medrano, Hipólito; Bota, Josefina

    2016-06-01

    Among several biotic and abiotic stress combinations, interaction between drought and pathogen is one of the most studied combinations in some crops but still not in grapevine. In the present work, we focused on the interaction effects of biotic (GLRaV-3) and abiotic (drought) stresses on grapevine photosynthetic metabolism on two cultivars (cvs. 'Malvasia de Banyalbufar and Giro-Ros'). Non-infected and GLRaV-3 infected potted plants were compared under water stress conditions (WS) and well-watered (WW) conditions. Under WW condition, the results showed that photosynthesis (AN) in both cultivars was decreased by the presence of GLRaV-3. The stomatal conductance (gs) was the main factor for decreasing AN in Malvasia, meanwhile reductions in Giro-Ros were closely related to decreases in gm. The observed differences in gm between both cultivars might result from variation in their leaf anatomical, Giro-Ros having higher values of gm and leaf porosity (in all treatments). Moderate water deficit resulted in a closure of stomata and a decrease in gm accompanied by a decrease in AN in both cultivars. The maximum velocity of carboxylation (Vcmax) and electron transport rate (Jmax) were also reduced under water stress. Moreover, the combined stress resulted in a reduction of most physiological parameters compared to healthy irrigated plants. However, no considerable differences were found between non-infected and virus infected (GLRaV-3) plants under water stress. Most of the results could be explained by the difference of virus concentration between cultivars and treatments. PMID:27153513

  20. Historical Introgression of the Downy Mildew Resistance Gene Rpv12 from the Asian Species Vitis amurensis into Grapevine Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Venuti, Silvia; Copetti, Dario; Foria, Serena; Falginella, Luigi; Hoffmann, Sarolta; Bellin, Diana; Cindrić, Petar; Kozma, Pál; Scalabrin, Simone; Morgante, Michele; Testolin, Raffaele; Di Gaspero, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    The Amur grape (Vitis amurensis Rupr.) thrives naturally in cool climates of Northeast Asia. Resistance against the introduced pathogen Plasmopara viticola is common among wild ecotypes that were propagated from Manchuria into Chinese vineyards or collected by Soviet botanists in Siberia, and used for the introgression of resistance into wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.). A QTL analysis revealed a dominant gene Rpv12 that explained 79% of the phenotypic variance for downy mildew resistance and was inherited independently of other resistance genes. A Mendelian component of resistance–a hypersensitive response in leaves challenged with P. viticola–was mapped in an interval of 0.2 cM containing an array of coiled-coil NB-LRR genes on chromosome 14. We sequenced 10-kb genic regions in the Rpv12+ haplotype and identified polymorphisms in 12 varieties of V. vinifera using next-generation sequencing. The combination of two SNPs in single-copy genes flanking the NB-LRR cluster distinguished the resistant haplotype from all others found in 200 accessions of V. vinifera, V. amurensis, and V. amurensis x V. vinifera crosses. The Rpv12+ haplotype is shared by 15 varieties, the most ancestral of which are the century-old ‘Zarja severa’ and ‘Michurinets’. Before this knowledge, the chromosome segment around Rpv12+ became introgressed, shortened, and pyramided with another downy mildew resistance gene from North American grapevines (Rpv3) only by phenotypic selection. Rpv12+ has an additive effect with Rpv3+ to protect vines against natural infections, and confers foliar resistance to strains that are virulent on Rpv3+ plants. PMID:23593440

  1. Historical introgression of the downy mildew resistance gene Rpv12 from the Asian species Vitis amurensis into grapevine varieties.

    PubMed

    Venuti, Silvia; Copetti, Dario; Foria, Serena; Falginella, Luigi; Hoffmann, Sarolta; Bellin, Diana; Cindrić, Petar; Kozma, Pál; Scalabrin, Simone; Morgante, Michele; Testolin, Raffaele; Di Gaspero, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    The Amur grape (Vitis amurensis Rupr.) thrives naturally in cool climates of Northeast Asia. Resistance against the introduced pathogen Plasmopara viticola is common among wild ecotypes that were propagated from Manchuria into Chinese vineyards or collected by Soviet botanists in Siberia, and used for the introgression of resistance into wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.). A QTL analysis revealed a dominant gene Rpv12 that explained 79% of the phenotypic variance for downy mildew resistance and was inherited independently of other resistance genes. A Mendelian component of resistance-a hypersensitive response in leaves challenged with P. viticola-was mapped in an interval of 0.2 cM containing an array of coiled-coil NB-LRR genes on chromosome 14. We sequenced 10-kb genic regions in the Rpv12(+) haplotype and identified polymorphisms in 12 varieties of V. vinifera using next-generation sequencing. The combination of two SNPs in single-copy genes flanking the NB-LRR cluster distinguished the resistant haplotype from all others found in 200 accessions of V. vinifera, V. amurensis, and V. amurensis x V. vinifera crosses. The Rpv12(+) haplotype is shared by 15 varieties, the most ancestral of which are the century-old 'Zarja severa' and 'Michurinets'. Before this knowledge, the chromosome segment around Rpv12(+) became introgressed, shortened, and pyramided with another downy mildew resistance gene from North American grapevines (Rpv3) only by phenotypic selection. Rpv12(+) has an additive effect with Rpv3(+) to protect vines against natural infections, and confers foliar resistance to strains that are virulent on Rpv3(+) plants. PMID:23593440

  2. Haplotype diversity of VvTFL1A gene and association with cluster traits in grapevine (V. vinifera)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Interaction between TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) and LEAFY (LFY) seem to determine the inflorescence architecture in Arabidopsis. In a parallel way, overexpression of VvTFL1A, a grapevine TFL1 homolog, causes delayed flowering and production of a ramose cluster in the reiterated reproductive meristem (RRM) somatic variant of cultivar Carignan. To analyze the possible contribution of this gene to cluster phenotypic variation in a diversity panel of cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. subsp. vinifera) its nucleotide diversity was characterized and association analyses among detected sequence polymorphisms and phenology and cluster traits was carried out. Results A total of 3.6 kb of the VvTFL1A gene, including its promoter, was sequenced in a core collection of 140 individuals designed to maximize phenotypic variation at agronomical relevant traits. Nucleotide variation for VvTFL1A within this collection was higher in the promoter and intron sequences than in the exon regions; where few polymorphisms were located in agreement with a high conservation of coding sequence. Characterization of the VvTFL1A haplotype network identified three major haplogroups, consistent with the geographic origins and the use of the cultivars that could correspond to three major ancestral alleles or evolutionary branches, based on the existence of mutations in linkage disequilibrium. Genetic association studies with cluster traits revealed the presence of major INDEL polymorphisms, explaining 16%, 13% and 25% of flowering time, cluster width and berry weight, respectively, and also structuring the three haplogroups. Conclusions At least three major VvTFL1A haplogroups are present in cultivated grapevines, which are defined by the presence of three main polymorphism LD blocks and associated to characteristic phenotypic values for flowering time, cluster width and berry size. Phenotypic differences between haplogroups are consistent with differences observed between Eastern and

  3. Influence of deficit irrigation on nutrient indices in wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in tissue macro and micronutrient content at bloom and veraison were observed among nine wine grape cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.) grown under well-watered or deficit-irrigated conditions over three growing seasons. Deficit irrigation affected the concentration of petiole NO3-N and blade...

  4. Total antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of twenty-four Vitis vinifera grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phytochemical profiles of 24 Vitis vinifera grape cultivars, including total phenolics, total flavonoids, total antioxidant activity and antiproliferative activity, were determined. Total phenolic contents in the cultivars ranged from 95.3 to 686.5 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g FW, and to...

  5. Mycotoxin potential in high-risk American Vitis vinifera vineyards and wines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxins pose a serious worldwide threat to the safety of numerous food commodities. Red wine made from Vitis vinifera grapes is particularly prone to contamination from ochratoxin A, produced by black-spored Aspergillus spp. worldwide, and it was recently discovered that these species can also p...

  6. Host status of own-rooted Vitis vinifera varieties to Meloidogyne hapla

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are microscopic soil worms that attack the roots of grape plants and cause yield loss. One of the most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards is Meloidogyne hapla, the northern root-knot nematode. The selection of plant...

  7. Metabolic effects of elevated temperature on organic acid degradation in ripening Vitis vinifera fruit

    PubMed Central

    Sweetman, C.; Sadras, V. O.; Hancock, R. D.; Soole, K. L.; Ford, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Berries of the cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera are notably responsive to temperature, which can influence fruit quality and hence the future compatibility of varieties with their current growing regions. Organic acids represent a key component of fruit organoleptic quality and their content is significantly influenced by temperature. The objectives of this study were to (i) manipulate thermal regimes to realistically capture warming-driven reduction of malate content in Shiraz berries, and (ii) investigate the mechanisms behind temperature-sensitive malate loss and the potential downstream effects on berry metabolism. In the field we compared untreated controls at ambient temperature with longer and milder warming (2–4 °C differential for three weeks; Experiment 1) or shorter and more severe warming (4–6 °C differential for 11 days; Experiment 2). We complemented field trials with control (25/15 °C) and elevated (35/20 °C) day/night temperature controlled-environment trials using potted vines (Experiment 3). Elevating maximum temperatures (4–10 °C above controls) during pre-véraison stages led to higher malate content, particularly with warmer nights. Heating at véraison and ripening stages reduced malate content, consistent with effects typically seen in warm vintages. However, when minimum temperatures were also raised by 4–6 °C, malate content was not reduced, suggesting that the regulation of malate metabolism differs during the day and night. Increased NAD-dependent malic enzyme activity and decreased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate kinase activities, as well as the accumulation of various amino acids and γ-aminobutyric acid, suggest enhanced anaplerotic capacity of the TCA cycle and a need for coping with decreased cytosolic pH in heated fruit. PMID:25180109

  8. Genetic structure of the fungal grapevine pathogen Eutypa lata from four continents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deciphering the geographic origins of pathogens and elucidating the population biology of these microscopic organisms are necessary steps to establish effective disease-control strategies. The generalist ascomycete fungus Eutypa lata causes Eutypa dieback of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) worldwide. To ...

  9. Genetic structure of the fungal grapevine pathogen Eutypa lata from four continents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The generalist ascomycete fungus Eutypa lata causes Eutypa dieback of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) worldwide. To decipher the cosmopolitan distribution of this fungus, the population genetic structure of 17 geographic samples was investigated from four continental regions (Australia, California, Europ...

  10. Can Pierce’s disease resistance introgressed into Vitis vinifera be translocated from a resistant rootstock to a susceptible scion?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this research is to evaluate the potential of a non-transgenic, PD resistant Vitis vinifera selection used as an experimental rootstock to confer systemic resistance to PD susceptible V. vinifera scions. Source of PD susceptible plant material will be the wine grape variety ‘Chardonnay’,...

  11. Can Pierce’s disease resistance introgressed into Vitis vinifera be translocated from a resistant rootstock to a susceptible scion?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this research is to evaluate the potential of a non-transgenic, PD-resistant Vitis vinifera selection used as an experimental rootstock to confer systemic resistance to PD-susceptible V. vinifera scions. Source of PD-susceptible plant material was the wine grape variety ‘Chardonnay’, kno...

  12. Review of the Pharmacological Effects of Vitis vinifera (Grape) and its Bioactive Constituents: An Update.

    PubMed

    Nassiri-Asl, Marjan; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    Vitis vinifera fruit (grape) contains various phenolic compounds, flavonoids and stilbenes. In recent years, active constituents found in the fruits, seeds, stems, skin and pomaces of grapes have been identified and some have been studied. In this review, we summarize the active constituents of different parts of V. vinifera and their pharmacological effects including skin protection, antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer, antiinflammatory and antidiabetic activities, as well as hepatoprotective, cardioprotective and neuroprotective effects in experimental studies published after our 2009 review. Clinical and toxicity studies have also been examined. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27196869

  13. The R2R3-MYB Transcription Factors MYB14 and MYB15 Regulate Stilbene Biosynthesis in Vitis vinifera[W

    PubMed Central

    Höll, Janine; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Czemmel, Stefan; D'Onofrio, Claudio; Walker, Amanda R.; Rausch, Thomas; Lucchin, Margherita; Boss, Paul K.; Dry, Ian B.; Bogs, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Plant stilbenes are phytoalexins that accumulate in a small number of plant species, including grapevine (Vitis vinifera), in response to biotic and abiotic stresses and have been implicated in many beneficial effects on human health. In particular, resveratrol, the basic unit of all other complex stilbenes, has received widespread attention because of its cardio-protective, anticarcinogenic, and antioxidant properties. Although stilbene synthases (STSs), the key enzymes responsible for resveratrol biosynthesis, have been isolated and characterized from several plant species, the transcriptional regulation underlying stilbene biosynthesis is unknown. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of two R2R3-MYB–type transcription factors (TFs) from grapevine, which regulate the stilbene biosynthetic pathway. These TFs, designated MYB14 and MYB15, strongly coexpress with STS genes, both in leaf tissues under biotic and abiotic stress and in the skin and seed of healthy developing berries during maturation. In transient gene reporter assays, MYB14 and MYB15 were demonstrated to specifically activate the promoters of STS genes, and the ectopic expression of MYB15 in grapevine hairy roots resulted in increased STS expression and in the accumulation of glycosylated stilbenes in planta. These results demonstrate the involvement of MYB14 and MYB15 in the transcriptional regulation of stilbene biosynthesis in grapevine. PMID:24151295

  14. The Effect of Vitis vinifera L. Leaves Extract on Leishmania infantum

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Rym; Haouas, Najoua; Ben Kahla-Nakbi, Amel; Hammami, Saoussen; Mighri, Zine; Mhenni, Farouk; Babba, Hamouda

    2013-01-01

    Vitis vinifera L.is a traditional Asian herb widely used for different health problems. In the present research, the ethanolic and the aqueous extracts of Vitis vinifera L. leaves collected from shrub, grown in Tunisia, were prepared and evaluated for the antileishmanial activity against Leishmani ainfantum promastigotes. The inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) was determined and the results showed that the etahnolic extract is more active than the aqueous one (IC50= 0.108 mg/mL). Microscopic observations showed that the ethanolic extract promoted the destruction of cytoplasmic and nuclear membranes of Leishmani ainfantum promastigotes and altered the overall shape of the cell. In order to explain the difference of antileishmanial activity between ethanolic and aqueous extracts, anthocyanins amount was determined by spectrophotometry. It was found that the ethanolic extract is richer in anthocyanins than the aqueous one which can explain the higher antileishmanial activity of the ethanolic extract. PMID:24250641

  15. The Effect of Vitis vinifera L. Leaves Extract on Leishmania infantum.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Rym; Haouas, Najoua; Ben Kahla-Nakbi, Amel; Hammami, Saoussen; Mighri, Zine; Mhenni, Farouk; Babba, Hamouda

    2013-01-01

    Vitis vinifera L.is a traditional Asian herb widely used for different health problems. In the present research, the ethanolic and the aqueous extracts of Vitis vinifera L. leaves collected from shrub, grown in Tunisia, were prepared and evaluated for the antileishmanial activity against Leishmani ainfantum promastigotes. The inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) was determined and the results showed that the etahnolic extract is more active than the aqueous one (IC50= 0.108 mg/mL). Microscopic observations showed that the ethanolic extract promoted the destruction of cytoplasmic and nuclear membranes of Leishmani ainfantum promastigotes and altered the overall shape of the cell. In order to explain the difference of antileishmanial activity between ethanolic and aqueous extracts, anthocyanins amount was determined by spectrophotometry. It was found that the ethanolic extract is richer in anthocyanins than the aqueous one which can explain the higher antileishmanial activity of the ethanolic extract. PMID:24250641

  16. The Novel Gene VpPR4-1 from Vitis pseudoreticulata Increases Powdery Mildew Resistance in Transgenic Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Lingmin; Wang, Dan; Xie, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Chaohong; Wang, Xiping; Xu, Yan; Wang, Yuejin; Zhang, Jianxia

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs) can lead to increased resistance of the whole plant to pathogen attack. Here, we isolate and characterize a PR-4 protein (VpPR4-1) from a wild Chinese grape Vitis pseudoreticulata which shows greatly elevated transcription following powdery mildew infection. Its expression profiles under a number of abiotic stresses were also investigated. Powdery mildew, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid methyl ester significantly increased the VpPR4-1 induction while NaCl and heat treatments just slightly induced VpPR4-1 expression. Abscisic acid and cold treatment slightly affected the expression level of VpPR4-1. The VpPR4-1 gene was overexpressed in 30 regenerated V. vinifera cv. Red Globe via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and verified by the Western blot. The 26 transgenic grapevines exhibited higher expression levels of PR-4 protein content than wild-type vines and six of them were inoculated with powdery mildew which showed that the growth of powdery mildew was repressed. The powdery mildew-resistance of Red Globe transformed with VpPR4-1 was enhanced inoculated with powdery mildew. Moreover, other powdery mildew resistant genes were associated with feedback regulation since VpPR4-1 is in abundance. This study demonstrates that PR-4 protein in grapes plays a vital role in defense against powdery mildew invasion. PMID:27303413

  17. Evaluation of anxiolytic-like activity of Vitis vinifera juice in mice

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad; Sultana, Nuzhat

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Scientific studies have shown that Vitis vinifera (V. vinifera) contains flavonoids and stillbenoids. Flavonoids are well known to possess anxiolytic activities. In view of the idea that flavonoids present in V. vinifera could be useful in anxiety, we evaluated anxiolytic-like activity of V. vinifera juice (VVJ). Materials and Methods: Light/dark box and the open field test were used to assess the anxiolytic potential of V. vinifera juice (VVJ). The juice was given orally by gavage at the dose of 4 and 8 mL/kg body weight. Diazepam (1 mg/kg i.p.) was used as the standard drug. Results: It was observed that the juice produced significant and dose dependent increase in the time spent in light cubicle (p<0.001), transfer latency from the light to dark cubicle (p<0.001) and the number of transitions between the two cubicles (p<0.001) as compared with the control group. V. vinifera also demonstrated significant and dose dependent increase in ambulation (P<0.001) and rearing (p<0.001) in open field test as compared to the control group. Conclusion: In conclusion, the present study establishes the anxiolytic-like activity of VVJ in animal models of anxiety. PMID:27462558

  18. Construction of a reference linkage map of Vitis amurensis and genetic mapping of Rpv8, a locus conferring resistance to grapevine downy mildew.

    PubMed

    Blasi, Paule; Blanc, Sophie; Wiedemann-Merdinoglu, Sabine; Prado, Emilce; Rühl, Ernst H; Mestre, Pere; Merdinoglu, Didier

    2011-06-01

    Downy mildew, caused by the oomycete Plasmopara viticola, is one of the major threats to grapevine. All traditional cultivars of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) are susceptible to downy mildew, the control of which requires regular application of fungicides. In contrast, many sources of resistance to P. viticola have been described in the Vitis wild species, among which is V. amurensis Rupr. (Vitaceae), a species originating from East Asia. A genetic linkage map of V. amurensis, based on 122 simple sequence repeat and 6 resistance gene analogue markers, was established using S1 progeny. This map covers 975 cM on 19 linkage groups, which represent 82% of the physical coverage of the V. vinifera reference genetic map. To measure the general level of resistance, the sporulation of P. viticola and the necrosis produced in response to infection, five quantitative and semi-quantitative parameters were scored 6 days post-inoculation on the S1 progeny. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis allowed us to identify on linkage group 14 a major QTL controlling the resistance to downy mildew found in V. amurensis, which explained up to 86.3% of the total phenotypic variance. This QTL was named 'Resistance to Plasmopara viticola 8' (Rpv8). PMID:21404060

  19. Comparative transcriptomics of wild North American Vitis species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is one of the world’s most important fruit crops. While grapes are now cultivated across the world, biotic and abiotic stresses often limit the production of grapes. Compared with the cultivated grape, wild grapevine species possess adaptive traits for str...

  20. Grapevine rootstock effects on scion sap phenolic levels, resistance to Xylella fastidiosa infection, and progression of Pierce’s disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) causes Pierce’s disease (PD), an important disease of grapevine, Vitis vinifera L. Grapevine rootstocks were developed to provide increased resistance to root disease, but rootstock effects on cane and vine diseases remain unclear. Grapevines that ...

  1. Increasing the source/sink ratio in Vitis vinifera (cv Sangiovese) induces extensive transcriptome reprogramming and modifies berry ripening

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cluster thinning is an agronomic practice in which a proportion of berry clusters are removed from the vine to increase the source/sink ratio and improve the quality of the remaining berries. Until now no transcriptomic data have been reported describing the mechanisms that underlie the agronomic and biochemical effects of thinning. Results We profiled the transcriptome of Vitis vinifera cv. Sangiovese berries before and after thinning at veraison using a genome-wide microarray representing all grapevine genes listed in the latest V1 gene prediction. Thinning increased the source/sink ratio from 0.6 to 1.2 m2 leaf area per kg of berries and boosted the sugar and anthocyanin content at harvest. Extensive transcriptome remodeling was observed in thinned vines 2 weeks after thinning and at ripening. This included the enhanced modulation of genes that are normally regulated during berry development and the induction of a large set of genes that are not usually expressed. Conclusion Cluster thinning has a profound effect on several important cellular processes and metabolic pathways including carbohydrate metabolism and the synthesis and transport of secondary products. The integrated agronomic, biochemical and transcriptomic data revealed that the positive impact of cluster thinning on final berry composition reflects a much more complex outcome than simply enhancing the normal ripening process. PMID:22192855

  2. Flower abscission in Vitis vinifera L. triggered by gibberellic acid and shade discloses differences in the underlying metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Sara; Scafidi, Pietro; Cardoso, Vania; Leitao, Antonio E; Di Lorenzo, Rosario; Oliveira, Cristina M; Goulao, Luis F

    2015-01-01

    Understanding abscission is both a biological and an agronomic challenge. Flower abscission induced independently by shade and gibberellic acid (GAc) sprays was monitored in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) growing under a soilless greenhouse system during two seasonal growing conditions, in an early and late production cycle. Physiological and metabolic changes triggered by each of the two distinct stimuli were determined. Environmental conditions exerted a significant effect on fruit set as showed by the higher natural drop rate recorded in the late production cycle with respect to the early cycle. Shade and GAc treatments increased the percentage of flower drop compared to the control, and at a similar degree, during the late production cycle. The reduction of leaf gas exchanges under shade conditions was not observed in GAc treated vines. The metabolic profile assessed in samples collected during the late cycle differently affected primary and secondary metabolisms and showed that most of the treatment-resulting variations occurred in opposite trends in inflorescences unbalanced in either hormonal or energy deficit abscission-inducing signals. Particularly concerning carbohydrates metabolism, sucrose, glucose, tricarboxylic acid metabolites and intermediates of the raffinose family oligosaccharides pathway were lower in shaded and higher in GAc samples. Altered oxidative stress remediation mechanisms and indolacetic acid (IAA) concentration were identified as abscission signatures common to both stimuli. According to the global analysis performed, we report that grape flower abscission mechanisms triggered by GAc application and C-starvation are not based on the same metabolic pathways. PMID:26157448

  3. Flower abscission in Vitis vinifera L. triggered by gibberellic acid and shade discloses differences in the underlying metabolic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Domingos, Sara; Scafidi, Pietro; Cardoso, Vania; Leitao, Antonio E.; Di Lorenzo, Rosario; Oliveira, Cristina M.; Goulao, Luis F.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding abscission is both a biological and an agronomic challenge. Flower abscission induced independently by shade and gibberellic acid (GAc) sprays was monitored in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) growing under a soilless greenhouse system during two seasonal growing conditions, in an early and late production cycle. Physiological and metabolic changes triggered by each of the two distinct stimuli were determined. Environmental conditions exerted a significant effect on fruit set as showed by the higher natural drop rate recorded in the late production cycle with respect to the early cycle. Shade and GAc treatments increased the percentage of flower drop compared to the control, and at a similar degree, during the late production cycle. The reduction of leaf gas exchanges under shade conditions was not observed in GAc treated vines. The metabolic profile assessed in samples collected during the late cycle differently affected primary and secondary metabolisms and showed that most of the treatment-resulting variations occurred in opposite trends in inflorescences unbalanced in either hormonal or energy deficit abscission-inducing signals. Particularly concerning carbohydrates metabolism, sucrose, glucose, tricarboxylic acid metabolites and intermediates of the raffinose family oligosaccharides pathway were lower in shaded and higher in GAc samples. Altered oxidative stress remediation mechanisms and indolacetic acid (IAA) concentration were identified as abscission signatures common to both stimuli. According to the global analysis performed, we report that grape flower abscission mechanisms triggered by GAc application and C-starvation are not based on the same metabolic pathways. PMID:26157448

  4. Impact of clonal variability in Vitis vinifera Cabernet franc on grape composition, wine quality, leaf blade stilbene content, and downy mildew resistance.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Roby, Jean-Philippe; Alonso-Villaverde, Virginia; Gindro, Katia

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 10 clones of Vitis vinifera Cabernet franc (not yet commercial) have been phenotyped on precocity, grape composition, and assessment of wine quality made by microvinification in 2008-2010. Additionally, two original criteria have been considered: concentration of 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) in grapes and wines (the green bell pepper flavor) and resistance of grapevines to downy mildew ( Plasmopara viticola ) by stilbene quantification upon infection. Precocity of veraison varied up to four days at veraison. Berry size and yield were highly variable among clones. However, these variables were not correlated. Tanins and anthocyanins varied among clones in grapes and wines. Variations in grape and wine IBMP were not significant. Some clones showed lower susceptibility for downy mildew on leaves. Lower susceptibility was linked to a higher production of stilbenic phytoalexins involved in downy mildew resistance mechanisms. PMID:23205623

  5. Profiling of resveratrol oligomers, important stress metabolites, accumulating in the leaves of hybrid Vitis vinifera (Merzling × Teroldego) genotypes infected with Plasmopara viticola.

    PubMed

    Mattivi, Fulvio; Vrhovsek, Urska; Malacarne, Giulia; Masuero, Domenico; Zulini, Luca; Stefanini, Marco; Moser, Claudio; Velasco, Riccardo; Guella, Graziano

    2011-05-25

    In the Vitaceae, viniferins represent a relatively restricted group of trans-resveratrol oligomers with antifungal properties, thus enabling plants to cope with pathogen attack. The aim of this study was to perform isolation and structural characterization of the whole class of viniferins accumulating in the leaves of hybrid Vitis vinifera (Merzling × Teroldego) genotypes infected with Plasmopara viticola . Infected leaves of resistant plants were collected 6 days after infection, extracted with methanol, and prepurified by flash chromatography using ENV+ and Toyopearl HW 40S resins. Further fractionation using normal-phase preparative chromatography and then reversed-phase preparative chromatography allowed isolation of 14 peaks. The isolated compounds were identified using advanced mass spectrometry techniques and extensive one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance measurements, UV, CD, optical properties, and molecular mechanic calculations. The results demonstrated the presence in infected leaves of seven dimers (six stilbenes and one stilbenoid), of which four were new in grapevine (ampelopsin D, quadrangularin A, E-ω-viniferin, and Z-ω-viniferin), four trimers (three stilbenes and one stilbenoid), of which two (Z-miyabenol C and E-cis-miyabenol C) were new in grapevine, three tetramer stilbenoids, all new in grapevine, isohopeaphenol, ampelopsin H, and a vaticanol C-like isomer. The isolation of a dimer deriving from the condensation of (+)-catechin with trans-caffeic acid also indicated that other preformed phenolics are structurally modified in tissues infected with P. viticola. PMID:21510709

  6. Differences in Stylet Penetration Behaviors of Glassy-winged Sharpshooters on Xylella-Resistant Vitis candicans vs. Susceptible Vitis vinifera cv. ‘Chardonnay’

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electrical penetration graph (EPG) monitoring was used to compare stylet penetration behaviors of glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), a vector of Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), on Xf-resistant Vitis candicans grape vs. susceptible V. vinifera cv. ‘Chardonnay.’ Frequency of occurrence of X waves (represent...

  7. Whole-Genome Survey of the Putative ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter Family Genes in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Çakır, Birsen; Kılıçkaya, Ozan

    2013-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein superfamily constitutes one of the largest protein families known in plants. In this report, we performed a complete inventory of ABC protein genes in Vitis vinifera, the whole genome of which has been sequenced. By comparison with ABC protein members of Arabidopsis thaliana, we identified 135 putative ABC proteins with 1 or 2 NBDs in V. vinifera. Of these, 120 encode intrinsic membrane proteins, and 15 encode proteins missing TMDs. V. vinifera ABC proteins can be divided into 13 subfamilies with 79 “full-size,” 41 “half-size,” and 15 “soluble” putative ABC proteins. The main feature of the Vitis ABC superfamily is the presence of 2 large subfamilies, ABCG (pleiotropic drug resistance and white-brown complex homolog) and ABCC (multidrug resistance-associated protein). We identified orthologs of V. vinifera putative ABC transporters in different species. This work represents the first complete inventory of ABC transporters in V. vinifera. The identification of Vitis ABC transporters and their comparative analysis with the Arabidopsis counterparts revealed a strong conservation between the 2 species. This inventory could help elucidate the biological and physiological functions of these transporters in V. vinifera. PMID:24244377

  8. Safety assessment of Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 24 Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients and found them safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetics. These ingredients function in cosmetics mostly as skin-conditioning agents, but some function as antioxidants, flavoring agents, and/or colorants. The Panel reviewed the available animal and clinical data to determine the safety of these ingredients. Additionally, some constituents of grapes have been assessed previously for safety as cosmetic ingredients by the Panel, and others are compounds that have been discussed in previous Panel safety assessments. PMID:25297908

  9. Characterization of the serine acetyltransferase gene family of Vitis vinifera uncovers differences in regulation of OAS synthesis in woody plants

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Sílvia; Wirtz, Markus; Beier, Marcel P.; Bogs, Jochen; Hell, Rüdiger; Amâncio, Sara

    2015-01-01

    In higher plants cysteine biosynthesis is catalyzed by O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OASTL) and represents the last step of the assimilatory sulfate reduction pathway. It is mainly regulated by provision of O-acetylserine (OAS), the nitrogen/carbon containing backbone for fixation of reduced sulfur. OAS is synthesized by Serine acetyltransferase (SERAT), which reversibly interacts with OASTL in the cysteine synthase complex (CSC). In this study we identify and characterize the SERAT gene family of the crop plant Vitis vinifera. The identified four members of the VvSERAT protein family are assigned to three distinct groups upon their sequence similarities to Arabidopsis SERATs. Expression of fluorescently labeled VvSERAT proteins uncover that the sub-cellular localization of VvSERAT1;1 and VvSERAT3;1 is the cytosol and that VvSERAT2;1 and VvSERAT2;2 localize in addition in plastids and mitochondria, respectively. The purified VvSERATs of group 1 and 2 have higher enzymatic activity than VvSERAT3;1, which display a characteristic C-terminal extension also present in AtSERAT3;1. VvSERAT1;1 and VvSERAT2;2 are evidenced to form the CSC. CSC formation activates VvSERAT2;2, by releasing CSC-associated VvSERAT2;2 from cysteine inhibition. Thus, subcellular distribution of SERAT isoforms and CSC formation in cytosol and mitochondria is conserved between Arabidopsis and grapevine. Surprisingly, VvSERAT2;1 lack the canonical C-terminal tail of plant SERATs, does not form the CSC and is almost insensitive to cysteine inhibition (IC50 = 1.9 mM cysteine). Upon sulfate depletion VvSERAT2;1 is strongly induced at the transcriptional level, while transcription of other VvSERATs is almost unaffected in sulfate deprived grapevine cell suspension cultures. Application of abiotic stresses to soil grown grapevine plants revealed isoform-specific induction of VvSERAT2;1 in leaves upon drought, whereas high light- or temperature- stress hardly trigger VvSERAT2;1 transcription. PMID:25741355

  10. Variation in the chilling requirement and bud burst rate of wild Vitis species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is one of the most important agricultural fruit crops in the world. In the United States, grapevines are often grown in environments very different than the Mediterranean climate from where the cultivated species was domesticated. Predictions of changing clima...

  11. Effects of climate variability on irrigation scheduling in white varieties of Vitis vinifera of NW Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Emma M.; Trigo-Córdoba, Emiliano; Bouzas-Cid, Yolanda; Fandiño, María; Rey, Benjamín J.; Mirás-Avalos, Jose M.; Cancela, Javier J.

    2014-05-01

    Inter-annual climate variability, in particular the temporal distribution of rainfall is regarded as a critical factor to obtain an optimal irrigation management on crops, being more marked their relevance in Atlantic climates. The presence of precision irrigation systems in Vitis vinifera (L.) has created the need to understand the physiological effects on plant, and vineyard soils, together with production and quality parameters, to achieve and adequate irrigation management. This trial was performed on two relevant white grapevine varieties from Galicia (NW-Spain), cv. `Albariño` (D.O. Rías Baixas and Ribeiro) and cv. `Godello` (D.O. Valdeorras and D.O. Monterrei) during the 2012 and 2013 seasons. Two treatments were established following a completely randomized block design with four replications (7 plants each). The treatments were rainfed (R) and surface drip irrigation (DI), these last one was not applied in DO Monterrei during 2012. Irrigation was initiated when an average value of 400 cumulative degree days was reached, ending 15 days before the harvest. Different bioclimatic indices were calculated to characterize each season and location: Cool night index (CI); Heliothermal index (HI), which corresponds to Huglin's heliothermal index; and Winkler index. To assess the water status of the vines leaf (Ψmid) and stem (Ψstem) water potentials were measured at noon. Finally, production and qualitative data were collected for each treatment. No differences between DOs were observed for 'Godello' cultivar in bioclimatic indices within the Geoviticulture MCC system (Tonietto and Carboneau, 2004), indicating temperate warm-temperate (HI) and very cool nights (CI). For the Winkler index, cv. Godello is within the region I, near the region II in the case of D.O. Valdeorras in both years. In the case of 'Albariño', warmer nights were observed in DO Rías Baixas compared with DO Ribeiro, whereas the opposite was found for the thermal index. Leaf water potential

  12. Strategies for durable resistance to the grapevine powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nearly all cultivars of Vitis vinifera are highly susceptible to the grapevine powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator. Grape breeders around the world are working to introgress resistance from wild Vitis. Of the widely-used introgressions, most involve dominant, race-specific resistance phenotype...

  13. Interactions between ethylene and auxin are crucial to the control of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry ripening

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fruit development is controlled by plant hormones, but the role of hormone interactions during fruit ripening is poorly understood. Interactions between ethylene and the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are likely to be crucial during the ripening process, since both hormones have been shown to be implicated in the control of ripening in a range of different fruit species. Results Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) homologues of the TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED (TAR) and YUCCA families, functioning in the only characterized pathway of auxin biosynthesis, were identified and the expression of several TAR genes was shown to be induced by the pre-ripening application of the ethylene-releasing compound Ethrel. The induction of TAR expression was accompanied by increased IAA and IAA-Asp concentrations, indicative of an upregulation of auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Exposure of ex planta, pre-ripening berries to the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine resulted in decreased IAA and IAA-Asp concentrations. The delayed initiation of ripening observed in Ethrel-treated berries might therefore represent an indirect ethylene effect mediated by increased auxin concentrations. During berry development, the expression of three TAR genes and one YUCCA gene was upregulated at the time of ripening initiation and/or during ripening. This increase in auxin biosynthesis gene expression was preceded by high expression levels of the ethylene biosynthesis genes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase. Conclusions In grape berries, members of both gene families involved in the two-step pathway of auxin biosynthesis are expressed, suggesting that IAA is produced through the combined action of TAR and YUCCA proteins in developing berries. The induction of TAR expression by Ethrel applications and the developmental expression patterns of auxin and ethylene biosynthesis genes indicate that elevated

  14. Endophytic Colonization of Vitis vinifera L. by Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Burkholderia sp. Strain PsJN

    PubMed Central

    Compant, Stéphane; Reiter, Birgit; Sessitsch, Angela; Nowak, Jerzy; Clément, Christophe; Ait Barka, Essaïd

    2005-01-01

    Patterns of colonization of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay plantlets by a plant growth-promoting bacterium, Burkholderia sp. strain PsJN, were studied under gnotobiotic conditions. Wild-type strain PsJN and genetically engineered derivatives of this strain tagged with gfp (PsJN::gfp2x) or gusA (PsJN::gusA11) genes were used to enumerate and visualize tissue colonization. The rhizospheres of 4- to 5-week-old plantlets with five developed leaves were inoculated with bacterial suspensions. Epiphytic and endophytic colonization patterns were then monitored by dilution plating assays and microscopic observation of organ sections. Bacteria were chronologically detected first on root surfaces, then in root internal tissues, and finally in the fifth internode and the tissues of the fifth leaf. Analysis of the PsJN colonization patterns showed that this strain colonizes grapevine root surfaces, as well as cell walls and the whole surface of some rhizodermal cells. Cells were also abundant at lateral root emergence sites and root tips. Furthermore, cell wall-degrading endoglucanase and endopolygalacturonase secreted by PsJN explained how the bacterium gains entry into root internal tissues. Host defense reactions were observed in the exodermis and in several cortical cell layers. Bacteria were not observed on stem and leaf surfaces but were found in xylem vessels of the fifth internode and the fifth leaf of plantlets. Moreover, bacteria were more abundant in the fifth leaf than in the fifth internode and were found in substomatal chambers. Thus, it seems that Burkholderia sp. strain PsJN induces a local host defense reaction and systemically spreads to aerial parts through the transpiration stream. PMID:15811990

  15. Brassinosteroids are involved in controlling sugar unloading in Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon' berries during véraison.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fan; Xi, Zhu-Mei; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Cheng-Jun; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2015-09-01

    Sugar unloading in grape berries is a crucial step in the long-distance transport of carbohydrates from grapevine leaves to berries. Brassinosteroids (BRs) mediate many physiological processes in plants including carbohydrate metabolism. Here, 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera L.) grape berries cultivated in clay loam fields were treated with an exogenous BR (24-epibrassinolide; EBR), a BR synthesis inhibitor (brassinazole; Brz), Brz + EBR (sprayed with EBR 24 h after a Brz treatment), and deionized water (control) at the onset of véraison. The EBR treatment sharply increased the soluble sugars content in the berries, but decreased it in the skins. The EBR and Brz + EBR treatments significantly promoted the activities of both invertases (acidic and neutral) and sucrose synthase (sucrolytic) at various stages of ripening. The mRNA levels of genes encoding sucrose metabolic invertase (VvcwINV), and monosaccharide (VvHT3, 4, 5 and 6) and disaccharide (VvSUC12 and 27) transporters were increased by the EBR and/or Brz + EBR treatments. Generally, the effects of the Brz treatment on the measured targets contrasted with the effects of the EBR treatments. The EBR and Brz treatments inhibited the biosynthesis of the endogenous BRs 6-deoxocastastarone and castasterone. Both EBR and Brz + EBR treatments increased the brassinolide contents, down-regulated the expression of genes encoding BRs biosynthetic enzymes BRASSINOSTEROID-6-OXIDASE and DWARF1, (VvBR6OX1 and VvDWF1) and induced BR receptor gene BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (VvBRI1) expression in deseeded berries. Together, these results show that BRs are involved in controlling sugar unloading in grape berries during véraison. PMID:26113159

  16. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals defense-related genes and pathways against downy mildew in Vitis amurensis grapevine.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinlong; Wu, Jiao; Yin, Ling; Zhang, Yali; Qu, Junjie; Lu, Jiang

    2015-10-01

    Downy mildew (DM), caused by oomycete Plasmopara viticola (Pv), can lead to severe damage to Vitis vinifera grapevines. Vitis amurensis has generally been regarded as a DM resistant species. However, when V. amurensis 'Shuanghong' were inoculated with Pv strains 'ZJ-1-1' and 'JL-7-2', the former led to obvious DM symptoms (compatible), while the latter did not develop any DM symptoms but exhibited necrosis (incompatible). In order to underlie molecular mechanism in DM resistance, mRNA-seq based expression profiling of 'Shuanghong' was compared at 12, 24, 48 and 72 h post inoculation (hpi) with these two strains. Specific genes and their corresponding pathways responsible for incompatible interaction were extracted by comparing with compatible interaction. In the incompatible interaction, 37 resistance (R) genes were more expressed at the early stage of infection (12 hpi). Similarly, genes involved in defense signaling, including MAPK. ROS/NO, SA, JA, ET and ABA pathways, and genes associated with defense-related metabolites synthesis, such as pathogenesis-related genes and phenylpropanoids/stilbenoids/flavonoids biosynthesizing genes, were also activated mainly during the early stages of infection. On the other hand, Ca(2+) signaling and primary metabolism, such as photosynthesis and fatty acid synthesis, were more repressed after 'JL-7-2' challenge. Further quantification of some key defense-related factors, including phytohormones, phytoalexins and ROS, generally showed much more accumulation during the incompatible interaction, indicating their important roles in DM defense. In addition, a total of 43 and 52 RxLR effectors were detected during 'JL-7-2' and 'ZJ-1-1' infection processes, respectively. PMID:26151858

  17. Vv-AMP1, a ripening induced peptide from Vitis vinifera shows strong antifungal activity

    PubMed Central

    de Beer, Abré; Vivier, Melané A

    2008-01-01

    Background Latest research shows that small antimicrobial peptides play a role in the innate defense system of plants. These peptides typically contribute to preformed defense by developing protective barriers around germinating seeds or between different tissue layers within plant organs. The encoding genes could also be upregulated by abiotic and biotic stimuli during active defense processes. The peptides display a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities. Their potent anti-pathogenic characteristics have ensured that they are promising targets in the medical and agricultural biotechnology sectors. Results A berry specific cDNA sequence designated Vv-AMP1, Vitis vinifera antimicrobial peptide 1, was isolated from Vitis vinifera. Vv-AMP1 encodes for a 77 amino acid peptide that shows sequence homology to the family of plant defensins. Vv-AMP1 is expressed in a tissue specific, developmentally regulated manner, being only expressed in berry tissue at the onset of berry ripening and onwards. Treatment of leaf and berry tissue with biotic or abiotic factors did not lead to increased expression of Vv-AMP1 under the conditions tested. The predicted signal peptide of Vv-AMP1, fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP), showed that the signal peptide allowed accumulation of its product in the apoplast. Vv-AMP1 peptide, produced in Escherichia coli, had a molecular mass of 5.495 kDa as determined by mass spectrometry. Recombinant Vv-AMP1 was extremely heat-stable and showed strong antifungal activity against a broad spectrum of plant pathogenic fungi, with very high levels of activity against the wilting disease causing pathogens Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae. The Vv-AMP1 peptide did not induce morphological changes on the treated fungal hyphae, but instead strongly inhibited hyphal elongation. A propidium iodide uptake assay suggested that the inhibitory activity of Vv-AMP1 might be associated with altering the membrane permeability of the fungal

  18. Using specific length amplified fragment sequencing to construct the high-density genetic map for Vitis (Vitis vinifera L. × Vitis amurensis Rupr.)

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yinshan; Shi, Guangli; Liu, Zhendong; Zhao, Yuhui; Yang, Xiaoxu; Zhu, Junchi; Li, Kun; Guo, Xiuwu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 149 F1 plants from the interspecific cross between ‘Red Globe’ (Vitis vinifera L.) and ‘Shuangyou’ (Vitis amurensis Rupr.) and the parent were used to construct a molecular genetic linkage map by using the specific length amplified fragment sequencing technique. DNA sequencing generated 41.282 Gb data consisting of 206,411,693 paired-end reads. The average sequencing depths were 68.35 for ‘Red Globe,’ 63.65 for ‘Shuangyou,’ and 8.01 for each progeny. In all, 115,629 high-quality specific length amplified fragments were detected, of which 42,279 were polymorphic. The genetic map was constructed using 7,199 of these polymorphic markers. These polymorphic markers were assigned to 19 linkage groups; the total length of the map was 1929.13 cm, with an average distance of 0.28 cm between each maker. To our knowledge, the genetic maps constructed in this study contain the largest number of molecular markers. These high-density genetic maps might form the basis for the fine quantitative trait loci mapping and molecular-assisted breeding of grape. PMID:26089826

  19. Characterization of triterpenoid profiles and triterpene synthase expression in the leaves of eight Vitis vinifera cultivars grown in the Upper Rhine Valley.

    PubMed

    Pensec, Flora; Szakiel, Anna; Pączkowski, Cezary; Woźniak, Agnieszka; Grabarczyk, Marta; Bertsch, Christophe; Fischer, Marc J C; Chong, Julie

    2016-05-01

    Plant triterpenoids are a diverse group of secondary metabolites with wide distribution, high chemical diversity and interesting pharmacological and antimicrobial properties. The first step in the biosynthesis of all triterpenoids is the cyclization of the 2,3-oxidosqualene precursor, catalyzed by oxidosqualene cyclases (OSCs), which have characteristic product specificities. Biosynthesis and functions of pentacyclic triterpenes have been poorly studied in grapevine. In this study, we first investigated the profile of triterpenoids present in leaf cuticular waxes from eight Vitis vinifera cultivars cultivated in the Upper Rhine Valley. Further quantification of triterpenoids showed that these cultivars can be divided into two groups, characterized by high levels of lupeol (e.g., Pinot noir) or taraxerol (e.g., Gewurztraminer) respectively. We further analyzed the OSC family involved in the synthesis of pentacyclic triterpenes (called VvTTPSs) in the sequenced V. vinifera 40024 genome and found nine genes with similarity to previously characterized triterpene synthases. Phylogenetic analysis further showed that VvTTPS1-VvTTPS3 and VvTTPS5-VvTTPS9 belong to the β-amyrin synthase and multifunctional triterpene synthase clade, whereas VvTTPS10 belongs to the lupeol synthase clade. We studied the expression of several members of the VvTTPS family following biotic and abiotic stresses in V. vinifera 40024 as well as in the eight healthy cultivars. This study further revealed that one candidate gene, VvTTPS5, which does not belong to the lupeol synthase clade, is highly expressed in lupeol-rich cultivars. VvTTPS3, VvTTPS5, VvTTPS6, VvTTPS7 and VvTTPS10 were highly upregulated by UV stress, but only VvTTPS3, VvTTPS5, VvTTPS6 and VvTTPS10 were upregulated following downy mildew and gray mold infections respectively. These results suggest differential roles of VvTTPS against environmental stresses in grape leaves. PMID:26879930

  20. VitiCanopy: A Free Computer App to Estimate Canopy Vigor and Porosity for Grapevine

    PubMed Central

    De Bei, Roberta; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Gilliham, Matthew; Tyerman, Steve; Edwards, Everard; Bianchini, Nicolò; Smith, Jason; Collins, Cassandra

    2016-01-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) and plant area index (PAI) are common and important biophysical parameters used to estimate agronomical variables such as canopy growth, light interception and water requirements of plants and trees. LAI can be either measured directly using destructive methods or indirectly using dedicated and expensive instrumentation, both of which require a high level of know-how to operate equipment, handle data and interpret results. Recently, a novel smartphone and tablet PC application, VitiCanopy, has been developed by a group of researchers from the University of Adelaide and the University of Melbourne, to estimate grapevine canopy size (LAI and PAI), canopy porosity, canopy cover and clumping index. VitiCanopy uses the front in-built camera and GPS capabilities of smartphones and tablet PCs to automatically implement image analysis algorithms on upward-looking digital images of canopies and calculates relevant canopy architecture parameters. Results from the use of VitiCanopy on grapevines correlated well with traditional methods to measure/estimate LAI and PAI. Like other indirect methods, VitiCanopy does not distinguish between leaf and non-leaf material but it was demonstrated that the non-leaf material could be extracted from the results, if needed, to increase accuracy. VitiCanopy is an accurate, user-friendly and free alternative to current techniques used by scientists and viticultural practitioners to assess the dynamics of LAI, PAI and canopy architecture in vineyards, and has the potential to be adapted for use on other plants. PMID:27120600

  1. VitiCanopy: A Free Computer App to Estimate Canopy Vigor and Porosity for Grapevine.

    PubMed

    De Bei, Roberta; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Gilliham, Matthew; Tyerman, Steve; Edwards, Everard; Bianchini, Nicolò; Smith, Jason; Collins, Cassandra

    2016-01-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) and plant area index (PAI) are common and important biophysical parameters used to estimate agronomical variables such as canopy growth, light interception and water requirements of plants and trees. LAI can be either measured directly using destructive methods or indirectly using dedicated and expensive instrumentation, both of which require a high level of know-how to operate equipment, handle data and interpret results. Recently, a novel smartphone and tablet PC application, VitiCanopy, has been developed by a group of researchers from the University of Adelaide and the University of Melbourne, to estimate grapevine canopy size (LAI and PAI), canopy porosity, canopy cover and clumping index. VitiCanopy uses the front in-built camera and GPS capabilities of smartphones and tablet PCs to automatically implement image analysis algorithms on upward-looking digital images of canopies and calculates relevant canopy architecture parameters. Results from the use of VitiCanopy on grapevines correlated well with traditional methods to measure/estimate LAI and PAI. Like other indirect methods, VitiCanopy does not distinguish between leaf and non-leaf material but it was demonstrated that the non-leaf material could be extracted from the results, if needed, to increase accuracy. VitiCanopy is an accurate, user-friendly and free alternative to current techniques used by scientists and viticultural practitioners to assess the dynamics of LAI, PAI and canopy architecture in vineyards, and has the potential to be adapted for use on other plants. PMID:27120600

  2. Protein-precipitable tannin in wines from Vitis vinifera and interspecific hybrid grapes (Vitis ssp.): differences in concentration, extractability, and cell wall binding.

    PubMed

    Springer, Lindsay F; Sacks, Gavin L

    2014-07-30

    Although they possess significant viticultural advantages, interspecific hybrid grapes (Vitis spp.) are reported to produce wine with lower tannin concentrations than European wine varieties (Vitis vinifera). However, extensive quantitative data on this phenomenon as well as mechanistic explanations for these differences are lacking. A survey of primarily commercial wines from the Finger Lakes American Viticultural Area (New York) using a protein precipitation method determined that hybrid-based wines had >4-fold lower tannin concentrations than vinifera wines. To elucidate factors responsible for differences in wine tannin, 24 wines were produced from both red hybrid and vinifera cultivars under identical conditions. Lower wine tannin in French-American hybrid- than vinifera-based wines could be partially explained by lower grape tannin. However, experiments in which cell wall material was incubated with tannin indicated that cell wall binding may be of equal or greater importance in explaining lower wine tannin concentrations in hybrid-based wines. Subsequent characterization of cell wall material revealed that protein in flesh cell walls and, to a lesser extent, pectin in skin cell walls were correlated with cell wall binding. PMID:25017417

  3. Can Pierce’s disease PdR1 resistance introgressed into Vitis vinifera be translocated from a resistant rootstock to a susceptible scion?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this research is to evaluate the potential of a non-transgenic, PD resistant Vitis vinifera selection used as an experimental rootstock to confer systemic resistance to PD susceptible V. vinifera scions. Source of PD susceptible plant material was the wine grape variety ‘Chardonnay’, kno...

  4. Steroid 5β-Reductase from Leaves of Vitis vinifera: Molecular Cloning, Expression, and Modeling.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Mona; Munkert, Jennifer; Campa, Manuela; Malnoy, Mickael; Martens, Stefan; Müller-Uri, Frieder

    2015-11-25

    A steroid 5β-reductase gene corresponding to the hypothetical protein LOC100247199 from leaves of Vitis vinifera (var. 'Chardonnay') was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein showed 5β-reductase activity when progesterone was used as a substrate. The reaction was stereoselective, producing only 5β-products such as 5β-pregnane-3,20-dione. Other small substrates (terpenoids and enones) were also accepted as substrates, indicating the highly promiscuous character of the enzyme class. Our results show that the steroid 5β-reductase gene, encoding an orthologous enzyme described as a key enzyme in cardenolide biosynthesis, is also expressed in leaves of the cardenolide-free plant V. vinifera. We emphasize the fact that, on some occasions, different reductases (e.g., progesterone 5β-reductase and monoterpenoid reductase) can also use molecules that are similar to the final products as a substrate. Therefore, in planta, the different reductases may contribute to the immense number of diverse small natural products finally leading to the flavor of wine. PMID:26537436

  5. Wound-healing properties of the oils of Vitis vinifera and Vaccinium macrocarpon.

    PubMed

    Shivananda Nayak, B; Dan Ramdath, D; Marshall, Julien R; Isitor, Godwin; Xue, Sophia; Shi, John

    2011-08-01

    Vitis vinifera (grape) and Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) are well known medicinal plants; most of the pharmacologically active phytochemicals have been isolated from the skin, fruit juice, fermented extract and alcohol fractions of the plants above. Here, the pharmacological properties of the phytochemical constituents present in oils of cranberry and grape were investigated. The oil of grape and cranberry has been evaluated for their wound healing activity by using an excision wound model in rats. The animals were divided into four groups of six each (n = 6). The experimental group 1 and 2 animals were treated topically with the grape and cranberry oil (100 mg/kg body weight), respectively. The controls were treated with petroleum jelly. The standard group of animals were treated with mupirocin ointment (100 mg/kg body weight). The healing was assessed by the rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content. On day 13, animals treated with cranberry oil exhibited a (88.1%) reduction in the wound area compared with grape-oil treated (84.6%), controls (74.1%) and standard group animals (78.4%) (p < 0.001). The hydroxyproline content of the granulation tissue was significantly higher in the animals treated with cranberry and the grape-oil (p < 0.000). Comparative investigation of the curative properties of the oils of V. vinifera and V. macrocarpon revealed a significant result which suggests their wound-healing potential. PMID:21305631

  6. Spatial Distribution of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes in Semi-Arid Vitis vinifera Vineyards in Washington

    PubMed Central

    Howland, Amanda D.; Schreiner, R. Paul; Zasada, Inga A.

