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Sample records for graph interpretation skills

  1. Test of Graphing and Graph Interpretation Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, J.

    This monograph is a test of graphing and graph interpretation skills which assesses performance on all the skills of graphing which are contained in the AAAS program, Science - A Process Approach. The testing includes construction of bar graphs, interpreting information on graphs, the use of the Cartesian coordinate system, making predictions from…

  2. Measuring Primary Students' Graph Interpretation Skills via a Performance Assessment: A Case Study in Instrument Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterman, Karen; Cranston, Kayla A.; Pryor, Marie; Kermish-Allen, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    This case study was conducted within the context of a place-based education project that was implemented with primary school students in the USA. The authors and participating teachers created a performance assessment of standards-aligned tasks to examine 6-10-year-old students' graph interpretation skills as part of an exploratory research

  3. Measuring Primary Students' Graph Interpretation Skills via a Performance Assessment: A Case Study in Instrument Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterman, Karen; Cranston, Kayla A.; Pryor, Marie; Kermish-Allen, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    This case study was conducted within the context of a place-based education project that was implemented with primary school students in the USA. The authors and participating teachers created a performance assessment of standards-aligned tasks to examine 6-10-year-old students' graph interpretation skills as part of an exploratory research…

  4. The relationships between spatial ability, logical thinking, mathematics performance and kinematics graph interpretation skills of 12th grade physics students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bektasli, Behzat

    Graphs have a broad use in science classrooms, especially in physics. In physics, kinematics is probably the topic for which graphs are most widely used. The participants in this study were from two different grade-12 physics classrooms, advanced placement and calculus-based physics. The main purpose of this study was to search for the relationships between student spatial ability, logical thinking, mathematical achievement, and kinematics graphs interpretation skills. The Purdue Spatial Visualization Test, the Middle Grades Integrated Process Skills Test (MIPT), and the Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K) were used for quantitative data collection. Classroom observations were made to acquire ideas about classroom environment and instructional techniques. Factor analysis, simple linear correlation, multiple linear regression, and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the quantitative data. Each instrument has two principal components. The selection and calculation of the slope and of the area were the two principal components of TUG-K. MIPT was composed of a component based upon processing text and a second component based upon processing symbolic information. The Purdue Spatial Visualization Test was composed of a component based upon one-step processing and a second component based upon two-step processing of information. Student ability to determine the slope in a kinematics graph was significantly correlated with spatial ability, logical thinking, and mathematics aptitude and achievement. However, student ability to determine the area in a kinematics graph was only significantly correlated with student pre-calculus semester 2 grades. Male students performed significantly better than female students on the slope items of TUG-K. Also, male students performed significantly better than female students on the PSAT mathematics assessment and spatial ability. This study found that students have different levels of spatial ability, logical thinking, and mathematics aptitude and achievement levels. These different levels were related to student learning of kinematics and they need to be considered when kinematics is being taught. It might be easier for students to understand the kinematics graphs if curriculum developers include more activities related to spatial ability and logical thinking.

  5. The Relationships between Logical Thinking, Gender, and Kinematics Graph Interpretation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bektasli, Behzat; White, Arthur L.

    2012-01-01

    Problem Statement: Kinematics is one of the topics in physics where graphs are used broadly. Kinematics includes many abstract formulas, and students usually try to solve problems with those formulas. However, using a kinematics graph instead of formulas might be a better option for problem solving in kinematics. Graphs are abstract…

  6. Challenges with Graph Interpretation: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Nirit

    2011-01-01

    With the growing emphasis on the development of scientific inquiry skills, the display and interpretation of data are becoming increasingly important. Graph interpretation competence is, in fact, essential to understanding today's world and to be scientifically literate. However, graph interpretation is a complex and challenging activity. Graph…

  7. Testing Student Interpretation of Kinematics Graphs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beichner, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the development and analysis of the Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K) and reports the results of a study aimed at uncovering student problems with interpreting kinematics graphs. Proposes a model for creating multiple choice tests which can be used as diagnostic tools. Contains 34 references. (DDR)

  8. The Use of Graphing Technology to Promote Transfer of Learning: the Interpretation of Graphs in Physics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Jeri Ann

    This study examined the relationship between mathematics background and performance on graph-related problems in physics before and after instruction on the graphical analysis of motion and several microcomputer-based laboratory experiences. Students identified as either having or not having a graphing technology enhanced precalculus mathematics background were further categorized into one of four groups according to mathematics placement at the university. The performances of these groups were compared to identity differences. Pre- and Post-test data were collected from 589 students and 312 students during Autumn Quarter 1990 and Winter Quarter 1991 respectively. Background information was collected from each student. Significant differences were found between students with the technology enhanced mathematics background and those without when considering the entire populations both quarters. The students with the technology background were favored Autumn quarter and students without the technology background were favored Winter quarter. However, the entire population included an underrepresentation of students at the highest and lowest placements; hence, these were eliminated from the analyses. No significant differences were found between the technology/no technology groups after the elimination of the underrepresented groups. All categories of students increased their mean scores from pretest to post-test; the average increase was 8.23 points Autumn Quarter and 11.41 points Winter Quarter. Males consistently outperformed females on both the pretest and the post-test Autumn 1990. All students found questions involving the concept of acceleration more difficult than questions involving velocity or distance. Questions requiring students to create graphs were more difficult than questions requiring students to interpret graphs. Further research involving a qualitative component is recommended to identify the specific skills students use when solving graph-related physics problems. In addition, it is recommended that a similar study be conducted to include a control group not participating in the microcomputer -based laboratory experiments.

  9. Supporting Fourth Graders' Ability to Interpret Graphs through Real-Time Graphing Technology: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deniz, Hasan; Dulger, Mehmet F.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined to what extent inquiry-based instruction supported with real-time graphing technology improves fourth grader's ability to interpret graphs as representations of physical science concepts such as motion and temperature. This study also examined whether there is any difference between inquiry-based instruction supported with…

  10. Supporting Fourth Graders' Ability to Interpret Graphs through Real-Time Graphing Technology: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deniz, Hasan; Dulger, Mehmet F.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined to what extent inquiry-based instruction supported with real-time graphing technology improves fourth grader's ability to interpret graphs as representations of physical science concepts such as motion and temperature. This study also examined whether there is any difference between inquiry-based instruction supported with

  11. Neural complexity: A graph theoretic interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, L.; Buckley, C. L.; Bullock, S.

    2011-04-01

    One of the central challenges facing modern neuroscience is to explain the ability of the nervous system to coherently integrate information across distinct functional modules in the absence of a central executive. To this end, Tononi [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.PNASA60027-842410.1073/pnas.91.11.5033 91, 5033 (1994)] proposed a measure of neural complexity that purports to capture this property based on mutual information between complementary subsets of a system. Neural complexity, so defined, is one of a family of information theoretic metrics developed to measure the balance between the segregation and integration of a system’s dynamics. One key question arising for such measures involves understanding how they are influenced by network topology. Sporns [Cereb. Cortex53OPAV1047-321110.1093/cercor/10.2.127 10, 127 (2000)] employed numerical models in order to determine the dependence of neural complexity on the topological features of a network. However, a complete picture has yet to be established. While De Lucia [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.71.016114 71, 016114 (2005)] made the first attempts at an analytical account of this relationship, their work utilized a formulation of neural complexity that, we argue, did not reflect the intuitions of the original work. In this paper we start by describing weighted connection matrices formed by applying a random continuous weight distribution to binary adjacency matrices. This allows us to derive an approximation for neural complexity in terms of the moments of the weight distribution and elementary graph motifs. In particular, we explicitly establish a dependency of neural complexity on cyclic graph motifs.

  12. Expert interpretation of bar and line graphs: the role of graphicacy in reducing the effect of graph format

    PubMed Central

    Peebles, David; Ali, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    The distinction between informational and computational equivalence of representations, first articulated by Larkin and Simon (1987) has been a fundamental principle in the analysis of diagrammatic reasoning which has been supported empirically on numerous occasions. We present an experiment that investigates this principle in relation to the performance of expert graph users of 2 × 2 “interaction” bar and line graphs. The study sought to determine whether expert interpretation is affected by graph format in the same way that novice interpretations are. The findings revealed that, unlike novices—and contrary to the assumptions of several graph comprehension models—experts' performance was the same for both graph formats, with their interpretation of bar graphs being no worse than that for line graphs. We discuss the implications of the study for guidelines for presenting such data and for models of expert graph comprehension. PMID:26579052

  13. Expert interpretation of bar and line graphs: the role of graphicacy in reducing the effect of graph format.

    PubMed

    Peebles, David; Ali, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    The distinction between informational and computational equivalence of representations, first articulated by Larkin and Simon (1987) has been a fundamental principle in the analysis of diagrammatic reasoning which has been supported empirically on numerous occasions. We present an experiment that investigates this principle in relation to the performance of expert graph users of 2 × 2 "interaction" bar and line graphs. The study sought to determine whether expert interpretation is affected by graph format in the same way that novice interpretations are. The findings revealed that, unlike novices-and contrary to the assumptions of several graph comprehension models-experts' performance was the same for both graph formats, with their interpretation of bar graphs being no worse than that for line graphs. We discuss the implications of the study for guidelines for presenting such data and for models of expert graph comprehension. PMID:26579052

  14. Infusing Counseling Skills in Test Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawlins, Melanie E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Presents an instructional model based on Neurolinguistic Programming that links counseling student course work in measurement and test interpretation with counseling techniques and theory. A process incorporating Neurolinguistic Programming patterns is outlined for teaching graduate students the counseling skills helpful in test interpretation.…

  15. Interpretable whole-brain prediction analysis with GraphNet.

    PubMed

    Grosenick, Logan; Klingenberg, Brad; Katovich, Kiefer; Knutson, Brian; Taylor, Jonathan E

    2013-05-15

    Multivariate machine learning methods are increasingly used to analyze neuroimaging data, often replacing more traditional "mass univariate" techniques that fit data one voxel at a time. In the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature, this has led to broad application of "off-the-shelf" classification and regression methods. These generic approaches allow investigators to use ready-made algorithms to accurately decode perceptual, cognitive, or behavioral states from distributed patterns of neural activity. However, when applied to correlated whole-brain fMRI data these methods suffer from coefficient instability, are sensitive to outliers, and yield dense solutions that are hard to interpret without arbitrary thresholding. Here, we develop variants of the Graph-constrained Elastic-Net (GraphNet), a fast, whole-brain regression and classification method developed for spatially and temporally correlated data that automatically yields interpretable coefficient maps (Grosenick et al., 2009b). GraphNet methods yield sparse but structured solutions by combining structured graph constraints (based on knowledge about coefficient smoothness or connectivity) with a global sparsity-inducing prior that automatically selects important variables. Because GraphNet methods can efficiently fit regression or classification models to whole-brain, multiple time-point data sets and enhance classification accuracy relative to volume-of-interest (VOI) approaches, they eliminate the need for inherently biased VOI analyses and allow whole-brain fitting without the multiple comparison problems that plague mass univariate and roaming VOI ("searchlight") methods. As fMRI data are unlikely to be normally distributed, we (1) extend GraphNet to include robust loss functions that confer insensitivity to outliers, (2) equip them with "adaptive" penalties that asymptotically guarantee correct variable selection, and (3) develop a novel sparse structured Support Vector GraphNet classifier (SVGN). When applied to previously published data (Knutson et al., 2007), these efficient whole-brain methods significantly improved classification accuracy over previously reported VOI-based analyses on the same data (Grosenick et al., 2008; Knutson et al., 2007) while discovering task-related regions not documented in the original VOI approach. Critically, GraphNet estimates fit to the Knutson et al. (2007) data generalize well to out-of-sample data collected more than three years later on the same task but with different subjects and stimuli (Karmarkar et al., submitted for publication). By enabling robust and efficient selection of important voxels from whole-brain data taken over multiple time points (>100,000 "features"), these methods enable data-driven selection of brain areas that accurately predict single-trial behavior within and across individuals. PMID:23298747

  16. Pre-Service Science Teachers' Interpretations of Graphs: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çil, Emine; Kar, Hazel

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on pre-service science teachers' interpretations of graphs. First, the paper presents data about the freshman and senior pre-service teachers' interpretations of graphs. Then it discusses the effects of pre-service science teacher training program on student teachers' interpretations of graphs. The participants in the study were…

  17. Understanding and Interpreting Calculus Graphs: Refining an Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Goytia, Nadia; Dominguez, Angeles; Zavala, Genaro

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this ongoing study is to refine an instrument to evaluate conceptual understanding and graphical interpretation of a function and its derivative. The instrument is based on a modified version of the Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K) which consists of 26 items (7 dimensions). In the new instrument, Test of Understanding Graphs in Calculus (TUG-C), the kinematics context has been removed from the items creating a new context-free version. To favor the translation from kinematics to Calculus, the focus is on 5 out of the 7 original dimensions of the test, giving a 16-item test. A total of 526 students from a university level Introductory Physics course participated in the study. Half of the students were administered the kinematics test and the other half took the calculus test. This work will present data showing preliminary results of the instrument and new directions on improving the instrument.

  18. Assessing and Understanding Line Graph Interpretations Using a Scoring Rubric of Organized Cited Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boote, Stacy K.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how 12- and 13-year-old students' mathematics and science background knowledge affected line graph interpretations and how interpretations were affected by graph question levels. A purposive sample of 14 students engaged in think aloud interviews while completing an excerpted Test of Graphing in Science. Data were…

  19. Assessing and Understanding Line Graph Interpretations Using a Scoring Rubric of Organized Cited Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boote, Stacy K.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how 12- and 13-year-old students' mathematics and science background knowledge affected line graph interpretations and how interpretations were affected by graph question levels. A purposive sample of 14 students engaged in think aloud interviews while completing an excerpted Test of Graphing in Science. Data were

  20. Undergraduate Student Construction and Interpretation of Graphs in Physics Lab Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Ryan S.; Godfrey, T. J.; Mayhew, Nicholas T.; Wiegert, Craig C.

    2016-01-01

    Lab activities are an important element of an undergraduate physics course. In these lab activities, students construct and interpret graphs in order to connect the procedures of the lab with an understanding of the related physics concepts. This study investigated undergraduate students' construction and interpretation of graphs with best-fit…

  1. Students' Interpretation of a Function Associated with a Real-Life Problem from Its Graph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahir, Nevin

    2010-01-01

    The properties of a function such as limit, continuity, derivative, growth, or concavity can be determined more easily from its graph than by doing any algebraic operation. For this reason, it is important for students of mathematics to interpret some of the properties of a function from its graph. In this study, we investigated the competence of…

  2. Generalizing a Categorization of Students' Interpretations of Linear Kinematics Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollen, Laurens; De Cock, Mieke; Zuza, Kristina; Guisasola, Jenaro; van Kampen, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated whether and how a categorization of responses to questions on linear distance-time graphs, based on a study of Irish students enrolled in an algebra-based course, could be adopted and adapted to responses from students enrolled in calculus-based physics courses at universities in Flanders, Belgium (KU Leuven) and the Basque…

  3. Generalizing a categorization of students' interpretations of linear kinematics graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollen, Laurens; De Cock, Mieke; Zuza, Kristina; Guisasola, Jenaro; van Kampen, Paul

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated whether and how a categorization of responses to questions on linear distance-time graphs, based on a study of Irish students enrolled in an algebra-based course, could be adopted and adapted to responses from students enrolled in calculus-based physics courses at universities in Flanders, Belgium (KU Leuven) and the Basque Country, Spain (University of the Basque Country). We discuss how we adapted the categorization to accommodate a much more diverse student cohort and explain how the prior knowledge of students may account for many differences in the prevalence of approaches and success rates. Although calculus-based physics students make fewer mistakes than algebra-based physics students, they encounter similar difficulties that are often related to incorrectly dividing two coordinates. We verified that a qualitative understanding of kinematics is an important but not sufficient condition for students to determine a correct value for the speed. When comparing responses to questions on linear distance-time graphs with responses to isomorphic questions on linear water level versus time graphs, we observed that the context of a question influences the approach students use. Neither qualitative understanding nor an ability to find the slope of a context-free graph proved to be a reliable predictor for the approach students use when they determine the instantaneous speed.

  4. Generalizing a Categorization of Students' Interpretations of Linear Kinematics Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollen, Laurens; De Cock, Mieke; Zuza, Kristina; Guisasola, Jenaro; van Kampen, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated whether and how a categorization of responses to questions on linear distance-time graphs, based on a study of Irish students enrolled in an algebra-based course, could be adopted and adapted to responses from students enrolled in calculus-based physics courses at universities in Flanders, Belgium (KU Leuven) and the Basque

  5. Bars, Lines, & Pies: A Graphing Skills Program. Expect the Unexpected with Math[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Actuarial Foundation, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Bars, Lines, & Pies" is a dynamic math program designed to build graphing skills in students, while also showing them the relevance of math in their lives. Developed by The Actuarial Foundation along with Scholastic, the graphing lessons and activities involve engaging, real-world examples about the environment and recycling. In these lessons,…

  6. Improving Graduate Students' Graphing Skills of Multiple Baseline Designs with Microsoft[R] Excel 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Ya-yu; Starling, A. Leyf Peirce

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a graphing task analysis using the Microsoft[R] Office Excel 2007 program on the single-subject multiple baseline graphing skills of three university graduate students. Using a multiple probe across participants design, the study demonstrated a functional relationship between the number of correct graphing…

  7. Effects of Graphing Conventions and Response Options on Interpretation of Small n Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of manipulation of two graphing conventions on judgements of time-series data by novice raters. These conventions involved the presence of phase change lines between baseline and intervention data and whether data points across phase changes were connected. The 1990 study of Matyas and Greenwood was also…

  8. Teaching the design and interpretation of graphs through computer-aided graphical data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, David F.; Edwards, Billie Jean; Berger, Carl F.

    Graphs are one of the primary means of exploration and communication in the practice of science, but students in science laboratories are customarily taught only the low-level mechanics of constructing a single kind of graph when given a table of information. The use of a microcomputer can relieve the drudgery of plotting, allowing students to pursue higher-level issues in the design and interpretation of graphs through repeated thought experiments. We introduced computer-assisted graphical data analysis to inner-city high school students with weak math and science backgrounds, emphasizing the dynamic manipulation of various kinds of graphs to answer specific questions. Drawing on extensive recordings and classroom observations, we describe examples of the performance of these students on open-ended problem-solving tasks in which graphs can be used to arrive at meaningful answers to applied data analysis problems.

  9. Graph-based interpretation of the molecular interstellar medium segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Ginsburg, A.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Hughes, A.

    2015-12-01

    We present a generalization of the giant molecular cloud identification problem based on cluster analysis. The method we designed, SCIMES (Spectral Clustering for Interstellar Molecular Emission Segmentation) considers the dendrogram of emission in the broader framework of graph theory and utilizes spectral clustering to find discrete regions with similar emission properties. For Galactic molecular cloud structures, we show that the characteristic volume and/or integrated CO luminosity are useful criteria to define the clustering, yielding emission structures that closely reproduce `by-eye' identification results. SCIMES performs best on well-resolved, high-resolution data, making it complementary to other available algorithms. Using 12CO(1-0) data for the Orion-Monoceros complex, we demonstrate that SCIMES provides robust results against changes of the dendrogram-construction parameters, noise realizations and degraded resolution. By comparing SCIMES with other cloud decomposition approaches, we show that our method is able to identify all canonical clouds of the Orion-Monoceros region, avoiding the overdivision within high-resolution survey data that represents a common limitation of several decomposition algorithms. The Orion-Monoceros objects exhibit hierarchies and size-line width relationships typical to the turbulent gas in molecular clouds, although `the Scissors' region deviates from this common description. SCIMES represents a significant step forward in moving away from pixel-based cloud segmentation towards a more physical-oriented approach, where virtually all properties of the ISM can be used for the segmentation of discrete objects.

  10. Evaluating Interpreter's Skill by Measurement of Prosody Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Saori; Nakazono, Kaoru; Nishida, Masafumi; Horiuchi, Yasuo; Ichikawa, Akira

    Sign language is a visual language in which main articulators are hands, torso, head, and face. For simultaneous interpreters of Japanese sign language (JSL) and spoken Japanese, it is very important to recognize not only the hands movement but also prosody such like head, eye, posture and facial expression. This is because prosody has grammatical rules for representing the case and modification relations in JSL. The goal of this study is to introduce an examination called MPR (Measurement of Prosody Recognition) and to demonstrate that it can be an indicator for the other general skills of interpreters. For this purpose, we conducted two experiments: the first studies the relationship between the interpreter's experience and the performance score on MPR (Experiment-1), and the second investigates the specific skill that can be estimated by MPR (Experiment-2). The data in Experiment-1 came from four interpreters who had more than 1-year experience as interpreters, and more four interpreters who had less than 1-year experience. The mean accuracy of MPR in the more experienced group was higher than that in the less experienced group. The data in Experiment-2 came from three high MPR interpreters and three low MPR interpreters. Two hearing subjects and three deaf subjects evaluated their skill in terms of the speech or sign interpretation skill, the reliability of interpretation, the expeditiousness, and the subjective sense of accomplishment for the ordering pizza task. The two experiments indicated a possibility that MPR could be useful for estimating if the interpreter is sufficiently experienced to interpret from sign language to spoken Japanese, and if they can work on the interpretation expeditiously without making the deaf or the hearing clients anxious. Finally we end this paper with suggestions for conclusions and future work.

  11. Using professional interpreters in undergraduate medical consultation skills teaching

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Aarti; Swann, Jennifer; Smithson, William Henry

    2014-01-01

    The ability to work with interpreters is a core skill for UK medical graduates. At the University of Sheffield Medical School, this teaching was identified as a gap in the curriculum. Teaching was developed to use professional interpreters in role-play, based on evidence that professional interpreters improve health outcomes for patients with limited English proficiency. Other principles guiding the development of the teaching were an experiential learning format, integration to the core consultation skills curriculum, and sustainable delivery. The session was aligned with existing consultation skills teaching to retain the small-group experiential format and general practitioner (GP) tutor. Core curricular time was found through conversion of an existing consultation skills session. Language pairs of professional interpreters worked with each small group, with one playing patient and the other playing interpreter. These professional interpreters attended training in the scenarios so that they could learn to act as patient and family interpreter. GP tutors attended training sessions to help them facilitate the session. This enhanced the sustainability of the session by providing a cohort of tutors able to pass on their expertise to new staff through the existing shadowing process. Tutors felt that the involvement of professional interpreters improved student engagement. Student evaluation of the teaching suggests that the learning objectives were achieved. Faculty evaluation by GP tutors suggests that they perceived the teaching to be worthwhile and that the training they received had helped improve their own clinical practice in consulting through interpreters. We offer the following recommendations to others who may be interested in developing teaching on interpreted consultations within their core curriculum: 1) consider recruiting professional interpreters as a teaching resource; 2) align the teaching to existing consultation skills sessions to aid integration; and 3) invest in faculty development for successful and sustainable delivery. PMID:25473325

  12. So Many Graphs, So Little Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Jennifer J.; Benson, Christine C.

    2009-01-01

    Interpreting graphs found in various content areas is an important skill for students, especially in light of high-stakes testing. In addition, reading and understanding graphs is an important part of numeracy, or numeric literacy, a skill necessary for informed citizenry. This article explores the different categories of graphs, provides…

  13. Physics Students' Performance Using Computational Modelling Activities to Improve Kinematics Graphs Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Ives Solano; Veit, Eliane Angela; Moreira, Marco Antonio

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate undergraduate students' performance while exposed to complementary computational modelling activities to improve physics learning, using the software "Modellus." Interpretation of kinematics graphs was the physics topic chosen for investigation. The theoretical framework adopted was based on Halloun's

  14. On the Relation of Abstract and Concrete in Scientists' Graph Interpretations: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Hwang, SungWon

    2006-01-01

    The notions of "abstract" and "concrete" are central to the conceptualization of mathematical knowing and learning. Much of the literature takes a dualist approach, leading to the privileging of the former term at the expense of the latter. In this article, we provide a concrete analysis of a scientist interpreting an unfamiliar graph to show how

  15. On the Relation of Abstract and Concrete in Scientists' Graph Interpretations: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Hwang, SungWon

    2006-01-01

    The notions of "abstract" and "concrete" are central to the conceptualization of mathematical knowing and learning. Much of the literature takes a dualist approach, leading to the privileging of the former term at the expense of the latter. In this article, we provide a concrete analysis of a scientist interpreting an unfamiliar graph to show how…

  16. Physics Students' Performance Using Computational Modelling Activities to Improve Kinematics Graphs Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Ives Solano; Veit, Eliane Angela; Moreira, Marco Antonio

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate undergraduate students' performance while exposed to complementary computational modelling activities to improve physics learning, using the software "Modellus." Interpretation of kinematics graphs was the physics topic chosen for investigation. The theoretical framework adopted was based on Halloun's…

  17. Hands-on Materials for Teaching about Global Climate Change through Graph Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.; Hallagan, Jean E.; Shaffer, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Teachers need to address global climate change with students in their classrooms as evidence for consequences from these environmental changes mounts. One way to approach global climate change is through examination of authentic data. Mathematics and science may be integrated by interpreting graphs from the professional literature. This study…

  18. My Bar Graph Tells a Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillen, Sue; McMillen, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Connecting stories to qualitative coordinate graphs has been suggested as an effective instructional strategy. Even students who are able to "create" bar graphs may struggle to correctly "interpret" them. Giving children opportunities to work with qualitative graphs can help them develop the skills to interpret, describe, and compare information…

  19. An investigation of the relationship between logical thinking structures and the ability to construct and interpret line graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Craig A.; Phillips, Darrell G.

    This study investigates the relationship between logical thinking structures and the ability to construct and interpret line graphs. Seventy-two subjects in 7th, 9th, and 11th grades were administered individual Piagetian tasks to assess five specific mental structures: (Euclidean spatial structures) (a) Placement and Displacement of Objects (maintaining horizontal and vertical reference frames) and (b) One-One Multiplication of Placement and Displacement Relations (coordinate systems); (c) Multiplicative Measurement; (d) Multiplicative Seriation; and (e) Proportional Reasoning. Graphing abilities were assessed by having the subjects construct and interpret numerous graphs of varying content and difficulty. To minimize the researcher's guesses about interpretation, each subject's answers and reasons were subsequently explored during a clinical interview. The results indicate significant relationships of logical thinking to graphing ability. Multiplicative seriation, multiplicative measurement, and Euclidean spatial structures positively influenced graphing abilities. Subjects who showed evidence of proportional reasoning did significantly better on many graphing situations including choosing the part of the graph with the greatest rate of change. Locating points on a graph without a grid was significantly related to horizontal/vertical frames of reference. Students who did not possess the logical thinking structures were more likely to be dependent upon, and influenced by, perceptual cues and less able to interpret or construct graphs correctly.Received: 16 March 1993; Revised: 18 October 1993;

  20. Collaborative Robotic Instruction: A Graph Teaching Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitnik, Ruben; Recabarren, Matias; Nussbaum, Miguel; Soto, Alvaro

    2009-01-01

    Graphing is a key skill in the study of Physics. Drawing and interpreting graphs play a key role in the understanding of science, while the lack of these has proved to be a handicap and a limiting factor in the learning of scientific concepts. It has been observed that despite the amount of previous graph-working experience, students of all ages

  1. Collaborative Robotic Instruction: A Graph Teaching Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitnik, Ruben; Recabarren, Matias; Nussbaum, Miguel; Soto, Alvaro

    2009-01-01

    Graphing is a key skill in the study of Physics. Drawing and interpreting graphs play a key role in the understanding of science, while the lack of these has proved to be a handicap and a limiting factor in the learning of scientific concepts. It has been observed that despite the amount of previous graph-working experience, students of all ages…

  2. The Relation between the Working Memory Skills of Sign Language Interpreters and the Quality of Their Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dijk, Rick; Christoffels, Ingrid; Postma, Albert; Hermans, Daan

    2012-01-01

    In two experiments we investigated the relationship between the working memory skills of sign language interpreters and the quality of their interpretations. In Experiment 1, we found that scores on 3-back tasks with signs and words were not related to the quality of interpreted narratives. In Experiment 2, we found that memory span scores for…

  3. Connecticut Basic Skills Proficiency Test, 1986-87. Mathematics, Basic Writing Skills in the Language Arts, Reading. Summary and Interpretations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Board of Education, Hartford.

    This booklet interprets and summarizes the results of the Connecticut Statewide Basic Skills Proficiency Test as administered to ninth graders in October, 1986. The test measures basic skills in reading and mathematics, and basic writing skills in the language arts. The test is used to identify students who require further remediation in order to…

  4. Line Graph Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitts Bannister, Vanessa R.; Jamar, Idorenyin; Mutegi, Jomo W.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the learning progress of one fifth-grade student is examined with regard to the development of her graph interpretation skills as she participated in the Junior Science Institute (JSI), a two-week, science intensive summer camp in which participants engaged in microbiology research and application. By showcasing the student's…

  5. Interpretation of Radiological Images: Towards a Framework of Knowledge and Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Gijp, A.; van der Schaaf, M. F.; van der Schaaf, I. C.; Huige, J. C. B. M.; Ravesloot, C. J.; van Schaik, J. P. J.; ten Cate, Th. J.

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge and skills that are required for radiological image interpretation are not well documented, even though medical imaging is gaining importance. This study aims to develop a comprehensive framework of knowledge and skills, required for two-dimensional and multiplanar image interpretation in radiology. A mixed-method study approach was…

  6. The Effect of a Graph-Oriented Computer-Assisted Project-Based Learning Environment on Argumentation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, P. -S.; Van Dyke, M.; Chen, Y.; Smith, T. J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to explore how seventh graders in a suburban school in the United States developed argumentation skills and science knowledge in a project-based learning environment that incorporated a graph-oriented, computer-assisted application. A total of 54 students (three classes) comprised this treatment

  7. The Effect of a Graph-Oriented Computer-Assisted Project-Based Learning Environment on Argumentation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, P. -S.; Van Dyke, M.; Chen, Y.; Smith, T. J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to explore how seventh graders in a suburban school in the United States developed argumentation skills and science knowledge in a project-based learning environment that incorporated a graph-oriented, computer-assisted application. A total of 54 students (three classes) comprised this treatment…

  8. Enhancing Table Interpretation Skills via Training in Table Creation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karazsia, Bryan T.

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative and statistical literacy are core domains in the undergraduate psychology curriculum. An important component of such literacy includes interpretation of visual aids, such as tables containing results from statistical analyses. This article presents a new technique for enhancing student interpretation of American Psychological…

  9. Categorization of first-year university students' interpretations of numerical linear distance-time graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wemyss, Thomas; van Kampen, Paul

    2013-06-01

    We have investigated the various approaches taken by first-year university students (n≈550) when asked to determine the direction of motion, the constancy of speed, and a numerical value of the speed of an object at a point on a numerical linear distance-time graph. We investigated the prevalence of various well-known general graphing difficulties, such as graph-as-picture errors and slope-height confusion. We established that two-thirds of our students could determine the direction of motion with respect to a reference point, just under 80% could determine that the speed is constant, and just under 20% of our students could correctly determine the value of the speed; in the latter case, about half of the students divided the two coordinates. Three stable categories of correctly explaining the constancy of speed emerged from the data. We found that the reason given for determining that the speed of the object was constant did not correlate with successfully determining a value for the speed. We have established that technical difficulties such as determining the slope of any linear graph did not explain the poor performance. By comparing the answers to similar questions on water level versus time graphs, we were able to establish that context dependence and incorrect prior learning are likely to play a role. Post-test data are used to confirm the validity of the categorization and support the conclusion that being able to determine the slope of a y,x graph and having a correct qualitative understanding of a distance-time graph is not sufficient to correctly determine a value for the speed.

  10. Effects of Training in Dream Recall and Dream Interpretation Skills on Dream Recall, Attitudes, and Dream Interpretation Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochlen, Aaron B.; Ligiero, Daniela P.; Hill, Clara E.; Heaton, Kristin J.

    1999-01-01

    Volunteer clients (N=44) with below-average dream recall and attitudes toward dreams participated in training sessions focusing on either improving dream recall and attitudes toward dreams, building dream-interpretation skills, or educating about counseling. No significant differences were found within the three groups. Results suggest that…

  11. Categorization of First-Year University Students' Interpretations of Numerical Linear Distance-Time Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wemyss, Thomas; van Kampen, Paul

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the various approaches taken by first-year university students (n[image omitted]550) when asked to determine the direction of motion, the constancy of speed, and a numerical value of the speed of an object at a point on a numerical linear distance-time graph. We investigated the prevalence of various well-known general…

  12. Categorization of First-Year University Students' Interpretations of Numerical Linear Distance-Time Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wemyss, Thomas; van Kampen, Paul

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the various approaches taken by first-year university students (n[image omitted]550) when asked to determine the direction of motion, the constancy of speed, and a numerical value of the speed of an object at a point on a numerical linear distance-time graph. We investigated the prevalence of various well-known general

  13. How do students learn to apply their mathematical knowledge to interpret graphs in physics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolnough, Jim

    2000-09-01

    This paper describes a laboratory-based program in physics designed to help students build effective links between the mathematical equations used to solve problems in mechanics and the real world of moving objects. Through the analysis of straight line graphs derived from their own data students have been able to achieve a considerable development towards a concept of slope, or gradient, and how it relates to the concept of proportionality, but they continue to demonstrate a great resistance to applying their mathematical knowledge to physics. A model designed to help us apply current research ideas to this problem is described. The work described in this paper was carried out at Dickson College, a government senior secondary college (Years 11 and 12) in the Australian Capital Territory, where the author taught physics and biology.

  14. Levels of line graph question interpretation with intermediate elementary students of varying scientific and mathematical knowledge and ability: A think aloud study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Stacy Kathryn

    This study examined how intermediate elementary students' mathematics and science background knowledge affected their interpretation of line graphs and how their interpretations were affected by graph question levels. A purposive sample of 14 6th-grade students engaged in think aloud interviews (Ericsson & Simon, 1993) while completing an excerpted Test of Graphing in Science (TOGS) (McKenzie & Padilla, 1986). Hand gestures were video recorded. Student performance on the TOGS was assessed using an assessment rubric created from previously cited factors affecting students' graphing ability. Factors were categorized using Bertin's (1983) three graph question levels. The assessment rubric was validated by Padilla and a veteran mathematics and science teacher. Observational notes were also collected. Data were analyzed using Roth and Bowen's semiotic process of reading graphs (2001). Key findings from this analysis included differences in the use of heuristics, self-generated questions, science knowledge, and self-motivation. Students with higher prior achievement used a greater number and variety of heuristics and more often chose appropriate heuristics. They also monitored their understanding of the question and the adequacy of their strategy and answer by asking themselves questions. Most used their science knowledge spontaneously to check their understanding of the question and the adequacy of their answers. Students with lower and moderate prior achievement favored one heuristic even when it was not useful for answering the question and rarely asked their own questions. In some cases, if students with lower prior achievement had thought about their answers in the context of their science knowledge, they would have been able to recognize their errors. One student with lower prior achievement motivated herself when she thought the questions were too difficult. In addition, students answered the TOGS in one of three ways: as if they were mathematics word problems, science data to be analyzed, or they were confused and had to guess. A second set of findings corroborated how science background knowledge affected graph interpretation: correct science knowledge supported students' reasoning, but it was not necessary to answer any question correctly; correct science knowledge could not compensate for incomplete mathematics knowledge; and incorrect science knowledge often distracted students when they tried to use it while answering a question. Finally, using Roth and Bowen's (2001) two-stage semiotic model of reading graphs, representative vignettes showed emerging patterns from the study. This study added to our understanding of the role of science content knowledge during line graph interpretation, highlighted the importance of heuristics and mathematics procedural knowledge, and documented the importance of perception attentions, motivation, and students' self-generated questions. Recommendations were made for future research in line graph interpretation in mathematics and science education and for improving instruction in this area.

  15. Graphing Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeken, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Graphing is an essential skill that forms the foundation of any physical science. Understanding the relationships between measurements ultimately determines which modeling equations are successful in predicting observations. Over the years, science and math teachers have approached teaching this skill with a variety of techniques. For secondary…

  16. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of How Professional Dance Teachers Implement Psychological Skills Training in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klockare, Ellinor; Gustafsson, Henrik; Nordin-Bates, Sanna M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how dance teachers work with psychological skills with their students in class. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six female professional teachers in jazz, ballet and contemporary dance. The interview transcripts were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (Smith 1996). Results

  17. Using the Computer to Teach Methods and Interpretative Skills in the Humanities: Implementing a Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Bruce William

    The results of implementing computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in two religion courses and a logic course at California State College, Bakersfield, are examined along with student responses. The main purpose of the CAI project was to teach interpretive skills. The most positive results came in the logic course. The programs in the New Testament…

  18. Teacher-Designed Software for Interactive Linear Equations: Concepts, Interpretive Skills, Applications & Word-Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Virginia

    No longer just a user of commercial software, the 21st century teacher is a designer of interactive software based on theories of learning. This software, a comprehensive study of straightline equations, enhances conceptual understanding, sketching, graphic interpretive and word problem solving skills as well as making connections to real-life and…

  19. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of How Professional Dance Teachers Implement Psychological Skills Training in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klockare, Ellinor; Gustafsson, Henrik; Nordin-Bates, Sanna M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how dance teachers work with psychological skills with their students in class. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six female professional teachers in jazz, ballet and contemporary dance. The interview transcripts were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (Smith 1996). Results…

  20. Re-Examining the Power of Video Motion Analysis to Promote the Reading and Creating of Kinematic Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshach, Haim

    2010-01-01

    One essential skill that students who learn physics should possess is the ability to create and interpret kinematic graphs. However, it is well documented in the literature that students show lack of competence in these abilities. They have problems in connecting graphs and physics concepts, as well as graphs and the real world. The present paper…

  1. Graph/Chart Interpretation and Reading Comprehension as Critical Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malamitsa, Katerina; Kokkotas, Panagiotis; Kasoutas, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In contemporary academic literature and in many national curricula, there is a widespread acceptance that critical thinking should be an important dimension of Education. Teachers and researchers recognize the importance of developing students critical thinking, but there are still great difficulties in defining and assessing critical-thinking…

  2. Offline signature verification and skilled forgery detection using HMM and sum graph features with ANN and knowledge based classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Mohit; Choudhary, Vijay; Das, Rupam; Khan, Ilyas

    2010-02-01

    Signature verification is one of the most widely researched areas in document analysis and signature biometric. Various methodologies have been proposed in this area for accurate signature verification and forgery detection. In this paper we propose a unique two stage model of detecting skilled forgery in the signature by combining two feature types namely Sum graph and HMM model for signature generation and classify them with knowledge based classifier and probability neural network. We proposed a unique technique of using HMM as feature rather than a classifier as being widely proposed by most of the authors in signature recognition. Results show a higher false rejection than false acceptance rate. The system detects forgeries with an accuracy of 80% and can detect the signatures with 91% accuracy. The two stage model can be used in realistic signature biometric applications like the banking applications where there is a need to detect the authenticity of the signature before processing documents like checks.

  3. Measures of Fine Motor Skills in People with Tremor Disorders: Appraisal and Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Kathleen E.; Hroux, Martin E.

    2013-01-01

    People with Parkinsons disease, essential tremor, or other movement disorders involving tremor have changes in fine motor skills that are among the hallmarks of these diseases. Numerous measurement tools have been created and other methods devised to measure such changes in fine motor skills. Measurement tools may focus on specific features e.g., motor skills or dexterity, slowness in movement execution associated with parkinsonian bradykinesia, or magnitude of tremor. Less obviously, some tools may be better suited than others for specific goals such as detecting subtle dysfunction early in disease, revealing aspects of brain function affected by disease, or tracking changes expected from treatment or disease progression. The purpose of this review is to describe and appraise selected measurement tools of fine motor skills appropriate for people with tremor disorders. In this context, we consider the tools content i.e., what movement features they focus on. In addition, we consider how measurement tools of fine motor skills relate to measures of a persons disease state or a persons function. These considerations affect how one should select and interpret the results of these tools in laboratory and clinical contexts. PMID:23717299

  4. Chemical Understanding and Graphing Skills in an Honors Case-Based Computerized Chemistry Laboratory Environment: The Value of Bidirectional Visual and Textual Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dori, Yehudit J.; Sasson, Irit

    2008-01-01

    The case-based computerized laboratory (CCL) is a chemistry learning environment that integrates computerized experiments with emphasis on scientific inquiry and comprehension of case studies. The research objective was to investigate chemical understanding and graphing skills of high school honors students via bidirectional visual and textual

  5. Thinking Skills: Graphic Skills for Social Studies and Science. GED Scoreboost.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellucci, Marion

    GED "Scoreboost" materials target exactly the skills one needs to pass the General Educational Development (GED) tests. This book focuses on the graphics skills needed for the GED Social Studies and Science tests. Those who take the GED Social Studies and Science tests will need to be able to interpret tables and charts, graphs, drawings and other…

  6. Interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellac, Michel Le

    2014-11-01

    Although nobody can question the practical efficiency of quantum mechanics, there remains the serious question of its interpretation. As Valerio Scarani puts it, "We do not feel at ease with the indistinguishability principle (that is, the superposition principle) and some of its consequences." Indeed, this principle which pervades the quantum world is in stark contradiction with our everyday experience. From the very beginning of quantum mechanics, a number of physicists--but not the majority of them!--have asked the question of its "interpretation". One may simply deny that there is a problem: according to proponents of the minimalist interpretation, quantum mechanics is self-sufficient and needs no interpretation. The point of view held by a majority of physicists, that of the Copenhagen interpretation, will be examined in Section 10.1. The crux of the problem lies in the status of the state vector introduced in the preceding chapter to describe a quantum system, which is no more than a symbolic representation for the Copenhagen school of thought. Conversely, one may try to attribute some "external reality" to this state vector, that is, a correspondence between the mathematical description and the physical reality. In this latter case, it is the measurement problem which is brought to the fore. In 1932, von Neumann was first to propose a global approach, in an attempt to build a purely quantum theory of measurement examined in Section 10.2. This theory still underlies modern approaches, among them those grounded on decoherence theory, or on the macroscopic character of the measuring apparatus: see Section 10.3. Finally, there are non-standard interpretations such as Everett's many worlds theory or the hidden variables theory of de Broglie and Bohm (Section 10.4). Note, however, that this variety of interpretations has no bearing whatsoever on the practical use of quantum mechanics. There is no controversy on the way we should use quantum mechanics!

  7. When There Isn't a Right Answer: Interpretation and Reasoning, Key Skills for Twenty-First Century Geoscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Clare Elizabeth; Philo, Chris; Shipton, Zoe Kai

    2011-01-01

    A key challenge in university geoscience teaching is to give students the skills to cope with uncertainty. Professional geoscientists can rarely be certain of the "right answer" to problems posed by most geological datasets, and reasoning through this uncertainty, being intelligently flexible in interpreting data which are limited in resolution…

  8. When There Isn't a Right Answer: Interpretation and Reasoning, Key Skills for Twenty-First Century Geoscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Clare Elizabeth; Philo, Chris; Shipton, Zoe Kai

    2011-01-01

    A key challenge in university geoscience teaching is to give students the skills to cope with uncertainty. Professional geoscientists can rarely be certain of the "right answer" to problems posed by most geological datasets, and reasoning through this uncertainty, being intelligently flexible in interpreting data which are limited in resolution

  9. The Effects of Certain Personal and Situational Variables on the Acquisition Sequence of Graphical Interpretation Skills. Vols. 1, 2, and 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linke, Russell Dean

    This thesis investigated the effects of certain personal and situational variables on the acquisition sequence of graphical interpretational skills. A comprehensive learning hierarchy of basic graphical interpretational skills was prepared according to the method of task analysis proposed by Gagne, and was subjected to a series of empirical…

  10. Examining the effects of technology-enhanced, inquiry-based laboratories on graphing skills, content knowledge, science reasoning ability and attitudes of community college chemistry students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dantley, Scott Jackson

    This study investigated the effects of inquiry-based technology-enhanced, laboratories with the use of Microcomputer Based Laboratory (MBL) activities on graphing skills, content knowledge, science reasoning skills, and attitudes of introductory general chemistry community college students. The study employed a quasi-experimental pretest posttest comparison and treatment group design. The treatment group received a MBL technology. Inquiry-based laboratory activities were used for each. Four major research questions were explored in my study. The following instruments were used: the Modified Lawson Test of Scientific Reasoning; the Test of Graphing in Science (TOGS); the modified laboratory instrument ("Behavior of Gases" and "Lights, Color and Absorption" with accompanies content questions, validated by a panel of chemists, as well as an attitude survey. Mean scores from the Lawson, TOGS, Behavior of Gases and Lights, Color and Absorption labs, content knowledge questions were analyzed using t-tests to determine if a statistical significance exists between their mean scores. Basic statistics were used to analyze the attitude survey. The results from the Lawson revealed that students' mean score performance were not statistically significant between treatment and comparison groups. The t-test results indicated that each group had similar reasoning ability. The TOGS t-test results revealed that the mean scores were not statistically significant between each group. The results suggest that each group had similar graphing abilities. However, significant differences in the mean scores were found on their performance for the "Behavior of Gases" and "Lights, Color and Absorption" laboratories. Conducting a follow-up assessment of content knowledge for Behavior of Gases and Lights, Color and Absorption, revealed that no statistically significant difference exists on their mean scores, suggesting that though treatment students' performance was improved in the laboratory by using MBL; their content knowledge did not increase. Each group was positive about the use of technology.

  11. Understanding graphs with two independent variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Jennifer L.

    Adults are not necessarily competent users of graphs with two independent variables, despite the frequency of this representational format. The three tasks in this thesis address the impact of interpretation statements and graph patterns. Interpretation statements were based on the statistical effects -- simple effects, main effects, and interactions. Graph patterns were systematically varied based on a novel classification scheme of graphs with two IVs. I suggest that the complexity of a graph's data pattern depends on the consistency of the simple effects' directions and magnitudes. In the first study, undergraduates constructed graphs based on statements about data patterns. Errors reflected a misunderstanding of how two IVs could be combined and represented graphically. When the experimental group had graph-relevant information added (variable labels spatially located on axes), the ability to represent the relationships among the IVs significantly increased. The ability to satisfy the constraints imposed by the statements was not affected. Adding labels specifically targeted skills relevant to graphical literacy. Transfer to a third trial was stronger for those of higher math abilities. The second study focused on the effect of an introductory statistics course. Overall, undergraduates performed well on statements describing the simple effects of the IVs. However, even though they improved from Time 1 to Time 2 for interaction statements, performance on statements about main effects and interactions still showed considerable room for improvement. In the third study, repeated trials of the 20 patterns proposed by the simple effects consistency model established that the proposed classification scheme addresses additional sources of variability in reasoning with graphs (i.e., sources not captured by traditional classification schemes). As the complexity level of the data pattern increased, performance (based on accuracy and RT) decreased, with parallel impacts on performance for each IV's complexity. This suggests that participants responded to conceptual differences among the levels, as the graph's perceptual characteristics vary based on the IV. Further development of a model organizing graph patterns will allow investigation of the interplay between the statement and graph pattern. In turn, this can lead to greater understanding of the graphical reasoning processes and improvements in graphical literacy.

  12. A Cross-Cultural Study of the Effect of a Graph-Oriented Computer-Assisted Project-Based Learning Environment on Middle School Students' Science Knowledge and Argumentation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, P.-S.; Van Dyke, M.; Chen, Y.; Smith, T. J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to explore how seventh graders in a suburban school in the United States and sixth graders in an urban school in Taiwan developed argumentation skills and science knowledge in a project-based learning environment that incorporated a graph-oriented, computer-assisted application (GOCAA). A total of 42

  13. A Cross-Cultural Study of the Effect of a Graph-Oriented Computer-Assisted Project-Based Learning Environment on Middle School Students' Science Knowledge and Argumentation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, P.-S.; Van Dyke, M.; Chen, Y.; Smith, T. J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to explore how seventh graders in a suburban school in the United States and sixth graders in an urban school in Taiwan developed argumentation skills and science knowledge in a project-based learning environment that incorporated a graph-oriented, computer-assisted application (GOCAA). A total of 42…

  14. Acquisition of Visual Perceptual Skills from Worked Examples: Learning to Interpret Electrocardiograms (ECGs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Berge, Kees; van Gog, Tamara; Mamede, Silvia; Schmidt, Henk G.; van Saase, Jan L. C. M.; Rikers, Remy M. J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that for acquiring problem-solving skills, instruction consisting of studying worked examples is more effective and efficient for novice learners than instruction consisting of problem-solving. This study investigated whether worked examples would also be a useful instructional format for the acquisition of visual perceptual

  15. Interpretive Structural Modeling of MLearning Curriculum Implementation Model of English Language Communication Skills for Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Muhammad Ridhuan Tony Lim; Siraj, Saedah; Asra; Hussin, Zaharah

    2014-01-01

    In the field of distance education, learning mediated through mobile technology or mobile learning (mLearning) has rapidly building a repertoire of influence in distance education research. This paper aims to propose an mLearning curriculum implementation model for English Language and Communication skills course among undergraduates using…

  16. Acquisition of Visual Perceptual Skills from Worked Examples: Learning to Interpret Electrocardiograms (ECGs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Berge, Kees; van Gog, Tamara; Mamede, Silvia; Schmidt, Henk G.; van Saase, Jan L. C. M.; Rikers, Remy M. J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that for acquiring problem-solving skills, instruction consisting of studying worked examples is more effective and efficient for novice learners than instruction consisting of problem-solving. This study investigated whether worked examples would also be a useful instructional format for the acquisition of visual perceptual…

  17. Effect of Scientific Argumentation on the Development of Scientific Process Skills in the Context of Teaching Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gultepe, Nejla; Kilic, Ziya

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to determine the differences in integrated scientific process skills (designing experiments, forming data tables, drawing graphs, graph interpretation, determining the variables and hypothesizing, changing and controlling variables) of students (n = 17) who were taught with an approach based on scientific…

  18. Expanding our understanding of students' use of graphs for learning physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laverty, James T.

    It is generally agreed that the ability to visualize functional dependencies or physical relationships as graphs is an important step in modeling and learning. However, several studies in Physics Education Research (PER) have shown that many students in fact do not master this form of representation and even have misconceptions about the meaning of graphs that impede learning physics concepts. Working with graphs in classroom settings has been shown to improve student abilities with graphs, particularly when the students can interact with them. We introduce a novel problem type in an online homework system, which requires students to construct the graphs themselves in free form, and requires no hand-grading by instructors. A study of pre/post-test data using the Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K) over several semesters indicates that students learn significantly more from these graph construction problems than from the usual graph interpretation problems, and that graph interpretation alone may not have any significant effect. The interpretation of graphs, as well as the representation translation between textual, mathematical, and graphical representations of physics scenarios, are frequently listed among the higher order thinking skills we wish to convey in an undergraduate course. But to what degree do we succeed? Do students indeed employ higher order thinking skills when working through graphing exercises? We investigate students working through a variety of graph problems, and, using a think-aloud protocol, aim to reconstruct the cognitive processes that the students go through. We find that to a certain degree, these problems become commoditized and do not trigger the desired higher order thinking processes; simply translating ``textbook-like'' problems into the graphical realm will not achieve any additional educational goals. Whether the students have to interpret or construct a graph makes very little difference in the methods used by the students. We will also look at the results of using graph problems in an online learning environment. We will show evidence that construction problems lead to a higher degree of difficulty and degree of discrimination than other graph problems and discuss the influence the course has on these variables.

  19. GraphMaxEnt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramer, Arthur

    2006-11-01

    Assume a undirected graph G on a finite domain X and a probability distribution P on X. Graph entropy, defined in terms of the vertex packing polytope, is recast as H(G, P) = Rmin - ∑pilog Pl(R) (xi), with suitably defined plausibility Pl(R) wrt probability distribution R on the independent subsets of G. The plausibility which results from the minimising R is called the plausibility wrt P on X serves to define the graph information distance D(G, Q∥P) = ∑qi log PlQ(xi)/PlP(xi) for two distributions Q and P on X, given the graph structure G. One verifies the usual properties of additivity and subadditivity wrt weak products of the supporting graphs. The method of GraphMaxEnt can be formulated accordingly. It is postulated that it admits an axiomatisation akin to that for MaxEnt. Applied to probability kinematics, it permits interpreting a wide range of probability reassignments as the result of minimisation of graph information distance. This leads to defining Jeffrey rules for all these reassignments, along with inverse Jeffrey conditioning. MaxGraphEnt is often successful in including new conditional information in situations when the standard MaxEnt may produce unsatisfactory and counterintuitive results. Such resolution, using entropies, of `Private Benjamin problem' is presented.

  20. Robustness of random graphs based on graph spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jun; Barahona, Mauricio; Tan, Yue-jin; Deng, Hong-zhong

    2012-12-01

    It has been recently proposed that the robustness of complex networks can be efficiently characterized through the natural connectivity, a spectral property of the graph which corresponds to the average Estrada index. The natural connectivity corresponds to an average eigenvalue calculated from the graph spectrum and can also be interpreted as the Helmholtz free energy of the network. In this article, we explore the use of this index to characterize the robustness of Erd?s-Rnyi (ER) random graphs, random regular graphs, and regular ring lattices. We show both analytically and numerically that the natural connectivity of ER random graphs increases linearly with the average degree. It is also shown that ER random graphs are more robust than the corresponding random regular graphs with the same number of vertices and edges. However, the relative robustness of ER random graphs and regular ring lattices depends on the average degree and graph size: there is a critical graph size above which regular ring lattices are more robust than random graphs. We use our analytical results to derive this critical graph size as a function of the average degree.

  1. Advantages of Micro-Based Labs: Electronic Data Acquisition, Computerized Graphing, or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuessy, Carol L.; Rowland, Paul M.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a microcomputer-based laboratory (MBL) study (n=75) which uses multiple temperature gathering devices (mercury thermometer, digital thermometer, and computer probe) and graphing methods (hand graphs, delayed computer graphs, and real-time graphs). Reports that MBL real-time graphing provides significant increases in graphing skills. (MVL)

  2. The Impact of "Skills for Life" on Adult Basic Skills in England: How Should We Interpret Trends in Participation and Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bathmaker, Ann-Marie

    2007-01-01

    The English "Skills for Life" strategy symbolises the prominent place that adult basic skills have claimed in education and training policy in England since the beginning of this century. The strategy aims to improve the skills of a large number of learners over a ten year period (2001-2010). This paper explores what we can learn about the impact…

  3. Total Quality & Basic Skills. The TQ Castle--Using Basic Skills Development to Evade Alligators in the Moat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewe, Glenda

    1994-01-01

    Key skills required in the total quality workplace are cross-functional teaming, interpreting charts/graphs, oral communication, brainstorming, understanding cause/effect, categorizing ideas, critical pathing, formulating suggestions, analyzing the needs of internal and external customers, and writing status reports. (SK)

  4. A Study of the Competency of Third Year Medical Students to Interpret Biochemically Based Clinical Scenarios Using Knowledge and Skills Gained in Year 1 and 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowda, Veena Bhaskar S.; Nagaiah, Bhaskar Hebbani; Sengodan, Bharathi

    2016-01-01

    Medical students build clinical knowledge on the grounds of previously obtained basic knowledge. The study aimed to evaluate the competency of third year medical students to interpret biochemically based clinical scenarios using knowledge and skills gained during year 1 and 2 of undergraduate medical training. Study was conducted on year 3 MBBS…

  5. Learning to write without writing: writing accurate descriptions of interactions after learning graph-printed description relations.

    PubMed

    Spear, Jack; Fields, Lanny

    2015-12-01

    Interpreting and describing complex information shown in graphs are essential skills to be mastered by students in many disciplines; both are skills that are difficult to learn. Thus, interventions that produce these outcomes are of great value. Previous research showed that conditional discrimination training that established stimulus control by some elements of graphs and their printed descriptions produced some improvement in the accuracy of students' written descriptions of graphs. In the present experiment, students wrote nearly perfect descriptions of the information conveyed in interaction-based graphs after the establishment of conditional relations between graphs and their printed descriptions. This outcome was achieved with the use of special conditional discrimination training procedures that required participants to attend to many of the key elements of the graphs and the phrases in the printed descriptions that corresponded to the elements in the graphs. Thus, students learned to write full descriptions of the information represented by complex graphs by an automated training procedure that did not involve the direct training of writing. PMID:26077442

  6. Using the Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition to Describe and Interpret Skill Acquisition and Clinical Judgment in Nursing Practice and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benner, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Three studies using the Dreyfus model of skill acquisition were conducted over a period of 21 years. Nurses with a range of experience and reported skillfulness were interviewed. Each study used nurses' narrative accounts of actual clinical situations. A subsample of participants were observed and interviewed at work. These studies extend the

  7. Graphing Predictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connery, Keely Flynn

    2007-01-01

    Graphing predictions is especially important in classes where relationships between variables need to be explored and derived. In this article, the author describes how his students sketch the graphs of their predictions before they begin their investigations on two laboratory activities: Distance Versus Time Cart Race Lab and Resistance; and…

  8. Graph Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

    2005-12-27

    Graph theory is a branch of discrete combinatorial mathematics that studies the properties of graphs. The theory was pioneered by the Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler in the 18th century, commenced its formal development during the second half of the 19th century, and has witnessed substantial growth during the last seventy years, with applications in areas as diverse as engineering, computer science, physics, sociology, chemistry and biology. Graph theory has also had a strong impact in computational linguistics by providing the foundations for the theory of features structures that has emerged as one of the most widely used frameworks for the representation of grammar formalisms.

  9. Helping Students Make Sense of Graphs: An Experimental Trial of SmartGraphs Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Andrew; Kay, Rachel; Staudt, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    Graphs are commonly used in science, mathematics, and social sciences to convey important concepts; yet students at all ages demonstrate difficulties interpreting graphs. This paper reports on an experimental study of free, Web-based software called SmartGraphs that is specifically designed to help students overcome their misconceptions regarding…

  10. Helping Students Make Sense of Graphs: An Experimental Trial of SmartGraphs Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Andrew; Kay, Rachel; Staudt, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    Graphs are commonly used in science, mathematics, and social sciences to convey important concepts; yet students at all ages demonstrate difficulties interpreting graphs. This paper reports on an experimental study of free, Web-based software called SmartGraphs that is specifically designed to help students overcome their misconceptions regarding

  11. Helping Students Make Sense of Graphs: An Experimental Trial of SmartGraphs Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucker, Andrew; Kay, Rachel; Staudt, Carolyn

    2014-06-01

    Graphs are commonly used in science, mathematics, and social sciences to convey important concepts; yet students at all ages demonstrate difficulties interpreting graphs. This paper reports on an experimental study of free, Web-based software called SmartGraphs that is specifically designed to help students overcome their misconceptions regarding graphs. SmartGraphs allows students to interact with graphs and provides hints and scaffolding to help students, if they need help. SmartGraphs activities can be authored to be useful in teaching and learning a variety of topics that use graphs (such as slope, velocity, half-life, and global warming). A 2-year experimental study in physical science classrooms was conducted with dozens of teachers and thousands of students. In the first year, teachers were randomly assigned to experimental or control conditions. Data show that students of teachers who use SmartGraphs as a supplement to normal instruction make greater gains understanding graphs than control students studying the same content using the same textbooks, but without SmartGraphs. Additionally, teachers believe that the SmartGraphs activities help students meet learning goals in the physical science course, and a great majority reported they would use the activities with students again. In the second year of the study, several specific variations of SmartGraphs were researched to help determine what makes SmartGraphs effective.

  12. Prospective Middle School Mathematics Teachers' Reflective Thinking Skills: Descriptions of Their Students' Thinking and Interpretations of Their Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Amanda; Spitzer, Sandy M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we examined prospective middle school mathematics teachers' reflective thinking skills to understand how they learned from their own teaching practice when engaging in a modified lesson study experience. Our goal was to identify variations among prospective teachers' descriptions of students' thinking and frequency of their…

  13. Evaluation of the interpretative skills of participants of a limited transthoracic echocardiography training course (H.A.R.T.scan course).

    PubMed

    Royse, C F; Haji, D L; Faris, J G; Veltman, M G; Kumar, A; Royse, A G

    2012-05-01

    Limited transthoracic echocardiography performed by treating physicians may facilitate assessment of haemodynamic abnormalities in perioperative and critical care patients. The interpretative skills of one hundred participants who completed an education program in limited transthoracic echocardiography were assessed by reporting five pre-recorded case studies. A high level of agreement was observed in ventricular volume assessment (left 95%, right 96%), systolic function (left 99%, right 96%), left atrial pressure (96%) and haemodynamic state (97%). The highest failure to report answers (that is, no answer given) was for right ventricular volume and function. For moderate or severe valve lesions, agreement ranged from 90 to 98%, with failure to report <5% in all cases except for mitral stenosis (18%). For mild valve lesions, the range of agreement was lower (53 to 100%) due to overestimation of severity. Medical practitioners who completed the structured educational program showed good agreement with experts in interpretation of valve and ventricular function. PMID:22577916

  14. Can NNS Skill in Interpreting Implicature in American English Be Improved through Explicit Instruction?--A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouton, Lawrence F.

    An ongoing series of studies at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign concerning cross-cultural interpretation of implicature in conversation is discussed. Implicature is defined as the process of making inferences about the meaning of an utterance in the context in which it occurs. The studies focus on non-native speakers' (NNSs')…

  15. Graphs and Statistics: A Resource Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of General Education Curriculum Development.

    Graphical representation of statistical data is the focus of this resource handbook. Only graphs which present numerical information are discussed. Activities involving the making, interpreting, and use of various types of graphs and tables are included. Sections are also included which discuss statistical terms, normal distribution and…

  16. Student Reasoning about Graphs in Different Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanjek, Lana; Susac, Ana; Planinic, Maja; Andrasevic, Aneta; Milin-Sipus, Zeljka

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates university students' graph interpretation strategies and difficulties in mathematics, physics (kinematics), and contexts other than physics. Eight sets of parallel (isomorphic) mathematics, physics, and other context questions about graphs, which were developed by us, were administered to 385 first-year students at the…

  17. The Graph Choice Chart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Hannah; Nelson, Sarah J.; Weatherbee, Ryan; Zoellick, Bill; Schauffler, Molly

    2014-01-01

    Data literacy is complex. When students investigate the natural world, they must be able to gather data, organize it in tables and spreadsheets, analyze it in context, and describe and interpret it--usually as evidence to support a scientific argument. These skills are echoed in the science and engineering practices of the "Next Generation…

  18. Supplementing the Graphing Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piston, Calvin

    1992-01-01

    Proposes three types of supplementary problems to develop students' skill in interpretation of graphically represented data. Eleven examples are presented and solved for the following types of problems: comparison of one quantity to another, comparison of two quantities that each depend on a common parameter, and reasonable data prediction. (MDH)

  19. The Graph Choice Chart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Hannah; Nelson, Sarah J.; Weatherbee, Ryan; Zoellick, Bill; Schauffler, Molly

    2014-01-01

    Data literacy is complex. When students investigate the natural world, they must be able to gather data, organize it in tables and spreadsheets, analyze it in context, and describe and interpret it--usually as evidence to support a scientific argument. These skills are echoed in the science and engineering practices of the "Next Generation

  20. Can Comparison of Contrastive Examples Facilitate Graph Understanding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Linsey A.; Gentner, Dedre

    2011-01-01

    The authors explore the role of comparison in improving graph fluency. The ability to use graphs fluently is crucial for STEM achievement, but graphs are challenging to interpret and produce because they often involve integration of multiple variables, continuous change in variables over time, and omission of certain details in order to highlight…

  1. Adjusting protein graphs based on graph entropy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Measuring protein structural similarity attempts to establish a relationship of equivalence between polymer structures based on their conformations. In several recent studies, researchers have explored protein-graph remodeling, instead of looking a minimum superimposition for pairwise proteins. When graphs are used to represent structured objects, the problem of measuring object similarity become one of computing the similarity between graphs. Graph theory provides an alternative perspective as well as efficiency. Once a protein graph has been created, its structural stability must be verified. Therefore, a criterion is needed to determine if a protein graph can be used for structural comparison. In this paper, we propose a measurement for protein graph remodeling based on graph entropy. We extend the concept of graph entropy to determine whether a graph is suitable for representing a protein. The experimental results suggest that when applied, graph entropy helps a conformational on protein graph modeling. Furthermore, it indirectly contributes to protein structural comparison if a protein graph is solid. PMID:25474347

  2. Multiple graph label propagation by sparse integration.

    PubMed

    Karasuyama, Masayuki; Mamitsuka, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    Graph-based approaches have been most successful in semisupervised learning. In this paper, we focus on label propagation in graph-based semisupervised learning. One essential point of label propagation is that the performance is heavily affected by incorporating underlying manifold of given data into the input graph. The other more important point is that in many recent real-world applications, the same instances are represented by multiple heterogeneous data sources. A key challenge under this setting is to integrate different data representations automatically to achieve better predictive performance. In this paper, we address the issue of obtaining the optimal linear combination of multiple different graphs under the label propagation setting. For this problem, we propose a new formulation with the sparsity (in coefficients of graph combination) property which cannot be rightly achieved by any other existing methods. This unique feature provides two important advantages: 1) the improvement of prediction performance by eliminating irrelevant or noisy graphs and 2) the interpretability of results, i.e., easily identifying informative graphs on classification. We propose efficient optimization algorithms for the proposed approach, by which clear interpretations of the mechanism for sparsity is provided. Through various synthetic and two real-world data sets, we empirically demonstrate the advantages of our proposed approach not only in prediction performance but also in graph selection ability. PMID:24805218

  3. Path Separability of Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diot, Emilie; Gavoille, Cyril

    In this paper we investigate the structural properties of k-path separable graphs, that are the graphs that can be separated by a set of k shortest paths. We identify several graph families having such path separability, and we show that this property is closed under minor taking. In particular we establish a list of forbidden minors for 1-path separable graphs.

  4. Graphing Polar Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawes, Jonathan F.

    2013-01-01

    Graphing polar curves typically involves a combination of three traditional techniques, all of which can be time-consuming and tedious. However, an alternative method--graphing the polar function on a rectangular plane--simplifies graphing, increases student understanding of the polar coordinate system, and reinforces graphing techniques learned…

  5. Student reasoning about graphs in different contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanjek, Lana; Susac, Ana; Planinic, Maja; Andrasevic, Aneta; Milin-Sipus, Zeljka

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates university students' graph interpretation strategies and difficulties in mathematics, physics (kinematics), and contexts other than physics. Eight sets of parallel (isomorphic) mathematics, physics, and other context questions about graphs, which were developed by us, were administered to 385 first-year students at the Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb. Students were asked to provide explanations and/or mathematical procedures with their answers. Students' main strategies and difficulties identified through the analysis of those explanations and procedures are described. Student strategies of graph interpretation were found to be largely context dependent and domain specific. A small fraction of students have used the same strategy in all three domains (mathematics, physics, and other contexts) on most sets of parallel questions. Some students have shown indications of transfer of knowledge in the sense that they used techniques and strategies developed in physics for solving (or attempting to solve) other context problems. In physics, the preferred strategy was the use of formulas, which sometimes seemed to block the use of other, more productive strategies which students displayed in other domains. Students' answers indicated the presence of slope-height confusion and interval-point confusion in all three domains. Students generally better interpreted graph slope than the area under a graph, although the concept of slope still seemed to be quite vague for many. The interpretation of the concept of area under a graph needs more attention in both physics and mathematics teaching.

  6. Capacitated max -Batching with Interval Graph Compatibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonner, Tim

    We consider the problem of partitioning interval graphs into cliques of bounded size. Each interval has a weight, and the weight of a clique is the maximum weight of any interval in the clique. This natural graph problem can be interpreted as a batch scheduling problem. Solving a long-standing open problem, we show NP-hardness, even if the bound on the clique sizes is constant. Moreover, we give a PTAS based on a novel dynamic programming technique for this case.

  7. Statistical Literacy in Action: Should All Graphs Start at Zero?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Using statistical literacy skills to determine appropriate scales to be used on graphs is an essential part of numeracy. Using several meaningful contexts, this article explains very clearly when it is appropriate and inappropriate to begin the scale of a graph at zero.

  8. Interval Graph Limits

    PubMed Central

    Diaconis, Persi; Holmes, Susan; Janson, Svante

    2015-01-01

    We work out a graph limit theory for dense interval graphs. The theory developed departs from the usual description of a graph limit as a symmetric function W (x, y) on the unit square, with x and y uniform on the interval (0, 1). Instead, we fix a W and change the underlying distribution of the coordinates x and y. We find choices such that our limits are continuous. Connections to random interval graphs are given, including some examples. We also show a continuity result for the chromatic number and clique number of interval graphs. Some results on uniqueness of the limit description are given for general graph limits. PMID:26405368

  9. Considerations When Working with Interpreters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwa-Froelich, Deborah A.; Westby, Carol E.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the current training and certification procedures in place for linguistic interpreters, the continuum of interpreter roles, and how interpreters' perspectives may influence the interpretive interaction. The specific skills needed for interpreting in either health care or educational settings are identified. A table compares…

  10. Examining Students' Reluctance to Use Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyke, Frances Van; White, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    An evaluation designed to test basic graphical-thinking skills to students entering calculus or applied calculus at American University was given to use the assessment to discover the underlying causes for student's inability to use graphs effectively. The study indicates that graphical representation is not emphasized properly in the curriculum…

  11. A study of the competency of third year medical students to interpret biochemically based clinical scenarios using knowledge and skills gained in year 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    S Gowda, Veena Bhaskar; Nagaiah, Bhaskar Hebbani; Sengodan, Bharathi

    2016-03-01

    Medical students build clinical knowledge on the grounds of previously obtained basic knowledge. The study aimed to evaluate the competency of third year medical students to interpret biochemically based clinical scenarios using knowledge and skills gained during year 1 and 2 of undergraduate medical training. Study was conducted on year 3 MBBS students at AIMST University, Malaysia. Clinical scenarios (25) were constructed and administered to student volunteers, making sure at least one question from each system of year 2 was represented. Feedback was obtained on a five-point Likert scale regarding perception of learning biochemistry in MBBS year 1 versus 2. Mean score of test was 18 (72.11%). Performance was comparatively better in questions related to topics learnt in year 1 and reinforced in year 2 compared to those learnt for first time in year 2. In the feedback obtained, 31% strongly agreed and 56% agreed understanding the subject was helped more by learning biochemistry in year 2 than in year 1. Likewise, 36% strongly agreed and 56% agreed appreciating the importance of biochemistry in patient diagnosis was helped more by learning biochemistry in year 2 than year 1. Thirty one percent strongly agreed and 54% agreed that year 1 biochemistry would have been more relevant if case discussions were done simultaneously. Students retain basic science subjects better and appreciate the importance of basic sciences in patient diagnosis if they are reinforced in the context of clinical situations. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44:202-207, 2016. PMID:26914989

  12. Are Graphs Finally Surfacing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beineke, Lowell W.

    1989-01-01

    Explored are various aspects of drawing graphs on surfaces. The Euler's formula, Kuratowski's theorem and the drawing of graphs in the plane with as few crossings as possible are discussed. Some applications including embedding of graphs and coloring of maps are included. (YP)

  13. Graphing Inequalities, Connecting Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Switzer, J. Matt

    2014-01-01

    Students often have difficulty with graphing inequalities (see Filloy, Rojano, and Rubio 2002; Drijvers 2002), and J. Matt Switzer's students were no exception. Although students can produce graphs for simple inequalities, they often struggle when the format of the inequality is unfamiliar. Even when producing a correct graph of an…

  14. Graph-Plotting Routine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantak, Anil V.

    1987-01-01

    Plotter routine for IBM PC (AKPLOT) designed for engineers and scientists who use graphs as integral parts of their documentation. Allows user to generate graph and edit its appearance on cathode-ray tube. Graph may undergo many interactive alterations before finally dumped from screen to be plotted by printer. Written in BASIC.

  15. Graphing Inequalities, Connecting Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Switzer, J. Matt

    2014-01-01

    Students often have difficulty with graphing inequalities (see Filloy, Rojano, and Rubio 2002; Drijvers 2002), and J. Matt Switzer's students were no exception. Although students can produce graphs for simple inequalities, they often struggle when the format of the inequality is unfamiliar. Even when producing a correct graph of an

  16. Graphing Important People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Teacher, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The "Toolbox" column features content adapted from ReadWriteThink.org lesson plans and provides practical tools for classroom teachers. This issue's column features a lesson plan adapted from "Graphing Plot and Character in a Novel" by Lisa Storm Fink and "Bio-graph: Graphing Life Events" by Susan Spangler. Students retell biographic events

  17. Graphing Important People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Teacher, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The "Toolbox" column features content adapted from ReadWriteThink.org lesson plans and provides practical tools for classroom teachers. This issue's column features a lesson plan adapted from "Graphing Plot and Character in a Novel" by Lisa Storm Fink and "Bio-graph: Graphing Life Events" by Susan Spangler. Students retell biographic events…

  18. Structural Differentiation of Graphs Using Hosoya-Based Indices

    PubMed Central

    Dehmer, Matthias; Mowshowitz, Abbe; Shi, Yongtang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the Hosoya-Spectral indices and the Hosoya information content of a graph. The first measure combines structural information captured by partial Hosoya polynomials and graph spectra. The latter is a graph entropy measure which is based on blocks consisting of vertices with the same partial Hosoya polynomial. We evaluate the discrimination power of these quantities by interpreting numerical results. PMID:25019933

  19. TIGRE: Combinator graph reduction on the RTX 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koopman, Philip, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    An efficient evaluation technique is examined for lazy functional programs based on combinator graph reduction. Graph reduction is widely believed to be slow and inefficient, but an abstract machine called the Threaded Interpretive Graph Reduction Engine (TIGRE) achieves a substantial speedup over previous reduction techniques. The runtime system of TIGRE is a threaded system that permits self-modifying program execution with compiler-guaranteed safety. This paper describes an implementation of TIGRE in Forth for the Harris RTX 2000 stack processor.

  20. Methods of visualizing graphs

    DOEpatents

    Wong, Pak C.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Perrine, Kenneth A.; Foote, Harlan P.; Thomas, James J.

    2008-12-23

    Methods for visualizing a graph by automatically drawing elements of the graph as labels are disclosed. In one embodiment, the method comprises receiving node information and edge information from an input device and/or communication interface, constructing a graph layout based at least in part on that information, wherein the edges are automatically drawn as labels, and displaying the graph on a display device according to the graph layout. In some embodiments, the nodes are automatically drawn as labels instead of, or in addition to, the label-edges.

  1. Hyperbolic graph generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldecoa, Rodrigo; Orsini, Chiara; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2015-11-01

    Networks representing many complex systems in nature and society share some common structural properties like heterogeneous degree distributions and strong clustering. Recent research on network geometry has shown that those real networks can be adequately modeled as random geometric graphs in hyperbolic spaces. In this paper, we present a computer program to generate such graphs. Besides real-world-like networks, the program can generate random graphs from other well-known graph ensembles, such as the soft configuration model, random geometric graphs on a circle, or Erdős-Rényi random graphs. The simulations show a good match between the expected values of different network structural properties and the corresponding empirical values measured in generated graphs, confirming the accurate behavior of the program.

  2. Signals on graphs: Transforms and tomograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilela Mendes, R.; Mendes, Hugo C.; Araújo, Tanya

    2016-05-01

    Development of efficient tools for the representation of large datasets is a precondition for the study of dynamics on networks. Generalizations of the Fourier transform on graphs have been constructed through projections on the eigenvectors of graph matrices. By exploring mappings of the spectrum of these matrices we show how to construct more general transforms, in particular wavelet-like transforms on graphs. For time-series, tomograms, a generalization of the Radon transforms to arbitrary pairs of non-commuting operators, are positive bilinear transforms with a rigorous probabilistic interpretation which provide a full characterization of the signals and are robust in the presence of noise. Here the notion of tomogram is also extended to signals on arbitrary graphs.

  3. Development of a Framework for Graph Choice and Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angra, Aakanksha; Gardner, Stephanie M.

    2016-01-01

    Research on graph interpretation and basic construction is extensive, and student difficulties, primarily in K-12 type settings, have been well documented [e.g., graph choice, labels for axes, variables, and scaling axes]. It is important to provide students with repeated opportunities to increase competency and practice critical reflection in…

  4. A comparative study of star graphs and rotator graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Ponnuswamy, S.; Chaudhary, V.

    1994-12-31

    Star graph is an extensively studied Cayley graph, considered to be an attractive alternative to the popular binary cube. The rotator graphs are a set of directed Cayley graphs introduced recently. In this paper we compare the structural and algorithmic aspects of star graphs with that of rotator graphs. In the process we present some new results for star graphs and rotator graphs. We present a formula for the number of nodes at any distance from the identity permutation in star graphs. The minimum bisection width of star and rotator graphs is obtained. Partitioning and fault tolerant parameters for both star and rotator graphs are analyzed. The node disjoint parallel paths and hence the upper bound on the fault diameter of rotator graphs are presented. We compare the minimal path routing in star and rotator graphs using simulation results.

  5. Speed of evolution on graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Xiukai; Wu, Bin; Wang, Long

    2015-12-01

    The likelihood that a mutant fixates in the wild population, i.e., fixation probability, has been intensively studied in evolutionary game theory, where individuals' fitness is frequency dependent. However, it is of limited interest when it takes long to take over. Thus the speed of evolution becomes an important issue. In general, it is still unclear how fixation times are affected by the population structure, although the fixation times have already been addressed in the well-mixed populations. Here we theoretically address this issue by pair approximation and diffusion approximation on regular graphs. It is shown (i) that under neutral selection, both unconditional and conditional fixation time are shortened by increasing the number of neighbors; (ii) that under weak selection, for the simplified prisoner's dilemma game, if benefit-to-cost ratio exceeds the degree of the graph, then the unconditional fixation time of a single cooperator is slower than that in the neutral case; and (iii) that under weak selection, for the conditional fixation time, limited neighbor size dilutes the counterintuitive stochastic slowdown which was found in well-mixed populations. Interestingly, we find that all of our results can be interpreted as that in the well-mixed population with a transformed payoff matrix. This interpretation is also valid for both death-birth and birth-death processes on graphs. This interpretation bridges the fixation time in the structured population and that in the well-mixed population. Thus it opens the avenue to investigate the challenging fixation time in structured populations by the known results in well-mixed populations.