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards are Meloidogyne hapla, Mesocriconema xenoplax, Pratylenchus spp., Xiphinema americanum, and Paratylenchus sp.; however, little is known about their distribution in the soil profile. The vertical and horizontal spatial distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes was determined in two Washington V. vinifera vineyards. Others variables measured in these vineyards included soil moisture content, fine root biomass, and root colonization by arbuscular mycorhizal fungi (AMF). Meloidogyne hapla and M. xenoplax were aggregated under irrigation emitters within the vine row and decreased with soil depth. Conversely, Pratylenchus spp. populations were primarily concentrated in vineyard alleyways and decreased with depth. Paratylenchus sp. and X. americanum were randomly distributed within the vineyards. Soil water content played a dominant role in the distribution of fine roots and plant-parasitic nematodes. Colonization of fine roots by AMF decreased directly under irrigation emitters; in addition, galled roots had lower levels of AMF colonization compared with healthy roots. These findings will help facilitate sampling and management decisions for plant-parasitic nematodes in Washington semi-arid vineyards. PMID:25580024

  7. Spatial Distribution of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes in Semi-Arid Vitis vinifera Vineyards in Washington.

    PubMed

    Howland, Amanda D; Schreiner, R Paul; Zasada, Inga A

    2014-12-01

    The most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards are Meloidogyne hapla, Mesocriconema xenoplax, Pratylenchus spp., Xiphinema americanum, and Paratylenchus sp.; however, little is known about their distribution in the soil profile. The vertical and horizontal spatial distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes was determined in two Washington V. vinifera vineyards. Others variables measured in these vineyards included soil moisture content, fine root biomass, and root colonization by arbuscular mycorhizal fungi (AMF). Meloidogyne hapla and M. xenoplax were aggregated under irrigation emitters within the vine row and decreased with soil depth. Conversely, Pratylenchus spp. populations were primarily concentrated in vineyard alleyways and decreased with depth. Paratylenchus sp. and X. americanum were randomly distributed within the vineyards. Soil water content played a dominant role in the distribution of fine roots and plant-parasitic nematodes. Colonization of fine roots by AMF decreased directly under irrigation emitters; in addition, galled roots had lower levels of AMF colonization compared with healthy roots. These findings will help facilitate sampling and management decisions for plant-parasitic nematodes in Washington semi-arid vineyards. PMID:25580024

  8. Comparative transcriptomics of Central Asian Vitis vinifera accessions reveals distinct defense strategies against powdery mildew

    PubMed Central

    Amrine, Katherine C H; Blanco-Ulate, Barbara; Riaz, Summaira; Pap, Dániel; Jones, Laura; Figueroa-Balderas, Rosa; Walker, M Andrew; Cantu, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Grape powdery mildew (PM), caused by the biotrophic ascomycete Erysiphe necator, is a devastating fungal disease that affects most Vitis vinifera cultivars. We have previously identified a panel of V. vinifera accessions from Central Asia with partial resistance to PM that possess a Ren1-like local haplotype. In this study, we show that in addition to the typical Ren1-associated late post-penetration resistance, these accessions display a range of different levels of disease development suggesting that alternative alleles or additional genes contribute to determining the outcome of the interaction with the pathogen. To identify potential Ren1-dependent transcriptional responses and functions associated with the different levels of resistance, we sequenced and analyzed the transcriptomes of these Central Asian accessions at two time points of PM infection. Transcriptomes were compared to identify constitutive differences and PM-inducible responses that may underlie their disease resistant phenotype. Responses to E. necator in all resistant accessions were characterized by an early up-regulation of 13 genes, most encoding putative defense functions, and a late down-regulation of 32 genes, enriched in transcriptional regulators and protein kinases. Potential Ren1-dependent responses included a hotspot of co-regulated genes on chromosome 18. We also identified 81 genes whose expression levels and dynamics correlated with the phenotypic differences between the most resistant accessions ‘Karadzhandahal’, DVIT3351.27, and O34-16 and the other genotypes. This study provides a first exploration of the functions associated with varying levels of partial resistance to PM in V. vinifera accessions that can be exploited as sources of genetic resistance in grape breeding programs. PMID:26504579

  9. Water deficit modulates the response of Vitis vinifera to the Pierce's disease pathogen Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hong-Kyu; Iandolino, Alberto; da Silva, Francisco Goes; Cook, Douglas R

    2013-06-01

    Pierce's disease, caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, is one of the most devastating diseases of cultivated grape, currently restricted to the Americas. To test the long-standing hypothesis that Pierce's disease results from pathogen-induced drought stress, we used the Affymetrix Vitis GeneChip to compare the transcriptional response of Vitis vinifera to Xylella infection, water deficit, or a combination of the two stresses. The results reveal a redirection of gene transcription involving 822 genes with a minimum twofold change (P < 0.05), including the upregulation of transcripts for phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis, pathogenesis-related proteins, abscisic acid- and jasmonic acid-responsive biosynthesis, and downregulation of transcripts related to photosynthesis, growth, and nutrition. Although the transcriptional response of plants to Xylella infection was largely distinct from the response of healthy plants to water stress, we find that 138 of the pathogen-induced genes exhibited a significantly stronger transcriptional response when plants were simultaneously exposed to infection and drought stress, suggesting a strong interaction between disease and water deficit. This interaction between drought stress and disease was mirrored in planta at the physiological level for aspects of water relations and photosynthesis and in terms of the severity of disease symptoms and the extent of pathogen colonization, providing a molecular correlate of the classical concept of the disease triangle in which environment impacts disease severity. PMID:23425100

  10. Colaspis caligula, a new species found in association with Vitis vinifera (L.) crops in Argentina (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Agrain, Federico A; Cabrera, Nora; Holgado, Miriam G; Vicchi, Franco R

    2016-01-01

    Some species of Colaspis Fabricius are well-known pests of several crops in Argentina. In this contribution, we describe a new species within this genus: Colaspis caligula n. sp., found in association with Vitis vinifera (Linnaeus) crops. We provide descriptions and illustrations of the mature larva, pupa and adult, as well as notes on its diagnostic characters, life cycle, and the damages produced to the plants. PMID:27615925

  11. [Effects of light intensity on associated enzyme activity and gene expression during callus formation of Vitis vinifera].

    PubMed

    Liu, Rong; Yang, Guowei; Wu, Yueyan; Rao, Huiyun; Li, Xuefu; Li, Meiqin; Qian, Pingxian

    2015-08-01

    We analyzed the best light intensity for callus induction and maintenance in Vitis vinifera and explored the mechanism of grape callus browning. Tender stem segments of grape cultivar "gold finger" were used to study the effects of different light intensities (0, 500, 1 000, 1 500, 2 000, 2 500, 3 000 and 4 000 Lx) on the induction rate, browning rate and associated enzyme activity and gene expression during Vitis vinifera callus formation. The callus induction rate under 0, 500, 1 000 and 1 500 Lx was more than 92%, significantly higher than in other treatments (P < 0.05). A lower browning rate and better callus growth were also observed during subculture under 1 000 and 1 500 Lx treatments. We found that chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and coumaric acid contents were correlated with the browning rate of callus, among which chlorogenic acid content was positively correlated with the browning rate (P < 0.05). Peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities were negatively correlated with the browning rate of callus (P < 0.01). The POD, PPO and phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) expression levels were positively correlated with the browning rate at P < 0.05 or P < 0.01. An appropriate light intensity for the tissue culture of Vitis vinifera was 1 000-1 500 Lx, higher or lower light intensities significantly impaired normal callus growth. PMID:26762043

  12. Strategies for RUN1 deployment using RUN2 and REN2 to manage grapevine powdery mildew informed by studies of race-specificity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The TIR-NB-LRR gene, Resistance to Uncinula necator 1 (RUN1), from Vitis rotundifolia was recently identified and confirmed to confer resistance to the grapevine powdery mildew fungus Erysiphe necator (syn. U. necator) in transgenic Vitis vinifera cultivars. However, powdery mildew cleistothecia ha...

  13. Relative Infestation Level and Sensitivity of Grapevine Cultivars to the Leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Fornasiero, D; Pavan, F; Pozzebon, A; Picotti, P; Duso, C

    2016-02-01

    The leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Göthe) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) feeds on veins of grapevine leaves, mainly on the phloem, causing physiological injury, color change and drying of leaf margins, yield and sugar content reduction. The relative infestation level (i.e., the probability that a plant is attacked by herbivores) of E. vitis on different grapevine cultivars and their sensitivity (i.e., the incidence of symptoms expression in response to herbivore feeding or other stimuli) to this pest were studied over four years in two vineyards located in northeastern Italy. Some cultivars (e.g., Carménère and Sauvignon Blanc) were usually more infested than others (e.g., Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Gris), although some differences were observed among years and sites. The sensitivity varied among cultivars, i.e., some of them showed more symptoms than expected on the basis of infestation levels (e.g., Carménère and Merlot), in contrast with others (e.g., Rhine Riesling and Chardonnay). Information obtained can be used within the framework of integrated pest management in vineyards. Action thresholds should differ on the basis of sensitivity. Sampling must first be carried out on the most susceptible cultivar and, if the action threshold is exceeded, it should be extended to the remaining cultivars based on their decreasing relative infestation level. PMID:26503344

  14. Intercontinental genetic structure of the fungal grapevine pathogen Eutypa lata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ascomycete fungus Eutypa lata, causal agent of Eutypa dieback of grapevine (Vitis vinifera), impacts all vineyard production systems worldwide. Our objectives were to characterize the population structure of E. lata at different geographical scales to identify migration patterns through ascospor...

  15. Global genetic structure of the fungal grapevine pathogen Eutypa lata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ascomycete fungus Eutypa lata is a trunk pathogen of cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera) in all major grape-growing regions of the world. Throughout its geographic range, it is considered a generalist pathogen that can complete its life cycle on a broad range of hosts. To decipher the cosmopol...

  16. Modulation of Protein Phosphorylation, N-Glycosylation and Lys-Acetylation in Grape (Vitis vinifera) Mesocarp and Exocarp Owing to Lobesia botrana Infection*

    PubMed Central

    Melo-Braga, Marcella N.; Verano-Braga, Thiago; León, Ileana R.; Antonacci, Donato; Nogueira, Fábio C. S.; Thelen, Jay J.; Larsen, Martin R.; Palmisano, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is an economically important fruit crop that is subject to many types of insect and pathogen attack. To better elucidate the plant response to Lobesia botrana pathogen infection, we initiated a global comparative proteomic study monitoring steady-state protein expression as well as changes in N-glycosylation, phosphorylation, and Lys-acetylation in control and infected mesocarp and exocarp from V. vinifera cv Italia. A multi-parallel, large-scale proteomic approach employing iTRAQ labeling prior to three peptide enrichment techniques followed by tandem mass spectrometry led to the identification of a total of 3059 proteins, 1135 phosphorylation sites, 323 N-linked glycosylation sites and 138 Lys-acetylation sites. Of these, we could identify changes in abundance of 899 proteins. The occupancy of 110 phosphorylation sites, 10 N-glycosylation sites and 20 Lys-acetylation sites differentially changed during L. botrana infection. Sequence consensus analysis for phosphorylation sites showed eight significant motifs, two of which containing up-regulated phosphopeptides (X-G-S-X and S-X-X-D) and two containing down-regulated phosphopeptides (R-X-X-S and S-D-X-E) in response to pathogen infection. Topographical distribution of phosphorylation sites within primary sequences reveal preferential phosphorylation at both the N- and C termini, and a clear preference for C-terminal phosphorylation in response to pathogen infection suggesting induction of region-specific kinase(s). Lys-acetylation analysis confirmed the consensus X-K-Y-X motif previously detected in mammals and revealed the importance of this modification in plant defense. The importance of N-linked protein glycosylation in plant response to biotic stimulus was evident by an up-regulated glycopeptide belonging to the disease resistance response protein 206. This study represents a substantial step toward the understanding of protein and PTMs-mediated plant-pathogen interaction shedding

  17. Interactions between light and growing season temperatures on, growth and development and gas exchange of Semillon (Vitis vinifera L.) vines grown in an irrigated vineyard.

    PubMed

    Greer, Dennis H; Weedon, Mark M

    2012-05-01

    High-light intensities and temperatures of the warm climate regions of Australia and elsewhere have a major effect on the growth and development of grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.). The objective of this research was to assess interactions between the light and seasonal temperatures by shading some vines and comparing these with vines exposed to high-light intensities. Canopy temperatures were monitored using infrared radiometers and budbreak, phenology, growth, yield, berry ripening and gas exchange determined over three growing seasons. Results showed canopies were generally about 4 °C cooler than air and shading extended this cooling. Irradiance, irrespective of seasonal temperatures, had no effect on time of budbreak, shoot phenology, stem growth, yield and bunch fresh weights while bunch and leaf dry weights were reduced in low-light. Bunch ripening was initially delayed by low-light but thereafter the ripening process was highly temperature-dependent. Rates increased linearly with increasing temperature in both low and high-light and were optimal at about 35 °C. Maximum photosynthetic capacity was impaired by low irradiance, in accordance with shade leaf attributes, and attributable to stomatal closure. No effects of the low photosynthetic capacity apparently carried-over to sugar accumulation, consistent with the strong sink capacity of bunches. PMID:22381656

  18. Effects of ambient and acute partial pressures of ozone on leaf net CO sub 2 assimilation of field-grown Vitis vinifera L

    SciTech Connect

    Roper, T.R.; Williams, L.E. Kearney Agricultural Center, Parlier, CA )

    1989-12-01

    Mature, field-grown Vitis vinifera L. grapevines grown in open-top chambers were exposed to either charcoal-filtered air or ambient ozone partial pressures throughout the growing season. Individual leaves also were exposed to ozone partial pressures of 0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 micropascals per pascal for 5 hours. No visual ozone damage was found on leaves exposed to any of the treatments. Chronic exposure to ambient O{sub 3} partial pressures reduced net CO{sub 2} assimilation rate (A) between 5 and 13% at various times throughout the season when compared to the filtered treatment. Exposure of leaves to 0.2 micropascals per pascal O{sub 3} for 5 hours had no significant effect on A; however, A was reduced 84% for leaves exposed to 0.6 micropascals per pascal O{sub 3} when compared to the controls after 5 hours. Intercellular CO{sub 2} partial pressure (c{sub i}) was lower for leaves exposed to 0.2 micropascals per pascal O{sub 3} when compared to the controls, while c{sub i} of the leaves treated with 0.6 micropascals per pascal of O{sub 3} increased during the fumigation. The long-term effects of ambient O{sub 3} and short-term exposure to acute levels of O{sub 3} reduced grape leaf photosynthesis due to a reduction in both stomatal and mesophyll conductances.

  19. Effects of Ambient and Acute Partial Pressures of Ozone on Leaf Net CO2 Assimilation of Field-Grown Vitis vinifera L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Roper, Teryl R.; Williams, Larry E.

    1989-01-01

    Mature, field-grown Vitis vinifera L. grapevines grown in open-top chambers were exposed to either charcoal-filtered air or ambient ozone partial pressures throughout the growing season. Individual leaves also were exposed to ozone partial pressures of 0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 micropascals per pascal for 5 hours. No visual ozone damage was found on leaves exposed to any of the treatments. Chronic exposure to ambient O3 partial pressures reduced net CO2 assimilation rate (A) between 5 and 13% at various times throughout the season when compared to the filtered treatment. Exposure of leaves to 0.2 micropascals per pascal O3 for 5 hours had no significant effect on A; however, A was reduced 84% for leaves exposed to 0.6 micropascals per pascal O3 when compared to the controls after 5 hours. Intercellular CO2 partial pressure (ci) was lower for leaves exposed to 0.2 micropascals per pascal O3 when compared to the controls, while ci of the leaves treated with 0.6 micropascals per pascal of 03 increased during the fumigation. The long-term effects of ambient O3 and short-term exposure to acute levels of O3 reduced grape leaf photosynthesis due to a reduction in both stomatal and mesophyll conductances. PMID:16667208

  20. The Vitis vinifera C-repeat binding protein 4 (VvCBF4) transcriptional factor enhances freezing tolerance in wine grape

    PubMed Central

    Tillett, Richard L.; Wheatley, Matthew D.; Tattersall, Elizabeth A.R.; Schlauch, Karen A.; Cramer, Grant R.; Cushman, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Chilling and freezing can reduce significantly vine survival and fruit set in Vitis vinifera wine grape. To overcome such production losses, a recently identified grapevine C-repeat binding factor (CBF) gene, VvCBF4, was overexpressed in grape vine cv. “Freedom” and found to improve freezing survival and reduced freezing-induced electrolyte leakage by up to 2°C in non-cold-acclimated vines. In addition, overexpression of this transgene caused a reduced growth phenotype similar to that observed for CBF overexpression in Arabidopsis and other species. Both freezing tolerance and reduced growth phenotypes were manifested in a transgene dose-dependent manner. To understand the mechanistic basis of VvCBF4 transgene action, one transgenic line (9–12) was genotyped using microarray-based mRNA expression profiling. Forty-seven and 12 genes were identified in unstressed transgenic shoots with either a greater than 1.5-fold increase or decrease in mRNA abundance, respectively. Comparison of mRNA changes with characterized CBF regulons in woody and herbaceous species revealed partial overlaps suggesting that CBF-mediated cold acclimation responses are widely conserved. Putative VvCBF4-regulon targets included genes with functions in cell wall structure, lipid metabolism, epicuticular wax formation, and stress-responses suggesting that the observed cold tolerance and dwarf phenotypes are the result of a complex network of diverse functional determinants. PMID:21914113

  1. Extensin network formation in Vitis vinifera callus cells is an essential and causal event in rapid and H2O2-induced reduction in primary cell wall hydration

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Extensin deposition is considered important for the correct assembly and biophysical properties of primary cell walls, with consequences to plant resistance to pathogens, tissue morphology, cell adhesion and extension growth. However, evidence for a direct and causal role for the extensin network formation in changes to cell wall properties has been lacking. Results Hydrogen peroxide treatment of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Touriga) callus cell walls was seen to induce a marked reduction in their hydration and thickness. An analysis of matrix proteins demonstrated this occurs with the insolubilisation of an abundant protein, GvP1, which displays a primary structure and post-translational modifications typical of dicotyledon extensins. The hydration of callus cell walls free from saline-soluble proteins did not change in response to H2O2, but fully regained this capacity after addition of extensin-rich saline extracts. To assay the specific contribution of GvP1 cross-linking and other wall matrix proteins to the reduction in hydration, GvP1 levels in cell walls were manipulated in vitro by binding selected fractions of extracellular proteins and their effect on wall hydration during H2O2 incubation assayed. Conclusions This approach allowed us to conclude that a peroxidase-mediated formation of a covalently linked network of GvP1 is essential and causal in the reduction of grapevine callus wall hydration in response to H2O2. Importantly, this approach also indicated that extensin network effects on hydration was only partially irreversible and remained sensitive to changes in matrix charge. We discuss this mechanism and the importance of these changes to primary wall properties in the light of extensin distribution in dicotyledons. PMID:21672244

  2. Rhizosphere associated bacteria trigger accumulation of terpenes in leaves of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Malbec that protect cells against reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Salomon, María Victoria; Purpora, Rebeca; Bottini, Rubén; Piccoli, Patricia

    2016-09-01

    It has been proposed that plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) stimulate plant growth and development by inducing the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, like terpenes, which reduce stress incidence. Three bacteria previously isolated from grapevine roots and adjacent soil (Microbacterium imperiale Rz19M10, Kocuria erythromyxa Rt5M10 and Terribacillus saccharophilus Rt17M10) were tested as PGPR. After 30 days since root inoculation of in vitro grown Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec plants, the monoterpenes α-pinene, terpinolene and 4-carene, and the sesquiterpene nerolidol were detected only in bacterized-plant leaves. Also, the concentrations of the diterpenes α and γ-tocopherol, and the sterols sitosterol and lupeol were significantly enhanced compared to controls. The leaf extracts of bacterized plants showed photoprotective properties since they decreased the oxygen consumption (that is photo-oxidation) of the amino acid tryptophan in a sensitized solution, thus indicating an increment of the antioxidant capacity of the tissues. In addition, experiments with α-pinene and nerolidol standards showed the capability to intercept reactive oxygen species in the sensitized solution. Moreover, bacterized plants infected with the pathogen Botrytis cinerea showed a reduction in the lesion diameter compared with non-bacterized plants. The results suggest that M. imperiale, K. erythromyxa and mainly T. saccharophilus are able to induce a systemic response that trigger increases on monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, tocopherols and membrane sterols. These compounds enhance the antioxidant capacity in leaf tissues that may help grapevine to cope with stresses. PMID:27231874

  3. Genetic diversity, structure and differentiation within and between cultivated (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa) and wild (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sylvestris) grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic characterization of 502 diverse grape accessions including 342 cultivated (V. vinifera ssp. sativa) and 160 wild (V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris) grapes showed considerable genetic diversity among accessions. A total of 117 alleles were detected with the average of 14 alleles per locus. The tot...

  4. Jasmonates elicit different sets of stilbenes in Vitis vinifera cv. Negramaro cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Taurino, Marco; Ingrosso, Ilaria; D'amico, Leone; De Domenico, Stefania; Nicoletti, Isabella; Corradini, Danilo; Santino, Angelo; Giovinazzo, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    The plant phenol trans-resveratrol, which is mainly found in grape, displays a wide range of biological effects. A cell suspension culture was developed from calli of grape leaves of Vitis vinifera cv. Negramaro in order to study the bioproduction of resveratrol. The effects of a number of secondary plant metabolism elicitors, namely chitosan, methyl jasmonate, jasmonic acid, coronatine, and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, were tested on this cell suspension culture. The identification and quantification of stilbenes was achieved with high performance liquid chromatography, with both spectrophotometric and mass spectrometric detection. Of the tested elicitors, methyl jasmonate was the most effective in inducing the biosynthesis of approximately 4 mg g(-1) dry weight (about 60 mg L(-1)) of resveratrol. Conversely, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, jasmonic acid, and coronatine were able to trigger the synthesis of approximately 20 mg g(-1) dry weight (200-210 mg L(-1)) of viniferins. Taken together, our results show for the first time different modulatory effects of closely-related jasmonates on stilbene biosynthesis. PMID:25674504

  5. Aloe vera and Vitis vinifera improve wound healing in an in vivo rat burn wound model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Xin; Wang, Peng; Wang, Yu-Ting; Huang, Yong; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Xue-Ming

    2016-02-01

    Aloe vera and Vitis vinifera have been traditionally used as wound healing agents. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of aloe emodin and resveratrol in the burn wound healing procedure. Burn wounds are common in developed and developing countries, however, in developing countries, the incidence of severe complications is higher and financial resources are limited. The results of the present study demonstrated that neither aloe emodin or resveratrol were cytotoxic to THP-1 macrophages at concentrations of 1, 100 and 500 ng/ml. A significant increase in wound-healing activity was observed in mice treated with the aloe emodin and resveratrol, compared with those which received control treatments. The levels of IL-1β in the exudates of the burn wound area of the treated mice increased in a time-dependent manner over 7 days following burn wound injury. At 10 days post-injury, steady and progressive wound healing was observed in the control animals. The present study confirmed that increased wound healing occurs following treatment with aloe emodin,, compared with resveratrol, providing support for the use of Aloe vera plants to improve burn wound healing. PMID:26677006

  6. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) as a Potential Candidate for the Therapy of the Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Akaberi, Maryam; Hosseinzadeh, Hosein

    2016-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with several disorders, including hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia as well as cardiovascular diseases and stroke. Plant-derived polyphenols, compounds found in numerous plant species, play an important role as potential treatments for components of metabolic syndrome. Studies have provided evidence for protective effects of various polyphenol-rich foods against metabolic syndrome. Fruits, vegetables, cereals, nuts, and berries are rich in polyphenolic compounds. Grapes (Vitis vinifera), especially grape seeds, stand out as rich sources of polyphenol potent antioxidants and have been reported helpful for inhibiting the risk factors involved in the metabolic syndrome such as hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension. There are also many studies about gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, and anti-obesity effects of grape polyphenolic compounds especially proanthocyanidins in the literature. The present study investigates the protective effects of grape seeds in metabolic syndrome. The results of this study show that grape polyphenols have significant effects on the level of blood glucose, lipid profile, blood pressure, as well as beneficial activities in liver and heart with various mechanisms. In addition, the pharmacokinetics of grape polyphenols is discussed. More detailed mechanistic investigations and phytochemical studies for finding the exact bioactive component(s) and molecular signaling pathways are suggested. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26800498

  7. Nutraceutical properties and polyphenolic profile of berry skin and wine of Vitis vinifera L. (cv. Aglianico).

    PubMed

    De Nisco, Mauro; Manfra, Michele; Bolognese, Adele; Sofo, Adriano; Scopa, Antonio; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Pagano, Francesco; Milite, Ciro; Russo, Maria Teresa

    2013-10-15

    Red grapes are rich in phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins and resveratrol, all substances which have been suggested as having nutraceutical and health benefits. The berry skin and wine of grape cultivar Vitis vinifera L. (cv. Aglianico), grown in Basilicata (Southern Italy) were examined to determinate the presence of the above mentioned compounds as well as to establish the inorganic cation profile. HPLC analysis coupled with LC-ESI/MS/MS detected high contents of total flavonols and anthocyanins in berry skin and wine. The wine made with the same grape used for berry skin assays showed a notable presence of quercetin-3-O-glucoside (39.4% of total flavonols), and malvidin and petunidin derivatives (63.9% and 10.8% of total anthocyanins, respectively). The strong antioxidant ROS-scavenging activity, determined by both DPPH and FRAP assays, and the high resveratrol content confer high sensory characteristics resulted to be associated with positive nutraceutical properties of these grapes and wine. The level of cis-resveratrol was lower than trans-resveratrol in both berry skin and wine reaching 44.1mg/kg and 0.3mg/l, respectively. The cation profile presents low levels of Ca, Cu, K, Fe, Zn and Cd compared to numerous, important red wines, such as Monastrell and Tempranillo. PMID:23692745

  8. Geochemical characterization of elements in Vitis vinifera cv. Negroamaro grape berries grown under different soil managements.

    PubMed

    Pepi, Salvatore; Coletta, Antonio; Crupi, Pasquale; Leis, Marilena; Russo, Sabrina; Sansone, Luigi; Tassinari, Renzo; Chicca, Milvia; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-04-01

    The present geochemical study concerns the impact of viticultural practices in the chemical composition of the grape cultivar "Negroamaro" in Apulia, a southern Italian region renowned for its quality wine. Three types of soil management (SM), two cover cropping with different mixtures, and a soil tillage were considered. For each SM, the vines were irrigated according to two irrigation levels. Chemical composition of soil and of berries of Vitis vinifera cultivar "Negroamaro" were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and multivariate statistics (linear discrimination analysis). In detail, we investigated major and trace elements behavior in the soil according to irrigation levels, the related index of bioaccumulation (BA) and the relationship between trace element concentration and soil management in "Negroamaro" grapes. The results indicate that soil management affects the mobility of major and trace elements. A specific assimilation of these elements in grapes from vines grown under different soil management was confirmed by BA. Multivariate statistics allowed to associate the vines to the type of soil management. This geochemical characterization of elements could be useful to develop fingerprints of vines of the cultivar "Negroamaro" according to soil management and geographical origin. PMID:26951448

  9. Distribution of rare earth elements in soil and grape berries of Vitis vinifera cv. "Glera".

    PubMed

    Pepi, Salvatore; Sansone, Luigi; Chicca, Milvia; Marrocchino, Elena; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-08-01

    The renowned Vitis vinifera L. cultivar "Glera" (Magnoliopsida Vitaceae) has been grown for hundreds of years in the Italian regions of Veneto and Friuli to produce the sparkling Prosecco wine, with controlled designation of origin (DOC). We evaluated the relationship among the concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) in soil and in "Glera" grape berries in vineyards belonging to five different localities in the Veneto alluvial plain, all included in the DOC area of Prosecco. The concentration of REE in samples of soil and juice or solid residues of grape berries was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the index of bioaccumulation was calculated to define the specific assimilation of these elements from soil to grape berries. The concentration of REE in soil samples allowed an identification of each locality examined, and REE were mostly detected in solid grape berry residues in comparison to juice. These data may be useful to associate REE distribution in soil and grape berries to a specific geographical origin, in order to prevent fraudulent use of wine denomination labels. PMID:27447714

  10. Expanding the chemical space of polyketides through structure-guided mutagenesis of Vitis vinifera stilbene synthase.

    PubMed

    Bhan, Namita; Cress, Brady F; Linhardt, Robert J; Koffas, Mattheos

    2015-08-01

    Several natural polyketides (PKs) have been associated with important pharmaceutical properties. Type III polyketide synthases (PKS) that generate aromatic PK polyketides have been studied extensively for their substrate promiscuity and product diversity. Stilbene synthase-like (STS) enzymes are unique in the type III PKS class as they possess a hydrogen bonding network, furnishing them with thioesterase-like properties, resulting in aldol condensation of the polyketide intermediates formed. Chalcone synthases (CHS) in contrast, lack this hydrogen-bonding network, resulting primarily in the Claisen condensation of the polyketide intermediates formed. We have attempted to expand the chemical space of this interesting class of compounds generated by creating structure-guided mutants of Vitis vinifera STS. Further, we have utilized a previously established workflow to quickly compare the wild-type reaction products to those generated by the mutants and identify novel PKs formed by using XCMS analysis of LC-MS and LC-MS/MS data. Based on this approach, we were able to generate 15 previously unreported PK molecules by exploring the substrate promiscuity of the wild-type enzyme and all mutants using unnatural substrates. These structures were specific to STSs and cannot be formed by their closely related CHS-like counterparts. PMID:26048582

  11. Biomolecule-mediated synthesis of selenium nanoparticles using dried Vitis vinifera (raisin) extract.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Garima; Sharma, Ashish Ranjan; Bhavesh, Riju; Park, Jongbong; Ganbold, Bilguun; Nam, Ju-Suk; Lee, Sang-Soo

    2014-01-01

    Biomolecule-mediated nanoparticle synthesis has recently the gained attention of researchers due to its ecofriendly and non-toxic nature. Metabolites from plant extracts represent a better alternative to chemical methods to fulfill the growing demand for non-hazardous nanoparticle synthesis routes. Selenium and its nanoparticles have an extensive range of applications. Thus, biofabrication of selenium nanoparticles can be potentially useful in various fields. This study reports a green approach to biosynthesize selenium nanoparticles (Se-np) using dried Vitis vinifera (raisin) extracts. The biosynthesized selenium nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscope (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Transmission electron microscopic images revealed the spherical shape of biosynthesized selenium nanoparticles and a size range of 3-18 nm. Dynamic light scattering also confirmed the average particle size of 8.12 ± 2.5 nm with 0.212 PDI. The crystalline nature of selenium nanoparticles was confirmed by the X-ray diffraction study. Moreover, as inferred from the FTIR spectrum, the presence of highly stable lignin biopolymer on the surface of selenium nanoballs suggests a possible role as capping agent. PMID:24583881

  12. Optimization of extraction and microencapsulation of bioactive compounds from red grape (Vitis vinifera L.) pomace.

    PubMed

    Boonchu, Thapakorn; Utama-Ang, Niramon

    2015-02-01

    Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) pomace constitutes a promising source of phenolic compounds, gallic acid, flavan-3-ols, flavonoids, stilbene and anthocyanins that are beneficial for human health. The objectives of this study were to optimize the extraction and microencapsulation of red grape pomace. Central composite designs with two factors were conducted for optimization using response surface methodology. The temperature (45-85 °C), and the time (2-8 h) were designed for the extraction. The results indicated that the extraction temperature and time introduced the increasing the extraction yield, total phenolic content, anthocyanin and resveratrol, but the long extraction time reduced the tannin content. The results showed that the optimize condition was the extraction at 80 ± 1 °C for 2 h 53 min. This provided the highest content of polyphenolic compounds. The next experiment was microencapsulation of the extract which studied the amounts of maltodextrin (7-28 % w/v) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) (0-1.4 % w/v). The results showed that the optimized microencapsulation used 10.21 % w/v maltodextrin and 0.21 % w/v CMC to maximize all polyphenolic compounds, and also to minimize bitterness and astringency. This study illustrated that the optimal conditions for extraction and microencapsulation of the red grape extract have a high potential to produce functional ingredients. PMID:25694686

  13. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of grapevine leaves extracts (Vitis labrusca) in liver of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Thays K; Wohlenberg, Mariane F; Medeiros, Niara; Martins, Jéssica B; Agostini, Fabiana; Funchal, Cláudia; Dani, Caroline

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotection of organic and conventional grapevine leaves extract (Vitis labrusca). The total polyphenol content and the isolate polyphenols by HPLC were evaluate. The animals received intraperitoneal injections of saline or extracts (conventional or organic - 30 mg/kg) for 14 days. On day 15, the rats received carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) or mineral oil (i.p.). After 4h, the animals were euthanized. The analysis of the liver enzymes activity (AST, ALT, GGT) was performed using serum, obtained by blood and the levels of lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein oxidation (carbonyl), and the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase were analyzed in the liver. The results showed that the organic extract is richer in polyphenol and resveratrol than the conventional one. Both extracts prevent lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation generated by CCl4. Moreover, the extracts demonstrated ability to modulate the activity of SOD and CAT, as well as to establish a balance in the ratio of SOD/CAT. We also found that the CCl4 increased the levels of AST and GGT, and that both extracts prevent this. These results indicate that grapevine leaves extracts, both, organic and conventional, can prevent liver disorders. PMID:26959325

  14. Growth and Energy Demand of Meloidogyne incognita on Susceptible and Resistant Vitis vinifera Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Melakeberhan, H; Ferris, H

    1988-10-01

    Food (energy) consumption rates ofMeloidogyne incognita were calculated on Vitis vinifera cv. French Colombard (highly susceptible) and cv. Thompson Seedless (moderately resistant). One-month-old grape seedlings in styrofoam cups were inoculated with 2,000 or 8,000 M. incognita second-stage juveniles (J2) and maintained at 17.5 degree days (DD - base 10 C)/day until maximum adult female growth and (or) the end of oviposition. At 70 DD intervals, nematode fresh biomass was calculated on the basis of volumes of 15-20 nematodes per plant obtained with a digitizer and computer algorithm. Egg production was measured at 50-80 DD intervals by weighing 7-10 egg masses and counting the number of eggs. Nematode growth and food (energy) consumption rates were calculated up to 1,000 DD based on biomass increase, respiratory requirements, and an assumption of 60 % assimilation efficiency. The growth rate of a single root-knot nematode, excluding egg production, was similar in both cultivars and had a logistic form. The maximum fresh weight of a mature female nematode was ca. 29-32 mug. The total biomass increase, including egg production, also had a logistic form. Maximum biomass (mature adult female and egg mass) was 211 mug on French Colombard and 127 mug on Thompson Seedless. The calculated total cost to the host for the development of a single J2 from root penetration to the end of oviposition for body growth and total biomass was 0.535 and 0.486 calories with a total energy demand of 1.176 and 0.834 calories in French Colombard and Thompson Seedless, respectively. PMID:19290253

  15. Transcriptome and metabolome reprogramming in Vitis vinifera cv. Trincadeira berries upon infection with Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Agudelo-Romero, Patricia; Erban, Alexander; Rego, Cecília; Carbonell-Bejerano, Pablo; Nascimento, Teresa; Sousa, Lisete; Martínez-Zapater, José M; Kopka, Joachim; Fortes, Ana Margarida

    2015-04-01

    Vitis vinifera berries are sensitive towards infection by the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea, leading to important economic losses worldwide. The combined analysis of the transcriptome and metabolome associated with fungal infection has not been performed previously in grapes or in another fleshy fruit. In an attempt to identify the molecular and metabolic mechanisms associated with the infection, peppercorn-sized fruits were infected in the field. Green and veraison berries were collected following infection for microarray analysis complemented with metabolic profiling of primary and other soluble metabolites and of volatile emissions. The results provided evidence of a reprogramming of carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms towards increased synthesis of secondary metabolites involved in plant defence, such as trans-resveratrol and gallic acid. This response was already activated in infected green berries with the putative involvement of jasmonic acid, ethylene, polyamines, and auxins, whereas salicylic acid did not seem to be involved. Genes encoding WRKY transcription factors, pathogenesis-related proteins, glutathione S-transferase, stilbene synthase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were upregulated in infected berries. However, salicylic acid signalling was activated in healthy ripening berries along with the expression of proteins of the NBS-LRR superfamily and protein kinases, suggesting that the pathogen is able to shut down defences existing in healthy ripening berries. Furthermore, this study provided metabolic biomarkers of infection such as azelaic acid, a substance known to prime plant defence responses, arabitol, ribitol, 4-amino butanoic acid, 1-O-methyl- glucopyranoside, and several fatty acids that alone or in combination can be used to monitor Botrytis infection early in the vineyard. PMID:25675955

  16. Cloning, Sequencing, Purification, and Crystal Structure of Grenache (Vitis vinifera) Polyphenol Oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Virador, V.; Reyes Grajeda, J; Blanco-Labra, A; Mendiola-Olaya, E; Smith, G; Moreno, A; Whitaker, J

    2010-01-01

    The full-length cDNA sequence (P93622{_}VITVI) of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) cDNA from grape Vitis vinifera L., cv Grenache, was found to encode a translated protein of 607 amino acids with an expected molecular weight of ca. 67 kDa and a predicted pI of 6.83. The translated amino acid sequence was 99%, identical to that of a white grape berry PPO (1) (5 out of 607 amino acid potential sequence differences). The protein was purified from Grenache grape berries by using traditional methods, and it was crystallized with ammonium acetate by the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. The crystals were orthorhombic, space group C2221. The structure was obtained at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution using synchrotron radiation using the 39 kDa isozyme of sweet potato PPO (PDB code: 1BT1) as a phase donor. The basic symmetry of the cell parameters (a, b, and c and {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma}) as well as in the number of asymmetric units in the unit cell of the crystals of PPO, differed between the two proteins. The structures of the two enzymes are quite similar in overall fold, the location of the helix bundles at the core, and the active site in which three histidines bind each of the two catalytic copper ions, and one of the histidines is engaged in a thioether linkage with a cysteine residue. The possibility that the formation of the Cys-His thioether linkage constitutes the activation step is proposed. No evidence of phosphorylation or glycoslyation was found in the electron density map. The mass of the crystallized protein appears to be only 38.4 kDa, and the processing that occurs in the grape berry that leads to this smaller size is discussed.

  17. Transcriptome and metabolome reprogramming in Vitis vinifera cv. Trincadeira berries upon infection with Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Agudelo-Romero, Patricia; Erban, Alexander; Rego, Cecília; Carbonell-Bejerano, Pablo; Nascimento, Teresa; Sousa, Lisete; Martínez-Zapater, José M.; Kopka, Joachim; Fortes, Ana Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Vitis vinifera berries are sensitive towards infection by the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea, leading to important economic losses worldwide. The combined analysis of the transcriptome and metabolome associated with fungal infection has not been performed previously in grapes or in another fleshy fruit. In an attempt to identify the molecular and metabolic mechanisms associated with the infection, peppercorn-sized fruits were infected in the field. Green and veraison berries were collected following infection for microarray analysis complemented with metabolic profiling of primary and other soluble metabolites and of volatile emissions. The results provided evidence of a reprogramming of carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms towards increased synthesis of secondary metabolites involved in plant defence, such as trans-resveratrol and gallic acid. This response was already activated in infected green berries with the putative involvement of jasmonic acid, ethylene, polyamines, and auxins, whereas salicylic acid did not seem to be involved. Genes encoding WRKY transcription factors, pathogenesis-related proteins, glutathione S-transferase, stilbene synthase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were upregulated in infected berries. However, salicylic acid signalling was activated in healthy ripening berries along with the expression of proteins of the NBS-LRR superfamily and protein kinases, suggesting that the pathogen is able to shut down defences existing in healthy ripening berries. Furthermore, this study provided metabolic biomarkers of infection such as azelaic acid, a substance known to prime plant defence responses, arabitol, ribitol, 4-amino butanoic acid, 1-O-methyl- glucopyranoside, and several fatty acids that alone or in combination can be used to monitor Botrytis infection early in the vineyard. PMID:25675955

  18. Cloning, sequencing, purification, and crystal structure of Grenache (Vitis vinifera) polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Virador, Victoria M; Reyes Grajeda, Juan P; Blanco-Labra, Alejandro; Mendiola-Olaya, Elizabeth; Smith, Gary M; Moreno, Abel; Whitaker, John R

    2010-01-27

    The full-length cDNA sequence (P93622_VITVI) of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) cDNA from grape Vitis vinifera L., cv Grenache, was found to encode a translated protein of 607 amino acids with an expected molecular weight of ca. 67 kDa and a predicted pI of 6.83. The translated amino acid sequence was 99%, identical to that of a white grape berry PPO (1) (5 out of 607 amino acid potential sequence differences). The protein was purified from Grenache grape berries by using traditional methods, and it was crystallized with ammonium acetate by the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. The crystals were orthorhombic, space group C222(1). The structure was obtained at 2.2 A resolution using synchrotron radiation using the 39 kDa isozyme of sweet potato PPO (PDB code: 1BT1 ) as a phase donor. The basic symmetry of the cell parameters (a, b, and c and alpha, beta, and gamma) as well as in the number of asymmetric units in the unit cell of the crystals of PPO, differed between the two proteins. The structures of the two enzymes are quite similar in overall fold, the location of the helix bundles at the core, and the active site in which three histidines bind each of the two catalytic copper ions, and one of the histidines is engaged in a thioether linkage with a cysteine residue. The possibility that the formation of the Cys-His thioether linkage constitutes the activation step is proposed. No evidence of phosphorylation or glycoslyation was found in the electron density map. The mass of the crystallized protein appears to be only 38.4 kDa, and the processing that occurs in the grape berry that leads to this smaller size is discussed. PMID:20039636

  19. Susceptibility of cultivated and wild Vitis to wood infection by fungal trunk pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivars of European grapevine, Vitis vinifera, show varying levels of susceptibility to Eutypa dieback and Esca, in terms of foliar symptoms. However, little is known regarding cultivar susceptibility of their woody tissues to canker formation. Accordingly, we evaluated the relative susceptibility...

  20. Identification of race-specific resistance in North American Vitis species limiting Erysiphe necator hyphal growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While race-specific resistance against powdery mildews is well documented in small grains, race specificity against grapevine powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) is undocumented. In the current study, two sources of powdery mildew resistance introgressed into Vitis vinifera were evaluated in the gree...

  1. Chemical Characterization, Free Radical Scavenging, and Cellular Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of a Stilbenoid-Rich Root Extract of Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Ewald, Philipp; Yasui, Yoshiaki; Yokokawa, Haruka; Wagner, Anika E.; Matsugo, Seiichi; Winterhalter, Peter; Rimbach, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Dietary stilbenoids are receiving increasing attention due to their potential health benefits. However, most studies concerning the bioactivity of stilbenoids were conducted with pure compounds, for example, resveratrol. The aim of this study was to characterize a complex root extract of Vitis vinifera in terms of its free radical scavenging and cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analyses of the root extract of Vitis vinifera identified seven stilbenoids including two monomeric (resveratrol and piceatannol), two dimeric (trans-ɛ-viniferin and ampelopsin A), one trimeric (miyabenol C), and two tetrameric (r-2-viniferin = vitisin A and r-viniferin = vitisin B) compounds which may mediate its biological activity. Electron spin resonance and spin trapping experiments indicate that the root extract scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, galvinoxyl, and superoxide free radicals. On a cellular level it was observed that the root extract of Vitis vinifera protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage and induces Nrf2 and its target genes heme oxygenase-1 and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Furthermore, the root extract could induce the antiatherogenic hepatic enzyme paraoxonase 1 and downregulate proinflammatory gene expression (interleukin 1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase) in macrophages. Collectively our data suggest that the root extract of Vitis vinifera exhibits free radical scavenging as well as cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:26788254

  2. Metabolic Profiling of Xylem Sap from Pierce’s Disease Resistant and Susceptible Grapevines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pierce’s Disease (PD) of grapevines is caused by a gram-negative, xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf). All Vitis vinifera-based cultivars are highly susceptible to Xf infection. However, some grape species from the southern United States such as V. arizonica, V. Shuttleworthii, and Musca...

  3. Cadophora species as trunk pathogens and wood-infecting fungi of grapevine in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cadophora species, in particular Cadophora luteo-olivacea, are reported from grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in California, South Africa, Spain, Uruguay, and Canada. Frequent isolation from vines co-infected with the Esca pathogens (Togninia minima, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora), and confirmation of it...

  4. Abscisic acid form, concentration, and application timing influence phenology and bud cold hardiness in Merlot grapevines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of abscisic acid (ABA) form, concentration and application timing on bud cold hardiness, phenology and fruiting performance on ‘Merlot’ grapevines (Vitis vinifera) were evaluated in a three year field trial with site locations in British Columbia Canada, Ontario Canada, Washington U.S. ...

  5. Genome Diversity and Intra- and Inter-Species Recombination Events in Grapevine fanleaf virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) was documented in four wine grape (Vitis vinifera) cultivars grown as own-rooted vines. GFLV was found as a mixed virus infection in cvs. Pinot Noir and Chardonnay, but not in cvs. Merlot and Cabernet Franc. Fanleaf disease symptoms were observed only in the first two...

  6. VULNERABILITY TO CAVITATION IN GRAPEVINES HAS BEEN OVERESTIMATED BY THE CENTRIFUGE TECHNIQUE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grapevines are considered among the most vulnerable woody plant species to water stress-induced cavitation with embolism forming at slight tensions. However, we found that native embolism in stems of field grown Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay never exceeded 30% despite xylem water potentials ('x) rea...

  7. Warm Spring Temperatures Induce Persistent Season-Long Changes in Shoot Development in Grapevines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temporal and spatial variation in climate contributes to pronounced differences in shoot and canopy architecture within and between plants of woody perennials. We studied the influence of temperature near budbreak on shoot growth and architecture in grapevines (Vitis vinifera) while minimizing the e...

  8. Identification of Grapevine Xylem Sap Protein Profiles in Response to Xylella fastidiosa Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pierce’s Disease (PD) of grapevines is caused by the Gram-negative, xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf). All Vitis vinifera-based cultivars are highly susceptible to Xf infection. However, some grape species from the southern United States (such as V. arizonica, V. Shuttleworthii, V. sim...

  9. First Report of the Occurrence of Grapevine fanleaf virus in the Pacific Northwest Region Vineyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV, genus: Nepovirus, family: Comoviridae), responsible for fanleaf degeneration disease is one of the most important viral diseases of wine grapes (Vitis vinifera) worldwide. During our reconnaissance studies, cambial scrapings from dormant wood cuttings of the wine grape...

  10. Net carbon exchange in grapevine canopies responds rapidly to timing and extent of regulated deficit irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole-canopy net CO2 exchange (NCEC) was measured at key stages during fruit development in grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) managed under an industry standard practice of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI). A commercial vineyard was subjected to three regimens of RDI: 1) standard practice (RDIS), whe...

  11. Profiling monoterpenol glycoconjugation in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Muscat of Alexandria using a novel putative compound database approach, high resolution mass spectrometry and collision induced dissociation fragmentation analysis.

    PubMed

    Hjelmeland, Anna K; Zweigenbaum, Jerry; Ebeler, Susan E

    2015-08-01

    In this work we present a novel approach for the identification of plant metabolites using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled to accurate mass time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The workflow involves developing an in-house compound database consisting of exact masses of previously identified as well as putative compounds. The database is used to screen accurate mass spectrometry (MS) data to identify possible compound matches. Subsequent tandem MS data is acquired for possible matches and used for structural elucidation. The methodology is applied to profile monoterpene glycosides in Vitis vinifera cv. Muscat of Alexandria grape berries over three developmental stages. Monoterpenes are a subclass of terpenes, the largest class of plant secondary metabolites, and are found in two major forms in the plant, "bound" to one or more sugar moieties or "free" of said sugar moieties. In the free form, monoterpenes are noted for their fragrance and play important roles in plant defense and as attractants for pollinators. However, glycoconjugation renders these compounds odorless, and it is this form that the plant uses for monoterpene storage. In order to gain insight into monoterpene biochemistry and their fate in the plant an analysis of intact glycosides is essential. Eighteen monoterpene glycosides were identified including a monoterpene trisaccharide glycoside, which is tentatively identified here for this first time in any plant. Additionally, while previous studies have identified monoterpene malonylated glucosides in other grapevine tissue, we tentatively identify them for the first time in grape berries. This analytical approach can be readily applied to other plants and the workflow approach can also be used for other classes of compounds. This approach, in general, provides researchers with data to support the identification of putative compounds, which is especially useful when no standard is available. PMID:26320795

  12. Effect of Three Training Systems on Grapes in a Wet Region of China: Yield, Incidence of Disease and Anthocyanin Compositions of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei-Ying; Chi, Ming; Tang, Yong-Hong; Song, Chang-Zheng; Xi, Zhu-Mei; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine training systems determine the suitability for grape varieties in a specific growing region. We evaluated the influence of three training systems, Single Guyot (SG), Spur-pruned Vertical Shoot-Positioned (VSP), and Four-Arm Kniffin (4AK), on the performance of grapes and vines of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons in a wet region of central China. 4AK was the most productive system in comparison to SG and VSP. SG and VSP had lower disease infections of leaves and berries, especially in the mid- and final stage of berry ripening. Three training systems had no impact on berry maturity. PLS-DA (Partial Least Squares-Discriminant) analysis showed that the relatively dry vintage could well discriminate three training systems, but the wet vintage was not. A wet vintage of 2013 had more accumulation of 3'5'-substituted and acylated anthocyanins, including malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl)-glucoside, malvidin-3-O-glucoside, and petunidin-3-O-(cis-6-O-coumaryl)-glucoside, etc. With regard to the effect of training systems, 4AK grapes had the lowest concentrations of total anthocyanins and individual anthocyanins, SG and VSP differed according to the different vintages, and showed highest concentration of total individual anthocyanins in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Generally, VSP benefited the most, contributing to significantly highest levels of total individual anthocyanins, and major anthocyanin, including malvidin-3-O-glucoside and malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl)-glucoside, and the grapes obtained from VSP presented significantly highest proportion of 3'5'-substituted anthocyanins. With regard to the ratios of 3'5'/3'-substituted, methoxylated/non-methoxylated and acylated/non-acylated anthocyanins, the significantly higher levels were also shown in VSP system. In summary, VSP was the best training system for Cabernet Sauvignon to accumulate relatively stable individual anthocyanins in this wet region of China and potentially in

  13. Crystal structure and catalytic mechanism of leucoanthocyanidin reductase from Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Maugé, Chloé; Granier, Thierry; d'Estaintot, Béatrice Langlois; Gargouri, Mahmoud; Manigand, Claude; Schmitter, Jean-Marie; Chaudière, Jean; Gallois, Bernard

    2010-04-01

    Leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR) catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of 2R,3S,4S-flavan-3,4-diols into 2R,3S-flavan-3-ols, a subfamily of flavonoids that is important for plant survival and for human nutrition. LAR1 from Vitis vinifera has been co-crystallized with or without NADPH and one of its natural products, (+)-catechin. Crystals diffract to a resolution between 1.75 and 2.72 A. The coenzyme and substrate binding pocket is preformed in the apoprotein and not markedly altered upon NADPH binding. The structure of the abortive ternary complex, determined at a resolution of 2.28 A, indicates the ordering of a short 3(10) helix associated with substrate binding and suggests that His122 and Lys140 act as acid-base catalysts. Based on our 3D structures, a two-step catalytic mechanism is proposed, in which a concerted dehydration precedes an NADPH-mediated hydride transfer at C4. The dehydration step involves a Lys-catalyzed deprotonation of the phenolic OH7 through a bridging water molecule and a His-catalyzed protonation of the benzylic hydroxyl at C4. The resulting quinone methide serves as an electrophilic target for hydride transfer at C4. LAR belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily and to the PIP (pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase, isoflavone reductase, and phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase) family. Our data support the concept that all PIP enzymes reduce a quinone methide intermediate and that the major role of the only residue that has been conserved from the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase catalytic triad (Ser...TyrXXXLys), that is, lysine, is to promote the formation of this intermediate by catalyzing the deprotonation of a phenolic hydroxyl. For some PIP enzymes, this lysine-catalyzed proton abstraction may be sufficient to trigger the extrusion of the leaving group, whereas in LAR, the extrusion of a hydroxide group requires a more sophisticated mechanism of concerted acid-base catalysis that involves histidine

  14. Carotenoids, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of grapes (Vitis vinifera) cultivated in organic and conventional systems

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Organic agriculture involve plants which are cultivated without using synthetic pesticides, herbicides or fertilizers and promotes biodiversity, biological cycles and improve the product quality. The carotenoids, total polyphenols and the antioxidant activity from skins of some wine and table grapes cultivated in organic and conventional agriculture were studied. Results The main carotenoids identified using high performance liquid chromatography were lutein and ß-carotene. Muscat Ottonel variety has the highest ß-carotene concentration 504.9 μg/kg for organic and 593.2 μg/kg for conventional grapes. For the organic farming, the total polyphenols content were in the range of 163.23 – 1341.37 mg GAE/kg fresh weight (FW) and 148.47 – 1231.38 mg GAE/kg FW for the conventional grapes. The highest ORAC values were obtained for blue-black variety Napoca in both farming system (43.5 ± 0.95 μmol TE/g organic; 40.4 ± 0.5 μmol TE/g conventional) and lowest for Aromat de Iaşi (16.8 ± 0.6 μmol TE/g organic; 14.7 ± 1.6 μmol TE/g conventional). Napoca variety showed also the highest antioxidant activity measured by DPPH method in both cultivated system. Conclusion Nine grape varieties cultivated in organic and conventional systems were compared regarding the carotenoids, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity. The white grape varieties have a higher carotenoids content compared with the blue-black cultivars while the blue-black varieties contain higher TPC and exhibit higher antioxidant activity (except for Muscat Hamburg-ORAC). Vitis vinifera grape skins originating from wine or table grape varieties can be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants. PMID:22762349

  15. Recovery and fine structure variability of RGII sub-domains in wine (Vitis vinifera Merlot)

    PubMed Central

    Buffetto, F.; Ropartz, D.; Zhang, X. J.; Gilbert, H. J.; Guillon, F.; Ralet, M.-C.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Rhamnogalacturonan II (RGII) is a structurally complex pectic sub-domain composed of more than 12 different sugars and 20 different linkages distributed in five side chains along a homogalacturonan backbone. Although RGII has long been described as highly conserved over plant evolution, recent studies have revealed variations in the structure of the polysaccharide. This study examines the fine structure variability of RGII in wine, focusing on the side chains A and B obtained after sequential mild acid hydrolysis. Specifically, this study aims to differentiate intrinsic structural variations in these RGII side chains from structural variations due to acid hydrolysis. Methods RGII from wine (Vitis vinifera Merlot) was sequentially hydrolysed with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and the hydrolysis products were separated by anion-exchange chromatography (AEC). AEC fractions or total hydrolysates were analysed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Key Results The optimal conditions to recover non-degraded side chain B, side chain A and RGII backbone were 0·1 m TFA at 40 °C for 16 h, 0·48 m TFA at 40 °C for 16 h (or 0·1 m TFA at 60 °C for 8 h) and 0·1 m TFA at 60 °C for 16 h, respectively. Side chain B was particularly prone to acid degradation. Side chain A and the RGII GalA backbone were partly degraded by 0·1 m TFA at 80 °C for 1–4 h. AEC allowed separation of side chain B, methyl-esterified side chain A and non-methyl-esterified side chain A. The structure of side chain A and the GalA backbone were highly variable. Conclusions Several modifications to the RGII structure of wine were identified. The observed dearabinosylation and deacetylation were primarily the consequence of acidic treatment, while variation in methyl-esterification, methyl-ether linkages and oxidation reflect natural diversity. The physiological significance of this variability, however, remains to be determined. PMID:24908680

  16. Near-Complete Genome Sequence of Grapevine Fabavirus, a Novel Putative Member of the Genus Fabavirus.

    PubMed

    Al Rwahnih, Maher; Alabi, Olufemi J; Westrick, Nathaniel M; Golino, Deborah; Rowhani, Adib

    2016-01-01

    A novel virus-like sequence from grapevine was identified by Illumina sequencing. The genomic organization was most similar to that of members of the genus Fabavirus Polyproteins RNA-1 and RNA-2 of the virus tentatively named grapevine fabavirus (GFabV) shared 34 to 23% sequence identities with Broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV2), respectively. GFabV was successfully graft transmitted to Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Franc. PMID:27445385

  17. Near-Complete Genome Sequence of Grapevine Fabavirus, a Novel Putative Member of the Genus Fabavirus

    PubMed Central

    Al Rwahnih, Maher; Alabi, Olufemi J.; Westrick, Nathaniel M.; Golino, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    A novel virus-like sequence from grapevine was identified by Illumina sequencing. The genomic organization was most similar to that of members of the genus Fabavirus. Polyproteins RNA-1 and RNA-2 of the virus tentatively named grapevine fabavirus (GFabV) shared 34 to 23% sequence identities with Broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV2), respectively. GFabV was successfully graft transmitted to Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Franc. PMID:27445385

  18. Multiple loss-of-function 5-O-Glucosyltransferase alleles revealed in Vitis vinifera, but not in other Vitis species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthocyanins in red grapes (Vitis genus) are important components of wine and beneficial to human health. These antioxidant compounds are present in two glycosylation states: monoglucoside (3-O-glucoside) and diglucoside (3, 5-di-O-glucoside). While monoglucoside anthocyanins are present in all pigm...