  6. Graph theory in structure-property correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradova, M. G.; Fedina, Yu. A.; Papulov, Yu. G.

    2016-02-01

    The possibilities of the theoretical graph approach to the construction and interpretation of additive schemes for calculation and prediction are discussed. Working formulas are derived for calculating the thermodynamic properties of alkanes and their substitutes. The obtained algorithms are used to calculate thermodynamic properties of chloroalkanes that correspond to experimental values.

  7. Learning across the Curriculum with Creative Graphing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Linda Lee

    1989-01-01

    Describes an instructional technique called "creative graphing" in which students learn to reorder information visually, to interpret the graphic aids of their textbooks more easily, to highlight relationships that are not immediately apparent in the text, and to illuminate ideas for further exploration using charts, trees, stars, chains, and…

  8. An algorithm for automatic reduction of complex signal flow graphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, K. R.; Hoberock, L. L.; Thompson, J. G.

    1976-01-01

    A computer algorithm is developed that provides efficient means to compute transmittances directly from a signal flow graph or a block diagram. Signal flow graphs are cast as directed graphs described by adjacency matrices. Nonsearch computation, designed for compilers without symbolic capability, is used to identify all arcs that are members of simple cycles for use with Mason's gain formula. The routine does not require the visual acumen of an interpreter to reduce the topology of the graph, and it is particularly useful for analyzing control systems described for computer analyses by means of interactive graphics.

  9. Topologies on directed graphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieberman, R. N.

    1972-01-01

    Given a directed graph, a natural topology is defined and relationships between standard topological properties and graph theoretical concepts are studied. In particular, the properties of connectivity and separatedness are investigated. A metric is introduced which is shown to be related to separatedness. The topological notions of continuity and homeomorphism. A class of maps is studied which preserve both graph and topological properties. Applications involving strong maps and contractions are also presented.

  10. mpiGraph

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, Adam

    2007-05-22

    MpiGraph consists of an MPI application called mpiGraph written in C to measure message bandwidth and an associated crunch_mpiGraph script written in Perl to process the application output into an HTMO report. The mpiGraph application is designed to inspect the health and scalability of a high-performance interconnect while under heavy load. This is useful to detect hardware and software problems in a system, such as slow nodes, links, switches, or contention in switch routing. It is also useful to characterize how interconnect performance changes with different settings or how one interconnect type compares to another.

  11. Graph Generator Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Lothian, Josh; Powers, Sarah S; Sullivan, Blair D; Baker, Matthew B; Schrock, Jonathan; Poole, Stephen W

    2013-12-01

    The benchmarking effort within the Extreme Scale Systems Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory seeks to provide High Performance Computing benchmarks and test suites of interest to the DoD sponsor. The work described in this report is a part of the effort focusing on graph generation. A previously developed benchmark, SystemBurn, allowed the emulation of dierent application behavior profiles within a single framework. To complement this effort, similar capabilities are desired for graph-centric problems. This report examines existing synthetic graph generator implementations in preparation for further study on the properties of their generated synthetic graphs.

  12. mpiGraph

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-05-22

    MpiGraph consists of an MPI application called mpiGraph written in C to measure message bandwidth and an associated crunch_mpiGraph script written in Perl to process the application output into an HTMO report. The mpiGraph application is designed to inspect the health and scalability of a high-performance interconnect while under heavy load. This is useful to detect hardware and software problems in a system, such as slow nodes, links, switches, or contention in switch routing. Itmore » is also useful to characterize how interconnect performance changes with different settings or how one interconnect type compares to another.« less

  13. Turning Spreadsheets into Graphs: An Information Technology Lesson in Whole Brain Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Thomas F.; Leonard, Jonathan G.

    2005-01-01

    We have concluded that teaching undergraduate students to use spreadsheet software to analyze, interpret, and communicate spreadsheet data through a graph is an information technology exercise in whole brain thinking. In investigating why our students have difficulty constructing proper graphs, we have discovered that graphing requires two…

  14. Turning Spreadsheets into Graphs: An Information Technology Lesson in Whole Brain Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Thomas F.; Leonard, Jonathan G.

    2005-01-01

    We have concluded that teaching undergraduate students to use spreadsheet software to analyze, interpret, and communicate spreadsheet data through a graph is an information technology exercise in whole brain thinking. In investigating why our students have difficulty constructing proper graphs, we have discovered that graphing requires two

  15. Beyond Slopes and Points: Teaching Students How Graphs Describe the Relationships between Scientific Pheomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, David; Gomez Zwiep, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Graphs represent complex information. They show relationships and help students see patterns and compare data. Students often do not appreciate the illuminating power of graphs, interpreting them literally rather than as symbolic representations (Leinhardt, Zaslavsky, and Stein 1990). Students often read graphs point by point instead of seeing…

  16. Beyond Slopes and Points: Teaching Students How Graphs Describe the Relationships between Scientific Pheomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, David; Gomez Zwiep, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Graphs represent complex information. They show relationships and help students see patterns and compare data. Students often do not appreciate the illuminating power of graphs, interpreting them literally rather than as symbolic representations (Leinhardt, Zaslavsky, and Stein 1990). Students often read graphs point by point instead of seeing

  17. Graphs, matrices, and the GraphBLAS: Seven good reasons

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kepner, Jeremy; Bader, David; Buluç, Aydın; Gilbert, John; Mattson, Timothy; Meyerhenke, Henning

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of graphs has become increasingly important to a wide range of applications. Graph analysis presents a number of unique challenges in the areas of (1) software complexity, (2) data complexity, (3) security, (4) mathematical complexity, (5) theoretical analysis, (6) serial performance, and (7) parallel performance. Implementing graph algorithms using matrix-based approaches provides a number of promising solutions to these challenges. The GraphBLAS standard (istcbigdata.org/GraphBlas) is being developed to bring the potential of matrix based graph algorithms to the broadest possible audience. The GraphBLAS mathematically defines a core set of matrix-based graph operations that can be used to implementmore » a wide class of graph algorithms in a wide range of programming environments. This paper provides an introduction to the GraphBLAS and describes how the GraphBLAS can be used to address many of the challenges associated with analysis of graphs.« less

  18. Graphs, matrices, and the GraphBLAS: Seven good reasons

    SciTech Connect

    Kepner, Jeremy; Bader, David; Buluç, Aydın; Gilbert, John; Mattson, Timothy; Meyerhenke, Henning

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of graphs has become increasingly important to a wide range of applications. Graph analysis presents a number of unique challenges in the areas of (1) software complexity, (2) data complexity, (3) security, (4) mathematical complexity, (5) theoretical analysis, (6) serial performance, and (7) parallel performance. Implementing graph algorithms using matrix-based approaches provides a number of promising solutions to these challenges. The GraphBLAS standard (istcbigdata.org/GraphBlas) is being developed to bring the potential of matrix based graph algorithms to the broadest possible audience. The GraphBLAS mathematically defines a core set of matrix-based graph operations that can be used to implement a wide class of graph algorithms in a wide range of programming environments. This paper provides an introduction to the GraphBLAS and describes how the GraphBLAS can be used to address many of the challenges associated with analysis of graphs.

  19. Making "Photo" Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doto, Julianne; Golbeck, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Collecting data and analyzing the results of experiments is difficult for children. The authors found a surprising way to help their third graders make graphs and draw conclusions from their data: digital photographs. The pictures bridged the gap between an abstract graph and the plants it represented. With the support of the photos, students…

  20. Using Specialized Graph Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, C.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the use of logarithm and reciprocal graphs in the college physics classroom. Provides examples, such as electrical conductivity, reliability function in the Weibull model, and the Clausius-Clapeyron equation for latent heat of vaporation. Shows graphs with weighting of points. (YP)

  1. Making "Photo" Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doto, Julianne; Golbeck, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Collecting data and analyzing the results of experiments is difficult for children. The authors found a surprising way to help their third graders make graphs and draw conclusions from their data: digital photographs. The pictures bridged the gap between an abstract graph and the plants it represented. With the support of the photos, students

  2. Real World Graph Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Joy; Narayan, Darren

    2009-01-01

    We present the topic of graph connectivity along with a famous theorem of Menger in the real-world setting of the national computer network infrastructure of "National LambdaRail". We include a set of exercises where students reinforce their understanding of graph connectivity by analysing the "National LambdaRail" network. Finally, we give…

  3. Graphing Electric Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jong, Marvin L.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the powerful graphing ability of computer algebra systems (CAS) to create three-dimensional graphs or surface graphics of electric potentials. Provides equations along with examples of the printouts. Lists the programs Mathematica, Maple, Derive, Theorist, MathCad, and MATLAB as promising CAS systems. (MVL)

  4. Walking Out Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Ji

    2009-01-01

    In the Walking Out Graphs Lesson described here, students experience several types of representations used to describe motion, including words, sentences, equations, graphs, data tables, and actions. The most important theme of this lesson is that students have to understand the consistency among these representations and form the habit of…

  5. Reflections on "The Graph"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrosino, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    This article responds to arguments by Skidmore and Thompson (this issue of "Educational Researcher") that a graph published more than 10 years ago was erroneously reproduced and "gratuitously damaged" perceptions of the quality of education research. After describing the purpose of the original graph, the author counters assertions that the graph…

  6. Walking Out Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Ji

    2009-01-01

    In the Walking Out Graphs Lesson described here, students experience several types of representations used to describe motion, including words, sentences, equations, graphs, data tables, and actions. The most important theme of this lesson is that students have to understand the consistency among these representations and form the habit of

  7. Isomorphism on fuzzy soft graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćelik, Yıldıray

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we define the notion of fuzzy soft graph and then introduce the concepts of homomorphism, isomorphism, weak isomorphism, co-weak isomorphism of fuzzy soft graphs. Also, we study some properties of isomorphism on fuzzy soft graphs.

  8. Knowing a Lot for One's Age: Vocabulary Skill and Not Age Is Associated with Anticipatory Incremental Sentence Interpretation in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borovsky, Arielle; Elman, Jeffrey L.; Fernald, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Adults can incrementally combine information from speech with astonishing speed to anticipate future words. Concurrently, a growing body of work suggests that vocabulary ability is crucially related to lexical processing skills in children. However, little is known about this relationship with predictive sentence processing in children or adults.…

  9. Knowing a Lot for One's Age: Vocabulary Skill and Not Age Is Associated with Anticipatory Incremental Sentence Interpretation in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borovsky, Arielle; Elman, Jeffrey L.; Fernald, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Adults can incrementally combine information from speech with astonishing speed to anticipate future words. Concurrently, a growing body of work suggests that vocabulary ability is crucially related to lexical processing skills in children. However, little is known about this relationship with predictive sentence processing in children or adults.

  10. Using Sorting Networks for Skill Building and Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andre, Robert; Wiest, Lynda R.

    2007-01-01

    Sorting networks, used in graph theory, have instructional value as a skill- building tool as well as an interesting exploration in discrete mathematics. Students can practice mathematics facts and develop reasoning and logic skills with this topic. (Contains 4 figures.)

  11. A Comparison of Video Modeling, Text-Based Instruction, and No Instruction for Creating Multiple Baseline Graphs in Microsoft Excel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyner, Bryan C.; Fienup, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Graphing is socially significant for behavior analysts; however, graphing can be difficult to learn. Video modeling (VM) may be a useful instructional method but lacks evidence for effective teaching of computer skills. A between-groups design compared the effects of VM, text-based instruction, and no instruction on graphing performance.…

  12. A Comparison of Video Modeling, Text-Based Instruction, and No Instruction for Creating Multiple Baseline Graphs in Microsoft Excel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyner, Bryan C.; Fienup, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Graphing is socially significant for behavior analysts; however, graphing can be difficult to learn. Video modeling (VM) may be a useful instructional method but lacks evidence for effective teaching of computer skills. A between-groups design compared the effects of VM, text-based instruction, and no instruction on graphing performance.

  13. Graph Structure Model

    SciTech Connect

    Dreicer, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    The Graph Structure (GRPHSTRUC) Model is a software system tool specifically developed to be used by a computer security analyst to study the security and analyze the design of computer networks. However, any system that can be characterized and represented by a graph structure could employ GRPHSTRUC with some minor system modifications. The GRPHSTRUC model is a knowledge-based expert system using icons and object-oriented programming methodologies. GRPHSTRUC has been designed and developed to use classical graph theory and allow the display of components and links of a graph structure. A graph G = (V,E) is a structure that consists of a finite set of vertices V and a finite set of edges E. A computer network is a graph structure; the vertices are the components of the network and the edges are the links between components. The GRPHSTRUC model provides a user interface that is designed to give a user the ability to rapidly and efficiently represent graph components, connections, and relationships. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  14. The Effect of Using Graphing Calculators in Complex Function Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocak, Mehmet Akif

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the role of graphing calculators in multiple representations for knowledge transfer and the omission of oversimplification in complex function graphs. The main aim is to examine whether graphing calculators were used efficiently to see different cases and multiple perspectives among complex function graphs, or whether…

  15. Stochastic Completeness of Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojciechowski, Radoslaw K.

    2007-12-01

    In this thesis, we analyze the stochastic completeness of a heat kernel on graphs which is a function of three variables: a pair of vertices and a continuous time, for infinite, locally finite, connected graphs. For general graphs, a sufficient condition for stochastic completeness is given in terms of the maximum valence on spheres about a fixed vertex. That this result is optimal is shown by studying a particular family of trees. We also prove a lower bound on the bottom of the spectrum for the discrete Laplacian and use this lower bound to show that in certain cases the Laplacian has empty essential spectrum.

  16. Graph ranking for exploratory gene data analysis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Microarray technology has made it possible to simultaneously monitor the expression levels of thousands of genes in a single experiment. However, the large number of genes greatly increases the challenges of analyzing, comprehending and interpreting the resulting mass of data. Selecting a subset of important genes is inevitable to address the challenge. Gene selection has been investigated extensively over the last decade. Most selection procedures, however, are not sufficient for accurate inference of underlying biology, because biological significance does not necessarily have to be statistically significant. Additional biological knowledge needs to be integrated into the gene selection procedure. Results We propose a general framework for gene ranking. We construct a bipartite graph from the Gene Ontology (GO) and gene expression data. The graph describes the relationship between genes and their associated molecular functions. Under a species condition, edge weights of the graph are assigned to be gene expression level. Such a graph provides a mathematical means to represent both species-independent and species-dependent biological information. We also develop a new ranking algorithm to analyze the weighted graph via a kernelized spatial depth (KSD) approach. Consequently, the importance of gene and molecular function can be simultaneously ranked by a real-valued measure, KSD, which incorporates the global and local structure of the graph. Over-expressed and under-regulated genes also can be separately ranked. Conclusion The gene-function bigraph integrates molecular function annotations into gene expression data. The relevance of genes is described in the graph (through a common function). The proposed method provides an exploratory framework for gene data analysis. PMID:19811684

  17. Online dynamic graph drawing.

    PubMed

    Frishman, Yaniv; Tal, Ayellet

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for drawing a sequence of graphs online. The algorithm strives to maintain the global structure of the graph and thus the user's mental map, while allowing arbitrary modifications between consecutive layouts. The algorithm works online and uses various execution culling methods in order to reduce the layout time and handle large dynamic graphs. Techniques for representing graphs on the GPU allow a speedup by a factor of up to 17 compared to the CPU implementation. The scalability of the algorithm across GPU generations is demonstrated. Applications of the algorithm to the visualization of discussion threads in Internet sites and to the visualization of social networks are provided. PMID:18467750

  18. A Semantic Graph Query Language

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, I L

    2006-10-16

    Semantic graphs can be used to organize large amounts of information from a number of sources into one unified structure. A semantic query language provides a foundation for extracting information from the semantic graph. The graph query language described here provides a simple, powerful method for querying semantic graphs.

  19. Quantum networks on cubelike graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernasconi, Anna; Godsil, Chris; Severini, Simone

    2008-11-01

    Cubelike graphs are the Cayley graphs of the elementary Abelian group Z2n (e.g., the hypercube is a cubelike graph). We study perfect state transfer between two particles in quantum networks modeled by a large class of cubelike graphs. This generalizes the results of Christandl [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 187902 (2004)] and Facer [Phys. Rev. A 92, 187902 (2008)].

  20. Direct reciprocity on graphs.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Nowak, Martin A

    2007-08-01

    Direct reciprocity is a mechanism for the evolution of cooperation based on the idea of repeated encounters between the same two individuals. Here we examine direct reciprocity in structured populations, where individuals occupy the vertices of a graph. The edges denote who interacts with whom. The graph represents spatial structure or a social network. For birth-death or pairwise comparison updating, we find that evolutionary stability of direct reciprocity is more restrictive on a graph than in a well-mixed population, but the condition for reciprocators to be advantageous is less restrictive on a graph. For death-birth and imitation updating, in contrast, both conditions are easier to fulfill on a graph. Moreover, for all four update mechanisms, reciprocators can dominate defectors on a graph, which is never possible in a well-mixed population. We also study the effect of an error rate, which increases with the number of links per individual; interacting with more people simultaneously enhances the probability of making mistakes. We provide analytic derivations for all results. PMID:17466339

  1. Graph structure model

    SciTech Connect

    Dreicer, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    The Graph Structure (GRPHSTRUC) model is a generic software-system tool that was developed to allow a system analyst to conduct studies and design analysis concerning control flow in graph structures. The GRPHSTRUC model is a knowledge-based expert system using icons and object-oriented methodologies. This software tool has been implemented on a Texas Instruments Explorer using the expert system shell called Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE), Common Lisp methods, and KEE Pictures for graphical display. The GRPHSTRUC model provides a user interface that is designed to allow the user to rapidly and efficiently represent graph components, interconnections, and interrelationships. GRPHSTRUC has been generically designed and developed to use classical graph theory and to allow the display of vertices and links of a graph structure. In particular, the model was developed to assist a computer security analyst in assessing the security of and to conduct security studies and design analysis concerning computer networks. The model is applicable to other disciplines that can be portrayed by graph structures, in particular safeguards. 16 refs.

  2. Clique graphs and overlapping communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, T. S.

    2010-12-01

    It is shown how to construct a clique graph in which properties of cliques of a fixed order in a given graph are represented by vertices in a weighted graph. Various definitions and motivations for these weights are given. The detection of communities or clusters is used to illustrate how a clique graph may be exploited. In particular a benchmark network is shown where clique graphs find the overlapping communities accurately while vertex partition methods fail.

  3. On the refined counting of graphs on surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mello Koch, Robert; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye; Wen, Congkao

    2013-05-01

    Ribbon graphs embedded on a Riemann surface provide a useful way to describe the double-line Feynman diagrams of large N computations and a variety of other QFT correlator and scattering amplitude calculations, e.g. in MHV rules for scattering amplitudes, as well as in ordinary QED. Their counting is a special case of the counting of bi-partite embedded graphs. We review and extend relevant mathematical literature and present results on the counting of some infinite classes of bi-partite graphs. Permutation groups and representations as well as double cosets and quotients of graphs are useful mathematical tools. The counting results are refined according to data of physical relevance, such as the structure of the vertices, faces and genus of the embedded graph. These counting problems can be expressed in terms of observables in three-dimensional topological field theory with Sd gauge group which gives them a topological membrane interpretation.

  4. Higher-order graph wavelets and sparsity on circulant graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotzagiannidis, Madeleine S.; Dragotti, Pier Luigi

    2015-08-01

    The notion of a graph wavelet gives rise to more advanced processing of data on graphs due to its ability to operate in a localized manner, across newly arising data-dependency structures, with respect to the graph signal and underlying graph structure, thereby taking into consideration the inherent geometry of the data. In this work, we tackle the problem of creating graph wavelet filterbanks on circulant graphs for a sparse representation of certain classes of graph signals. The underlying graph can hereby be data-driven as well as fixed, for applications including image processing and social network theory, whereby clusters can be modelled as circulant graphs, respectively. We present a set of novel graph wavelet filter-bank constructions, which annihilate higher-order polynomial graph signals (up to a border effect) defined on the vertices of undirected, circulant graphs, and are localised in the vertex domain. We give preliminary results on their performance for non-linear graph signal approximation and denoising. Furthermore, we provide extensions to our previously developed segmentation-inspired graph wavelet framework for non-linear image approximation, by incorporating notions of smoothness and vanishing moments, which further improve performance compared to traditional methods.

  5. Flexibility in data interpretation: effects of representational format

    PubMed Central

    Braithwaite, David W.; Goldstone, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Graphs and tables differentially support performance on specific tasks. For tasks requiring reading off single data points, tables are as good as or better than graphs, while for tasks involving relationships among data points, graphs often yield better performance. However, the degree to which graphs and tables support flexibility across a range of tasks is not well-understood. In two experiments, participants detected main and interaction effects in line graphs and tables of bivariate data. Graphs led to more efficient performance, but also lower flexibility, as indicated by a larger discrepancy in performance across tasks. In particular, detection of main effects of variables represented in the graph legend was facilitated relative to detection of main effects of variables represented in the x-axis. Graphs may be a preferable representational format when the desired task or analytical perspective is known in advance, but may also induce greater interpretive bias than tables, necessitating greater care in their use and design. PMID:24427145

  6. Movement Forms: A Graph-Dynamic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Saltzman, Elliot; Holt, Ken

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on characterizing the physical movement forms (e.g., walk, crawl, roll, etc.) that can be used to actualize abstract, functionally-specified behavioral goals (e.g., locomotion). Emphasis is placed on how such forms are distinguished from one another, in part, by the set of topological patterns of physical contact between agent and environment (i.e., the set of physical graphs associated with each form) and the transitions among these patterns displayed over the course of performance (i.e., the form’s physical graph dynamics). Crucial in this regard is the creation and dissolution of loops in these graphs, which can be related to the distinction between open and closed kinematic chains. Formal similarities are described within the theoretical framework of task-dynamics between physically-closed kinematic chains (physical loops) that are created during various movement forms and functionally-closed kinematic chains (functional loops) that are associated with task-space control of end-effectors; it is argued that both types of loop must be flexibly incorporated into the coordinative structures that govern skilled action. Final speculation is focused on the role of graphs and their dynamics, not only in processes of coordination and control for individual agents, but also in processes of inter-agent coordination and the coupling of agents with (non-sentient) environmental objects. PMID:24910507

  7. Applied and computational harmonic analysis on graphs and networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irion, Jeff; Saito, Naoki

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, the advent of new sensor technologies and social network infrastructure has provided huge opportunities and challenges for analyzing data recorded on such networks. In the case of data on regular lattices, computational harmonic analysis tools such as the Fourier and wavelet transforms have well-developed theories and proven track records of success. It is therefore quite important to extend such tools from the classical setting of regular lattices to the more general setting of graphs and networks. In this article, we first review basics of graph Laplacian matrices, whose eigenpairs are often interpreted as the frequencies and the Fourier basis vectors on a given graph. We point out, however, that such an interpretation is misleading unless the underlying graph is either an unweighted path or cycle. We then discuss our recent effort of constructing multiscale basis dictionaries on a graph, including the Hierarchical Graph Laplacian Eigenbasis Dictionary and the Generalized Haar-Walsh Wavelet Packet Dictionary, which are viewed as generalizations of the classical hierarchical block DCTs and the Haar-Walsh wavelet packets, respectively, to the graph setting. Finally, we demonstrate the usefulness of our dictionaries by using them to simultaneously segment and denoise 1-D noisy signals sampled on regular lattices, a problem where classical tools have difficulty.

  8. Optimized Graph Search Using Multi-Level Graph Clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kala, Rahul; Shukla, Anupam; Tiwari, Ritu

    Graphs find a variety of use in numerous domains especially because of their capability to model common problems. The social networking graphs that are used for social networking analysis, a feature given by various social networking sites are an example of this. Graphs can also be visualized in the search engines to carry search operations and provide results. Various searching algorithms have been developed for searching in graphs. In this paper we propose that the entire network graph be clustered. The larger graphs are clustered to make smaller graphs. These smaller graphs can again be clustered to further reduce the size of graph. The search is performed on the smallest graph to identify the general path, which may be further build up to actual nodes by working on the individual clusters involved. Since many searches are carried out on the same graph, clustering may be done once and the data may be used for multiple searches over the time. If the graph changes considerably, only then we may re-cluster the graph.

  9. Measuring Graph Comprehension, Critique, and Construction in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Kevin; Cabrera, Julio; Vitale, Jonathan M.; Madhok, Jacquie; Tinker, Robert; Linn, Marcia C.

    2016-04-01

    Interpreting and creating graphs plays a critical role in scientific practice. The K-12 Next Generation Science Standards call for students to use graphs for scientific modeling, reasoning, and communication. To measure progress on this dimension, we need valid and reliable measures of graph understanding in science. In this research, we designed items to measure graph comprehension, critique, and construction and developed scoring rubrics based on the knowledge integration (KI) framework. We administered the items to over 460 middle school students. We found that the items formed a coherent scale and had good reliability using both item response theory and classical test theory. The KI scoring rubric showed that most students had difficulty linking graphs features to science concepts, especially when asked to critique or construct graphs. In addition, students with limited access to computers as well as those who speak a language other than English at home have less integrated understanding than others. These findings point to the need to increase the integration of graphing into science instruction. The results suggest directions for further research leading to comprehensive assessments of graph understanding.

  10. Teacher Assessment of Practical Skills in A-Level Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, R.; Ferguson, Carolyn M.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses a two-year assessment undertaken to evaluate the Nuffield A-Level chemistry course. Secondary teachers selected chemistry experiments for assessment purposes and assessed their students in manipulative skills, observational skills, interpretation skills, creative skills, and attitudes. (MLH)

  11. Algebraic distance on graphs.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.; Safro, I.

    2011-01-01

    Measuring the connection strength between a pair of vertices in a graph is one of the most important concerns in many graph applications. Simple measures such as edge weights may not be sufficient for capturing the effects associated with short paths of lengths greater than one. In this paper, we consider an iterative process that smooths an associated value for nearby vertices, and we present a measure of the local connection strength (called the algebraic distance; see [D. Ron, I. Safro, and A. Brandt, Multiscale Model. Simul., 9 (2011), pp. 407-423]) based on this process. The proposed measure is attractive in that the process is simple, linear, and easily parallelized. An analysis of the convergence property of the process reveals that the local neighborhoods play an important role in determining the connectivity between vertices. We demonstrate the practical effectiveness of the proposed measure through several combinatorial optimization problems on graphs and hypergraphs.

  12. Subdominant pseudoultrametric on graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Dovgoshei, A A; Petrov, E A

    2013-08-31

    Let (G,w) be a weighted graph. We find necessary and sufficient conditions under which the weight w:E(G)→R{sup +} can be extended to a pseudoultrametric on V(G), and establish a criterion for the uniqueness of such an extension. We demonstrate that (G,w) is a complete k-partite graph, for k≥2, if and only if for any weight that can be extended to a pseudoultrametric, among all such extensions one can find the least pseudoultrametric consistent with w. We give a structural characterization of graphs for which the subdominant pseudoultrametric is an ultrametric for any strictly positive weight that can be extended to a pseudoultrametric. Bibliography: 14 titles.

  13. Quantum Ergodicity on Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnutzmann, S.; Keating, J. P.; Piotet, F.

    2008-12-01

    We investigate the equidistribution of the eigenfunctions on quantum graphs in the high-energy limit. Our main result is an estimate of the deviations from equidistribution for large well-connected graphs. We use an exact field-theoretic expression in terms of a variant of the supersymmetric nonlinear σ model. Our estimate is based on a saddle-point analysis of this expression and leads to a criterion for when equidistribution emerges asymptotically in the limit of large graphs. Our theory predicts a rate of convergence that is a significant refinement of previous estimates, long assumed to be valid for quantum chaotic systems, agreeing with them in some situations but not all. We discuss specific examples for which the theory is tested numerically.

  14. Graphing Calculator Mini Course

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karnawat, Sunil R.

    1996-01-01

    The "Graphing Calculator Mini Course" project provided a mathematically-intensive technologically-based summer enrichment workshop for teachers of American Indian students on the Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation. Eleven such teachers participated in the six-day workshop in summer of 1996 and three Sunday workshops in the academic year. The project aimed to improve science and mathematics education on the reservation by showing teachers effective ways to use high-end graphing calculators as teaching and learning tools in science and mathematics courses at all levels. In particular, the workshop concentrated on applying TI-82's user-friendly features to understand the various mathematical and scientific concepts.

  15. Using graph approach for managing connectivity in integrative landscape modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabotin, Michael; Fabre, Jean-Christophe; Libres, Aline; Lagacherie, Philippe; Crevoisier, David; Moussa, Roger

    2013-04-01

    In cultivated landscapes, a lot of landscape elements such as field boundaries, ditches or banks strongly impact water flows, mass and energy fluxes. At the watershed scale, these impacts are strongly conditionned by the connectivity of these landscape elements. An accurate representation of these elements and of their complex spatial arrangements is therefore of great importance for modelling and predicting these impacts.We developped in the framework of the OpenFLUID platform (Software Environment for Modelling Fluxes in Landscapes) a digital landscape representation that takes into account the spatial variabilities and connectivities of diverse landscape elements through the application of the graph theory concepts. The proposed landscape representation consider spatial units connected together to represent the flux exchanges or any other information exchanges. Each spatial unit of the landscape is represented as a node of a graph and relations between units as graph connections. The connections are of two types - parent-child connection and up/downstream connection - which allows OpenFLUID to handle hierarchical graphs. Connections can also carry informations and graph evolution during simulation is possible (connections or elements modifications). This graph approach allows a better genericity on landscape representation, a management of complex connections and facilitate development of new landscape representation algorithms. Graph management is fully operational in OpenFLUID for developers or modelers ; and several graph tools are available such as graph traversal algorithms or graph displays. Graph representation can be managed i) manually by the user (for example in simple catchments) through XML-based files in easily editable and readable format or ii) by using methods of the OpenFLUID-landr library which is an OpenFLUID library relying on common open-source spatial libraries (ogr vector, geos topologic vector and gdal raster libraries). OpenFLUID-landr library has been developed in order i) to be used with no GIS expert skills needed (common gis formats can be read and simplified spatial management is provided), ii) to easily develop adapted rules of landscape discretization and graph creation to follow spatialized model requirements and iii) to allow model developers to manage dynamic and complex spatial topology. Graph management in OpenFLUID are shown with i) examples of hydrological modelizations on complex farmed landscapes and ii) the new implementation of Geo-MHYDAS tool based on the OpenFLUID-landr library, which allows to discretize a landscape and create graph structure for the MHYDAS model requirements.

  16. Graph for locked rotor current

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    Graph determines effect of stalled motor on a distribution system and eliminates hand calculation of amperage in emergencies. Graph is useful to any manufacturer, contractor, or maintenance department involved in electrical technology.

  17. Knowing a lot for one’s age: Vocabulary skill and not age is associated with anticipatory incremental sentence interpretation in children and adults

    PubMed Central

    Borovsky, Arielle; Elman, Jeffrey; Fernald, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Adults can incrementally combine information from speech with astonishing speed in order to anticipate future words. Concurrently, a growing body of work suggests that vocabulary ability is crucially related to lexical processing skills in young children. However, relatively little is known about this relationship with predictive sentence processing in children or adults. We explore this question by comparing the degree to which an upcoming sentential Theme is anticipated by a combination of information from a preceding Agent and Action. 48 children, aged of 3 to 10, and 48 college-aged adults’ eye-movements were recorded as they looked at a four-alternative forced-choice display while they heard a sentence in which the object referred to one of the pictures (e.g. The pirate hides the treasure) in the presence of an Agent-related, Action-related and Unrelated distractor image. Pictures were rotated across stimuli so that, across all versions of the study, each picture appeared in all conditions, yielding a completely balanced within-subjects design. Adults and children very quickly made use of combinatory information as soon as it became available at the action to generate anticipatory looks to the target object. Speed of anticipatory fixations did not vary with age. However, when controlling for age, individuals with higher vocabularies were faster to look to the target than those with lower vocabulary scores. Together, these results support and extend current views of incremental processing in which adults and children make use of linguistic information to continuously update their mental representation of ongoing language. PMID:22632758

  18. Learning to Study: Study Skills/Study Strategies. Book H.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangrum, Charles T., II

    This workbook is one of a series that provides students with examples of location skills, organizational skills, interpretation skills, retention skills, test-taking skills, rate skills, and study strategies. Location skills include locating general reference sources and reviewing the card catalog system and the Dewey decimal system.…

  19. Coloring geographical threshold graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Bradonjic, Milan; Percus, Allon; Muller, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    We propose a coloring algorithm for sparse random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). Here, we analyze the GTG coloring algorithm together with the graph's clique number, showing formally that in spite of the differences in structure between GTG and RGG, the asymptotic behavior of the chromatic number is identical: {chi}1n 1n n / 1n n (1 + {omicron}(1)). Finally, we consider the leading corrections to this expression, again using the coloring algorithm and clique number to provide bounds on the chromatic number. We show that the gap between the lower and upper bound is within C 1n n / (1n 1n n){sup 2}, and specify the constant C.

  20. Graph-theoretical exorcism

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    Given a graph G and an ordering phi of the vertices, V(G), we define a parsimonious proper coloring (PPC) of V(G) under phi to be a proper coloring of V(G) in the order phi, where a new color is introduced only when a vertex cannot be properly colored in its order with any of the colors already used.

  1. Introduction to Graphing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokol, William

    In this autoinstructional packet, the student is given an experimental situation which introduces him to the process of graphing. The lesson is presented for secondary school students in chemistry. Algebra I and a Del Mod System program (indicated as SE 018 020) are suggested prerequisites for the use of this program. Behavioral objectives are…

  2. GraphLib

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-02-19

    This library is used in several LLNL projects, including STAT (the Stack Trace Analysis Tool for scalable debugging) and some modules in P^nMPI (a tool MPI tool infrastructure). It can also be used standalone for creating and manipulationg graphs, but its API is primarily tuned to support these other projects

  3. Straight Line Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Tom

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares one effective lesson idea on straight line graphs that he applied in his lower ability Y9 class. The author wanted something interesting for his class to do, something that was fun and engaging with direct feedback, and something that worked because someone else had tried it before. In a word, the author admits…

  4. Quantum walks on quotient graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Krovi, Hari; Brun, Todd A.

    2007-06-15

    A discrete-time quantum walk on a graph {gamma} is the repeated application of a unitary evolution operator to a Hilbert space corresponding to the graph. If this unitary evolution operator has an associated group of symmetries, then for certain initial states the walk will be confined to a subspace of the original Hilbert space. Symmetries of the original graph, given by its automorphism group, can be inherited by the evolution operator. We show that a quantum walk confined to the subspace corresponding to this symmetry group can be seen as a different quantum walk on a smaller quotient graph. We give an explicit construction of the quotient graph for any subgroup H of the automorphism group and illustrate it with examples. The automorphisms of the quotient graph which are inherited from the original graph are the original automorphism group modulo the subgroup H used to construct it. The quotient graph is constructed by removing the symmetries of the subgroup H from the original graph. We then analyze the behavior of hitting times on quotient graphs. Hitting time is the average time it takes a walk to reach a given final vertex from a given initial vertex. It has been shown in earlier work [Phys. Rev. A 74, 042334 (2006)] that the hitting time for certain initial states of a quantum walks can be infinite, in contrast to classical random walks. We give a condition which determines whether the quotient graph has infinite hitting times given that they exist in the original graph. We apply this condition for the examples discussed and determine which quotient graphs have infinite hitting times. All known examples of quantum walks with hitting times which are short compared to classical random walks correspond to systems with quotient graphs much smaller than the original graph; we conjecture that the existence of a small quotient graph with finite hitting times is necessary for a walk to exhibit a quantum speedup.

  5. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

    2007-08-07

    A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

  6. Kevin Bacon and Graph Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Brian

    2004-01-01

    The interconnected world of actors and movies is a familiar, rich example for graph theory. This paper gives the history of the "Kevin Bacon Game" and makes extensive use of a Web site to analyze the underlying graph. The main content is the classroom development of the weighted average to determine the best choice of "center" for the graph. The…

  7. Mining and Indexing Graph Databases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Dayu

    2013-01-01

    Graphs are widely used to model structures and relationships of objects in various scientific and commercial fields. Chemical molecules, proteins, malware system-call dependencies and three-dimensional mechanical parts are all modeled as graphs. In this dissertation, we propose to mine and index those graph data to enable fast and scalable search.

  8. Recursive Feature Extraction in Graphs

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-08-14

    ReFeX extracts recursive topological features from graph data. The input is a graph as a csv file and the output is a csv file containing feature values for each node in the graph. The features are based on topological counts in the neighborhoods of each nodes, as well as recursive summaries of neighbors' features.

  9. A Note on Hamiltonian Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skurnick, Ronald; Davi, Charles; Skurnick, Mia

    2005-01-01

    Since 1952, several well-known graph theorists have proven numerous results regarding Hamiltonian graphs. In fact, many elementary graph theory textbooks contain the theorems of Ore, Bondy and Chvatal, Chvatal and Erdos, Posa, and Dirac, to name a few. In this note, the authors state and prove some propositions of their own concerning Hamiltonian…

  10. A Note on Hamiltonian Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skurnick, Ronald; Davi, Charles; Skurnick, Mia

    2005-01-01

    Since 1952, several well-known graph theorists have proven numerous results regarding Hamiltonian graphs. In fact, many elementary graph theory textbooks contain the theorems of Ore, Bondy and Chvatal, Chvatal and Erdos, Posa, and Dirac, to name a few. In this note, the authors state and prove some propositions of their own concerning Hamiltonian

  11. Mining and Indexing Graph Databases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Dayu

    2013-01-01

    Graphs are widely used to model structures and relationships of objects in various scientific and commercial fields. Chemical molecules, proteins, malware system-call dependencies and three-dimensional mechanical parts are all modeled as graphs. In this dissertation, we propose to mine and index those graph data to enable fast and scalable search.…

  12. A Clustering Graph Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Winlaw, Manda; De Sterck, Hans; Sanders, Geoffrey

    2015-10-26

    In very simple terms a network can be de ned as a collection of points joined together by lines. Thus, networks can be used to represent connections between entities in a wide variety of elds including engi- neering, science, medicine, and sociology. Many large real-world networks share a surprising number of properties, leading to a strong interest in model development research and techniques for building synthetic networks have been developed, that capture these similarities and replicate real-world graphs. Modeling these real-world networks serves two purposes. First, building models that mimic the patterns and prop- erties of real networks helps to understand the implications of these patterns and helps determine which patterns are important. If we develop a generative process to synthesize real networks we can also examine which growth processes are plausible and which are not. Secondly, high-quality, large-scale network data is often not available, because of economic, legal, technological, or other obstacles [7]. Thus, there are many instances where the systems of interest cannot be represented by a single exemplar network. As one example, consider the eld of cybersecurity, where systems require testing across diverse threat scenarios and validation across diverse network structures. In these cases, where there is no single exemplar network, the systems must instead be modeled as a collection of networks in which the variation among them may be just as important as their common features. By developing processes to build synthetic models, so-called graph generators, we can build synthetic networks that capture both the essential features of a system and realistic variability. Then we can use such synthetic graphs to perform tasks such as simulations, analysis, and decision making. We can also use synthetic graphs to performance test graph analysis algorithms, including clustering algorithms and anomaly detection algorithms.

  13. Quantitative Literacy: Working with Log Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shawl, S.

    2013-04-01

    The need for working with and understanding different types of graphs is a common occurrence in everyday life. Examples include anything having to do investments, being an educated juror in a case that involves evidence presented graphically, and understanding many aspect of our current political discourse. Within a science class graphs play a crucial role in presenting and interpreting data. In astronomy, where the range of graphed values is many orders of magnitude, log-axes must be used and understood. Experience shows that students do not understand how to read and interpret log-axes or how they differ from linear. Alters (1996), in a study of college students in an algebra-based physics class, found little understanding of log plotting. The purpose of this poster is to show the method and progression I have developed for use in my “ASTRO 101” class, with the goal being to help students better understand the H-R diagram, mass-luminosity relationship, and digital spectra.

  14. Novice Interpretations of Visual Representations of Geosciences Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkemper, L. K.; Arthurs, L.

    2013-12-01

    Past cognition research of individual's perception and comprehension of bar and line graphs are substantive enough that they have resulted in the generation of graph design principles and graph comprehension theories; however, gaps remain in our understanding of how people process visual representations of data, especially of geologic and atmospheric data. This pilot project serves to build on others' prior research and begin filling the existing gaps. The primary objectives of this pilot project include: (i) design a novel data collection protocol based on a combination of paper-based surveys, think-aloud interviews, and eye-tracking tasks to investigate student data handling skills of simple to complex visual representations of geologic and atmospheric data, (ii) demonstrate that the protocol yields results that shed light on student data handling skills, and (iii) generate preliminary findings upon which tentative but perhaps helpful recommendations on how to more effectively present these data to the non-scientist community and teach essential data handling skills. An effective protocol for the combined use of paper-based surveys, think-aloud interviews, and computer-based eye-tracking tasks for investigating cognitive processes involved in perceiving, comprehending, and interpreting visual representations of geologic and atmospheric data is instrumental to future research in this area. The outcomes of this pilot study provide the foundation upon which future more in depth and scaled up investigations can build. Furthermore, findings of this pilot project are sufficient for making, at least, tentative recommendations that can help inform (i) the design of physical attributes of visual representations of data, especially more complex representations, that may aid in improving students' data handling skills and (ii) instructional approaches that have the potential to aid students in more effectively handling visual representations of geologic and atmospheric data that they might encounter in a course, television news, newspapers and magazines, and websites. Such recommendations would also be the potential subject of future investigations and have the potential to impact the design features when data is presented to the public and instructional strategies not only in geoscience courses but also other science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses.

  15. What is a complex graph?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jongkwang; Wilhelm, Thomas

    2008-04-01

    Many papers published in recent years show that real-world graphs G(n,m) ( n nodes, m edges) are more or less “complex” in the sense that different topological features deviate from random graphs. Here we narrow the definition of graph complexity and argue that a complex graph contains many different subgraphs. We present different measures that quantify this complexity, for instance C1e, the relative number of non-isomorphic one-edge-deleted subgraphs (i.e. DECK size). However, because these different subgraph measures are computationally demanding, we also study simpler complexity measures focussing on slightly different aspects of graph complexity. We consider heuristically defined “product measures”, the products of two quantities which are zero in the extreme cases of a path and clique, and “entropy measures” quantifying the diversity of different topological features. The previously defined network/graph complexity measures Medium Articulation and Offdiagonal complexity ( OdC) belong to these two classes. We study OdC measures in some detail and compare it with our new measures. For all measures, the most complex graph G has a medium number of edges, between the edge numbers of the minimum and the maximum connected graph n-1graph complexity measures are characterized with the help of different example graphs. For all measures the corresponding time complexity is given. Finally, we discuss the complexity of 33 real-world graphs of different biological, social and economic systems with the six computationally most simple measures (including OdC). The complexities of the real graphs are compared with average complexities of two different random graph versions: complete random graphs (just fixed n,m) and rewired graphs with fixed node degrees.

  16. Spectral fluctuations of quantum graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Pluhař, Z.; Weidenmüller, H. A.

    2014-10-15

    We prove the Bohigas-Giannoni-Schmit conjecture in its most general form for completely connected simple graphs with incommensurate bond lengths. We show that for graphs that are classically mixing (i.e., graphs for which the spectrum of the classical Perron-Frobenius operator possesses a finite gap), the generating functions for all (P,Q) correlation functions for both closed and open graphs coincide (in the limit of infinite graph size) with the corresponding expressions of random-matrix theory, both for orthogonal and for unitary symmetry.

  17. Spectral fluctuations of quantum graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluhař, Z.; Weidenmüller, H. A.

    2014-10-01

    We prove the Bohigas-Giannoni-Schmit conjecture in its most general form for completely connected simple graphs with incommensurate bond lengths. We show that for graphs that are classically mixing (i.e., graphs for which the spectrum of the classical Perron-Frobenius operator possesses a finite gap), the generating functions for all (P,Q) correlation functions for both closed and open graphs coincide (in the limit of infinite graph size) with the corresponding expressions of random-matrix theory, both for orthogonal and for unitary symmetry.

  18. Project on Teaching Charts and Graphs to ABE Students. Part I: Teacher's Guide [and] Part II: Transparency Assembly Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renton Vocational Inst., WA.

    The teacher's guide and collection of transparency masters are designed for use in teaching adult basic education (ABE) students how to read and interpret graphs and charts. Covered in the individual lessons of the instructional unit are the reading and interpretation of charts as well as picture, line, bar, and circle graphs. Each unit contains a…

  19. SimGraph: A Flight Simulation Data Visualization Workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Joseph A.; Kenney, Patrick S.

    1997-01-01

    Today's modern flight simulation research produces vast amounts of time sensitive data, making a qualitative analysis of the data difficult while it remains in a numerical representation. Therefore, a method of merging related data together and presenting it to the user in a more comprehensible format is necessary. Simulation Graphics (SimGraph) is an object-oriented data visualization software package that presents simulation data in animated graphical displays for easy interpretation. Data produced from a flight simulation is presented by SimGraph in several different formats, including: 3-Dimensional Views, Cockpit Control Views, Heads-Up Displays, Strip Charts, and Status Indicators. SimGraph can accommodate the addition of new graphical displays to allow the software to be customized to each user s particular environment. A new display can be developed and added to SimGraph without having to design a new application, allowing the graphics programmer to focus on the development of the graphical display. The SimGraph framework can be reused for a wide variety of visualization tasks. Although it was created for the flight simulation facilities at NASA Langley Research Center, SimGraph can be reconfigured to almost any data visualization environment. This paper describes the capabilities and operations of SimGraph.

  20. Modified risk graph method using fuzzy rule-based approach.

    PubMed

    Nait-Said, R; Zidani, F; Ouzraoui, N

    2009-05-30

    The risk graph is one of the most popular methods used to determine the safety integrity level for safety instrumented functions. However, conventional risk graph as described in the IEC 61508 standard is subjective and suffers from an interpretation problem of risk parameters. Thus, it can lead to inconsistent outcomes that may result in conservative SILs. To overcome this difficulty, a modified risk graph using fuzzy rule-based system is proposed. This novel version of risk graph uses fuzzy scales to assess risk parameters and calibration may be made by varying risk parameter values. Furthermore, the outcomes which are numerical values of risk reduction factor (the inverse of the probability of failure on demand) can be compared directly with those given by quantitative and semi-quantitative methods such as fault tree analysis (FTA), quantitative risk assessment (QRA) and layers of protection analysis (LOPA). PMID:18835093

  1. An Unusual Exponential Graph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syed, M. Qasim; Lovatt, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an addition to the series of papers on the exponential function begun by Albert Bartlett. In particular, we ask how the graph of the exponential function y = e[superscript -t/t] would appear if y were plotted versus ln t rather than the normal practice of plotting ln y versus t. In answering this question, we find a new way to

  2. An Unusual Exponential Graph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syed, M. Qasim; Lovatt, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an addition to the series of papers on the exponential function begun by Albert Bartlett. In particular, we ask how the graph of the exponential function y = e[superscript -t/t] would appear if y were plotted versus ln t rather than the normal practice of plotting ln y versus t. In answering this question, we find a new way to…

  3. Range charts and no-space graphs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, L.E.

    1978-01-01

    No-space graphs present one solution to the familiar problem: given data on the occurrence of fossil taxa in separate, well-sampled sections, determine a range chart; that is, a reasonable working hypothesis of the total range in the area in question of each taxon studied. The solution presented here treats only the relative sequence of biostratigraphic events (first and last occurrences of taxa) and does not attempt to determine an amount of spacing between events. Relative to a hypothesized sequence, observed events in any section may be in-place or out-of-place. Out-of-place events may indicate (1) the event in question reflects a taxon that did not fill its entire range (unfilled-range event), or (2) the event in question indicates a need for the revision of the hypothesized sequence. A graph of relative position only (no-space graph) can be used to facilitate the recognition of in-place and out-of-place events by presenting a visual comparison of the observations from each section with the hypothesized sequence. The geometry of the graph as constructed here is such that in-place events will lie along a line series and out-of-place events will lie above or below it. First-occurrence events below the line series and last-occurrence events above the line series indicate unfilled ranges. First-occurrence events above the line series and last-occurrence events below the line series indicate a need for the revision of the hypothesis. Knowing this, the stratigrapher considers alternative positionings of the line series as alternative range hypotheses and seeks the line series that best fits his geologic and paleontologic judgment. No-space graphs are used to revise an initial hypothesis until a final hypothesis is reached. In this final hypothesis every event is found in-place in at least one section, and all events in all sections may be interpreted to represent in-place events or unfilled-range events. No event may indicate a need for further range revision. The application of the no-space graph method requires the assumption of lack of reworking and the assumption that taxa that are present in a single horizon indicate taxa whose ranges overlap. When applied to hypothetical and actual data, the no-space graph technique produces geologically reasonable range charts that compare favorably with results produced by other methods. ?? 1978.

  4. The Effects of Data and Graph Type on Concepts and Visualizations of Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Linda L.; Shore, Felice S.

    2010-01-01

    Recognizing and interpreting variability in data lies at the heart of statistical reasoning. Since graphical displays should facilitate communication about data, statistical literacy should include an understanding of how variability in data can be gleaned from a graph. This paper identifies several types of graphs that students typically…

  5. Comparison of Student Understanding of Line Graph Slope in Physics and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planinic, Maja; Milin-Sipus, Zeljka; Katic, Helena; Susac, Ana; Ivanjek, Lana

    2012-01-01

    This study gives an insight into the differences between student understanding of line graph slope in the context of physics (kinematics) and mathematics. Two pairs of parallel physics and mathematics questions that involved estimation and interpretation of line graph slope were constructed and administered to 114 Croatian second year high school…

  6. The Effects of Data and Graph Type on Concepts and Visualizations of Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Linda L.; Shore, Felice S.

    2010-01-01

    Recognizing and interpreting variability in data lies at the heart of statistical reasoning. Since graphical displays should facilitate communication about data, statistical literacy should include an understanding of how variability in data can be gleaned from a graph. This paper identifies several types of graphs that students typically

  7. Graph theoretical model of a sensorimotor connectome in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Stobb, Michael; Peterson, Joshua M; Mazzag, Borbala; Gahtan, Ethan

    2012-01-01

    Mapping the detailed connectivity patterns (connectomes) of neural circuits is a central goal of neuroscience. The best quantitative approach to analyzing connectome data is still unclear but graph theory has been used with success. We present a graph theoretical model of the posterior lateral line sensorimotor pathway in zebrafish. The model includes 2,616 neurons and 167,114 synaptic connections. Model neurons represent known cell types in zebrafish larvae, and connections were set stochastically following rules based on biological literature. Thus, our model is a uniquely detailed computational representation of a vertebrate connectome. The connectome has low overall connection density, with 2.45% of all possible connections, a value within the physiological range. We used graph theoretical tools to compare the zebrafish connectome graph to small-world, random and structured random graphs of the same size. For each type of graph, 100 randomly generated instantiations were considered. Degree distribution (the number of connections per neuron) varied more in the zebrafish graph than in same size graphs with less biological detail. There was high local clustering and a short average path length between nodes, implying a small-world structure similar to other neural connectomes and complex networks. The graph was found not to be scale-free, in agreement with some other neural connectomes. An experimental lesion was performed that targeted three model brain neurons, including the Mauthner neuron, known to control fast escape turns. The lesion decreased the number of short paths between sensory and motor neurons analogous to the behavioral effects of the same lesion in zebrafish. This model is expandable and can be used to organize and interpret a growing database of information on the zebrafish connectome. PMID:22624008

  8. Abstract Interpreters for Free

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Might, Matthew

    In small-step abstract interpretations, the concrete and abstract semantics bear an uncanny resemblance. In this work, we present an analysis-design methodology that both explains and exploits that resemblance. Specifically, we present a two-step method to convert a small-step concrete semantics into a family of sound, computable abstract interpretations. The first step re-factors the concrete state-space to eliminate recursive structure; this refactoring of the state-space simultaneously determines a store-passing-style transformation on the underlying concrete semantics. The second step uses inference rules to generate an abstract state-space and a Galois connection simultaneously. The Galois connection allows the calculation of the "optimal" abstract interpretation. The two-step process is unambiguous, but nondeterministic: at each step, analysis designers face choices. Some of these choices ultimately influence properties such as flow-, field- and context-sensitivity. Thus, under the method, we can give the emergence of these properties a graph-theoretic characterization. To illustrate the method, we systematically abstract the continuation-passing style lambda calculus to arrive at two distinct families of analyses. The first is the well-known k-CFA family of analyses. The second consists of novel "environment-centric" abstract interpretations, none of which appear in the literature on static analysis of higher-order programs.

  9. Fostering the Development of Quantitative Life Skills through Introductory Astronomy: Can it be Done?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Follette, Katherine B.; McCarthy, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    We present preliminary results from a student survey designed to test whether the all-important life skill of numeracy/quantitative literacy can be fostered and improved upon in college students through the vehicle of non-major introductory courses in Astronomy. Many instructors of introductory science courses for non-majors would state that a major goal of our classes is to teach our students to distinguish between science and pseudoscience, truth and fiction, in their everyday lives. It is difficult to believe that such a skill can truly be mastered without a fair amount of mathematical sophistication in the form of arithmetic, statistical and graph reading skills that many American college students unfortunately lack when they enter our classrooms. In teaching what is frequently their "terminal science course in life” can we instill in our students the numerical skills that they need to be savvy consumers, educated citizens and discerning interpreters of the ever-present polls, studies and surveys in which our society is awash? In what may well be their final opportunity to see applied mathematics in the classroom, can we impress upon them the importance of mathematical sophistication in interpreting the statistics that they are bombarded with by the media? Our study is in its second semester, and is designed to investigate to what extent it is possible to improve important quantitative skills in college students through a single semester introductory Astronomy course.

  10. Quantization of gauge fields, graph polynomials and graph homology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreimer, Dirk; Sars, Matthias; van Suijlekom, Walter D.

    2013-09-01

    We review quantization of gauge fields using algebraic properties of 3-regular graphs. We derive the Feynman integrand at n loops for a non-abelian gauge theory quantized in a covariant gauge from scalar integrands for connected 3-regular graphs, obtained from the two Symanzik polynomials. The transition to the full gauge theory amplitude is obtained by the use of a third, new, graph polynomial, the corolla polynomial. This implies effectively a covariant quantization without ghosts, where all the relevant signs of the ghost sector are incorporated in a double complex furnished by the corolla polynomial-we call it cycle homology-and by graph homology.

  11. Graph Coarsening for Path Finding in Cybersecurity Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, Emilie A.; Johnson, John R.; Halappanavar, Mahantesh

    2013-01-01

    n the pass-the-hash attack, hackers repeatedly steal password hashes and move through a computer network with the goal of reaching a computer with high level administrative privileges. In this paper we apply graph coarsening in network graphs for the purpose of detecting hackers using this attack or assessing the risk level of the network's current state. We repeatedly take graph minors, which preserve the existence of paths in the graph, and take powers of the adjacency matrix to count the paths. This allows us to detect the existence of paths as well as find paths that have high risk of being used by adversaries.

  12. Cactus Graphs for Genome Comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paten, Benedict; Diekhans, Mark; Earl, Dent; St. John, John; Ma, Jian; Suh, Bernard; Haussler, David

    We introduce a data structure, analysis and visualization scheme called a cactus graph for comparing sets of related genomes. Cactus graphs capture some of the advantages of de Bruijn and breakpoint graphs in one unified framework. They naturally decompose the common substructures in a set of related genomes into a hierarchy of chains that can be visualized as multiple alignments and nets that can be visualized in circular genome plots.

  13. Contact Graph Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Contact Graph Routing (CGR) is a dynamic routing system that computes routes through a time-varying topology of scheduled communication contacts in a network based on the DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) architecture. It is designed to enable dynamic selection of data transmission routes in a space network based on DTN. This dynamic responsiveness in route computation should be significantly more effective and less expensive than static routing, increasing total data return while at the same time reducing mission operations cost and risk. The basic strategy of CGR is to take advantage of the fact that, since flight mission communication operations are planned in detail, the communication routes between any pair of bundle agents in a population of nodes that have all been informed of one another's plans can be inferred from those plans rather than discovered via dialogue (which is impractical over long one-way-light-time space links). Messages that convey this planning information are used to construct contact graphs (time-varying models of network connectivity) from which CGR automatically computes efficient routes for bundles. Automatic route selection increases the flexibility and resilience of the space network, simplifying cross-support and reducing mission management costs. Note that there are no routing tables in Contact Graph Routing. The best route for a bundle destined for a given node may routinely be different from the best route for a different bundle destined for the same node, depending on bundle priority, bundle expiration time, and changes in the current lengths of transmission queues for neighboring nodes; routes must be computed individually for each bundle, from the Bundle Protocol agent's current network connectivity model for the bundle s destination node (the contact graph). Clearly this places a premium on optimizing the implementation of the route computation algorithm. The scalability of CGR to very large networks remains a research topic. The information carried by CGR contact plan messages is useful not only for dynamic route computation, but also for the implementation of rate control, congestion forecasting, transmission episode initiation and termination, timeout interval computation, and retransmission timer suspension and resumption.

  14. Graphing the Past

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2014-01-01

    Renee Clary and James Wandersee implemented the Stratigraphy and Data Interpretation Project described in this article when they recognized that some students were having difficulties constructing appropriate graphics and interpreting their constructed graphics for an earlier mathematics-science project in their classrooms. They also previously…

  15. Constructing Dense Graphs with Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mark A. M.

    2012-01-01

    It is not difficult to construct dense graphs containing Hamiltonian cycles, but it is difficult to generate dense graphs that are guaranteed to contain a unique Hamiltonian cycle. This article presents an algorithm for generating arbitrarily large simple graphs containing "unique" Hamiltonian cycles. These graphs can be turned into dense graphs

  16. Assessing the Judicious Use of the "Language" of Certain Types of Graphs by 10th Grade Biology Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfus, Amos; Mazouz, Yossef

    1992-01-01

    Assesses the ability of tenth grade students (n=364) to acquire meanings of graphs that are frequently used in their biology textbooks. Indicates that the main source of failure to process information equally well from tables and graphs was not a lack of basic analytical skills but rather a lack of understanding of the relationship between…

  17. The Effect of Graphing Calculators on Student Achievement in College Algebra and Pre-Calculus Mathematics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatem, Neil

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the use of graphing calculators employed as Type II technology and student achievement, as determined by assessing students' problem solving skills associated with the concept of function, at the college algebra and pre-calculus level. In addition, this study explores the integration of graphing

  18. Graph - Based High Resolution Satellite Image Segmentation for Object Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravali, K.; Kumar, M. V. Ravi; Venugopala Rao, K.

    2014-11-01

    Object based image processing and analysis is challenging research in very high resolution satellite utilisation. Commonly ei ther pixel based classification or visual interpretation is used to recognize and delineate land cover categories. The pixel based classification techniques use rich spectral content of satellite images and fail to utilise spatial relations. To overcome th is drawback, traditional time consuming visual interpretation methods are being used operational ly for preparation of thematic maps. This paper addresses computational vision principles to object level image segmentation. In this study, computer vision algorithms are developed to define the boundary between two object regions and segmentation by representing image as graph. Image is represented as a graph G (V, E), where nodes belong to pixels and, edges (E) connect nodes belonging to neighbouring pixels. The transformed Mahalanobis distance has been used to define a weight function for partition of graph into components such that each component represents the region of land category. This implies that edges between two vertices in the same component have relatively low weights and edges between vertices in different components should have higher weights. The derived segments are categorised to different land cover using supervised classification. The paper presents the experimental results on real world multi-spectral remote sensing images of different landscapes such as Urban, agriculture and mixed land cover. Graph construction done in C program and list the run time for both graph construction and segmentation calculation on dual core Intel i7 system with 16 GB RAM, running 64bit window 7.

  19. Quantum Graph Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Maunz, Peter Lukas Wilhelm; Sterk, Jonathan David; Lobser, Daniel; Parekh, Ojas D.; Ryan-Anderson, Ciaran

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, advanced network analytics have become increasingly important to na- tional security with applications ranging from cyber security to detection and disruption of ter- rorist networks. While classical computing solutions have received considerable investment, the development of quantum algorithms to address problems, such as data mining of attributed relational graphs, is a largely unexplored space. Recent theoretical work has shown that quan- tum algorithms for graph analysis can be more efficient than their classical counterparts. Here, we have implemented a trapped-ion-based two-qubit quantum information proces- sor to address these goals. Building on Sandia's microfabricated silicon surface ion traps, we have designed, realized and characterized a quantum information processor using the hyperfine qubits encoded in two 171 Yb + ions. We have implemented single qubit gates using resonant microwave radiation and have employed Gate set tomography (GST) to characterize the quan- tum process. For the first time, we were able to prove that the quantum process surpasses the fault tolerance thresholds of some quantum codes by demonstrating a diamond norm distance of less than 1 . 9 x 10 [?] 4 . We used Raman transitions in order to manipulate the trapped ions' motion and realize two-qubit gates. We characterized the implemented motion sensitive and insensitive single qubit processes and achieved a maximal process infidelity of 6 . 5 x 10 [?] 5 . We implemented the two-qubit gate proposed by Molmer and Sorensen and achieved a fidelity of more than 97 . 7%.

  20. Detecting alternative graph clusterings.

    PubMed

    Mandala, Supreet; Kumara, Soundar; Yao, Tao

    2012-07-01

    The problem of graph clustering or community detection has enjoyed a lot of attention in complex networks literature. A quality function, modularity, quantifies the strength of clustering and on maximization yields sensible partitions. However, in most real world networks, there are an exponentially large number of near-optimal partitions with some being very different from each other. Therefore, picking an optimal clustering among the alternatives does not provide complete information about network topology. To tackle this problem, we propose a graph perturbation scheme which can be used to identify an ensemble of near-optimal and diverse clusterings. We establish analytical properties of modularity function under the perturbation which ensures diversity. Our approach is algorithm independent and therefore can leverage any of the existing modularity maximizing algorithms. We numerically show that our methodology can systematically identify very different partitions on several existing data sets. The knowledge of diverse partitions sheds more light into the topological organization and helps gain a more complete understanding of the underlying complex network. PMID:23005495

  1. Detecting alternative graph clusterings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandala, Supreet; Kumara, Soundar; Yao, Tao

    2012-07-01

    The problem of graph clustering or community detection has enjoyed a lot of attention in complex networks literature. A quality function, modularity, quantifies the strength of clustering and on maximization yields sensible partitions. However, in most real world networks, there are an exponentially large number of near-optimal partitions with some being very different from each other. Therefore, picking an optimal clustering among the alternatives does not provide complete information about network topology. To tackle this problem, we propose a graph perturbation scheme which can be used to identify an ensemble of near-optimal and diverse clusterings. We establish analytical properties of modularity function under the perturbation which ensures diversity. Our approach is algorithm independent and therefore can leverage any of the existing modularity maximizing algorithms. We numerically show that our methodology can systematically identify very different partitions on several existing data sets. The knowledge of diverse partitions sheds more light into the topological organization and helps gain a more complete understanding of the underlying complex network.

  2. Generative Graph Grammar of Neo-Vaiśeṣika Formal Ontology (NVFO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavva, Rajesh; Singh, Navjyoti

    NLP applications for Sanskrit so far work within computational paradigm of string grammars. However, to compute 'meanings', as in traditional śā bdabodha prakriyā-s, there is a need to develop suitable graph grammars. Ontological structures are fundamentally graphs. We work within the formal framework of Neo-Vaiśeṣika Formal Ontology (NVFO) to propose a generative graph grammar. The proposed formal grammar only produces well-formed graphs that can be readily interpreted in accordance with Vaiśeṣ ika Ontology. We show that graphs not permitted by Vaiśeṣ ika ontology are not generated by the proposed grammar. Further, we write Interpreter of these graphical structures. This creates computational environment which can be deployed for writing computational applications of Vaiśeṣ ika ontology. We illustrate how this environment can be used to create applications like computing śā bdabodha of sentences.

  3. Quantization of gauge fields, graph polynomials and graph homology

    SciTech Connect

    Kreimer, Dirk; Sars, Matthias; Suijlekom, Walter D. van

    2013-09-15

    We review quantization of gauge fields using algebraic properties of 3-regular graphs. We derive the Feynman integrand at n loops for a non-abelian gauge theory quantized in a covariant gauge from scalar integrands for connected 3-regular graphs, obtained from the two Symanzik polynomials. The transition to the full gauge theory amplitude is obtained by the use of a third, new, graph polynomial, the corolla polynomial. This implies effectively a covariant quantization without ghosts, where all the relevant signs of the ghost sector are incorporated in a double complex furnished by the corolla polynomial–we call it cycle homology–and by graph homology. -- Highlights: •We derive gauge theory Feynman from scalar field theory with 3-valent vertices. •We clarify the role of graph homology and cycle homology. •We use parametric renormalization and the new corolla polynomial.

  4. Graph models of habitat mosaics.

    PubMed

    Urban, Dean L; Minor, Emily S; Treml, Eric A; Schick, Robert S

    2009-03-01

    Graph theory is a body of mathematics dealing with problems of connectivity, flow, and routing in networks ranging from social groups to computer networks. Recently, network applications have erupted in many fields, and graph models are now being applied in landscape ecology and conservation biology, particularly for applications couched in metapopulation theory. In these applications, graph nodes represent habitat patches or local populations and links indicate functional connections among populations (i.e. via dispersal). Graphs are models of more complicated real systems, and so it is appropriate to review these applications from the perspective of modelling in general. Here we review recent applications of network theory to habitat patches in landscape mosaics. We consider (1) the conceptual model underlying these applications; (2) formalization and implementation of the graph model; (3) model parameterization; (4) model testing, insights, and predictions available through graph analyses; and (5) potential implications for conservation biology and related applications. In general, and for a variety of ecological systems, we find the graph model a remarkably robust framework for applications concerned with habitat connectivity. We close with suggestions for further work on the parameterization and validation of graph models, and point to some promising analytic insights. PMID:19161432

  5. Graphs as Statements of Belief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, David

    2002-01-01

    Identifies points where beliefs are important when making decisions about how graphs are drawn. Describes a simple case of the reaction between 'bicarb soda' and orange or lemon juice and discusses how drawing a graph becomes a statement of belief. (KHR)

  6. Graphs and Zero-Divisors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axtell, M.; Stickles, J.

    2010-01-01

    The last ten years have seen an explosion of research in the zero-divisor graphs of commutative rings--by professional mathematicians "and" undergraduates. The objective is to find algebraic information within the geometry of these graphs. This topic is approachable by anyone with one or two semesters of abstract algebra. This article gives the

  7. Graphs and Zero-Divisors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axtell, M.; Stickles, J.

    2010-01-01

    The last ten years have seen an explosion of research in the zero-divisor graphs of commutative rings--by professional mathematicians "and" undergraduates. The objective is to find algebraic information within the geometry of these graphs. This topic is approachable by anyone with one or two semesters of abstract algebra. This article gives the…

  8. A PVS Graph Theory Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Sjogren, Jon A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper documents the NASA Langley PVS graph theory library. The library provides fundamental definitions for graphs, subgraphs, walks, paths, subgraphs generated by walks, trees, cycles, degree, separating sets, and four notions of connectedness. Theorems provided include Ramsey's and Menger's and the equivalence of all four notions of connectedness.

  9. CANCER MORTALITY MAPS AND GRAPHS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Cancer Mortality Maps & Graph Web Site provides interactive maps, graphs (which are accessible to the blind and visually-impaired), text, tables and figures showing geographic patterns and time trends of cancer death rates for the time period 1950-1994 for more than 40 cancer...

  10. A Collection of Features for Semantic Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Eliassi-Rad, T; Fodor, I K; Gallagher, B

    2007-05-02

    Semantic graphs are commonly used to represent data from one or more data sources. Such graphs extend traditional graphs by imposing types on both nodes and links. This type information defines permissible links among specified nodes and can be represented as a graph commonly referred to as an ontology or schema graph. Figure 1 depicts an ontology graph for data from National Association of Securities Dealers. Each node type and link type may also have a list of attributes. To capture the increased complexity of semantic graphs, concepts derived for standard graphs have to be extended. This document explains briefly features commonly used to characterize graphs, and their extensions to semantic graphs. This document is divided into two sections. Section 2 contains the feature descriptions for static graphs. Section 3 extends the features for semantic graphs that vary over time.

  11. Improving teaching skills: from interactive classroom to applicable knowledge.

    PubMed

    Vujovic, Predrag

    2016-03-01

    Making the transition from more traditional to more interactive lecturing can be successfully achieved by applying numerous teaching techniques. To use lecture time in the most efficient way, a lecturer should first instruct students to acquire basic knowledge before coming to class. Various in-class activities then can be used to help students develop higher thinking skills and gain better understanding of the studied material. These in-class activities can take many forms (multiple-choice questions of various complexities, compare-and-contrast tasks, quantitative and problem-solving tasks, questions dealing with interpretations of tables, graphs, and charts, etc.) and should be designed to help student integrate their knowledge, to facilitate communication among students, and at the same time to allow the lecturer to closely monitor the learning process as it happens in the classroom. PMID:26847251

  12. Semi-Markov Graph Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Raberto, Marco; Rapallo, Fabio; Scalas, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we outline a model of graph (or network) dynamics based on two ingredients. The first ingredient is a Markov chain on the space of possible graphs. The second ingredient is a semi-Markov counting process of renewal type. The model consists in subordinating the Markov chain to the semi-Markov counting process. In simple words, this means that the chain transitions occur at random time instants called epochs. The model is quite rich and its possible connections with algebraic geometry are briefly discussed. Moreover, for the sake of simplicity, we focus on the space of undirected graphs with a fixed number of nodes. However, in an example, we present an interbank market model where it is meaningful to use directed graphs or even weighted graphs. PMID:21887245

  13. Graph Partitioning and Sequencing Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-09-19

    Graph partitioning is a fundemental problem in many scientific contexts. CHACO2.0 is a software package designed to partition and sequence graphs. CHACO2.0 allows for recursive application of several methods for finding small edge separators in weighted graphs. These methods include inertial, spectral, Kernighan Lin and multilevel methods in addition to several simpler strategies. Each of these approaches can be used to partition the graph into two, four, or eight pieces at each level of recursion.more » In addition, the Kernighan Lin method can be used to improve partitions generated by any of the other algorithms. CHACO2.0 can also be used to address various graph sequencing problems, with applications to scientific computing, database design, gene sequencing and other problems.« less

  14. Multiple directed graph large-class multi-spectral processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casasent, David; Liu, Shiaw-Dong; Yoneyama, Hideyuki

    1988-01-01

    Numerical analysis techniques for the interpretation of high-resolution imaging-spectrometer data are described and demonstrated. The method proposed involves the use of (1) a hierarchical classifier with a tree structure generated automatically by a Fisher linear-discriminant-function algorithm and (2) a novel multiple-directed-graph scheme which reduces the local maxima and the number of perturbations required. Results for a 500-class test problem involving simulated imaging-spectrometer data are presented in tables and graphs; 100-percent-correct classification is achieved with an improvement factor of 5.

  15. Interpretive Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeHaan, Frank, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an interpretative experiment involving the application of symmetry and temperature-dependent proton and fluorine nmr spectroscopy to the solution of structural and kinetic problems in coordination chemistry. (MLH)

  16. Graph hierarchies for phylogeography

    PubMed Central

    Cybis, Gabriela B.; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Lemey, Philippe; Suchard, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    Bayesian phylogeographic methods simultaneously integrate geographical and evolutionary modelling, and have demonstrated value in assessing spatial spread patterns of measurably evolving organisms. We improve on existing phylogeographic methods by combining information from multiple phylogeographic datasets in a hierarchical setting. Consider N exchangeable datasets or strata consisting of viral sequences and locations, each evolving along its own phylogenetic tree and according to a conditionally independent geographical process. At the hierarchical level, a random graph summarizes the overall dispersion process by informing which migration rates between sampling locations are likely to be relevant in the strata. This approach provides an efficient and improved framework for analysing inherently hierarchical datasets. We first examine the evolutionary history of multiple serotypes of dengue virus in the Americas to showcase our method. Additionally, we explore an application to intrahost HIV evolution across multiple patients. PMID:23382428

  17. Interpreting functions of one-dimensional kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canty, Reality S.

    The present work examined several factors related to interpreting graphical representations of motion concepts. Since the seminal work of Larkin and Simon (1987), cognitive research has investigated informational equivalence and computational efficiency by contrasting performance across different representations systems such as line versus bar graph (Ali & Peebles, 2012; Shah & Freedman, 2009; Zacks & Tversky, 1999), table versus graph (Speier, 2006; Vessey, 1991) or table versus map (Smelcer & Carmel, 1997). Physics education research has focused on difficulties related to interpreting motion concepts in graphs, accounting for them in terms of misconceptions. Kinematics, the branch of physics concerned with the motion of objects, makes an interesting study of informational equivalence and computational efficiency because its three primary representations -- position-time, velocity-time, and acceleration-time graphs -- can reflect the same information in the same representational system which provides a different type of contrast than has usually been used in this area of cognitive research. In the present work, four experiments were used to test several hypotheses concerned with whether information about the motion of objects can be directly read-off the graph or whether it needed additional processing beyond what was directly visible; Palmer (1987) referred to this as the derivational structure of representations. The main findings across the four experiments were that (a) graph type was not a reliable factor of graph interpretation difficulty, (b) derivational structure was useful for analyzing tasks but there was no evidence supporting it as a process account, (c) graph-based judgment is susceptible to visual features in the graph that trigger powerful spatial-conceptual correspondences particularly height (e.g., higher means more, lower means less), direction of slope (e.g., zero, positive, negative), and curvature (e.g., increasing rate of change, decreasing rate of change), (d) subjects primarily based their judgments on information from these features even when interpretation demanded more elaborate inferences with respect to the actual properties of motion depicted, and (e) domain knowledge was not enough to override the spatial-conceptual correspondences that biased judgment.

  18. Gaining a Better Understanding of Estuarine Circulation and Improving Data Visualization Skills Through a Hands-on Contouring Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mailloux, B. J.; Kenna, T. C.

    2008-12-01

    The creation and accurate interpretation of graphs is becoming a lost art among students. The availability of numerous graphing software programs makes the act of graphing data easy but does not necessarily aide students in interpreting complex visual data. This is especially true for contour maps; which have become a critical skill in the earth sciences and everyday life. In multiple classes, we have incorporated a large-scale, hands-on, contouring exercise of temperature, salinity, and density data collected in the Hudson River Estuary. The exercise allows students to learn first-hand how to plot, analyze, and present three dimensional data. As part of a day-long sampling expedition aboard an 80' research vessel, students deploy a water profiling instrument (Seabird CTD). Data are collected along a transect between the Verrazano and George Washington Bridges. The data are then processed and binned at 0.5 meter intervals. The processed data is then used during a later laboratory period for the contouring exercise. In class, students work in groups of 2 to 4 people and are provided with the data, a set of contouring instructions, a piece of large (3' x 3') graph paper, a ruler, and a set of colored markers. We then let the groups work together to determine the details of the graphs. Important steps along the way are talking to the students about X and Y scales, interpolation, and choices of contour intervals and colors. Frustration and bottlenecks are common at the beginning when students are unsure how to even begin with the raw data. At some point during the exercise, students start to understand the contour concept and each group usually produces a finished contour map in an hour or so. Interestingly, the groups take pride in the coloring portion of the contouring as it indicates successful interpretation of the data. The exercise concludes with each group presenting and discussing their contour plot. In almost every case, the hands-on graphing has improved the "students" visualization skills. Contouring has been incorporated into the River Summer (www.riversumer.org, http://www.riversumer.org/) program and our Environmental Measurements laboratory course. This has resulted in the exercise being utilized with undergraduates, high-school teachers, graduate students, and college faculty. We are in the process of making this curricular module available online to educators.

  19. GRAPH III: a digitizing and graph plotting program

    SciTech Connect

    Selleck, C.B.

    1986-03-01

    GRAPH is an interactive program that allows the user to perform two functions. The first is to plot two dimensional graphs and the second is to digitize graphs or plots to create data files of points. The program is designed to allow the user to get results quickly and easily. It is written in RATIV (a FORTRAN preprocessor) and is currently in use at Sandia under VMS on a VAX computer and CTSS on a Cray supercomputer. The program provides graphical output through all of the Sandia Virtual Device Interface (VDI) graphics devices. 2 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Semantic graphs and associative memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomi, Andrés; Mizraji, Eduardo

    2004-12-01

    Graphs have been increasingly utilized in the characterization of complex networks from diverse origins, including different kinds of semantic networks. Human memories are associative and are known to support complex semantic nets; these nets are represented by graphs. However, it is not known how the brain can sustain these semantic graphs. The vision of cognitive brain activities, shown by modern functional imaging techniques, assigns renewed value to classical distributed associative memory models. Here we show that these neural network models, also known as correlation matrix memories, naturally support a graph representation of the stored semantic structure. We demonstrate that the adjacency matrix of this graph of associations is just the memory coded with the standard basis of the concept vector space, and that the spectrum of the graph is a code invariant of the memory. As long as the assumptions of the model remain valid this result provides a practical method to predict and modify the evolution of the cognitive dynamics. Also, it could provide us with a way to comprehend how individual brains that map the external reality, almost surely with different particular vector representations, are nevertheless able to communicate and share a common knowledge of the world. We finish presenting adaptive association graphs, an extension of the model that makes use of the tensor product, which provides a solution to the known problem of branching in semantic nets.