  19. The relationship between root hydraulics and scion vigour accross Vitis rootstocks: what role do root aquaporins play?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitis vinifera scions are grafted onto rootstocks of other grapevine species to provide resistance to soil-borne pests, confer abiotic stress resistance, and influence scion vigor. Despite their common usage, the mechanisms by which rootstocks affect scion vigor and stress resistance are unknown fo...

  20. Local tissue destruction and procoagulation properties of Echis carinatus venom: inhibition by Vitis vinifera seed methanol extract.

    PubMed

    Mahadeswaraswamy, Y H; Nagaraju, S; Girish, K S; Kemparaju, K

    2008-07-01

    Plant extracts are extensively used against snakebites in Indian folk medicine. In this study, one such traditionally used plant, Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae) seed methanol extract has been studied for its ability to neutralize Indian Echis carinatus (saw-scaled viper) venom. The extract effectively inhibited toxic effects, such as oedema, haemorrhage, myonecrosis and coagulation of citrated human plasma. Further, the extract inhibited the caseinolytic, hyaluronolytic and fibrinogenolytic activities of the venom. The extract caused dose dependent inhibition of the toxic activities studied, suggesting venom inhibition. Thus, the anti-snake venom property of the extract appears to be highly promising for further investigation in order to achieve better neutralization of Indian E. carinatus venom poisoning. PMID:18567054

  1. Histological responses to downy mildew in resistant and susceptible grapevines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruiqi; Wang, Lan; Zhu, Jiali; Chen, Tingting; Wang, Yuejin; Xu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Downy mildew in grapevines, caused by Plasmopara viticola, is a very serious disease throughout the grape-producing nations, especially in more humid climates. Downy mildew mainly affects the cultivated varieties of Vitis vinifera. A promising way to minimize or eliminate P. viticola infections is by the adoption of resistant cultivars. Chinese wild grapevines are reported to possess resistance to many fungal diseases. In this study, three Chinese wild grapevines (Vitis pseudoreticulata Baihe-35-1, Vitis davidii var. cyanocarpa Langao-5, and Vitis piasezkii Liuba-8) and a European cultivated variety (V. vinifera cv. Pinot noir) were inoculated with P. viticola, and a histological survey was undertaken. Macroscopic observations revealed no sporulation in V. piasezkii Liuba-8, little sporulation in V. pseudoreticulata Baihe-35-1 and V. davidii var. cyanocarpa Langao-5, but serious sporulation in V. vinifera cv. Pinot noir. Aniline blue staining indicated callose deposition in V. pseudoreticulata Baihe-35-1, V. davidii var. cyanocarpa Langao-5, and V. piasezkii Liuba-8. Cells with distinctive fluorescence were also observed in V. pseudoreticulata Baihe-35-1. After staining with 3,3-diaminobenzidine, production of H₂O₂ was observed early on, after infection in V. davidii var. cyanocarpa Langao-5 and V. piasezkii Liuba-8. No H₂O₂ accumulation was observed in V. vinifera cv. Pinot noir. It is concluded that V. piasezkii Liuba-8 should be classified as "highly resistant" to downy mildew, V. pseudoreticulata Baihe-35-1 and V. davidii var. cyanocarpa Langao-5 as "resistant," and V. vinifera Pinot noir as "susceptible." The possible roles of stomatal callose deposition in the defense r6eactions of the mildew-resistant grapevines are discussed. PMID:25027553

  2. Comparison of investigation methods of heat injury in grapevine (Vitis) and assessment to heat tolerance in different cultivars and species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the context of global climate change, heat stress is becoming an increasingly important constraint on grapevine growth and berry quality. There is a need to breed new grape cultivars with heat tolerance and to design effective physiological defenses against heat stress. The investigation of heat injury to plants or tissues under high temperature is an important step in achieving these goals. At present, evaluation methods for heat injury include the gas exchange parameters of photosynthesis, membrane thermostability, chlorophyll content etc.; however, these methods have obvious disadvantages, such as insensitivity, inconvenience and delayed information. An effective and convenient method for investigating the heat injury of grapevine must be developed. Results In this study, an investigation protocol for a critical temperature (47°C) and heat treatment time (40 min) was developed in detached grape leaves. Based on the results, we found that the OJIP test was superior to measuring electrolyte leakage or photosynthetic O2 evolution for investigating the heat injury of three cultivars of grapevine. Heat tolerance of 47 grape species and cultivars was evaluated through investigating heat injury using the OJIP test. Moreover, the electron transport chain (donor side, acceptor side and reaction center) of PSII in photosynthesis was further investigated. Conclusions The OJIP test was a rapid, sensitive and convenient method for investigating heat injury in grapevine. An analysis of PSII function using this method indicated that the acceptor side was less sensitive to heat than was the donor side or the reaction center in grape leaves. Among the 47 taxa evaluated (cultivars, hybrids, and wild species), heat tolerance varied largely in each genotype group: most wild species and hybrids between V. labrusca and V. vinifera had relatively strong heat tolerance, but most cultivars from V. vinifera had relatively weak heat tolerance. PMID:24898786

  3. Development and evaluation of detection-based air sampling programs for grapevine powdery mildew in eastern Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery mildew of winegrape (Vitis vinifera L.), caused by Erysiphe necator, is one of the most problematic diseases of grapevine worldwide. A real-time PCR assay using species-specific primers was developed for qualitative and quantitative detection of E necator in vineyard air samples collected by...

  4. Moderate water stress from regulated deficit irrigation decreases transpiration similarly to net carbon exchange in grapevine canopies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the effects of timing and extent of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) on grapevine (Vitis vinifera) canopies, whole-canopy transpiration (TrV) and canopy conductance to water vapor (gc) were calculated from whole-vine gas exchange near key stages of fruit development. The vines were ma...

  5. Consequences of Mesocriconema xenoplax parasitism on ‘Pinot noir’ grapevines grafted on rootstocks of varying susceptibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pinot noir grapevines grafted to five rootstocks (Vitis vinifera) and a self-rooted control known to vary in resistance to ring nematode (Mesocriconema xenoplax) were studied over four years in field microplots to 1) evaluate durability of resistance to ring nematode under conditions allowing for hi...

  6. The mode of host resistance to Plasmopara viticola infection of grapevines.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ying; Zhang, Yali; Yin, Ling; Lu, Jiang

    2012-11-01

    ABSTRACT The resistance and susceptibility of grapevines to downy mildew (DM) disease caused by Plasmopara viticola were compared among different cultivars/accessions belonging to Vitis vinifera, V. rotundifolia, and 10 oriental Vitis species. After inoculation with P. viticola pathogen, no symptom was found in V. rotundifolia grapevines at all, while oriental species V. davidii and V. piasezkii, like V. vinifera, were susceptible to DM disease. The other eight oriental Vitis species showed various resistance levels to DM disease. Intraspecific resistant variations were also observed in V. amurensis. Microscopy studies were conducted on various time courses after pathogen infection on grape leaves. P. viticola hyphae were not observed in V. rotundifolia cultivars, while symptoms with varying degrees of severity were observed among the Euvitis species. In general, the DM resistant oriental species showed a slower development of hypha and less formation of haustoria than DM susceptible V. vinifera grapevines. Cells with distinctive fluorescence were observed in V. rotundifolia and the oriental species V. pseudoreticulata, and callose deposits were observed in V. rotundifolia, V. pseudoreticulata, and V. amurensis grapevines. Based on the results of morphological observations and microscopy studies, we concluded that there were five levels of grapevine resistance to P. viticola pathogen: (i) immune, (ii) extremely resistant, (iii) resistant, (iv) partly resistant, and (v) susceptible. PMID:22877313

  7. Oviposition preference and larval performance of Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on Botrytis cinerea (Helotiales: Sclerotiniaceae) infected berries of Vitis vinifera (Vitales: Vitaceae).

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Syed Z M; Raman, Anantanarayanan; Wheatley, Warwick M; Cook, Geoffrey

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we tested the behavior of gravid Epiphyas postvittana in selecting the most-appropriate site for oviposition thus benefitting offspring performance. Our hypothesis was built on Jaenike's preference-performance hypothesis (also referred to as the "mother-knows-the-best" hypothesis). To test this, we used the interacting Epiphyas postvittana, its host Vitis vinifera, and the pathogenic microbe Botrytis cinerea system. Populations of E. postvittana and B. cinerea often exist concurrently on V. vinifera in Australasia and their interaction and mutual influence are currently being explored, although the suggestion presently is that the relationship between E. postvittana and B. cinerea is mutualistic. We tested the effect of volatiles from B. cinerea-infected berries and uninfected (control) berries of V. vinifera on the oviposition behavior of E. postvittana. We also characterized the effects of B. cinerea infection on the berries of V. vinifera on the growth and development of E. postvittana. Contrary to the preference-performance hypothesis, oviposition choices made by gravid E. postvittana did not result in the best offspring survival, development, and performance. The preference for oviposition by E. postvittana was strongly influenced by the olfactory and tactile cues. She laid fewer eggs on B. cinerea-infected berries compared to uninfected berries of V. vinifera. The larvae of E. postvittana showed no preference to uninfected berries of V. vinifera. The larvae fed on B. cinerea-infected berries of V. vinifera showing greater survival rate, shorter time to pupation, greater pupal mass, and on becoming adults they laid more numbers of eggs than the larvae that were enabled to feed on uninfected berries. The larvae of E. postvittana transport the conidia of B. cinerea and transmit grey-mould disease to uninfected berries of V. vinifera. PMID:25420720

  8. High Temperature Affects Photosynthetic and Molecular Processes in Field-Cultivated Vitis vinifera L. × Vitis labrusca L.

    PubMed

    Zha, Qian; Xi, Xiaojun; Jiang, Aili; Tian, Yihua

    2016-05-01

    High-temperature stress markedly influences grape growth and development. However, how high-temperature stress response differs between controlled and field-cultivated grape is poorly understood. In this study, the effects of heat treatment on grapevines were studied for changes in photosystem II (PSII) activity and expression levels of heat-responsive genes and heat shock protein HSP21. July 31st, 2015 was considered as the post high-temperature treatment ("42°C"; temperatures above 40°C for a period of time each day ranging from 1-7 h) under field cultivation in our experiment. The recovery of chlorophyll fluorescence indicators and the increasing expression of heat-responsive genes and the heat shock protein HSP21 suggested the development of heat tolerance in the form of acclimation in grape. Changes in various parameters of photosynthetic pigment fluorescence and of the electron transport chain (Fv/Fm, PIABS , Wk , RCQA , ΦPo , and ΦEo ) between "42°C" and the 45°C treatment demonstrated that the donor side, reaction center, and acceptor side of PSII were influenced by a critical high temperature. Furthermore, the difference between the two cultivation conditions studied was attributed to other environmental factors and inherent tree vigor. PMID:26946321

  9. Whole-Metagenome-Sequencing-Based Community Profiles of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina Berries Withered in Two Post-harvest Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Salvetti, Elisa; Campanaro, Stefano; Campedelli, Ilenia; Fracchetti, Fabio; Gobbi, Alex; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Torriani, Sandra; Felis, Giovanna E.

    2016-01-01

    Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina grape forms the basis for the production of unique wines, such as Amarone, whose distinctive sensory features are strongly linked to the post-harvest grape withering process. Indeed, this process increases sugar concentration and changes must characteristics. While microorganisms involved in must fermentation have been widely investigated, few data are available on the microbiota of withered grapes. Thus, in this paper, a whole metagenome sequencing (WMS) approach was used to analyse the microbial consortium associated with Corvina berries at the end of the withering process performed in two different conditions (“traditional withering,” TW or “accelerated withering,” AW), and to unveil whether changes of drying parameters could have an impact on microbial diversity. Samples of healthy undamaged berries were collected and washed, to recover microorganisms from the surface and avoid contamination with grapevine genetic material. Isolated DNA was sequenced and the data obtained were analyzed with several bioinformatics methods. The eukaryotic community was mainly composed by members of the phylum Ascomycota, including Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes, and Dothideomycetes. Moreover, the distribution of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium (class Eurotiomycetes) varied between the withered berry samples. Instead, Botryotinia, Saccharomyces, and other wine technologically useful microorganisms were relatively scarce in both samples. For prokaryotes, 25 phyla were identified, nine of which were common to both conditions. Environmental bacteria belonging to the class Gammaproteobacteria were dominant and, in particular, the TW sample was characterized by members of the family Pseudomonadaceae, while members of the family Enterobacteriaceae dominated the AW sample, in addition to Sphyngobacteria and Clostridia. Finally, the binning procedure discovered 15 putative genomes which dominated the microbial community of the two samples, and

  10. Whole-Metagenome-Sequencing-Based Community Profiles of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina Berries Withered in Two Post-harvest Conditions.

    PubMed

    Salvetti, Elisa; Campanaro, Stefano; Campedelli, Ilenia; Fracchetti, Fabio; Gobbi, Alex; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Torriani, Sandra; Felis, Giovanna E

    2016-01-01

    Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina grape forms the basis for the production of unique wines, such as Amarone, whose distinctive sensory features are strongly linked to the post-harvest grape withering process. Indeed, this process increases sugar concentration and changes must characteristics. While microorganisms involved in must fermentation have been widely investigated, few data are available on the microbiota of withered grapes. Thus, in this paper, a whole metagenome sequencing (WMS) approach was used to analyse the microbial consortium associated with Corvina berries at the end of the withering process performed in two different conditions ("traditional withering," TW or "accelerated withering," AW), and to unveil whether changes of drying parameters could have an impact on microbial diversity. Samples of healthy undamaged berries were collected and washed, to recover microorganisms from the surface and avoid contamination with grapevine genetic material. Isolated DNA was sequenced and the data obtained were analyzed with several bioinformatics methods. The eukaryotic community was mainly composed by members of the phylum Ascomycota, including Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes, and Dothideomycetes. Moreover, the distribution of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium (class Eurotiomycetes) varied between the withered berry samples. Instead, Botryotinia, Saccharomyces, and other wine technologically useful microorganisms were relatively scarce in both samples. For prokaryotes, 25 phyla were identified, nine of which were common to both conditions. Environmental bacteria belonging to the class Gammaproteobacteria were dominant and, in particular, the TW sample was characterized by members of the family Pseudomonadaceae, while members of the family Enterobacteriaceae dominated the AW sample, in addition to Sphyngobacteria and Clostridia. Finally, the binning procedure discovered 15 putative genomes which dominated the microbial community of the two samples, and

  11. Assessment of the potential health benefits of certain total extracts from Vitis vinifera, Aesculus hyppocastanum and Curcuma longa

    PubMed Central

    MARGINĂ, DENISA; OLARU, OCTAVIAN TUDOREL; ILIE, MIHAELA; GRĂDINARU, DANIELA; GUȚU, CLAUDIA; VOICU, SORINA; DINISCHIOTU, ANCA; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.

    2015-01-01

    A number of recent studies have illustrated the active role of food/natural components in the prevention of chronic diseases and in the improvement of the quality of life. In the present study, we aimed to obtain and characterize certain extracts from Vitis vinifera L., Aesculus hippocastanum L. and Curcuma longa L., focusing on their antioxidant effects in vitro. Three vegetal extracts were obtained for each plant: in water, 50% water-alcohol and in 96% ethanol. These extracts were then analyzed for their qualitative composition by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and total phenolic content by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-VIS). The antioxidant activity of the extracts was assessed in vitro by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay; the effects of lipid peroxidation on the cell membrane were evaluated using Jurkat cells in two experimental models: normoglycemic and hyperglycemic medium, in order for the results to be able to be translated into clinical practice. In addition, the resistance of the extracts to acid and alkaline hydrolysis was investigated. The obtained extracts had 0.4–39 µg phenolics/mg total extract. The largest amount of phenolics was found in the Cucurma longa extracts, while the lowest was found in the Aesculus hippocastanum extacts. HPTLC analysis identified the main phenolic compounds in the extracts which were ferulic acid, gallic acid, caffeic acid and coumaric acid, as well as quercetin, kaempferol, apigenin, curcumin, luteolin and esculetin. The Aesculus hippocastanum extracts had a low antioxidant efficacy, while both the Curcuma longa and Vitis vinifera extracts had a high antioxidant activity; the products resulting from alkaline hydrolisis were significantly more efficient in scavenging DPPH radicals compared to the products resulting from acid hydrolisis. The antioxidant effects of the Curcuma longa extracts exerted on the membranes of Jurkat cells were the most prominent under both normal and

  12. Pedigree reconstruction of the Italian grapevine Aglianico (Vitis vinifera L.) from Campania.

    PubMed

    De Lorenzis, Gabriella; Imazio, Serena; Biagini, Barbara; Failla, Osvaldo; Scienza, Attilio

    2013-06-01

    A total of 41 accessions of Aglianico belonging to three different biotypes (Taburno, Taurasi, and Vulture) and 9 accessions of Sirica grapes were sampled from diverse areas of Campania (Italy). All accessions were first genotyped using 21 microsatellite markers (SSR) to evaluate possible homonymies, synonymies, and the genetic structure of each group. A larger dataset was then constructed adding Italian and International cultivars. On the basis of results obtained analyzing the first dataset, further investigations were carried out enlarging the number of investigated loci (up to 43). The addition of 22 SSRs was useful in the definition of likely genetic relationships linking Aglianico biotypes, Sirica and Syrah. According to their SSR allelic profiles, the monophyletic origin of the three Aglianico biotypes was confirmed. Among Aglianico Taburno accessions, eight samples (called Aglianico like-to-type) performed a different SSR allelic profile from Aglianico true-to-type. Sirica and Syrah proved to be synonyms. This work allowed to determine the genetic relationship between Aglianico and the cultivars supposed to be related. The parentage analysis was investigated. The most likely pedigree has been reconstructed; revealing a second-degree relationship between the worldwide cultivated Syrah from the Rhone Valley and Aglianico. Aglianico like-to-type appeared related to Aglianico in a parent-offspring fashion. PMID:23054630

  13. Foliar applied abscisic acid increases 'Chardonnay' grapevines (Vitis vinifera) bud freezing tolerance during Autumn cold acclimation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Economic loss due to cold weather events is a major constraint to winegrape-related industries where extreme and/or fluctuating winter temperatures induce injury and required remedial retraining and replanting increases production costs and lowers yield and fruit quality. The purpose of this study ...

  14. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): photosynthetic tissues and berries.

    PubMed

    Considine, Michael J; Foyer, Christine H

    2015-01-01

    Research on sulfur metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils. Key questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to the food industry. We consider the intrinsic metabolism of sulfite and its consequences for fruit biology and postharvest physiology, comparing the different responses in fruit and leaves. We also highlight inconsistencies in what is considered the "ambient" environmental or industrial exposures to SO2. We discuss these findings in relation to the persistent threat to the table grape industry that intergovernmental agencies will revoke the industry's exemption to the worldwide ban on the use of SO2 for preservation of fresh foods. Transcriptome profiling studies on fruit suggest that added value may accrue from effects of SO2 fumigation on the expression of genes encoding components involved in processes that underpin traits related to customer satisfaction, particularly in table grapes, where SO2 fumigation may extend for several months. PMID:25750643

  15. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): photosynthetic tissues and berries

    PubMed Central

    Considine, Michael J.; Foyer, Christine H.

    2015-01-01

    Research on sulfur metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils. Key questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to the food industry. We consider the intrinsic metabolism of sulfite and its consequences for fruit biology and postharvest physiology, comparing the different responses in fruit and leaves. We also highlight inconsistencies in what is considered the “ambient” environmental or industrial exposures to SO2. We discuss these findings in relation to the persistent threat to the table grape industry that intergovernmental agencies will revoke the industry’s exemption to the worldwide ban on the use of SO2 for preservation of fresh foods. Transcriptome profiling studies on fruit suggest that added value may accrue from effects of SO2 fumigation on the expression of genes encoding components involved in processes that underpin traits related to customer satisfaction, particularly in table grapes, where SO2 fumigation may extend for several months. PMID:25750643

  16. SYCHRONIZED SOMATIC EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT IN EMBRYOGENIC SUSPENSIONS OF GRAPEVINE (MUSCADINIA ROTUNDIFOLIA SMALL AND VITIS VINIFERA L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The full advantages of somatic embryogenesis as a regeneration system and essential model for performing functional genomics studies and understanding molecular aspect of the ontogenesis of higher plants are demonstrated only in high-frequency, synchronous embryogenic system in liquid culture. In t...

  17. Acyl substrate preferences of an IAA-amido synthetase account for variations in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry ripening caused by different auxinic compounds indicating the importance of auxin conjugation in plant development

    PubMed Central

    Böttcher, Christine; Boss, Paul K.; Davies, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Nine Gretchen Hagen (GH3) genes were identified in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) and six of these were predicted on the basis of protein sequence similarity to act as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-amido synthetases. The activity of these enzymes is thought to be important in controlling free IAA levels and one auxin-inducible grapevine GH3 protein, GH3-1, has previously been implicated in the berry ripening process. Ex planta assays showed that the expression of only one other GH3 gene, GH3-2, increased following the treatment of grape berries with auxinic compounds. One of these was the naturally occurring IAA and the other two were synthetic, α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and benzothiazole-2-oxyacetic acid (BTOA). The determination of steady-state kinetic parameters for the recombinant GH3-1 and GH3-2 proteins revealed that both enzymes efficiently conjugated aspartic acid (Asp) to IAA and less well to NAA, while BTOA was a poor substrate. GH3-2 gene expression was induced by IAA treatment of pre-ripening berries with an associated increase in levels of IAA-Asp and a decrease in free IAA levels. This indicates that GH3-2 responded to excess auxin to maintain low levels of free IAA. Grape berry ripening was not affected by IAA application prior to veraison (ripening onset) but was considerably delayed by NAA and even more so by BTOA. The differential effects of the three auxinic compounds on berry ripening can therefore be explained by the induction and acyl substrate specificity of GH3-2. These results further indicate an important role for GH3 proteins in controlling auxin-related plant developmental processes. PMID:21543520

  18. Characterization of Hg-phytochelatins complexes in vines (Vitis vinifera cv Malbec) as defense mechanism against metal stress.

    PubMed

    Spisso, Adrian A; Cerutti, Soledad; Silva, Fernanda; Pacheco, Pablo H; Martinez, Luis D

    2014-06-01

    An approach to understand vines (Vitis vinifera) defense mechanism against heavy metal stress by isolation and determination of Hg-phytochelatins (PCs) complexes was performed. PCs are important molecules involved in the control of metal concentration in plants. PCs complex toxic metals through -SH groups and stores them inside cells vacuole avoiding any toxic effect of free metals in the cytosol. The Hg-PCs identification was achieved by determination of Hg and S as hetero-tagged atoms. A method involving two-dimensional chromatographic analysis coupled to atomic spectrometry and confirmation by tandem mass spectrometry is proposed. An approach involving size exclusion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry on roots, stems, and leaves extracts describing Hg distribution according to molecular weight and sulfur associations is proposed for the first time. Medium-low molecular weight Hg-S associations of 29-100 kDa were found, suggesting PCs presence. A second approach employing reversed-phase chromatography coupled to atomic fluorescence spectrometry analysis allowed the determination of Hg-PCs complexes within the mentioned fractions. Chromatograms showed Hg-PC2, Hg-PC3 and Hg-PC4 presence only in roots. Hg-PCs presence in roots was confirmed by ESI-MS/MS analysis. PMID:24715273

  19. Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) in Human Gastric Epithelial Cells: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Fumagalli, Marco; Colombo, Elisa; Frigerio, Gianfranco; Colombo, Francesca; Peres de Sousa, Luis; Altindişli, Ahmet; Restani, Patrizia; Dell'Agli, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) are dried grapes largely consumed as important source of nutrients and polyphenols. Several studies report health benefits of raisins, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, whereas the anti-inflammatory activity at gastric level of the hydro-alcoholic extracts, which are mostly used for food supplements preparation, was not reported until now. The aim of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory activity of five raisin extracts focusing on Interleukin (IL)-8 and Nuclear Factor (NF)-κB pathway. Raisin extracts were characterized by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD) analysis and screened for their ability to inhibit Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α-induced IL-8 release and promoter activity in human gastric epithelial cells. Turkish variety significantly inhibited TNFα-induced IL-8 release, and the effect was due to the impairment of the corresponding promoter activity. Macroscopic evaluation showed the presence of seeds, absent in the other varieties; thus, hydro-alcoholic extracts from fruits and seeds were individually tested on IL-8 and NF-κB pathway. Seed extract inhibited IL-8 and NF-κB pathway, showing higher potency with respect to the fruit. Although the main effect was due to the presence of seeds, the fruit showed significant activity as well. Our data suggest that consumption of selected varieties of raisins could confer a beneficial effect against gastric inflammatory diseases. PMID:27447609

  20. Effect of brining on biological activity of leaves of Vitis vinifera L. (Cv. Sultani Cekirdeksiz) from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kosar, Müberra; Küpeli, Esra; Malyer, Hulusi; Uylaser, Vildan; Türkben, Cihat; Baser, K Hüsnü Can

    2007-05-30

    Leaves of Vitis vinifera (Fam. Vitaceae) cv. 'Sultani Cekirdeksiz' cultivated in Manisa-Alasehir in western Turkey, were processed with or without brine. Fresh, brined, and nonbrined leaves (after being subjected to 3 months of fermentation) were sampled and extracted with distilled water under reflux. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-nociceptive activities of the water extracts were investigated using in vitro and in vivo methods. Free radical scavenging activity (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH* assay), iron(III) reductive activity (reducing power activity assay), capacity of inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid method), anti-nociceptive activity (p-benzoquinone-induced abdominal constriction test), and anti-inflammatory activity (carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model) were used to determine biological activities of the extracts. In addition, the contents of total phenolics, flavonoids, and flavonols in the extracts were determined by spectrophotometrical methods. Results were compared with those of ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxytoluene, and gallic acid as reference antioxidants. The extracts of fresh, brined, and nonbrined leaves showed almost the same activity in all antioxidant assays. These extracts inhibited the oxidation of linoleic acid to the same extent as BHT. Compositions of the extracts were analyzed by a reverse phase HPLC-PDA method. The occurrence of hydroxycinnamic acids (e.g., caffeic acid) and flavonoids (e.g., quercetin) was verified in the extracts. The content of total flavonoids as well as quercetin was increased by fermentation. PMID:17488092

  1. Enhanced extracellular production of trans-resveratrol in Vitis vinifera suspension cultured cells by using cyclodextrins and coronatine.

    PubMed

    Almagro, Lorena; Belchí-Navarro, Sarai; Martínez-Márquez, Ascensión; Bru, Roque; Pedreño, María A

    2015-12-01

    In the present work the effect of cyclodextrin and coronatine on both trans-resveratrol production and the expression of stilbene biosynthetic genes in Vitis vinifera L. cv Monastrell suspension cultured cells were evaluated. The results showed the maximum level of trans-resveratrol produced by cells and secreted to the culture medium with 50 mM cyclodextrins and 1 μM coronatine. Since the levels of trans-resveratrol produced in the combined treatment were higher than the sum of the individual treatments, a synergistic effect between both elicitors was assumed. In addition, all the analysed genes were induced by cyclodextrins and/or coronatine. The expression of the phenylalanine ammonia lyase and stilbene synthase genes was greatly enhanced by coronatine although an increase in the amount of trans-resveratrol in the spent medium was not detected. Therefore, despite the fact that trans-resveratrol production is related with the expression of genes involved in the biosynthetic process, other factors may be involved, such as post-transcriptional and post-traductional regulation. The expression maximal levels of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase genes were found with cyclodextrins alone or in combination with coronatine suggesting that the activity of these enzymes could be not only important for the formation of intermediates of trans-R biosynthesis but also for those intermediates involved in the biosynthesis of lignins and/or flavonoids. PMID:26529079

  2. An immunohistochemical study of the compartmentation of metabolism during the development of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries.

    PubMed

    Famiani, F; Walker, R P; Técsi, L; Chen, Z H; Proietti, P; Leegood, R C

    2000-04-01

    The compartmentation of key processes in sugar, organic acid and amino acid metabolism was studied during the development of the flesh and seeds of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries. Antibodies specific for enzymes involved in sugar (cell wall and vacuolar invertases, pyrophosphate: fructose 6-phosphate phosphotransferase, aldolase, NADP-glyceraldehyde-P dehydrogenase, cytosolic fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase), photosynthesis (Rubisco, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, sedoheptulose 1,7-bisphosphatase), amino acid metabolism (cytosolic and mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferases, alanine aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase), organic acid metabolism (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, NAD- and NADP-dependent malic enzyme, ascorbate peroxidase), and lipid metabolism (acetyl CoA carboxylase, isocitrate lyase) were used to determine how their abundance changed during development. There were marked changes in the abundance of many of these enzymes in both the flesh and seeds. The intercellular location of some enzymes was investigated using immunohistochemistry. Several enzymes (e.g. phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and those involved in amino acid metabolism) were associated with tissues likely to function in the transport of imported assimilates, such as the vasculature. Although other enzymes (e.g. NADP-malic enzyme and soluble acid invertase, involved in the metabolism of sugars and organic acids) were largely present in the parenchyma cells of the flesh, their distribution was extremely heterogeneous. This study shows that when considering the metabolism of complex structures such as fruit, it is essential to consider how metabolism is compartmentalized between and within different tissues, even when they are apparently structurally homogeneous. PMID:10938859

  3. Effect of γ-radiation on the production of aflatoxin B1 by Aspergillus parasiticus in raisins (Vitis vinifera L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanapitsas, Alexandros; Batrinou, Anthimia; Aravantinos, Athanasios; Markaki, Panagiota

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) mostly produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is an extremely toxic and carcinogenic metabolite. The effect of gamma irradiation at dose of 10 kGy on the production of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) inoculated by Aspergillus parasiticus in raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) and on AFB1 in contaminated samples, was investigated. Values of the amount of aflatoxin B1 produced on the 12th day of incubation, after irradiation, showed that gamma radiation exposure at 10 kGy decreased AFB1 production at 65% compared with the non-irradiated sample, on the same day. The application of 10 kGy gamma radiation directly on 100 ng of AFB1 which were spiked in raisins resulted in ~29% reduction of AFB1. According to the risk assessment analysis the Provisional Maximum Tolerable Daily Intake (PMTDI) of 1.0 ng AFB1 kg-1bw, indicates that consumers are less exposed to AFB1 from the irradiated raisins.

  4. Hepatoprotective Effects of Total Triterpenoids and Total Flavonoids from Vitis vinifera L against Immunological Liver Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Zhao, Jun; Ma, Long; Ding, Yusong; Su, Deqi

    2012-01-01

    Suosuo grape (the fruits of Vitis vinifera L) has been used for prevention and treatment of liver diseases in Uighur folk medicine in China besides its edible value. In this study, the hepatoprotective effects of total triterpenoids (VTT) and total flavonoids (VTF) from Suosuo grape were evaluated in Bacille-Calmette-Guerin- (BCG-) plus-lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced immunological liver injury (ILI) in mice. Various dose groups (50, 150, and 300 mg/kg) of VTT and VTF alleviated the degree of liver injury of ILI mice, effectively reduced the BCG/LPS-induced elevated liver index and spleen index, hepatic nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, increased liver homogenate alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, and restored hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in ILI mice. VTT and VTF also significantly inhibited intrahepatic expression of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-2) in ILI mice and increased intrahepatic expression of Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10). Moreover, the increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was significantly downregulated by VTT and VTF in liver tissue of ILI mice. These results are comparable to those of biphenyl dicarboxylate (DDB, the reference hepatoprotective agent) and suggest that VTT and VTF play a protective role against immunological liver injury, which may have important implications for our understanding of the immunoregulatory mechanisms of this plant. PMID:22262981

  5. Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) in Human Gastric Epithelial Cells: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Fumagalli, Marco; Colombo, Elisa; Frigerio, Gianfranco; Colombo, Francesca; Peres de Sousa, Luis; Altindişli, Ahmet; Restani, Patrizia; Dell’Agli, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) are dried grapes largely consumed as important source of nutrients and polyphenols. Several studies report health benefits of raisins, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, whereas the anti-inflammatory activity at gastric level of the hydro-alcoholic extracts, which are mostly used for food supplements preparation, was not reported until now. The aim of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory activity of five raisin extracts focusing on Interleukin (IL)-8 and Nuclear Factor (NF)-κB pathway. Raisin extracts were characterized by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD) analysis and screened for their ability to inhibit Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α-induced IL-8 release and promoter activity in human gastric epithelial cells. Turkish variety significantly inhibited TNFα-induced IL-8 release, and the effect was due to the impairment of the corresponding promoter activity. Macroscopic evaluation showed the presence of seeds, absent in the other varieties; thus, hydro-alcoholic extracts from fruits and seeds were individually tested on IL-8 and NF-κB pathway. Seed extract inhibited IL-8 and NF-κB pathway, showing higher potency with respect to the fruit. Although the main effect was due to the presence of seeds, the fruit showed significant activity as well. Our data suggest that consumption of selected varieties of raisins could confer a beneficial effect against gastric inflammatory diseases. PMID:27447609

  6. Enhancement of phenolics, resveratrol and antioxidant activity by nitrogen enrichment in cell suspension culture of Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Sae-Lee, Napaporn; Kerdchoechuen, Orapin; Laohakunjit, Natta

    2014-01-01

    Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), an important nitrogen source (34% N), has been used as an elicitor to stimulate plant growth and development as well as induce secondary metabolites under controlled conditions. In the present paper, we investigated the enhancement of cell biomass, total phenolics, resveratrol levels, and antioxidant activity of Vitis vinifera cv. Pok Dum by nitrogen enrichment (MS medium supplemented with NH4NO3 at 0, 500, 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 mg/L). The highest accumulations of biomass, phenolics and resveratrol contents were observed at 8.8-fold (86.6 g DW/L), 15.9-fold (71.91 mg GAE/g DW) and 5.6-fold (277.89 µg/g DW) by the 14th day, in the medium supplemented with 500 mg/L NH4NO3. Moreover, the antioxidant activities of cultured grape cells estimated by the DPPH· and ABTS·+ assay were positively correlated with phenolics and resveratrol, and the maximum activity was also observed in cultured cells with 500 mg/L NH4NO3 at 176.11 and 267.79 mmol TE/100 g DW, respectively. PMID:24962393

  7. Evaluation of Anti-Candida Activity of Vitis vinifera L. Seed Extracts Obtained from Wine and Table Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Santamaria, Anna Rita; D'Auria, Felicia Diodata; Innocenti, Marzia; Gabrielli, Elena; Panella, Simona; Antonacci, Donato; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Vecchiarelli, Anna

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, grape seed extracts (GSEs), obtained from wine and table cultivars of Vitis vinifera L., cultured in experimental fields of Lazio and Puglia regions of Italy and grown in different agronomic conditions, have been tested on 43 Candida species strains. We demonstrated a significant correlation between the content of the flavan-3-ols in GSEs extracts, with a polymerization degree ≥4, and anti-Candida activity. Moreover, we demonstrated that GSEs, obtained from plants cultured with reduced irrigation, showed a content of polymeric flavan-3-ols >250 mg/g with geometric mean MIC values between 5.7 and 20.2 mg/L against Candida albicans reference strains. GSE, showing 573 mg/g of polymeric flavan-3-ols, has been tested in an experimental murine model of vaginal candidiasis by using noninvasive in vivo imaging technique. The results pointed out a significant inhibition of Candida albicans load 5 days after challenge. These findings indicate that GSEs with high content of polymeric flavan-3-ols can be used in mucosal infection as vaginal candidiasis. PMID:24864227

  8. Quantitative analysis of polymeric procyanidins (Tannins) from grape (Vitis vinifera) seeds by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Peng, Z; Hayasaka, Y; Iland, P G; Sefton, M; Høj, P; Waters, E J

    2001-01-01

    A reverse phase C(18) HPLC method with potential for high automated throughput has been developed for the quantitative analysis of polymeric procyanidins (tannins) in grape seed extracts. Chromatography gave rise to 13 distinct UV-absorbing peaks with good baseline separation. The UV-absorbing peak eluting last is distinct and therefore easily quantified. Biochemical analyses including ultrafiltration, protein precipitation, and Sephadex LH20 chromatography combined with electrospray mass spectrometric analyses establish that this peak predominantly contains polymeric procyanidins. The polymers, which appear to be galloylated to various degrees and seem to fragment in a characteristic manner during electrospray mass spectrometry, are well separated from catechins and procyanidin oligomers of up to 4 units. The recovery of polymeric grape seed tannins with this HPLC method was 86%, which is similar to the 89% recovery achieved with commercial quebracho tannins. The concentration of tannins in seeds from ripe Vitis vinifera cv. Shiraz grapes ranged from 1360 to 2830 mg/kg of berries. PMID:11170555

  9. Bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of Vitis vinifera L. cultivated under distinct agricultural practices in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Vega-Avila, A D; Gumiere, T; Andrade, P A M; Lima-Perim, J E; Durrer, A; Baigori, M; Vazquez, F; Andreote, F D

    2015-02-01

    Plants interact with a myriad of microbial cells in the rhizosphere, an environment that is considered to be important for plant development. However, the differential structuring of rhizosphere microbial communities due to plant cultivation under differential agricultural practices remains to be described for most plant species. Here we describe the rhizosphere microbiome of grapevine cultivated under conventional and organic practices, using a combination of cultivation-independent approaches. The quantification of bacterial 16S rRNA and nifH genes, by quantitative PCR (qPCR), revealed similar amounts of these genes in the rhizosphere in both vineyards. PCR-DGGE was used to detect differences in the structure of bacterial communities, including both the complete whole communities and specific fractions, such as Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and those harboring the nitrogen-fixing related gene nifH. When analyzed by a multivariate approach (redundancy analysis), the shifts observed in the bacterial communities were poorly explained by variations in the physical and chemical characteristics of the rhizosphere. These approaches were complemented by high-throughput sequencing (67,830 sequences) based on the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene, identifying the major bacterial groups present in the rhizosphere of grapevines: Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteriodetes, Acidobacteria, Cloroflexi, Verrucomicrobia and Planctomycetes, which occur in distinct proportions in the rhizosphere from each vineyard. The differences might be related to the selection of plant metabolism upon distinct reservoirs of microbial cells found in each vineyard. The results fill a gap in the knowledge of the rhizosphere of grapevines and also show distinctions in these bacterial communities due to agricultural practices. PMID:25527391

  10. Unraveling the etiology of North American grapevine yellows (NAGY): multilocus genotyping and structural analysis of secY proteins distinguish NAGYIII phytoplasma strains from strains causing X-disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    North American grapevine yellows (NAGY) disease has sometimes been ascribed to infection of Vitis vinifera L. by X-disease phytoplasma, but the accuracy of this attribution has remained open to question. In the present study of NAGY etiology, the disease was discovered in Maryland, Pennsylvania, Oh...

  11. Rpv10: a new locus from the Asian Vitis gene pool for pyramiding downy mildew resistance loci in grapevine.

    PubMed

    Schwander, Florian; Eibach, Rudolf; Fechter, Iris; Hausmann, Ludger; Zyprian, Eva; Töpfer, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    A population derived from a cross between grapevine breeding strain Gf.Ga-52-42 and cultivar 'Solaris' consisting of 265 F1-individuals was genetically mapped using SSR markers and screened for downy mildew resistance. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis revealed two strong QTLs on linkage groups (LGs) 18 and 09. The locus on LG 18 was found to be identical with the previously described locus Rpv3 and is transmitted by Gf.Ga-52-42. 'Solaris' transmitted the resistance-related locus on LG 09 explaining up to 50% of the phenotypic variation in the population. This downy mildew resistance locus is named Rpv10 for resistance to Plasmopara viticola. Rpv10 was initially introgressed from Vitis amurensis, a wild species of the Asian Vitis gene pool. The one-LOD supported confidence interval of the QTL spans a section of 2.1 centi Morgan (cM) corresponding to 314 kb in the reference genome PN40024 (12x). Eight resistance gene analogues (RGAs) of the NBS-LRR type and additional resistance-linked genes are located in this region of PN40024. The F1 sub-population which contains the Rpv3 as well as the Rpv10 locus showed a significantly higher degree of resistance, indicating additive effects by pyramiding of resistance loci. Possibilities for using the resistance locus Rpv10 in a grapevine breeding programme are discussed. Furthermore, the marker data revealed 'Severnyi' × 'Muscat Ottonel' as the true parentage for the male parent of 'Solaris'. PMID:21935694

  12. Functional characterisation of three members of the Vitis vinifera L. carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase gene family

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In plants, carotenoids serve as the precursors to C13-norisoprenoids, a group of apocarotenoid compounds with diverse biological functions. Enzymatic cleavage of carotenoids catalysed by members of the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD) family has been shown to produce a number of industrially important volatile flavour and aroma apocarotenoids including β-ionone, geranylacetone, pseudoionone, α-ionone and 3-hydroxy-β-ionone in a range of plant species. Apocarotenoids contribute to the floral and fruity attributes of many wine cultivars and are thereby, at least partly, responsible for the “varietal character”. Despite their importance in grapes and wine; carotenoid cleavage activity has only been described for VvCCD1 and the mechanism(s) and regulation of carotenoid catabolism remains largely unknown. Results Three grapevine-derived CCD-encoding genes have been isolated and shown to be functional with unique substrate cleavage capacities. Our results demonstrate that the VvCCD4a and VvCCD4b catalyse the cleavage of both linear and cyclic carotenoid substrates. The expression of VvCCD1, VvCCD4a and VvCCD4b was detected in leaf, flower and throughout berry development. VvCCD1 expression was constitutive, whereas VvCCD4a expression was predominant in leaves and VvCCD4b in berries. A transgenic population with a 12-fold range of VvCCD1 expression exhibited a lack of correlation between VvCCD1 expression and carotenoid substrates and/or apocarotenoid products in leaves, providing proof that the in planta function(s) of VvCCD1 in photosynthetically active tissue is distinct from the in vitro activities demonstrated. The isolation and functional characterisation of VvCCD4a and VvCCD4b identify two additional CCDs that are functional in grapevine. Conclusions Taken together, our results indicate that the three CCDs are under various levels of control that include gene expression (spatial and temporal), substrate specificity and compartmentalisation

  13. The metacaspase gene family of Vitis vinifera L.: characterization and differential expression during ovule abortion in stenospermocarpic seedless grapes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chaohong; Gong, Peijie; Wei, Rong; Li, Shuxiu; Zhang, Xutong; Yu, Yihe; Wang, Yuejin

    2013-10-10

    In both plants and animals, programmed cell death (PCD) is an indispensable process that removes redundant cells. In seedless grapes (Vitis vinifera), abnormal PCD in ovule cells and subsequent ovule abortion play key roles in stenospermocarpy. Metacaspase, a type of cysteine-dependent protease, plays an essential role in PCD. To reveal the characteristics of the metacaspase (MC) gene family and the relationship between metacaspases and the seedless trait, we identified the 6 V. vinifera metacaspases VvMC1-VvMC6, from the grape genome, using BLASTN against the 9 known Arabidopsis metacaspases. We also obtained full-length cDNAs by RT-PCR. Each of the 6 grape metacaspases contains small (p10-like) and a large (p20-like) conserved structural domains. Phylogenetic analysis of 6 grape and 9 Arabidopsis metacaspases showed that all metacaspases could be grouped into two classes: Type I and Type II. Each phylogenetic branch shares a similar exon/intron structure. Furthermore, the putative promoters of the grape metacaspases contained cis-elements that are involved in grape endosperm development. Moreover, expression analysis of metacaspases using real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that VvMC1 and VvMC2 were able to be detected in any tissue, and VvMC3, VvMC4, VvMC5 and VvMC6 exhibited tissue-specific expression. Lastly, in cv. Thompson seedless grapes VvMC1, VvMC3, and VvMC4 were significantly up-regulated at the 35 DAF during ovule development, roughly same stage as endosperm abortion. In addition, the expression trend of VvMC2 and VvMC5 was similar between cv. Pinot Noir and cv. Thompson grape ovule development and that of VvMC6 was sustained in a relatively low level except the expression of cv. Pinot Noir significantly up-regulated in 25 DAF. Our data provided new insights into PCD by identifying the grape metacaspase gene family and provide a useful reference for further functional analysis of metacaspases in grape. PMID:23845786

  14. Environmental Factors and Seasonality Affect the Concentration of Rotundone in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz Wine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Howell, Kate; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Barlow, Edward William R.; Fuentes, Sigfredo

    2015-01-01

    Rotundone is a sesquiterpene that gives grapes and wine a desirable ‘peppery’ aroma. Previous research has reported that growing grapevines in a cool climate is an important factor that drives rotundone accumulation in grape berries and wine. This study used historical data sets to investigate which weather parameters are mostly influencing rotundone concentration in grape berries and wine. For this purpose, wines produced from 15 vintages from the same Shiraz vineyard (The Old Block, Mount Langi Ghiran, Victoria, Australia) were analysed for rotundone concentration and compared to comprehensive weather data and minimal temperature information. Degree hours were obtained by interpolating available temperature information from the vineyard site using a simple piecewise cubic hermite interpolating polynomial method (PCHIP). Results showed that the highest concentrations of rotundone were consistently found in wines from cool and wet seasons. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that the concentration of rotundone in wine was negatively correlated with daily solar exposure and grape bunch zone temperature, and positively correlated with vineyard water balance. Finally, models were constructed based on the Gompertz function to describe the dynamics of rotundone concentration in berries through the ripening process according to phenological and thermal times. This characterisation is an important step forward to potentially predict the final quality of the resultant wines based on the evolution of specific compounds in berries according to critical environmental and micrometeorological variables. The modelling techniques described in this paper were able to describe the behaviour of rotundone concentration based on seasonal weather conditions and grapevine phenological stages, and could be potentially used to predict the final rotundone concentration early in future growing seasons. This could enable the adoption of precision irrigation and canopy

  15. Environmental Factors and Seasonality Affect the Concentration of Rotundone in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz Wine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Howell, Kate; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Barlow, Edward William R; Fuentes, Sigfredo

    2015-01-01

    Rotundone is a sesquiterpene that gives grapes and wine a desirable 'peppery' aroma. Previous research has reported that growing grapevines in a cool climate is an important factor that drives rotundone accumulation in grape berries and wine. This study used historical data sets to investigate which weather parameters are mostly influencing rotundone concentration in grape berries and wine. For this purpose, wines produced from 15 vintages from the same Shiraz vineyard (The Old Block, Mount Langi Ghiran, Victoria, Australia) were analysed for rotundone concentration and compared to comprehensive weather data and minimal temperature information. Degree hours were obtained by interpolating available temperature information from the vineyard site using a simple piecewise cubic hermite interpolating polynomial method (PCHIP). Results showed that the highest concentrations of rotundone were consistently found in wines from cool and wet seasons. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that the concentration of rotundone in wine was negatively correlated with daily solar exposure and grape bunch zone temperature, and positively correlated with vineyard water balance. Finally, models were constructed based on the Gompertz function to describe the dynamics of rotundone concentration in berries through the ripening process according to phenological and thermal times. This characterisation is an important step forward to potentially predict the final quality of the resultant wines based on the evolution of specific compounds in berries according to critical environmental and micrometeorological variables. The modelling techniques described in this paper were able to describe the behaviour of rotundone concentration based on seasonal weather conditions and grapevine phenological stages, and could be potentially used to predict the final rotundone concentration early in future growing seasons. This could enable the adoption of precision irrigation and canopy management

  16. Berry Flesh and Skin Ripening Features in Vitis vinifera as Assessed by Transcriptional Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Grimplet, Jérôme; Bravo, Gema; Flores, Pilar; Fenoll, José; Hellín, Pilar; Oliveros, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Zapater, José M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Ripening of fleshy fruit is a complex developmental process involving the differentiation of tissues with separate functions. During grapevine berry ripening important processes contributing to table and wine grape quality take place, some of them flesh- or skin-specific. In this study, transcriptional profiles throughout flesh and skin ripening were followed during two different seasons in a table grape cultivar ‘Muscat Hamburg’ to determine tissue-specific as well as common developmental programs. Methodology/Principal Findings Using an updated GrapeGen Affymetrix GeneChip® annotation based on grapevine 12×v1 gene predictions, 2188 differentially accumulated transcripts between flesh and skin and 2839 transcripts differentially accumulated throughout ripening in the same manner in both tissues were identified. Transcriptional profiles were dominated by changes at the beginning of veraison which affect both pericarp tissues, although frequently delayed or with lower intensity in the skin than in the flesh. Functional enrichment analysis identified the decay on biosynthetic processes, photosynthesis and transport as a major part of the program delayed in the skin. In addition, a higher number of functional categories, including several related to macromolecule transport and phenylpropanoid and lipid biosynthesis, were over-represented in transcripts accumulated to higher levels in the skin. Functional enrichment also indicated auxin, gibberellins and bHLH transcription factors to take part in the regulation of pre-veraison processes in the pericarp, whereas WRKY and C2H2 family transcription factors seems to more specifically participate in the regulation of skin and flesh ripening, respectively. Conclusions/Significance A transcriptomic analysis indicates that a large part of the ripening program is shared by both pericarp tissues despite some components are delayed in the skin. In addition, important tissue differences are present from early

  17. Rain-Shelter Cultivation Modifies Carbon Allocation in the Polyphenolic and Volatile Metabolism of Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay Grapes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Li, Xiao-Xi; Han, Mei-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Fan; Li, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the biosynthesis of flavonoids and volatiles in grapes, with an aim of determining whether rain-shelter application could help to improve the sensory attributes and quality of grapes. Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay grapes, grown in the Huaizhuo basin region of northern China, were selected within two consecutive years. A rain-shelter roof was constructed using a colorless polyethylene (PE) film with a light transmittance of 80%. Results showed that rain-shelter treatment did not affect the accumulation of soluble solids during grape maturation. However, the allocation of assimilated carbon in phenolic and volatile biosynthetic pathways varied significantly, leading to alterations in polyphenolic and volatile profiles. The rain-shelter cultivation enhanced the concentration of flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) pathway, but reduced the level of flavonols and flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) pathway. In addition, the rain-shelter cultivation significantly enhanced the synthesis of fatty acid-derived volatiles, isoprene-derived terpenoids and amino acid-derived branched-chain aliphatics, but led to a decrease in the accumulation of isoprene-derived norisoprenoids and amino acid-derived benzenoids. Principal component analysis revealed some key compounds that differentiated the grapes cultivated under open-field and rain-shelter conditions. Moreover, the effect of the rain-shelter application on the accumulation of these compounds appeared to be vintage dependent. The alteration of their profiles caused by the rain-shelter treatment was significant in the vintage that received higher rainfall, which usually took place in the first rapid growth and veraison phases. PMID:27218245

  18. Rain-Shelter Cultivation Modifies Carbon Allocation in the Polyphenolic and Volatile Metabolism of Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay Grapes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Mei-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Fan; Li, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the biosynthesis of flavonoids and volatiles in grapes, with an aim of determining whether rain-shelter application could help to improve the sensory attributes and quality of grapes. Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay grapes, grown in the Huaizhuo basin region of northern China, were selected within two consecutive years. A rain-shelter roof was constructed using a colorless polyethylene (PE) film with a light transmittance of 80%. Results showed that rain-shelter treatment did not affect the accumulation of soluble solids during grape maturation. However, the allocation of assimilated carbon in phenolic and volatile biosynthetic pathways varied significantly, leading to alterations in polyphenolic and volatile profiles. The rain-shelter cultivation enhanced the concentration of flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3’5’-hydroxylase (F3’5’H) pathway, but reduced the level of flavonols and flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3’-hydroxylase (F3’H) pathway. In addition, the rain-shelter cultivation significantly enhanced the synthesis of fatty acid-derived volatiles, isoprene-derived terpenoids and amino acid-derived branched-chain aliphatics, but led to a decrease in the accumulation of isoprene-derived norisoprenoids and amino acid-derived benzenoids. Principal component analysis revealed some key compounds that differentiated the grapes cultivated under open-field and rain-shelter conditions. Moreover, the effect of the rain-shelter application on the accumulation of these compounds appeared to be vintage dependent. The alteration of their profiles caused by the rain-shelter treatment was significant in the vintage that received higher rainfall, which usually took place in the first rapid growth and veraison phases. PMID:27218245

  19. vitisFlower®: Development and Testing of a Novel Android-Smartphone Application for Assessing the Number of Grapevine Flowers per Inflorescence Using Artificial Vision Techniques.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Arturo; Millan, Borja; Gaston, Daniel; Diago, María-Paz; Tardaguila, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine flowering and fruit set greatly determine crop yield. This paper presents a new smartphone application for automatically counting, non-invasively and directly in the vineyard, the flower number in grapevine inflorescence photos by implementing artificial vision techniques. The application, called vitisFlower(®), firstly guides the user to appropriately take an inflorescence photo using the smartphone's camera. Then, by means of image analysis, the flowers in the image are detected and counted. vitisFlower(®) has been developed for Android devices and uses the OpenCV libraries to maximize computational efficiency. The application was tested on 140 inflorescence images of 11 grapevine varieties taken with two different devices. On average, more than 84% of flowers in the captures were found, with a precision exceeding 94%. Additionally, the application's efficiency on four different devices covering a wide range of the market's spectrum was also studied. The results of this benchmarking study showed significant differences among devices, although indicating that the application is efficiently usable even with low-range devices. vitisFlower is one of the first applications for viticulture that is currently freely available on Google Play. PMID:26343664

  20. vitisFlower®: Development and Testing of a Novel Android-Smartphone Application for Assessing the Number of Grapevine Flowers per Inflorescence Using Artificial Vision Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Aquino, Arturo; Millan, Borja; Gaston, Daniel; Diago, María-Paz; Tardaguila, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine flowering and fruit set greatly determine crop yield. This paper presents a new smartphone application for automatically counting, non-invasively and directly in the vineyard, the flower number in grapevine inflorescence photos by implementing artificial vision techniques. The application, called vitisFlower®, firstly guides the user to appropriately take an inflorescence photo using the smartphone’s camera. Then, by means of image analysis, the flowers in the image are detected and counted. vitisFlower® has been developed for Android devices and uses the OpenCV libraries to maximize computational efficiency. The application was tested on 140 inflorescence images of 11 grapevine varieties taken with two different devices. On average, more than 84% of flowers in the captures were found, with a precision exceeding 94%. Additionally, the application’s efficiency on four different devices covering a wide range of the market’s spectrum was also studied. The results of this benchmarking study showed significant differences among devices, although indicating that the application is efficiently usable even with low-range devices. vitisFlower is one of the first applications for viticulture that is currently freely available on Google Play. PMID:26343664

  1. Various extraction methods for obtaining stilbenes from grape cane of Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Soural, Ivo; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan; Balík, Josef; Horník, Štěpán; Cuřínová, Petra; Sýkora, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Grape cane, leaves and grape marc are waste products from viticulture, which can be used to obtain secondary stilbene derivatives with high antioxidant value. The presented work compares several extraction methods: maceration at laboratory temperature, extraction at elevated temperature, fluidized-bed extraction, Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. To obtain trans-resveratrol, trans-ε-viniferin and r2-viniferin from grape cane of the V. vinifera variety Cabernet Moravia, various conditions were studied: different solvents, using powdered versus cut cane material, different extraction times, and one-step or multiple extractions. The largest concentrations found were 6030 ± 680 µg/g dry weight (d.w.) for trans-resveratrol, 2260 ± 90 µg/g d.w. for trans-ε-viniferin, and 510 ± 40 µg/g d.w. for r2-viniferin. The highest amounts of stilbenes (8500 ± 1100 µg/g d.w.) were obtained using accelerated solvent extraction in methanol. PMID:25856060

  2. Identification of Vitis vinifera L. grape berry skin color mutants and polyphenolic profile.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vanessa; Fernandes, Fátima; Pinto-Carnide, Olinda; Valentão, Patrícia; Falco, Virgílio; Martín, Juan Pedro; Ortiz, Jesús María; Arroyo-García, Rosa; Andrade, Paula B; Castro, Isaura

    2016-03-01

    A germplasm set of twenty-five grapevine accessions, forming eleven groups of possible berry skin color mutants, were genotyped with twelve microsatellite loci, being eleven of them identified as true color mutants. The polyphenolic profiling of the confirmed mutant cultivars revealed a total of twenty-four polyphenols, comprising non-colored compounds (phenolic acids, flavan-3-ols, flavonols and a stilbene) and anthocyanins. Results showed differences in the contribution of malvidin-3-O-glucoside to the characteristic Pinot Noir anthocyanins profile. Regarding the two Pique-Poul colored variants, the lighter variant was richer than the darker one in all classes of compounds, excepting anthocyanins. In Moscatel Galego Roxo the F3'H pathway seems to be more active than F3'5'H, resulting in higher amounts of cyanidin, precursor of the cyanidin derivatives. As far as we are aware, this is the first time that a relationship between the content of polyphenolic compounds is established in groups of grape berry skin color mutant cultivars. PMID:26471534

  3. Preliminary study on biomarkers for the fungal resistance in Vitis vinifera leaves.

    PubMed

    Batovska, Daniela Ilieva; Todorova, Iva Todorova; Nedelcheva, Daniela Valentinova; Parushev, Stoyan Parushev; Atanassov, Atanas Ivanov; Hvarleva, Tzvetanka Dimitrova; Djakova, Galina Jordanova; Bankova, Vassya Stefanova; Popov, Simeon Simeonov

    2008-05-26

    We examined the leaf chemical composition of six seedlings obtained by self-pollination of the Bulgarian wine-making variety Storgozia as well as the cultivar Bouquet, which is the susceptible parent of Storgozia. The chemical composition was investigated in the framework of a program for identification of metabolites associated with disease resistance in grape-vine. Acetone, dichloromethane and butanol extracts, as well as volatiles obtained from fresh material were analyzed by GC/MS. Based on the correlations of the GC/MS data and estimated resistance of the leaves towards the etiological agents of powdery mildew, downy mildew and botrytis as biomarkers for the fungal resistance, we proposed 16 individual metabolites--alpha- and gamma-tocopherol, squalene, alpha-amyrine, stigmasta-3,5-diene-7-one, hexahydrofarnesyl acetone, glycolic acid, 3-hydroxybutanoic acid, 3-hydroxycaproic acid, malic acid, tartaric acid, erythronic acid, arabinoic acid, monoethyl phosphate, undecyl laurate and isopropyl myristate. The obtained correlations were confirmed by cluster analysis. PMID:18155317

  4. Phenology of Flowering and Starch Accumulation in Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cuttings and Vines

    PubMed Central

    LEBON, G.; DUCHÊNE, E.; BRUN, O.; CLÉMENT, C.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims A reliable protocol for flowering and fruiting in cuttings was developed with the aim of (a) studying inflorescence and flower development in grapevine cuttings and field plants, and (b) assisting haploid plant production. • Methods Inflorescence and flower development was studied in ‘Gewurztraminer’ (GW) and ‘Pinot Noir’ (PN) grape vines and cuttings grown in a glasshouse, along with variations in starch in the flowers. As there is a strong relationship between flower development and starch, the starch content of reproductive structures was estimated. • Key Results Inflorescence and flower development were similar in the vines and cuttings with consistent differences between the two cultivars. Indeed, the ontogenesis of male and female organs is not synchronous in GW and PN, with both female and male meiosis occurring earlier in PN than in GW. Moreover, changes of starch reserves were similar in the two plant types. • Conclusions Cuttings have a similar reproductive physiology to vines, and can be used to study grape physiology and to develop haploid plants. PMID:15749750

  5. Interactive effects of soil water deficit and air vapour pressure deficit on mesophyll conductance to CO2 in Vitis vinifera and Olea europaea.

    PubMed

    Perez-Martin, A; Flexas, J; Ribas-Carbó, M; Bota, J; Tomás, M; Infante, J M; Diaz-Espejo, A

    2009-01-01

    The present work aims to study the interactive effect of drought stress and high vapour pressure deficit (VPD) on leaf gas exchange, and especially on mesophyll conductance to CO(2) (g(m)), in two woody species of great agronomical importance in the Mediterranean basin: Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo and Olea europaea L. cv. Manzanilla. Plants were grown in specially designed outdoor chambers with ambient and below ambient VPD, under both well-irrigated and drought conditions. g(m) was estimated by the variable J method from simultaneous measurements of gas exchange and fluorescence. In both species, the response to soil water deficit was larger in g(s) than in g(m), and more important than the response to VPD. Olea europaea was apparently more sensitive to VPD, so that plants growing in more humid chambers showed higher g(s) and g(m). In V. vinifera, in contrast, soil water deficit dominated the response of g(s) and g(m). Consequently, changes in g(m)/g(s) were more related to VPD in O. europaea and to soil water deficit in V. vinifera. Most of the limitations of photosynthesis were diffusional and especially due to stomatal closure. No biochemical limitation was detected. The results showed that structural parameters played an important role in determining g(m) during the acclimation process. Although the relationship between leaf mass per unit area (M(A)) with g(m) was scattered, it imposed a limitation to the maximum g(m) achievable, with higher values of M(A) in O. europaea at lower g(m) values. M(A) decreased under water stress in O. europaea but it increased in V. vinifera. This resulted in a negative relationship between M(A) and the CO(2) draw-down between substomatal cavities and chloroplasts in O. europaea, while being positive in V. vinifera. PMID:19457982

  6. Bacterial endosymbiont localization in Hyalesthes obsoletus, the insect vector of Bois noir in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Gonella, Elena; Negri, Ilaria; Marzorati, Massimo; Mandrioli, Mauro; Sacchi, Luciano; Pajoro, Massimo; Crotti, Elena; Rizzi, Aurora; Clementi, Emanuela; Tedeschi, Rosemarie; Bandi, Claudio; Alma, Alberto; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2011-02-01

    One emerging disease of grapevine in Europe is Bois noir (BN), a phytoplasmosis caused by "Candidatus Phytoplasma solani" and spread in vineyards by the planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus (Hemiptera: Cixiidae). Here we present the first full characterization of the bacterial community of this important disease vector collected from BN-contaminated areas in Piedmont, Italy. Length heterogeneity PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis targeting the 16S rRNA gene revealed the presence of a number of bacteria stably associated with the insect vector. In particular, symbiotic bacteria detected by PCR with high infection rates in adult individuals fell within the "Candidatus Sulcia muelleri" cluster in the Bacteroidetes and in the "Candidatus Purcelliella pentastirinorum" group in the Gammaproteobacteria, both previously identified in different leafhoppers and planthoppers. A high infection rate (81%) was also shown for another symbiont belonging to the Betaproteobacteria, designated the HO1-V symbiont. Because of the low level of 16S rRNA gene identity (80%) with the closest relative, an uncharacterized symbiont of the tick Haemaphysalis longicornis, we propose the new name "Candidatus Vidania fulgoroideae." Other bacterial endosymbionts identified in H. obsoletus were related to the intracellular bacteria Wolbachia pipientis, Rickettsia sp., and "Candidatus Cardinium hertigii." Fluorescent in situ hybridization coupled with confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that these bacteria are localized in the gut, testicles, and oocytes. As "Ca. Sulcia" is usually reported in association with other symbiotic bacteria, we propose that in H. obsoletus, it may occur in a bipartite or even tripartite relationship between "Ca. Sulcia" and "Ca. Purcelliella," "Ca. Vidania," or both. PMID:21183640

  7. SSR and SRAP marker-based linkage map of Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yinshan; Lin, Hong; Liu, Zhendong; Zhao, Yuhui; Guo, Xiuwu; Li, Kun

    2014-01-01

    An F1 population was created by the cross ‘87-1’ × ‘9-22’. The female parent ‘87-1’ was an extremely early maturing cultivar with strong flavour. The male parent was an excellent breeding line producing large berries maturing late. The mapping population included 149 randomly chosen individuals. Molecular genetic map for each parent and the consensus map were constructed using simple sequence repeat and sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers by software JoinMap 3.0. The ‘87-1’ map covers a total length of 1272.9 cM distributed in 21 linkage groups and consists of 163 molecular markers with an average distance between adjacent markers of 8.9 cM. The ‘9-22’ map covers a total length of 1267.4 cM distributed in 20 linkage groups and consists of 158 molecular markers with an average distance between adjacent markers of 9.1 cM. The consensus map covers a total length of 1537.1 cM distributed in 21 linkage groups and one doublet and consists of 217 molecular markers with an average distance of 7.8 cM between adjacent markers. The length of the linkage groups is 69.8 cM on average. The map covers the 19 chromosomes of the Vitis genome and can lay a solid foundation for further studies such as quantative trait loci (QTL) mapping of correlated traits and marker-assisted selection. PMID:26019507

  8. Protective effect of Punica granatum peel and Vitis vinifera seeds on DEN-induced oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok K; Vijayalakshmi, K

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to find out the efficacy of ethanol extracts of Punica granatum peel and Vitis vinifera seeds on diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage in Wistar rats. Rats were divided into four groups. The first group served as normal control, and the second group received DEN at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight by single intraperitoneal administration. The third one received DEN as in DEN-treated group and co-treated with 400 mg/kg P. granatum peel extract. The final group also received DEN and co-treated with 400 mg/kg V. vinifera seed extract. DEN administration to rats resulted in significantly elevated levels of serum SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and GGT which is indicative of hepatocellular damage. DEN-induced oxidative stress was confirmed by elevated levels of lipid peroxides and decreased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the serum and liver tissues. The status of non-enzymatic antioxidants like vitamin C, vitamin E, and reduced glutathione were also found to be decreased in serum and tissues of DEN-administered rats. Co-treatment with the P. granatum peel and V. vinifera seed extracts orally for 12 weeks significantly reversed the DEN-induced alterations in the serum and liver tissues. PMID:25304489

  9. Induction of trans-resveratrol and extracellular pathogenesis-related proteins in elicited suspension cultured cells of Vitis vinifera cv Monastrell.

    PubMed

    Belchí-Navarro, Sarai; Almagro, Lorena; Sabater-Jara, Ana Belén; Fernández-Pérez, Francisco; Bru, Roque; Pedreño, Maria Angeles

    2013-02-15

    Suspension-cultured cells of Vitis vinifera cv Monastrell were used to investigate the effects of methyljasmonate, ethylene and salicylic acid separately or in combination with cyclodextrins on both trans-resveratrol production and the induction of defense responses. The results showed that the addition of methyljasmonate or ethylene to suspension-cultured cells jointly treated with cyclodextrins and salicylic acid provoked a decrease of trans-resveratrol levels suggesting that salicylic acid has a negative and antagonistic effect with methyljasmonate or ethylene on trans-resveratrol production. Likewise, the exogenous application of these compounds induced the accumulation of pathogenesis-related proteins. Analysis of the extracellular proteome showed the presence of amino acid sequences homologous to an specific β-1,3-glucanase, class III peroxidases and a β-1,4-mannanase, which suggests that these signal molecules could play a role in mediating defense-related gene product expression in V. vinifera cv Monastrell. Apart from these inducible proteins, other proteins were found in both the control and elicited cell cultures of V. vinifera. These included class IV chitinase, polygalacturonase inhibitor protein and reticuline oxidase-like protein, suggesting that their expression is constitutive being involved in the modification of the cell wall architecture during cell culture growth and in the prevention of pathogen attack. PMID:23127362

  10. [Determination of an ELISA test on tissues of grapevine affected by yellow disease].

    PubMed

    Caudwell, A; Kuszala, C

    1992-10-01

    We report here results concerning the best part of the grapevine to section, the best sampling period and an important adaptation of the extraction media for the diagnosis of a grapevine yellow disease by ELISA. The addition of Triton-X100, or better of Chaps enabled us to get clear results for the sensitive Vitis vinifera scion varieties. Until now, results have not been obtained for the symptomless root stock varieties. However, antigen concentration by molecular filtration may be a way to solve the problem of assaying root stocks. PMID:1298032

  11. Transcriptome analysis at four developmental stages of grape berry (Vitis vinifera cv. Shiraz) provides insights into regulated and coordinated gene expression

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Vitis vinifera berry development is characterised by an initial phase where the fruit is small, hard and acidic, followed by a lag phase known as veraison. In the final phase, berries become larger, softer and sweeter and accumulate an array of organoleptic compounds. Since the physiological and biochemical makeup of grape berries at harvest has a profound impact on the characteristics of wine, there is great interest in characterising the molecular and biophysical changes that occur from flowering through veraison and ripening, including the coordination and temporal regulation of metabolic gene pathways. Advances in deep-sequencing technologies, combined with the availability of increasingly accurate V. vinifera genomic and transcriptomic data, have enabled us to carry out RNA-transcript expression analysis on a global scale at key points during berry development. Results A total of 162 million 100-base pair reads were generated from pooled Vitis vinifera (cv. Shiraz) berries sampled at 3-weeks post-anthesis, 10- and 11-weeks post-anthesis (corresponding to early and late veraison) and at 17-weeks post-anthesis (harvest). Mapping reads from each developmental stage (36-45 million) onto the NCBI RefSeq transcriptome of 23,720 V. vinifera mRNAs revealed that at least 75% of these transcripts were detected in each sample. RNA-Seq analysis uncovered 4,185 transcripts that were significantly upregulated at a single developmental stage, including 161 transcription factors. Clustering transcripts according to distinct patterns of transcription revealed coordination in metabolic pathways such as organic acid, stilbene and terpenoid metabolism. From the phenylpropanoid/stilbene biosynthetic pathway at least 46 transcripts were upregulated in ripe berries when compared to veraison and immature berries, and 12 terpene synthases were predominantly detected only in a single sample. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to validate the expression pattern of 12

  12. Relating Water Deficiency to Berry Texture, Skin Cell Wall Composition, and Expression of Remodeling Genes in Two Vitis vinifera L. Varieties.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, J C; Cobb, F; Tracana, S; Costa, G J; Valente, I; Goulao, L F; Amâncio, S

    2015-04-22

    The cell wall (CW) is a dynamic structure that responds to stress. Water shortage (WS) impacts grapevine berry composition and its sensorial quality. In the present work, berry texture, skin CW composition, and expression of remodeling genes were investigated in two V. vinifera varieties, Touriga Nacional (TN) and Trincadeira (TR), under two water regimes, Full Irrigation (FI) and No Irrigation (NI). The global results allowed an evident separation between both varieties and the water treatments. WS resulted in increased anthocyanin contents in both varieties, reduced amounts in cellulose and lignin at maturation, but an increase in arabinose-containing polysaccharides more tightly bound to the CW in TR. In response to WS, the majority of the CW related genes were down-regulated in a variety dependent pattern. The results support the assumption that WS affects grape berries by stiffening the CW through alteration in pectin structure, supporting its involvement in responses to environmental conditions. PMID:25828510

  13. Effect of irrigation regime on perceived astringency and proanthocyanidin composition of skins and seeds of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Syrah grapes under semiarid conditions.

    PubMed

    Kyraleou, Maria; Kotseridis, Yorgos; Koundouras, Stefanos; Chira, Kleopatra; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Kallithraka, Stamatina

    2016-07-15

    In this work, the effect of water availability on astringency of seed and skin extracts of Vitis vinifera cv. Syrah berries under the typical semiarid conditions of Greece was investigated. Moreover, astringency was assessed in relation to proanthocyanidin composition. For this purpose, three irrigation treatments were applied starting at berry set through harvest of 2011 and 2012: full irrigation (FI) at 100% of crop evapotranspiration, deficit irrigation (DI) at 50% and non-irrigated (NI). FI skin and seed extracts were perceived significantly more astringent than NI. Total phenol, total tannin, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and procyanidin C1 concentrations were positively correlated with astringency. Positive correlations were also obtained among astringency and average degree of polymerization and proportion of the extension units of shorter tannins while astringency of larger tannins was correlated with the proportion of terminal units. On the contrary, total anthocyanin and epigallocatechin contents were negatively correlated with astringency. PMID:26948617

  14. Separation and identification of highly fluorescent compounds derived from trans-resveratrol in the leaves of Vitis vinifera infected by Plasmopara viticola.

    PubMed

    Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Olejníčková, Julie; Jílek, Rudolf; Sotolář, Radek

    2012-01-01

    A method for identification of highly fluorescent compounds in vine leaves infected by Plasmopara viticola was developed using reversed phase liquid chromatography with simultaneous diode array and fluorometric detection. Fluorescent compounds were extracted from leaves with a methanol-water mixture (70:30). Separation by HPLC was performed using a C(18) column and gradient elution with water-acetonitrile mixtures (20-80% of acetonitrile). The main unknown fluorescent compound was identified by line spectral comparison with a standard obtained by UV photoisomerization of trans-resveratrol glucoside, and its structure was confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Identification and structural elucidation of the fluorescent compound in the leaves of Vitis vinifera allows early detection of Plasmopara viticola invasion. PMID:22395406

  15. Enhanced anthocyanins and resveratrol production in Vitis vinifera cell suspension culture by indanoyl-isoleucine, N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine and insect saliva.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhenzhen; Knorr, Dietrich; Smetanska, Iryna

    2012-01-01

    The effects of two synthetic elicitor indanoyl-isoleucine (In-Ile), N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine (Lin-Gln) and one biotic elicitor insect saliva (from Manduca sexta larvae) on plant cell cultures with respect to the induction of secondary metabolite production were investigated. Stimulated production of secondary metabolites, particularly anthocyanins in plant cells and phenolic acids in culture medium, was studied by using suspension culture of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Gamay Fréaux as a model system. In the treatments with In-Ile, the production of anthocyanins was enhanced 2.6-fold. In-Ile, Lin-Gln and saliva significantly elevated the accumulation of phenolic acids, particularly 3-O-glucosyl-resveratrol. The used elicitors did not suppress cell growth. Secondary metabolites were differently responsive to elicitation. 3-O-glucosyl-resveratrol was the predominant phenolic acid in V. vinifera cell culture, and its production was significantly stimulated by saliva, with 7.0-fold of the control level 24 h after treatment. The production of 4-(3,5-dihydroxy-phenyl)-phenol was significantly stimulated by In-Ile with 6.4-fold of the control level 24 h after treatment. PMID:22133437

  16. Transcriptome of Erysiphe necator-infected Vitis pseudoreticulata leaves provides insight into grapevine resistance to powdery mildew

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Kai; Li, Zhi-Qian; Liu, Rui-Qi; Wang, Lan; Wang, Yue-Jin; Xu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Powdery mildew (PM), which is caused by the pathogen Erysiphe necator (Schw.) Burr., is the single most damaging disease of cultivated grapes (Vitis vinifera) worldwide. However, little is known about the transcriptional response of grapes to infection with PM. RNA-seq analysis was used for deep sequencing of the leaf transcriptome to study PM resistance in Chinese wild grapes (V. pseudoreticulata Baihe 35-1) to better understand the interaction between host and pathogen. Greater than 100 million (M) 90-nt cDNA reads were sequenced from a cDNA library derived from PM-infected leaves. Among the sequences obtained, 6541 genes were differentially expressed (DEG) and were annotated with Gene Ontology terms and by pathway enrichment. The significant categories that were identified included the following: defense, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) responses; systemic acquired resistance (SAR); hypersensitive response; plant–pathogen interaction; flavonoid biosynthesis; and plant hormone signal transduction. Various putative secretory proteins were identified, indicating potential defense responses to PM infection. In all, 318 putative R-genes and 183 putative secreted proteins were identified, including the defense-related R-genes BAK1, MRH1 and MLO3 and the defense-related secreted proteins GLP and PR5. The expression patterns of 16 genes were further illuminated by RT-qPCR. The present study identified several candidate genes and pathways that may contribute to PM resistance in grapes and illustrated that RNA-seq is a powerful tool for studying gene expression. The RT-qPCR results reveal that effective resistance responses of grapes to PM include enhancement of JA and SAR responses and accumulation of phytoalexins. PMID:26504551

  17. The reflectivity in the S-band and the broadband ultrasonic spectroscopy as new tools for the study of water relations in Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Medrano, Hipólito; Fariñas, María Dolores; Alvarez-Arenas, Tomás Gómez; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2013-08-01

    The large water requirements of Vitis vinifera L. together with an increase in temperature and drought events imply the need for irrigation in the driest areas of its distribution range. Generous watering may reduce grape quality so irrigation should be precisely regulated through the development of new methods of accurate irrigation scheduling based on plant 'stress sensing'. Two new methods, the reflectivity in the S-band and the broadband ultrasonic spectroscopy, can be used as non-invasive and reproducible techniques for the study of plant water relations in V. vinifera. On one hand, the measurement of reflectance at frequencies around 2.4 GHz gives an excellent accuracy when the changes in the existing area (S) between two reflectance curves are correlated with the relative water content (RWC). On the other hand, an improvement of the broadband ultrasonic spectroscopy based on the enlargement of the analysis frequency window provides, apart from the determination of the turgor loss point (TLP), additional information about the leaves without additional computational cost or additional leaf information requirements. Before TLP, the frequency associated with the maximum transmittance (f/f(o)), the macroscopic elastic constant of the leaf in the Z direction (c(33)) and, specially, the variation of the attenuation coefficient with the frequency (n), were highly correlated with changes in RWC. Once turgor is lost, a shift in the parameters directly related to the attenuation of the signal was also observed. The use of both techniques allows for a more convincing knowledge of the water status in V. vinifera. PMID:23216204

  18. Influence of kaolin particle film and deficit irrigation on varietal aroma components in Merlot grape (Vitis vinifera L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect on grape-derived volatile composition of a kaolin-based, foliar reflectant particle film (PF) and differing severities of vine water deficit was investigated in this study over two growing seasons on Merlot grapevines grown in a semi-arid region of southwestern Idaho. Vines were provided ...

  19. Whole-Genome Sequencing Reveals a New Genospecies of Methylobacterium sp. GXS13, Isolated from Vitis vinifera L. Xylem Sap

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Wan Xin; Gan, Han Ming; Hudson, André O.

    2016-01-01

    The whole-genome sequence of a new genospecies of Methylobacterium sp., named GXS13 and isolated from grapevine xylem sap, is reported and demonstrates potential for methylotrophy, cytokinin synthesis, and cell wall modification. In addition, biosynthetic gene clusters were identified for cupriachelin, carotenoid, and acyl-homoserine lactone using the antiSMASH server. PMID:26847900

  20. The crucial role of Φ- and K-segments in the in vitro functionality of Vitis vinifera dehydrin DHN1a.

    PubMed

    Rosales, Raquel; Romero, Irene; Escribano, Ma Isabel; Merodio, Carmen; Sanchez-Ballesta, Ma Teresa

    2014-12-01

    Dehydrins (DHNs), group II LEA (Late Embryogenesis Abundant) proteins, are among the most commonly observed proteins which accumulate in plants in response to cold and any other environmental factors, causing the dehydration of cells. In previous studies, we isolated a YSK2-type VvcDHN1a gene from table grapes (Vitis vinifera cv. Cardinal) which presented two spliced variants (the spliced, DHN1a_s and the unspliced, DHN1a_u). Their expression was induced by low temperature storage and CO2, although with different accumulation patterns. DHN1a_u codifies for a truncated YS protein lacking Ф- and K-segments, which might affect its functionality. In this work, we expressed both DHN1a_s and DHN1a_u recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. We carried out a number of in vitro assays to analyze the implications that Ф- and K-segments have in the protective role of VvcDHN1 against different abiotic stresses and their antifungal activity against the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Our results showed that unlike DHN1a_u, DHN1a_s has a potent cryoprotective effect on lactate dehydrogenase activity, protects malate dehydrogenase against dehydration and partially inhibits B. cinerea growth. Moreover, the DHN1a promoter presented cis-regulatory elements related to cold and drought, as well as biotic stress-related elements. We also observed that both spliced variants interact weakly with DNA, suggesting that K-segments are not involved in DNA binding. Overall, this work highlights the crucial role of Ф- and K-segments in DHNs function in plant response to abiotic stress showing for the first time, the potential role of the V. vinifera DHN1a_s in the protection against freezing and dehydration as well as inhibiting B. cinerea growth. PMID:25457499

  1. Microcollinearity in an ethylene receptor coding gene region of the Coffea canephora genome is extensively conserved with Vitis vinifera and other distant dicotyledonous sequenced genomes

    PubMed Central

    Guyot, Romain; de la Mare, Marion; Viader, Véronique; Hamon, Perla; Coriton, Olivier; Bustamante-Porras, José; Poncet, Valérie; Campa, Claudine; Hamon, Serge; de Kochko, Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    Background Coffea canephora, also called Robusta, belongs to the Rubiaceae, the fourth largest angiosperm family. This diploid species (2x = 2n = 22) has a fairly small genome size of ≈ 690 Mb and despite its extreme economic importance, particularly for developing countries, knowledge on the genome composition, structure and evolution remain very limited. Here, we report the 160 kb of the first C. canephora Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) clone ever sequenced and its fine analysis. Results This clone contains the CcEIN4 gene, encoding an ethylene receptor, and twenty other predicted genes showing a high gene density of one gene per 7.8 kb. Most of them display perfect matches with C. canephora expressed sequence tags or show transcriptional activities through PCR amplifications on cDNA libraries. Twenty-three transposable elements, mainly Class II transposon derivatives, were identified at this locus. Most of these Class II elements are Miniature Inverted-repeat Transposable Elements (MITE) known to be closely associated with plant genes. This BAC composition gives a pattern similar to those found in gene rich regions of Solanum lycopersicum and Medicago truncatula genomes indicating that the CcEIN4 regions may belong to a gene rich region in the C. canephora genome. Comparative sequence analysis indicated an extensive conservation between C. canephora and most of the reference dicotyledonous genomes studied in this work, such as tomato (S. lycopersicum), grapevine (V. vinifera), barrel medic M. truncatula, black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) and Arabidopsis thaliana. The higher degree of microcollinearity was found between C. canephora and V. vinifera, which belong respectively to the Asterids and Rosids, two clades that diverged more than 114 million years ago. Conclusion This study provides a first glimpse of C. canephora genome composition and evolution. Our data revealed a remarkable conservation of the microcollinearity between C. canephora and V

  2. A Novel Bacteroidetes Symbiont Is Localized in Scaphoideus titanus, the Insect Vector of Flavescence Dorée in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Marzorati, Massimo; Alma, Alberto; Sacchi, Luciano; Pajoro, Massimo; Palermo, Simona; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Raddadi, Noura; Balloi, Annalisa; Tedeschi, Rosemarie; Clementi, Emanuela; Corona, Silvia; Quaglino, Fabio; Bianco, Piero Attilio; Beninati, Tiziana; Bandi, Claudio; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2006-01-01

    Flavescence dorée (FD) is a grapevine disease that afflicts several wine production areas in Europe, from Portugal to Serbia. FD is caused by a bacterium, “Candidatus Phytoplasma vitis,” which is spread throughout the vineyards by a leafhopper, Scaphoideus titanus (Cicadellidae). After collection of S. titanus specimens from FD-contaminated vineyards in three different areas in the Piedmont region of Italy, we performed a survey to characterize the bacterial microflora associated with this insect. Using length heterogeneity PCR with universal primers for bacteria we identified a major peak associated with almost all of the individuals examined (both males and females). Characterization by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis confirmed the presence of a major band that, after sequencing, showed a 97 to 99% identity with Bacteroidetes symbionts of the “Candidatus Cardinium hertigii” group. In addition, electron microscopy of tissues of S. titanus fed for 3 months on phytoplasma-infected grapevine plants showed bacterial cells with the typical morphology of “Ca. Cardinium hertigii.” This endosymbiont, tentatively designated ST1-C, was found in the cytoplasm of previtellogenic and vitellogenic ovarian cells, in the follicle cells, and in the fat body and salivary glands. In addition, cell morphologies resembling those of “Ca. Phytoplasma vitis” were detected in the midgut, and specific PCR assays indicated the presence of the phytoplasma in the gut, fat body and salivary glands. These results indicate that ST1-C and “Ca. Phytoplasma vitis” have a complex life cycle in the body of S. titanus and are colocalized in different organs and tissues. PMID:16461701

  3. Unravelling the diversity of grapevine microbiome.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Cátia; Pinho, Diogo; Sousa, Susana; Pinheiro, Miguel; Egas, Conceição; Gomes, Ana C

    2014-01-01

    Vitis vinifera is one of the most widely cultivated fruit crops with a great economic impact on the global industry. As a plant, it is naturally colonised by a wide variety of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms that interact with grapevine, having either beneficial or phytopathogenic effects, who play a major role in fruit yield, grape quality and, ultimately, in the evolution of grape fermentation and wine production. Therefore, the objective of this study was to extensively characterize the natural microbiome of grapevine. Considering that the majority of microorganisms are uncultivable, we have deeply studied the microflora of grapevine leaves using massive parallel rDNA sequencing, along its vegetative cycle. Among eukaryotic population the most abundant microorganisms belonged to the early diverging fungi lineages and Ascomycota phylum, whereas the Basidiomycota were the least abundant. Regarding prokaryotes, a high diversity of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria was unveiled. Indeed, the microbial communities present in the vineyard during its vegetative cycle were shown to be highly structured and dynamic. In all cases, the major abundant microorganisms were the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium and the prokaryotic Enterobacteriaceae. Herein, we report the first complete microbiome landscape of the vineyard, through a metagenomic approach, and highlight the analysis of the microbial interactions within the vineyard and its importance for the equilibrium of the microecosystem of grapevines. PMID:24454903

  4. Unravelling the Diversity of Grapevine Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Cátia; Pinho, Diogo; Sousa, Susana; Pinheiro, Miguel; Egas, Conceição; C. Gomes, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Vitis vinifera is one of the most widely cultivated fruit crops with a great economic impact on the global industry. As a plant, it is naturally colonised by a wide variety of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms that interact with grapevine, having either beneficial or phytopathogenic effects, who play a major role in fruit yield, grape quality and, ultimately, in the evolution of grape fermentation and wine production. Therefore, the objective of this study was to extensively characterize the natural microbiome of grapevine. Considering that the majority of microorganisms are uncultivable, we have deeply studied the microflora of grapevine leaves using massive parallel rDNA sequencing, along its vegetative cycle. Among eukaryotic population the most abundant microorganisms belonged to the early diverging fungi lineages and Ascomycota phylum, whereas the Basidiomycota were the least abundant. Regarding prokaryotes, a high diversity of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria was unveiled. Indeed, the microbial communities present in the vineyard during its vegetative cycle were shown to be highly structured and dynamic. In all cases, the major abundant microorganisms were the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium and the prokaryotic Enterobacteriaceae. Herein, we report the first complete microbiome landscape of the vineyard, through a metagenomic approach, and highlight the analysis of the microbial interactions within the vineyard and its importance for the equilibrium of the microecosystem of grapevines. PMID:24454903

  5. Preparation and textural characterisation of activated carbon from vine shoots ( Vitis vinifera) by H 3PO 4—Chemical activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corcho-Corral, B.; Olivares-Marín, M.; Fernández-González, C.; Gómez-Serrano, V.; Macías-García, A.

    2006-06-01

    An abundant and low-cost agricultural waste as vine shoots ( Vitis vinifera) (VS), which is generated by the annual pruning of vineyards, has been used as raw material in the preparation of powder activated carbon (AC) by the method of chemical activation with phosphoric acid. After size reduction, VS were impregnated for 2 h with 60 wt.% H 3PO 4 solution at room temperature, 50 and 85 °C. The three impregnated products were carbonised at 400 °C. The product impregnated at 50 °C was heated either first at 150-250 °C and then at 400 °C or simply at 350-550 °C in N 2 atmosphere. The time of isothermal treatment after each dynamic heating was 2 h. The carbons were texturally characterised by gas adsorption (N 2, -196 °C), mercury porosimetry, and density measurements. FT-IR spectroscopy was also applied. Better developments of surface area and microporosity are obtained when the impregnation of VS with the H 3PO 4 solution is effected at 50 °C and for the products heated isothermally at 200 and 450 °C. The mesopore volume is also usually higher for the products impregnated and heated at intermediate temperatures.

  6. Instability of anthocyanin composition under different subculture conditions during long-term suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera L. var. Gamay Fréaux.

    PubMed

    Qu, Junge; Zhang, Wei; Yu, Xingju

    2011-11-01

    The instability of secondary metabolite production is a ubiquitous problem in plant cell culture. In order to understand the instability in plant cell culture, we investigated anthocyanin accumulation in suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera, as a model system, in our laboratory. Not only the anthocyanin contents but also its composition exhibited instability along with the long-term subculture. New methods were developed to indicate the instability of plant cell culture. Both the definition of instability coefficient (delta) and the application of factor scores were the first time in this field. To examine the effects of culture conditions on instability of anthocyanin biosynthesis, different subculture cycles and inoculum sizes had been investigated. Subculture cycle and inoculum size were both environmental cues driving the instability. Compared with subculture cycle, inoculum size was more effective in working on the instability of anthocyanin accumulation. Among all the conditions investigated in our study, (6.5 d, 2.00 g), (7 d, 2.00 g), (7.5 d, 2.00 g), (7 d, 1.60 g) and (7 d, 2.40 g), the condition of 7 d-subculture cycle together with 1.60 g-inoculum size was the best one to keep the stable production of anthocyanins. PMID:22393716

  7. Potential of a multiparametric optical sensor for determining in situ the maturity components of red and white Vitis vinifera wine grapes.

    PubMed

    Agati, Giovanni; D'Onofrio, Claudio; Ducci, Eleonora; Cuzzola, Angela; Remorini, Damiano; Tuccio, Lorenza; Lazzini, Francesca; Mattii, Giovanni

    2013-12-18

    A nondestructive fluorescence-based technique for evaluating Vitis vinifera L. grape maturity using a portable sensor (Multiplex) is presented. It provides indices of anthocyanins and chlorophyll in Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Sangiovese red grapes and of flavonols and chlorophyll in Vermentino white grapes. The good exponential relationship between the anthocyanin index and the actual anthocyanin content determined by wet chemistry was used to estimate grape anthocyanins from in field sensor data during ripening. Marked differences were found in the kinetics and the amount of anthocyanins between cultivars and between seasons. A sensor-driven mapping of the anthocyanin content in the grapes, expressed as g·kg(-1) fresh weight, was performed on a 7-ha vineyard planted with Sangiovese. In the Vermentino, the flavonol index was favorably correlated to the actual content of berry skin flavonols determined by means of HPLC analysis of skin extracts. It was used to make a nondestructive estimate of the evolution in the flavonol concentration in grape berry samplings. The chlorophyll index was inversely correlated in a linear manner to the total soluble solids (°Brix): it could, therefore, be used as a new index of technological maturity. The fluorescence sensor (Multiplex) possesses a high potential for representing an important innovative tool for controlling grape maturity in precision viticulture. PMID:24279372

  8. Physiological parameters and protective energy dissipation mechanisms expressed in the leaves of two Vitis vinifera L. genotypes under multiple summer stresses.

    PubMed

    Palliotti, Alberto; Tombesi, Sergio; Frioni, Tommaso; Silvestroni, Oriana; Lanari, Vania; D'Onofrio, Claudio; Matarese, Fabiola; Bellincontro, Andrea; Poni, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    Photosynthetic performances and energy dissipation mechanisms were evaluated on the anisohydric cv. Sangiovese and on the isohydric cv. Montepulciano (Vitis vinifera L.) under conditions of multiple summer stresses. Potted vines of both cultivars were maintained at 90% and 40% of maximum water availability from fruit-set to veraison. One week before veraison, at predawn and midday, main gas-exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, chlorophyll content, xanthophyll pool and cycle and catalase activity were evaluated. Under water deficit and elevated irradiance and temperature, contrary to cv. Montepulciano and despite a significant leaf water potential decrease, Sangiovese's leaves kept their stomata more open and continued to assimilate CO2 while also showing higher water use efficiency. Under these environmental conditions, in comparison with the isohydric cv. Montepulciano, the protective mechanisms of energy dissipation exerted by the anisohydric cv. Sangiovese were: (i) higher stomatal conductance and thermoregulation linked to higher transpiration rate; (ii) greater ability at dissipating more efficiently the excess energy via the xanthophylls cycle activity (thermal dissipation) due to higher VAZ pool and greater increase of de-epoxidation activity. PMID:26310367

  9. Influence of Berry Heterogeneity on Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Grapes and Wines: A Primary Study of the New Winegrape Cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu; Li, Jinlu; Tian, Yuping; Liao, Mingan; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2016-01-01

    Wine grapes are usually harvested in vineyards when they ripen. However, not all of the berries in a vineyard ripen homogeneously because of different microclimates around the clusters and berries. In this study, the influence of berry heterogeneity on the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grapes and wines under a continental monsoon climate was evaluated for a new wine grape cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.). The total phenolic, flavonoid, flavanol, and monomeric anthocyanin contents in the skin and wine significantly increased with grape density; however, there was no significant difference in the seeds between the two lower densities. The highest values of DPPH free radical-scavenging activity, cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity, and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity in the skin, seed and wine were detected for the densest berries. The sum of individual phenolic compounds in skin, seed and wine increased with berry density, though no significant difference for skin was observed between the two higher density classes. Hence, the chemical components of Meili grapes and wines were positively associated with the berry density at harvest under the continental monsoon climate. PMID:26974974

  10. Analysis of the diastereoisomers of the cysteinylated aroma precursor of 3-sulfanylhexanol in Vitis vinifera grape must by gas chromatography coupled with ion trap tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Thibon, Cécile; Shinkaruk, Svitlana; Tominaga, Takatoshi; Bennetau, Bernard; Dubourdieu, Denis

    2008-03-01

    The diastereoisomeric distribution of S-3-(hexan-1-ol)cysteine (P-3SH), the cysteinylated precursor of 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol (3SH) in Vitis vinifera grape juice, was determined by a new method. This procedure is based on the purification of P-3SH in a small volume of must (500 microL) by affinity chromatography, followed by the separation of chiral molecules in derivative forms by gas chromatography coupled with ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The diastereoisomers were easily separated using heptafluorobutyric anhydride and heptafluorobutanol (HFBA and HFOH) as derivatization reagents. Method validation was conducted using samples of grape juice, synthetic must, fermenting must, and wine that were fortified with P-3SH at concentrations of 0.6 and 2.5 microM. The relative standard deviation (RSD) and limit of detection (LOD) of the GC-MS/MS method were 4.6% and 1.5 nM, respectively. P-3SH assays in Bordeaux white grape juice affected by Botrytis cinerea showed an unusually increased proportion of the RS form of the precursor (approximately RR:RS=30:70) as compared to a diastereoisomer ratio (in the vicinity of 50:50) in healthy grape juice. PMID:18249409

  11. Ectopic expression of a Ve homolog VvVe gene from Vitis vinifera enhances defense response to Verticillium dahliae infection in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Tang, Juan; Lin, Jing; Yang, Yuwen; Chen, Tianzi; Ling, Xitie; Zhang, Baolong; Chang, Youhong

    2016-01-15

    Verticillium wilt is a soil borne disease that can cause devastating losses to the production of many economically important crops. A Ve1 homologous gene responding to Verticillium dahliae infection was identified in Vitis vinifera cv. "HeiFeng" by semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and was designated as VvVe. The overexpression of VvVe in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants significantly enhanced the resistance to isolate V991 of V. dahliae when compared with the wild type plants. The expressions of defense-related genes including the salicylic acid regulated gene pathogen-related 1 (PR1) but not PR2, the ethylene- and jasmonic acid-regulated genes ethylene response factor 1 (ERF1) and lipoxygenase (LOX) were significantly increased due to over expression of VvVe. And greater accumulation of active oxygen, callose and phenylalanine-ammonia lyase were observed in the leaves of transgenic VvVe tobacco plants than the wild type when under infection by V. dahliae. Moreover, the hypersensitive response mimicking cell death was exclusively occurred in the transgenic VvVe tobacco plants but not in the wild type. Taken together, the VvVe gene is a Ve1 like gene which involves in the signal cascade of salicylic acid, jasmonate, and ethylene defense pathways and enhances defense response to V. dahliae infection in the transgenic tobacco. PMID:26524501

  12. Promoting effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on accumulation of sugar and phenolics in berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on zinc deficient soil.

    PubMed

    Song, Chang-Zheng; Liu, Mei-Ying; Meng, Jiang-Fei; Chi, Ming; Xi, Zhu-Mei; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2015-01-01

    The effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on berry development of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on arid zone Zn-deficient soils was investigated over two consecutive seasons, 2013 and 2014. Initial zinc concentration in soil and vines, photosynthesis at three berry developmental stages, berry weight, content of total soluble solids, titratable acidity, phenolics and expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout the stages were measured. Foliage sprayed zinc sulfate showed promoting effects on photosynthesis and berry development of vines and the promotion mainly occurred from veraison to maturation. Zn treatments enhanced the accumulation of total soluble solids, total phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and anthocyanins in berry skin, decreasing the concentration of titratable acidity. Furthermore, foliage sprayed zinc sulfate could significantly influence the expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout berry development, and the results of expression analysis supported the promotion of Zn treatments on phenolics accumulation. This research is the first comprehensive and detailed study about the effect of foliage sprayed Zn fertilizer on grape berry development, phenolics accumulation and gene expression in berry skin, providing a basis for improving the quality of grape and wine in Zn-deficient areas. PMID:25648596

  13. A novel green synthesis of Fe3O4-Ag core shell recyclable nanoparticles using Vitis vinifera stem extract and its enhanced antibacterial performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkateswarlu, Sada; Natesh Kumar, B.; Prathima, B.; Anitha, K.; Jyothi, N. V. V.

    2015-01-01

    We described a novel and eco-friendly method for preparing Fe3O4-Ag core shell nanoparticles (CSNPs) with high magnetism and potent antibacterial activity. The Fe3O4-Ag CSNPs were obtained using waste material of Vitis vinifera (grape) stem extract as the green solvent, reducing and capping agent. The result recorded from X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectrum, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) supports the biosynthesis and characterization of Fe3O4-Ag CSNPs. From transmission electron microscopy (TEM) the size of the Fe3O4-Ag nanoparticles was measured below 50 nm; high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) indicates the core shell structure; and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) has revealed polycrystalline nature. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) shows the ferromagnetic nature of Fe3O4-Ag CSNPs at room temperature with saturation magnetization of 15.74 emu/g. Further, these biogenic nanoparticles were highly hazardous to microorganisms. The antibacterial activity of biogenic Fe3O4-Ag CSNPs showed potent inhibitory activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. These nanoparticles may also be reusable because of its excellent ferromagnetic property.

  14. Development of an in vivo glucosylation platform by coupling production to growth: Production of phenolic glucosides by a glycosyltransferase of Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    De Bruyn, Frederik; De Paepe, Brecht; Maertens, Jo; Beauprez, Joeri; De Cocker, Pieter; Mincke, Stein; Stevens, Christian; De Mey, Marjan

    2015-08-01

    Glycosylation of small molecules can significantly alter their properties such as solubility, stability, and/or bioactivity, making glycosides attractive and highly demanded compounds. Consequently, many biotechnological glycosylation approaches have been developed, with enzymatic synthesis and whole-cell biocatalysis as the most prominent techniques. However, most processes still suffer from low yields, production rates and inefficient UDP-sugar formation. To this end, a novel metabolic engineering strategy is presented for the in vivo glucosylation of small molecules in Escherichia coli W. This strategy focuses on the introduction of an alternative sucrose metabolism using sucrose phosphorylase for the direct and efficient generation of glucose 1-phosphate as precursor for UDP-glucose formation and fructose, which serves as a carbon source for growth. By targeted gene deletions, a split metabolism is created whereby glucose 1-phosphate is rerouted from the glycolysis to product formation (i.e., glucosylation). Further, the production pathway was enhanced by increasing and preserving the intracellular UDP-glucose pool. Expression of a versatile glucosyltransferase from Vitis vinifera (VvGT2) enabled the strain to efficiently produce 14 glucose esters of various hydroxycinnamates and hydroxybenzoates with conversion yields up to 100%. To our knowledge, this fast growing (and simultaneously producing) E. coli mutant is the first versatile host described for the glucosylation of phenolic acids in a fermentative way using only sucrose as a cheap and sustainable carbon source. PMID:25728421

  15. Influence of Berry Heterogeneity on Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Grapes and Wines: A Primary Study of the New Winegrape Cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xu; Li, Jinlu; Tian, Yuping; Liao, Mingan; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2016-01-01

    Wine grapes are usually harvested in vineyards when they ripen. However, not all of the berries in a vineyard ripen homogeneously because of different microclimates around the clusters and berries. In this study, the influence of berry heterogeneity on the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grapes and wines under a continental monsoon climate was evaluated for a new wine grape cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.). The total phenolic, flavonoid, flavanol, and monomeric anthocyanin contents in the skin and wine significantly increased with grape density; however, there was no significant difference in the seeds between the two lower densities. The highest values of DPPH free radical-scavenging activity, cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity, and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity in the skin, seed and wine were detected for the densest berries. The sum of individual phenolic compounds in skin, seed and wine increased with berry density, though no significant difference for skin was observed between the two higher density classes. Hence, the chemical components of Meili grapes and wines were positively associated with the berry density at harvest under the continental monsoon climate. PMID:26974974

  16. Competitive effects of glyphosate-resistant and glyphosate-susceptible Conyza candensis on young grapevines (Vitis Vinifera L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conyza canadensis L. Cronq. is a common pest in vineyards of the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California, USA. Interest in controlling this weed has increased with the recent discovery of a glyphosate-resistant (GR) biotype which is more vigorous than a glyphosate-susceptible (GS) biotype. However, t...

  17. Deficit Irrigation Promotes Arbuscular Colonization of Fine Roots by Mycorrhizal Fungi in Grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) in an Arid Climate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) is a common practice applied in irrigated vineyards to control canopy growth and improve fruit quality, but little is known of how imposed water deficits may alter root growth and colonization by beneficial, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Thus, root growth and...

  18. Virus-Derived Gene Expression and RNA Interference Vector for Grapevine

    PubMed Central

    Kurth, Elizabeth G.; Peremyslov, Valera V.; Prokhnevsky, Alexey I.; Kasschau, Kristin D.; Miller, Marilyn; Carrington, James C.