  1. Flying through Graphs: An Introduction to Graph Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDuffie, Amy Roth

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity incorporating basic terminology, concepts, and solution methods of graph theory in the context of solving problems related to air travel. Discusses prerequisite knowledge and resources and includes a teacher's guide with a student worksheet. (KHR)

  2. Multigraph: Reusable Interactive Data Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, M. B.

    2010-12-01

    There are surprisingly few good software tools available for presenting time series data on the internet. The most common practice is to use a desktop program such as Excel or Matlab to save a graph as an image which can be included in a web page like any other image. This disconnects the graph from the data in a way that makes updating a graph with new data a cumbersome manual process, and it limits the user to one particular view of the data. The Multigraph project defines an XML format for describing interactive data graphs, and software tools for creating and rendering those graphs in web pages and other internet connected applications. Viewing a Multigraph graph is extremely simple and intuitive, and requires no instructions; the user can pan and zoom by clicking and dragging, in a familiar "Google Maps" kind of way. Creating a new graph for inclusion in a web page involves writing a simple XML configuration file. Multigraph can read data in a variety of formats, and can display data from a web service, allowing users to "surf" through large data sets, downloading only those the parts of the data that are needed for display. The Multigraph XML format, or "MUGL" for short, provides a concise description of the visual properties of a graph, such as axes, plot styles, data sources, labels, etc, as well as interactivity properties such as how and whether the user can pan or zoom along each axis. Multigraph reads a file in this format, draws the described graph, and allows the user to interact with it. Multigraph software currently includes a Flash application for embedding graphs in web pages, a Flex component for embedding graphs in larger Flex/Flash applications, and a plugin for creating graphs in the WordPress content management system. Plans for the future include a Java version for desktop viewing and editing, a command line version for batch and server side rendering, and possibly Android and iPhone versions. Multigraph is currently in use on several web sites including the US Drought Portal (www.drought.gov), the NOAA Climate Services Portal (www.climate.gov), the Climate Reference Network (www.ncdc.noaa.gov/crn), NCDC's State of the Climate Report (www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc), and the US Forest Service's Forest Change Assessment Viewer (ews.forestthreats.org/NPDE/NPDE.html). More information about Multigraph is available from the web site www.multigraph.org. Interactive Multigraph Display of Real Time Weather Data

  3. Interpreting Metonymy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankhurst, Anne

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines some of the problems associated with interpreting metonymy, a figure of speech in which an attribute or commonly associated feature is used to name or designate something. After defining metonymy and outlining the principles of metonymy, the paper explains the differences between metonymy, synecdoche, and metaphor. It is…

  4. Performing Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kothe, Elsa Lenz; Berard, Marie-France

    2013-01-01

    Utilizing a/r/tographic methodology to interrogate interpretive acts in museums, multiple areas of inquiry are raised in this paper, including: which knowledge is assigned the greatest value when preparing a gallery talk; what lies outside of disciplinary knowledge; how invitations to participate invite and disinvite in the same gesture; and what

  5. Evolutionary games on graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, György; Fáth, Gábor

    2007-07-01

    Game theory is one of the key paradigms behind many scientific disciplines from biology to behavioral sciences to economics. In its evolutionary form and especially when the interacting agents are linked in a specific social network the underlying solution concepts and methods are very similar to those applied in non-equilibrium statistical physics. This review gives a tutorial-type overview of the field for physicists. The first four sections introduce the necessary background in classical and evolutionary game theory from the basic definitions to the most important results. The fifth section surveys the topological complications implied by non-mean-field-type social network structures in general. The next three sections discuss in detail the dynamic behavior of three prominent classes of models: the Prisoner's Dilemma, the Rock-Scissors-Paper game, and Competing Associations. The major theme of the review is in what sense and how the graph structure of interactions can modify and enrich the picture of long term behavioral patterns emerging in evolutionary games.

  6. Multibody graph transformations and analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This two-part paper uses graph transformation methods to develop methods for partitioning, aggregating, and constraint embedding for multibody systems. This first part focuses on tree-topology systems and reviews the key notion of spatial kernel operator (SKO) models for such systems. It develops systematic and rigorous techniques for partitioning SKO models in terms of the SKO models of the component subsystems based on the path-induced property of the component subgraphs. It shows that the sparsity structure of key matrix operators and the mass matrix for the multibody system can be described using partitioning transformations. Subsequently, the notions of node contractions and subgraph aggregation and their role in coarsening graphs are discussed. It is shown that the tree property of a graph is preserved after subgraph aggregation if and only if the subgraph satisfies an aggregation condition. These graph theory ideas are used to develop SKO models for the aggregated tree multibody systems. PMID:24288438

  7. Graph anomalies in cyber communications

    SciTech Connect

    Vander Wiel, Scott A; Storlie, Curtis B; Sandine, Gary; Hagberg, Aric A; Fisk, Michael

    2011-01-11

    Enterprises monitor cyber traffic for viruses, intruders and stolen information. Detection methods look for known signatures of malicious traffic or search for anomalies with respect to a nominal reference model. Traditional anomaly detection focuses on aggregate traffic at central nodes or on user-level monitoring. More recently, however, traffic is being viewed more holistically as a dynamic communication graph. Attention to the graph nature of the traffic has expanded the types of anomalies that are being sought. We give an overview of several cyber data streams collected at Los Alamos National Laboratory and discuss current work in modeling the graph dynamics of traffic over the network. We consider global properties and local properties within the communication graph. A method for monitoring relative entropy on multiple correlated properties is discussed in detail.

  8. Some Graphs Containing Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mark A. M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, two classes of graphs of arbitrary order are described which contain unique Hamiltonian cycles. All the graphs have mean vertex degree greater than one quarter the order of the graph. The Hamiltonian cycles are detailed, their uniqueness proved and simple rules for the construction of the adjacency matrix of the graphs are given.

  9. Constructing Dense Graphs with Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mark A. M.

    2012-01-01

    It is not difficult to construct dense graphs containing Hamiltonian cycles, but it is difficult to generate dense graphs that are guaranteed to contain a unique Hamiltonian cycle. This article presents an algorithm for generating arbitrarily large simple graphs containing "unique" Hamiltonian cycles. These graphs can be turned into dense graphs…

  10. The Nature of Employability Skills: Empirical Evidence from Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Johnny; Ng, Michael Chi Man; Loke, Fiona; Ramos, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns the changing nature of employability skills, moving from the original life skills or basic skills concepts to the increasingly work-oriented interpretation. The early concept of employability skills linked employability skills to job readiness and holding down employment. However, the work-oriented focus is increasingly linking…

  11. Design Document. EKG Interpretation Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Sandra M.

    This teaching plan is designed to assist nursing instructors assigned to advanced medical surgical nursing courses in acquainting students with the basic skills needed to perform electrocardiographic (ECG or EKG) interpretations. The first part of the teaching plan contains a statement of purpose; audience recommendations; a flow chart detailing…

  12. Design Document. EKG Interpretation Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Sandra M.

    This teaching plan is designed to assist nursing instructors assigned to advanced medical surgical nursing courses in acquainting students with the basic skills needed to perform electrocardiographic (ECG or EKG) interpretations. The first part of the teaching plan contains a statement of purpose; audience recommendations; a flow chart detailing

  13. Khovanov homology of graph-links

    SciTech Connect

    Nikonov, Igor M

    2012-08-31

    Graph-links arise as the intersection graphs of turning chord diagrams of links. Speaking informally, graph-links provide a combinatorial description of links up to mutations. Many link invariants can be reformulated in the language of graph-links. Khovanov homology, a well-known and useful knot invariant, is defined for graph-links in this paper (in the case of the ground field of characteristic two). Bibliography: 14 titles.

  14. GenoLink: a graph-based querying and browsing system for investigating the function of genes and proteins

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Patrick; Labarre, Laurent; Meil, Alain; Divo1, Jean-Louis; Vandenbrouck, Yves; Viari, Alain; Wojcik, Jérôme

    2006-01-01

    Background A large variety of biological data can be represented by graphs. These graphs can be constructed from heterogeneous data coming from genomic and post-genomic technologies, but there is still need for tools aiming at exploring and analysing such graphs. This paper describes GenoLink, a software platform for the graphical querying and exploration of graphs. Results GenoLink provides a generic framework for representing and querying data graphs. This framework provides a graph data structure, a graph query engine, allowing to retrieve sub-graphs from the entire data graph, and several graphical interfaces to express such queries and to further explore their results. A query consists in a graph pattern with constraints attached to the vertices and edges. A query result is the set of all sub-graphs of the entire data graph that are isomorphic to the pattern and satisfy the constraints. The graph data structure does not rely upon any particular data model but can dynamically accommodate for any user-supplied data model. However, for genomic and post-genomic applications, we provide a default data model and several parsers for the most popular data sources. GenoLink does not require any programming skill since all operations on graphs and the analysis of the results can be carried out graphically through several dedicated graphical interfaces. Conclusion GenoLink is a generic and interactive tool allowing biologists to graphically explore various sources of information. GenoLink is distributed either as a standalone application or as a component of the Genostar/Iogma platform. Both distributions are free for academic research and teaching purposes and can be requested at academy@genostar.com. A commercial licence form can be obtained for profit company at info@genostar.com. See also . PMID:16417636

  15. Stability of graph communities across time scales.

    PubMed

    Delvenne, J-C; Yaliraki, S N; Barahona, M

    2010-07-20

    The complexity of biological, social, and engineering networks makes it desirable to find natural partitions into clusters (or communities) that can provide insight into the structure of the overall system and even act as simplified functional descriptions. Although methods for community detection abound, there is a lack of consensus on how to quantify and rank the quality of partitions. We introduce here the stability of a partition, a measure of its quality as a community structure based on the clustered autocovariance of a dynamic Markov process taking place on the network. Because the stability has an intrinsic dependence on time scales of the graph, it allows us to compare and rank partitions at each time and also to establish the time spans over which partitions are optimal. Hence the Markov time acts effectively as an intrinsic resolution parameter that establishes a hierarchy of increasingly coarser communities. Our dynamical definition provides a unifying framework for several standard partitioning measures: modularity and normalized cut size can be interpreted as one-step time measures, whereas Fiedler's spectral clustering emerges at long times. We apply our method to characterize the relevance of partitions over time for constructive and real networks, including hierarchical graphs and social networks, and use it to obtain reduced descriptions for atomic-level protein structures over different time scales. PMID:20615936

  16. Stability of graph communities across time scales

    PubMed Central

    Delvenne, J.-C.; Yaliraki, S. N.; Barahona, M.

    2010-01-01

    The complexity of biological, social, and engineering networks makes it desirable to find natural partitions into clusters (or communities) that can provide insight into the structure of the overall system and even act as simplified functional descriptions. Although methods for community detection abound, there is a lack of consensus on how to quantify and rank the quality of partitions. We introduce here the stability of a partition, a measure of its quality as a community structure based on the clustered autocovariance of a dynamic Markov process taking place on the network. Because the stability has an intrinsic dependence on time scales of the graph, it allows us to compare and rank partitions at each time and also to establish the time spans over which partitions are optimal. Hence the Markov time acts effectively as an intrinsic resolution parameter that establishes a hierarchy of increasingly coarser communities. Our dynamical definition provides a unifying framework for several standard partitioning measures: modularity and normalized cut size can be interpreted as one-step time measures, whereas Fiedler’s spectral clustering emerges at long times. We apply our method to characterize the relevance of partitions over time for constructive and real networks, including hierarchical graphs and social networks, and use it to obtain reduced descriptions for atomic-level protein structures over different time scales. PMID:20615936

  17. Component evolution in general random intersection graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Bradonjic, Milan; Hagberg, Aric; Hengartner, Nick; Percus, Allon G

    2010-01-01

    We analyze component evolution in general random intersection graphs (RIGs) and give conditions on existence and uniqueness of the giant component. Our techniques generalize the existing methods for analysis on component evolution in RIGs. That is, we analyze survival and extinction properties of a dependent, inhomogeneous Galton-Watson branching process on general RIGs. Our analysis relies on bounding the branching processes and inherits the fundamental concepts from the study on component evolution in Erdos-Renyi graphs. The main challenge becomes from the underlying structure of RIGs, when the number of offsprings follows a binomial distribution with a different number of nodes and different rate at each step during the evolution. RIGs can be interpreted as a model for large randomly formed non-metric data sets. Besides the mathematical analysis on component evolution, which we provide in this work, we perceive RIGs as an important random structure which has already found applications in social networks, epidemic networks, blog readership, or wireless sensor networks.

  18. Interpretive Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Patient-centredness is a core value of general practice; it is defined as the interpersonal processes that support the holistic care of individuals. To date, efforts to demonstrate their relationship to patient outcomes have been disappointing, whilst some studies suggest values may be more rhetoric than reality. Contextual issues influence the quality of patient-centred consultations, impacting on outcomes. The legitimate use of knowledge, or evidence, is a defining aspect of modern practice, and has implications for patient-centredness. Based on a critical review of the literature, on my own empirical research, and on reflections from my clinical practice, I critique current models of the use of knowledge in supporting individualised care. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), and its implementation within health policy as Scientific Bureaucratic Medicine (SBM), define best evidence in terms of an epistemological emphasis on scientific knowledge over clinical experience. It provides objective knowledge of disease, including quantitative estimates of the certainty of that knowledge. Whilst arguably appropriate for secondary care, involving episodic care of selected populations referred in for specialist diagnosis and treatment of disease, application to general practice can be questioned given the complex, dynamic and uncertain nature of much of the illness that is treated. I propose that general practice is better described by a model of Interpretive Medicine (IM): the critical, thoughtful, professional use of an appropriate range of knowledges in the dynamic, shared exploration and interpretation of individual illness experience, in order to support the creative capacity of individuals in maintaining their daily lives. Whilst the generation of interpreted knowledge is an essential part of daily general practice, the profession does not have an adequate framework by which this activity can be externally judged to have been done well. Drawing on theory related to the recognition of quality in interpretation and knowledge generation within the qualitative research field, I propose a framework by which to evaluate the quality of knowledge generated within generalist, interpretive clinical practice. I describe three priorities for research in developing this model further, which will strengthen and preserve core elements of the discipline of general practice, and thus promote and support the health needs of the public. PMID:21805819

  19. Sharing Teaching Ideas: Graphing Families of Curves Using Transformations of Reference Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, David

    2007-01-01

    This article provides for a fast extremely accurate approach to graphing functions that is based on learning function reference graphs and then applying algebraic transformations to these reference graphs.

  20. Digital video, learning styles, and student understanding of kinematics graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, Teresa Lee

    1997-12-01

    Student ability to analyze and interpret motion graphs following laboratory instruction that utilized interactive digital video as well as traditional instructional techniques was investigated. Research presented suggested that digital video tools serve to motivate students and may be an effective mechanism to enhance student understanding of motion concepts. Two laboratory exercises involving motion concepts were developed for this study. Students were divided into two instructional groups. The treatment group used digital video techniques and the control group used traditional techniques to perform the laboratory exercises. Student understanding of motion concepts were assessed, in part, using the Test of Understanding Graphs-Kinematics. Other assessment measures included student responses to a set of written graphical analysis questions and two post-lab activities. Possible relationships between individual learning style preferences and student understanding of motion concepts were also addressed. Learning style preferences were assessed using the Productivity Environmental Preference Survey prior to the instructional treatments. Students were asked to comment in writing about their learning styles before and after they were given the learning style assessment. Student comments revealed that the results they received from Productivity Environmental Preference Survey accurately reflected their learning styles. Results presented in this study showed that no significant relationship exists between students' learning style preferences and their ability to interpret motion graphs as measured by scores on the Test of Understanding Graphs-Kinematics. In addition, the results showed no significant difference between instructional treatment and mean scores on the Test of Understanding Graphs-Kinematics. Analysis of writing activities revealed that students in the treatment group responded more effectively than students in the control group to graphical interpretation questions that closely paralleled the motions they had observed during the laboratory. However, students in both instructional groups displayed similar levels of difficulty when confronted with motions that deviated from what they had observed in the laboratory. After controlling for differences in student ability levels using SAT scores and course grades, a significant difference in mean scores on the Test of Understanding Graphs-Kinematics was observed between males and females. Males and females as a separate population had similar mean SAT scores and course grades. A suggestion was made that the observed difference between males and females based on mean scores on the Test of Understanding Graphs- Kinematics could be due to a gender bias inherent in the instrument. A recommendation was made that future studies could address this observed gender difference.

  1. A comparison of auditory and visual graphs for use in physics and mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahyun, Steven Carl

    The ability to interpret graphical information is a prime concern in physics as graphs are widely used to give quick summaries of data sets, for pattern recognition, and for analysis of information. While visual graphs have been developed so that their content can be readily and concisely discerned, there is great difficulty when someone is unable, because of their environment or due to physical handicaps, to view graphs. An alternative to the visual graph is the auditory graph. An auditory graph uses sound rather than pictures to transmit information. This study shows that useful auditory graphs of single valued x-y data were constructed by mapping the y axis to pitch, the x axis to time, and by including drum beats to mark first and second derivative information. Further audio enhancement was used to indicate negative data values. The study used a World Wide Web based test consisting of a series of math and physics questions. Each question was based on a graph and had multiple-choice answers. The test instrument was refined through a series of pilot tests. The main study compared the results of over 200 introductory physics students at Oregon State University, as well as other selected subjects. A computer program randomly assigned subjects to one of three groups. Each group was presented with the same test but had a different graph presentation method. The presentation methods were: only visual graphs, only auditory graphs, or both auditory and visual graphs. This study shows that students with very little training can use auditory graphs to answer analytical and identification type questions. Student performance for the group using only auditory graphs is 70% of the level attained by subjects using visually presented graphs. In addition, five blind subjects from remote locations participated in this test. Their performance level exceeded that of the first-year physics students. This work also displays the results from a pilot study of various auditory preference choices. Elements of this test may be useful for future auditory graph research and development.

  2. Graph transformation expert system (GTES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guiquing; Ge, Qihong; Zhong, Luo; Xie, Weiping

    1996-03-01

    The design of many industrial and engineering systems can often be accomplished using flow graphs of various types. Examples include manufacturing processes and data processing applications, Graph Transformation Expert System, is an expert system which has been developed by WUT for applying techniques of artificial intelligence to the architectural design of data and signal processing systems. Software and hardware architectures may be defined for such systems using data flow graphs, in which nodes represent data processing steps and directed areas represent the `flow' of data between the processing steps. Starting with a user- defined generic processing graphic, this expert will transform the graph by applying transformation rules in order to specialize the processing graph to satisfy specified design goals and/or hardware constraints. Although the particular application for which this expert is designed is that of data and signal processing systems, it can provide an expert system framework for other problems specified graphically; for example, manufacturing systems, information systems, and product distribution systems.

  3. Eigenfunction statistics on quantum graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Gnutzmann, S.; Keating, J.P.; Piotet, F.

    2010-12-15

    We investigate the spatial statistics of the energy eigenfunctions on large quantum graphs. It has previously been conjectured that these should be described by a Gaussian Random Wave Model, by analogy with quantum chaotic systems, for which such a model was proposed by Berry in 1977. The autocorrelation functions we calculate for an individual quantum graph exhibit a universal component, which completely determines a Gaussian Random Wave Model, and a system-dependent deviation. This deviation depends on the graph only through its underlying classical dynamics. Classical criteria for quantum universality to be met asymptotically in the large graph limit (i.e. for the non-universal deviation to vanish) are then extracted. We use an exact field theoretic expression in terms of a variant of a supersymmetric {sigma} model. A saddle-point analysis of this expression leads to the estimates. In particular, intensity correlations are used to discuss the possible equidistribution of the energy eigenfunctions in the large graph limit. When equidistribution is asymptotically realized, our theory predicts a rate of convergence that is a significant refinement of previous estimates. The universal and system-dependent components of intensity correlation functions are recovered by means of an exact trace formula which we analyse in the diagonal approximation, drawing in this way a parallel between the field theory and semiclassics. Our results provide the first instance where an asymptotic Gaussian Random Wave Model has been established microscopically for eigenfunctions in a system with no disorder.

  4. Box graphs and resolutions I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Andreas P.; Schäfer-Nameki, Sakura

    2016-04-01

    Box graphs succinctly and comprehensively characterize singular fibers of elliptic fibrations in codimension two and three, as well as flop transitions connecting these, in terms of representation theoretic data. We develop a framework that provides a systematic map between a box graph and a crepant algebraic resolution of the singular elliptic fibration, thus allowing an explicit construction of the fibers from a singular Weierstrass or Tate model. The key tool is what we call a fiber face diagram, which shows the relevant information of a (partial) toric triangulation and allows the inclusion of more general algebraic blowups. We shown that each such diagram defines a sequence of weighted algebraic blowups, thus providing a realization of the fiber defined by the box graph in terms of an explicit resolution. We show this correspondence explicitly for the case of SU (5) by providing a map between box graphs and fiber faces, and thereby a sequence of algebraic resolutions of the Tate model, which realizes each of the box graphs.

  5. On geometrical interpretation of the p-adic Maslov index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenov, E. I.

    1994-01-01

    A set of selfdual lattices Λ in a two-dimensional p-adic symplectic space MediaObjects/220_2005_BF02099983_f2.jpg is provided by an integer valued metric d. A realization of the metric space (Λ, d) as a graph Γ is suggested and this graph has been linked to the Bruhat-Tits tree. An action of symplectic group MediaObjects/220_2005_BF02099983_f3.jpg on a set of cycles of length three of the graph Γ is considered and a geometrical interpretation of the p-adic Maslov index is given in terms of this action.

  6. Statistical spatial graphs to study the topology and geometry of large karst networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrick, M.

    2014-12-01

    Because of the lack of data and the complexity of the patterns observed by speleologists, karst network modeling is a challenge. In this work, we study topological and geometrical properties of large karst networks trough spatial graph models. A statistical mechanics approach is used to explore the set of directed and (possibly) weighted spatial graphs on a given space to extract subset of graphs of given properties. Within this framework, it's possible to generate sets of karst networks having realistic properties (in terms of spatial extension, degree distribution of nodes, number of cycles, total available volume for water transport, ...) and passing trough a given set of fixed points (for example some known inlets and outlets).Spatial graph analogues of the traditional statistical ensembles are defined (the microcanonical, canonical and grand canonical ensembles). We show how choice of (pseudo) Hamiltonians and ensemble parameters influence the structure of typical generated graphs (tree graphs, many loops graphs, hight clustering coefficient graphs, small total length graphs, ...). Two kind of Hamiltonians are studied: - the structural ones, i.e. Hamiltonians which are functions of the topology and the geometrical properties of the graph and - Hamiltonians related to the dynamical process occurring on the graph. An important dynamics related Hamiltonian is the measure of the total dissipated energy by groundwater flow trough the karst network.An ensemble of special interest is the grand canonical ensemble in which the number of nodes (excepted the given set outlets and inlets) and the number of edges are not imposed. This ensemble is useful to investigate how a network can emerge on a prescribed space. We give an interpretation to the parameters defining this ensemble, show some realisations, and discuss the interest of this ensemble for karst generation.

  7. Skill Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdsworth, Tom

    2007-01-01

    With competition to attract quality students into career and technical education programs and many entrants to the workforce inadequately prepared with employability skills, some community colleges have found a way to answer industry's call--they are launching SkillsUSA chapters on campus. In this article, the author features SkillsUSA, a…

  8. Elicited Speech from Graph Items on the Test of Spoken English[TM]. Research Reports. Report 74. RR-04-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Irvin R.; Xi, Xiaoming; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Cheng, Peter C. H.

    2004-01-01

    This research applied a cognitive model to identify item features that lead to irrelevant variance on the Test of Spoken English[TM] (TSE[R]). The TSE is an assessment of English oral proficiency and includes an item that elicits a description of a statistical graph. This item type sometimes appears to tap graph-reading skills--an irrelevant…

  9. Quantum snake walk on graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Rosmanis, Ansis

    2011-02-15

    I introduce a continuous-time quantum walk on graphs called the quantum snake walk, the basis states of which are fixed-length paths (snakes) in the underlying graph. First, I analyze the quantum snake walk on the line, and I show that, even though most states stay localized throughout the evolution, there are specific states that most likely move on the line as wave packets with momentum inversely proportional to the length of the snake. Next, I discuss how an algorithm based on the quantum snake walk might potentially be able to solve an extended version of the glued trees problem, which asks to find a path connecting both roots of the glued trees graph. To the best of my knowledge, no efficient quantum algorithm solving this problem is known yet.

  10. Optimal preparation of graph states

    SciTech Connect

    Cabello, Adan; Lopez-Tarrida, Antonio J.; Danielsen, Lars Eirik; Portillo, Jose R.

    2011-04-15

    We show how to prepare any graph state of up to 12 qubits with (a) the minimum number of controlled-Z gates and (b) the minimum preparation depth. We assume only one-qubit and controlled-Z gates. The method exploits the fact that any graph state belongs to an equivalence class under local Clifford operations. We extend up to 12 qubits the classification of graph states according to their entanglement properties, and identify each class using only a reduced set of invariants. For any state, we provide a circuit with both properties (a) and (b), if it does exist, or, if it does not, one circuit with property (a) and one with property (b), including the explicit one-qubit gates needed.

  11. Graph Analytics for Signature Discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, Emilie A.; Johnson, John R.; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Lo, Chaomei

    2013-06-01

    Within large amounts of seemingly unstructured data it can be diffcult to find signatures of events. In our work we transform unstructured data into a graph representation. By doing this we expose underlying structure in the data and can take advantage of existing graph analytics capabilities, as well as develop new capabilities. Currently we focus on applications in cybersecurity and communication domains. Within cybersecurity we aim to find signatures for perpetrators using the pass-the-hash attack, and in communications we look for emails or phone calls going up or down a chain of command. In both of these areas, and in many others, the signature we look for is a path with certain temporal properties. In this paper we discuss our methodology for finding these temporal paths within large graphs.

  12. Graph modeling systems and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Neergaard, Mike

    2015-10-13

    An apparatus and a method for vulnerability and reliability modeling are provided. The method generally includes constructing a graph model of a physical network using a computer, the graph model including a plurality of terminating vertices to represent nodes in the physical network, a plurality of edges to represent transmission paths in the physical network, and a non-terminating vertex to represent a non-nodal vulnerability along a transmission path in the physical network. The method additionally includes evaluating the vulnerability and reliability of the physical network using the constructed graph model, wherein the vulnerability and reliability evaluation includes a determination of whether each terminating and non-terminating vertex represents a critical point of failure. The method can be utilized to evaluate wide variety of networks, including power grid infrastructures, communication network topologies, and fluid distribution systems.

  13. Sequential visibility-graph motifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Lacasa, Lucas

    2016-04-01

    Visibility algorithms transform time series into graphs and encode dynamical information in their topology, paving the way for graph-theoretical time series analysis as well as building a bridge between nonlinear dynamics and network science. In this work we introduce and study the concept of sequential visibility-graph motifs, smaller substructures of n consecutive nodes that appear with characteristic frequencies. We develop a theory to compute in an exact way the motif profiles associated with general classes of deterministic and stochastic dynamics. We find that this simple property is indeed a highly informative and computationally efficient feature capable of distinguishing among different dynamics and robust against noise contamination. We finally confirm that it can be used in practice to perform unsupervised learning, by extracting motif profiles from experimental heart-rate series and being able, accordingly, to disentangle meditative from other relaxation states. Applications of this general theory include the automatic classification and description of physical, biological, and financial time series.

  14. Algebraic connectivity and graph robustness.

    SciTech Connect

    Feddema, John Todd; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Abdallah, Chaouki T.

    2009-07-01

    Recent papers have used Fiedler's definition of algebraic connectivity to show that network robustness, as measured by node-connectivity and edge-connectivity, can be increased by increasing the algebraic connectivity of the network. By the definition of algebraic connectivity, the second smallest eigenvalue of the graph Laplacian is a lower bound on the node-connectivity. In this paper we show that for circular random lattice graphs and mesh graphs algebraic connectivity is a conservative lower bound, and that increases in algebraic connectivity actually correspond to a decrease in node-connectivity. This means that the networks are actually less robust with respect to node-connectivity as the algebraic connectivity increases. However, an increase in algebraic connectivity seems to correlate well with a decrease in the characteristic path length of these networks - which would result in quicker communication through the network. Applications of these results are then discussed for perimeter security.

  15. Synchronizability of random rectangular graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Estrada, Ernesto Chen, Guanrong

    2015-08-15

    Random rectangular graphs (RRGs) represent a generalization of the random geometric graphs in which the nodes are embedded into hyperrectangles instead of on hypercubes. The synchronizability of RRG model is studied. Both upper and lower bounds of the eigenratio of the network Laplacian matrix are determined analytically. It is proven that as the rectangular network is more elongated, the network becomes harder to synchronize. The synchronization processing behavior of a RRG network of chaotic Lorenz system nodes is numerically investigated, showing complete consistence with the theoretical results.

  16. Interacting particle systems on graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sood, Vishal

    In this dissertation, the dynamics of socially or biologically interacting populations are investigated. The individual members of the population are treated as particles that interact via links on a social or biological network represented as a graph. The effect of the structure of the graph on the properties of the interacting particle system is studied using statistical physics techniques. In the first chapter, the central concepts of graph theory and social and biological networks are presented. Next, interacting particle systems that are drawn from physics, mathematics and biology are discussed in the second chapter. In the third chapter, the random walk on a graph is studied. The mean time for a random walk to traverse between two arbitrary sites of a random graph is evaluated. Using an effective medium approximation it is found that the mean first-passage time between pairs of sites, as well as all moments of this first-passage time, are insensitive to the density of links in the graph. The inverse of the mean-first passage time varies non-monotonically with the density of links near the percolation transition of the random graph. Much of the behavior can be understood by simple heuristic arguments. Evolutionary dynamics, by which mutants overspread an otherwise uniform population on heterogeneous graphs, are studied in the fourth chapter. Such a process underlies' epidemic propagation, emergence of fads, social cooperation or invasion of an ecological niche by a new species. The first part of this chapter is devoted to neutral dynamics, in which the mutant genotype does not have a selective advantage over the resident genotype. The time to extinction of one of the two genotypes is derived. In the second part of this chapter, selective advantage or fitness is introduced such that the mutant genotype has a higher birth rate or a lower death rate. This selective advantage leads to a dynamical competition in which selection dominates for large populations, while for small populations the dynamics are similar to the neutral case. The likelihood for the fitter mutants to drive the resident genotype to extinction is calculated.

  17. Mathematical Minute: Rotating a Function Graph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bravo, Daniel; Fera, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Using calculus only, we find the angles you can rotate the graph of a differentiable function about the origin and still obtain a function graph. We then apply the solution to odd and even degree polynomials.

  18. Dr.L: Distributed Recursive (Graph) Layout

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-11-19

    Dr. L provides two-dimensional visualizations of very large abstract graph structures. it can be used for data mining applications including biology, scientific literature, and social network analysis. Dr. L is a graph layout program that uses a multilevel force-directed algorithm. A graph is input and drawn using a force-directed algorithm based on simulated annealing. The resulting layout is clustered using a single link algorithm. This clustering is used to produce a coarsened graph (fewer nodes)more » which is then re-drawn. this process is repeated until a sufficiently small graph is produced. The smallest graph is drawn and then used as a basis for drawing the original graph by refining the series of coarsened graphs that were produced. The layout engine can be run in serial or in parallel.« less

  19. Graphs for Early Elementary Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, Kent; Brewer, Samrie

    1989-01-01

    Describes a lesson plan that instructs third graders to use graphs. Explains learning objectives, motivating students, conducting a class activity that includes graph construction, and concluding and evaluating the lesson. Lists materials needed. (GG)

  20. Standard Distributions: One Graph Fits All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Clifford H.

    2007-01-01

    Standard distributions are ubiquitous but not unique. With suitable scaling, the graph of a standard distribution serves as the graph for every distribution in the family. The standard exponential can easily be taught in elementary statistics courses.

  1. Graph theory findings in the pathophysiology of temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Sharon; Haneef, Zulfi

    2014-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of adult epilepsy. Accumulating evidence has shown that TLE is a disorder of abnormal epileptogenic networks, rather than focal sources. Graph theory allows for a network-based representation of TLE brain networks, and has potential to illuminate characteristics of brain topology conducive to TLE pathophysiology, including seizure initiation and spread. We review basic concepts which we believe will prove helpful in interpreting results rapidly emerging from graph theory research in TLE. In addition, we summarize the current state of graph theory findings in TLE as they pertain its pathophysiology. Several common findings have emerged from the many modalities which have been used to study TLE using graph theory, including structural MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, surface EEG, intracranial EEG, magnetoencephalography, functional MRI, cell cultures, simulated models, and mouse models, involving increased regularity of the interictal network configuration, altered local segregation and global integration of the TLE network, and network reorganization of temporal lobe and limbic structures. As different modalities provide different views of the same phenomenon, future studies integrating data from multiple modalities are needed to clarify findings and contribute to the formation of a coherent theory on the pathophysiology of TLE. PMID:24831083

  2. A Comparison of Two Approaches to Training Visual Analysis of AB Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Katie; Slocum, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    Visual analysis is the primary method of evaluating data in single-subject research. Few studies have evaluated interventions to teach visual analysis skills. The purpose of this study was to evaluate systematic instruction, delivered using computer-based intervention or a recorded lecture, on identifying changes in slope and level in AB graphs.

  3. A Comparison of Two Approaches to Training Visual Analysis of AB Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Katie; Slocum, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    Visual analysis is the primary method of evaluating data in single-subject research. Few studies have evaluated interventions to teach visual analysis skills. The purpose of this study was to evaluate systematic instruction, delivered using computer-based intervention or a recorded lecture, on identifying changes in slope and level in AB graphs.…

  4. Noshing on Numbers: Using and Interpreting Data in Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shupla, C. B.

    2014-07-01

    Students must learn how to plot and analyze data as a fundamental science and math skill. Data must also be incorporated into activities in meaningful ways that allow students to build understanding of the concepts being shared. In this workshop, attendees participated in three graphing activities, which served as the basis for discussion of these numerical literacy issues in the science classroom.

  5. Research and Teaching: Data Visualization Literacy: Investigating Data Interpretation along the Novice-Expert Continuum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maltese, Adam V.; Svetina, Dubravka; Harsh, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    In the STEM fields, adequate proficiency in reading and interpreting graphs is widely held as a central element for scientific literacy given the importance of data visualizations to succinctly present complex information. Although prior research espouses methods to improve graphing proficiencies, there is little understanding about when and how…

  6. Ancestral Genres of Mathematical Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerofsky, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Drawing from sources in gesture studies, cognitive science, the anthropology of religion and art/architecture history, this article explores cultural, bodily and cosmological resonances carried (unintentionally) by mathematical graphs on Cartesian coordinates. Concepts of asymmetric bodily spaces, grids, orthogonality, mapping and sacred spaces…

  7. Two-Player Graph Pebbling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudente, Matthew James

    Given a graph G with pebbles on the vertices, we define a pebbling move as removing two pebbles from a vertex u, placing one pebble on a neighbor v, and discarding the other pebble, like a toll. The pebbling number pi( G) is the least number of pebbles needed so that every arrangement of pi(G) pebbles can place a pebble on any vertex through a sequence of pebbling moves. We introduce a new variation on graph pebbling called two-player pebbling. In this, players called the mover and the defender alternate moves, with the stipulation that the defender cannot reverse the previous move. The mover wins only if they can place a pebble on a specified vertex and the defender wins if the mover cannot. We define η(G), analogously, as the minimum number of pebbles such that given every configuration of the η( G) pebbles and every specified vertex r, the mover has a winning strategy. First, we will investigate upper bounds for η( G) on various classes of graphs and find a certain structure for which the defender has a winning strategy, no matter how many pebbles are in a configuration. Then, we characterize winning configurations for both players on a special class of diameter 2 graphs. Finally, we show winning configurations for the mover on paths using a recursive argument.

  8. Situating Graphs as Workplace Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noss, Richard; Bakker, Arthur; Hoyles, Celia; Kent, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the use and knowledge of graphs in the context of a large industrial factory. We are particularly interested in the question of "transparency", a question that has been extensively considered in the general literature on tool use and, more recently, by Michael Roth and his colleagues in the context of scientific work. Roth uses the…

  9. Short paths in expander graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinberg, J.; Rubinfeld, R.

    1996-12-31

    Graph expansion has proved to be a powerful general tool for analyzing the behavior of routing algorithms and the interconnection networks on which they run. We develop new routing algorithms and structural results for bounded-degree expander graphs. Our results are unified by the fact that they are all based upon, and extend, a body of work asserting that expanders are rich in short, disjoint paths. In particular, our work has consequences for the disjoint paths problem, multicommodify flow, and graph minor containment. We show: (i) A greedy algorithm for approximating the maximum disjoint paths problem achieves a polylogarithmic approximation ratio in bounded-degree expanders. Although our algorithm is both deterministic and on-line, its performance guarantee is an improvement over previous bounds in expanders. (ii) For a multicommodily flow problem with arbitrary demands on a bounded-degree expander, there is a (1 + {epsilon})-optimal solution using only flow paths of polylogarithmic length. It follows that the multicommodity flow algorithm of Awerbuch and Leighton runs in nearly linear time per commodity in expanders. Our analysis is based on establishing the following: given edge weights on an expander G, one can increase some of the weights very slightly so the resulting shortest-path metric is smooth - the min-weight path between any pair of nodes uses a polylogarithmic number of edges. (iii) Every bounded-degree expander on n nodes contains every graph with O(n/log{sup O(1)} n) nodes and edges as a minor.

  10. Fibonacci Identities, Matrices, and Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Danrun

    2005-01-01

    General strategies used to help discover, prove, and generalize identities for Fibonacci numbers are described along with some properties about the determinants of square matrices. A matrix proof for identity (2) that has received immense attention from many branches of mathematics, like linear algebra, dynamical systems, graph theory and others…

  11. Humidity Graphs for All Seasons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esmael, F.

    1982-01-01

    In a previous article in this journal (Vol. 17, p358, 1979), a wet-bulb depression table was recommended for two simple experiments to determine relative humidity. However, the use of a graph is suggested because it gives the relative humidity directly from the wet and dry bulb readings. (JN)

  12. Affect and Graphing Calculator Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Allison W.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study of six high school calculus students designed to build an understanding about the affect associated with graphing calculator use in independent situations. DeBellis and Goldin's (2006) framework for affect as a representational system was used as a lens through which to understand the ways in which…

  13. Fibonacci Identities, Matrices, and Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Danrun

    2005-01-01

    General strategies used to help discover, prove, and generalize identities for Fibonacci numbers are described along with some properties about the determinants of square matrices. A matrix proof for identity (2) that has received immense attention from many branches of mathematics, like linear algebra, dynamical systems, graph theory and others

  14. Ancestral Genres of Mathematical Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerofsky, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Drawing from sources in gesture studies, cognitive science, the anthropology of religion and art/architecture history, this article explores cultural, bodily and cosmological resonances carried (unintentionally) by mathematical graphs on Cartesian coordinates. Concepts of asymmetric bodily spaces, grids, orthogonality, mapping and sacred spaces

  15. Graphs and Enhancing Maple Multiplication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecil, David R.; Wang, Rongdong

    2002-01-01

    Description of a technique in Maple programming language that automatically prints all paths of any desired length along with the name of each vertex, proceeding in order from the beginning vertex to the ending vertex for a given graph. (Author/MM)

  16. Chemical Applications of Graph Theory: Part II. Isomer Enumeration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Peter J.; Jurs, Peter C.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the use of graph theory to aid in the depiction of organic molecular structures. Gives a historical perspective of graph theory and explains graph theory terminology with organic examples. Lists applications of graph theory to current research projects. (ML)

  17. Graph Partitioning Models for Parallel Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, B.; Kolda, T.G.

    1999-03-02

    Calculations can naturally be described as graphs in which vertices represent computation and edges reflect data dependencies. By partitioning the vertices of a graph, the calculation can be divided among processors of a parallel computer. However, the standard methodology for graph partitioning minimizes the wrong metric and lacks expressibility. We survey several recently proposed alternatives and discuss their relative merits.