    2012-01-01

    The improvement of the agricultural and wine-making qualities of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is hampered by adherence to traditional varieties, the recalcitrance of this plant to genetic modifications, and public resistance to genetically modified organism (GMO) technologies. To address these challenges, we developed an RNA virus-based vector for the introduction of desired traits into grapevine without heritable modifications to the genome. This vector expresses recombinant proteins in the phloem tissue that is involved in sugar transport throughout the plant, from leaves to roots to berries. Furthermore, the vector provides a powerful RNA interference (RNAi) capability of regulating the expression of endogenous genes via virus-induced gene-silencing (VIGS) technology. Additional advantages of this vector include superb genetic capacity and stability, as well as the swiftness of technology implementation. The most significant applications of the viral vector include functional genomics of the grapevine and disease control via RNAi-enabled vaccination against pathogens or invertebrate pests. PMID:22438553

  19. A comprehensive survey of the grapevine VQ gene family and its transcriptional correlation with WRKY proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Wang, Gang; Zhong, Yan; Corso, Massimiliano; Cavallini, Erika; Cheng, Zong-Ming (Max)

    2015-01-01

    WRKY proteins are a class of transcription factors (TFs) involved in the regulation of various physiological processes, including the plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Recent studies in Arabidopsis have revealed that some WRKY TFs interact with a class of proteins designed as VQ proteins because of their typical conserved motif (FxxxVQxLTG). So far, no information is available about the genomic organization and the function of VQ motif-containing protein in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L). In the current study, we analyzed the 12X V1 prediction of the nearly homozygous PN40024 genotype identifying up to 18 predicted VQ genes (VvVQ). VvVQs phylogenetic and bioinformatic analyses indicated that the intron-exon structures and motif distribution are highly divergent between different members of the grapevine VQ family. Moreover, the analysis of the V. vinifera cv. Corvina expression atlas revealed a tissue- and stage-specific expression of several members of the family which also showed a significant correlation with WRKY TFs. Grapevine VQ genes also exhibited altered expression in response to drought, powdery mildew infection, salicylic acid (SA) and ethylene (ETH) treatments. The present study represents the first characterization of VQ genes in a grapevine genotype and it is a pivotal foundation for further studies aimed at functionally characterizing this mostly unknown grapevine multigenic family. PMID:26124765

  20. Genetic diversity of stilbene metabolism in Vitis sylvestris.

    PubMed

    Duan, Dong; Halter, David; Baltenweck, Raymonde; Tisch, Christine; Tröster, Viktoria; Kortekamp, Andreas; Hugueney, Philippe; Nick, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Stilbenes, as important secondary metabolites of grapevine, represent central phytoalexins and therefore constitute an important element of basal immunity. In this study, potential genetic variation in Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris, the ancestor of cultivated grapevine, was sought with respect to their output of stilbenes and potential use for resistance breeding. Considerable variation in stilbene inducibility was identified in V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris. Genotypic differences in abundance and profiles of stilbenes that are induced in response to a UV-C pulse are shown. Two clusters of stilbene 'chemovars' emerged: one cluster showed quick and strong accumulation of stilbenes, almost exclusively in the form of non-glycosylated resveratrol and viniferin, while the second cluster accumulated fewer stilbenes and relatively high proportions of piceatannol and the glycosylated piceid. For all 86 genotypes, a time dependence of the stilbene pattern was observed: piceid, resveratrol, and piceatannol accumulated earlier, whereas the viniferins were found later. It was further observed that the genotypic differences in stilbene accumulation were preceded by differential accumulation of the transcripts for chalcone synthase (CHS) and stilbene-related genes: phenylalanine ammonium lyase (PAL), stilbene synthase (StSy), and resveratrol synthase (RS). A screen of the population with respect to susceptibility to downy mildew of grapevine (Plasmopara viticola) revealed considerable variability. The subpopulation of genotypes with high stilbene inducibility was significantly less susceptible as compared with low-stilbene genotypes, and for representative genotypes it could be shown that the inducibility of stilbene synthase by UV correlated with the inducibility by the pathogen. PMID:25873669

  1. Response of grapevines to fluoride under field conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, F.

    1983-07-01

    Grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz) were fumigated in open-top chambers with hydrogen fluoride for 64 days at mean atmospheric fluoride concentrations of 0.17 or 0.28 ..mu..gHFm/sup -3/. Other grapevines grown under ambient conditions in the vineyard or maintained in control chambers were exposed to 0.13 or 0.05 ..mu..gHFm/sup -3/, respectively. Leaves of grapevines exposed to 0.28, 0.17, 0.13, or 0.05 ..mu..gHFm/sup -3/ accumulated up to 85, 55, 20, or 11 ..mu..gFg/sup -1/, respectively. Foliar necrosis was observed on plants exposed to 0.28 ..mu..gHFm/sup -3/, but no injury symptoms were observed at 0.17 ..mu..gHFm/sup -3/ or in control plants. Grapevines growing under ambient conditions had significantly greater mean bunch weight, peduncle weight, number of grapes per bunch, and leaf protein levels than the fumigated treatments. However, these differences may be associated with a chamber effect rather than with an effect of fluoride on grapevines. No significant differences were found between treatments for grape potential alcohol content, fruit acids, number of bunches or grapes per vine, fresh weight of grapes, or leaf chlorophyll content, despite foliar fluoride concentrations in the highest fluoride fumigation level reaching 85 ..mu..gFg/sup -1/. No evidence was found of significant fluoride accumulation in berries or canes. 26 references, 4 tables.

  2. Evaluation of pollen dispersal and cross pollination using transgenic grapevine plants.

    PubMed

    Harst, Margit; Cobanov, Beatrix-Axinja; Hausmann, Ludger; Eibach, Rudolf; Töpfer, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    Public debate about the possible risk of genetically modified plants often concerns putative effects of pollen dispersal and out-crossing into conventional fields in the neighborhood of transgenic plants. Though Vitis vinifera (grapevine) is generally considered to be self-pollinating, it cannot be excluded that vertical gene transfer might occur. For monitoring pollen flow and out-crossing events, transgenic plants of Vitis vinifera cv. 'Dornfelder' harboring the gus-int gene were planted in the center of a field experiment in Southwest Germany in 1999. The rate of pollen dispersal was determined by pollen traps placed at radial distances of 5-150 m from the pollen-donor plants, at 1.00 and 1.80 m above ground. Transgenic pollen was evaluated by GUS staining, and could clearly be distinguished from pollen originating from non-transgenic grapevine plants. Transgenic pollen was observed up to 150 m from the pollen donors. The rate of out-crossing was determined by sampling seeds of selected grapevines at a distance of 10 m to the pollen source, and of a sector at 20 m distance, respectively, followed by GUS analysis of seedlings. The average cross-pollination rate during the experiment (2002-2004) was 2.7% at a distance of 20 m. The results of this first pilot study present a good base for further assessment under the conditions of normal viticulture practice. PMID:19833076

  3. Growth and photosynthetic responses to copper in wild grapevine.

    PubMed

    Cambrollé, J; García, J L; Ocete, R; Figueroa, M E; Cantos, M

    2013-09-01

    The present study evaluates the tolerance and accumulation potential of Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris under moderate and high external Cu levels. A greenhouse experiment was conducted in order to investigate the effects of a range of external Cu concentrations (0-23mmolL(-1)) on growth and photosynthetic performance by measuring gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and photosynthetic pigments. We also measured the total copper, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulphur, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium and sodium concentrations in the plant tissues. All the experimental plants survived even with external Cu concentrations as high as 23mmolL(-1) (1500mg Cu L(-1)), although the excess of metal resulted in a biomass reduction of 35%. The effects of Cu on growth were linked to a reduction in net photosynthesis, which may be related to the effect of the high concentration of the metal on photosynthetic electron transport. V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris survived with leaf Cu concentrations as high as 80mgkg(-1) DW and growth parameters were unaffected by leaf tissue concentrations of 35mg Cu kg(-1) DW. The results of our study indicate that plants of V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris from the studied population are more tolerant to Cu than the commercial varieties of grapevine that have been studied in the literature, and could constitute a basis for the genetic improvement of Cu tolerance in grapevine. PMID:23746388

  4. Generation of a predicted protein database from EST data and application to iTRAQ analyses in grape (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) berries at ripening initiation

    PubMed Central

    Lücker, Joost; Laszczak, Mario; Smith, Derek; Lund, Steven T

    2009-01-01

    Background iTRAQ is a proteomics technique that uses isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation of tryptic peptides. In proteomics experiments, the detection and high confidence annotation of proteins and the significance of corresponding expression differences can depend on the quality and the species specificity of the tryptic peptide map database used for analysis of the data. For species for which finished genome sequence data are not available, identification of proteins relies on similarity to proteins from other species using comprehensive peptide map databases such as the MSDB. Results We were interested in characterizing ripening initiation ('veraison') in grape berries at the protein level in order to better define the molecular control of this important process for grape growers and wine makers. We developed a bioinformatic pipeline for processing EST data in order to produce a predicted tryptic peptide database specifically targeted to the wine grape cultivar, Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, and lacking truncated N- and C-terminal fragments. By searching iTRAQ MS/MS data generated from berry exocarp and mesocarp samples at ripening initiation, we determined that implementation of the custom database afforded a large improvement in high confidence peptide annotation in comparison to the MSDB. We used iTRAQ MS/MS in conjunction with custom peptide db searches to quantitatively characterize several important pathway components for berry ripening previously described at the transcriptional level and confirmed expression patterns for these at the protein level. Conclusion We determined that a predicted peptide database for MS/MS applications can be derived from EST data using advanced clustering and trimming approaches and successfully implemented for quantitative proteome profiling. Quantitative shotgun proteome profiling holds great promise for characterizing biological processes such as fruit ripening initiation and may be further

  5. Synthesis of an artificial Vitis vinifera miRNA 319e using overlapping long primers and its application for gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Castro, Álvaro; Quiroz, Daniela; Sánchez, Evelyn; Miccono, María de Los Ángeles; Aguirre, Carlos; Ramírez, Alejandra; Montes, Christian; Prieto, Humberto

    2016-09-10

    The conserved mechanism of action of micro-RNAs (miRNAs) as regulators of gene expression has allowed the use of artificial miRNAs (amiRNAs) as a powerful tool for candidate gene evaluation in plants. Based on the use of a Vitis vinifera miRNA molecule (i.e., vvi-miR319e), the present work presents a new methodology for designing artificial miR319e precursors (pre-amiR319e). As a proof of concept, we silenced the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants. This methodology includes a two-step PCR reaction in which overlapping long primers allow for the complete generation of pre-amiR319e-GFP molecules that are adequate for recombination into Gateway vectors with no further requirements. The seed region in amiRNA was directed against the 3'-end portion of the GFP gene. Three groups of transformed N. benthamiana plants were generated: GFP-, amiR319e-GFP-, and GFP plus miR319e-GFP-expressing vectors. A similar group of wild-type plants was included. Confocal microscopy evaluation of these groups revealed strong silencing of the GFP phenotype in the double GFP plus amiR319e-GFP group. The molecular characterization of silenced plants was achieved via modified 5'RACE of the GFP mRNA and revealed the occurrence of a partial, 3'-end GFP mRNA molecule that was generated in planta. In addition, large-scale small RNA sequencing confirmed the occurrence of the expected 21-nt miR319e-GFP species and other 22- and 24-nt species that exhibited sequence relationships with the expected amiRNA. These results highlight the possibility of using vvi-MIR319 as a template for the generation of single amiRNAs as a tool for gene silencing in plants. PMID:27411902

  6. Are Epiphytic Microbial Communities in the Carposphere of Ripening Grape Clusters (Vitis vinifera L.) Different between Conventional, Organic, and Biodynamic Grapes?

    PubMed Central

    Kecskeméti, Elizabeth; Berkelmann-Löhnertz, Beate; Reineke, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Using barcoded pyrosequencing fungal and bacterial communities associated with grape berry clusters (Vitis vinifera L.) obtained from conventional, organic and biodynamic vineyard plots were investigated in two subsequent years at different stages during berry ripening. The four most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on fungal ITS data were Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium spp., Aureobasidium pullulans and Alternaria alternata which represented 57% and 47% of the total reads in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Members of the genera Sphingomonas, Gluconobacter, Pseudomonas, Erwinia, and Massilia constituted 67% of the total number of bacterial 16S DNA reads in 2010 samples and 78% in 2011 samples. Viticultural management system had no significant effect on abundance of fungi or bacteria in both years and at all three sampling dates. Exceptions were A. alternata and Pseudomonas spp. which were more abundant in the carposphere of conventional compared to biodynamic berries, as well as Sphingomonas spp. which was significantly less abundant on conventional compared to organic berries at an early ripening stage in 2011. In general, there were no significant differences in fungal and bacterial diversity indices or richness evident between management systems. No distinct fungal or bacterial communities were associated with the different maturation stages or management systems, respectively. An exception was the last stage of berry maturation in 2011, where the Simpson diversity index was significantly higher for fungal communities on biodynamic compared to conventional grapes. Our study highlights the existence of complex and dynamic microbial communities in the grape cluster carposphere including both phytopathogenic and potentially antagonistic microorganisms that can have a significant impact on grape production. Such knowledge is particularly relevant for development, selection and application of effective control measures against economically important

  7. Effects of chilling and ABA on (/sup 3/H)gibberellin A/sub 4/ metabolism in somatic embryos of grape (Vitis vinifera L. x V. rupestris Scheele)

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, D.; Pharis, R.P.; Rajasekaran, K.; Mullins, M.G.

    1987-06-01

    Previous work has indicated that changes in gibberellin (GA) metabolism may be involved in chilling-induced release from dormancy in somatic embryos of grape (Vitis vinifera L. x V. rupestris Scheele). The authors have chilled somatic embryos of grape for 2, 4, or 8 weeks, then incubated them with (/sup 3/H)GA/sub 4/ (of high specific activity, 4.81 x 10/sup 19/ becquerel per millimole) for 48 hours at 26/sup 0/C. Chilling had little effect on the total amount of free (/sup 3/H)GA-like metabolites formed during incubation at 26/sup 0/C, but did change the relative proportions of individual metabolites. The amount of highly water-soluble (/sup 3/H) metabolites formed at 26/sup 0/C decreased in embryos chilled for 4 or 8 weeks. The concentration of endogeneous GA precursors (e.g., GA/sub 12/ aldehyde-, kaurene, and kaurenoic acid-like substances) increased in embryos chilled for 4 or 8 weeks. Treatment with abscisic acid (ABA) (known to inhibit germination in grape embryos) concurrent with (/sup 3/H)GA/sub 4/ treatment at 26/sup 0/C, reduced the uptake of (/sup 3/H) GA/sub 4/ but had little effect on the qualitative spectrum of metabolites. However, in the embryos chilled for 8 weeks and then treated with ABA for 48 hours at 26/sup 0/C, there was a higher concentration of GA precursors than in untreated control embryos. Chilled embryos thus have an enhanced potential for an increase in free GAs through synthesis from increased amounts of GA precursors, or through a reduced ability to form highly water-soluble GA metabolites (i.e., GA conjugates or polyhydroxylated free GAs).

  8. Phenylalanine and tyrosine levels are rate-limiting factors in production of health promoting metabolites in Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay Red cell suspension

    PubMed Central

    Manela, Neta; Oliva, Moran; Ovadia, Rinat; Sikron-Persi, Noga; Ayenew, Biruk; Fait, Aaron; Galili, Gad; Perl, Avichai; Weiss, David; Oren-Shamir, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Environmental stresses such as high light intensity and temperature cause induction of the shikimate pathway, aromatic amino acids (AAA) pathways, and of pathways downstream from AAAs. The induction leads to production of specialized metabolites that protect the cells from oxidative damage. The regulation of the diverse AAA derived pathways is still not well understood. To gain insight on that regulation, we increased AAA production in red grape Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay Red cell suspension, without inducing external stress on the cells, and characterized the metabolic effect of this induction. Increased AAA production was achieved by expressing a feedback-insensitive bacterial form of 3-deoxy- D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase enzyme (AroG*) of the shikimate pathway under a constitutive promoter. The presence of AroG* protein led to elevated levels of primary metabolites in the shikimate and AAA pathways including phenylalanine and tyrosine, and to a dramatic increase in phenylpropanoids. The AroG* transformed lines accumulated up to 20 and 150 fold higher levels of resveratrol and dihydroquercetin, respectively. Quercetin, formed from dihydroquercetin, and resveratrol, are health promoting metabolites that are induced due to environmental stresses. Testing the expression level of key genes along the stilbenoids, benzenoids, and phenylpropanoid pathways showed that transcription was not affected by AroG*. This suggests that concentrations of AAAs, and of phenylalanine in particular, are rate-limiting in production of these metabolites. In contrast, increased phenylalanine production did not lead to elevated concentrations of anthocyanins, even though they are also phenylpropanoid metabolites. This suggests a control mechanism of this pathway that is independent of AAA concentration. Interestingly, total anthocyanin concentrations were slightly lower in AroG* cells, and the relative frequencies of the different anthocyanins changed as well. PMID:26236327

  9. Can vessel dimension explain tolerance toward fungal vascular wilt diseases in woody plants? Lessons from Dutch elm disease and esca disease in grapevine

    PubMed Central

    Pouzoulet, Jérôme; Pivovaroff, Alexandria L.; Santiago, Louis S.; Rolshausen, Philippe E.

    2014-01-01

    This review illuminates key findings in our understanding of grapevine xylem resistance to fungal vascular wilt diseases. Grapevine (Vitis spp.) vascular diseases such as esca, botryosphaeria dieback, and eutypa dieback, are caused by a set of taxonomically unrelated ascomycete fungi. Fungal colonization of the vascular system leads to a decline of the plant host because of a loss of the xylem function and subsequent decrease in hydraulic conductivity. Fungal vascular pathogens use different colonization strategies to invade and kill their host. Vitis vinifera cultivars display different levels of tolerance toward vascular diseases caused by fungi, but the plant defense mechanisms underlying those observations have not been completely elucidated. In this review, we establish a parallel between two vascular diseases, grapevine esca disease and Dutch elm disease, and argue that the former should be viewed as a vascular wilt disease. Plant genotypes exhibit differences in xylem morphology and resistance to fungal pathogens causing vascular wilt diseases. We provide evidence that the susceptibility of three commercial V. vinifera cultivars to esca disease is correlated to large vessel diameter. Additionally, we explore how xylem morphological traits related to water transport are influenced by abiotic factors, and how these might impact host tolerance of vascular wilt fungi. Finally, we explore the utility of this concept for predicting which V. vinifera cultivars are most vulnerable of fungal vascular wilt diseases and propose new strategies for disease management. PMID:24971084

  10. Effect of artificial shading on the tannin accumulation and aromatic composition of the Grillo cultivar (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background White wine quality, especially in warm climates, is affected by sunlight and heat stress. These factors increase the probability that ambering processes will occur and reduce the potential flavour compounds. This study aimed to investigate the effect of sunlight reduction on the accumulation of polyphenolic and aromatic compounds. Results This study was conducted in a commercial vineyard containing V. vinifera L. cv Grillo. Opaque polypropylene boxes (100% shading) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) net bags (50% shading) were applied at fruit set. The effect of the shaded treatments was compared to the exposed fruit treatment. The shaded treatments resulted in heavier berries and lower must sugar contents than the exposed treatments. Proanthocyanidins and total polyphenol levels were similar in the exposed and bagged grapes; however, the levels were always lower in the boxed fruit. At harvest, the highest aroma level was measured in the boxed fruits. Conclusions The boxed fruit had less sugar, fewer proanthocyanidins and more flavours than the exposed grapes. The reduction in flavanols reactive to p-dimethylamino-cinnamaldehyde as (+)-catechin equivalents and total skin proanthocyanidins is an important result for the white winemaking process. In addition, the higher level of aromatic compounds in shaded grapes at harvest is an important contribution to the development of different wine styles. PMID:24195612

  11. Pre-harvest application of polyamines enhances antioxidants and table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) quality during postharvest period.

    PubMed

    Mirdehghan, S H; Rahimi, S

    2016-04-01

    Pre-harvest foliar spraying of grapevines with putrescine (Put) and spermidine (Spd) (0, 1, 2mM) was evaluated for determining the fruit quality at harvest and improving postharvest characteristics of table grapes during cold storage. Fruit parameters in terms of firmness, fungal infection, weight loss, total phenol concentration, antioxidant activity, skin color, total anthocyanin concentration, total soluble solids (TSS) and titratable acidity (TA) were evaluated after 0, 25 and 55 days of storage at 1.5 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 5% R.H. Softening, fungal infection and weight loss increased during cold storage but the rate of changes significantly was delayed in Put- and Spd-treated fruits. Besides these, the application of Put and Spd maintained higher values of phenolics content, antioxidant activity and anthocyanins at the end of storage in compare to control. Furthermore, after 55 days of storage all treated fruits with Put and Spd showed lower changes in L(∗), TSS and TA and also higher value of chroma in berries. PMID:26593587

  12. Current understanding of grapevine defense mechanisms against the biotrophic fungus (Erysiphe necator), the causal agent of powdery mildew disease

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Wenping; Feechan, Angela; Dry, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The most economically important disease of cultivated grapevines worldwide is powdery mildew (PM) caused by the ascomycete fungus Erysiphe necator. The majority of grapevine cultivars used for wine, table grape, and dried fruit production are derived from the Eurasian grape species Vitis vinifera because of its superior aroma and flavor characteristics. However, this species has little genetic resistance against E. necator meaning that grape production is highly dependent on the frequent use of fungicides. The integration of effective genetic resistance into cultivated grapevines would lead to significant financial and environmental benefits and represents a major challenge for viticultural industries and researchers worldwide. This review will outline the strategies being used to increase our understanding of the molecular basis of V. vinifera susceptibility to this fungal pathogen. It will summarize our current knowledge of different resistance loci/genes that have evolved in wild grapevine species to restrict PM infection and assess the potential application of these defense genes in the generation of PM-resistant grapevine germplasm. Finally, it addresses future research priorities which will be important in the rapid identification, evaluation, and deployment of new PM resistance genes which are capable of conferring effective and durable resistance in the vineyard. PMID:26504571

  13. The amino acid distribution in rachis xylem sap and phloem exudate of Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon' bunches.

    PubMed

    Gourieroux, Aude M; Holzapfel, Bruno P; Scollary, Geoffrey R; McCully, Margaret E; Canny, Martin J; Rogiers, Suzy Y

    2016-08-01

    Amino acids are essential to grape berry and seed development and they are transferred to the reproductive structures through the phloem and xylem from various locations within the plant. The diurnal and seasonal dynamics of xylem and phloem amino acid composition in the leaf petiole and bunch rachis of field-grown Cabernet Sauvignon are described to better understand the critical periods for amino acid import into the berry. Xylem sap was extracted by the centrifugation of excised leaf petioles and rachises, while phloem exudate was collected by immersing these structures in an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) buffer. Glutamine and glutamic acid were the predominant amino acids in the xylem sap of both grapevine rachises and petioles, while arginine and glycine were the principal amino acids of the phloem exudate. The amino acid concentrations within the xylem sap and phloem exudate derived from these structures were greatest during anthesis and fruit set, and a second peak occurred within the rachis phloem at the onset of ripening. The concentrations of the amino acids within the phloem and xylem sap of the rachis were highest just prior to or after midnight while the flow of sugar through the rachis phloem was greatest during the early afternoon. Sugar exudation rates from the rachis was greater than that of the petiole phloem between anthesis and berry maturity. In summary, amino acid and sugar delivery through the vasculature to grape berries fluctuates over the course of the day as well as through the season and is not necessarily related to levels near the source. PMID:27082989

  14. Soybean and casein hydrolysates induce grapevine immune responses and resistance against Plasmopara viticola.

    PubMed

    Lachhab, Nihed; Sanzani, Simona M; Adrian, Marielle; Chiltz, Annick; Balacey, Suzanne; Boselli, Maurizio; Ippolito, Antonio; Poinssot, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of grapevine downy mildew, is one of the most devastating grape pathogen in Europe and North America. Although phytochemicals are used to control pathogen infections, the appearance of resistant strains and the concern for possible adverse effects on environment and human health are increasing the search for alternative strategies. In the present investigation, we successfully tested two protein hydrolysates from soybean (soy) and casein (cas) to trigger grapevine resistance against P. viticola. On Vitis vinifera cv. Marselan plants, the application of soy and cas reduced the infected leaf surface by 76 and 63%, as compared to the control, respectively. Since both hydrolysates might trigger the plant immunity, we investigated their ability to elicit grapevine defense responses. On grapevine cell suspensions, a different free cytosolic calcium signature was recorded for each hydrolysate, whereas a similar transient phosphorylation of two MAP kinases of 45 and 49 kDa was observed. These signaling events were followed by transcriptome reprogramming, including the up-regulation of defense genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins and the stilbene synthase enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of resveratrol, the main grapevine phytoalexin. Liquid chromatography analyses confirmed the production of resveratrol and its dimer metabolites, δ- and ε-viniferins. Overall, soy effects were more pronounced as compared to the cas ones. Both hydrolysates proved to act as elicitors to enhance grapevine immunity against pathogen attack. PMID:25566290

  15. Soybean and casein hydrolysates induce grapevine immune responses and resistance against Plasmopara viticola

    PubMed Central

    Lachhab, Nihed; Sanzani, Simona M.; Adrian, Marielle; Chiltz, Annick; Balacey, Suzanne; Boselli, Maurizio; Ippolito, Antonio; Poinssot, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of grapevine downy mildew, is one of the most devastating grape pathogen in Europe and North America. Although phytochemicals are used to control pathogen infections, the appearance of resistant strains and the concern for possible adverse effects on environment and human health are increasing the search for alternative strategies. In the present investigation, we successfully tested two protein hydrolysates from soybean (soy) and casein (cas) to trigger grapevine resistance against P. viticola. On Vitis vinifera cv. Marselan plants, the application of soy and cas reduced the infected leaf surface by 76 and 63%, as compared to the control, respectively. Since both hydrolysates might trigger the plant immunity, we investigated their ability to elicit grapevine defense responses. On grapevine cell suspensions, a different free cytosolic calcium signature was recorded for each hydrolysate, whereas a similar transient phosphorylation of two MAP kinases of 45 and 49 kDa was observed. These signaling events were followed by transcriptome reprogramming, including the up-regulation of defense genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins and the stilbene synthase enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of resveratrol, the main grapevine phytoalexin. Liquid chromatography analyses confirmed the production of resveratrol and its dimer metabolites, δ- and ε-viniferins. Overall, soy effects were more pronounced as compared to the cas ones. Both hydrolysates proved to act as elicitors to enhance grapevine immunity against pathogen attack. PMID:25566290

  16. Host suitability and gas exchange response of grapevines to potato leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Lamp, William O; Miranda, Daniel; Culler, Lauren E; Alexander, Laurie C

    2011-08-01

    Although potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is highly polyphagous, classic host studies do not recognize grapevines (Vitis spp.), as suitable hosts. Recently, injury has been reported and reproduction documented within grape vineyards, suggesting a host expansion for the leafhopper. To document this apparent expansion in host use, we determined whether grape plants were suitable hosts for potato leafhopper reproduction, measured the consequence of feeding injury on gas exchange rates of grape leaves, and compared the susceptibility to feeding injury among cultivars. We found that potato leafhopper adults survived equally well on grape (Vitis vinifera L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), and fava bean (Vicia faba L.). The total number of offspring was greater on fava bean but did not differ between alfalfa and grape. Injury to grapevines was assessed by measuring gas exchange responses of leaves in field cages and in greenhouse tests. We found marginally significant declines in photosynthesis and transpiration rates in the field (9.6 and 13.2%, respectively), and much stronger effects in greenhouse tests (ranging between 22 and 52%). Our results verify that Vitis is a suitable host, and that potato leafhopper is capable of injuring its gas exchange physiology. We discuss possible explanations for the host expansion, and its potential to damage commercial grapevines. PMID:21882698

  17. Antimutagenic and antioxidant properties of the aqueous extracts of organic and conventional grapevine Vitis labrusca cv. Isabella leaves in V79 cells.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Cristiano; Bortolini, Giovana Vera; Costa, Bárbara Segalotto; Anghinoni, Joanna Carra; Guecheva, Temenouga Nikolova; Arias, Ximena; Césio, Maria Verónica; Heinzen, Horácio; Moura, Dinara Jaqueline; Saffi, Jenifer; Salvador, Mirian; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas

    2016-01-01

    Grapes are one of the most commonly consumed fruit, in both fresh and processed forms; however, a significant amount is disposed of in the environment. Searching for a use of this waste, the antigenotoxic, antimutagenic, and antioxidant activities of aqueous extracts from organic and conventional Vitis labrusca leaves were determined using V79 cells as model. The antigenotoxic activity was analyzed by the alkaline comet assay using endonuclease III and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase enzymes. The antimutagenic property was assessed through the micronucleus (MN) formation, and antioxidant activities were assessed using 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(●)) radical scavenging, as well as with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity assays. In addition, phenolic content and ascorbic acid levels of both extracts were determined. Data showed that both organic and conventional grapevine leaves extracts possessed antigenotoxic and antimutagenic properties. The extract of organic leaves significantly reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in V79 cells, and displayed greater ability for DPPH(●) scavenging and higher SOD and CAT activities than extract from conventional leaves. Further, the extract from organic leaves contained higher phenolic and ascorbic acid concentrations. In summary, extracts from organic and conventional grape leaves induced important in vitro biological effects. PMID:27587288

  18. Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)-Botrytis cinerea (Helotiales: Sclerotiniaceae)-Vitis vinifera (Vitales: Vitaceae) Interaction: The Role of B. cinerea on the Development of E. postvittana in Synthetic Nutritional Media.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, S Z M; Raman, A

    2015-08-01

    Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (light-brown apple moth) is a polyphagous herbivore of economic significance, which also feeds on Vitis vinifera L. The E. postvittana-V. vinifera interacting system also involves the participation of the fungus Botrytis cinerea Persoon ex Fries. We have been exploring the relationship among E. postvittana-V. vinifera-B. cinerea over the past two years. In this article, we report the preference and performance of the larvae of E. postvittana raised solely on a synthetic diet incorporated with the mycelial material of B. cinerea (Diet B). To characterize the effect of fungus on the development of E. postvittana, another synthetic diet was prepared that included the lyophilized leaf material of V. vinifera (Diet C). When raised on Diets B and C, a decrease in the duration of larval development and an increase in the survival and fecundity rate of E. postvittana occurred. Diet B influenced the pupal mass, but a significant increase occurred when the larvae were fed on Diet C. The larval emergence rate was the greatest in E. postvittana raised on Diet B, followed by those on Diet C. The F(2) generation of the larvae reared on Diet B showed similar effects as F(1) on the life-history performance of the larvae. Diet B enhanced the life-history performance of E. postvittana, although the larvae of E. postvittana showed little preference to Diet B. The greater fertility rate of E. postvittana reared on Diet B suggests the importance of sterols as shown in Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and in a few Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), which serve as precursors to different ecdysteroids that regulate many critical processes through embryonic development. PMID:26470305

  19. Structural and Functional Analysis of the GRAS Gene Family in Grapevine Indicates a Role of GRAS Proteins in the Control of Development and Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Grimplet, Jérôme; Agudelo-Romero, Patricia; Teixeira, Rita T.; Martinez-Zapater, Jose M.; Fortes, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    GRAS transcription factors are involved in many processes of plant growth and development (e.g., axillary shoot meristem formation, root radial patterning, nodule morphogenesis, arbuscular development) as well as in plant disease resistance and abiotic stress responses. However, little information is available concerning this gene family in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), an economically important woody crop. We performed a model curation of GRAS genes identified in the latest genome annotation leading to the identification of 52 genes. Gene models were improved and three new genes were identified that could be grapevine- or woody-plant specific. Phylogenetic analysis showed that GRAS genes could be classified into 13 groups that mapped on the 19 V. vinifera chromosomes. Five new subfamilies, previously not characterized in other species, were identified. Multiple sequence alignment showed typical GRAS domain in the proteins and new motifs were also described. As observed in other species, both segmental and tandem duplications contributed significantly to the expansion and evolution of the GRAS gene family in grapevine. Expression patterns across a variety of tissues and upon abiotic and biotic conditions revealed possible divergent functions of GRAS genes in grapevine development and stress responses. By comparing the information available for tomato and grapevine GRAS genes, we identified candidate genes that might constitute conserved transcriptional regulators of both climacteric and non-climacteric fruit ripening. Altogether this study provides valuable information and robust candidate genes for future functional analysis aiming at improving the quality of fleshy fruits. PMID:27065316

  20. Structural and Functional Analysis of the GRAS Gene Family in Grapevine Indicates a Role of GRAS Proteins in the Control of Development and Stress Responses.

    PubMed

    Grimplet, Jérôme; Agudelo-Romero, Patricia; Teixeira, Rita T; Martinez-Zapater, Jose M; Fortes, Ana M

    2016-01-01

    GRAS transcription factors are involved in many processes of plant growth and development (e.g., axillary shoot meristem formation, root radial patterning, nodule morphogenesis, arbuscular development) as well as in plant disease resistance and abiotic stress responses. However, little information is available concerning this gene family in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), an economically important woody crop. We performed a model curation of GRAS genes identified in the latest genome annotation leading to the identification of 52 genes. Gene models were improved and three new genes were identified that could be grapevine- or woody-plant specific. Phylogenetic analysis showed that GRAS genes could be classified into 13 groups that mapped on the 19 V. vinifera chromosomes. Five new subfamilies, previously not characterized in other species, were identified. Multiple sequence alignment showed typical GRAS domain in the proteins and new motifs were also described. As observed in other species, both segmental and tandem duplications contributed significantly to the expansion and evolution of the GRAS gene family in grapevine. Expression patterns across a variety of tissues and upon abiotic and biotic conditions revealed possible divergent functions of GRAS genes in grapevine development and stress responses. By comparing the information available for tomato and grapevine GRAS genes, we identified candidate genes that might constitute conserved transcriptional regulators of both climacteric and non-climacteric fruit ripening. Altogether this study provides valuable information and robust candidate genes for future functional analysis aiming at improving the quality of fleshy fruits. PMID:27065316

  1. A Leafhopper-Transmissible DNA Virus with Novel Evolutionary Lineage in the Family Geminiviridae Implicated in Grapevine Redleaf Disease by Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Poojari, Sudarsana; Alabi, Olufemi J.; Fofanov, Viacheslav Y.; Naidu, Rayapati A.

    2013-01-01

    A graft-transmissible disease displaying red veins, red blotches and total reddening of leaves in red-berried wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars was observed in commercial vineyards. Next-generation sequencing technology was used to identify etiological agent(s) associated with this emerging disease, designated as grapevine redleaf disease (GRD). High quality RNA extracted from leaves of grape cultivars Merlot and Cabernet Franc with and without GRD symptoms was used to prepare cDNA libraries. Assembly of highly informative sequence reads generated from Illumina sequencing of cDNA libraries, followed by bioinformatic analyses of sequence contigs resulted in specific identification of taxonomically disparate viruses and viroids in samples with and without GRD symptoms. A single-stranded DNA virus, tentatively named Grapevine redleaf-associated virus (GRLaV), and Grapevine fanleaf virus were detected only in grapevines showing GRD symptoms. In contrast, Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus, Hop stunt viroid, Grapevine yellow speckle viroid 1, Citrus exocortis viroid and Citrus exocortis Yucatan viroid were present in both symptomatic and non-symptomatic grapevines. GRLaV was transmitted by the Virginia creeper leafhopper (Erythroneura ziczac Walsh) from grapevine-to-grapevine under greenhouse conditions. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses indicated that GRLaV, almost identical to recently reported Grapevine Cabernet Franc-associated virus from New York and Grapevine red blotch-associated virus from California, represents an evolutionarily distinct lineage in the family Geminiviridae with genome characteristics distinct from other leafhopper-transmitted geminiviruses. GRD significantly reduced fruit yield and affected berry quality parameters demonstrating negative impacts of the disease. Higher quantities of carbohydrates were present in symptomatic leaves suggesting their possible role in the expression of redleaf symptoms. PMID:23755117

  2. A leafhopper-transmissible DNA virus with novel evolutionary lineage in the family geminiviridae implicated in grapevine redleaf disease by next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Poojari, Sudarsana; Alabi, Olufemi J; Fofanov, Viacheslav Y; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2013-01-01

    A graft-transmissible disease displaying red veins, red blotches and total reddening of leaves in red-berried wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars was observed in commercial vineyards. Next-generation sequencing technology was used to identify etiological agent(s) associated with this emerging disease, designated as grapevine redleaf disease (GRD). High quality RNA extracted from leaves of grape cultivars Merlot and Cabernet Franc with and without GRD symptoms was used to prepare cDNA libraries. Assembly of highly informative sequence reads generated from Illumina sequencing of cDNA libraries, followed by bioinformatic analyses of sequence contigs resulted in specific identification of taxonomically disparate viruses and viroids in samples with and without GRD symptoms. A single-stranded DNA virus, tentatively named Grapevine redleaf-associated virus (GRLaV), and Grapevine fanleaf virus were detected only in grapevines showing GRD symptoms. In contrast, Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus, Hop stunt viroid, Grapevine yellow speckle viroid 1, Citrus exocortis viroid and Citrus exocortis Yucatan viroid were present in both symptomatic and non-symptomatic grapevines. GRLaV was transmitted by the Virginia creeper leafhopper (Erythroneura ziczac Walsh) from grapevine-to-grapevine under greenhouse conditions. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses indicated that GRLaV, almost identical to recently reported Grapevine Cabernet Franc-associated virus from New York and Grapevine red blotch-associated virus from California, represents an evolutionarily distinct lineage in the family Geminiviridae with genome characteristics distinct from other leafhopper-transmitted geminiviruses. GRD significantly reduced fruit yield and affected berry quality parameters demonstrating negative impacts of the disease. Higher quantities of carbohydrates were present in symptomatic leaves suggesting their possible role in the expression of redleaf symptoms. PMID:23755117

  3. Transcriptome analyses of the Dof-like gene family in grapevine reveal its involvement in berry, flower and seed development

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Danielle Costenaro; da Silveira Falavigna, Vítor; Fasoli, Marianna; Buffon, Vanessa; Porto, Diogo Denardi; Pappas, Georgios Joannis; Pezzotti, Mario; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Revers, Luís Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The Dof (DNA-binding with one finger) protein family spans a group of plant transcription factors involved in the regulation of several functions, such as plant responses to stress, hormones and light, phytochrome signaling and seed germination. Here we describe the Dof-like gene family in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), which consists of 25 genes coding for Dof. An extensive in silico characterization of the VviDofL gene family was performed. Additionally, the expression of the entire gene family was assessed in 54 grapevine tissues and organs using an integrated approach with microarray (cv Corvina) and real-time PCR (cv Pinot Noir) analyses. The phylogenetic analysis comparing grapevine sequences with those of Arabidopsis, tomato, poplar and already described Dof genes in other species allowed us to identify several duplicated genes. The diversification of grapevine DofL genes during evolution likely resulted in a broader range of biological roles. Furthermore, distinct expression patterns were identified between samples analyzed, corroborating such hypothesis. Our expression results indicate that several VviDofL genes perform their functional roles mainly during flower, berry and seed development, highlighting their importance for grapevine growth and production. The identification of similar expression profiles between both approaches strongly suggests that these genes have important regulatory roles that are evolutionally conserved between grapevine cvs Corvina and Pinot Noir. PMID:27610237

  4. Transcriptome analyses of the Dof-like gene family in grapevine reveal its involvement in berry, flower and seed development.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Danielle Costenaro; da Silveira Falavigna, Vítor; Fasoli, Marianna; Buffon, Vanessa; Porto, Diogo Denardi; Pappas, Georgios Joannis; Pezzotti, Mario; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Revers, Luís Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The Dof (DNA-binding with one finger) protein family spans a group of plant transcription factors involved in the regulation of several functions, such as plant responses to stress, hormones and light, phytochrome signaling and seed germination. Here we describe the Dof-like gene family in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), which consists of 25 genes coding for Dof. An extensive in silico characterization of the VviDofL gene family was performed. Additionally, the expression of the entire gene family was assessed in 54 grapevine tissues and organs using an integrated approach with microarray (cv Corvina) and real-time PCR (cv Pinot Noir) analyses. The phylogenetic analysis comparing grapevine sequences with those of Arabidopsis, tomato, poplar and already described Dof genes in other species allowed us to identify several duplicated genes. The diversification of grapevine DofL genes during evolution likely resulted in a broader range of biological roles. Furthermore, distinct expression patterns were identified between samples analyzed, corroborating such hypothesis. Our expression results indicate that several VviDofL genes perform their functional roles mainly during flower, berry and seed development, highlighting their importance for grapevine growth and production. The identification of similar expression profiles between both approaches strongly suggests that these genes have important regulatory roles that are evolutionally conserved between grapevine cvs Corvina and Pinot Noir. PMID:27610237

  5. Overexpression of antimicrobial lytic peptides protects grapevine from Pierce's disease under greenhouse but not field conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhijian T; Hopkins, Donald L; Gray, Dennis J

    2015-10-01

    Pierce's disease (PD) caused by Xylella fastidiosa prevents cultivation of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and susceptible hybrids in the southeastern United States and poses a major threat to the grape industry of California and Texas. Genetic resistance is the only proven control of X. fastidiosa. Genetic engineering offers an alternative to heretofore ineffective conventional breeding in order to transfer only PD resistance traits into elite cultivars. A synthetic gene encoding lytic peptide LIMA-A was introduced into V. vinifera and a Vitis hybrid to assess in planta inhibition of X. fastidiosa. Over 1050 independent transgenic plant lines were evaluated in the greenhouse, among which nine lines were selected and tested under naturally-inoculated field conditions. These selected plant lines in the greenhouse remain disease-free for 10 years, to date, even with multiple manual pathogen inoculations. However, all these lines in the field, including a grafted transgenic rootstock, succumbed to PD within 7 years. We conclude that in planta production of antimicrobial lytic peptides does not provide durable PD resistance to grapevine under field conditions. PMID:25894660

  6. The plasticity of the grapevine berry transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Phenotypic plasticity refers to the range of phenotypes a single genotype can express as a function of its environment. These phenotypic variations are attributable to the effect of the environment on the expression and function of genes influencing plastic traits. We investigated phenotypic plasticity in grapevine by comparing the berry transcriptome in a single clone of the vegetatively-propagated common grapevine species Vitis vinifera cultivar Corvina through 3 consecutive growth years cultivated in 11 different vineyards in the Verona area of Italy. Results Most of the berry transcriptome clustered by year of growth rather than common environmental conditions or viticulture practices, and transcripts related to secondary metabolism showed high sensitivity towards different climates, as confirmed also by metabolomic data obtained from the same samples. When analyzed in 11 vineyards during 1 growth year, the environmentally-sensitive berry transcriptome comprised 5% of protein-coding genes and 18% of the transcripts modulated during berry development. Plastic genes were particularly enriched in ontology categories such as transcription factors, translation, transport, and secondary metabolism. Specific plastic transcripts were associated with groups of vineyards sharing common viticulture practices or environmental conditions, and plastic transcriptome reprogramming was more intense in the year characterized by extreme weather conditions. We also identified a set of genes that lacked plasticity, showing either constitutive expression or similar modulation in all berries. Conclusions Our data reveal candidate genes potentially responsible for the phenotypic plasticity of grapevine and provide the first step towards the characterization of grapevine transcriptome plasticity under different agricultural systems. PMID:23759170

  7. Callose Synthase Family Genes Involved in the Grapevine Defense Response to Downy Mildew Disease.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ying; Jiao, Li; Fu, Shufang; Yin, Ling; Zhang, Yali; Lu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    The deposition of callose is a common plant defense response to intruding pathogens and part of the plant's innate immunity. In this study, eight grapevine callose synthase (CalS) genes were identified and characterized. To investigate biological function of CalS in grapevine against the infection of Plasmopara viticola, expression patterns of grapevine CalS family genes were analyzed among resistant/susceptible cultivars. After P. viticola infection, expression of CalS1, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11 were significantly modified among the grapevine cultivars. For example, the expression of CalS1 and CalS10 were greatly increased in downy mildew (DM)-immune Muscadinia rotundifolia 'Carlos' and 'Noble'. Transient expression assay with promoters of the CalS1 and CalS10 genes confirmed that they were regulated by the oomycete pathogen P. viticola. CalS1 promoter activity was also significantly up-regulated by ABA in DM-immune M. rotundifolia 'Noble', but down-regulated in DM-susceptible Vitis vinifera 'Chardonnay'. The CalS1 promoter, however, was also down-regulated by GA in 'Chardonnay', but not affected in 'Noble'. The promoter activity of CalS10 was significantly up-regulated by GA in 'Chardonnay', but not regulated by ABA at all. It is proposed that CalS1 and CalS10 were involved in grapevine defense against DM disease. PMID:26474330

  8. Changes in the protective mechanism of photosystem II and molecular regulation in response to high temperature stress in grapevines.

    PubMed

    Zha, Qian; Xi, Xiaojun; Jiang, Aili; Wang, Shiping; Tian, Yihua

    2016-04-01

    The response to high temperature stress, which influences the growth and development of grapes, varies between laboratory conditions and ambient growth conditions, and is poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of high temperature on grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. × Vitis labrusca L.) grown under artificial and ambient conditions. A temperature of 35 °C did not alter Photosystem II (PS II) activity and the expression of some heat-shock protein (HSPs) genes. These changes were, however, observed at 45 °C under artificial conditions, as well as when the ambient natural temperature was greater than 40 °C. Interestingly, these changes corresponded to shifts in PS II activity and HSPs expression. The protective mechanism of PS II was induced by temperatures greater than 40 °C. These data indicating that the expression of HSFA2, GLOS1 and some heat-shock protein (sHSPs) genes were more sensitive to the heat stress. Unlike the Kyoho grapevines, the Jumeigui grapevines showed rapid and dramatically deterioration in PS II activity and the expression of some heat response genes and HSP21, indicating that the Jumeigui grapevines could not counter the heat stress. These were some differences in PSII activity and the expression of heat response genes between the two cultivated conditions could be attributed to other environmental factors, inherent plant vigor, and the adaptation mechanism. PMID:26852109

  9. Grapevine Pathogenic Microorganisms: Understanding Infection Strategies and Host Response Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Armijo, Grace; Schlechter, Rudolf; Agurto, Mario; Muñoz, Daniela; Nuñez, Constanza; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most important fruit crop worldwide. Commercial cultivars are greatly affected by a large number of pathogenic microorganisms that cause diseases during pre- and/or post-harvest periods, affecting production, processing and export, along with fruit quality. Among the potential threats, we can find bacteria, fungi, oomycete, or viruses with different life cycles, infection mechanisms and evasion strategies. While plant–pathogen interactions are cycles of resistance and susceptibility, resistance traits from natural resources are selected and may be used for breeding purposes and for a sustainable agriculture. In this context, here we summarize some of the most important diseases affecting V. vinifera together with their causal agents. The aim of this work is to bring a comprehensive review of the infection strategies deployed by significant types of pathogens while understanding the host response in both resistance and susceptibility scenarios. New approaches being used to uncover grapevine status during biotic stresses and scientific-based procedures needed to control plant diseases and crop protection are also addressed. PMID:27066032

  10. Grapevine Pathogenic Microorganisms: Understanding Infection Strategies and Host Response Scenarios.

    PubMed

    Armijo, Grace; Schlechter, Rudolf; Agurto, Mario; Muñoz, Daniela; Nuñez, Constanza; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most important fruit crop worldwide. Commercial cultivars are greatly affected by a large number of pathogenic microorganisms that cause diseases during pre- and/or post-harvest periods, affecting production, processing and export, along with fruit quality. Among the potential threats, we can find bacteria, fungi, oomycete, or viruses with different life cycles, infection mechanisms and evasion strategies. While plant-pathogen interactions are cycles of resistance and susceptibility, resistance traits from natural resources are selected and may be used for breeding purposes and for a sustainable agriculture. In this context, here we summarize some of the most important diseases affecting V. vinifera together with their causal agents. The aim of this work is to bring a comprehensive review of the infection strategies deployed by significant types of pathogens while understanding the host response in both resistance and susceptibility scenarios. New approaches being used to uncover grapevine status during biotic stresses and scientific-based procedures needed to control plant diseases and crop protection are also addressed. PMID:27066032

  11. Free radicals scavenging action and anti-enzyme activities of procyanidines from Vitis vinifera. A mechanism for their capillary protective action.

    PubMed

    Maffei Facino, R; Carini, M; Aldini, G; Bombardelli, E; Morazzoni, P; Morelli, R

    1994-05-01

    The scavenging by procyanidines (polyphenol oligomers from Vitis vinifera seeds, CAS 85594-37-2) of reactive oxygen species (ROS) involved in the onset (HO degrees) and the maintenance of microvascular injury (lipid radicals R degrees, RO degrees, ROO degrees) has been studied in phosphatidylcholine liposomes (PCL), using two different models of free radical generation: a) iron-promoted and b) ultrasound-induced lipid peroxidation. In a) lipid peroxidation was assessed by determination of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS); in b) by determination of conjugated dienes, formation of breakdown carbonyl products (as 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones) and loss of native phosphatidylcholine. In the iron-promoted (Fenton-driven) model, procyanidines had a remarkable, dose-dependent antilipoperoxidant activity (IC50 = 2.5 mumol/l), more than one order of magnitude greater than that of the monomeric unit catechin (IC50 = 50 mumol/l), activity which is due, at least in part, to their metal-chelating properties. In the more specific model b), which discriminates between the initiator (hydroxyl radical from water sonolysis) and the propagator species of lipid peroxidation (the peroxyl radical, from autooxidation of C-centered radicals), procyanidines are highly effective in preventing conjugated diene formation in both the induction (IC50 = 0.1 mumol/l) and propagation (IC50 = 0.05 mumol/l) phases (the scavenging effect of alpha-tocopherol was weaker, with IC50 of 1.5 and 1.25 mumol/l). In addition, procyanidines at 0.5 mumol/l markedly delayed the onset of the breakdown phase (48 h), totally inhibiting during this time the formation of degradation products (the lag-time induced by alpha-tocopherol was only of 24 h at 10 mumol/l concentration). The HO degrees entrapping capacity of these compounds was further confirmed by UV studies and by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, using DMPO as spin trapper: procyanidines markedly reduced, in a dose-dependent fashion

  12. MybA1 gene diversity across the Vitis genus.

    PubMed

    Péros, Jean-Pierre; Launay, Amandine; Berger, Gilles; Lacombe, Thierry; This, Patrice

    2015-06-01

    The MybA1 gene in the genus Vitis encodes a transcription factor, belonging to the R2R3 Myb family, that controls the last steps in the anthocyanins biosynthesis pathway. Polymorphism within MybA1 has been associated with color variation in berries of V. vinifera and other Vitis species. In this work, we analyzed the sequence variation in MybA1 both in the subg. Muscadinia and in an extended set of Asian, American and European genotypes of subg. Vitis. Our aims were to infer the evolution of this gene during the speciation process and to identify polymorphisms that could potentially generate changes in gene regulation. The results show that MybA1 experienced many insertions and deletions in non-coding regions but also in the third exon sequence. Owing to the larger set of Vitis species compared here, new indels were identified and the origin of previously described indels was reconsidered. A large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms were found in non-coding regions but also in the sequence coding for the R2R3 domain and the C terminal part of the protein. Some of these changes led to amino acid substitutions and therefore could have modified MybA1 protein activity. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of all polymorphisms did not provide a consensus tree depicting the geographical partitioning of the species but allowed highlighting several species relationships within subgenus Vitis. Finally, the evolutionary events described could be useful to gain more insight into the role of MybA1 for anthocyanin biosynthesis in grapevine. PMID:25896368

  13. Vitis vinifera (Muscat Variety) Seed Ethanolic Extract Preserves Activity Levels of Enzymes and Histology of the Liver in Adult Male Rats with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Eswar Kumar, Kilari; Muniandy, Sekaran

    2015-01-01

    The effect of V. vinifera seeds on carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and other enzymes of the liver in diabetes is currently unknown. We therefore investigated changes in the activity levels of these enzymes following V. vinifera seed extract administration to diabetic rats. Methods. V. vinifera seed ethanolic extract (250 and 500 mg/kg/day) or glibenclamide (600 μg/kg/day) was administered to streptozotocin-induced male diabetic rats for 28 consecutive days. At the end of treatment, liver was harvested and activity levels of various liver enzymes were determined. Levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured in liver homogenates and liver histopathological changes were observed. Results. V. vinifera seed ethanolic extract was able to prevent the decrease in ICDH, SDH, MDH, and G-6-PDH and the increase in LDH activity levels in liver homogenates. The seed extract also caused serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, ACP, GGT, and total bilirubin to decrease while causing total proteins to increase. Additionally, the levels of ALT, AST, and TBARS in liver homogenates were decreased. Histopathological changes in the liver were reduced. Conclusion. Near normal activity levels of various enzymes and histology of the liver following V. vinifera seed ethanolic extract administration may be due to decrease in liver oxidative stress in diabetes. PMID:25852767

  14. Genetic diversity of stilbene metabolism in Vitis sylvestris

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Dong; Halter, David; Baltenweck, Raymonde; Tisch, Christine; Tröster, Viktoria; Kortekamp, Andreas; Hugueney, Philippe; Nick, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Stilbenes, as important secondary metabolites of grapevine, represent central phytoalexins and therefore constitute an important element of basal immunity. In this study, potential genetic variation in Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris, the ancestor of cultivated grapevine, was sought with respect to their output of stilbenes and potential use for resistance breeding. Considerable variation in stilbene inducibility was identified in V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris. Genotypic differences in abundance and profiles of stilbenes that are induced in response to a UV-C pulse are shown. Two clusters of stilbene ‘chemovars’ emerged: one cluster showed quick and strong accumulation of stilbenes, almost exclusively in the form of non-glycosylated resveratrol and viniferin, while the second cluster accumulated fewer stilbenes and relatively high proportions of piceatannol and the glycosylated piceid. For all 86 genotypes, a time dependence of the stilbene pattern was observed: piceid, resveratrol, and piceatannol accumulated earlier, whereas the viniferins were found later. It was further observed that the genotypic differences in stilbene accumulation were preceded by differential accumulation of the transcripts for chalcone synthase (CHS) and stilbene-related genes: phenylalanine ammonium lyase (PAL), stilbene synthase (StSy), and resveratrol synthase (RS). A screen of the population with respect to susceptibility to downy mildew of grapevine (Plasmopara viticola) revealed considerable variability. The subpopulation of genotypes with high stilbene inducibility was significantly less susceptible as compared with low-stilbene genotypes, and for representative genotypes it could be shown that the inducibility of stilbene synthase by UV correlated with the inducibility by the pathogen. PMID:25873669

  15. Toward the Identification of Two Glycoproteins Involved in the Stomatal Deregulation of Downy Mildew-Infected Grapevine Leaves.

    PubMed

    Guillier, Christelle; Gamm, Magdalena; Lucchi, Géraldine; Truntzer, Caroline; Pecqueur, Delphine; Ducoroy, Patrick; Adrian, Marielle; Héloir, Marie-Claire

    2015-11-01

    Stomata remain abnormally opened and unresponsive to abscisic acid in grapevine leaves infected by downy mildew. This deregulation occurs from 3 days postinoculation and increases concomitantly with leaf colonization by the pathogen. Using epidermal peels, we demonstrated that the active compound involved in this deregulation is located in the apoplast. Biochemical assays showed that the active compound present in the apoplastic fluids isolated from Plasmopara viticola-infected grapevine leaves (IAF) is a CysCys bridge-independent, thermostable and glycosylated protein. Fractionation guided assays based on chromatography coupled to stomatal response and proteomic analysis allowed the identification of both plant and pathogen proteins in the active fraction obtained from IAF. Further in silico analysis and discriminant filtrations based on the comparison between predictions and experimental indications lead to the identification of two Vitis vinifera proteins as candidates for the observed stomatal deregulation. PMID:26106900

  16. Genetic structure in cultivated grapevines is linked to geography and human selection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Grapevine (Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera) is one of the most important and ancient horticultural plants in the world. Domesticated about 8–10,000 years ago in the Eurasian region, grapevine evolved from its wild relative (V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris) into very diverse and heterozygous cultivated forms. In this work we study grapevine genetic structure in a large sample of cultivated varieties, to interpret the wide diversity at morphological and molecular levels and link it to cultivars utilization, putative geographic origin and historical events. Results We analyzed the genetic structure of cultivated grapevine using a dataset of 2,096 multi-locus genotypes defined by 20 microsatellite markers. We used the Bayesian approach implemented in the STRUCTURE program and a hierarchical clustering procedure based on Ward’s method to assign individuals to sub-groups. The analysis revealed three main genetic groups defined by human use and geographic origin: a) wine cultivars from western regions, b) wine cultivars from the Balkans and East Europe, and c) a group mainly composed of table grape cultivars from Eastern Mediterranean, Caucasus, Middle and Far East countries. A second structure level revealed two additional groups, a geographic group from the Iberian Peninsula and Maghreb, and a group comprising table grapes of recent origins from Italy and Central Europe. A large number of admixed genotypes were also identified. Structure clusters regrouped together a large proportion of family-related genotypes. In addition, Ward’s method revealed a third level of structure, corresponding either to limited geographic areas, to particular grape use or to family groups created through artificial selection and breeding. Conclusions This study provides evidence that the cultivated compartment of Vitis vinifera L. is genetically structured. Genetic relatedness of cultivars has been shaped mostly by human uses, in combination with a geographical effect. The

  17. A 48 SNP set for grapevine cultivar identification

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rapid and consistent genotyping is an important requirement for cultivar identification in many crop species. Among them grapevine cultivars have been the subject of multiple studies given the large number of synonyms and homonyms generated during many centuries of vegetative multiplication and exchange. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers have been preferred until now because of their high level of polymorphism, their codominant nature and their high profile repeatability. However, the rapid application of partial or complete genome sequencing approaches is identifying thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) that can be very useful for such purposes. Although SNP markers are bi-allelic, and therefore not as polymorphic as microsatellites, the high number of loci that can be multiplexed and the possibilities of automation as well as their highly repeatable results under any analytical procedure make them the future markers of choice for any type of genetic identification. Results We analyzed over 300 SNP in the genome of grapevine using a re-sequencing strategy in a selection of 11 genotypes. Among the identified polymorphisms, we selected 48 SNP spread across all grapevine chromosomes with allele frequencies balanced enough as to provide sufficient information content for genetic identification in grapevine allowing for good genotyping success rate. Marker stability was tested in repeated analyses of a selected group of cultivars obtained worldwide to demonstrate their usefulness in genetic identification. Conclusions We have selected a set of 48 stable SNP markers with a high discrimination power and a uniform genome distribution (2-3 markers/chromosome), which is proposed as a standard set for grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) genotyping. Any previous problems derived from microsatellite allele confusion between labs or the need to run reference cultivars to identify allele sizes disappear using this type of marker. Furthermore, because SNP

  18. Host plant volatiles induce oriented flight behaviour in male European grapevine moths, Lobesia botrana.

    PubMed

    von Arx, Martin; Schmidt-Büsser, Daniela; Guerin, Patrick M

    2011-10-01

    The European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana relies on a female produced sex pheromone for long-distance mate finding. Grapevine moth males compete heavily during limited time windows for females. The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of host plant volatiles by grapevine moth males and whether such compounds elicit upwind oriented flights. We compared five host plant headspace extracts by means of gas chromatography linked electroantennogram (EAG) recording. We identified 12 common host plant volatiles (aliphatic esters, aldehydes, and alcohols, aromatic compounds and terpenes) that elicit EAG responses from grapevine moth males and that occur in at least three of the host plant volatile headspace extracts tested. Subsequently the behavioural response of grapevine moth males to four these compounds presented singly and in mixtures (1-hexanol, 1-octen-3-ol, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and (E)-β-caryophyllene) was recorded in a wind tunnel. Grapevine moth males engaged in upwind flights to all of four compounds when released singly at 10,000 pg/min and to all, except 1-octen-3-ol, when released at 100 pg/min. A blend of the four host plant volatiles released at 10,000 pg/min and mixed at a ratio based on the analysis of Vitis vinifera cv. Solaris volatile emissions attracted significantly more males than any single compound. Grapevine moth males perceive and respond to host plant volatiles at biologically relevant levels indicating that host plant volatiles figure as olfactory cues and that L. botrana males can discern places where the likelihood of encountering females is higher. PMID:21729701

  19. Consequences of transferring three sorghum genes for secondary metabolite (cyanogenic glucoside) biosynthesis to grapevine hairy roots.

    PubMed

    Franks, T K; Powell, K S; Choimes, S; Marsh, E; Iocco, P; Sinclair, B J; Ford, C M; van Heeswijck, R

    2006-04-01

    A multigenic trait (biosynthesis of the secondary metabolite, dhurrin cyanogenic glucoside) was engineered de novo in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). This follows a recent report of transfer of the same trait to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) using three genetic sequences from sorghum (Sorghum bicolor): two cytochrome P450-encoding cDNAs (CYP79A1 and CYP71E1) and a UDPG-glucosyltransferase-encoding cDNA (sbHMNGT). Here we describe the two-step process involving whole plant transformation followed by hairy root transformation, which was used to transfer the same three sorghum sequences to grapevine. Transgenic grapevine hairy root lines that accumulated transcript from none, one (sbHMNGT), two (CYP79A1 and CYP71E1) or all three transgenes were recovered and characterisation of these lines provided information about the requirements for dhurrin biosynthesis in grapevine. Only lines that accumulated transcripts from all three transgenes had significantly elevated cyanide potential (up to the equivalent of about 100 mg HCN kg(-1) fresh weight), and levels were highly variable. One dhurrin-positive line was tested and found to release cyanide upon maceration and can therefore be considered 'cyanogenic'. In in vitro dual co-culture of this cyanogenic hairy root line or an acyanogenic line with the specialist root-sucking, gall-forming, aphid-like insect, grapevine phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, Fitch), there was no evidence for protection of the cyanogenic plant tissue from infestation by the insect. Consistently high levels of dhurrin accumulation may be required for this to occur. The possibility that endogenous grapevine gene expression is modulated in response to engineered dhurrin biosynthesis was investigated using microarray analysis of 1225 grapevine ESTs, but differences in patterns of gene expression associated with dhurrin-positive and dhurrin-negative phenotypes were not identified. PMID:16604459

  20. A Stress-Inducible Resveratrol O-Methyltransferase Involved in the Biosynthesis of Pterostilbene in Grapevine1

    PubMed Central

    Schmidlin, Laure; Poutaraud, Anne; Claudel, Patricia; Mestre, Pere; Prado, Emilce; Santos-Rosa, Maria; Wiedemann-Merdinoglu, Sabine; Karst, Francis; Merdinoglu, Didier; Hugueney, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Stilbenes are considered the most important phytoalexin group in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and they are known to contribute to the protection against various pathogens. The main stilbenes in grapevine are resveratrol and its derivatives and, among these, pterostilbene has recently attracted much attention due both to its antifungal and pharmacological properties. Indeed, pterostilbene is 5 to 10 times more fungitoxic than resveratrol in vitro and recent studies have shown that pterostilbene exhibits anticancer, hypolipidemic, and antidiabetic properties. A candidate gene approach was used to identify a grapevine resveratrol O-methyltransferase (ROMT) cDNA and the activity of the corresponding protein was characterized after expression in Escherichia coli. Transient coexpression of ROMT and grapevine stilbene synthase in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) using the agroinfiltration technique resulted in the accumulation of pterostilbene in tobacco tissues. Taken together, these results showed that ROMT was able to catalyze the biosynthesis of pterostilbene from resveratrol both in vitro and in planta. ROMT gene expression in grapevine leaves was induced by different stresses, including downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) infection, ultraviolet light, and AlCl3 treatment. PMID:18799660

  1. WATER USE OF VITIS VINIFERA L., CV. THOMPSON SEEDLESS GROWN IN THE SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY OF CALIFORNIA. II. WATER USE OF MATURE VINES.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water use of Thompson Seedless grapevines was measured with a large weighing lysimeter from four to seven years (1990 to 1993) after planting. Above ground drip irrigation was used to water the vines. Vines growing within the lysimeter were pruned to four and six fruiting canes for the 1990 and 19...

  2. Pyrosequencing detects human and animal pathogenic taxa in the grapevine endosphere

    PubMed Central

    Yousaf, Sohail; Bulgari, Daniela; Bergna, Alessandro; Pancher, Michael; Quaglino, Fabio; Casati, Paola; Campisano, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Generally, plants are not considered as hosts for human and animal pathogens (HAP). The recent produce-associated outbreaks of food-borne diseases have drawn attention toward significant deficiencies in our understanding of the ecology of HAP, and their potential for interkingdom transfer. To examine the association of microorganisms classified as HAP with plants, we surveyed the presence and distribution of HAP bacterial taxa (henceforth HAPT, for brevity's sake) in the endosphere of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) both in the plant stems and leaves. An enrichment protocol was used on leaves to detect taxa with very low abundance in undisturbed tissues. We used pyrosequencing and phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rDNA gene. We identified several HAPT, and focused on four genera (Propionibacterium, Staphylococcus, Clostridium, and Burkholderia). The majority of the bacterial sequences in the genus Propionibacterium, from grapevine leaf and stem, were identified as P. acnes. Clostridia were detected in leaves and stems, but their number was much higher in leaves after enrichment. HAPT were indentified both in leaves and wood of grapevines. This depicts the ability of these taxa to be internalized within plant tissues and maintain their population levels in a variety of environments. Our analysis highlighted the presence of HAPT in the grapevine endosphere and unexpected occurrence of these bacterial taxa in this atypical environment. PMID:25071740

  3. Toxicity of extracellular proteins from Diplodia seriata and Neofusicoccum parvum involved in grapevine Botryosphaeria dieback.

    PubMed

    Bénard-Gellon, M; Farine, S; Goddard, M L; Schmitt, M; Stempien, E; Pensec, F; Laloue, H; Mazet-Kieffer, F; Fontaine, F; Larignon, P; Chong, J; Tarnus, C; Bertsch, C

    2015-03-01

    Botryosphaeria dieback, esca and Eutypa dieback are three economic major grapevine trunk diseases that cause severe yield reduction in vineyards worldwide. The frequency of disease symptoms has increased considerably over the past decade, and no efficient treatment is currently available to control these diseases. The different fungi associated with grapevine trunk diseases mainly induce necrotic wood and characteristic foliar symptoms. In this context, fungi virulence factors and host invasion are not well understood. We hypothesise that extracellular proteins produced by Diplodia seriata and Neofusicoccum parvum, two causal agents associated with Botryosphaeria dieback, are virulence factors responsible for the pathogenicity. In our previous work, we demonstrated that the total extracellular compounds produced by N. parvum induced more necrosis on Chardonnay calli and triggered a different defence gene expression pattern than those produced by D. seriata. Furthermore, this aggressiveness was not clearly correlated with the production of mellein, a characteristic phytotoxin of Botryosphaeriaceae, in our in vitro calli model. To characterise other potential virulence factors and to understand the mechanisms of host invasion by the fungus, we evaluated the profile, quantity and the impact of extracellular proteins produced by these fungi on Vitis vinifera calli necrosis and defence gene expression. Our results reveal that, under the same conditions, N. parvum produces more extracellular proteins and in higher concentrations than D. seriata. With Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay cells, we showed that equivalent concentrations of proteins secreted by N. parvum were more aggressive than those of D. seriata in producing necrosis and that they clearly induced more grapevine defence genes. PMID:25323623

  4. Mechanisms of Resistance to Grapevine Powdery Mildew

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although all high quality Vitis vinifera cultivars are highly susceptible to powdery mildew, current efforts show promise for the identification or modulation of resistance within the species and for continued introgression of resistance from resistant accessions of wild Vitis spp. Examination of t...

  5. Identification of tissue-specific, abiotic stress-responsive gene expression patterns in wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) based on curation and mining of large-scale EST data sets

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Abiotic stresses, such as water deficit and soil salinity, result in changes in physiology, nutrient use, and vegetative growth in vines, and ultimately, yield and flavor in berries of wine grape, Vitis vinifera L. Large-scale expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated, curated, and analyzed to identify major genetic determinants responsible for stress-adaptive responses. Although roots serve as the first site of perception and/or injury for many types of abiotic stress, EST sequencing in root tissues of wine grape exposed to abiotic stresses has been extremely limited to date. To overcome this limitation, large-scale EST sequencing was conducted from root tissues exposed to multiple abiotic stresses. Results A total of 62,236 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated from leaf, berry, and root tissues from vines subjected to abiotic stresses and compared with 32,286 ESTs sequenced from 20 public cDNA libraries. Curation to correct annotation errors, clustering and assembly of the berry and leaf ESTs with currently available V. vinifera full-length transcripts and ESTs yielded a total of 13,278 unique sequences, with 2302 singletons and 10,976 mapped to V. vinifera gene models. Of these, 739 transcripts were found to have significant differential expression in stressed leaves and berries including 250 genes not described previously as being abiotic stress responsive. In a second analysis of 16,452 ESTs from a normalized root cDNA library derived from roots exposed to multiple, short-term, abiotic stresses, 135 genes with root-enriched expression patterns were identified on the basis of their relative EST abundance in roots relative to other tissues. Conclusions The large-scale analysis of relative EST frequency counts among a diverse collection of 23 different cDNA libraries from leaf, berry, and root tissues of wine grape exposed to a variety of abiotic stress conditions revealed distinct, tissue-specific expression patterns, previously

  6. Metabolic and Physiological Responses of Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) to Near Optimal Temperatures of 25 and 35 °C

    PubMed Central

    Hochberg, Uri; Batushansky, Albert; Degu, Asfaw; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Fait, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon (Cs) grapevines were grown at near optimal temperatures (25 or 35 °C). Gas exchange, fluorescence, metabolic profiling and correlation based network analysis were used to characterize leaf physiology. When grown at 25 °C, the growth rate and photosynthesis of both cultivars were similar. At 35 °C Shiraz showed increased respiration, non-photochemical quenching and reductions of photosynthesis and growth. In contrast, Cs maintained relatively stable photosynthetic activity and growth regardless of the condition. In both cultivars, growth at 35 °C resulted in accumulations of secondary sugars (raffinose, fucose and ribulose) and reduction of primary sugars concentration (glucose, fructose and sucrose), more noticeably in Shiraz than Cs. In spite of similar patterns of metabolic changes in response to growth at 35 °C, significant differences in important leaf antioxidants and antioxidant precursors (DHA/ascorbate, quinates, cathechins) characterized the cultivar response. Correlation analysis reinforced Shiraz sensitivity to the 35 °C, showing higher number of newly formed edges at 35 °C and higher modularity in Shiraz as compared to Cs. The results suggest that the optimal growth temperatures of grapevines are cultivar dependent, and allow a first insight into the variability of the metabolic responses of grapevines under varied temperatures. PMID:26473851

  7. Metabolic and Physiological Responses of Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) to Near Optimal Temperatures of 25 and 35 °C.

    PubMed

    Hochberg, Uri; Batushansky, Albert; Degu, Asfaw; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Fait, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon (Cs) grapevines were grown at near optimal temperatures (25 or 35 °C). Gas exchange, fluorescence, metabolic profiling and correlation based network analysis were used to characterize leaf physiology. When grown at 25 °C, the growth rate and photosynthesis of both cultivars were similar. At 35 °C Shiraz showed increased respiration, non-photochemical quenching and reductions of photosynthesis and growth. In contrast, Cs maintained relatively stable photosynthetic activity and growth regardless of the condition. In both cultivars, growth at 35 °C resulted in accumulations of secondary sugars (raffinose, fucose and ribulose) and reduction of primary sugars concentration (glucose, fructose and sucrose), more noticeably in Shiraz than Cs. In spite of similar patterns of metabolic changes in response to growth at 35 °C, significant differences in important leaf antioxidants and antioxidant precursors (DHA/ascorbate, quinates, cathechins) characterized the cultivar response. Correlation analysis reinforced Shiraz sensitivity to the 35 °C, showing higher number of newly formed edges at 35 °C and higher modularity in Shiraz as compared to Cs. The results suggest that the optimal growth temperatures of grapevines are cultivar dependent, and allow a first insight into the variability of the metabolic responses of grapevines under varied temperatures. PMID:26473851

  8. Subcellular localization and functional analyses of a PR10 protein gene from Vitis pseudoreticulata in response to Plasmopara viticola infection.

    PubMed

    He, Mingyang; Xu, Yan; Cao, Jiangling; Zhu, Ziguo; Jiao, Yuntong; Wang, Yuejin; Guan, Xin; Yang, Yazhou; Xu, Weirong; Fu, Zhenfang

    2013-02-01

    Downy mildew, caused by the oomycete Plasmopara viticola, is a serious fungal disease in the cultivated European grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.). The class 10 of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes in grapevine leaves was reported to be accumulated at mRNA level in response to P. viticola infection. To elucidate the functional roles of PR10 genes during plant-pathogen interactions, a PR10 gene from a fungal-resistant accession of Chinese wild Vitis pseudoreticulata (designated VpPR10.2) was isolated and showed high homology to PR10.2 from susceptible V. vinifera (designated VvPR10.2). Comparative analysis displayed that there were significant differences in the patterns of gene expression between the PR10 genes from the two host species. VpPR10.2 was induced with high level in leaves infected by P. viticola, while VvPR10.2 showed a low response to this inoculation. Recombinant VpPR10.2 protein showed DNase activity against host genomic DNA and RNase activity against yeast total RNA in vitro. Meanwhile, recombinant VpPR10.2 protein inhibited the growth of tobacco fungus Alternaria alternata and over-expression of VpPR10.2 in susceptible V. vinifera enhanced the host resistance to P. viticola. The results from subcellular localization analysis showed that VpPR10.2 proteins were distributed dynamically inside or outside of host cell. Moreover, they were found in haustorium of P. viticola and nucleus of host cell which was associated with a nucleus collapse at 10 days post-inoculation. Taken together, these results suggested that VpPR10.2 might play an important role in host plant defense against P. viticola infection. PMID:22327469

  9. VitisExpDB: A Database Resource for Grape Functional Genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    VitisExpDB is an online MySQL-PHP driven relational database that houses annotated EST and gene expression data for Vitis vinifera and non-vinifera grape varieties. Currently, the database stores ~320,000 EST sequences derived from 8 species/hybrids, their annotation details and gene ontology based...

  10. The sulfated laminarin triggers a stress transcriptome before priming the SA- and ROS-dependent defenses during grapevine's induced resistance against Plasmopara viticola.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Adrien; Trouvelot, Sophie; Kelloniemi, Jani; Frettinger, Patrick; Wendehenne, David; Daire, Xavier; Joubert, Jean-Marie; Ferrarini, Alberto; Delledonne, Massimo; Flors, Victor; Poinssot, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is susceptible to many pathogens which cause significant losses to viticulture worldwide. Chemical control is available, but agro-ecological concerns have raised interest in alternative methods, especially in triggering plant immunity by elicitor treatments. The β-glucan laminarin (Lam) and its sulfated derivative (PS3) have been previously demonstrated to induce resistance in grapevine against downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola). However, if Lam elicits classical grapevine defenses such as oxidative burst, pathogenesis-related (PR)-proteins and phytoalexin production, PS3 triggered grapevine resistance via a poorly understood priming phenomenon. The aim of this study was to identify the molecular mechanisms of the PS3-induced resistance. For this purpose we studied i) the signaling events and transcriptome reprogramming triggered by PS3 treatment on uninfected grapevine, ii) grapevine immune responses primed by PS3 during P. viticola infection. Our results showed that i) PS3 was unable to elicit reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration variations, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation but triggered a long lasting plasma membrane depolarization in grapevine cells, ii) PS3 and Lam shared a common stress-responsive transcriptome profile that partly overlapped the salicylate- (SA) and jasmonate-(JA)-dependent ones. After P. viticola inoculation, PS3 specifically primed the SA- and ROS-dependent defense pathways leading to grapevine induced resistance against this biotroph. Interestingly pharmacological approaches suggested that the plasma membrane depolarization and the downstream ROS production are key events of the PS3-induced resistance. PMID:24516597

  11. Grapevine fruit extract protects against radiation-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in human lymphocyte.

    PubMed

    Singha, Indrani; Das, Subir Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) causes oxidative stress through overwhelming generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the living cells leading the oxidative damage further to biomolecules. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) posses several bioactive phytochemicals and is the richest source of antioxidants. In this study, we investigated V. vinifera for its phytochemical content, enzymes profile and, ROS- and oxidant-scavenging activities. We have also studied the fruit extract of four different grapevine viz., Thompson seedless, Flame seedless, Kishmish chorni and Red globe for their radioprotective actions in human lymphocytes. The activities of ascorbic acid oxidase and catalase significantly (P < 0.01) differed among extracts within the same cultivar, while that of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase did not differ significantly. The superoxide radical-scavenging activity was higher in the seed as compared to the skin or pulp of the same cultivar. Pretreatment with grape extracts attenuated the oxidative stress induced by 4 Gy γ-radiation in human lymphocytes in vitro. Further, γ-radiation-induced increase in caspase 3/7 activity was significantly attenuated by grape extracts. These results suggest that grape extract serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants against the IR-induced oxidative stress and also inhibit apoptosis. Furthermore, the protective action of grape depends on the source of extract (seed, skin or pulp) and type of the cultivars. PMID:26669019

  12. Inheritance of downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) and anthracnose (Sphaceloma ampelinum) resistance in grapevines.

    PubMed

    Poolsawat, O; Mahanil, S; Laosuwan, P; Wongkaew, S; Tharapreuksapong, A; Reisch, B I; Tantasawat, P A

    2013-01-01

    Downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) and anthracnose (Sphaceloma ampelinum) are two of the major diseases of most grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars grown in Thailand. Therefore, breeding grapevines for improved downy mildew and anthracnose resistance is crucial. Factorial crosses were made between three downy mildew and/or anthracnose resistant lines ('NY88.0517.01', 'NY65.0550.04', and 'NY65.0551.05'; male parents) and two or three susceptible cultivars of V. vinifera ('Black Queen', 'Carolina Black Rose', and/or 'Italia'; female parents). F1 hybrid seedlings were evaluated for downy mildew and anthracnose resistance using a detached/excised leaf assay. For both diseases, the general combining ability (GCA) variance among male parents was significant, while the variance of GCA among females and the specific combining ability (SCA) variance were not significant, indicating the prevalence of additive over non-additive gene actions. The estimated narrow sense heritabilities of downy mildew and anthracnose resistance were 55.6 and 79.2%, respectively, suggesting that downy mildew/anthracnose resistance gene(s) were highly heritable. The 'Carolina Black Rose x NY65.0550.04' cross combination is recommended for future use. PMID:24391016

  13. Structural, Functional, and Evolutionary Analysis of the Unusually Large Stilbene Synthase Gene Family in Grapevine1[W

    PubMed Central

    Parage, Claire; Tavares, Raquel; Réty, Stéphane; Baltenweck-Guyot, Raymonde; Poutaraud, Anne; Renault, Lauriane; Heintz, Dimitri; Lugan, Raphaël; Marais, Gabriel A.B.; Aubourg, Sébastien; Hugueney, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Stilbenes are a small family of phenylpropanoids produced in a number of unrelated plant species, including grapevine (Vitis vinifera). In addition to their participation in defense mechanisms in plants, stilbenes, such as resveratrol, display important pharmacological properties and are postulated to be involved in the health benefits associated with a moderate consumption of red wine. Stilbene synthases (STSs), which catalyze the biosynthesis of the stilbene backbone, seem to have evolved from chalcone synthases (CHSs) several times independently in stilbene-producing plants. STS genes usually form small families of two to five closely related paralogs. By contrast, the sequence of grapevine reference genome (cv PN40024) has revealed an unusually large STS gene family. Here, we combine molecular evolution and structural and functional analyses to investigate further the high number of STS genes in grapevine. Our reannotation of the STS and CHS gene families yielded 48 STS genes, including at least 32 potentially functional ones. Functional characterization of nine genes representing most of the STS gene family diversity clearly indicated that these genes do encode for proteins with STS activity. Evolutionary analysis of the STS gene family revealed that both STS and CHS evolution are dominated by purifying selection, with no evidence for strong selection for new functions among STS genes. However, we found a few sites under different selection pressures in CHS and STS sequences, whose potential functional consequences are discussed using a structural model of a typical STS from grapevine that we developed. PMID:22961129

  14. Grapevine MATE-Type Proteins Act as Vacuolar H+-Dependent Acylated Anthocyanin Transporters1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Camila; Terrier, Nancy; Torregrosa, Laurent; Vialet, Sandrine; Fournier-Level, Alexandre; Verriès, Clotilde; Souquet, Jean-Marc; Mazauric, Jean-Paul; Klein, Markus; Cheynier, Véronique; Ageorges, Agnès

    2009-01-01

    In grapevine (Vitis vinifera), anthocyanins are responsible for most of the red, blue, and purple pigmentation found in the skin of berries. In cells, anthocyanins are synthesized in the cytoplasm and accumulated into the vacuole. However, little is known about the transport of these compounds through the tonoplast. Recently, the sequencing of the grapevine genome allowed us to identify genes encoding proteins with high sequence similarity to the Multidrug And Toxic Extrusion (MATE) family. Among them, we selected two genes as anthocyanin transporter candidates and named them anthoMATE1 (AM1) and AM3. The expression of both genes was mainly fruit specific and concomitant with the accumulation of anthocyanin pigment. Subcellular localization assays in grapevine hairy roots stably transformed with AM1∷ or AM3∷green fluorescent protein fusion protein revealed that AM1 and AM3 are primarily localized to the tonoplast. Yeast vesicles expressing anthoMATEs transported acylated anthocyanins in the presence of MgATP. Inhibitor studies demonstrated that AM1 and AM3 proteins act in vitro as vacuolar H+-dependent acylated anthocyanin transporters. By contrast, under our experimental conditions, anthoMATEs could not transport malvidin 3-O-glucoside or cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, suggesting that the acyl conjugation was essential for the uptake. Taken together, these results provide evidence that in vitro the two grapevine AM1 and AM3 proteins mediate specifically acylated anthocyanin transport. PMID:19297587

  15. Proteomic analysis of grapevine resistance induced by Trichoderma harzianum T39 reveals specific defence pathways activated against downy mildew

    PubMed Central

    Perazzolli, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Downy mildew is caused by the oomycete Plasmopara viticola and is one of the most serious diseases of grapevine. The beneficial microorganism Trichoderma harzianum T39 (T39) has previously been shown to induce plant-mediated resistance and to reduce the severity of downy mildew in susceptible grapevines. In order to better understand the cellular processes associated with T39-induced resistance, the proteomic and histochemical changes activated by T39 in grapevine were investigated before and 1 day after P. viticola inoculation. A comprehensive proteomic analysis of T39-induced resistance in grapevine was performed using an eight-plex iTRAQ protocol, resulting in the identification and quantification of a total of 800 proteins. Most of the proteins directly affected by T39 were found to be involved in signal transduction, indicating activation of a complete microbial recognition machinery. Moreover, T39-induced resistance was associated with rapid accumulation of reactive oxygen species and callose at infection sites, as well as changes in abundance of proteins involved in response to stress and redox balance, indicating an active defence response to downy mildew. On the other hand, proteins affected by P. viticola in control plants mainly decreased in abundance, possibly reflecting the establishment of a compatible interaction. Finally, the high-throughput iTRAQ protocol allowed de novo peptide sequencing, which will be used to improve annotation of the Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir proteome. PMID:23105132

  16. Proteomic analysis of grapevine resistance induced by Trichoderma harzianum T39 reveals specific defence pathways activated against downy mildew.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Maria Cristina; Perazzolli, Michele; Matafora, Vittoria; Moretto, Marco; Bachi, Angela; Pertot, Ilaria

    2012-10-01

    Downy mildew is caused by the oomycete Plasmopara viticola and is one of the most serious diseases of grapevine. The beneficial microorganism Trichoderma harzianum T39 (T39) has previously been shown to induce plant-mediated resistance and to reduce the severity of downy mildew in susceptible grapevines. In order to better understand the cellular processes associated with T39-induced resistance, the proteomic and histochemical changes activated by T39 in grapevine were investigated before and 1 day after P. viticola inoculation. A comprehensive proteomic analysis of T39-induced resistance in grapevine was performed using an eight-plex iTRAQ protocol, resulting in the identification and quantification of a total of 800 proteins. Most of the proteins directly affected by T39 were found to be involved in signal transduction, indicating activation of a complete microbial recognition machinery. Moreover, T39-induced resistance was associated with rapid accumulation of reactive oxygen species and callose at infection sites, as well as changes in abundance of proteins involved in response to stress and redox balance, indicating an active defence response to downy mildew. On the other hand, proteins affected by P. viticola in control plants mainly decreased in abundance, possibly reflecting the establishment of a compatible interaction. Finally, the high-throughput iTRAQ protocol allowed de novo peptide sequencing, which will be used to improve annotation of the Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir proteome. PMID:23105132

  17. [Effects of rootstocks on the growth and berry quality of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine in Changli zone, Hebei Province, China].

    PubMed

    Li, Min-min; Yuan, Jun-wei; Liu, Chang-jiang; Han, Bin; Huang, Jia-zhen; Guo, Zi-juan; Zhao, Sheng-iian

    2016-01-01

    Cabernet Sauvignon grafted onto seven rootstocks 188-08, 5BB, SO4, 3309C, 110R, 5C and 101-14M, with the own-rooted vines as control, were investigated to study the effects of different rootstocks on the growth, fruit quality and yield of Cabernet Sauvignon in Changli zone, Hebei Province, China. The results showed that Cabernet Sauvignon grafted on 5BB and 5C significantly increased the trunk diameter, and 5C significantly increased one-year-old shoot diameter. 188-08, 5BB and 5C as rootstock obviously improved berry soluble solid content, in addition 188- 08 and 5BB significantly increased berry reducing sugar content. The vines on 101-14M and 3309C significantly decreased berry titratable acid content. The rootstock 5C and 101-14M significantly raised grape skin phenol and anthocyanin contents, and rootstock 101-14M significantly increased tannin content in grape skin. Cabernet Sauvignon grafted onto 3309C, 110R, 5C and 101-14M obviously got higher yield per vine than own-rooted vines. Growing parameter, grape quality index and yield per vine grafted on seven rootstocks and own-rooted vine were synthetically evaluated by fuzzy evaluation method, and the synthetical effects of vine grafted on seven rootstocks were better than own-rooted vine, with the order of scores from high to low as 5C, 101-14M, 3309C, 5BB, 188-08, 110R and SO4 under Changli unique climate and environment conditions. PMID:27228593

  18. A reference genetic map of Muscadinia rotundifolia and identification of Ren5, a new major locus for resistance to grapevine powdery mildew.

    PubMed

    Blanc, Sophie; Wiedemann-Merdinoglu, Sabine; Dumas, Vincent; Mestre, Pere; Merdinoglu, Didier

    2012-12-01

    Muscadinia rotundifolia, a species closely related to cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera, is a major source of resistance to grapevine downy and powdery mildew, two major threats to cultivated traditional cultivars of V. vinifera respectively caused by the oomycete Plasmopara viticola and the ascomycete Erisyphe necator. The aim of the present work was to develop a reference genetic linkage map based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for M. rotundifolia. This map was created using S1 M. rotundifolia cv. Regale progeny, and covers 948 cM on 20 linkage groups, which corresponds to the expected chromosome number for muscadine. The comparison of the genetic maps of V. vinifera and M. rotundifolia revealed a high macrosynteny between the genomes of both species. The S1 progeny was used to assess the general level of resistance of M. rotundifolia to P. viticola and E. necator, by scoring different parameters of pathogen development. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis allowed us to highlight a major QTL on linkage group 14 controlling resistance to powdery mildew, which explained up to 58 % of the total phenotypic variance. This QTL was named 'Resistance to Erysiphe Necator 5' (Ren5). A microscopic evaluation E. necator mycelium development on resistant and susceptible genotypes of the S1 progeny showed that Ren5 exerts its action after the formation of the first appressorium, and acts by delaying, and then stopping, mycelium development. PMID:22865124

  19. Mitochondria Change Dynamics and Morphology during Grapevine Leaf Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Bodner, Martina; La Rocca, Nicoletta; De Michele, Roberto; Carimi, Francesco; Schiavo, Fiorella Lo; Zottini, Michela

    2014-01-01

    Leaf senescence is the last stage of development of an organ and is aimed to its ordered disassembly and nutrient reallocation. Whereas chlorophyll gradually degrades during senescence in leaves, mitochondria need to maintain active to sustain the energy demands of senescing cells. Here we analysed the motility and morphology of mitochondria in different stages of senescence in leaves of grapevine (Vitis vinifera), by stably expressing a GFP (green fluorescent protein) reporter targeted to these organelles. Results show that mitochondria were less dynamic and markedly changed morphology during senescence, passing from the elongated, branched structures found in mature leaves to enlarged and sparse organelles in senescent leaves. Progression of senescence in leaves was not synchronous, since changes in mitochondria from stomata were delayed. Mitochondrial morphology was also analysed in grapevine cell cultures. Mitochondria from cells at the end of their growth curve resembled those from senescing leaves, suggesting that cell cultures might represent a useful model system for senescence. Additionally, senescence-associated mitochondrial changes were observed in plants treated with high concentrations of cytokinins. Overall, morphology and dynamics of mitochondria might represent a reliable senescence marker for plant cells. PMID:25009991

  20. Resistance to Plasmopara viticola in a grapevine segregating population is associated with stilbenoid accumulation and with specific host transcriptional responses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Downy mildew, caused by the oomycete Plasmopara viticola, is a serious disease in Vitis vinifera, the most commonly cultivated grapevine species. Several wild Vitis species have instead been found to be resistant to this pathogen and have been used as a source to introgress resistance into a V. vinifera background. Stilbenoids represent the major phytoalexins in grapevine, and their toxicity is closely related to the specific compound. The aim of this study was to assess the resistance response to P. viticola of the Merzling × Teroldego cross by profiling the stilbenoid content of the leaves of an entire population and the transcriptome of resistant and susceptible individuals following infection. Results A three-year analysis of the population's response to artificial inoculation showed that individuals were distributed in nine classes ranging from total resistance to total susceptibility. In addition, quantitative metabolite profiling of stilbenoids in the population, carried out using HPLC-DAD-MS, identified three distinct groups differing according to the concentrations present and the complexity of their profiles. The high producers were characterized by the presence of trans-resveratrol, trans-piceid, trans-pterostilbene and up to thirteen different viniferins, nine of them new in grapevine. Accumulation of these compounds is consistent with a resistant phenotype and suggests that they may contribute to the resistance response. A preliminary transcriptional study using cDNA-AFLP selected a set of genes modulated by the oomycete in a resistant genotype. The expression of this set of genes in resistant and susceptible genotypes of the progeny population was then assessed by comparative microarray analysis. A group of 57 genes was found to be exclusively modulated in the resistant genotype suggesting that they are involved in the grapevine-P. viticola incompatible interaction. Functional annotation of these transcripts revealed that they belong to

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of the European Grapevine moth (EGVM) Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Piper, Melissa Claire; van Helden, Maarten; Court, Leon N; Tay, Wee Tek

    2016-09-01

    The Lobesia botrana larvae feed on grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), thereby reducing crop yield and increasing crop susceptibility to fungal and bacterial attacks. We determined the circular mitochondrial genome of L. botrana as 15 229 bp (GenBank KP677508) and contained 13 protein coding genes (PCG's), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNA), and two ribosomal RNAs. All tRNAs have the "clover-shaped" 2-D structures, while the tRNA-Ile which has the TψC-stem but lacked the TψC-loop. Knowledge of L. botrana mitochondrial genome represents a valuable molecular resource for developing effective DNA identification tools for biosecurity purposes and will contribute to better understanding of its evolutionary and population genetics. PMID:26394129

  2. Co-transformation of grapevine somatic embryos to produce transgenic plants free of marker genes.

    PubMed

    Dutt, Manjul; Li, Zhijian T; Dhekney, Sadanand A; Gray, Dennis J

    2012-01-01

    A cotransformation system using somatic embryos was developed to produce grapevines free of selectable marker genes. This was achieved by transforming Vitis vinifera L. "Thompson Seedless" somatic embryos with a mixture of two Agrobacterium strains. The first strain contained a binary plasmid with an egfp gene of interest between the T-DNA borders. The second strain harbored the neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene for positive selection and the cytosine deaminase (codA) gene for negative selection, linked together by a bidirectional dual promoter complex. Our technique included a short positive selection phase of cotransformed somatic embryos on liquid medium containing 100 mg/L kanamycin before subjecting cultures to prolonged negative selection on medium containing 250 mg/L 5-fluorocytosine. PMID:22351010

  3. Resistance evaluation of Chinese wild Vitis genotypes against Botrytis cinerea and different responses of resistant and susceptible hosts to the infection

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Ran; Hou, Xiaoqing; Wang, Xianhang; Qu, Jingwu; Singer, Stacy D.; Wang, Yuejin; Wang, Xiping

    2015-01-01

    The necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea is a major threat to grapevine cultivation worldwide. A screen of 41 Vitis genotypes for leaf resistance to B. cinerea suggested species independent variation and revealed 18 resistant Chinese wild Vitis genotypes, while most investigated V. vinifera, or its hybrids, were susceptible. A particularly resistant Chinese wild Vitis, “Pingli-5” (V. sp. [Qinling grape]) and a very susceptible V. vinifera cultivar, “Red Globe” were selected for further study. Microscopic analysis demonstrated that B. cinerea growth was limited during early infection on “Pingli-5” before 24 h post-inoculation (hpi) but not on Red Globe. It was found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidative system were associated with fungal growth. O2- accumulated similarly in B. cinerea 4 hpi on both Vitis genotypes. Lower levels of O2- (not H2O2) were detected 4 hpi and ROS (H2O2 and O2-) accumulation from 8 hpi onwards was also lower in “Pingli-5” leaves than in “Red Globe” leaves. B. cinerea triggered sustained ROS production in “Red Globe” but not in “Pingli-5” with subsequent infection progresses. Red Globe displayed little change in antioxidative activities in response to B. cinerea infection, instead, antioxidative activities were highly and timely elevated in resistant “Pingli-5” which correlated with its minimal ROS increases and its high resistance. These findings not only enhance our understanding of the resistance of Chinese wild Vitis species to B. cinerea, but also lay the foundation for breeding B. cinerea resistant grapes in the future. PMID:26579134

  4. Sesquiterpene volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are markers of elicitation by sulfated laminarine in grapevine

    PubMed Central

    Chalal, Malik; Winkler, Jana B.; Gourrat, Karine; Trouvelot, Sophie; Adrian, Marielle; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Jamois, Frank; Daire, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Inducing resistance in plants by the application of elicitors of defense reactions is an attractive plant protection strategy, particularly for grapevine (Vitis vinifera), which is susceptible to severe fungal diseases. Although induced resistance (IR) can be successful under controlled conditions, in most cases, IR is not sufficiently effective for practical disease control under outdoor conditions. Progress in the application of IR requires a better understanding of grapevine defense mechanisms and the ability to monitor defense markers to identify factors, such as physiological and environmental factors, that can impact IR in the vineyard. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are well-known plant defense compounds that have received little or no attention to date in the case of grape-pathogen interactions. This prompted us to investigate whether an elicitor, the sulfated laminarin (PS3), actually induces the production of VOCs in grapevine. An online analysis (proton-transfer-reaction quadrupole mass spectrometry) of VOC emissions in dynamic cuvettes and passive sampling in gas-tight bags with solid-phase microextraction-GC-MS under greenhouse conditions showed that PS3 elicited the emission of VOCs. Some of them, such as (E,E)-α-farnesene, may be good candidates as biomarkers of elicitor-IR, whereas methyl salicylate appears to be a biomarker of downy mildew infection. A negative correlation between VOC emission and disease severity suggests a positive role of VOCs in grape defense against diseases. PMID:26042139

  5. Genome-wide analysis of the SET DOMAIN GROUP family in grapevine.

    PubMed

    Aquea, Felipe; Vega, Andrea; Timmermann, Tania; Poupin, María Josefina; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2011-06-01

    The SET DOMAIN GROUP (SDG) proteins represent an evolutionarily-conserved family of epigenetic regulators present in eukaryotes and are putative candidates for the catalysis of lysine methylation in histones. Plant genomes analyses of this family have been performed in arabidopsis, maize, and rice and functional studies have shown that SDG genes are involved in the control of plant development. In this work, we describe the identification and structural characterization of SDG genes in the Vitis vinifera genome. This analysis revealed the presence of 33 putative SDG genes that can be grouped into different classes, as it has been previously described for plants. In addition to the SET domain, the proteins identified possessed other domains in the different classes. As part of our study regarding the growth and development of grapevine, we selected eight genes and their expression levels were analyzed in representative vegetative and reproductive organs of this species. The selected genes showed different patterns of expression during inflorescence and fruit development, suggesting that they participate in these processes. Furthermore, we showed that the expression of selected SDGs changes during viral infection, using as a model Grapevine Leafroll Associated Virus 3-infected symptomatic grapevine leaves and fruits. Our results suggest that developmental changes caused by this virus could be the result of alterations in SDG expression. PMID:21293861

  6. Ecophysiological Modeling of Grapevine Water Stress in Burgundy Terroirs by a Machine-Learning Approach.

    PubMed

    Brillante, Luca; Mathieu, Olivier; Lévêque, Jean; Bois, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    In a climate change scenario, successful modeling of the relationships between plant-soil-meteorology is crucial for a sustainable agricultural production, especially for perennial crops. Grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. cv Chardonnay) located in eight experimental plots (Burgundy, France) along a hillslope were monitored weekly for 3 years for leaf water potentials, both at predawn (Ψpd) and at midday (Ψstem). The water stress experienced by grapevine was modeled as a function of meteorological data (minimum and maximum temperature, rainfall) and soil characteristics (soil texture, gravel content, slope) by a gradient boosting machine. Model performance was assessed by comparison with carbon isotope discrimination (δ(13)C) of grape sugars at harvest and by the use of a test-set. The developed models reached outstanding prediction performance (RMSE < 0.08 MPa for Ψstem and < 0.06 MPa for Ψpd), comparable to measurement accuracy. Model predictions at a daily time step improved correlation with δ(13)C data, respect to the observed trend at a weekly time scale. The role of each predictor in these models was described in order to understand how temperature, rainfall, soil texture, gravel content and slope affect the grapevine water status in the studied context. This work proposes a straight-forward strategy to simulate plant water stress in field condition, at a local scale; to investigate ecological relationships in the vineyard and adapt cultural practices to future conditions. PMID:27375651

  7. Aberrant Processing of Polyphenol Oxidase in a Variegated Grapevine Mutant 1

    PubMed Central

    Rathjen, Anne H.; Robinson, Simon P.

    1992-01-01

    Bruce's Sport is a mutant grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) with green and white variegated fruit derived from the Sultana variety. The white regions of tissue have decreased polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity resulting in a reduced capacity for browning. Active PPO from Sultana grapes was purified and had an apparent molecular weight of 40,000 on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Western blots indicated that mature Sultana grapes contained a single 40-kilodalton PPO, and young Sultana berries also had small quantities of a 60-kilodalton protein. Bruce's Sport grapes had much less of the 40-kilodalton PPO and greater amounts of the 60-kilodalton band. Protease digestion of Bruce's Sport extracts decreased the proportion of the 60-kilodalton protein and increased the 40-kilodalton band. A cDNA clone of grape PPO was used to probe a northern blot of Sultana and Bruce's Sport RNA and hybridized to a 2.2-kilobase transcript in both grapevines. The level of PPO mRNA was high in the early stages of berry development but then declined. The results suggest that in grapevine the active 40-kilodalton form of PPO is synthesized as a precursor protein of at least 60 kilodaltons, and normal processing is interrupted in Bruce's Sport resulting in the accumulation of the 60-kilodalton inactive preform of PPO. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:16669082

  8. Radicinin from Cochliobolus sp. inhibits Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of Pierce's Disease of grapevine.

    PubMed

    Aldrich, Thomas J; Rolshausen, Philippe E; Roper, M Caroline; Reader, Jordan M; Steinhaus, Matthew J; Rapicavoli, Jeannette; Vosburg, David A; Maloney, Katherine N

    2015-08-01

    The fastidious phytopathogenic bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa, poses a substantial threat to many economically important crops, causing devastating diseases including Pierce's Disease of grapevine. Grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) planted in an area under Pierce's Disease pressure often display differences in disease severity and symptom expression, with apparently healthy vines growing alongside the dying ones, despite the fact that all the vines are genetic clones of one another. Under the hypothesis that endophytic microbes might be responsible for this non-genetic resistance to X. fastidiosa, endophytic fungi were isolated from vineyard cvs. 'Chardonnay' and 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grown under high Pierce's Disease pressure. A Cochliobolus sp. isolated from a Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine inhibited the growth of X. fastidiosa in vitro. Bioassay-guided isolation of an organic extract of Cochliobolus sp. yielded the natural product radicinin as the major active compound. Radicinin also inhibited proteases isolated from the culture supernatant of X. fastidiosa. In order to assess structure-activity relationships, three semi-synthetic derivatives of radicinin were prepared and tested for activity against X. fastidiosa in vitro. Assay results of these derivatives are consistent with enzyme inactivation by conjugate addition to carbon-10 of radicinin, as proposed previously. PMID:25892412

  9. Association of RGA-SSCP markers with resistance to downy mildew and anthracnose in grapevines.

    PubMed

    Tantasawat, P A; Poolsawat, O; Prajongjai, T; Chaowiset, W; Tharapreuksapong, A

    2012-01-01

    Downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) and anthracnose (Sphaceloma ampelinum) are two major diseases that severely affect most grapevine (Vitis vinifera) cultivars grown commercially in Thailand. Progress of conventional breeding programs of grapevine for improved resistance to these diseases can be speeded up by selection of molecular markers associated with resistance traits. We evaluated the association between 13 resistance gene analog (RGA)-single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) markers with resistance to downy mildew and anthracnose in 71 segregating progenies of seven cross combinations between susceptible cultivars and resistant lines. F(1) hybrids from each cross were assessed for resistance to downy mildew and anthracnose (isolates Nk4-1 and Rc2-1) under laboratory conditions. Association of resistance traits with RGA-SSCP markers was evaluated using simple linear regression analysis. Three RGA-SSCP markers were found to be significantly correlated with anthracnose resistance, whereas significant correlation with downy mildew resistance was observed for only one RGA-SSCP marker. These results demonstrate the usefulness of RGA-SSCP markers. Four candidate markers with significant associations to resistance to these two major diseases of grapevine were identified. However, these putative associations between markers and resistance need to be verified with larger segregating populations before they can be used for marker-assisted selection. PMID:22869536

  10. Ecophysiological Modeling of Grapevine Water Stress in Burgundy Terroirs by a Machine-Learning Approach

    PubMed Central

    Brillante, Luca; Mathieu, Olivier; Lévêque, Jean; Bois, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    In a climate change scenario, successful modeling of the relationships between plant-soil-meteorology is crucial for a sustainable agricultural production, especially for perennial crops. Grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. cv Chardonnay) located in eight experimental plots (Burgundy, France) along a hillslope were monitored weekly for 3 years for leaf water potentials, both at predawn (Ψpd) and at midday (Ψstem). The water stress experienced by grapevine was modeled as a function of meteorological data (minimum and maximum temperature, rainfall) and soil characteristics (soil texture, gravel content, slope) by a gradient boosting machine. Model performance was assessed by comparison with carbon isotope discrimination (δ13C) of grape sugars at harvest and by the use of a test-set. The developed models reached outstanding prediction performance (RMSE < 0.08 MPa for Ψstem and < 0.06 MPa for Ψpd), comparable to measurement accuracy. Model predictions at a daily time step improved correlation with δ13C data, respect to the observed trend at a weekly time scale. The role of each predictor in these models was described in order to understand how temperature, rainfall, soil texture, gravel content and slope affect the grapevine water status in the studied context. This work proposes a straight-forward strategy to simulate plant water stress in field condition, at a local scale; to investigate ecological relationships in the vineyard and adapt cultural practices to future conditions. PMID:27375651

  11. Genetic dissection of a TIR-NB-LRR locus from the wild North American grapevine species Muscadinia rotundifolia identifies paralogous genes conferring resistance to major fungal and oomycete pathogens in cultivated grapevine.