  18. Some Applications of Graph Theory to Clustering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubert, Lawrence J.

    1974-01-01

    The connection between graph theory and clustering is reviewed and extended. Major emphasis is on restating, in a graph-theoretic context, selected past work in clustering, and conversely, developing alternative strategies from several standard concepts used in graph theory per se. (Author/RC)

  19. 47 CFR 80.761 - Conversion graphs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Conversion graphs. 80.761 Section 80.761... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.761 Conversion graphs. The following graphs must be employed where conversion from one to the other of the indicated types of units...

  20. 47 CFR 80.761 - Conversion graphs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Conversion graphs. 80.761 Section 80.761... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.761 Conversion graphs. The following graphs must be employed where conversion from one to the other of the indicated types of units...

  1. 47 CFR 80.761 - Conversion graphs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conversion graphs. 80.761 Section 80.761... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.761 Conversion graphs. The following graphs must be employed where conversion from one to the other of the indicated types of units...

  2. 47 CFR 80.761 - Conversion graphs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conversion graphs. 80.761 Section 80.761... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.761 Conversion graphs. The following graphs must be employed where conversion from one to the other of the indicated types of units...

  3. 47 CFR 80.761 - Conversion graphs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Conversion graphs. 80.761 Section 80.761... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.761 Conversion graphs. The following graphs must be employed where conversion from one to the other of the indicated types of units...

  4. Teaching and Assessing Graphing Using Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    As a college biology instructor, I often see graphs in lab reports that do not meet my expectations. I also observe that many college students do not always adequately differentiate between good and poor (or misleading) graphs. The activity described in this paper is the result of my work with students to improve their graphing literacy. The…

  5. Comparing Graph Similarity Measures for Graphical Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouili, Salim; Tabbone, Salvatore; Valveny, Ernest

    In this paper we evaluate four graph distance measures. The analysis is performed for document retrieval tasks. For this aim, different kind of documents are used including line drawings (symbols), ancient documents (ornamental letters), shapes and trademark-logos. The experimental results show that the performance of each graph distance measure depends on the kind of data and the graph representation technique.

  6. Fast approximate graph partitioning algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Even, G.; Naor, J.S.; Rao, S.; Schieber, B.

    1997-06-01

    We study graph partitioning problems on graphs with edge capacities and vertex weights. The problems of b-balanced cuts and k-multiway separators are unified with a new problem called minimum capacity {rho}-separators. A {rho}-separator is a subset of edges whose removal partitions the vertex set into connected components such that the sum of the vertex weights in each component is at most {rho} times the weight of the graph. We present a new and simple O(log n)-approximation algorithm for minimum capacity {rho}-separators yielding an O(log n)-approximation algorithm both for b-balanced cuts and k-multiway separators. In particular, this result improves the previous best known approximation factor for k-multiway separators in undirected graphs by a factor of O(log k). We enhance these results by presenting a version of the algorithm that obtains an O(log OPT)- approximation factor. The algorithm is based on a technique called spreading metrics that enables us to formulate directly the minimum capacity {rho}-separator problem as an integer program. We also consider a generalization called the simultaneous separator problem, where the goal is to find a minimum capacity subset of edges that separates a given collection of subsets simultaneously. We extend our results to directed graphs for values of {rho} {ge} {1/2}. We conclude with an efficient algorithm for computing an optimal spreading metric for {rho}-separators. This yields more efficient algorithms for computing b-balanced cuts than were previously known.

  7. Basic Skills for Reflective Inquiry in the Social Studies. Bridges to the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodabaugh, Mary Jane; And Others

    The document consists of five social studies units for developing basic inquiry skills at the secondary level. Students read and analyze data through the construction of a table and a graph in Unit I, "Reading Graphs and Charts." Topics include a model of consumer demand, census information, and national budgeting. In Unit II, "Community Change,"…

  8. Fast graph operations in quantum computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liming; Pérez-Delgado, Carlos A.; Fitzsimons, Joseph F.

    2016-03-01

    The connection between certain entangled states and graphs has been heavily studied in the context of measurement-based quantum computation as a tool for understanding entanglement. Here we show that this correspondence can be harnessed in the reverse direction to yield a graph data structure, which allows for more efficient manipulation and comparison of graphs than any possible classical structure. We introduce efficient algorithms for many transformation and comparison operations on graphs represented as graph states, and prove that no classical data structure can have similar performance for the full set of operations studied.

  9. High Performance Descriptive Semantic Analysis of Semantic Graph Databases

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Adolf, Robert D.; al-Saffar, Sinan; Feo, John T.; Haglin, David J.; Mackey, Greg E.; Mizell, David W.

    2011-06-02

    As semantic graph database technology grows to address components ranging from extant large triple stores to SPARQL endpoints over SQL-structured relational databases, it will become increasingly important to be able to understand their inherent semantic structure, whether codified in explicit ontologies or not. Our group is researching novel methods for what we call descriptive semantic analysis of RDF triplestores, to serve purposes of analysis, interpretation, visualization, and optimization. But data size and computational complexity makes it increasingly necessary to bring high performance computational resources to bear on this task. Our research group built a novel high performance hybrid system comprising computational capability for semantic graph database processing utilizing the large multi-threaded architecture of the Cray XMT platform, conventional servers, and large data stores. In this paper we describe that architecture and our methods, and present the results of our analyses of basic properties, connected components, namespace interaction, and typed paths such for the Billion Triple Challenge 2010 dataset.

  10. A bonding model of entanglement for N-qubit graph states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waegell, Mordecai

    2014-10-01

    The class of entangled N-qubit states known as graph states, and the corresponding stabilizer groups of N-qubit Pauli observables, have found a wide range of applications in quantum information processing and the foundations of quantum mechanics. A review of the properties of graph states is given and core spaces of graph states are introduced and discussed. A bonding model of entanglement for generalized graph states is then presented, in which the presence or absence of a bond between two qubits unequivocally specifies whether or not they are entangled. A physical interpretation of these bonds is given, along with a characterization of how they can be created or destroyed by entangling unitary operations and how they can be destroyed by local Pauli measurements. It is shown that local unitary operations do not affect the bond structure of a graph state, and therefore that if two graph states have nonisomorphic bond structures, then local unitary operations and/or reordering of qubits cannot change one into the other. Color multigraphs are introduced to depict the bond structures of graph states and to make some of their properties more apparent.

  11. Constrained Graph Optimization: Interdiction and Preservation Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Schild, Aaron V

    2012-07-30

    The maximum flow, shortest path, and maximum matching problems are a set of basic graph problems that are critical in theoretical computer science and applications. Constrained graph optimization, a variation of these basic graph problems involving modification of the underlying graph, is equally important but sometimes significantly harder. In particular, one can explore these optimization problems with additional cost constraints. In the preservation case, the optimizer has a budget to preserve vertices or edges of a graph, preventing them from being deleted. The optimizer wants to find the best set of preserved edges/vertices in which the cost constraints are satisfied and the basic graph problems are optimized. For example, in shortest path preservation, the optimizer wants to find a set of edges/vertices within which the shortest path between two predetermined points is smallest. In interdiction problems, one deletes vertices or edges from the graph with a particular cost in order to impede the basic graph problems as much as possible (for example, delete edges/vertices to maximize the shortest path between two predetermined vertices). Applications of preservation problems include optimal road maintenance, power grid maintenance, and job scheduling, while interdiction problems are related to drug trafficking prevention, network stability assessment, and counterterrorism. Computational hardness results are presented, along with heuristic methods for approximating solutions to the matching interdiction problem. Also, efficient algorithms are presented for special cases of graphs, including on planar graphs. The graphs in many of the listed applications are planar, so these algorithms have important practical implications.

  12. Generalized graph states based on Hadamard matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Shawn X.; Yu, Nengkun; Zeng, Bei

    2015-07-15

    Graph states are widely used in quantum information theory, including entanglement theory, quantum error correction, and one-way quantum computing. Graph states have a nice structure related to a certain graph, which is given by either a stabilizer group or an encoding circuit, both can be directly given by the graph. To generalize graph states, whose stabilizer groups are abelian subgroups of the Pauli group, one approach taken is to study non-abelian stabilizers. In this work, we propose to generalize graph states based on the encoding circuit, which is completely determined by the graph and a Hadamard matrix. We study the entanglement structures of these generalized graph states and show that they are all maximally mixed locally. We also explore the relationship between the equivalence of Hadamard matrices and local equivalence of the corresponding generalized graph states. This leads to a natural generalization of the Pauli (X, Z) pairs, which characterizes the local symmetries of these generalized graph states. Our approach is also naturally generalized to construct graph quantum codes which are beyond stabilizer codes.

  13. Choosability of P 5-Free Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovach, Petr A.; Heggernes, Pinar

    A graph is k-choosable if it admits a proper coloring of its vertices for every assignment of k (possibly different) allowed colors to choose from for each vertex. It is NP-hard to decide whether a given graph is k-choosable for k ≥ 3, and this problem is considered strictly harder than the k-coloring problem. Only few positive results are known on input graphs with a given structure. Here, we prove that the problem is fixed parameter tractable on P 5-free graphs when parameterized by k. This graph class contains the well known and widely studied class of cographs. Our result is surprising since the parameterized complexity of k-coloring is still open on P 5-free graphs. To give a complete picture, we show that the problem remains NP-hard on P 5-free graphs when k is a part of the input.

  14. Fast approximate quadratic programming for graph matching.

    PubMed

    Vogelstein, Joshua T; Conroy, John M; Lyzinski, Vince; Podrazik, Louis J; Kratzer, Steven G; Harley, Eric T; Fishkind, Donniell E; Vogelstein, R Jacob; Priebe, Carey E

    2015-01-01

    Quadratic assignment problems arise in a wide variety of domains, spanning operations research, graph theory, computer vision, and neuroscience, to name a few. The graph matching problem is a special case of the quadratic assignment problem, and graph matching is increasingly important as graph-valued data is becoming more prominent. With the aim of efficiently and accurately matching the large graphs common in big data, we present our graph matching algorithm, the Fast Approximate Quadratic assignment algorithm. We empirically demonstrate that our algorithm is faster and achieves a lower objective value on over 80% of the QAPLIB benchmark library, compared with the previous state-of-the-art. Applying our algorithm to our motivating example, matching C. elegans connectomes (brain-graphs), we find that it efficiently achieves performance. PMID:25886624

  15. On a programming language for graph algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rheinboldt, W. C.; Basili, V. R.; Mesztenyi, C. K.

    1971-01-01

    An algorithmic language, GRAAL, is presented for describing and implementing graph algorithms of the type primarily arising in applications. The language is based on a set algebraic model of graph theory which defines the graph structure in terms of morphisms between certain set algebraic structures over the node set and arc set. GRAAL is modular in the sense that the user specifies which of these mappings are available with any graph. This allows flexibility in the selection of the storage representation for different graph structures. In line with its set theoretic foundation, the language introduces sets as a basic data type and provides for the efficient execution of all set and graph operators. At present, GRAAL is defined as an extension of ALGOL 60 (revised) and its formal description is given as a supplement to the syntactic and semantic definition of ALGOL. Several typical graph algorithms are written in GRAAL to illustrate various features of the language and to show its applicability.

  16. Efficient Graph Sequence Mining Using Reverse Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inokuchi, Akihiro; Ikuta, Hiroaki; Washio, Takashi

    The mining of frequent subgraphs from labeled graph data has been studied extensively. Furthermore, much attention has recently been paid to frequent pattern mining from graph sequences. A method, called GTRACE, has been proposed to mine frequent patterns from graph sequences under the assumption that changes in graphs are gradual. Although GTRACE mines the frequent patterns efficiently, it still needs substantial computation time to mine the patterns from graph sequences containing large graphs and long sequences. In this paper, we propose a new version of GTRACE that permits efficient mining of frequent patterns based on the principle of a reverse search. The underlying concept of the reverse search is a general scheme for designing efficient algorithms for hard enumeration problems. Our performance study shows that the proposed method is efficient and scalable for mining both long and large graph sequence patterns and is several orders of magnitude faster than the original GTRACE.

  17. Fast Approximate Quadratic Programming for Graph Matching

    PubMed Central

    Vogelstein, Joshua T.; Conroy, John M.; Lyzinski, Vince; Podrazik, Louis J.; Kratzer, Steven G.; Harley, Eric T.; Fishkind, Donniell E.; Vogelstein, R. Jacob; Priebe, Carey E.

    2015-01-01

    Quadratic assignment problems arise in a wide variety of domains, spanning operations research, graph theory, computer vision, and neuroscience, to name a few. The graph matching problem is a special case of the quadratic assignment problem, and graph matching is increasingly important as graph-valued data is becoming more prominent. With the aim of efficiently and accurately matching the large graphs common in big data, we present our graph matching algorithm, the Fast Approximate Quadratic assignment algorithm. We empirically demonstrate that our algorithm is faster and achieves a lower objective value on over 80% of the QAPLIB benchmark library, compared with the previous state-of-the-art. Applying our algorithm to our motivating example, matching C. elegans connectomes (brain-graphs), we find that it efficiently achieves performance. PMID:25886624

  18. Study Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Anne

    1993-01-01

    Three developments lend support to the idea that schools must help teach study skills: (1) advances in cognitive psychology that suggest children are active learners; (2) society's concern for at-risk students; and (3) growing demands for improved student performance. There is evidence that systematic study skills instruction does improve academic

  19. Skills Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, Washington, DC.

    The Cortland College Skills Center at the State University of New York, Cortland, helps students learn how they learn best, providing assistance in reading, writing, researching, listening, speaking, vocabulary, study skills, math, and standardized test preparation. Services are offered for learning disabled (LD) and handicapped students, and the…

  20. Interpretation Of Biomechanical Data To A Gymnastics Coach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shierman, Gail

    1982-02-01

    Several trials of many different gymnastics skills on various pieces of apparatus were filmed and the results were studied with the coach. The time to accomplish the entire skill as well as the time for each segment of the skill was important to the coach. He was also interested in angle of release or push-off and the path of the center of gravity. Lastly, graphs of velocities and accelerations of limb segments were revealing to the coach. Biomechanical analysis has helped him see why the performances were good; he is more interested in working with the investigator in all the events in gymnastics through the medium of cinematography.

  1. Using a Problem Solving-Cooperative Learning Approach to Improve Students' Skills for Interpreting [Superscript 1]H NMR Spectra of Unknown Compounds in an Organic Spectroscopy Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angawi, Rihab F.

    2014-01-01

    To address third- and fourth-year chemistry students' difficulties with the challenge of interpreting [superscript 1]H NMR spectra, a problem solving-cooperative learning technique was incorporated in a Spectra of Organic Compounds course. Using this approach helped students deepen their understanding of the basics of [superscript 1]H NMR…

  2. Efficient planning by graph rewriting

    SciTech Connect

    Ambite, J.L.; Knoblock, C.A.

    1996-12-31

    Planning involves the generation of a network of actions that achieves a desired goal given an initial state of the world. There has been significant progress in the analysis of planning algorithms, particularly in partial-order and in hierarchical task network (HTN) planning. In this abstract we propose a more general framework in which planning is seen as a graph rewriting process. This approach subsumes previous work and offers new opportunities for efficient planning.

  3. Affinity learning with diffusion on tensor product graph.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xingwei; Prasad, Lakshman; Latecki, Longin Jan

    2013-01-01

    In many applications, we are given a finite set of data points sampled from a data manifold and represented as a graph with edge weights determined by pairwise similarities of the samples. Often the pairwise similarities (which are also called affinities) are unreliable due to noise or due to intrinsic difficulties in estimating similarity values of the samples. As observed in several recent approaches, more reliable similarities can be obtained if the original similarities are diffused in the context of other data points, where the context of each point is a set of points most similar to it. Compared to the existing methods, our approach differs in two main aspects. First, instead of diffusing the similarity information on the original graph, we propose to utilize the tensor product graph (TPG) obtained by the tensor product of the original graph with itself. Since TPG takes into account higher order information, it is not a surprise that we obtain more reliable similarities. However, it comes at the price of higher order computational complexity and storage requirement. The key contribution of the proposed approach is that the information propagation on TPG can be computed with the same computational complexity and the same amount of storage as the propagation on the original graph. We prove that a graph diffusion process on TPG is equivalent to a novel iterative algorithm on the original graph, which is guaranteed to converge. After its convergence we obtain new edge weights that can be interpreted as new, learned affinities. We stress that the affinities are learned in an unsupervised setting. We illustrate the benefits of the proposed approach for data manifolds composed of shapes, images, and image patches on two very different tasks of image retrieval and image segmentation. With learned affinities, we achieve the bull's eye retrieval score of 99.99 percent on the MPEG-7 shape dataset, which is much higher than the state-of-the-art algorithms. When the data- points are image patches, the NCut with the learned affinities not only significantly outperforms the NCut with the original affinities, but it also outperforms state-of-the-art image segmentation methods. PMID:22392704

  4. Graph theoretic analysis of structural connectivity across the spectrum of Alzheimer's disease: The importance of graph creation methods.

    PubMed

    Phillips, David J; McGlaughlin, Alec; Ruth, David; Jager, Leah R; Soldan, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Graph theory is increasingly being used to study brain connectivity across the spectrum of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but prior findings have been inconsistent, likely reflecting methodological differences. We systematically investigated how methods of graph creation (i.e., type of correlation matrix and edge weighting) affect structural network properties and group differences. We estimated the structural connectivity of brain networks based on correlation maps of cortical thickness obtained from MRI. Four groups were compared: 126 cognitively normal older adults, 103 individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) who retained MCI status for at least 3 years (stable MCI), 108 individuals with MCI who progressed to AD-dementia within 3 years (progressive MCI), and 105 individuals with AD-dementia. Small-world measures of connectivity (characteristic path length and clustering coefficient) differed across groups, consistent with prior studies. Groups were best discriminated by the Randić index, which measures the degree to which highly connected nodes connect to other highly connected nodes. The Randić index differentiated the stable and progressive MCI groups, suggesting that it might be useful for tracking and predicting the progression of AD. Notably, however, the magnitude and direction of group differences in all three measures were dependent on the method of graph creation, indicating that it is crucial to take into account how graphs are constructed when interpreting differences across diagnostic groups and studies. The algebraic connectivity measures showed few group differences, independent of the method of graph construction, suggesting that global connectivity as it relates to node degree is not altered in early AD. PMID:25984446

  5. The Optimum Text in Simultaneous Interpreting: A Cognitive Approach to Interpreters' Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexieva, Bistra

    A discussion of text translatability in simultaneous interpreting (SI) looks at semantic redundancy, the repetition of semantic components essential to creating an utterance, and offers some classroom techniques for teaching interpreting skills. It is proposed that the translatability of a text in SI should be studied in terms of the experiential…

  6. Models of random graph hierarchies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paluch, Robert; Suchecki, Krzysztof; Hołyst, Janusz A.

    2015-10-01

    We introduce two models of inclusion hierarchies: random graph hierarchy (RGH) and limited random graph hierarchy (LRGH). In both models a set of nodes at a given hierarchy level is connected randomly, as in the Erdős-Rényi random graph, with a fixed average degree equal to a system parameter c. Clusters of the resulting network are treated as nodes at the next hierarchy level and they are connected again at this level and so on, until the process cannot continue. In the RGH model we use all clusters, including those of size 1, when building the next hierarchy level, while in the LRGH model clusters of size 1 stop participating in further steps. We find that in both models the number of nodes at a given hierarchy level h decreases approximately exponentially with h. The height of the hierarchy H, i.e. the number of all hierarchy levels, increases logarithmically with the system size N, i.e. with the number of nodes at the first level. The height H decreases monotonically with the connectivity parameter c in the RGH model and it reaches a maximum for a certain c max in the LRGH model. The distribution of separate cluster sizes in the LRGH model is a power law with an exponent about - 1.25. The above results follow from approximate analytical calculations and have been confirmed by numerical simulations.

  7. Topological structure of dictionary graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukś, Henryk; Krzemiński, Mark

    2009-09-01

    We investigate the topological structure of the subgraphs of dictionary graphs constructed from WordNet and Moby thesaurus data. In the process of learning a foreign language, the learner knows only a subset of all words of the language, corresponding to a subgraph of a dictionary graph. When this subgraph grows with time, its topological properties change. We introduce the notion of the pseudocore and argue that the growth of the vocabulary roughly follows decreasing pseudocore numbers—that is, one first learns words with a high pseudocore number followed by smaller pseudocores. We also propose an alternative strategy for vocabulary growth, involving decreasing core numbers as opposed to pseudocore numbers. We find that as the core or pseudocore grows in size, the clustering coefficient first decreases, then reaches a minimum and starts increasing again. The minimum occurs when the vocabulary reaches a size between 103 and 104. A simple model exhibiting similar behavior is proposed. The model is based on a generalized geometric random graph. Possible implications for language learning are discussed.

  8. Guidelines for Graphing Data with Microsoft[R] Office 2007[TM], Office 2010[TM], and Office for Mac[TM] 2008 and 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Erin E.; Reichow, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The interpretation of single-case data requires systematic visual analysis across and within conditions. Graphs are a vital component for analyzing and communicating single-case design data and a necessary tool for applied researchers and practitioners. Several articles have been published with task analyses for graphing data with the new versions…

  9. Computational Genomics Using Graph Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlick, Tamar

    2005-03-01

    With exciting new discoveries concerning RNA's regulatory cellular roles in gene expression, structural and functional problems associated with DNA's venerable cousin have come to the forefront. RNA folding, for example, is analogous to the well-known protein folding problem, and seeks to link RNA's primary sequence with secondary and tertiary structures. As a single-stranded polynucleotide, RNA's secondary structures are defined by a network of hydrogen bonds, which lead to a variety of stems, loops, junctions, bulges, and other motifs. Supersecondary pseudoknot structures can also occur and, together, lead to RNA's complex tertiary interactions stabilized by salt and solvent ions in the natural cellular milieu. Besides folding, challenges in RNA research include identifying locations and functions of RNA genes, discovering RNA's structural repertoire (folding motifs), designing novel RNAs, and developing new antiviral and antibiotic compounds composed of, or targeting, RNAs. In this talk, I will describe some of these new biological findings concerning RNA and present an approach using graph theory (network theory) to represent RNA secondary structures. Because the RNA motif space using graphs is vastly smaller than RNA's sequence space, many problems related to analyzing and discovering new RNAs can be simplified and studied systematically. Some preliminary applications to designing novel RNAs will also be described.Related ReadingH. H. Gan, S. Pasquali, and T. Schlick, ``A Survey of Existing RNAs using Graph Theory with Implications to RNA Analysis and Design,'' Nuc. Acids Res. 31: 2926--2943 (2003). J. Zorn, H. H. Gan, N. Shiffeldrim, and T. Schlick, ``Structural Motifs in Ribosomal RNAs: Implications for RNA Design and Genomics,'' Biopolymers 73: 340--347 (2004). H. H. Gan, D. Fera, J. Zorn, M. Tang, N. Shiffeldrim, U. Laserson, N. Kim, and T. Schlick,``RAG: RNA-As-Graphs Database -- Concepts, Analysis, and Features,'' Bioinformatics 20: 1285--1291 (2004). U. Laserson, H. H. Gan, and T. Schlick, ``Searching for 2D RNA Geometries in Bacterial Genomes,'' Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Computational Geometry, June 9--11, New York, pp. 373--377 (2004). (http://socg.poly.edu/home.htm). N. Kim, N. Shiffeldrim, H. H. Gan, and T. Schlick, ``Novel Candidates of RNA Topologies,'' J. Mol. Biol. 341: 1129--1144 (2004). Schlick, ``RAG: RNA-As-Graphs Web Resource,'' BMC Bioinformatics 5: 88--97 (2004) (http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2105/5/88). S. Pasquali, H. H. Gan, and T. Schlick, ``Modular RNA Architecture Revealed by Computational Analysis of Existing Pseudoknots and Ribosomal RNAs,'' Nucl. Acids Res., Submitted (2004). T. Schlick, Molecular Modeling: An Interdisciplinary Guide, Springer-Verlag, New York, 2002.

  10. Inferring Pedigree Graphs from Genetic Distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Takeyuki; Ito, Hiro

    In this paper, we study a problem of inferring blood relationships which satisfy a given matrix of genetic distances between all pairs of n nodes. Blood relationships are represented by our proposed graph class, which is called a pedigree graph. A pedigree graph is a directed acyclic graph in which the maximum indegree is at most two. We show that the number of pedigree graphs which satisfy the condition of given genetic distances may be exponential, but they can be represented by one directed acyclic graph with n nodes. Moreover, an O(n3) time algorithm which solves the problem is also given. Although phylogenetic trees and phylogenetic networks are similar data structures to pedigree graphs, it seems that inferring methods for phylogenetic trees and networks cannot be applied to infer pedigree graphs since nodes of phylogenetic trees and networks represent species whereas nodes of pedigree graphs represent individuals. We also show an O(n2) time algorithm which detects a contradiction between a given pedigreee graph and distance matrix of genetic distances.

  11. Computing Information Value from RDF Graph Properties

    SciTech Connect

    al-Saffar, Sinan; Heileman, Gregory

    2010-11-08

    Information value has been implicitly utilized and mostly non-subjectively computed in information retrieval (IR) systems. We explicitly define and compute the value of an information piece as a function of two parameters, the first is the potential semantic impact the target information can subjectively have on its recipient's world-knowledge, and the second parameter is trust in the information source. We model these two parameters as properties of RDF graphs. Two graphs are constructed, a target graph representing the semantics of the target body of information and a context graph representing the context of the consumer of that information. We compute information value subjectively as a function of both potential change to the context graph (impact) and the overlap between the two graphs (trust). Graph change is computed as a graph edit distance measuring the dissimilarity between the context graph before and after the learning of the target graph. A particular application of this subjective information valuation is in the construction of a personalized ranking component in Web search engines. Based on our method, we construct a Web re-ranking system that personalizes the information experience for the information-consumer.

  12. JavaGenes: Evolving Graphs with Crossover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Atsatt, Sean; Lawton, John; Wipke, Todd

    2000-01-01

    Genetic algorithms usually use string or tree representations. We have developed a novel crossover operator for a directed and undirected graph representation, and used this operator to evolve molecules and circuits. Unlike strings or trees, a single point in the representation cannot divide every possible graph into two parts, because graphs may contain cycles. Thus, the crossover operator is non-trivial. A steady-state, tournament selection genetic algorithm code (JavaGenes) was written to implement and test the graph crossover operator. All runs were executed by cycle-scavagging on networked workstations using the Condor batch processing system. The JavaGenes code has evolved pharmaceutical drug molecules and simple digital circuits. Results to date suggest that JavaGenes can evolve moderate sized drug molecules and very small circuits in reasonable time. The algorithm has greater difficulty with somewhat larger circuits, suggesting that directed graphs (circuits) are more difficult to evolve than undirected graphs (molecules), although necessary differences in the crossover operator may also explain the results. In principle, JavaGenes should be able to evolve other graph-representable systems, such as transportation networks, metabolic pathways, and computer networks. However, large graphs evolve significantly slower than smaller graphs, presumably because the space-of-all-graphs explodes combinatorially with graph size. Since the representation strongly affects genetic algorithm performance, adding graphs to the evolutionary programmer's bag-of-tricks should be beneficial. Also, since graph evolution operates directly on the phenotype, the genotype-phenotype translation step, common in genetic algorithm work, is eliminated.

  13. Supporting Generative Thinking about Number Lines, the Cartesian Plane, and Graphs of Linear Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earnest, Darrell Steven

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation explores fifth and eighth grade students' interpretations of three kinds of mathematical representations: number lines, the Cartesian plane, and graphs of linear functions. Two studies were conducted. In Study 1, I administered the paper-and-pencil Linear Representations Assessment (LRA) to examine students'…

  14. Embodied Semiotic Activities and Their Role in the Construction of Mathematical Meaning of Motion Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botzer, Galit; Yerushalmy, Michal

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the relation between bodily actions, artifact-mediated activities, and semiotic processes that students experience while producing and interpreting graphs of two-dimensional motion in the plane. We designed a technology-based setting that enabled students to engage in embodied semiotic activities and experience two modes of…

  15. Correspondence Analysis and Association Models Constrained by a Conditional Independence Graph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Falguerolles, Antoine; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The manner in which the conditional independence graph of a multiway contingency table affects the fitting and interpretation of the Goodman association model and of correspondence analysis is considered. Estimation of row and column scores is presented through a framework that includes both models. (SLD)

  16. Supporting Generative Thinking about Number Lines, the Cartesian Plane, and Graphs of Linear Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earnest, Darrell Steven

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation explores fifth and eighth grade students' interpretations of three kinds of mathematical representations: number lines, the Cartesian plane, and graphs of linear functions. Two studies were conducted. In Study 1, I administered the paper-and-pencil Linear Representations Assessment (LRA) to examine students'

  17. A New SAS program for behavioral analysis of electrical penetration graph data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monitoring feeding behaviors of insects whose piercing-sucking mouthparts are inserted into plant tissue is done by making the insect part of an electronic circuit, using electropenetrography (EPG). Fluctuating voltage signals in the circuit are graphed, and resulting waveforms are interpreted as sp...

  18. Students' Reading Images in Kinematics: The Case of Real-Time Graphs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, Italo; Monroy, Gabriella; Sassi, Elena

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study in which secondary school students were called upon to read and interpret documents containing images of real-time kinematics graphs specially designed to address common learning problems and minimize iconic difficulties. Makes suggestions regarding the acquisition of some specific capabilities that are needed to avoid…

  19. Replica methods for loopy sparse random graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coolen, ACC

    2016-03-01

    I report on the development of a novel statistical mechanical formalism for the analysis of random graphs with many short loops, and processes on such graphs. The graphs are defined via maximum entropy ensembles, in which both the degrees (via hard constraints) and the adjacency matrix spectrum (via a soft constraint) are prescribed. The sum over graphs can be done analytically, using a replica formalism with complex replica dimensions. All known results for tree-like graphs are recovered in a suitable limit. For loopy graphs, the emerging theory has an appealing and intuitive structure, suggests how message passing algorithms should be adapted, and what is the structure of theories describing spin systems on loopy architectures. However, the formalism is still largely untested, and may require further adjustment and refinement. This paper is dedicated to the memory of our colleague and friend Jun-Ichi Inoue, with whom the author has had the great pleasure and privilege of collaborating.

  20. API Requirements for Dynamic Graph Prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, B; Eliassi-Rad, T

    2006-10-13

    Given a large-scale time-evolving multi-modal and multi-relational complex network (a.k.a., a large-scale dynamic semantic graph), we want to implement algorithms that discover patterns of activities on the graph and learn predictive models of those discovered patterns. This document outlines the application programming interface (API) requirements for fast prototyping of feature extraction, learning, and prediction algorithms on large dynamic semantic graphs. Since our algorithms must operate on large-scale dynamic semantic graphs, we have chosen to use the graph API developed in the CASC Complex Networks Project. This API is supported on the back end by a semantic graph database (developed by Scott Kohn and his team). The advantages of using this API are (i) we have full-control of its development and (ii) the current API meets almost all of the requirements outlined in this document.

  1. Fast Generation of Sparse Random Kernel Graphs

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The development of kernel-based inhomogeneous random graphs has provided models that are flexible enough to capture many observed characteristics of real networks, and that are also mathematically tractable. We specify a class of inhomogeneous random graph models, called random kernel graphs, that produces sparse graphs with tunable graph properties, and we develop an efficient generation algorithm to sample random instances from this model. As real-world networks are usually large, it is essential that the run-time of generation algorithms scales better than quadratically in the number of vertices n. We show that for many practical kernels our algorithm runs in time at most 𝒪(n(logn)2). As a practical example we show how to generate samples of power-law degree distribution graphs with tunable assortativity. PMID:26356296

  2. Fast generation of sparse random kernel graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Hagberg, Aric; Lemons, Nathan; Du, Wen -Bo

    2015-09-10

    The development of kernel-based inhomogeneous random graphs has provided models that are flexible enough to capture many observed characteristics of real networks, and that are also mathematically tractable. We specify a class of inhomogeneous random graph models, called random kernel graphs, that produces sparse graphs with tunable graph properties, and we develop an efficient generation algorithm to sample random instances from this model. As real-world networks are usually large, it is essential that the run-time of generation algorithms scales better than quadratically in the number of vertices n. We show that for many practical kernels our algorithm runs in time at most ο(n(logn)²). As an example, we show how to generate samples of power-law degree distribution graphs with tunable assortativity.

  3. Fast generation of sparse random kernel graphs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hagberg, Aric; Lemons, Nathan; Du, Wen -Bo

    2015-09-10

    The development of kernel-based inhomogeneous random graphs has provided models that are flexible enough to capture many observed characteristics of real networks, and that are also mathematically tractable. We specify a class of inhomogeneous random graph models, called random kernel graphs, that produces sparse graphs with tunable graph properties, and we develop an efficient generation algorithm to sample random instances from this model. As real-world networks are usually large, it is essential that the run-time of generation algorithms scales better than quadratically in the number of vertices n. We show that for many practical kernels our algorithm runs in timemore » at most ο(n(logn)²). As an example, we show how to generate samples of power-law degree distribution graphs with tunable assortativity.« less

  4. Skills core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Laura

    Constantly changing technology and increasing competition mean that private companies are aggressively seeking new employees with high levels of technological literacy, good judgment, and communication and team-building skills. Industry also needs workers educated in science, math, engineering, and technology. But which of these skills are most important? Researchers at Indian River Community College at Fort Pierce, Fla., will attempt to answer that question with an NSF grant of nearly $1 million.

  5. Incorporating Reading Skills into Art Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peragallo, Anne M.

    1981-01-01

    Using a ceramics unit, the author illustrates ways of incorporating the following reading skills into an art lesson: following directions; pronunciation, spelling, and vocabulary development; interpreting illustrations; using reference books and materials; notetaking; and skimming. (SJL)

  6. Weight of quadratic forms and graph states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosentino, Alessandro; Severini, Simone

    2009-11-01

    We prove a connection between Schmidt rank and weight of quadratic forms. This provides a new tool for the classification of graph states based on entanglement. Our main tool arises from a reformulation of previously known results concerning the weight of quadratic forms in terms of graph states properties. As a byproduct, we obtain a straightforward characterization of the weight of functions associated with pivot-minor of bipartite graphs.

  7. Imaging geometric graphs using internal measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This article presents two topologically-motivated algorithms for reconstructing a metric graph from solutions to a wave equation on it. Our algorithms rely on narrowband and visibility measurements, and are therefore of considerable value to urban sensing applications. This is an advancement over the wideband methods traditionally used to study metric graphs. Our methodology exposes and separates the impact of the graph topology and geometry and is driven by a complete cohomological characterization of the space of wave equation solutions.

  8. On the dimensionality of cortical graphs.

    PubMed

    Bienenstock, E

    1996-01-01

    We propose to use a random-graph model of cortex as a tabula-rasa state, to be contrasted with various types of regular connectivity patterns. Key in our analysis is the notion of graph-theoretic dimensionality, closely linked to that of graph diameter. Our discussion focuses on patterns of synfire type, and on the synfire-superposition model proposed in previous papers. PMID:9116678

  9. Graph Models of Automobile Gears - Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewniak, J.; Kopeć, J.; Zawiślak, S.

    2014-08-01

    In the present paper, kinematical analysis of an automotive gear is described. Versatile graph based methods have been utilized for this purpose. An application of mixed, contour and bond graphs gives the same results. It allows the detection of possible mistakes as well as a deeper insight into the designed artifact. The graphs can also be used for further analyses which will be published in a separate document

  10. The MultiThreaded Graph Library (MTGL)

    SciTech Connect

    2008-07-17

    The MultiThreaded Graph Library (MTGL) is a set of header files that implement graph algorithm in such a way that they can run on massively multithreaded architectures. It is based upon the Boost Graph Library, but doesn???¢????????t use Boost since the latter doesn???¢????????t run well on these architectures.

  11. The alignment-distribution graph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Gilbert, John R.; Schreiber, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Implementing a data-parallel language such as Fortran 90 on a distributed-memory parallel computer requires distributing aggregate data objects (such as arrays) among the memory modules attached to the processors. The mapping of objects to the machine determines the amount of residual communication needed to bring operands of parallel operations into alignment with each other. We present a program representation called the alignment-distribution graph that makes these communication requirements explicit. We describe the details of the representation, show how to model communication cost in this framework, and outline several algorithms for determining object mappings that approximately minimize residual communication.

  12. The alignment-distribution graph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Gilbert, John R.; Schreiber, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Implementing a data-parallel language such as Fortran 90 on a distributed-memory parallel computer requires distributing aggregate data objects (such as arrays) among the memory modules attached to the processors. The mapping of objects to the machine determines the amount of residual communication needed to bring operands of parallel operations into alignment with each other. We present a program representation called the alignment distribution graph that makes these communication requirements explicit. We describe the details of the representation, show how to model communication cost in this framework, and outline several algorithms for determining object mappings that approximately minimize residual communication.

  13. Naming on a Directed Graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosti, Giorgio; Batchelder, William H.

    We address how the structure of a social communication system affects language coordination. The naming game is an abstraction of lexical acquisition dynamics, in which N agents try to find an agreement on the names to give to objects. Most results on naming games are specific to certain communication network topologies. We present two important results that are general to any graph topology: the first proves that under certain topologies the system always converges to a name-object agreement; the second proves that if these conditions are not met the system may end up in a state in which sub-networks with different competing object-name associations coexist.

  14. Breddin's graph for tectonic regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Célérier, Bernard; Séranne, Michel

    2001-05-01

    A simple graphical method is proposed to infer the tectonic regime from a fault and slip data set. An abacus is overlaid on a plot of the rake versus strike of the data. This yields the horizontal principal stress directions and a constraint on the stress tensor aspect ratio, in a manner similar to Breddin's graph for two-dimensional strain analysis. The main requirement is that one of the principal stress directions is close to the vertical. This method is illustrated on monophase synthetic and natural data, but is also expected to help sort out multiphase data sets.

  15. Simple scale interpolator facilitates reading of graphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetterman, D. E., Jr.

    1965-01-01

    Simple transparent overlay with interpolation scale facilitates accurate, rapid reading of graph coordinate points. This device can be used for enlarging drawings and locating points on perspective drawings.

  16. Generation of graph-state streams

    SciTech Connect

    Ballester, Daniel; Cho, Jaeyoon; Kim, M. S.