    PubMed

    Feechan, Angela; Anderson, Claire; Torregrosa, Laurent; Jermakow, Angelica; Mestre, Pere; Wiedemann-Merdinoglu, Sabine; Merdinoglu, Didier; Walker, Amanda R; Cadle-Davidson, Lance; Reisch, Bruce; Aubourg, Sebastien; Bentahar, Nadia; Shrestha, Bipna; Bouquet, Alain; Adam-Blondon, Anne-Françoise; Thomas, Mark R; Dry, Ian B

    2013-11-01

    The most economically important diseases of grapevine cultivation worldwide are caused by the fungal pathogen powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator syn. Uncinula necator) and the oomycete pathogen downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola). Currently, grapegrowers rely heavily on the use of agrochemicals to minimize the potentially devastating impact of these pathogens on grape yield and quality. The wild North American grapevine species Muscadinia rotundifolia was recognized as early as 1889 to be resistant to both powdery and downy mildew. We have now mapped resistance to these two mildew pathogens in M. rotundifolia to a single locus on chromosome 12 that contains a family of seven TIR-NB-LRR genes. We further demonstrate that two highly homologous (86% amino acid identity) members of this gene family confer strong resistance to these unrelated pathogens following genetic transformation into susceptible Vitis vinifera winegrape cultivars. These two genes, designated resistance to Uncinula necator (MrRUN1) and resistance to Plasmopara viticola (MrRPV1) are the first resistance genes to be cloned from a grapevine species. Both MrRUN1 and MrRPV1 were found to confer resistance to multiple powdery and downy mildew isolates from France, North America and Australia; however, a single powdery mildew isolate collected from the south-eastern region of North America, to which M. rotundifolia is native, was capable of breaking MrRUN1-mediated resistance. Comparisons of gene organization and coding sequences between M. rotundifolia and the cultivated grapevine V. vinifera at the MrRUN1/MrRPV1 locus revealed a high level of synteny, suggesting that the TIR-NB-LRR genes at this locus share a common ancestor. PMID:24033846

  12. Molecular candidates for early-stage flower-to-fruit transition in stenospermocarpic table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) inflorescences ascribed by differential transcriptome and metabolome profiles.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Sara; Fino, Joana; Paulo, Octávio S; Oliveira, Cristina M; Goulao, Luis F

    2016-03-01

    Flower-to-fruit transition depends of nutrient availability and regulation at the molecular level by sugar and hormone signalling crosstalk. However, in most species, the identities of fruit initiation regulators and their targets are largely unknown. To ascertain the main pathways involved in stenospermocarpic table grape fruit set, comprehensive transcriptional and metabolomic analyses were conducted specifically targeting the early phase of this developmental stage in 'Thompson Seedless'. The high-throughput analyses performed disclosed the involvement of 496 differentially expressed genes and 28 differently accumulated metabolites in the sampled inflorescences. Our data show broad transcriptome reprogramming of molecule transporters, globally down-regulating gene expression, and suggest that regulation of sugar- and hormone-mediated pathways determines the downstream activation of berry development. The most affected gene was the SWEET14 sugar transporter. Hormone-related transcription changes were observed associated with increased indole-3-acetic acid, stimulation of ethylene and gibberellin metabolisms and cytokinin degradation, and regulation of MADS-box and AP2-like ethylene-responsive transcription factor expression. Secondary metabolism, the most representative biological process at transcriptome level, was predominantly repressed. The results add to the knowledge of molecular events occurring in grapevine inflorescence fruit set and provide a list of candidates, paving the way for genetic manipulation aimed at model research and plant breeding. PMID:26810452

  13. Members of the NPF3 transporter subfamily encode pathogen-inducible nitrate/nitrite transporters in grapevine and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Pike, Sharon; Gao, Fei; Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Sang Hee; Schachtman, Daniel P; Gassmann, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Vitis vinifera, the major grapevine species cultivated for wine production, is very susceptible to Erysiphe necator, the causal agent of powdery mildew (PM). This obligate biotrophic fungal pathogen attacks both leaf and berry, greatly affecting yield and quality. To investigate possible mechanisms of nutrient acquisition by successful biotrophs, we characterized a candidate NITRATE TRANSPORTER1/PEPTIDE TRANSPORTER FAMILY (NPF, formerly NRT1/PTR) member, grapevine NFP3.2, that was up-regulated in E. necator-inoculated susceptible V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon leaves, but not in resistant V. aestivalis Norton. Expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes and two-electrode voltage clamp measurements showed that VvNPF3.2 is a low-affinity transporter for both nitrate and nitrite and displays characteristics of NPF members from other plants. We also cloned the Arabidopsis ortholog, AtNPF3.1, and showed that AtNPF3.1 similarly transported nitrate and nitrite with low affinity. With an Arabidopsis triple mutant that is susceptible to E. necator, we found that AtNPF3.1 is up-regulated in the leaves of infected Arabidopsis similarly to VvNPF3.2 in susceptible grapevine leaves. Expression of the reporter β-glucuronidase (GUS) driven by the promoter of VvNPF3.2 or AtNPF3.1 in Arabidopsis indicated that both transporters are expressed in vascular tissue, with expression in major and minor veins, respectively. Interestingly, the promoter of VvNPF3.2 allowed induced expression of GUS in minor veins in PM-infected leaves. Our experiments lay the groundwork for investigating the manipulation of host nutrient distribution by biotrophic pathogens and characterizing physiological variables in the pathogenesis of this difficult to study grapevine disease. PMID:24259683

  14. Two key polymorphisms in a newly discovered allele of the Vitis vinifera TPS24 gene are responsible for the production of the rotundone precursor α-guaiene

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Damian Paul; Andersen, Trine Bundgaard; Sweetman, Crystal; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Ford, Christopher; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2016-01-01

    Rotundone was initially identified as a grape-derived compound responsible for the peppery aroma of Shiraz wine varieties. It has subsequently been found in black and white pepper and several other spices. Because of its potent aroma, the molecular basis for rotundone formation is of particular relevance to grape and wine scientists and industry. We have identified and functionally characterized in planta a sesquiterpene synthase, VvGuaS, from developing grape berries, and have demonstrated that it produces the precursor of rotundone, α-guaiene, as its main product. The VvGuaS enzyme is a novel allele of the sesquiterpene synthase gene, VvTPS24, which has previously been reported to encode VvPNSeInt, an enzyme that produces a variety of selinene-type sesquiterpenes. This newly discovered VvTPS24 allele encodes an enzyme 99.5% identical to VvPNSeInt, with the differences comprising just 6 out of the 561 amino acid residues. Molecular modelling of the enzymes revealed that two of these residues, T414 and V530, are located in the active site of VvGuaS within 4 Å of the binding-site of the substrate, farnesyl pyrophosphate. Mutation of these two residues of VvGuaS into the corresponding polymorphisms in VvPNSeInt results in a complete functional conversion of one enzyme into the other, while mutation of each residue individually produces an intermediate change in the product profile. We have therefore demonstrated that VvGuaS, an enzyme responsible for production of the rotundone precursor, α-guaiene, is encoded by a novel allele of the previously characterized grapevine gene VvTPS24 and that two specific polymorphisms are responsible for functional differences between VvTPS24 alleles. PMID:26590310

  15. Two key polymorphisms in a newly discovered allele of the Vitis vinifera TPS24 gene are responsible for the production of the rotundone precursor α-guaiene.

    PubMed

    Drew, Damian Paul; Andersen, Trine Bundgaard; Sweetman, Crystal; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Ford, Christopher; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2016-02-01

    Rotundone was initially identified as a grape-derived compound responsible for the peppery aroma of Shiraz wine varieties. It has subsequently been found in black and white pepper and several other spices. Because of its potent aroma, the molecular basis for rotundone formation is of particular relevance to grape and wine scientists and industry. We have identified and functionally characterized in planta a sesquiterpene synthase, VvGuaS, from developing grape berries, and have demonstrated that it produces the precursor of rotundone, α-guaiene, as its main product. The VvGuaS enzyme is a novel allele of the sesquiterpene synthase gene, VvTPS24, which has previously been reported to encode VvPNSeInt, an enzyme that produces a variety of selinene-type sesquiterpenes. This newly discovered VvTPS24 allele encodes an enzyme 99.5% identical to VvPNSeInt, with the differences comprising just 6 out of the 561 amino acid residues. Molecular modelling of the enzymes revealed that two of these residues, T414 and V530, are located in the active site of VvGuaS within 4 Å of the binding-site of the substrate, farnesyl pyrophosphate. Mutation of these two residues of VvGuaS into the corresponding polymorphisms in VvPNSeInt results in a complete functional conversion of one enzyme into the other, while mutation of each residue individually produces an intermediate change in the product profile. We have therefore demonstrated that VvGuaS, an enzyme responsible for production of the rotundone precursor, α-guaiene, is encoded by a novel allele of the previously characterized grapevine gene VvTPS24 and that two specific polymorphisms are responsible for functional differences between VvTPS24 alleles. PMID:26590310

  16. A High Quality Draft Consensus Sequence of the Genome of a Heterozygous Grapevine Variety

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, Dustin A.; Cestaro, Alessandro; Pruss, Dmitry; Pindo, Massimo; FitzGerald, Lisa M.; Vezzulli, Silvia; Reid, Julia; Malacarne, Giulia; Iliev, Diana; Coppola, Giuseppina; Wardell, Bryan; Micheletti, Diego; Macalma, Teresita; Facci, Marco; Mitchell, Jeff T.; Perazzolli, Michele; Eldredge, Glenn; Gatto, Pamela; Oyzerski, Rozan; Moretto, Marco; Gutin, Natalia; Stefanini, Marco; Chen, Yang; Segala, Cinzia; Davenport, Christine; Demattè, Lorenzo; Mraz, Amy; Battilana, Juri; Stormo, Keith; Costa, Fabrizio; Tao, Quanzhou; Si-Ammour, Azeddine; Harkins, Tim; Lackey, Angie; Perbost, Clotilde; Taillon, Bruce; Stella, Alessandra; Solovyev, Victor; Fawcett, Jeffrey A.; Sterck, Lieven; Vandepoele, Klaas; Grando, Stella M.; Toppo, Stefano; Moser, Claudio; Lanchbury, Jerry; Bogden, Robert; Skolnick, Mark; Sgaramella, Vittorio; Bhatnagar, Satish K.; Fontana, Paolo; Gutin, Alexander; Van de Peer, Yves; Salamini, Francesco; Viola, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Background Worldwide, grapes and their derived products have a large market. The cultivated grape species Vitis vinifera has potential to become a model for fruit trees genetics. Like many plant species, it is highly heterozygous, which is an additional challenge to modern whole genome shotgun sequencing. In this paper a high quality draft genome sequence of a cultivated clone of V. vinifera Pinot Noir is presented. Principal Findings We estimate the genome size of V. vinifera to be 504.6 Mb. Genomic sequences corresponding to 477.1 Mb were assembled in 2,093 metacontigs and 435.1 Mb were anchored to the 19 linkage groups (LGs). The number of predicted genes is 29,585, of which 96.1% were assigned to LGs. This assembly of the grape genome provides candidate genes implicated in traits relevant to grapevine cultivation, such as those influencing wine quality, via secondary metabolites, and those connected with the extreme susceptibility of grape to pathogens. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) distribution was consistent with a diffuse haplotype structure across the genome. Of around 2,000,000 SNPs, 1,751,176 were mapped to chromosomes and one or more of them were identified in 86.7% of anchored genes. The relative age of grape duplicated genes was estimated and this made possible to reveal a relatively recent Vitis-specific large scale duplication event concerning at least 10 chromosomes (duplication not reported before). Conclusions Sanger shotgun sequencing and highly efficient sequencing by synthesis (SBS), together with dedicated assembly programs, resolved a complex heterozygous genome. A consensus sequence of the genome and a set of mapped marker loci were generated. Homologous chromosomes of Pinot Noir differ by 11.2% of their DNA (hemizygous DNA plus chromosomal gaps). SNP markers are offered as a tool with the potential of introducing a new era in the molecular breeding of grape. PMID:18094749

  17. Quantitative trait loci affecting pathogen resistance and ripening of grapevines.

    PubMed

    Zyprian, Eva; Ochßner, Iris; Schwander, Florian; Šimon, Silvio; Hausmann, Ludger; Bonow-Rex, Martina; Moreno-Sanz, Paula; Grando, Maria Stella; Wiedemann-Merdinoglu, Sabine; Merdinoglu, Didier; Eibach, Rudolf; Töpfer, Reinhard

    2016-08-01

    Grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) form the basis of viticulture, and are susceptible to diseases such as downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) and powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator). Therefore, successful viticulture programs require the use of pesticides. Breeding for resistance is the only eco-friendly solution. Marker-assisted selection is currently widely used for grapevine breeding. Consequently, traits of interest must be tagged with molecular markers linked to quantitative trait loci (QTL). We herein present our findings regarding genetic mapping and QTL analysis of resistance to downy and powdery mildew diseases in the progenies of the GF.GA-47-42 ('Bacchus' × 'Seyval') × 'Villard blanc' cross. Simple sequence repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms of 151 individuals were analyzed. A map consisting of 543 loci was screened for QTL analyses based on phenotypic variations observed in plants grown in the field or under controlled conditions. A major QTL for downy mildew resistance was detected on chromosome 18. For powdery mildew resistance, a QTL was identified on chromosome 15. This QTL was replaced by a novel QTL on chromosome 18 in 2003 (abnormally high temperatures) and 2004. Subsequently, both QTLs functioned together. Additionally, variations in the timing of the onset of veraison, which is a crucial step during grape ripening, were studied to identify genomic regions affecting this trait. A major QTL was detected on linkage group 16, which was supplemented by a minor QTL on linkage group 18. This study provides useful information regarding novel QTL-linked markers relevant for the breeding of disease-resistant grapevines adapted to current climatic conditions. PMID:27038830

  18. Comparision of Uptake Models for Strontium (Sr) and Barium (Ba) in Vine (Vitis vinifera L.) in Castilla-La Mancha (spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorós, José Angel; Pérez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad; García-Navarro, Francisco J.; Bravo, Sandra; Higueras, Pablo; Moreno, Marta

    2015-04-01

    Castilla-La Mancha is the biggest vine-growing region in the world (about 500,000 ha) and one of the most important in terms of production of wine. The soils diversity should induce differences in the uptake of mineral elements by the vineyard. Of over the regional vine extension, 101 plots were selected and analyzed soil samples from each of them, following the description by FAO procedures. Samples of leaves were also taken from each soil plot. We analyzed the contents of mineral elements in both soil and leaf, using the FRX technique. This paper is focused on the elements strontium and barium because they are the trace elements having a higher concentration in the soils of the region, with values in soil range from 22.3 mg•kg-1-3602.7 mg•kg-1 in strontium and from 65.4 mg•kg-1 to 469.3 mg•kg-1 in barium. The contents of both elements in leaves have ranged from 23.3 mg•kg-1 y 1084.5 mg•kg-1 for strontium, and between 3.86 mg•kg-1 and 235.0 mg•kg-1 for barium. The aim of this work is state the behaviour in the soil-plant system for both elements. For this study, different statistical adjustment models have been tested (linear, multiplicative, exponential and logarithmic). The results show that the values of "R" for strontium are higher than barium in all models. Samples have also been studied by soil order (classified according to the FAO criteria). In this case, significant correlation from strontium have been found in all soil orders, except in calcisols. Significant correlations for barium appear only in entisols and luvisols. In conclusion it can be seen how these two elements differ in their behaviour in the soil-plant system. In general, the concentration of strontium in the soil is better correlated with leaf content than barium in the same soil. We can suggest a greater facility for the absorption of strontium by the grapevine. In calcisols, bearing in mind the interference of calcium, this uptake does not present such a high correlation

  19. Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds in berry skin, pulp, and seeds in 13 grapevine varieties grown in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Pantelić, Milica M; Dabić Zagorac, Dragana Č; Davidović, Sonja M; Todić, Slavica R; Bešlić, Zoran S; Gašić, Uroš M; Tešić, Živoslav Lj; Natić, Maja M

    2016-11-15

    Phenolic profile of 13 grapevine varieties was determined, with respect to three different parts of berries: skin, seed and pulp. Identification and quantification of the phenols was done using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with a diode array detector and a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. The most abundant phenols in grape seeds were found to be flavan-3-ols, most of which are gallocatechin gallate and catechin. The skins were characterized mostly by flavonols, i.e. quercetin and myricetin. Characterization of anthocyanins in the berry skin by UHPLC coupled with Linear Trap Quadrupole and OrbiTrap mass analyzer revealed a total of twenty derivatives of malvidin, delphinidin, petunidin, cyanidin, and peonidin. To the extent of our knowledge this is the first work that shows the presence of malvidin 3,5-O-dihexoside in the berry skin of 'Merlot', 'Cabernet Franc', 'Shiraz' 'Sangiovese', 'Pinot Noir' and 'Prokupac', untypical for Vitis vinifera Linneo species. PMID:27283628

  20. First detection of the presence of naturally occurring grapevine downy mildew in the field by a fluorescence-based method.

    PubMed

    Latouche, Gwendal; Debord, Christian; Raynal, Marc; Milhade, Charlotte; Cerovic, Zoran G

    2015-10-01

    Early detection of fungal pathogen presence in the field would help to better time or avoid some of the fungicide treatments used to prevent crop production losses. We recently introduced a new phytoalexin-based method for a non-invasive detection of crop diseases using their fluorescence. The causal agent of grapevine downy mildew, Plasmopara viticola, induces the synthesis of stilbenoid phytoalexins by the host, Vitis vinifera, early upon infection. These stilbenoids emit violet-blue fluorescence under UV light. A hand-held solid-state UV-LED-based field fluorimeter, named Multiplex 330, was used to measure stilbenoid phytoalexins in a vineyard. It allowed us to non-destructively detect and monitor the naturally occurring downy mildew infections on leaves in the field. PMID:26293623

  1. An optimized procedure for plant recovery from somatic embryos significantly facilitates the genetic improvement of Vitis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhijian T; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Dhekney, Sadanand A; Jasinski, Jonathan R; Creech, Matthew R; Gray, Dennis J

    2014-01-01

    Plant regeneration from grapevine (Vitis spp.) via somatic embryogenesis typically is poor. Recovery of plants from Vitis rotundifolia Michx. (muscadine grape) is particularly problematic due to extremely low efficiency, including extended culture durations required for embryo-plant conversion. Poor plant recovery is an obstacle to the selection of improved genetically modified lines. Somatic embryos (SEs) of V. rotundifolia cultivar Delicious (Del-HS) and Vitis vinifera L cultivar Thompson Seedless (TS) were used to identify culture media and conditions that promoted embryo differentiation and plant conversion; this resulted in a two-step culture system. In comparative culture experiments, C2D medium containing 6% sucrose was the most effective, among four distinct formulae tested, for inducing precocious SE germination and cell differentiation. This medium, further supplemented with 4 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (C2D4B), was subsequently determined to enhance post-germinative growth of SE. MS medium supplemented with 0.5 µM 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (MSN) was then utilized to stimulate root and shoot growth of germinated SE. An average of 35% and 80% 'Del-HS' and 'TS' SE, respectively, developed into plants. All plants developed robust root and shoot systems and exhibited excellent survival following transfer to soil. Over 150 plants of 'Del-HS' were regenerated and established within 2.5 months, which is a dramatic reduction from the 6- to 12-month time period previously required. Similarly, 88 'TS' plant lines were obtained within the same time period. Subsequently, seven out of eight Vitis cultivars exhibited significantly increased plant conversion percentages, demonstrating broad application of the two-step culture system to produce the large numbers of independent plant lines needed for selection of desired traits. PMID:26504540

  2. An optimized procedure for plant recovery from somatic embryos significantly facilitates the genetic improvement of Vitis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhijian T; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Dhekney, Sadanand A; Jasinski, Jonathan R; Creech, Matthew R; Gray, Dennis J

    2014-01-01

    Plant regeneration from grapevine (Vitis spp.) via somatic embryogenesis typically is poor. Recovery of plants from Vitis rotundifolia Michx. (muscadine grape) is particularly problematic due to extremely low efficiency, including extended culture durations required for embryo–plant conversion. Poor plant recovery is an obstacle to the selection of improved genetically modified lines. Somatic embryos (SEs) of V. rotundifolia cultivar Delicious (Del-HS) and Vitis vinifera L cultivar Thompson Seedless (TS) were used to identify culture media and conditions that promoted embryo differentiation and plant conversion; this resulted in a two-step culture system. In comparative culture experiments, C2D medium containing 6% sucrose was the most effective, among four distinct formulae tested, for inducing precocious SE germination and cell differentiation. This medium, further supplemented with 4 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (C2D4B), was subsequently determined to enhance post-germinative growth of SE. MS medium supplemented with 0.5 µM 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (MSN) was then utilized to stimulate root and shoot growth of germinated SE. An average of 35% and 80% ‘Del-HS’ and ‘TS’ SE, respectively, developed into plants. All plants developed robust root and shoot systems and exhibited excellent survival following transfer to soil. Over 150 plants of ‘Del-HS’ were regenerated and established within 2.5 months, which is a dramatic reduction from the 6- to 12-month time period previously required. Similarly, 88 ‘TS’ plant lines were obtained within the same time period. Subsequently, seven out of eight Vitis cultivars exhibited significantly increased plant conversion percentages, demonstrating broad application of the two-step culture system to produce the large numbers of independent plant lines needed for selection of desired traits. PMID:26504540

  3. Characterization of the adaptive response of grapevine (cv. Tempranillo) to UV-B radiation under water deficit conditions.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lüscher, J; Morales, F; Delrot, S; Sánchez-Díaz, M; Gomès, E; Aguirreolea, J; Pascual, I

    2015-03-01

    This work aims to characterize the physiological response of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Tempranillo to UV-B radiation under water deficit conditions. Grapevine fruit-bearing cuttings were exposed to three levels of supplemental biologically effective UV-B radiation (0, 5.98 and 9.66kJm(-2)day(-1)) and two water regimes (well watered and water deficit), in a factorial design, from fruit-set to maturity under glasshouse-controlled conditions. UV-B induced a transient decrease in net photosynthesis (Anet), actual and maximum potential efficiency of photosystem II, particularly on well watered plants. Methanol extractable UV-B absorbing compounds (MEUVAC) concentration and superoxide dismutase activity increased with UV-B. Water deficit effected decrease in Anet and stomatal conductance, and did not change non-photochemical quenching and the de-epoxidation state of xanthophylls, dark respiration and photorespiration being alternative ways to dissipate the excess of energy. Little interactive effects between UV-B and drought were detected on photosynthesis performance, where the impact of UV-B was overshadowed by the effects of water deficit. Grape berry ripening was strongly delayed when UV-B and water deficit were applied in combination. In summary, deficit irrigation did not modify the adaptive response of grapevine to UV-B, through the accumulation of MEUVAC. However, combined treatments caused additive effects on berry ripening. PMID:25617319

  4. Grapevine rootstock effects on scion sap phenolic levels, resistance to Xylella fastidiosa infection, and progression of Pierce's disease

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Christopher M.; Wallingford, Anna K.; Chen, Jianchi

    2013-01-01

    The xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) causes Pierce's disease (PD), an important disease of grapevine, Vitis vinifera L. Grapevine rootstocks were developed to provide increased resistance to root disease, but rootstock effects on cane and vine diseases remain unclear. Grapevines that consisted of Cabernet Sauvignon or Chardonnay grafted to 13 different rootstocks were inoculated with Xf and evaluated for PD severity and Xf titer after 6 months. A subset of six rootstock/scion combinations had xylem sap phenolic levels assessed in non-infected and Xf-infected grapevines. Vigor also was analyzed by measuring root lengths and masses. Cabernet Sauvignon grafted to 101-14MG, 1103P, 420A, or Schwarzmann had reduced PD severity compared to Cabernet Sauvignon grafted to 110R, 5BB, or SO4. Chardonnay grafted to Salt Creek or Freedom had reduced PD severity compared to Chardonnay grafted to RS3 or Schwarzmann. Chardonnay grafted to RS3 had greater Xf titer than Chardonnay grafted to 101-14MG, Freedom, or Salt Creek. No other differences in Xf titer among rootstocks were observed. Of the six scion/rootstock combinations which had xylem sap phenolics analyzed, Chardonnay/RS3 had the highest levels of most phenolics whereas Cabernet Sauvignon/101-14MG had the lowest phenolic levels. However, Chardonnay/101-14MG, which had mild PD symptoms, had greater sap levels of caftaric acid than other scion/rootstock combinations. Sap levels of caftaric acid, methyl salicylate, a procyanidin trimer, and quinic acid were greater in Xf-infected vs. non-infected grapevines. Chardonnay on 101-14MG or Salt Creek had greater root mass than Chardonnay on RS3. Cabernet Sauvignon on 101-14MG had greater root mass than Cabernet Sauvignon on 110R. These results identified rootstocks with the capacity for reducing PD symptom progression. Rootstocks also were shown to affect Xf titer, xylem sap phenolic levels, and plant vigor. PMID:24376452

  5. Influences of Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains, plant genotypes, and tissue types on the induction of transgenic hairy roots in Vitis species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated induction of transgenic hairy roots was previously demonstrated in Vitis vinifera L. and a few other Vitis species. In this study, 13 Vitis species, including V. aestivalis, V. afghanistan, V. champinii, V. doaniana, V. flexuosa, V. labrusca, V. nesbittiana, V. pal...

  6. Production of highly bioactive resveratrol analogues pterostilbene and piceatannol in metabolically engineered grapevine cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Márquez, Ascensión; Morante-Carriel, Jaime A; Ramírez-Estrada, Karla; Cusidó, Rosa M; Palazon, Javier; Bru-Martínez, Roque

    2016-09-01

    Grapevine stilbenes, particularly trans-resveratrol, have a demonstrated pharmacological activity. Other natural stilbenes derived from resveratrol such as pterostilbene or piceatannol, display higher oral bioavailability and bioactivity than the parent compound, but are far less abundant in natural sources. Thus, to efficiently obtain these bioactive resveratrol derivatives, there is a need to develop new bioproduction systems. Grapevine cell cultures are able to produce large amounts of easily recoverable extracellular resveratrol when elicited with methylated cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate. We devised this system as an interesting starting point of a metabolic engineering-based strategy to produce resveratrol derivatives using resveratrol-converting enzymes. Constitutive expression of either Vitis vinifera resveratrol O-methyltransferase (VvROMT) or human cytochrome P450 hydroxylase 1B1 (HsCYP1B1) led to pterostilbene or piceatannol, respectively, after the engineered cell cultures were treated with the aforementioned elicitors. Functionality of both gene products was first assessed in planta by Nicotiana benthamiana agroinfiltration assays, in which tobacco cells transiently expressed stilbene synthase and VvROMT or HsCYP1B1. Grapevine cell cultures transformed with VvROMT produced pterostilbene, which was detected in both intra- and extracellular compartments, at a level of micrograms per litre. Grapevine cell cultures transformed with HsCYP1B1 produced about 20 mg/L culture of piceatannol, displaying a sevenfold increase in relation to wild-type cultures, and reaching an extracellular distribution of up to 45% of total production. The results obtained demonstrate the feasibility of this novel system for the bioproduction of natural and more bioactive resveratrol derivatives and suggest new ways for the improvement of production yields. PMID:26947765

  7. Beneficial Bacteria Isolated from Grapevine Inner Tissues Shape Arabidopsis thaliana Roots.

    PubMed

    Baldan, Enrico; Nigris, Sebastiano; Romualdi, Chiara; D'Alessandro, Stefano; Clocchiatti, Anna; Zottini, Michela; Stevanato, Piergiorgio; Squartini, Andrea; Baldan, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the potential plant growth-promoting traits of 377 culturable endophytic bacteria, isolated from Vitis vinifera cv. Glera, as good biofertilizer candidates in vineyard management. Endophyte ability in promoting plant growth was assessed in vitro by testing ammonia production, phosphate solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and IAA-like molecule biosynthesis, siderophore and lytic enzyme secretion. Many of the isolates were able to mobilize phosphate (33%), release ammonium (39%), secrete siderophores (38%) and a limited part of them synthetized IAA and IAA-like molecules (5%). Effects of each of the 377 grapevine beneficial bacteria on Arabidopsis thaliana root development were also analyzed to discern plant growth-promoting abilities (PGP) of the different strains, that often exhibit more than one PGP trait. A supervised model-based clustering analysis highlighted six different classes of PGP effects on root architecture. A. thaliana DR5::GUS plantlets, inoculated with IAA-producing endophytes, resulted in altered root growth and enhanced auxin response. Overall, the results indicate that the Glera PGP endospheric culturable microbiome could contribute, by structural root changes, to obtain water and nutrients increasing plant adaptation and survival. From the complete cultivable collection, twelve promising endophytes mainly belonging to the Bacillus but also to Micrococcus and Pantoea genera, were selected for further investigations in the grapevine host plants towards future application in sustainable management of vineyards. PMID:26473358

  8. Beneficial Bacteria Isolated from Grapevine Inner Tissues Shape Arabidopsis thaliana Roots

    PubMed Central

    Baldan, Enrico; Nigris, Sebastiano; Romualdi, Chiara; D’Alessandro, Stefano; Clocchiatti, Anna; Zottini, Michela; Stevanato, Piergiorgio; Squartini, Andrea; Baldan, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the potential plant growth-promoting traits of 377 culturable endophytic bacteria, isolated from Vitis vinifera cv. Glera, as good biofertilizer candidates in vineyard management. Endophyte ability in promoting plant growth was assessed in vitro by testing ammonia production, phosphate solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and IAA-like molecule biosynthesis, siderophore and lytic enzyme secretion. Many of the isolates were able to mobilize phosphate (33%), release ammonium (39%), secrete siderophores (38%) and a limited part of them synthetized IAA and IAA-like molecules (5%). Effects of each of the 377 grapevine beneficial bacteria on Arabidopsis thaliana root development were also analyzed to discern plant growth-promoting abilities (PGP) of the different strains, that often exhibit more than one PGP trait. A supervised model-based clustering analysis highlighted six different classes of PGP effects on root architecture. A. thaliana DR5::GUS plantlets, inoculated with IAA-producing endophytes, resulted in altered root growth and enhanced auxin response. Overall, the results indicate that the Glera PGP endospheric culturable microbiome could contribute, by structural root changes, to obtain water and nutrients increasing plant adaptation and survival. From the complete cultivable collection, twelve promising endophytes mainly belonging to the Bacillus but also to Micrococcus and Pantoea genera, were selected for further investigations in the grapevine host plants towards future application in sustainable management of vineyards. PMID:26473358

  9. The cytoskeleton enhances gene expression in the response to the Harpin elicitor in grapevine

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Fei; Chang, Xiao-Li; Nick, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The cytoskeleton undergoes dramatic reorganization during plant defence. This response is generally interpreted as part of the cellular repolarization establishing physical barriers against the invading pathogen. To gain insight into the functional significance of cytoskeletal responses for defence, two Vitis cell cultures that differ in their microtubular dynamics were used, and the cytoskeletal response to the elicitor Harpin in parallel to alkalinization of the medium as a fast response, and the activation of defence-related genes were followed. In one cell line derived from the grapevine cultivar ‘Pinot Noir’, microtubules contained mostly tyrosinylated α-tubulin, indicating high microtubular turnover, whereas in another cell line derived from the wild grapevine V. rupestris, the α-tubulin was strongly detyrosinated, indicating low microtubular turnover. The cortical microtubules were disrupted and actin filaments were bundled in both cell lines, but the responses were elevated in V. rupestris as compared with V. vinifera cv. ‘Pinot Noir’. The cytoskeletal responsiveness correlated with elicitor-induced alkalinization and the expression of defence genes. Using resveratrol synthase and stilbene synthase as examples, it could be shown that pharmacological manipulation of microtubules could induce gene expression in the absence of elicitor. These findings are discussed with respect to a role for microtubules as positive regulators of defence-induced gene expression. PMID:20675535

  10. Phytotoxic metabolites from Neofusicoccum parvum, a pathogen of Botryosphaeria dieback of grapevine.

    PubMed

    Abou-Mansour, Eliane; Débieux, Jean-Luc; Ramírez-Suero, Montserrat; Bénard-Gellon, Mélanie; Magnin-Robert, Maryline; Spagnolo, Alessandro; Chong, Julie; Farine, Sibylle; Bertsch, Christohpe; L'Haridon, Floriane; Serrano, Mario; Fontaine, Florence; Rego, Cecilia; Larignon, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Liquid chromatography-diode array screening of the organic extract of the cultures of 13 isolates of the fungus Neofusicoccum parvum, the main causal agent of botryosphaeria dieback of grapevine, showed similar metabolites. One strain was selected for further chemical studies and led to the isolation and characterisation of 13 metabolites. Structures were elucidated through spectroscopic analyses, including one- and two-dimensional NMR and mass spectrometry, and through comparison to literature data. The isolated compounds belong to four different chemical families: five metabolites, namely, (-)-terremutin (1), (+)-terremutin hydrate (2), (+)-epi-sphaeropsidone (3) (-)-4-chloro-terremutin hydrate (4) and(+)-4-hydroxysuccinate-terremutin hydrate (5), belong to the family of dihydrotoluquinones; two metabolites, namely, (6S,7R) asperlin (6) and (6R,7S)-dia-asperlin (7), belong to the family of epoxylactones; four metabolites, namely, (R)-(-)-mellein (8), (3R,4R)-4-hydroxymellein (9), (3R,4S)-4-hydroxymellein (10) (R)(-)-3-hydroxymellein (11), belong to the family of dihydroisocoumarins; and two of the metabolites, namely, 6-methyl-salicylic acid (12) and 2-hydroxypropyl salicylic acid (13), belong to the family of hydroxybenzoic acids. We determined the phytotoxic activity of the isolated metabolites through a leaf disc assay and the expression of defence-related genes in Vitis vinifera cells cv. Chardonnay cultured with (-)-terremutin (1), the most abundant metabolite. Finally, analysis of the brown stripes of grapevine wood from plants showing botryosphaeria dieback symptoms revealed the presence of two of the isolated phytotoxins. PMID:25747381

  11. Cultivar-specific kinetics of gene induction during downy mildew early infection in grapevine.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Andreia; Monteiro, Filipa; Fortes, Ana Margarida; Bonow-Rex, Martina; Zyprian, Eva; Sousa, Lisete; Pais, Maria Salomé

    2012-06-01

    The oomycete pathogen Plasmopara viticola (Berk. et Curt.) Berl. et de Toni is the causing agent of the destructive downy mildew disease in grapevine. Despite the advances towards elucidation of grapevine resistance mechanisms to downy mildew, increased knowledge of the biological and genetic components of the pathosystem is important to design suitable breeding strategies. Previously, a cDNA microarray approach was used to compare two Vitis vinifera genotypes Regent and Trincadeira (resistant and susceptible to downy mildew, respectively) in field conditions. The same cDNA microarray chip was used to confirm field-based results and to compare both genotypes under greenhouse conditions at 0, 6, and 12 h post-inoculation with P. viticola. Results show that when comparing both cultivars after pathogen inoculation, there is a preferential modulation of several defense, signaling, and metabolism associated transcripts in Regent. Early transcriptional changes are discussed in terms of genetic background and resistance mechanism. This study is the first to directly compare resistant and susceptible cultivars responses as early as 6 hpi with P. viticola, providing several candidate genes potentially related to the expression of resistance traits. PMID:22246600

  12. Differential production of phytotoxins from Phomopsis sp. from grapevine plants showing esca symptoms.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Mary-Lorène; Mottier, Nicolas; Jeanneret-Gris, Julie; Christen, Danilo; Tabacchi, Raphaël; Abou-Mansour, Eliane

    2014-08-27

    Nine strains of the fungus Phomopsis spp. were isolated from a vineyard showing decline from the disease esca. Strains were screened for their ability to produce secondary metabolites showing chemical diversity. The culture extracts of each strain were analyzed by liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-diode array detection-mass spectrometry. Three strains were selected for the isolation and characterization of eight of the major metabolites. Structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses including two-dimensional NMR and mass spectrometry and by comparison to literature data. Among the isolated metabolites were the known phomopsolide B (1), sydowinin A (6), sydowinol (7), cytosporone B (8), and four new furanones named phomopsolidones A-D (2-5). The fungal strains were identified as Phomopsis sp., Phomopsis viticola Sacc and, Phomopsis viticola complex. Biological assays on Vitis vinifera leaves and callus tissue, antibacterial, and insecticidal activities were evaluated. The results revealed variability regarding secondary metabolites with species of Phomopsis sp. associated with grapevine, raising the question of cultivar-driven strain selection and phytotoxins biosynthesis in grapevine plants. PMID:25070068

  13. ABA and GA3 increase carbon allocation in different organs of grapevine plants by inducing accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates in leaves, enhancement of phloem area and expression of sugar transporters.

    PubMed

    Murcia, Germán; Pontin, Mariela; Reinoso, Herminda; Baraldi, Rita; Bertazza, Gianpaolo; Gómez-Talquenca, Sebastián; Bottini, Rubén; Piccoli, Patricia N

    2016-03-01

    Grape quality for winemaking depends on sugar accumulation and metabolism in berries. Abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs) have been reported to control sugar allocation in economically important crops, although the mechanisms involved are still unknown. The present study tested if ABA and gibberellin A3 (GA3) enhance carbon allocation in fruits of grapevines by modifying phloem loading, phloem area and expression of sugar transporters in leaves and berries. Pot-grown Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec plants were sprayed with ABA and GA3 solutions. The amount of soluble sugars in leaves and berries related to photosynthesis were examined at three points of berry growth: pre-veraison, full veraison and post-veraison. Starch levels and amylase activity in leaves, gene expression of sugar transporters in leaves and berries and phloem anatomy were examined at full veraison. Accumulation of glucose and fructose in berries was hastened in ABA-treated plants at the stage of full veraison, which was correlated with enhancement of Vitis vinifera HEXOSE TRANSPORTER 2 (VvHT2) and Vitis vinifera HEXOSE TRANSPORTER 6 (VvHT6) gene expression, increases of phloem area and sucrose content in leaves. On the other hand, GA3 increased the quantity of photoassimilates delivered to the stem thus increasing xylem growth. In conclusion, stimulation of sugar transport by ABA and GA3 to berries and stems, respectively, was due to build-up of non-structural carbohydrates in leaves, modifications in phloem tissue and modulation in gene expression of sugar transporters. PMID:26411544

  14. Grapevine petioles are more sensitive to drought induced embolism than stems: evidence from in vivo MRI and microcomputed tomography observations of hydraulic vulnerability segmentation.

    PubMed

    Hochberg, Uri; Albuquerque, Caetano; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Cochard, Herve; David-Schwartz, Rakefet; Brodersen, Craig R; McElrone, Andrew; Windt, Carel W

    2016-09-01

    The 'hydraulic vulnerability segmentation' hypothesis predicts that expendable distal organs are more susceptible to water stress-induced embolism than the main stem of the plant. In the current work, we present the first in vivo visualization of this phenomenon. In two separate experiments, using magnetic resonance imaging or synchrotron-based microcomputed tomography, grapevines (Vitis vinifera) were dehydrated while simultaneously scanning the main stems and petioles for the occurrence of emboli at different xylem pressures (Ψx ). Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that 50% of the conductive xylem area of the petioles was embolized at a Ψx of -1.54 MPa, whereas the stems did not reach similar losses until -1.9 MPa. Microcomputed tomography confirmed these findings, showing that approximately half the vessels in the petioles were embolized at a Ψx of -1.6 MPa, whereas only few were embolized in the stems. Petioles were shown to be more resistant to water stress-induced embolism than previously measured with invasive hydraulic methods. The results provide the first direct evidence for the hydraulic vulnerability segmentation hypothesis and highlight its importance in grapevine responses to severe water stress. Additionally, these data suggest that air entry through the petiole into the stem is unlikely in grapevines during drought. PMID:26648337

  15. Circadian oscillatory transcriptional programs in grapevine ripening fruits

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Temperature and solar radiation influence Vitis vinifera L. berry ripening. Both environmental conditions fluctuate cyclically on a daily period basis and the strength of this fluctuation affects grape ripening too. Additionally, a molecular circadian clock regulates daily cyclic expression in a large proportion of the plant transcriptome modulating multiple developmental processes in diverse plant organs and developmental phases. Circadian cycling of fruit transcriptomes has not been characterized in detail despite their putative relevance in the final composition of the fruit. Thus, in this study, gene expression throughout 24 h periods in pre-ripe berries of Tempranillo and Verdejo grapevine cultivars was followed to determine whether different ripening transcriptional programs are activated during certain times of day in different grape tissues and genotypes. Results Microarray analyses identified oscillatory transcriptional profiles following circadian variations in the photocycle and the thermocycle. A higher number of expression oscillating transcripts were detected in samples carrying exocarp tissue including biotic stress-responsive transcripts activated around dawn. Thermotolerance-like responses and regulation of circadian clock-related genes were observed in all studied samples. Indeed, homologs of core clock genes were identified in the grapevine genome and, among them, VvREVEILLE1 (VvRVE1), showed a consistent circadian expression rhythm in every grape berry tissue analysed. Light signalling components and terpenoid biosynthetic transcripts were specifically induced during the daytime in Verdejo, a cultivar bearing white-skinned and aromatic berries, whereas transcripts involved in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis were more prominently regulated in Tempranillo, a cultivar bearing black-skinned berries. Conclusions The transcriptome of ripening fruits varies in response to daily environmental changes, which might partially be under the control

  16. Dynamic thermal time model of cold hardiness for dormant grapevine buds

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, John C.; Tarara, Julie M.; Mills, Lynn J.; Grove, Gary G.; Keller, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Grapevine (Vitis spp.) cold hardiness varies dynamically throughout the dormant season, primarily in response to changes in temperature. The development and possible uses of a discrete-dynamic model of bud cold hardiness for three Vitis genotypes are described. Methods Iterative methods were used to optimize and evaluate model parameters by minimizing the root mean square error between observed and predicted bud hardiness, using up to 22 years of low-temperature exotherm data. Three grape cultivars were studied: Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay (both V. vinifera) and Concord (V. labruscana). The model uses time steps of 1 d along with the measured daily mean air temperature to calculate the change in bud hardiness, which is then added to the hardiness from the previous day. Cultivar-dependent thermal time thresholds determine whether buds acclimate (gain hardiness) or deacclimate (lose hardiness). Key Results The parameterized model predicted bud hardiness for Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay with an r2 = 0·89 and for Concord with an r2 = 0·82. Thermal time thresholds and (de-)acclimation rates changed between the early and late dormant season and were cultivar dependent but independent of each other. The timing of these changes was also unique for each cultivar. Concord achieved the greatest mid-winter hardiness but had the highest deacclimation rate, which resulted in rapid loss of hardiness in spring. Cabernet Sauvignon was least hardy, yet maintained its hardiness latest as a result of late transition to eco-dormancy, a high threshold temperature required to induce deacclimation and a low deacclimation rate. Conclusions A robust model of grapevine bud cold hardiness was developed that will aid in the anticipation of and response to potential injury from fluctuations in winter temperature and from extreme cold events. The model parameters that produce the best fit also permit insight into dynamic differences in hardiness among genotypes

  17. Effect of temperature on symptom expression and sequence polymorphism of grapevine yellow speckle viroid 1 in grapevine.

    PubMed

    Salman, Thaeer M; Habili, Nuredin; Shi, Bujun

    2014-08-30

    Symptom expression of yellow speckle disease was studied in a row of 32 individual Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay vines in the warmer summer of 2009/2010 as compared with the cooler summer of 2011/2012 in South Australia. RT-PCR analysis showed that all these vines were positive for hop stunt viroid, grapevine yellow speckle viroid 1 (GYSVd-1) and grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus. Four vines named Vines 1, 8, 11 and 15 were selected for further analyses. Vines 1 and 8 had never shown yellow speckle (YS) symptoms, Vine 11 had always been symptomatic, and Vine 15 showed YS symptoms only in the summer of 2009/2010, but not in 2011/2012. Analysis of partial nucleotide (nt) sequence of GYSVd-1 from these vines showed two major sequence polymorphisms in the pathogenicity domain coinciding with the YS symptoms and the prevailing temperature in each season. One group designated UA group had a uridine (U) at position 309 and an adenine (A) at position 311, while another group designated AU group had the other way around: an "A" at position 309 and a "U" at position 311. The AU group had never been reported before. The AU group was a minor variant in the GYSVd-1 population and not present in symptomatic Vine 11. In contrast, the UA group was dominant and present in all the vine samples. Surprisingly, all the asymptomatic vines, but not symptomatic vines, had the signature of the AU group. Whether the AU group is associated with the YS symptom expression is interesting. Our result provides a new insight into the sequence variability of viroid-inducing symptoms during two significantly different growing seasons. PMID:24905287

  18. Influence of Fungal Strain, Temperature, and Wetness Duration on Infection of Grapevine Inflorescences and Young Berry Clusters by Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Ciliberti, Nicola; Fermaud, Marc; Languasco, Luca; Rossi, Vittorio

    2015-03-01

    The effect of temperature and wetness duration on infection of Vitis vinifera inflorescences (from "inflorescence clearly visible" to "end of flowering" stages) and young berry clusters (at "fruit swelling" and "berries groat-sized" stages) by Botrytis cinerea was investigated. Artificial inoculations were carried out using conidial suspensions of eight B. cinerea strains belonging to the transposon genotypes transposa and vacuma. Infection incidence was significantly affected by strain but not by transposon genotype (transposon genotype accounted for only 6.5% of the variance). Infection incidence was also affected by the interaction between strain and growth stage of the inflorescence or berry cluster (overall accounting for approximately 57% of the experimental variance). Thus, under our experimental conditions, the ability to cause infection was a strain rather than a transposon genotype attribute. Across all strains, infection incidence was lowest when inflorescences were clearly visible or fully developed, highest at flowering (from beginning to end of flowering), and intermediate at the postflowering fruit stages (fruit swelling and berries groat-sized). One transposa strain, however, was highly virulent on all grapevine growth stages tested. The effects of temperature and wetness duration on infection incidence were similar for all fungal strains and grapevine growth stages; infection incidence was highest at 20°C and lowest at 30°C, and was also low at 5°C. Similar results were obtained for mycelial growth and conidial germination. Based on the pooled data for all strains and grapevine growth stages, an equation was developed that accounted for the combined effects of temperature and wetness duration on relative infection incidence. This equation should be useful for developing decision-making systems concerning B. cinerea control at early grapevine growth stages. PMID:25354016

  19. Comparison of CBF1, CBF2, CBF3 and CBF4 expression in some grapevine cultivars and species under cold stress

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Maryam; Ebadi, Ali; Mousavi, Seyed Amir; Salami, Seyed Alireza; Zarei, Abdolkarim

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine, an important horticultural crop in the world, is moderately tolerant to cold conditions and is subjected to the cold injuries at different regions. So studies on different aspects of tolerance mechanism to unexpected cold of late spring as well as winter freezing seems necessary about this vine. For this reason, study on genes responsible for acquiring cold tolerance is very important. Transcription factors are among regulatory proteins that are responsible for cold acclimation. In this research work, expression levels of CBF1, CBF2, CBF3, and CBF4 transcription factors were studied on two cvs of Vitis vinifera (“Khalili-Danedar” and “Shahroodi”) as well as one Vitis riparia at different times after treating at 4 °C. Results showed that two vinifera cultivars, “Khalili-Danedar” and “Shahroodi”, had similar trend for each transcription factor. Gene expression increased at the beginning of cold stress and then decreased. Expression of these TF started some minutes (CBF1) after cold treatment and continued for several hours (CBF2), even till the tenth day (CBF4). All together V. riparia which is endemic to the cold regions behaved stronger and showed higher expression for all studied transcription factors. Among two V. vinifera cultivars, “Khalili-Danedar” showed significantly higher expression compared with “Shahroodi”. The comparison of expression levels of these four transcription factors revealed that the least and the greatest expressions were recorded for CBF1 and CBF3 respectively, and two CBF2 and CBF4 had approximately the same expression levels. PMID:26973374

  20. Growth, Yield and Fruit Quality of Grapevines under Organic and Biodynamic Management

    PubMed Central

    Döring, Johanna; Frisch, Matthias; Tittmann, Susanne; Stoll, Manfred; Kauer, Randolf

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine growth, yield and fruit quality of grapevines under organic and biodynamic management in relation to integrated viticultural practices. Furthermore, the mechanisms for the observed changes in growth, yield and fruit quality were investigated by determining nutrient status, physiological performance of the plants and disease incidence on bunches in three consecutive growing seasons. A field trial (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Riesling) was set up at Hochschule Geisenheim University, Germany. The integrated treatment was managed according to the code of good practice. Organic and biodynamic plots were managed according to Regulation (EC) No 834/2007 and Regulation (EC) No 889/2008 and according to ECOVIN- and Demeter-Standards, respectively. The growth and yield of the grapevines differed strongly among the different management systems, whereas fruit quality was not affected by the management system. The organic and the biodynamic treatments showed significantly lower growth and yield in comparison to the integrated treatment. The physiological performance was significantly lower in the organic and the biodynamic systems, which may account for differences in growth and cluster weight and might therefore induce lower yields of the respective treatments. Soil management and fertilization strategy could be responsible factors for these changes. Yields of the organic and the biodynamic treatments partially decreased due to higher disease incidence of downy mildew. The organic and the biodynamic plant protection strategies that exclude the use of synthetic fungicides are likely to induce higher disease incidence and might partially account for differences in the nutrient status of vines under organic and biodynamic management. Use of the biodynamic preparations had little influence on vine growth and yield. Due to the investigation of important parameters that induce changes especially in growth and yield of grapevines under

  1. Growth, Yield and Fruit Quality of Grapevines under Organic and Biodynamic Management.

    PubMed

    Döring, Johanna; Frisch, Matthias; Tittmann, Susanne; Stoll, Manfred; Kauer, Randolf

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine growth, yield and fruit quality of grapevines under organic and biodynamic management in relation to integrated viticultural practices. Furthermore, the mechanisms for the observed changes in growth, yield and fruit quality were investigated by determining nutrient status, physiological performance of the plants and disease incidence on bunches in three consecutive growing seasons. A field trial (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Riesling) was set up at Hochschule Geisenheim University, Germany. The integrated treatment was managed according to the code of good practice. Organic and biodynamic plots were managed according to Regulation (EC) No 834/2007 and Regulation (EC) No 889/2008 and according to ECOVIN- and Demeter-Standards, respectively. The growth and yield of the grapevines differed strongly among the different management systems, whereas fruit quality was not affected by the management system. The organic and the biodynamic treatments showed significantly lower growth and yield in comparison to the integrated treatment. The physiological performance was significantly lower in the organic and the biodynamic systems, which may account for differences in growth and cluster weight and might therefore induce lower yields of the respective treatments. Soil management and fertilization strategy could be responsible factors for these changes. Yields of the organic and the biodynamic treatments partially decreased due to higher disease incidence of downy mildew. The organic and the biodynamic plant protection strategies that exclude the use of synthetic fungicides are likely to induce higher disease incidence and might partially account for differences in the nutrient status of vines under organic and biodynamic management. Use of the biodynamic preparations had little influence on vine growth and yield. Due to the investigation of important parameters that induce changes especially in growth and yield of grapevines under

  2. How will climate change influence grapevine cv. Tempranillo photosynthesis under different soil textures?

    PubMed

    Leibar, Urtzi; Aizpurua, Ana; Unamunzaga, Olatz; Pascual, Inmaculada; Morales, Fermín

    2015-05-01

    While photosynthetic responses to elevated CO2, elevated temperature, or water availability have previously been reported for grapevine as responses to single stress factors, reports on the combined effect of multiple stress factors are scarce. In the present work, we evaluated effects of simulated climate change [CC; 700 ppm CO2, 28/18 °C, and 33/53% relative humidity (RH), day/night] versus current conditions (375 ppm CO2, 24/14 °C, and 45/65% RH), water availability (well-irrigated vs. water deficit), and different types of soil textures (41, 19, and 8% of soil clay contents) on grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo) photosynthesis. Plants were grown using the fruit-bearing cutting model. CC increased the photosynthetic activity of grapevine plants grown under well-watered conditions, but such beneficial effects of elevated CO2, elevated temperature, and low RH were abolished by water deficit. Under water-deficit conditions, plants subjected to CC conditions had similar photosynthetic rates as those grown under current conditions, despite their higher sub-stomatal CO2 concentrations. As expected, water deficit reduced photosynthetic activity in association with inducing stomatal closure that prevents water loss. Evidence for photosynthetic downregulation under elevated CO2 was observed, with decreases in photosynthetic capacity and leaf N content and increases in the C/N ratio in plants subjected to CC conditions. Soil texture had no marked effects on photosynthesis and did not modify the photosynthetic response to CC and water-deficit conditions. However, in mature well-irrigated plants grown in the soils with the highest sand content, an important decrease in stomatal conductance was observed as well as a slight decrease in the utilization of absorbed light in photosynthetic electron transport (measured as photochemical quenching), possibly related to a low water-retention capacity of these soils even under well-watered conditions. PMID:25786733

  3. Short- and long-term physiological responses of grapevine leaves to UV-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lüscher, J; Morales, F; Delrot, S; Sánchez-Díaz, M; Gomés, E; Aguirreolea, J; Pascual, I

    2013-12-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the short- and long-term effects of UV-B radiation on leaves of grapevine Vitis vinifera (cv. Tempranillo). Grapevine fruit-bearing cuttings were exposed to two doses of supplemental biologically effective UV-B radiation (UV-BBE) under glasshouse-controlled conditions: 5.98 and 9.66kJm(-2)d(-1). The treatments were applied either for 20d (from mid-veraison to ripeness) or 75d (from fruit set to ripeness). A 0kJm(-2)d(-1) UV-B treatment was included as control. The main effects of UV-B were observed after the short-term exposure (20d) to 9.66kJm(-2)d(-1). Significant decreases in net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, sub-stomatal CO2 concentration, the actual photosystem II (PSII) efficiency, total soluble proteins and de-epoxidation state of the VAZ cycle were observed, whereas the activities of several antioxidant enzymes increased significantly. UV-B did not markedly affect dark respiration, photorespiration, the maximum potential PSII efficiency (Fv/Fm), non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), as well as the intrinsic PSII efficiency. However, after 75d of exposure to 5.98and 9.66kJm(-2)d(-1) UV-B most photosynthetic and biochemical variables were unaffected and there were no sign of oxidative damage in leaves. The results suggest a high long-term acclimation capacity of grapevine to high UV-B levels, associated with a high accumulation of UV-B absorbing compounds in leaves, whereas plants seemed to be tolerant to moderate doses of UV-B. PMID:24157214

  4. Effect of climate change on infection of grapevine by downy and powdery mildew under controlled environment.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, M; Gullino, M L; Garibaldi, A

    2011-01-01

    Plant responses to elevated CO2 and temperature have been much studied in recent years, but effects of climate change on pathological responses are largerly unknown. The pathosystems grapevine (Vitis vinifera) - downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) and powdery mildew (Erysiphe necatrix) were chosen as models to assess the potential impact of increased CO2 and temperature on disease incidence and severity under controlled environment. Grapevine potted plants were grown in phytotrons under 4 different simulated climatic conditions: (1) standard temperature (ranging from 18 degrees to 22 degrees C) and standard CO2 concentration (450 ppm); (2) standard temperature and elevated CO2 concentration (800 ppm); (3) elevated temperature (ranging from 22 degrees to 26 degrees C, 4 degrees C higher than standard) and standard CO2 concentration; (4) elevated temperature and CO2 concentration. Each plant was inoculated with a spore suspension containing 5x10(5) cfu/ml. Disease index and physiological parameters (chlorophyll content, fluorescence, assimilation rate) were assessed. Results showed an increase of the chlorophyll content with higher temperatures and CO2 concentration, to which consequently corresponded an higher fluorescence index. Disease incidence of downy mildew increased when both CO2 and temperatures were higher, while an increase in CO2 did not influenced powdery mildew incidence, probably due to the increased photosynthetic activity of plants under such conditions. Considering that the rising concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases will lead to an increase in global temperature and longer seasons, we can assume that this will allow more time for pathogens evolution and could increase pathogen survival, indirectly affecting downy and powdery mildews of grapevine. PMID:22702176

  5. Grapevine and Arabidopsis Cation-Chloride Cotransporters Localize to the Golgi and Trans-Golgi Network and Indirectly Influence Long-Distance Ion Transport and Plant Salt Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Sam W; Wege, Stefanie; Qiu, Jiaen; Blackmore, Deidre H; Walker, Amanda R; Tyerman, Stephen D; Walker, Rob R; Gilliham, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    Plant cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs) have been implicated in conferring salt tolerance. They are predicted to improve shoot salt exclusion by directly catalyzing the retrieval of sodium (Na(+)) and chloride (Cl(-)) ions from the root xylem. We investigated whether grapevine (Vitis vinifera [Vvi]) CCC has a role in salt tolerance by cloning and functionally characterizing the gene from the cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that VviCCC shares a high degree of similarity with other plant CCCs. A VviCCC-yellow fluorescent protein translational fusion protein localized to the Golgi and the trans-Golgi network and not the plasma membrane when expressed transiently in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) leaves and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mesophyll protoplasts. AtCCC-green fluorescent protein from Arabidopsis also localized to the Golgi and the trans-Golgi network. In Xenopus laevis oocytes, VviCCC targeted to the plasma membrane, where it catalyzed bumetanide-sensitive (36)Cl(-), (22)Na(+), and (86)Rb(+) uptake, suggesting that VviCCC (like AtCCC) belongs to the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter class of CCCs. Expression of VviCCC in an Arabidopsis ccc knockout mutant abolished the mutant's stunted growth phenotypes and reduced shoot Cl(-) and Na(+) content to wild-type levels after growing plants in 50 mm NaCl. In grapevine roots, VviCCC transcript abundance was not regulated by Cl(-) treatment and was present at similar levels in both the root stele and cortex of three Vitis spp. genotypes that exhibit differential shoot salt exclusion. Our findings indicate that CCC function is conserved between grapevine and Arabidopsis, but neither protein is likely to directly mediate ion transfer with the xylem or have a direct role in salt tolerance. PMID:26378102

  6. Inspection of the grapevine BURP superfamily highlights an expansion of RD22 genes with distinctive expression features in berry development and ABA-mediated stress responses.