    2011-01-15

    We propose a protocol to generate a stream of mobile qubits in a graph state through a single stationary parent qubit and discuss two types of its physical implementation, namely, the generation of photonic graph states through an atomlike qubit and the generation of flying atoms through a cavity-mode photonic qubit. The generated graph states fall into an important class that can hugely reduce the resource requirement of fault-tolerant linear optics quantum computation, which was previously known to be far from realistic. In regard to the flying atoms, we also propose a heralded generation scheme, which allows for high-fidelity graph states even under the photon loss.

  17. Graph algorithms in the titan toolkit.

    SciTech Connect

    McLendon, William Clarence, III; Wylie, Brian Neil

    2009-10-01

    Graph algorithms are a key component in a wide variety of intelligence analysis activities. The Graph-Based Informatics for Non-Proliferation and Counter-Terrorism project addresses the critical need of making these graph algorithms accessible to Sandia analysts in a manner that is both intuitive and effective. Specifically we describe the design and implementation of an open source toolkit for doing graph analysis, informatics, and visualization that provides Sandia with novel analysis capability for non-proliferation and counter-terrorism.

  18. A Factor Graph Approach to Automated GO Annotation.

    PubMed

    Spetale, Flavio E; Tapia, Elizabeth; Krsticevic, Flavia; Roda, Fernando; Bulacio, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    As volume of genomic data grows, computational methods become essential for providing a first glimpse onto gene annotations. Automated Gene Ontology (GO) annotation methods based on hierarchical ensemble classification techniques are particularly interesting when interpretability of annotation results is a main concern. In these methods, raw GO-term predictions computed by base binary classifiers are leveraged by checking the consistency of predefined GO relationships. Both formal leveraging strategies, with main focus on annotation precision, and heuristic alternatives, with main focus on scalability issues, have been described in literature. In this contribution, a factor graph approach to the hierarchical ensemble formulation of the automated GO annotation problem is presented. In this formal framework, a core factor graph is first built based on the GO structure and then enriched to take into account the noisy nature of GO-term predictions. Hence, starting from raw GO-term predictions, an iterative message passing algorithm between nodes of the factor graph is used to compute marginal probabilities of target GO-terms. Evaluations on Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana and Drosophila melanogaster protein sequences from the GO Molecular Function domain showed significant improvements over competing approaches, even when protein sequences were naively characterized by their physicochemical and secondary structure properties or when loose noisy annotation datasets were considered. Based on these promising results and using Arabidopsis thaliana annotation data, we extend our approach to the identification of most promising molecular function annotations for a set of proteins of unknown function in Solanum lycopersicum. PMID:26771463

  19. A Factor Graph Approach to Automated GO Annotation

    PubMed Central

    Spetale, Flavio E.; Tapia, Elizabeth; Krsticevic, Flavia; Roda, Fernando; Bulacio, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    As volume of genomic data grows, computational methods become essential for providing a first glimpse onto gene annotations. Automated Gene Ontology (GO) annotation methods based on hierarchical ensemble classification techniques are particularly interesting when interpretability of annotation results is a main concern. In these methods, raw GO-term predictions computed by base binary classifiers are leveraged by checking the consistency of predefined GO relationships. Both formal leveraging strategies, with main focus on annotation precision, and heuristic alternatives, with main focus on scalability issues, have been described in literature. In this contribution, a factor graph approach to the hierarchical ensemble formulation of the automated GO annotation problem is presented. In this formal framework, a core factor graph is first built based on the GO structure and then enriched to take into account the noisy nature of GO-term predictions. Hence, starting from raw GO-term predictions, an iterative message passing algorithm between nodes of the factor graph is used to compute marginal probabilities of target GO-terms. Evaluations on Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana and Drosophila melanogaster protein sequences from the GO Molecular Function domain showed significant improvements over competing approaches, even when protein sequences were naively characterized by their physicochemical and secondary structure properties or when loose noisy annotation datasets were considered. Based on these promising results and using Arabidopsis thaliana annotation data, we extend our approach to the identification of most promising molecular function annotations for a set of proteins of unknown function in Solanum lycopersicum. PMID:26771463

  20. Assessing Students' Metacognitive Skills

    PubMed Central

    Alman, Martha; Gardner, Stephanie; Born, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Objective To develop a diagnostic test for assessing cognitive skills related to metacognition in a physiology course. Methods Cognitive skills believed to be related to metacognition (visualizing lecture information and interpreting diagrams) were identified in a first-professional year (P1) physiology course and test items were constructed for each. Analyses included overall reliability, item discrimination, and variance comparisons of 4 groups to assess the effect of prior physiology coursework and diagnostic test score level on the first examination in physiology. Results Overall reliability was 0.83 (N = 78). Eighty percent of the test items discriminated positively. The average diagnostic test scores of students with or without a prior physiology course did not differ significantly. Students who scored above the class mean on the diagnostic test and who had taken a prior physiology course also had the highest average scores on the physiology examination. Conclusion The diagnostic test provided a measure of a limited number of skills related to metacognition, and preliminary data suggest that such skills are especially important in retaining information. PMID:17429514

  1. Basic Skills in Asian Studies: India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, James

    Designed for an Asian studies program at the secondary level and using learning activities centering on India, the guide develops four basic skills: reading, applying critical thinking, interpreting the geography, and understanding history. Five learning activities are provided for each basic skill and each unit is introduced with a description…

  2. Analysis of the contact graph routing algorithm: Bounding interplanetary paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birrane, Edward; Burleigh, Scott; Kasch, Niels

    2012-06-01

    Interplanetary communication networks comprise orbiters, deep-space relays, and stations on planetary surfaces. These networks must overcome node mobility, constrained resources, and significant propagation delays. Opportunities for wireless contact rely on calculating transmit and receive opportunities, but the Euclidean-distance diameter of these networks (measured in light-seconds and light-minutes) precludes node discovery and contact negotiation. Propagation delay may be larger than the line-of-sight contact between nodes. For example, Mars and Earth orbiters may be separated by up to 20.8 min of signal propagation time. Such spacecraft may never share line-of-sight, but may uni-directionally communicate if one orbiter knows the other's future position. The Contact Graph Routing (CGR) approach is a family of algorithms presented to solve the messaging problem of interplanetary communications. These algorithms exploit networks where nodes exhibit deterministic mobility. For CGR, mobility and bandwidth information is pre-configured throughout the network allowing nodes to construct transmit opportunities. Once constructed, routing algorithms operate on this contact graph to build an efficient path through the network. The interpretation of the contact graph, and the construction of a bounded approximate path, is critically important for adoption in operational systems. Brute force approaches, while effective in small networks, are computationally expensive and will not scale. Methods of inferring cycles or other librations within the graph are difficult to detect and will guide the practical implementation of any routing algorithm. This paper presents a mathematical analysis of a multi-destination contact graph algorithm (MD-CGR), demonstrates that it is NP-complete, and proposes realistic constraints that make the problem solvable in polynomial time, as is the case with the originally proposed CGR algorithm. An analysis of path construction to complement hop-by-hop forwarding is presented as the CGR-EB algorithm. Future work is proposed to handle the presence of dynamic changes to the network, as produced by congestion, link disruption, and errors in the contact graph. We conclude that pre-computation, and thus CGR style algorithms, is the only efficient method of routing in a multi-node, multi-path interplanetary network and that algorithmic analysis is the key to its implementation in operational systems.

  3. Aspects of Performance on Line Graph Description Tasks: Influenced by Graph Familiarity and Different Task Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xi, Xiaoming

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by cognitive theories of graph comprehension, this study systematically manipulated characteristics of a line graph description task in a speaking test in ways to mitigate the influence of graph familiarity, a potential source of construct-irrelevant variance. It extends Xi (2005), which found that the differences in holistic scores on

  4. Aspects of Performance on Line Graph Description Tasks: Influenced by Graph Familiarity and Different Task Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xi, Xiaoming

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by cognitive theories of graph comprehension, this study systematically manipulated characteristics of a line graph description task in a speaking test in ways to mitigate the influence of graph familiarity, a potential source of construct-irrelevant variance. It extends Xi (2005), which found that the differences in holistic scores on…

  5. GPD: a graph pattern diffusion kernel for accurate graph classification with applications in cheminformatics.

    PubMed

    Smalter, Aaron; Huan, Jun Luke; Jia, Yi; Lushington, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    Graph data mining is an active research area. Graphs are general modeling tools to organize information from heterogeneous sources and have been applied in many scientific, engineering, and business fields. With the fast accumulation of graph data, building highly accurate predictive models for graph data emerges as a new challenge that has not been fully explored in the data mining community. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel technique called graph pattern diffusion (GPD) kernel. Our idea is to leverage existing frequent pattern discovery methods and to explore the application of kernel classifier (e.g., support vector machine) in building highly accurate graph classification. In our method, we first identify all frequent patterns from a graph database. We then map subgraphs to graphs in the graph database and use a process we call "pattern diffusion" to label nodes in the graphs. Finally, we designed a graph alignment algorithm to compute the inner product of two graphs. We have tested our algorithm using a number of chemical structure data. The experimental results demonstrate that our method is significantly better than competing methods such as those kernel functions based on paths, cycles, and subgraphs. PMID:20431140

  6. GPD: A Graph Pattern Diffusion Kernel for Accurate Graph Classification with Applications in Cheminformatics

    PubMed Central

    Smalter, Aaron; Huan, Jun (Luke); Jia, Yi; Lushington, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    Graph data mining is an active research area. Graphs are general modeling tools to organize information from heterogeneous sources and have been applied in many scientific, engineering, and business fields. With the fast accumulation of graph data, building highly accurate predictive models for graph data emerges as a new challenge that has not been fully explored in the data mining community. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel technique called graph pattern diffusion (GPD) kernel. Our idea is to leverage existing frequent pattern discovery methods and to explore the application of kernel classifier (e.g., support vector machine) in building highly accurate graph classification. In our method, we first identify all frequent patterns from a graph database. We then map subgraphs to graphs in the graph database and use a process we call “pattern diffusion” to label nodes in the graphs. Finally, we designed a graph alignment algorithm to compute the inner product of two graphs. We have tested our algorithm using a number of chemical structure data. The experimental results demonstrate that our method is significantly better than competing methods such as those kernel functions based on paths, cycles, and subgraphs. PMID:20431140

  7. Reproducibility and Robustness of Graph Measures of the Associative-Semantic Network

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Nelissen, Natalie; Adamczuk, Katarzyna; De Weer, An-Sofie; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Sunaert, Stefan; Vandenberghe, Rik; Dupont, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Graph analysis is a promising tool to quantify brain connectivity. However, an essential requirement is that the graph measures are reproducible and robust. We have studied the reproducibility and robustness of various graph measures in group based and in individual binary and weighted networks derived from a task fMRI experiment during explicit associative-semantic processing of words and pictures. The nodes of the network were defined using an independent study and the connectivity was based on the partial correlation of the time series between any pair of nodes. The results showed that in case of binary networks, global graph measures exhibit a good reproducibility and robustness for networks which are not too sparse and these figures of merit depend on the graph measure and on the density of the network. Furthermore, group based binary networks should be derived from groups of sufficient size and the lower the density the more subjects are required to obtain robust values. Local graph measures are very variable in terms of reproducibility and should be interpreted with care. For weighted networks, we found good reproducibility (average test-retest variability <5% and ICC values >0.4) when using subject specific networks and this will allow us to relate network properties to individual subject information. PMID:25500823

  8. Clique percolation in random graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Deng, Youjin; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2015-10-01

    As a generation of the classical percolation, clique percolation focuses on the connection of cliques in a graph, where the connection of two k cliques means that they share at least l graphs, which gives not only the exact solutions of the critical point, but also the corresponding order parameter. Based on this, we prove theoretically that the fraction ψ of cliques in the giant clique cluster always makes a continuous phase transition as the classical percolation. However, the fraction ϕ of vertices in the giant clique cluster for l >1 makes a step-function-like discontinuous phase transition in the thermodynamic limit and a continuous phase transition for l =1 . More interesting, our analysis shows that at the critical point, the order parameter ϕc for l >1 is neither 0 nor 1, but a constant depending on k and l . All these theoretical findings are in agreement with the simulation results, which give theoretical support and clarification for previous simulation studies of clique percolation.

  9. Feature Tracking Using Reeb Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Gunther H.; Bremer, Peer-Timo; Day, Marcus S.; Bell, John B.; Pascucci, Valerio

    2010-08-02

    Tracking features and exploring their temporal dynamics can aid scientists in identifying interesting time intervals in a simulation and serve as basis for performing quantitative analyses of temporal phenomena. In this paper, we develop a novel approach for tracking subsets of isosurfaces, such as burning regions in simulated flames, which are defined as areas of high fuel consumption on a temperature isosurface. Tracking such regions as they merge and split over time can provide important insights into the impact of turbulence on the combustion process. However, the convoluted nature of the temperature isosurface and its rapid movement make this analysis particularly challenging. Our approach tracks burning regions by extracting a temperature isovolume from the four-dimensional space-time temperature field. It then obtains isosurfaces for the original simulation time steps and labels individual connected 'burning' regions based on the local fuel consumption value. Based on this information, a boundary surface between burning and non-burning regions is constructed. The Reeb graph of this boundary surface is the tracking graph for burning regions.

  10. Clique percolation in random graphs.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Deng, Youjin; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2015-10-01

    As a generation of the classical percolation, clique percolation focuses on the connection of cliques in a graph, where the connection of two k cliques means that they share at least lgraphs, which gives not only the exact solutions of the critical point, but also the corresponding order parameter. Based on this, we prove theoretically that the fraction ψ of cliques in the giant clique cluster always makes a continuous phase transition as the classical percolation. However, the fraction ϕ of vertices in the giant clique cluster for l>1 makes a step-function-like discontinuous phase transition in the thermodynamic limit and a continuous phase transition for l=1. More interesting, our analysis shows that at the critical point, the order parameter ϕ(c) for l>1 is neither 0 nor 1, but a constant depending on k and l. All these theoretical findings are in agreement with the simulation results, which give theoretical support and clarification for previous simulation studies of clique percolation. PMID:26565177

  11. Phase unwrapping via graph cuts.

    PubMed

    Bioucas-Dias, José M; Valadão, Gonçalo

    2007-03-01

    Phase unwrapping is the inference of absolute phase from modulo-2pi phase. This paper introduces a new energy minimization framework for phase unwrapping. The considered objective functions are first-order Markov random fields. We provide an exact energy minimization algorithm, whenever the corresponding clique potentials are convex, namely for the phase unwrapping classical Lp norm, with p > or = 1. Its complexity is KT (n, 3n), where K is the length of the absolute phase domain measured in 2pi units and T (n, m) is the complexity of a max-flow computation in a graph with n nodes and m edges. For nonconvex clique potentials, often used owing to their discontinuity preserving ability, we face an NP-hard problem for which we devise an approximate solution. Both algorithms solve integer optimization problems by computing a sequence of binary optimizations, each one solved by graph cut techniques. Accordingly, we name the two algorithms PUMA, for phase unwrappping max-flow/min-cut. A set of experimental results illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach and its competitiveness in comparison with state-of-the-art phase unwrapping algorithms. PMID:17357730

  12. Empirical data for the semantic interpretation of prepositional phrases in medical documents.

    PubMed Central

    Romacker, M.; Hahn, U.

    2001-01-01

    We report on the results from an empirical study deal-ing with the semantic interpretation of prepositional phrases in medical free texts. We use a small number of semantic interpretation schemata only, which operate on well-defined configurations in dependency graphs. We provide a quantitative analysis of the performance of the semantic interpreter in terms of recall/precision data, and consider, in qualitative terms, the impact semantic interpretation patterns have on the construction of the underlying medical ontology. PMID:11825251

  13. Enabling Graph Appliance for Genome Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Rina; Graves, Jeffrey A; Lee, Sangkeun; Sukumar, Sreenivas R; Shankar, Mallikarjun

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a huge growth in the amount of genomic data available as reads generated from various genome sequencers. The number of reads generated can be huge, ranging from hundreds to billions of nucleotide, each varying in size. Assembling such large amounts of data is one of the challenging computational problems for both biomedical and data scientists. Most of the genome assemblers developed have used de Bruijn graph techniques. A de Bruijn graph represents a collection of read sequences by billions of vertices and edges, which require large amounts of memory and computational power to store and process. This is the major drawback to de Bruijn graph assembly. Massively parallel, multi-threaded, shared memory systems can be leveraged to overcome some of these issues. The objective of our research is to investigate the feasibility and scalability issues of de Bruijn graph assembly on Cray s Urika-GD system; Urika-GD is a high performance graph appliance with a large shared memory and massively multithreaded custom processor designed for executing SPARQL queries over large-scale RDF data sets. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no research on representing a de Bruijn graph as an RDF graph or finding Eulerian paths in RDF graphs using SPARQL for potential genome discovery. In this paper, we address the issues involved in representing a de Bruin graphs as RDF graphs and propose an iterative querying approach for finding Eulerian paths in large RDF graphs. We evaluate the performance of our implementation on real world ebola genome datasets and illustrate how genome assembly can be accomplished with Urika-GD using iterative SPARQL queries.

  14. Interpreting Arterial Blood Gases Successfully.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Brenda G; Zimmanck, Robert J

    2015-10-01

    Arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis is a crucial skill for perioperative nurses, in particular the RN circulator. This article provides the physiological basis for assessing ABGs perioperatively and presents a systematic approach to blood gas analysis using the Romanski method. Blood gas sample data allow the reader to practice ABG interpretation. In addition, four case studies are presented that give the reader the opportunity to analyze ABGs within the context of surgical patient scenarios. The ability to accurately assess ABGs allows the perioperative nurse to assist surgical team members in restoring a patient's acid-base balance. PMID:26411819

  15. Graph Coloring Used to Model Traffic Lights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John

    1992-01-01

    Two scheduling problems, one involving setting up an examination schedule and the other describing traffic light problems, are modeled as colorings of graphs consisting of a set of vertices and edges. The chromatic number, the least number of colors necessary for coloring a graph, is employed in the solutions. (MDH)

  16. Pattern Perception and the Comprehension of Graphs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinker, Steven

    Three experiments tested the hypothesis that graphs convey information effectively because they can display global trends as geometric patterns that visual systems encode easily. A novel type of graph was invented in which angles/lengths of line segments joined end-to-end represented variables of rainfall and temperature of a set of months. It was…

  17. A Ring Construction Using Finite Directed Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardzell, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an interesting class of noncommutative rings which can be constructed using finite directed graphs. This construction also creates a vector space. These structures provide undergraduate students connections between ring theory and graph theory and, among other things, allow them to see a ring unity element that looks quite…

  18. Using a Microcomputer for Graphing Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beichner, Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise that introduces physics students to graphing. Presents the program format and sample output of a computer simulation of an experiment which tests the effects of sound intensity on the crawling speed of a snail. Provides students with practice in making exponential or logarithmic graphs. (ML)

  19. Parallel incremental graph partitioning using linear programming

    SciTech Connect

    Ou, C.W.; Ranka, S.

    1994-12-31

    Partitioning graphs into equally large groups of nodes while minimizing the number of edges between different groups is an extremely important problem, in parallel computing. For instance, efficiently parallelizing several scientific and engineering applications requires the partitioning of data or tasks among processors such that the computational load on each node is roughly the same, while communication is minimized. Obtaining exact solutions is computationally intractable, since graph-partitioning is an NP-complete. For a large class of irregular and adaptive data parallel applications (such as adaptive meshes), the computational structure changes front one phase to another in an incremental fashion. In incremental graph-partitioning problems the partitioning of the graph needs to be updated as the graph changes over time; a small number of nodes or edges may be added or deleted at any given instant. In this paper the authors use a linear programming-based method to solve the incremental graph partitioning problem. All the steps used by their method are inherently parallel and hence the approach can be easily parallelized. By using an initial solution for the graph partitions derived from recursive spectral bisection based methods, their methods can achieve repartitioning at considerably lower cost than can be obtained by applying recursive spectral bisection from scratch. Further, the quality of the partitioning achieved is comparable to that achieved by applying recursive spectral bisection to the incremental graphs from scratch.

  20. Developing Data Graph Comprehension. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curcio, Frances

    2010-01-01

    Since the dawn of civilization, pictorial representations and symbols have been used to communicate simple statistics. Efficient and effective, they are still used today in the form of pictures and graphs to record and present data. Who can tie their shoes? How many calories are in your favorite food? Make data and graphs relevant and interesting

  1. Developing Data Graph Comprehension. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curcio, Frances

    2010-01-01

    Since the dawn of civilization, pictorial representations and symbols have been used to communicate simple statistics. Efficient and effective, they are still used today in the form of pictures and graphs to record and present data. Who can tie their shoes? How many calories are in your favorite food? Make data and graphs relevant and interesting…

  2. Cognitive Aids for Guiding Graph Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mautone, Patricia D.; Mayer, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    This study sought to improve students' comprehension of scientific graphs by adapting scaffolding techniques used to aid text comprehension. In 3 experiments involving 121 female and 88 male college students, some students were shown cognitive aids prior to viewing 4 geography graphs whereas others were not; all students were then asked to write a…

  3. Generative Graph Prototypes from Information Theory.

    PubMed

    Han, Lin; Wilson, Richard C; Hancock, Edwin R

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we present a method for constructing a generative prototype for a set of graphs by adopting a minimum description length approach. The method is posed in terms of learning a generative supergraph model from which the new samples can be obtained by an appropriate sampling mechanism. We commence by constructing a probability distribution for the occurrence of nodes and edges over the supergraph. We encode the complexity of the supergraph using an approximate Von Neumann entropy. A variant of the EM algorithm is developed to minimize the description length criterion in which the structure of the supergraph and the node correspondences between the sample graphs and the supergraph are treated as missing data. To generate new graphs, we assume that the nodes and edges of graphs arise under independent Bernoulli distributions and sample new graphs according to their node and edge occurrence probabilities. Empirical evaluations on real-world databases demonstrate the practical utility of the proposed algorithm and show the effectiveness of the generative model for the tasks of graph classification, graph clustering and generating new sample graphs. PMID:26340255

  4. Attitudes towards Graphing Calculators in Developmental Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajan, Shaun Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine instructor and student attitudes towards the use of the graphing calculator in the developmental mathematics classroom. A focus of the study was to see if instructors or students believed there were changes in the conceptual understanding of mathematics as a result of graphing calculator…

  5. A Ring Construction Using Finite Directed Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardzell, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an interesting class of noncommutative rings which can be constructed using finite directed graphs. This construction also creates a vector space. These structures provide undergraduate students connections between ring theory and graph theory and, among other things, allow them to see a ring unity element that looks quite

  6. Pattern vectors from algebraic graph theory.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Richard C; Hancock, Edwin R; Luo, Bin

    2005-07-01

    Graph structures have proven computationally cumbersome for pattern analysis. The reason for this is that, before graphs can be converted to pattern vectors, correspondences must be established between the nodes of structures which are potentially of different size. To overcome this problem, in this paper, we turn to the spectral decomposition of the Laplacian matrix. We show how the elements of the spectral matrix for the Laplacian can be used to construct symmetric polynomials that are permutation invariants. The coefficients of these polynomials can be used as graph features which can be encoded in a vectorial manner. We extend this representation to graphs in which there are unary attributes on the nodes and binary attributes on the edges by using the spectral decomposition of a Hermitian property matrix that can be viewed as a complex analogue of the Laplacian. To embed the graphs in a pattern space, we explore whether the vectors of invariants can be embedded in a low-dimensional space using a number of alternative strategies, including principal components analysis (PCA), multidimensional scaling (MDS), and locality preserving projection (LPP). Experimentally, we demonstrate that the embeddings result in well-defined graph clusters. Our experiments with the spectral representation involve both synthetic and real-world data. The experiments with synthetic data demonstrate that the distances between spectral feature vectors can be used to discriminate between graphs on the basis of their structure. The real-world experiments show that the method can be used to locate clusters of graphs. PMID:16013758

  7. TI-83 Graphing Calculator Keystroke Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panik, Cathy

    This document presents keystrokes for the Texas Instrument (TI-83) graphing calculator. After presenting some basic TI-83 keystrokes, activities for student practice are listed. This is followed by keystrokes for TI-83 advanced functions such as evaluating function values, finding the zero of a function, finding the intersection of two graphs,

  8. Using Resource Graphs to Represent Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittmann, Michael C.

    2006-01-01

    We introduce resource graphs, a representation of linked ideas used when reasoning about specific contexts in physics. Our model is consistent with previous descriptions of coordination classes and resources. It represents mesoscopic scales that are neither knowledge-in-pieces nor large-scale concepts. We use resource graphs to describe several…

  9. Critiquing the Culture of Computer Graphing Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brasseur, Lee

    2001-01-01

    Argues that current approaches to computer graphing practices are ill suited to meet the complex needs of real users. Offers an overview of work in two major areas of graphing theory and research: the sociology of science and the educational research of mathematics and scientific students. Suggests what technical communicators can do to improve

  10. Strategic leadership: the essential skills.

    PubMed

    Schoemaker, Paul J H; Krupp, Steve; Howland, Samantha

    2013-01-01

    The more uncertain your environment, the greater the opportunity--if you have the leadership skills to capitalize on it. Research at the Wharton school and at the authors' consulting firm, involving more than 20,000 executives to date, has identified six skills that, when mastered and used in concert, allow leaders to think strategically and navigate the unknown effectively. They are the abilities to anticipate, challenge, interpret, decide, align, and learn. This article describes the six skills in detail and includes a self-assessment that will enable you to identify the ones that most need your attention. The authors have found that strength in one skill cannot easily compensate for a deficit in another. An adaptive strategic leader has learned to apply all six at once. PMID:23390746

  11. Graph Mining Meets the Semantic Web

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sangkeun; Sukumar, Sreenivas R; Lim, Seung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    The Resource Description Framework (RDF) and SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL) were introduced about a decade ago to enable flexible schema-free data interchange on the Semantic Web. Today, data scientists use the framework as a scalable graph representation for integrating, querying, exploring and analyzing data sets hosted at different sources. With increasing adoption, the need for graph mining capabilities for the Semantic Web has emerged. We address that need through implementation of three popular iterative Graph Mining algorithms (Triangle count, Connected component analysis, and PageRank). We implement these algorithms as SPARQL queries, wrapped within Python scripts. We evaluate the performance of our implementation on 6 real world data sets and show graph mining algorithms (that have a linear-algebra formulation) can indeed be unleashed on data represented as RDF graphs using the SPARQL query interface.

  12. Structure and strategy in encoding simplified graphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiano, Diane J.; Tversky, Barbara

    1992-01-01

    Tversky and Schiano (1989) found a systematic bias toward the 45-deg line in memory for the slopes of identical lines when embedded in graphs, but not in maps, suggesting the use of a cognitive reference frame specifically for encoding meaningful graphs. The present experiments explore this issue further using the linear configurations alone as stimuli. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrate that perception and immediate memory for the slope of a test line within orthogonal 'axes' are predictable from purely structural considerations. In Experiments 3 and 4, subjects were instructed to use a diagonal-reference strategy in viewing the stimuli, which were described as 'graphs' only in Experiment 3. Results for both studies showed the diagonal bias previously found only for graphs. This pattern provides converging evidence for the diagonal as a cognitive reference frame in encoding linear graphs, and demonstrates that even in highly simplified displays, strategic factors can produce encoding biases not predictable solely from stimulus structure alone.

  13. A model of language inflection graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukś, Henryk; Farzad, Babak; Cao, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Inflection graphs are highly complex networks representing relationships between inflectional forms of words in human languages. For so-called synthetic languages, such as Latin or Polish, they have particularly interesting structure due to the abundance of inflectional forms. We construct the simplest form of inflection graphs, namely a bipartite graph in which one group of vertices corresponds to dictionary headwords and the other group to inflected forms encountered in a given text. We, then, study projection of this graph on the set of headwords. The projection decomposes into a large number of connected components, to be called word groups. Distribution of sizes of word group exhibits some remarkable properties, resembling cluster distribution in a lattice percolation near the critical point. We propose a simple model which produces graphs of this type, reproducing the desired component distribution and other topological features.

  14. Vortices and superfields on a graph

    SciTech Connect

    Kan, Nahomi; Kobayashi, Koichiro; Shiraishi, Kiyoshi

    2009-08-15

    We extend the dimensional deconstruction by utilizing the knowledge of graph theory. In the dimensional deconstruction, one uses the moose diagram to exhibit the structure of the 'theory space'. We generalize the moose diagram to a general graph with oriented edges. In the present paper, we consider only the U(1) gauge symmetry. We also introduce supersymmetry into our model by use of superfields. We suppose that vector superfields reside at the vertices and chiral superfields at the edges of a given graph. Then we can consider multivector, multi-Higgs models. In our model, [U(1)]{sup p} (where p is the number of vertices) is broken to a single U(1). Therefore, for specific graphs, we get vortexlike classical solutions in our model. We show some examples of the graphs admitting the vortex solutions of simple structure as the Bogomolnyi solution.

  15. Quantum walk search on Johnson graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Thomas G.

    2016-05-01

    The Johnson graph J(n,k) is defined by n symbols, where vertices are k-element subsets of the symbols, and vertices are adjacent if they differ in exactly one symbol. In particular, J(n,1) is the complete graph K n , and J(n,2) is the strongly regular triangular graph T n , both of which are known to support fast spatial search by continuous-time quantum walk. In this paper, we prove that J(n,3), which is the n-tetrahedral graph, also supports fast search. In the process, we show that a change of basis is needed for degenerate perturbation theory to accurately describe the dynamics. This method can also be applied to general Johnson graphs J(n,k) with fixed k.

  16. Quantum graphs and random-matrix theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluhař, Z.; Weidenmüller, H. A.

    2015-07-01

    For simple connected graphs with incommensurate bond lengths and with unitary symmetry we prove the Bohigas-Giannoni-Schmit (BGS) conjecture in its most general form. Using supersymmetry and taking the limit of infinite graph size, we show that the generating function for every (P,Q) correlation function for both closed and open graphs coincides with the corresponding expression of random-matrix theory. We show that the classical Perron-Frobenius operator is bistochastic and possesses a single eigenvalue +1. In the quantum case that implies the existence of a zero (or massless) mode of the effective action. That mode causes universal fluctuation properties. Avoiding the saddle-point approximation we show that for graphs that are classically mixing (i.e. for which the spectrum of the classical Perron-Frobenius operator possesses a finite gap) and that do not carry a special class of bound states, the zero mode dominates in the limit of infinite graph size.

  17. GraphReduce: Large-Scale Graph Analytics on Accelerator-Based HPC Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, Dipanjan; Agarwal, Kapil; Song, Shuaiwen; Schwan, Karsten

    2015-09-30

    Recent work on real-world graph analytics has sought to leverage the massive amount of parallelism offered by GPU devices, but challenges remain due to the inherent irregularity of graph algorithms and limitations in GPU-resident memory for storing large graphs. We present GraphReduce, a highly efficient and scalable GPU-based framework that operates on graphs that exceed the device’s internal memory capacity. GraphReduce adopts a combination of both edge- and vertex-centric implementations of the Gather-Apply-Scatter programming model and operates on multiple asynchronous GPU streams to fully exploit the high degrees of parallelism in GPUs with efficient graph data movement between the host and the device.

  18. GraphReduce: Processing Large-Scale Graphs on Accelerator-Based Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, Dipanjan; Song, Shuaiwen; Agarwal, Kapil; Schwan, Karsten

    2015-11-15

    Recent work on real-world graph analytics has sought to leverage the massive amount of parallelism offered by GPU devices, but challenges remain due to the inherent irregularity of graph algorithms and limitations in GPU-resident memory for storing large graphs. We present GraphReduce, a highly efficient and scalable GPU-based framework that operates on graphs that exceed the device’s internal memory capacity. GraphReduce adopts a combination of edge- and vertex-centric implementations of the Gather-Apply-Scatter programming model and operates on multiple asynchronous GPU streams to fully exploit the high degrees of parallelism in GPUs with efficient graph data movement between the host and device.

  19. The Effect of Graphing Calculators on Student Achievement in College Algebra and Pre-Calculus Mathematics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatem, Neil

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the use of graphing calculators employed as Type II technology and student achievement, as determined by assessing students' problem solving skills associated with the concept of function, at the college algebra and pre-calculus level. In addition, this study explores the integration of graphing…

  20. Reaction to Indispensable Manual Calculation Skills in a CAS Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John

    2001-01-01

    Reacts to an article published in a previous issue of this journal on the effects of graphing calculators and computer algebra systems (CAS) on students' manual calculation and algebraic manipulation skills. Considers the contribution made by Jean-Baptiste Lagrange to thinking about the role of CAS in teaching algebra. (ASK)

  1. A First-Year Course That Teaches Research Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czarneski, Debra

    2013-01-01

    In the Fall semester of 2009, I taught a first-year course that focused on skills required to successfully complete undergraduate research. This paper will discuss the Simpson College first-year course requirements, my course goals, the graph theory topics covered, student feedback, and instructor reflection.

  2. Skills Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canter, Patricia; And Others

    The services of the Living Skills Center for the Visually Handicapped, a habilitative service for blind young adults, are described. It is explained that the Center houses its participants in their own apartments in a large complex and has served over 70 young people in 4 years. The evaluation section describes such assessment instruments as an

  3. Leadership Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Thomas S.

    2006-01-01

    While this may not be a "complete list" of what leadership skills one needs to effectively lead in any/every situation, it should provide a great overview of many of the things s/he needs to do, at least initially.

  4. Explanatory Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, George A.

    In assessing the quality of science teaching for an effort such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), it is important to understand what is meant by scientific thinking--the search for explanations. Instruction should involve higher-order cognitive skill development, but it is difficult to measure reasoning and understanding…

  5. Skills Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canter, Patricia; And Others

    The services of the Living Skills Center for the Visually Handicapped, a habilitative service for blind young adults, are described. It is explained that the Center houses its participants in their own apartments in a large complex and has served over 70 young people in 4 years. The evaluation section describes such assessment instruments as an…

  6. Relativity on rotated graph paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salgado, Roberto B.

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate a method for constructing spacetime diagrams for special relativity on graph paper that has been rotated by 45°. The diagonal grid lines represent light-flash worldlines in Minkowski spacetime, and the boxes in the grid (called "clock diamonds") represent units of measurement corresponding to the ticks of an inertial observer's light clock. We show that many quantitative results can be read off a spacetime diagram simply by counting boxes, with very little algebra. In particular, we show that the squared interval between two events is equal to the signed area of the parallelogram on the grid (called the "causal diamond") with opposite vertices corresponding to those events. We use the Doppler effect—without explicit use of the Doppler formula—to motivate the method.

  7. Interpretive Management: What General Managers Can Learn from Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Richard K.; Piore, Michael J.; Malek, Kamal M.

    1998-01-01

    An analytical management approach reflects a traditional perspective and an interpretive approach involves a perspective suited to rapidly changing, unpredictable markets. Both approaches are valid, but each serves different purposes and calls for different strategies and skills. (JOW)

  8. Degree distribution and assortativity in line graphs of complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiangrong; Trajanovski, Stojan; Kooij, Robert E.; Van Mieghem, Piet

    2016-03-01

    Topological characteristics of links of complex networks influence the dynamical processes executed on networks triggered by links, such as cascading failures triggered by links in power grids and epidemic spread due to link infection. The line graph transforms links in the original graph into nodes. In this paper, we investigate how graph metrics in the original graph are mapped into those for its line graph. In particular, we study the degree distribution and the assortativity of a graph and its line graph. Specifically, we show, both analytically and numerically, the degree distribution of the line graph of an Erdős-Rényi graph follows the same distribution as its original graph. We derive a formula for the assortativity of line graphs and indicate that the assortativity of a line graph is not linearly related to its original graph. Additionally, line graphs of various graphs, e.g. Erdős-Rényi graphs, scale-free graphs, show positive assortativity. In contrast, we find certain types of trees and non-trees whose line graphs have negative assortativity.

  9. Interpretation Training Influences Memory for Prior Interpretations

    PubMed Central

    Salemink, Elske; Hertel, Paula; Mackintosh, Bundy

    2010-01-01

    Anxiety is associated with memory biases when the initial interpretation of the event is taken into account. This experiment examined whether modification of interpretive bias retroactively affects memory for prior events and their initial interpretation. Before training, participants imagined themselves in emotionally ambiguous scenarios to which they provided endings that often revealed their interpretations. Then they were trained to resolve the ambiguity in other situations in a consistently positive (n = 37) or negative way (n = 38) before they tried to recall the initial scenarios and endings. Results indicated that memory for the endings was imbued with the emotional tone of the training, whereas memory for the scenarios was unaffected. PMID:21171760

  10. Lamplighter groups, de Brujin graphs, spider-web graphs and their spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigorchuk, R.; Leemann, P.-H.; Nagnibeda, T.

    2016-05-01

    We study the infinite family of spider-web graphs \\{{{ S }}k,N,M\\}, k≥slant 2, N≥slant 0 and M≥slant 1, initiated in the 50s in the context of network theory. It was later shown in physical literature that these graphs have remarkable percolation and spectral properties. We provide a mathematical explanation of these properties by putting the spider-web graphs in the context of group theory and algebraic graph theory. Namely, we realize them as tensor products of the well-known de Bruijn graphs \\{{{ B }}k,N\\} with cyclic graphs \\{{C}M\\} and show that these graphs are described by the action of the lamplighter group {{ L }}k={Z}/k{Z}\\wr {Z} on the infinite binary tree. Our main result is the identification of the infinite limit of \\{{{ S }}k,N,M\\}, as N,M\\to ∞ , with the Cayley graph of the lamplighter group {{ L }}k which, in turn, is one of the famous Diestel–Leader graphs {{DL}}k,k. As an application we compute the spectra of all spider-web graphs and show their convergence to the discrete spectral distribution associated with the Laplacian on the lamplighter group.

  11. Approximate von Neumann entropy for directed graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Cheng; Wilson, Richard C.; Comin, César H.; Costa, Luciano da F.; Hancock, Edwin R.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we develop an entropy measure for assessing the structural complexity of directed graphs. Although there are many existing alternative measures for quantifying the structural properties of undirected graphs, there are relatively few corresponding measures for directed graphs. To fill this gap in the literature, we explore an alternative technique that is applicable to directed graphs. We commence by using Chung's generalization of the Laplacian of a directed graph to extend the computation of von Neumann entropy from undirected to directed graphs. We provide a simplified form of the entropy which can be expressed in terms of simple node in-degree and out-degree statistics. Moreover, we find approximate forms of the von Neumann entropy that apply to both weakly and strongly directed graphs, and that can be used to characterize network structure. We illustrate the usefulness of these simplified entropy forms defined in this paper on both artificial and real-world data sets, including structures from protein databases and high energy physics theory citation networks.