    PubMed

    Matus, José Tomás; Aquea, Felipe; Espinoza, Carmen; Vega, Andrea; Cavallini, Erika; Dal Santo, Silvia; Cañón, Paola; Rodríguez-Hoces de la Guardia, Amparo; Serrano, Jennifer; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    The RESPONSIVE TO DEHYDRATION 22 (RD22) gene is a molecular link between abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and abiotic stress responses. Its expression has been used as a reliable ABA early response marker. In Arabidopsis, the single copy RD22 gene possesses a BURP domain also located at the C-terminus of USP embryonic proteins and the beta subunit of polygalacturonases. In grapevine, a RD22 gene has been identified but putative paralogs are also found in the grape genome, possibly forming a large RD22 family in this species. In this work, we searched for annotations containing BURP domains in the Vitis vinifera genome. Nineteen proteins were defined by a comparative analysis between the two genome predictions and RNA-Seq data. These sequences were compared to other plant BURPs identified in previous genome surveys allowing us to reconceive group classifications based on phylogenetic relationships and protein motif occurrence. We observed a lineage-specific evolution of the RD22 family, with the biggest expansion in grapevine and poplar. In contrast, rice, sorghum and maize presented highly expanded monocot-specific groups. The Vitis RD22 group may have expanded from segmental duplications as most of its members are confined to a region in chromosome 4. The inspection of transcriptomic data revealed variable expression of BURP genes in vegetative and reproductive organs. Many genes were induced in specific tissues or by abiotic and biotic stresses. Three RD22 genes were further studied showing that they responded oppositely to ABA and to stress conditions. Our results show that the inclusion of RNA-Seq data is essential while describing gene families and improving gene annotations. Robust phylogenetic analyses including all BURP members from other sequenced species helped us redefine previous relationships that were erroneously established. This work provides additional evidence for RD22 genes serving as marker genes for different organs or stresses in grapevine. PMID

  7. Inspection of the Grapevine BURP Superfamily Highlights an Expansion of RD22 Genes with Distinctive Expression Features in Berry Development and ABA-Mediated Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Matus, José Tomás; Aquea, Felipe; Espinoza, Carmen; Vega, Andrea; Cavallini, Erika; Santo, Silvia Dal; Cañón, Paola; de la Guardia, Amparo Rodríguez-Hoces; Serrano, Jennifer; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    The RESPONSIVE TO DEHYDRATION 22 (RD22) gene is a molecular link between abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and abiotic stress responses. Its expression has been used as a reliable ABA early response marker. In Arabidopsis, the single copy RD22 gene possesses a BURP domain also located at the C-terminus of USP embryonic proteins and the beta subunit of polygalacturonases. In grapevine, a RD22 gene has been identified but putative paralogs are also found in the grape genome, possibly forming a large RD22 family in this species. In this work, we searched for annotations containing BURP domains in the Vitis vinifera genome. Nineteen proteins were defined by a comparative analysis between the two genome predictions and RNA-Seq data. These sequences were compared to other plant BURPs identified in previous genome surveys allowing us to reconceive group classifications based on phylogenetic relationships and protein motif occurrence. We observed a lineage-specific evolution of the RD22 family, with the biggest expansion in grapevine and poplar. In contrast, rice, sorghum and maize presented highly expanded monocot-specific groups. The Vitis RD22 group may have expanded from segmental duplications as most of its members are confined to a region in chromosome 4. The inspection of transcriptomic data revealed variable expression of BURP genes in vegetative and reproductive organs. Many genes were induced in specific tissues or by abiotic and biotic stresses. Three RD22 genes were further studied showing that they responded oppositely to ABA and to stress conditions. Our results show that the inclusion of RNA-Seq data is essential while describing gene families and improving gene annotations. Robust phylogenetic analyses including all BURP members from other sequenced species helped us redefine previous relationships that were erroneously established. This work provides additional evidence for RD22 genes serving as marker genes for different organs or stresses in grapevine. PMID

  8. Ethylene and Not Embolism Is Required for Wound-Induced Tylose Development in Stems of Grapevines1[C][OA

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qiang; Rost, Thomas L.; Reid, Michael S.; Matthews, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    The pruning of actively growing grapevines (Vitis vinifera) resulted in xylem vessel embolisms and a stimulation of tylose formation in the vessels below the pruning wound. Pruning was also followed by a 10-fold increase in the concentration of ethylene at the cut surface. When the pruning cut was made under water and maintained in water, embolisms were prevented, but there was no reduction in the formation of tyloses or the accumulation of ethylene. Treatment of the stems with inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis (aminoethoxyvinylglycine) and/or action (silver thiosulfate) delayed and greatly reduced the formation of tyloses in xylem tissue and the size and number of those that formed in individual vessels. Our data are consistent with the hypotheses that wound ethylene production is the cause of tylose formation and that embolisms in vessels are not directly required for wound-induced tylosis in pruned grapevines. The possible role of ethylene in the formation of tyloses in response to other stresses and during development, maturation, and senescence is discussed. PMID:17921344

  9. The grapevine expression atlas reveals a deep transcriptome shift driving the entire plant into a maturation program.

    PubMed

    Fasoli, Marianna; Dal Santo, Silvia; Zenoni, Sara; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Farina, Lorenzo; Zamboni, Anita; Porceddu, Andrea; Venturini, Luca; Bicego, Manuele; Murino, Vittorio; Ferrarini, Alberto; Delledonne, Massimo; Pezzotti, Mario

    2012-09-01

    We developed a genome-wide transcriptomic atlas of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) based on 54 samples representing green and woody tissues and organs at different developmental stages as well as specialized tissues such as pollen and senescent leaves. Together, these samples expressed ∼91% of the predicted grapevine genes. Pollen and senescent leaves had unique transcriptomes reflecting their specialized functions and physiological status. However, microarray and RNA-seq analysis grouped all the other samples into two major classes based on maturity rather than organ identity, namely, the vegetative/green and mature/woody categories. This division represents a fundamental transcriptomic reprogramming during the maturation process and was highlighted by three statistical approaches identifying the transcriptional relationships among samples (correlation analysis), putative biomarkers (O2PLS-DA approach), and sets of strongly and consistently expressed genes that define groups (topics) of similar samples (biclustering analysis). Gene coexpression analysis indicated that the mature/woody developmental program results from the reiterative coactivation of pathways that are largely inactive in vegetative/green tissues, often involving the coregulation of clusters of neighboring genes and global regulation based on codon preference. This global transcriptomic reprogramming during maturation has not been observed in herbaceous annual species and may be a defining characteristic of perennial woody plants. PMID:22948079

  10. Thiamine induced resistance to Plasmopara viticola in grapevine and elicited host-defense responses, including HR like-cell death.

    PubMed

    Boubakri, Hatem; Wahab, Mohamed Ali; Chong, Julie; Bertsch, Christophe; Mliki, Ahmed; Soustre-Gacougnolle, Isabelle

    2012-08-01

    Recently, thiamine (VitaminB1) has been shown to induce resistance against Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis plants through priming of defense responses. In this paper, we have demonstrated the efficiency of thiamine to induce resistance against downy mildew caused by the oomycete Plasmopara viticola in a susceptible Vitis vinifera cultivar "Chardonnay" under glasshouse controlled conditions by providing a dual mode of action involving direct antifungal activity and elicitation of host-defense responses. Thiamine-induced defense responses included the generation of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in both grapevine suspension cultured cells (SCC) and plant leaves, upregulation of an array of defense-related genes and the induction of other defense responses at subcellular level such as callose deposition in stomata cells, phenolic compounds accumulation and hypersensitive response (HR) like-cell death. Epifluorescence microscopy studies revealed dramatic changes in P. viticola individual developmental stages during its colonization of the intercellular space of the leaf mesophyll in thiamine-treated plants. Collectively, our report evidenced the efficiency of thiamine in the control of downy mildew in grapevine by direct and indirect effects, suggesting that thiamine could be an attractive alternative to chemical fungicides in disease management in vineyards. PMID:22698755

  11. Graft union formation in grapevine induces transcriptional changes related to cell wall modification, wounding, hormone signalling, and secondary metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Cookson, Sarah Jane; Clemente Moreno, Maria José; Hevin, Cyril; Nyamba Mendome, Larissa Zita; Delrot, Serge; Trossat-Magnin, Claudine; Ollat, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Grafting is particularly important to the cultivation of perennial crops such as grapevine (Vitis vinifera) because rootstocks can provide resistance to soil-borne pests and diseases as well as improve tolerance to some abiotic stresses. Successful grafting is a complex biochemical and structural process beginning with the adhesion of the two grafted partners, followed by callus formation and the establishment of a functional vascular system. At the molecular level, the sequence of events underlying graft union formation remains largely uncharacterized. The present study investigates the transcriptome of grapevine rootstock and graft interface tissues sampled 3 d and 28 d after grafting of over-wintering stems in the spring. Many genes were differentially expressed over time, from 3 d to 28 d after grafting, which could be related to the activation of stem growth and metabolic activity in the spring. This hypothesis is supported by the up-regulation of many genes associated with cell wall synthesis, and phloem and xylem development. Generally, there was an up-regulation of gene expression in the graft interface tissue compared with the rootstock, particularly genes involved in cell wall synthesis, secondary metabolism, and signalling. Although there was overlap between the genes differentially expressed over time (from 3 d to 28 d after grafting) with the gene differentially expressed between the rootstock and the graft interface, numerous graft interface-specific genes were identified. PMID:23698628

  12. Distribution and Occurrence of Fungi Associated with Grapevine Trunk Diseases in Northeastern American Vineyards.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winegrape production in northeastern America is a relatively new, developing industry. Concord (Vitis labruscana) has been the main grape grown for juice production. However, in recent years New York wine production (V. vinifera) has been recognized nationwide for their quality and typicity. Vitis v...

  13. Variations in Early Response of Grapevine Wood Depending on Wound and Inoculation Combinations with Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora

    PubMed Central

    Pierron, Romain J. G.; Pouzoulet, Jérôme; Couderc, Christel; Judic, Elodie; Compant, Stéphane; Jacques, Alban

    2016-01-01

    Defense mechanisms in woody tissue are poorly understood, especially in vine colonized by trunk pathogens. However, several investigations suggest that molecular mechanisms in the central tissue of Vitis vinifera L. may be involved in trunk-defense reactions. In this work, the perception of Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora alone or together were investigated in cuttings of Cabernet Sauvignon trunks. Plant responses were analyzed at the tissue level via optical microscopy and at the cellular level via plant-gene expression. The microscopy results revealed that, 6 weeks after pathogen inoculation, newly formed vascular tissue is less developed in plants inoculated with P. chlamydospora than in plants inoculated with P. aleophilum. Co-inoculation with both pathogens resulted in an intermediate phenotype. Further analysis showed the relative expression of the following grapevine genes: PAL, PR10.3, TL, TLb, Vv17.3, STS, STS8, CWinv, PIN, CAM, LOX at 10, 24, 48, and 120 h post-inoculation (hpi). The gene set was induced by wounding before inoculation with the different pathogens, except for the genes CAM and LOX. This response generated significant noise, but the expression of the grapevine genes (PAL, PR10.3, TL, TLb, Vv17.3, STS, STS8, CWinv, and PIN) still differed due to perception of mycelium by the plant. Furthermore, at 48 hpi, the induction of PAL and STS8 differs depending on the pathogen, and a specific pattern emerges from the different inductions associated with the different treatments. Based on these results, we conclude that V. vinifera L. trunk perceives the presence of pathogens differently depending on the inoculated pathogen or even on the combination of co-inoculated pathogens, suggesting a defense orchestration in the perennial organs of woody plants. PMID:27014294

  14. Environmental stress enhances biosynthesis of flavor precursors, S-3-(hexan-1-ol)-glutathione and S-3-(hexan-1-ol)-L-cysteine, in grapevine through glutathione S-transferase activation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hironori; Takase, Hideki; Suzuki, Yumiko; Tanzawa, Fumiko; Takata, Ryoji; Fujita, Keiko; Kohno, Minako; Mochizuki, Mai; Suzuki, Shunji; Konno, Tomonori

    2011-01-01

    The biosynthesis of S-(3-hexan-1-ol)-glutathione (3MH-S-glut) and S-(3-hexan-l-ol)-L-cysteine (3MH-S-cys), which act as flavour precursors in wines, in Vitis vinifera grapes exposed to various environmental stress conditions is reported here. Ultraviolet (UV-C) irradiation, water deficit, and biological stimulation up-regulated 3MH-S-glut and 3MH-S-cys biosynthesis in grape leaves. 3MH-S-glut and 3MH-S-cys contents in grape berries were increased by cold shock, heat shock, UV-C irradiation, and biological stimulation. The results suggest that environmental stress enhances the biosynthesis of both flavour precursors in grapevine. The transcription of VvGST1, VvGST3, VvGST4, and GGT in grapevine exposed to the stress conditions was increased markedly compared with that in control grapevine. Also, UV irradiation increased GST (glutathione S-transferase) and GGT (γ-glutamyl transferase) enzyme activities in grape berries. Recombinant VvGST3 and VvGST4, but not VvGST1, mediated the synthesis of 3MH-S-glut from reduced glutathione and trans-2-hexenal in vitro. The enzymatic mediation of flavour precursor production is a novel function of plant GSTs and may result in the detoxification of damaged grape cells under stress conditions. PMID:21115666

  15. Differential proteomic analysis of grapevine leaves by iTRAQ reveals responses to heat stress and subsequent recovery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High temperature is a major environmental factor limiting grape yield and affecting berry quality. Thermotolerance includes the direct response to heat stress and the ability to recover from heat stress. To better understand the mechanism of the thermotolerance of Vitis, we combined a physiological analysis with iTRAQ-based proteomics of Vitis vinifera cv Cabernet Sauvignon, subjected to 43°C for 6 h, and then followed by recovery at 25/18°C. Results High temperature increased the concentrations of TBARS and inhibited electronic transport in photosynthesis apparatus, indicating that grape leaves were damaged by heat stress. However, these physiological changes rapidly returned to control levels during the subsequent recovery phase from heat stress. One hundred and seventy-four proteins were differentially expressed under heat stress and/or during the recovery phase, in comparison to unstressed controls, respectively. Stress and recovery conditions shared 42 proteins, while 113 and 103 proteins were respectively identified under heat stress and recovery conditions alone. Based on MapMan ontology, functional categories for these dysregulated proteins included mainly photosynthesis (about 20%), proteins (13%), and stress (8%). The subcellular localization using TargetP showed most proteins were located in the chloroplasts (34%), secretory pathways (8%) and mitochondrion (3%). Conclusion On the basis of these findings, we proposed that some proteins related to electron transport chain of photosynthesis, antioxidant enzymes, HSPs and other stress response proteins, and glycolysis may play key roles in enhancing grapevine adaptation to and recovery capacity from heat stress. These results provide a better understanding of the proteins involved in, and mechanisms of thermotolerance in grapevines. PMID:24774513

  16. Identification of Eutypa spp. causing Eutypa dieback of grapevine in Eastern North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eutypa dieback of grapevine is caused by Eutypa lata in production areas with Mediterranean climates in California, Australasia, Europe, and South Africa. Eutypa dieback has also been described in the colder, eastern North American vineyards where cultivars adapted from native Vitis spp. (e.g., Viti...

  17. Dynamic thermal-time model of cold hardiness for dormant grapevine buds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grapevine (Vitis spp.) cold hardiness varies dynamically throughout the dormant season, primarily in response to changes in temperature. We describe development and possible uses of a discrete-dynamic model of bud cold hardiness for three Vitis genotypes. Iterative methods were used to optimize and ...

  18. The Phenylpropanoid Pathway Is Controlled at Different Branches by a Set of R2R3-MYB C2 Repressors in Grapevine1

    PubMed Central

    Cavallini, Erika; Matus, José Tomás; Finezzo, Laura; Zenoni, Sara; Loyola, Rodrigo; Guzzo, Flavia; Schlechter, Rudolf; Ageorges, Agnès; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    Because of the vast range of functions that phenylpropanoids possess, their synthesis requires precise spatiotemporal coordination throughout plant development and in response to the environment. The accumulation of these secondary metabolites is transcriptionally controlled by positive and negative regulators from the MYB and basic helix-loop-helix protein families. We characterized four grapevine (Vitis vinifera) R2R3-MYB proteins from the C2 repressor motif clade, all of which harbor the ethylene response factor-associated amphiphilic repression domain but differ in the presence of an additional TLLLFR repression motif found in the strong flavonoid repressor Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) AtMYBL2. Constitutive expression of VvMYB4a and VvMYB4b in petunia (Petunia hybrida) repressed general phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes and selectively reduced the amount of small-weight phenolic compounds. Conversely, transgenic petunia lines expressing VvMYBC2-L1 and VvMYBC2-L3 showed a severe reduction in petal anthocyanins and seed proanthocyanidins together with a higher pH of crude petal extracts. The distinct function of these regulators was further confirmed by transient expression in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) leaves and grapevine plantlets. Finally, VvMYBC2-L3 was ectopically expressed in grapevine hairy roots, showing a reduction in proanthocyanidin content together with the down-regulation of structural and regulatory genes of the flavonoid pathway as revealed by a transcriptomic analysis. The physiological role of these repressors was inferred by combining the results of the functional analyses and their expression patterns in grapevine during development and in response to ultraviolet B radiation. Our results indicate that VvMYB4a and VvMYB4b may play a key role in negatively regulating the synthesis of small-weight phenolic compounds, whereas VvMYBC2-L1 and VvMYBC2-L3 may additionally fine tune flavonoid levels, balancing the inductive effects of

  19. Grapevine Aquaporins: Gating of a Tonoplast Intrinsic Protein (TIP2;1) by Cytosolic pH

    PubMed Central

    Leitão, Luís; Prista, Catarina; Moura, Teresa F.; Loureiro-Dias, Maria C.; Soveral, Graça

    2012-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the oldest and most important perennial crops being considered as a fruit ligneous tree model system in which the water status appears crucial for high fruit and wine quality, controlling productivity and alcohol level. V. vinifera genome contains 28 genes coding for aquaporins, which acting in a concerted and regulated manner appear relevant for plant withstanding extremely unfavorable drought conditions essential for the quality of berries and wine. Several Vv aquaporins have been reported to be expressed in roots, shoots, berries and leaves with clear cultivar differences in their expression level, making their in vivo biochemical characterization a difficult task. In this work V. vinifera cv. Touriga nacional VvTnPIP1;1, VvTnPIP2;2 and VvTnTIP2;1 were expressed in yeast and water transport activity was characterized in intact cells of the transformants. The three aquaporins were localized in the yeast plasma membrane but only VvTnTIP2;1 expression enhanced the water permeability with a concomitant decrease of the activation energy of water transport. Acidification of yeast cytosol resulted in loss of VvTnTIP2;1 activity. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of a His131 residue, unusual in TIPs. By site directed mutagenesis, replacement of this residue by aspartic acid or alanine resulted in loss of pHin dependence while replacement by lysine resulted in total loss of activity. In addition to characterization of VvTn aquaporins, these results shed light on the gating of a specific tonoplast aquaporin by cytosolic pH. PMID:22427995

  20. Population structure of Vitis rupestris, an important resource for viticulture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wild North American grapevine Vitis rupestris Scheele is an important genetic resource for viticulture, but its natural population has been severely depleted. We collected samples from seven V. rupestris populations from the Ozark Plateau in Missouri and Ouachita Mountains in Oklahoma and genoty...

  1. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Vitis Cv. Monastrell suspension-cultured cells: Determination of critical parameters.

    PubMed

    Chu, Mingyu; Quiñonero, Carmen; Akdemir, Hülya; Alburquerque, Nuria; Pedreño, María Ángeles; Burgos, Lorenzo

    2016-05-01

    Although some works have explored the transformation of differentiated, embryogenic suspension-cultured cells (SCC) to produce transgenic grapevine plants, to our knowledge this is one of the first reports on the efficient transformation of dedifferentiated Vitis vinifera cv Monastrell SCC. This protocol has been developed using the sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (SAAT) method. A construct harboring the selectable nptII and the eyfp/IV2 marker genes was used in the study and transformation efficiencies reached over 50 independent transformed SCC per gram of infected cells. Best results were obtained when cells were infected at the exponential phase. A high density plating (500 mg/dish) gave significantly better results. As selective agent, kanamycin was inefficient for the selection of Monastrell transformed SCC since wild type cells were almost insensitive to this antibiotic whereas application of paromomycin resulted in very effective selection. Selected eyfp-expressing microcalli were grown until enough tissue was available to scale up a new transgenic SCC. These transgenic SCC lines were evaluated molecularly and phenotypically demonstrating the presence and integration of both transgenes, the absence of Agrobacterium contamination and the ability of the transformed SCC to grow in highly selective liquid medium. The methodology described here opens the possibility of improving the production of valuable metabolites. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:725-734, 2016. PMID:26871543

  2. Estimation of the base temperature and growth phase duration in terms of thermal time for four grapevine cultivars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata, D.; Salazar, M.; Chaves, B.; Keller, M.; Hoogenboom, G.

    2015-12-01

    Thermal time models have been used to predict the development of many different species, including grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L.). These models normally assume that there is a linear relationship between temperature and plant development. The goal of this study was to estimate the base temperature and duration in terms of thermal time for predicting veraison for four grapevine cultivars. Historical phenological data for four cultivars that were collected in the Pacific Northwest were used to develop the thermal time model. Base temperatures ( T b) of 0 and 10 °C and the best estimated T b using three different methods were evaluated for predicting veraison in grapevine. Thermal time requirements for each individual cultivar were evaluated through analysis of variance, and means were compared using the Fisher's test. The methods that were applied to estimate T b for the development of wine grapes included the least standard deviation in heat units, the regression coefficient, and the development rate method. The estimated T b varied among methods and cultivars. The development rate method provided the lowest T b values for all cultivars. For the three methods, Chardonnay had the lowest T b ranging from 8.7 to 10.7 °C, while the highest T b values were obtained for Riesling and Cabernet Sauvignon with 11.8 and 12.8 °C, respectively. Thermal time also differed among cultivars, when either the fixed or estimated T b was used. Predictions of the beginning of ripening with the estimated temperature resulted in the lowest variation in real days when compared with predictions using T b = 0 or 10 °C, regardless of the method that was used to estimate the T b.

  3. Molecular Characteristics and Biochemical Functions of VpPR10s from Vitis pseudoreticulata Associated with Biotic and Abiotic Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lan; Wei, Jinyu; Zou, Ying; Xu, Keyao; Wang, Yuejin; Cui, Lu; Xu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Grapes are one of the world’s oldest and most important fruit crops. They are of high economic value in many countries, but the susceptibility of the dominant winegrape species Vitis vinifera to fungal disease is a significant problem. The Chinese wild grape species are a rich source of disease-resistance genes and these can be used to discover how disease resistance in V. vinifera grapevines might be enhanced. Pathogenesis-related (PR) 10 proteins are involved in the disease-response. Here, we use the genomic DNA of the Chinese wild species Vitis pseudoreticulata accession “Baihe-35-1” as the template to design specific primers based on VvPR10s sequences. We used overlap extension PCR to obtain the sequences: VpPR10.4, VpPR10.6, VpPR10.7 and VpPR10.9. The coding sequences of the VpPR10s were then cloned into the pGEX-4T-1 vector. The purified proteins VpPR10.4, VpPR10.6, VpPR10.7 and VpPR10.9 were used to analyse nuclease activity. Meanwhile, functional analysis of VpPR10s under different biotic and abiotic stresses was carried out to further clarify the disease-resistance mechanisms of the Chinese wild grapevine VpPR10 genes. The analysis of protein structure indicates that VpPR10.4 and VpPR10.7 had the P-loop domain and the Bet v 1 motif, which are a consistent feature of plant PR10. However, there was no P-loop domain or Bet v 1 motif in VpPR10.9 and we could not find the Bet v 1 motif in VpPR10.6. The results of the nuclease activity assay and of the functional analyses of VpPR10s under different biotic and abiotic stresses also confirm that VpPR10.4 and VpPR10.7 proteins have marked RNase, DNase, anti-fungal activities and respond to abiotic stresses. The VpPR10.6 and VpPR10.9 proteins do not have these activities and functions. PMID:25340981

  4. Grapevine and Arabidopsis Cation-Chloride Cotransporters Localize to the Golgi and Trans-Golgi Network and Indirectly Influence Long-Distance Ion Transport and Plant Salt Tolerance1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Sam W.; Wege, Stefanie; Qiu, Jiaen; Blackmore, Deidre H.; Walker, Amanda R.; Tyerman, Stephen D.; Walker, Rob R.; Gilliham, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Plant cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs) have been implicated in conferring salt tolerance. They are predicted to improve shoot salt exclusion by directly catalyzing the retrieval of sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl−) ions from the root xylem. We investigated whether grapevine (Vitis vinifera [Vvi]) CCC has a role in salt tolerance by cloning and functionally characterizing the gene from the cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that VviCCC shares a high degree of similarity with other plant CCCs. A VviCCC-yellow fluorescent protein translational fusion protein localized to the Golgi and the trans-Golgi network and not the plasma membrane when expressed transiently in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) leaves and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mesophyll protoplasts. AtCCC-green fluorescent protein from Arabidopsis also localized to the Golgi and the trans-Golgi network. In Xenopus laevis oocytes, VviCCC targeted to the plasma membrane, where it catalyzed bumetanide-sensitive 36Cl–, 22Na+, and 86Rb+ uptake, suggesting that VviCCC (like AtCCC) belongs to the Na+-K+-2Cl– cotransporter class of CCCs. Expression of VviCCC in an Arabidopsis ccc knockout mutant abolished the mutant’s stunted growth phenotypes and reduced shoot Cl– and Na+ content to wild-type levels after growing plants in 50 mm NaCl. In grapevine roots, VviCCC transcript abundance was not regulated by Cl– treatment and was present at similar levels in both the root stele and cortex of three Vitis spp. genotypes that exhibit differential shoot salt exclusion. Our findings indicate that CCC function is conserved between grapevine and Arabidopsis, but neither protein is likely to directly mediate ion transfer with the xylem or have a direct role in salt tolerance. PMID:26378102

  5. Cell Wall-Degrading Enzymes Enlarge the Pore Size of Intervessel Pit Membranes in Healthy and Xylella fastidiosa-Infected Grapevines1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Donoso, Alonso G.; Sun, Qiang; Roper, M. Caroline; Greve, L. Carl; Kirkpatrick, Bruce; Labavitch, John M.

    2010-01-01

    The pit membrane (PM) is a primary cell wall barrier that separates adjacent xylem water conduits, limiting the spread of xylem-localized pathogens and air embolisms from one conduit to the next. This paper provides a characterization of the size of the pores in the PMs of grapevine (Vitis vinifera). The PM porosity (PMP) of stems infected with the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa was compared with the PMP of healthy stems. Stems were infused with pressurized water and flow rates were determined; gold particles of known size were introduced with the water to assist in determining the size of PM pores. The effect of introducing trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid (CDTA), oligogalacturonides, and polygalacturonic acid into stems on water flux via the xylem was also measured. The possibility that cell wall-degrading enzymes could alter the pore sizes, thus facilitating the ability of X. fastidiosa to cross the PMs, was tested. Two cell wall-degrading enzymes likely to be produced by X. fastidiosa (polygalactuoronase and endo-1,4- β -glucanase) were infused into stems, and particle passage tests were performed to check for changes in PMP. Scanning electron microscopy of control and enzyme-infused stem segments revealed that the combination of enzymes opened holes in PMs, probably explaining enzyme impacts on PMP and how a small X. fastidiosa population, introduced into grapevines by insect vectors, can multiply and spread throughout the vine and cause Pierce's disease. PMID:20107028

  6. Expression and In Situ Localization of Two Major PR Proteins of Grapevine Berries during Development and after UV-C Exposition

    PubMed Central

    Colas, Steven; Afoufa-Bastien, Damien; Jacquens, Lucile; Clément, Christophe; Baillieul, Fabienne

    2012-01-01

    In grapevine Vitis vinifera L. cv Pinot noir, the Pathogenesis-Related (PR) proteins CHI4D and TL3 are among the most abundant extractable PR proteins of ripe berries and accumulate during berry ripening from véraison until full maturation. Evidence was supplied in favor of the involvement of these two protein families in plant defense mechanisms and plant development. In order to better understand CHI4D and TL3 function in grapevine, we analyzed their temporal and spatial pattern of expression during maturation and after an abiotic stress (UV-C) by in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistolocalization. In ripening berries, CHI4D and TL3 genes were mainly expressed in the exocarp and around vascular bundles of the mesocarp. In UV-C exposed berries, CHI4D and TL3 gene expression was strongly induced before véraison. Corresponding proteins localized in the exocarp and, to a lesser extent, around vascular bundles of the mesocarp. The spatial and temporal accumulation of the two PR proteins during berry maturation and after an abiotic stress is discussed in relation to their putative roles in plant defense. PMID:22937077

  7. Elicitor and resistance-inducing activities of beta-1,4 cellodextrins in grapevine, comparison with beta-1,3 glucans and alpha-1,4 oligogalacturonides.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Aziz; Gauthier, Adrien; Bézier, Annie; Poinssot, Benoît; Joubert, Jean-Marie; Pugin, Alain; Heyraud, Alain; Baillieul, Fabienne

    2007-01-01

    Cellodextrins (CD), water-soluble derivatives of cellulose composed of beta-1,4 glucoside residues, have been shown to induce a variety of defence responses in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cells. The larger oligomers of CD rapidly induced transient generation of H2O2 and elevation in free cytosolic calcium, followed by a differential expression of genes encoding key enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway and pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins as well as stimulation of chitinase and beta-1,3 glucanase activities. Most of these defence reactions were also induced by linear beta-1,3 glucans (betaGlu) and alpha-1,4 oligogalacturonides (OGA) of different degree of polymerization (DP), but the intensity of some reactions induced by CD was different when compared with betaGlu and OGA effects. Moreover, desensitization assays using H2O2 production showed that cells treated with CD remained fully responsive to a second application of OGA, suggesting a different mode of perception of these oligosaccharides by grape cells. None of CD, betaGlu, or OGA induced HSR gene expression nor did they induce cell death. In accordance with elicitor activity in grapevine cells, CD-incubated leaves challenged with Botrytis cinerea also resulted in a significant reduction of the disease. Data suggest that CD could operate via other distinct reaction pathways than betaGlu and OGA. They also highlight the requirement of a specific DP for each oligosaccharide to induce the defence response. PMID:17322548

  8. Integrated network analysis identifies fight-club nodes as a class of hubs encompassing key putative switch genes that induce major transcriptome reprogramming during grapevine development.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, Maria Concetta; Zenoni, Sara; Fasoli, Marianna; Massonnet, Mélanie; Farina, Lorenzo; Castiglione, Filippo; Pezzotti, Mario; Paci, Paola

    2014-12-01

    We developed an approach that integrates different network-based methods to analyze the correlation network arising from large-scale gene expression data. By studying grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) gene expression atlases and a grapevine berry transcriptomic data set during the transition from immature to mature growth, we identified a category named "fight-club hubs" characterized by a marked negative correlation with the expression profiles of neighboring genes in the network. A special subset named "switch genes" was identified, with the additional property of many significant negative correlations outside their own group in the network. Switch genes are involved in multiple processes and include transcription factors that may be considered master regulators of the previously reported transcriptome remodeling that marks the developmental shift from immature to mature growth. All switch genes, expressed at low levels in vegetative/green tissues, showed a significant increase in mature/woody organs, suggesting a potential regulatory role during the developmental transition. Finally, our analysis of tomato gene expression data sets showed that wild-type switch genes are downregulated in ripening-deficient mutants. The identification of known master regulators of tomato fruit maturation suggests our method is suitable for the detection of key regulators of organ development in different fleshy fruit crops. PMID:25490918

  9. Grapevine necrotic union, A newly recognized disease of unknown etiology in grapevines grafted on 110 Richter rootstock in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Northern California, surveys of several vineyards planted to Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot noir (PN) clones 02A, 667, 777, and UCD 04 grafted onto the rootstock V. berlandieri x V. rupestris 110 Richter (110R) revealed 2 to 45% of vines showing solid red leaf canopies and two distinct disease stages, ...

  10. Exploring thermal imaging variables for the detection of stress responses in grapevine under different irrigation regimes.

    PubMed

    Grant, Olga M; Tronina, Lukasz; Jones, Hamlyn G; Chaves, M Manuela

    2007-01-01

    Temperatures of leaves or canopies can be used as indicators of stomatal closure in response to soil water deficit. In 2 years of field experiments with grapevines (Vitis vinifera L., cvs Castelão and Aragonês), it was found that thermal imaging can distinguish between irrigated and non-irrigated canopies, and even between deficit irrigation treatments. Average canopy temperature was inversely correlated with stomatal conductance measured with a porometer. Variation of the distribution of temperatures within canopies was not found to be a reliable indicator of stress. A large degree of variation between images was found in reference 'wet' and 'dry' leaves used in the first year for the calculation of an index proportional to stomatal conductance. In the second year, fully irrigated (FI) (100% Et(c)) and non-irrigated (NI) canopies were used as alternatives to wet and dry leaves. A crop water stress index utilizing these FI and NI 'references', where stressed canopies have the highest values and non-stressed canopies have the lowest values, was found to be a suitable measure for detecting stress. It is suggested that the average temperatures of areas of canopies containing several leaves may be more useful for distinguishing between irrigation treatments than the temperatures of individual leaves. Average temperatures over several leaves per canopy may be expected to reduce the impact of variation in leaf angles. The results are discussed in relation to the application of thermal imaging to irrigation scheduling and monitoring crop performance. PMID:17032729

  11. Distinct regulation in inflorescence carbohydrate metabolism according to grapevine cultivars during floral development.

    PubMed

    Sawicki, Mélodie; Jacquens, Lucile; Baillieul, Fabienne; Clément, Christophe; Vaillant-Gaveau, Nathalie; Jacquard, Cédric

    2015-07-01

    Carbohydrate metabolism is important in plant sexual reproduction because sugar contents are determining factors for both flower initiation and floral organ development. In woody plants, flowering represents the most energy-consuming step crucial to reproductive success. Nevertheless, in these species, the photosynthesis performed by flowers supplies the carbon required for reproduction. In grapevine (Vitis vinifera), the inflorescence has a specific status because this organ imports carbohydrates at the same time as it exports photoassimilates. In this study, fluctuations in carbohydrate metabolism were monitored by analyzing gas exchanges, photosynthetic electron transport capacity, carbohydrate contents and some activities of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, in the inflorescences of Pinot noir and Gewurztraminer, two cultivars with a different sensitivity to coulure phenomenon. Our results showed that photosynthetic activity and carbohydrate metabolism are clearly different and differently regulated during the floral development in the two cultivars. Indeed, the regulation of the linear electron flow and the cyclic electron flow is not similar. Moreover, the regulation of PSII activity, with a higher Y(NPQ)/Y(NO) ratio in Gewurztraminer, can be correlated with the higher protection of the photosynthetic chain and consequently with the higher yield under optimal conditions of this cultivar. At least, our results showed a higher photosynthetic activity and a better protection of PSI in Pinot noir during the floral development. PMID:25585972

  12. Warm spring temperatures induce persistent season-long changes in shoot development in grapevines

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Markus; Tarara, Julie M.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims The influence of temperature on the timing of budbreak in woody perennials is well known, but its effect on subsequent shoot growth and architecture has received little attention because it is understood that growth is determined by current temperature. Seasonal shoot development of grapevines (Vitis vinifera) was evaluated following differences in temperature near budbreak while minimizing the effects of other microclimatic variables. Methods Dormant buds and emerging shoots of field-grown grapevines were heated above or cooled below the temperature of ambient buds from before budbreak until individual flowers were visible on inflorescences, at which stage the shoots had four to eight unfolded leaves. Multiple treatments were imposed randomly on individual plants and replicated across plants. Shoot growth and development were monitored during two growing seasons. Key Results Higher bud temperatures advanced the date of budbreak and accelerated shoot growth and leaf area development. Differences were due to higher rates of shoot elongation, leaf appearance, leaf-area expansion and axillary-bud outgrowth. Although shoots arising from heated buds grew most vigorously, apical dominance in these shoots was reduced, as their axillary buds broke earlier and gave rise to more vigorous lateral shoots. In contrast, axillary-bud outgrowth was minimal on the slow-growing shoots emerging from buds cooled below ambient. Variation in shoot development persisted or increased during the growing season, well after temperature treatments were terminated and despite an imposed soil water deficit. Conclusions The data indicate that bud-level differences in budbreak temperature may lead to marked differences in shoot growth, shoot architecture and leaf-area development that are maintained or amplified during the growing season. Although growth rates commonly are understood to reflect current temperatures, these results demonstrate a persistent effect of early

  13. Nocturnal and daytime stomatal conductance respond to root-zone temperature in ‘Shiraz’ grapevines

    PubMed Central

    Rogiers, Suzy Y.; Clarke, Simon J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Daytime root-zone temperature may be a significant factor regulating water flux through plants. Water flux can also occur during the night but nocturnal stomatal response to environmental drivers such as root-zone temperature remains largely unknown. Methods Here nocturnal and daytime leaf gas exchange was quantified in ‘Shiraz’ grapevines (Vitis vinifera) exposed to three root-zone temperatures from budburst to fruit-set, for a total of 8 weeks in spring. Key Results Despite lower stomatal density, night-time stomatal conductance and transpiration rates were greater for plants grown in warm root-zones. Elevated root-zone temperature resulted in higher daytime stomatal conductance, transpiration and net assimilation rates across a range of leaf-to-air vapour pressure deficits, air temperatures and light levels. Intrinsic water-use efficiency was, however, lowest in those plants with warm root-zones. CO2 response curves of foliar gas exchange indicated that the maximum rate of electron transport and the maximum rate of Rubisco activity did not differ between the root-zone treatments, and therefore it was likely that the lower photosynthesis in cool root-zones was predominantly the result of a stomatal limitation. One week after discontinuation of the temperature treatments, gas exchange was similar between the plants, indicating a reversible physiological response to soil temperature. Conclusions In this anisohydric grapevine variety both night-time and daytime stomatal conductance were responsive to root-zone temperature. Because nocturnal transpiration has implications for overall plant water status, predictive climate change models using stomatal conductance will need to factor in this root-zone variable. PMID:23293018

  14. A physical map of the heterozygous grapevine 'Cabernet Sauvignon' allows mapping candidate genes for disease resistance

    PubMed Central

    Moroldo, Marco; Paillard, Sophie; Marconi, Raffaella; Fabrice, Legeai; Canaguier, Aurelie; Cruaud, Corinne; De Berardinis, Veronique; Guichard, Cecile; Brunaud, Veronique; Le Clainche, Isabelle; Scalabrin, Simone; Testolin, Raffaele; Di Gaspero, Gabriele; Morgante, Michele; Adam-Blondon, Anne-Francoise

    2008-01-01

    Background Whole-genome physical maps facilitate genome sequencing, sequence assembly, mapping of candidate genes, and the design of targeted genetic markers. An automated protocol was used to construct a Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon' physical map. The quality of the result was addressed with regard to the effect of high heterozygosity on the accuracy of contig assembly. Its usefulness for the genome-wide mapping of genes for disease resistance, which is an important trait for grapevine, was then assessed. Results The physical map included 29,727 BAC clones assembled into 1,770 contigs, spanning 715,684 kbp, and corresponding to 1.5-fold the genome size. Map inflation was due to high heterozygosity, which caused either the separation of allelic BACs in two different contigs, or local mis-assembly in contigs containing BACs from the two haplotypes. Genetic markers anchored 395 contigs or 255,476 kbp to chromosomes. The fully automated assembly and anchorage procedures were validated by BAC-by-BAC blast of the end sequences against the grape genome sequence, unveiling 7.3% of chimerical contigs. The distribution across the physical map of candidate genes for non-host and host resistance, and for defence signalling pathways was then studied. NBS-LRR and RLK genes for host resistance were found in 424 contigs, 133 of them (32%) were assigned to chromosomes, on which they are mostly organised in clusters. Non-host and defence signalling genes were found in 99 contigs dispersed without a discernable pattern across the genome. Conclusion Despite some limitations that interfere with the correct assembly of heterozygous clones into contigs, the 'Cabernet Sauvignon' physical map is a useful and reliable intermediary step between a genetic map and the genome sequence. This tool was successfully exploited for a quick mapping of complex families of genes, and it strengthened previous clues of co-localisation of major NBS-LRR clusters and disease resistance loci in

  15. Grafting with rootstocks induces extensive transcriptional re-programming in the shoot apical meristem of grapevine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Grafting is widely used in the agriculture of fruit-bearing crops; rootstocks are known to confer differences in scion biomass in addition to improving other traits of agricultural interest. However, little is known about the effect of rootstocks on scion gene expression. The objective of this study was to determine whether hetero-grafting the grapevine variety Vitis vinifera cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon N’ with two different rootstocks alters gene expression in the shoot apex in comparison to the auto-grafted control. Cabernet Sauvignon was hetero-grafted with two commercial rootstock genotypes and auto-grafted with itself. Vigor was quantified by measurements of root, stem, leaf and trunk biomass. Gene expression profiling was done using a whole genome grapevine microarray; four pools of five shoot apex samples were harvested 4 months after grafting for each scion/rootstock combination. Results The rootstocks increased stem biomass or conferred increased vigor by the end of the first growth cycle. Globally hetero-grafting two different genotypes together triggered an increase in shoot apex gene expression; however no genes were differentially expressed between the two hetero-grafts. The functional categories related to DNA, chromatin structure, histones, flavonoids and leucine rich repeat containing receptor kinases were the most enriched in the up-regulated genes in the shoot apex of hetero-grafted plants. Conclusions The choice of rootstock genotype had little effect on the gene expression in the shoot apex; this could suggest that auto- and hetero-grafting was the major factor regulating gene expression. PMID:24083813

  16. Enhanced salt-induced antioxidative responses involve a contribution of polyamine biosynthesis in grapevine plants.

    PubMed

    Ikbal, Fatima Ezzohra; Hernández, José Antonio; Barba-Espín, Gregorio; Koussa, Tayeb; Aziz, Aziz; Faize, Mohamed; Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro

    2014-06-15

    The possible involvement of polyamines in the salt stress adaptation was investigated in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) plantlets focusing on photosynthesis and oxidative metabolism. Salt stress resulted in the deterioration of plant growth and photosynthesis, and treatment of plantlets with methylglyoxal-bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG), a S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) inhibitor, enhanced the salt stress effect. A decrease in PSII quantum yield (Fv/Fm), effective PSII quantum yield (Y(II)) and coefficient of photochemical quenching (qP) as well as increases in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and its coefficient (qN) was observed by these treatments. Salt and/or MGBG treatments also triggered an increase in lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation as well as an increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POX) activities, but not ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity. Salt stress also resulted in an accumulation of oxidized ascorbate (DHA) and a decrease in reduced glutathione. MGBG alone or in combination with salt stress increased monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), SOD and POX activities and surprisingly no accumulation of DHA was noticed following treatment with MGBG. These salt-induced responses correlated with the maintaining of high level of free and conjugated spermidine and spermine, whereas a reduction of agmatine and putrescine levels was observed, which seemed to be amplified by the MGBG treatment. These results suggest that maintaining polyamine biosynthesis through the enhanced SAMDC activity in grapevine leaf tissues under salt stress conditions could contribute to the enhanced ROS scavenging activity and a protection of photosynthetic apparatus from oxidative damages. PMID:24877669

  17. A new leafminer on grapevine and Rhoicissus (Vitaceae) in South Africa within an expanded generic concept of Holocacista (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Heliozelidae)

    PubMed Central

    van Nieukerken, Erik J.; Geertsema, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A grapevine leafminer found recently in table grape orchards and vineyards in the Paarl region (Western Cape, South Africa) is described as Holocacista capensis sp. n. It has also been found on native Rhoicissus digitata and bred on that species in the laboratory. It is closely related to Holocacista salutans (Meyrick, 1921), comb. n. (from Antispila), described from Durban in KwaZulu-Natal, but widespread in southern Africa and a native leafminer of various Vitaceae: Rhoicissus tomentosa, Rhoicissus digitata, Rhoicissus tridentata and Cissus cornifolia. Holocacista capensis has been found on Vitis vinifera both in Gauteng and Western Cape, the earliest record being from 1950 in Pretoria. The initial host shift from native Vitaceae to Vitis must have occurred much earlier. The species is sometimes present in high densities, but hitherto no sizeable damage to the crops has been noted. The genus Holocacista Walsingham & Durrant, 1909, previously known from the single European grapevine leafminer Holocacista rivillei (Stainton, 1855), is expanded and redescribed and for the first time reported from Africa, East and South-East Asia and Australia. It comprises seven named species and at least 15 unnamed species. The following species are also recombined with Holocacista: transferred from Antispilina: South-African Holocacista varii (Mey, 2011), comb. n., feeding on Pelargonium, transferred from Antispila: the Indian species Holocacista micrarcha (Meyrick, 1926), comb. n. and Holocacista pariodelta (Meyrick, 1929), comb. n., both feeding on Lannea coromandelica, and Holocacista selastis (Meyrick, 1926), comb. n. on Psychotria dalzelii. We also remove the following from Antispila: Heliozela anna (Fletcher, 1920), comb. n. and Heliozela argyrozona (Meyrick, 1918), comb. n., whereas the following Indian Vitaceae feeding species are confirmed to belong in Antispila s. str.: Antispila argostoma Meyrick, 1916 and Antispila aristarcha Meyrick, 1916. Holocacista

  18. Influence of Grapevine leafroll associated viruses (GLRaV-2 and -3) on the Fruit Composition of Oregon Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot Noir: Free Amino Acids, Sugars, and Organic Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Individual free amino acids, yeast assimilable amino acid (YAN) content, ammonium, organic acids, and simple sugars of berries from GLRaV-2 or GLRaV-3 infected vines were compared with paired vines free of these viruses. Samples were taken from two commercial vineyards during two growing seasons (20...

  19. Microarray Analysis of Global Gene Expression of V. vinifera in Response to Xylella fastidiosa Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, we analyzed gene expression profiles of Pierce’s Disease (PD) resistant and susceptible genotypes of V. arizonica hybrids in response to infection by X. fastidiosa (Xf). Here we report the gene expression profile of the PD susceptible European grapevine (V. vinifera) in response to Xf...

  20. Differences in respiration between dormant and non-dormant buds suggest the involvement of ABA in the development of endodormancy in grapevines.

    PubMed

    Parada, Francisca; Noriega, Ximena; Dantas, Débora; Bressan-Smith, Ricardo; Pérez, Francisco J

    2016-08-20

    Grapevine buds (Vitis vinifera L) enter endodormancy (ED) after perceiving the short-day (SD) photoperiod signal and undergo metabolic changes that allow them to survive the winter temperatures. In the present study, we observed an inverse relationship between the depth of ED and the respiration rate of grapevine buds. Moreover, the respiration of dormant and non-dormant buds differed in response to temperature and glucose, two stimuli that normally increase respiration in plant tissues. While respiration in non-dormant buds rose sharply in response to both stimuli, respiration in dormant buds was only slightly affected. This suggests that a metabolic inhibitor is present. Here, we propose that the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) could be this inhibitor. ABA inhibits respiration in non-dormant buds and represses the expression of respiratory genes, such as ALTERNATIVE NADH DEHYDROGENASE (VaND1, VvaND2), CYTOCHROME OXIDASE (VvCOX6) and CYTOCHROME C (VvCYTC), and induces the expression of VvSnRK1, a gene encoding a member of a highly conserved family of protein kinases that act as energy sensors and regulate gene expression in response to energy depletion. In addition to inducing ED the SD-photoperiod up-regulated the expression of VvNCED, a gene that encodes a key enzyme in ABA synthesis. Taken together, these results suggest that ABA through the mediation of VvSnRK1, could play a key role in the regulation of the metabolic changes accompanying the entry into ED of grapevine buds. PMID:27448722

  1. Short-time xylem relaxation results in reliable quantification of embolism in grapevine petioles and sheds new light on their hydraulic strategy.

    PubMed

    Hochberg, Uri; Herrera, Jose Carlos; Cochard, Hervé; Badel, Eric

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, the validity of embolism quantification methods has been questioned, especially for long-vesseled plants. Some studies have suggested that cutting xylem while under tension, even under water, might generate artificial cavitation. Accordingly, a rehydration procedure prior to hydraulic measurements has been recommended to avoid this artefact. On the other hand, concerns have been raised that xylem refilling might occur when samples are rehydrated. Here, we explore the potential biases affecting embolism quantification for grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) petioles harvested under tension or after xylem relaxation. We employ direct visualization of embolism through X-ray micro-computed tomography (microCT) to test for the occurrence of fast refilling (artifactually low per cent loss of conductivity (PLC) due to rehydration prior to sample harvest) as well as excision-induced embolism (artifactually high embolism due to air introduction during harvest). Additionally, we compared the response functions of both stomatal regulation and xylem embolism to xylem pressure (Ψx). Short-time (20 min) xylem tension relaxation prior to the hydraulic measurement resulted in a lower degree of embolism than found in samples harvested under native tensions, and yielded xylem vulnerability curves similar to the ones obtained using direct microCT visualization. Much longer periods of hydration (overnight) were required before xylem refilling was observed to occur. In field-grown vines, over 85% of stomatal closure occurred at less negative Ψx than that required to induce 12% PLC. Our results demonstrate that relaxation of xylem tension prior to hydraulic measurement allows for the reliable quantification of native embolism in grapevine petioles. Furthermore, we find that stomatal regulation is sufficiently conservative to avoid transpiration-induced cavitation. These results suggest that grapevines have evolved a strategy of cavitation resistance, rather than one of

  2. Integrated Network Analysis Identifies Fight-Club Nodes as a Class of Hubs Encompassing Key Putative Switch Genes That Induce Major Transcriptome Reprogramming during Grapevine Development[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Palumbo, Maria Concetta; Zenoni, Sara; Fasoli, Marianna; Massonnet, Mélanie; Farina, Lorenzo; Castiglione, Filippo; Pezzotti, Mario; Paci, Paola

    2014-01-01

    We developed an approach that integrates different network-based methods to analyze the correlation network arising from large-scale gene expression data. By studying grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) gene expression atlases and a grapevine berry transcriptomic data set during the transition from immature to mature growth, we identified a category named “fight-club hubs” characterized by a marked negative correlation with the expression profiles of neighboring genes in the network. A special subset named “switch genes” was identified, with the additional property of many significant negative correlations outside their own group in the network. Switch genes are involved in multiple processes and include transcription factors that may be considered master regulators of the previously reported transcriptome remodeling that marks the developmental shift from immature to mature growth. All switch genes, expressed at low levels in vegetative/green t