  12. Object Discovery: Soft Attributed Graph Mining.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanshi; Song, Xuan; Shao, Xiaowei; Zhao, Huijing; Shibasaki, Ryosuke

    2016-03-01

    We categorize this research in terms of its contribution to both graph theory and computer vision. From the theoretical perspective, this study can be considered as the first attempt to formulate the idea of mining maximal frequent subgraphs in the challenging domain of messy visual data, and as a conceptual extension to the unsupervised learning of graph matching. We define a soft attributed pattern (SAP) to represent the common subgraph pattern among a set of attributed relational graphs (ARGs), considering both their structure and attributes. Regarding the differences between ARGs with fuzzy attributes and conventional labeled graphs, we propose a new mining strategy that directly extracts the SAP with the maximal graph size without applying node enumeration. Given an initial graph template and a number of ARGs, we develop an unsupervised method to modify the graph template into the maximal-size SAP. From a practical perspective, this research develops a general platform for learning the category model (i.e., the SAP) from cluttered visual data (i.e., the ARGs) without labeling "what is where," thereby opening the possibility for a series of applications in the era of big visual data. Experiments demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method on RGB/RGB-D images and videos. PMID:27046496

  13. Partitioning sparse matrices with eigenvectors of graphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pothen, Alex; Simon, Horst D.; Liou, Kang-Pu

    1990-01-01

    The problem of computing a small vertex separator in a graph arises in the context of computing a good ordering for the parallel factorization of sparse, symmetric matrices. An algebraic approach for computing vertex separators is considered in this paper. It is shown that lower bounds on separator sizes can be obtained in terms of the eigenvalues of the Laplacian matrix associated with a graph. The Laplacian eigenvectors of grid graphs can be computed from Kronecker products involving the eigenvectors of path graphs, and these eigenvectors can be used to compute good separators in grid graphs. A heuristic algorithm is designed to compute a vertex separator in a general graph by first computing an edge separator in the graph from an eigenvector of the Laplacian matrix, and then using a maximum matching in a subgraph to compute the vertex separator. Results on the quality of the separators computed by the spectral algorithm are presented, and these are compared with separators obtained from other algorithms for computing separators. Finally, the time required to compute the Laplacian eigenvector is reported, and the accuracy with which the eigenvector must be computed to obtain good separators is considered. The spectral algorithm has the advantage that it can be implemented on a medium-size multiprocessor in a straightforward manner.

  14. Discriminative graph embedding for label propagation.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Canh Hao; Mamitsuka, Hiroshi

    2011-09-01

    In many applications, the available information is encoded in graph structures. This is a common problem in biological networks, social networks, web communities and document citations. We investigate the problem of classifying nodes' labels on a similarity graph given only a graph structure on the nodes. Conventional machine learning methods usually require data to reside in some Euclidean spaces or to have a kernel representation. Applying these methods to nodes on graphs would require embedding the graphs into these spaces. By embedding and then learning the nodes on graphs, most methods are either flexible with different learning objectives or efficient enough for large scale applications. We propose a method to embed a graph into a feature space for a discriminative purpose. Our idea is to include label information into the embedding process, making the space representation tailored to the task. We design embedding objective functions that the following learning formulations become spectral transforms. We then reformulate these spectral transforms into multiple kernel learning problems. Our method, while being tailored to the discriminative tasks, is efficient and can scale to massive data sets. We show the need of discriminative embedding on some simulations. Applying to biological network problems, our method is shown to outperform baselines. PMID:21788187

  15. Graph isomorphism and adiabatic quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaitan, Frank; Clark, Lane

    2014-03-01

    In the Graph Isomorphism (GI) problem two N-vertex graphs G and G' are given and the task is to determine whether there exists a permutation of the vertices of G that preserves adjacency and maps G --> G'. If yes (no), then G and G' are said to be isomorphic (non-isomorphic). The GI problem is an important problem in computer science and is thought to be of comparable difficulty to integer factorization. We present a quantum algorithm that solves arbitrary instances of GI, and which provides a novel approach to determining all automorphisms of a graph. The algorithm converts a GI instance to a combinatorial optimization problem that can be solved using adiabatic quantum evolution. Numerical simulation of the algorithm's quantum dynamics shows that it correctly distinguishes non-isomorphic graphs; recognizes isomorphic graphs; and finds the automorphism group of a graph. We also discuss the algorithm's experimental implementation and show how it can be leveraged to solve arbitrary instances of the NP-Complete Sub-Graph Isomorphism problem.

  16. Massive graph visualization : LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Wylie, Brian Neil; Moreland, Kenneth D.

    2007-10-01

    Graphs are a vital way of organizing data with complex correlations. A good visualization of a graph can fundamentally change human understanding of the data. Consequently, there is a rich body of work on graph visualization. Although there are many techniques that are effective on small to medium sized graphs (tens of thousands of nodes), there is a void in the research for visualizing massive graphs containing millions of nodes. Sandia is one of the few entities in the world that has the means and motivation to handle data on such a massive scale. For example, homeland security generates graphs from prolific media sources such as television, telephone, and the Internet. The purpose of this project is to provide the groundwork for visualizing such massive graphs. The research provides for two major feature gaps: a parallel, interactive visualization framework and scalable algorithms to make the framework usable to a practical application. Both the frameworks and algorithms are designed to run on distributed parallel computers, which are already available at Sandia. Some features are integrated into the ThreatView{trademark} application and future work will integrate further parallel algorithms.

  17. Speculation and Historical Interpretation for Fifth and Sixth Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Elizabeth; Gregory, Leslie A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a unit for fifth- and sixth-grade students that helps develop critical thinking skills. Explains that students read the book, "Leonardo da Vinci" (Diane Stanley), to develop their historical interpretation skills and demonstrate that there is not just one right answer in history. (CMK)

  18. Enabling Graph Mining in RDF Triplestores using SPARQL for Holistic In-situ Graph Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sangkeun; Sukumar, Sreenivas R; Hong, Seokyong; Lim, Seung-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    The graph analysis is now considered as a promising technique to discover useful knowledge in data with a new perspective. We envi- sion that there are two dimensions of graph analysis: OnLine Graph Analytic Processing (OLGAP) and Graph Mining (GM) where each respectively focuses on subgraph pattern matching and automatic knowledge discovery in graph. Moreover, as these two dimensions aim to complementarily solve complex problems, holistic in-situ graph analysis which covers both OLGAP and GM in a single system is critical for minimizing the burdens of operating multiple graph systems and transferring intermediate result-sets between those systems. Nevertheless, most existing graph analysis systems are only capable of one dimension of graph analysis. In this work, we take an approach to enabling GM capabilities (e.g., PageRank, connected-component analysis, node eccentricity, etc.) in RDF triplestores, which are originally developed to store RDF datasets and provide OLGAP capability. More specifically, to achieve our goal, we implemented six representative graph mining algorithms using SPARQL. The approach allows a wide range of available RDF data sets directly applicable for holistic graph analysis within a system. For validation of our approach, we evaluate performance of our implementations with nine real-world datasets and three different computing environments - a laptop computer, an Amazon EC2 instance, and a shared-memory Cray XMT2 URIKA-GD graph-processing appliance. The experimen- tal results show that our implementation can provide promising and scalable performance for real world graph analysis in all tested environments. The developed software is publicly available in an open-source project that we initiated.

  19. Enabling Graph Mining in RDF Triplestores using SPARQL for Holistic In-situ Graph Analysis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lee, Sangkeun; Sukumar, Sreenivas R; Hong, Seokyong; Lim, Seung-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    The graph analysis is now considered as a promising technique to discover useful knowledge in data with a new perspective. We envi- sion that there are two dimensions of graph analysis: OnLine Graph Analytic Processing (OLGAP) and Graph Mining (GM) where each respectively focuses on subgraph pattern matching and automatic knowledge discovery in graph. Moreover, as these two dimensions aim to complementarily solve complex problems, holistic in-situ graph analysis which covers both OLGAP and GM in a single system is critical for minimizing the burdens of operating multiple graph systems and transferring intermediate result-sets between those systems. Nevertheless, most existingmore » graph analysis systems are only capable of one dimension of graph analysis. In this work, we take an approach to enabling GM capabilities (e.g., PageRank, connected-component analysis, node eccentricity, etc.) in RDF triplestores, which are originally developed to store RDF datasets and provide OLGAP capability. More specifically, to achieve our goal, we implemented six representative graph mining algorithms using SPARQL. The approach allows a wide range of available RDF data sets directly applicable for holistic graph analysis within a system. For validation of our approach, we evaluate performance of our implementations with nine real-world datasets and three different computing environments - a laptop computer, an Amazon EC2 instance, and a shared-memory Cray XMT2 URIKA-GD graph-processing appliance. The experimen- tal results show that our implementation can provide promising and scalable performance for real world graph analysis in all tested environments. The developed software is publicly available in an open-source project that we initiated.« less

  20. Encoding the core electrons with graph concepts.

    PubMed

    Pogliani, Lionello

    2004-01-01

    The core electron problem of atoms in chemical graph studies has always been considered as a minor problem. Usually, chemical graphs had to encode just a small set of second row atoms, i.e., C, N, O, and F, thus, graph and, in some cases, pseudograph concepts were enough to "graph" encode the molecules at hand. Molecular connectivity theory, together with its side-branch the electrotopological state, introduced two "ad hoc" algorithms for the core electrons of higher-row atoms based, mainly, on quantum concepts alike. Recently, complete graphs, and, especially, odd complete graphs have been introduced to encode the core electrons of higher-row atoms. By the aid of these types of graphs a double-valued algorithm has been proposed for the valence delta, deltav, of any type of atoms of the periodic table with a principal quantum number n > or =2. The new algorithm is centered on an invariant suggested by the hand-shaking theorem, and the values it gives rise to parallel in some way the values derived by the aid of the two old "quantum" algorithms. A thorough comparative analysis of the newly proposed algorithms has been undertaken for atoms of the group 1A-7A of the periodic table. This comparative study includes the electronegativity, the size of the atoms, the first ionization energy, and the electron affinity. The given algorithm has also been tested with sequential complete graphs, while the even complete graphs give rise to conceptual difficulties. QSAR/QSPR studies do not show a clear-cut preference for any of the two values the algorithm gives rise to, even if recent results seem to prefer one of the two values. PMID:14741009

  1. Cognitive and attitudinal predictors related to graphing achievement among pre-service elementary teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szyjka, Sebastian P.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which six cognitive and attitudinal variables predicted pre-service elementary teachers' performance on line graphing. Predictors included Illinois teacher education basic skills sub-component scores in reading comprehension and mathematics, logical thinking performance scores, as well as measures of attitudes toward science, mathematics and graphing. This study also determined the strength of the relationship between each prospective predictor variable and the line graphing performance variable, as well as the extent to which measures of attitude towards science, mathematics and graphing mediated relationships between scores on mathematics, reading, logical thinking and line graphing. Ninety-four pre-service elementary education teachers enrolled in two different elementary science methods courses during the spring 2009 semester at Southern Illinois University Carbondale participated in this study. Each subject completed five different instruments designed to assess science, mathematics and graphing attitudes as well as logical thinking and graphing ability. Sixty subjects provided copies of primary basic skills score reports that listed subset scores for both reading comprehension and mathematics. The remaining scores were supplied by a faculty member who had access to a database from which the scores were drawn. Seven subjects, whose scores could not be found, were eliminated from final data analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted in order to establish validity and reliability of the Questionnaire of Attitude Toward Line Graphs in Science (QALGS) instrument. CFA tested the statistical hypothesis that the five main factor structures within the Questionnaire of Attitude Toward Statistical Graphs (QASG) would be maintained in the revised QALGS. Stepwise Regression Analysis with backward elimination was conducted in order to generate a parsimonious and precise predictive model. This procedure allowed the researcher to explore the relationships among the affective and cognitive variables that were included in the regression analysis. The results for CFA indicated that the revised QALGS measure was sound in its psychometric properties when tested against the QASG. Reliability statistics indicated that the overall reliability for the 32 items in the QALGS was .90. The learning preferences construct had the lowest reliability (.67), while enjoyment (.89), confidence (.86) and usefulness (.77) constructs had moderate to high reliabilities. The first four measurement models fit the data well as indicated by the appropriate descriptive and statistical indices. However, the fifth measurement model did not fit the data well statistically, and only fit well with two descriptive indices. The results addressing the research question indicated that mathematical and logical thinking ability were significant predictors of line graph performance among the remaining group of variables. These predictors accounted for 41% of the total variability on the line graph performance variable. Partial correlation coefficients indicated that mathematics ability accounted for 20.5% of the variance on the line graphing performance variable when removing the effect of logical thinking. The logical thinking variable accounted for 4.7% of the variance on the line graphing performance variable when removing the effect of mathematics ability.

  2. The Turc-Budyko adimensional graphs as a tool for consistency assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andréassian, Vazken; Perrin, Charles; Coron, Laurent; Le Moine, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    This poster discusses the Turc-Budyko nondimensional graph, a widely used nondimensional representation relating long-term actual evaporation to precipitation and potential evaporation as a tool for assessing the consistency of catchment water balance. We present examples showing both the classical use of the graph (based on long-term averages, see Andréassian and Perrin, 2012) but also a newer use involving dated annual values, which allows to check the consistency of individual years (see Coron et al., 2015). References Andréassian, V., and C. Perrin (2012), On the ambiguous interpretation of the Turc-Budyko nondimensional graph, Water Resour. Res., 48, W10601, doi:10.1029/2012WR012532. Coron, L., V. Andréassian, C. Perrin & N. Le Moine. 2015. Graphical tools based on Turc-Budyko plots to detect changes in catchment behaviour. Hydrological Sciences Journal, doi: 10.1080/02626667.2014.964245

  3. Loops in Reeb Graphs of 2-Manifolds

    SciTech Connect

    Cole-McLaughlin, K; Edelsbrunner, H; Harer, J; Natarajan, V; Pascucci, V

    2004-12-16

    Given a Morse function f over a 2-manifold with or without boundary, the Reeb graph is obtained by contracting the connected components of the level sets to points. We prove tight upper and lower bounds on the number of loops in the Reeb graph that depend on the genus, the number of boundary components, and whether or not the 2-manifold is orientable. We also give an algorithm that constructs the Reeb graph in time O(n log n), where n is the number of edges in the triangulation used to represent the 2-manifold and the Morse function.

  4. Loops in Reeb Graphs of 2-Manifolds

    SciTech Connect

    Cole-McLaughlin, K; Edelsbrunner, H; Harer, J; Natarajan, V; Pascucci, V

    2003-02-11

    Given a Morse function f over a 2-manifold with or without boundary, the Reeb graph is obtained by contracting the connected components of the level sets to points. We prove tight upper and lower bounds on the number of loops in the Reeb graph that depend on the genus, the number of boundary components, and whether or not the 2-manifold is orientable. We also give an algorithm that constructs the Reeb graph in time O(n log n), where n is the number of edges in the triangulation used to represent the 2-manifold and the Morse function.

  5. Topological fisheye views for visualizing large graphs.

    PubMed

    Gansner, Emden R; Koren, Yehuda; North, Stephen C

    2005-01-01

    Graph drawing is a basic visualization tool that works well for graphs having up to hundreds of nodes and edges. At greater scale, data density and occlusion problems often negate its effectiveness. Conventional pan-and-zoom, multiscale, and geometric fisheye views are not fully satisfactory solutions to this problem. As an alternative, we propose a topological zooming method. It precomputes a hierarchy of coarsened graphs that are combined on-the-fly into renderings, with the level of detail dependent on distance from one or more foci. A related geometric distortion method yields constant information density displays from these renderings. PMID:16138555

  6. A heterogeneous graph-based recommendation simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Yeonchan, Ahn; Sungchan, Park; Lee, Matt Sangkeun; Sang-goo, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Heterogeneous graph-based recommendation frameworks have flexibility in that they can incorporate various recommendation algorithms and various kinds of information to produce better results. In this demonstration, we present a heterogeneous graph-based recommendation simulator which enables participants to experience the flexibility of a heterogeneous graph-based recommendation method. With our system, participants can simulate various recommendation semantics by expressing the semantics via meaningful paths like User Movie User Movie. The simulator then returns the recommendation results on the fly based on the user-customized semantics using a fast Monte Carlo algorithm.

  7. Scale-invariant geometric random graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zheng; Rogers, Tim

    2016-03-01

    We introduce and analyze a class of growing geometric random graphs that are invariant under rescaling of space and time. Directed connections between nodes are drawn according to influence zones that depend on node position in space and time, mimicking the heterogeneity and increased specialization found in growing networks. Through calculations and numerical simulations we explore the consequences of scale invariance for geometric random graphs generated this way. Our analysis reveals a dichotomy between scale-free and Poisson distributions of in- and out-degree, the existence of a random number of hub nodes, high clustering, and unusual percolation behavior. These properties are similar to those of empirically observed web graphs.

  8. The MultiThreaded Graph Library (MTGL)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2008-07-17

    The MultiThreaded Graph Library (MTGL) is a set of header files that implement graph algorithm in such a way that they can run on massively multithreaded architectures. It is based upon the Boost Graph Library, but doesn’t use Boost since the latter doesn’t run well on these architectures.

  9. Structuring heterogeneous biological information using fuzzy clustering of k-partite graphs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Extensive and automated data integration in bioinformatics facilitates the construction of large, complex biological networks. However, the challenge lies in the interpretation of these networks. While most research focuses on the unipartite or bipartite case, we address the more general but common situation of k-partite graphs. These graphs contain k different node types and links are only allowed between nodes of different types. In order to reveal their structural organization and describe the contained information in a more coarse-grained fashion, we ask how to detect clusters within each node type. Results Since entities in biological networks regularly have more than one function and hence participate in more than one cluster, we developed a k-partite graph partitioning algorithm that allows for overlapping (fuzzy) clusters. It determines for each node a degree of membership to each cluster. Moreover, the algorithm estimates a weighted k-partite graph that connects the extracted clusters. Our method is fast and efficient, mimicking the multiplicative update rules commonly employed in algorithms for non-negative matrix factorization. It facilitates the decomposition of networks on a chosen scale and therefore allows for analysis and interpretation of structures on various resolution levels. Applying our algorithm to a tripartite disease-gene-protein complex network, we were able to structure this graph on a large scale into clusters that are functionally correlated and biologically meaningful. Locally, smaller clusters enabled reclassification or annotation of the clusters' elements. We exemplified this for the transcription factor MECP2. Conclusions In order to cope with the overwhelming amount of information available from biomedical literature, we need to tackle the challenge of finding structures in large networks with nodes of multiple types. To this end, we presented a novel fuzzy k-partite graph partitioning algorithm that allows the decomposition of these objects in a comprehensive fashion. We validated our approach both on artificial and real-world data. It is readily applicable to any further problem. PMID:20961418

  10. A graph contraction algorithm for the fast calculation of the Fiedler vector of a graph

    SciTech Connect

    Driessche, R. Van; Roose, D.

    1995-12-01

    The spectral bisection algorithm bisects a graph into equally-sized parts in such a way that only a near minimal number of edges is cut. It requires the calculation of the Fiedler vector of the graph, i.e. the eigenvector that corresponds to the second smallest eigenvalue of the Laplacian matrix. Traditionally, a Lanczos algorithm is used for this purpose. Barnard and Simon have proposed calculating the Fiedler vector with a multilevel algorithm. This requires the construction of a series of consecutively smaller contractions of the graph. In this paper, we present a powerful graph contraction algorithm. We will show that the Fiedler vector of a contracted graph is a very good approximation of the Fiedler vector of the original graph and that the resulting multilevel algorithm calculates the Fiedler vector in less time than a Lanczos algorithm.

  11. Practical skills of the future innovator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaurov, Vitaliy

    2015-03-01

    Physics graduates face and often are disoriented by the complex and turbulent world of startups, incubators, emergent technologies, big data, social network engineering, and so on. In order to build the curricula that foster the skills necessary to navigate this world, we will look at the experiences at the Wolfram Science Summer School that gathers annually international students for already more than a decade. We will look at the examples of projects and see the development of such skills as innovative thinking, data mining, machine learning, cloud technologies, device connectivity and the Internet of things, network analytics, geo-information systems, formalized computable knowledge, and the adjacent applied research skills from graph theory to image processing and beyond. This should give solid ideas to educators who will build standard curricula adapted for innovation and entrepreneurship education.

  12. Application of machine learning and expert systems to Statistical Process Control (SPC) chart interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shewhart, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Statistical Process Control (SPC) charts are one of several tools used in quality control. Other tools include flow charts, histograms, cause and effect diagrams, check sheets, Pareto diagrams, graphs, and scatter diagrams. A control chart is simply a graph which indicates process variation over time. The purpose of drawing a control chart is to detect any changes in the process signalled by abnormal points or patterns on the graph. The Artificial Intelligence Support Center (AISC) of the Acquisition Logistics Division has developed a hybrid machine learning expert system prototype which automates the process of constructing and interpreting control charts.

  13. High Dimensional Spectral Graph Theory and Non-backtracking Random Walks on Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempton, Mark

    This thesis has two primary areas of focus. First we study connection graphs, which are weighted graphs in which each edge is associated with a d-dimensional rotation matrix for some fixed dimension d, in addition to a scalar weight. Second, we study non-backtracking random walks on graphs, which are random walks with the additional constraint that they cannot return to the immediately previous state at any given step. Our work in connection graphs is centered on the notion of consistency, that is, the product of rotations moving from one vertex to another is independent of the path taken, and a generalization called epsilon-consistency. We present higher dimensional versions of the combinatorial Laplacian matrix and normalized Laplacian matrix from spectral graph theory, and give results characterizing the consistency of a connection graph in terms of the spectra of these matrices. We generalize several tools from classical spectral graph theory, such as PageRank and effective resistance, to apply to connection graphs. We use these tools to give algorithms for sparsification, clustering, and noise reduction on connection graphs. In non-backtracking random walks, we address the question raised by Alon et. al. concerning how the mixing rate of a non-backtracking random walk to its stationary distribution compares to the mixing rate for an ordinary random walk. Alon et. al. address this question for regular graphs. We take a different approach, and use a generalization of Ihara's Theorem to give a new proof of Alon's result for regular graphs, and to extend the result to biregular graphs. Finally, we give a non-backtracking version of Polya's Random Walk Theorem for 2-dimensional grids.

  14. Data graphs and mechanistic explanation.

    PubMed

    Burnston, Daniel C

    2016-06-01

    It is a widespread assumption in philosophy of science that representations of data are not explanatory-that they are mere stepping stones towards an explanation, such as a representation of a mechanism. I draw on instances of representational and explanatory practice from mammalian chronobiology to suggest that this assumption is unsustainable. In many instances, biologists employ representations of data in explanatory ways that are not reducible to constraints on or evidence for representations of mechanisms. Data graphs are used to represent relationships between quantities across conditions, and often these representations are necessary for explaining particular aspects of the phenomena under study. The benefit of the analysis is two-fold. First, it provides a more accurate account of explanatory practice in broadly mechanistic investigation in biology. Second, it suggests that there is not an explanatorily "fundamental" type of representation in biology. Rather, the practice of explanation consists in the construction of different types of representations and their employment for distinct explanatory purposes. PMID:26871740

  15. Unimodular lattice triangulations as small-world and scale-free random graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, B.; Schmidt, E. M.; Mecke, K.

    2015-02-01

    Real-world networks, e.g., the social relations or world-wide-web graphs, exhibit both small-world and scale-free behaviour. We interpret lattice triangulations as planar graphs by identifying triangulation vertices with graph nodes and one-dimensional simplices with edges. Since these triangulations are ergodic with respect to a certain Pachner flip, applying different Monte Carlo simulations enables us to calculate average properties of random triangulations, as well as canonical ensemble averages, using an energy functional that is approximately the variance of the degree distribution. All considered triangulations have clustering coefficients comparable with real-world graphs; for the canonical ensemble there are inverse temperatures with small shortest path length independent of system size. Tuning the inverse temperature to a quasi-critical value leads to an indication of scale-free behaviour for degrees k≥slant 5. Using triangulations as a random graph model can improve the understanding of real-world networks, especially if the actual distance of the embedded nodes becomes important.

  16. Bipartite graph partitioning and data clustering

    SciTech Connect

    Zha, Hongyuan; He, Xiaofeng; Ding, Chris; Gu, Ming; Simon, Horst D.

    2001-05-07

    Many data types arising from data mining applications can be modeled as bipartite graphs, examples include terms and documents in a text corpus, customers and purchasing items in market basket analysis and reviewers and movies in a movie recommender system. In this paper, the authors propose a new data clustering method based on partitioning the underlying biopartite graph. The partition is constructed by minimizing a normalized sum of edge weights between unmatched pairs of vertices of the bipartite graph. They show that an approximate solution to the minimization problem can be obtained by computing a partial singular value decomposition (SVD) of the associated edge weight matrix of the bipartite graph. They point out the connection of their clustering algorithm to correspondence analysis used in multivariate analysis. They also briefly discuss the issue of assigning data objects to multiple clusters. In the experimental results, they apply their clustering algorithm to the problem of document clustering to illustrate its effectiveness and efficiency.

  17. Note on resolution, connection graphs, and subsumption

    SciTech Connect

    De Champeaux, D.

    1982-07-01

    Completeness is endangered by the combination in connection graph of subsumption deletion rules and the run time pure literal rule. With some care completeness can be restored. How this can be achieved is briefly discussed. 3 references.

  18. Determining X-chains in graph states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jun-Yi; Kampermann, Hermann; Bruß, Dagmar

    2016-02-01

    The representation of graph states in the X-basis as well as the calculation of graph state overlaps can efficiently be performed by using the concept of X-chains (Wu et al 2015 Phys. Rev. A 92 012322). We present a necessary and sufficient criterion for X-chains and show that they can efficiently be determined by the Bareiss algorithm. An analytical approach for searching X-chain groups of a graph state is proposed. Furthermore we generalize the concept of X-chains to so-called Euler chains, whose induced subgraphs are Eulerian. This approach helps to determine if a given vertex set is an X-chain and we show how Euler chains can be used in the construction of multipartite Bell inequalities for graph states.

  19. Graph Theory and the High School Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chartrand, Gary; Wall, Curtiss E.

    1980-01-01

    Graph theory is presented as a tool to instruct high school mathematics students. A variety of real world problems can be modeled which help students recognize the importance and difficulty of applying mathematics. (MP)

  20. Experiments on parallel graph coloring and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lewandowski, G.; Condon, A.

    1994-12-31

    The graph coloring problem is an NP-Complete problem with a wide array of applications, such as course scheduling, exam scheduling, register allocation, and parallelizing solutions for sparse systems of linear equations. Much theoretical effort has been put into designing heuristics that perform well on randomly generated graphs. The best sequential heuristics require large amounts of time and tuning of various parameters in the heuristics. We have used parallelism to combine exhaustive search with successful heuristic strategies to create a new heuristic, Hybrid, which does well on a wide variety of graphs, without any tuning of parameters. We have also gathered real application data and tested several heuristics on this data. Our study of real data points out some flaws in studying only random graphs and also suggests interesting new problems for study.

  1. Fault-tolerant dynamic task graph scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt, Mehmet C.; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Agrawal, Kunal; Agrawal, Gagan

    2014-11-16

    In this paper, we present an approach to fault tolerant execution of dynamic task graphs scheduled using work stealing. In particular, we focus on selective and localized recovery of tasks in the presence of soft faults. We elicit from the user the basic task graph structure in terms of successor and predecessor relationships. The work stealing-based algorithm to schedule such a task graph is augmented to enable recovery when the data and meta-data associated with a task get corrupted. We use this redundancy, and the knowledge of the task graph structure, to selectively recover from faults with low space and time overheads. We show that the fault tolerant design retains the essential properties of the underlying work stealing-based task scheduling algorithm, and that the fault tolerant execution is asymptotically optimal when task re-execution is taken into account. Experimental evaluation demonstrates the low cost of recovery under various fault scenarios.

  2. A visibility graph averaging aggregation operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shiyu; Hu, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran; Deng, Yong

    2014-06-01

    The problem of aggregation is of considerable importance in many disciplines. In this paper, a new type of operator called visibility graph averaging (VGA) aggregation operator is proposed. This proposed operator is based on the visibility graph which can convert a time series into a graph. The weights are obtained according to the importance of the data in the visibility graph. Finally, the VGA operator is used in the analysis of the TAIEX database to illustrate that it is practical and compared with the classic aggregation operators, it shows its advantage that it not only implements the aggregation of the data purely, but also conserves the time information. Meanwhile, the determination of the weights is more reasonable.

  3. Bipartite Graphs of Large Clique-Width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korpelainen, Nicholas; Lozin, Vadim V.

    Recently, several constructions of bipartite graphs of large clique-width have been discovered in the literature. In the present paper, we propose a general framework for developing such constructions and use it to obtain new results on this topic.

  4. Pre-Service Elementary Teachers' Understandings of Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alacaci, Cengiz; Lewis, Scott; O'Brien, George E.; Jiang, Zhonghong

    2011-01-01

    Choosing graphs to display quantitative information is a component of "graph sense". An important aspect of pre-service elementary teachers' content knowledge; ability to choose appropriate graphs in applied contexts is investigated in this study. They were given three scenarios followed by four graphs representing the same quantitative data. They…

  5. Pre-Service Elementary Teachers' Understandings of Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alacaci, Cengiz; Lewis, Scott; O'Brien, George E.; Jiang, Zhonghong

    2011-01-01

    Choosing graphs to display quantitative information is a component of "graph sense". An important aspect of pre-service elementary teachers' content knowledge; ability to choose appropriate graphs in applied contexts is investigated in this study. They were given three scenarios followed by four graphs representing the same quantitative data. They

  6. Library Technician Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Highline Community Coll., Des Moines, WA.

    This document presents skill standards for library technicians. Introductory sections describe the industry and the job, what skill standards are, how the library technician skill standards were developed, employability skills and critical competencies, and the SCANS (Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills) foundation skills profile.…

  7. Basic visual observation skills training course: Appendix A. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Toquam, J.L.; Morris, F.A.; Griggs, J.R.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of the basic visual observation skills course is to help safeguards inspectors evaluate and improve their skills in making observations during inspections and in evaluating and interpreting this information. The first 12 hours of the course provide training in five skill areas: perception and recognition; attention to detail; memory; mental imaging, mapping, and modeling skills; and judgment and decision making. Following this training is an integrating exercise involving a simulated safeguards inspection. This report contains the course manual and materials.

  8. Continuous Time Group Discovery in Dynamic Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, K; Eliassi-Rad, T

    2010-11-04

    With the rise in availability and importance of graphs and networks, it has become increasingly important to have good models to describe their behavior. While much work has focused on modeling static graphs, we focus on group discovery in dynamic graphs. We adapt a dynamic extension of Latent Dirichlet Allocation to this task and demonstrate good performance on two datasets. Modeling relational data has become increasingly important in recent years. Much work has focused on static graphs - that is fixed graphs at a single point in time. Here we focus on the problem of modeling dynamic (i.e. time-evolving) graphs. We propose a scalable Bayesian approach for community discovery in dynamic graphs. Our approach is based on extensions of Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA). LDA is a latent variable model for topic modeling in text corpora. It was extended to deal with topic changes in discrete time and later in continuous time. These models were referred to as the discrete Dynamic Topic Model (dDTM) and the continuous Dynamic Topic Model (cDTM), respectively. When adapting these models to graphs, we take our inspiration from LDA-G and SSN-LDA, applications of LDA to static graphs that have been shown to effectively factor out community structure to explain link patterns in graphs. In this paper, we demonstrate how to adapt and apply the cDTM to the task of finding communities in dynamic networks. We use link prediction to measure the quality of the discovered community structure and apply it to two different relational datasets - DBLP author-keyword and CAIDA autonomous systems relationships. We also discuss a parallel implementation of this approach using Hadoop. In Section 2, we review LDA and LDA-G. In Section 3, we review the cDTM and introduce cDTMG, its adaptation to modeling dynamic graphs. We discuss inference for the cDTM-G and details of our parallel implementation in Section 4 and present its performance on two datasets in Section 5 before concluding in Section 6.

  9. Inverse scattering problem for quantum graph vertices

    SciTech Connect

    Cheon, Taksu; Turek, Ondrej; Exner, Pavel

    2011-06-15

    We demonstrate how the inverse scattering problem of a quantum star graph can be solved by means of diagonalization of the Hermitian unitary matrix when the vertex coupling is of the scale-invariant (or Fueloep-Tsutsui) form. This enables the construction of quantum graphs with desired properties in a tailor-made fashion. The procedure is illustrated on the example of quantum vertices with equal transmission probabilities.

  10. On the Kirchhoff Index of Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Kinkar C.

    2013-09-01

    Let G be a connected graph of order n with Laplacian eigenvalues μ1 ≥ μ2 ≥ ... ≥ μn-1 > mn = 0. The Kirchhoff index of G is defined as [xxx] In this paper. we give lower and upper bounds on Kf of graphs in terms on n, number of edges, maximum degree, and number of spanning trees. Moreover, we present lower and upper bounds on the Nordhaus-Gaddum-type result for the Kirchhoff index.

  11. Program for Generating Graphs and Charts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerson, C. T.

    1986-01-01

    Office Automation Pilot (OAP) Graphics Database system offers IBM personal computer user assistance in producing wide variety of graphs and charts and convenient data-base system, called chart base, for creating and maintaining data associated with graphs and charts. Thirteen different graphics packages available. Access graphics capabilities obtained in similar manner. User chooses creation, revision, or chartbase-maintenance options from initial menu; Enters or modifies data displayed on graphic chart. OAP graphics data-base system written in Microsoft PASCAL.

  12. A software tool for dataflow graph scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert L., III

    1994-01-01

    A graph-theoretic design process and software tool is presented for selecting a multiprocessing scheduling solution for a class of computational problems. The problems of interest are those that can be described using a dataflow graph and are intended to be executed repetitively on multiple processors. The dataflow paradigm is very useful in exposing the parallelism inherent in algorithms. It provides a graphical and mathematical model which describes a partial ordering of algorithm tasks based on data precedence.

  13. Accelerating semantic graph databases on commodity clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Morari, Alessandro; Castellana, Vito G.; Haglin, David J.; Feo, John T.; Weaver, Jesse R.; Tumeo, Antonino; Villa, Oreste

    2013-10-06

    We are developing a full software system for accelerating semantic graph databases on commodity cluster that scales to hundreds of nodes while maintaining constant query throughput. Our framework comprises a SPARQL to C++ compiler, a library of parallel graph methods and a custom multithreaded runtime layer, which provides a Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) programming model with fork/join parallelism and automatic load balancing over a commodity clusters. We present preliminary results for the compiler and for the runtime.

  14. On Lazy Representations and Sturmian Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epifanio, Chiara; Frougny, Christiane; Gabriele, Alessandra; Mignosi, Filippo; Shallit, Jeffrey

    In this paper we establish a strong relationship between the set of lazy representations and the set of paths in a Sturmian graph associated with a real number α. We prove that for any non-negative integer i the unique path weighted i in the Sturmian graph associated with α represents the lazy representation of i in the Ostrowski numeration system associated with α. Moreover, we provide several properties of the representations of the natural integers in this numeration system.

  15. Association chain graphs: modelling etiological pathways.

    PubMed

    Höfler, Michael; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lieb, Roselind; Hoyer, Jürgen; Friis, Robert H

    2003-01-01

    Multiple time-dynamic and interrelated risk factors are usually involved in the complex etiology of disorders. This paper presents a strategy to explore and display visually the relative importance of different association pathways for the onset of disorder over time. The approach is based on graphical chain models, a tool that is powerful but still under-utilized in most fields. Usually, the results of these models are displayed using directed acyclic graphs (DAGs). These draw an edge between a pair of variables whenever the assumption of conditional independence given variables on an earlier or equal temporal footing is violated to a statistically significant extent. In the present paper, the graphs are modified in that confidence intervals for the strengths of associations (statistical main effects) are visualized. These new graphs are called association chain graphs (ACGs). Statistical interactions cause 'edges' between the respective variables within the DAG framework (because the assumption of conditional independence is violated). In contrast they are represented as separate graphs within the subsample where the different association chains may work within the ACG framework. With this new type of graph, more specific information can be displayed whenever the data are essentially described only with statistical main- and two-way interaction effects. PMID:12830301

  16. Graph representation of protein free energy landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Minghai; Duan, Mojie; Fan, Jue; Huo, Shuanghong; Han, Li

    2013-11-14

    The thermodynamics and kinetics of protein folding and protein conformational changes are governed by the underlying free energy landscape. However, the multidimensional nature of the free energy landscape makes it difficult to describe. We propose to use a weighted-graph approach to depict the free energy landscape with the nodes on the graph representing the conformational states and the edge weights reflecting the free energy barriers between the states. Our graph is constructed from a molecular dynamics trajectory and does not involve projecting the multi-dimensional free energy landscape onto a low-dimensional space defined by a few order parameters. The calculation of free energy barriers was based on transition-path theory using the MSMBuilder2 package. We compare our graph with the widely used transition disconnectivity graph (TRDG) which is constructed from the same trajectory and show that our approach gives more accurate description of the free energy landscape than the TRDG approach even though the latter can be organized into a simple tree representation. The weighted-graph is a general approach and can be used on any complex system.

  17. Comprehension of Sign Language Interpreting: Deciphering a Complex Task Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marschark, Marc; Sapere, Patricia; Convertino, Carol; Seewagen, Rosemarie; Maltzen, Heather

    2004-01-01

    Remarkably few studies have examined the outcomes of sign language interpreting. Three experiments reported here examine deaf students' comprehension of interpreting in American Sign Language and English-based signing (transliteration) as a function of their sign language skills and preferences. In Experiments 1 and 2, groups of deaf students…

  18. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Machining Skills Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document of skill standards for the machining skills cluster serves as a guide to workforce preparation program providers in defining content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. These 67 occupational skill standards describe what people should know and be able to do in an…

  19. Basic Teaching Skills: Identification of Preactive Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morine, Greta

    This paper approaches the task of defining basic teaching skills by identifying essential preactive skills. Piaget's model of cognitive development was used to determine the general goal of teacher training in preactive skills, to identify the three basic kinds of preactive skills necessary for teachers to learn, and to suggest the kinds of…

  20. A Graph Based Methodology for Temporal Signature Identification from EHR

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Liu, Chuanren; Wang, Yajuan; Hu, Jianying; Yu, Guoqiang

    2015-01-01

    Data driven technology is believed to be a promising technique for transforming the current status of healthcare. Electronic Health Records (EHR) is one of the main carriers for conducting the data driven healthcare research, where the goal is to derive insights from healthcare data and utilize such insights to improve the quality of care delivery. Due to the progression nature of human disease, one important aspect for analyzing healthcare data is temporality, which suggests the temporal relationships among different healthcare events and how their values evolve over time. Sequential pattern mining is a popular tool to extract time-invariant patterns from discrete sequences and has been applied in analyzing EHR before. However, due to the complexity of EHR, those approaches usually suffers from the pattern explosion problem, which means that a huge number of patterns will be detected with improper setting of the support threshold. To address this challenge, in this paper, we develop a novel representation, namely the temporal graph, for event sequences like EHR, wherein the nodes are medical events and the edges indicate the temporal relationships among those events in patient EHRs. Based on the temporal graph representation, we further develop an approach for temporal signature identification to identify the most significant and interpretable graph bases as temporal signatures, and the expressing coefficients can be treated as the embeddings of the patients in such temporal signature space. Our temporal signature identification framework is also flexible to incorporate semi-supervised/supervised information. We validate our framework on two real-world tasks. One is predicting the onset risk of heart failure. The other is predicting the risk of heart failure related hospitalization for patients with COPD pre-condition. Our results show that the prediction performance in both tasks can be improved by the proposed approaches. PMID:26958267

  1. Identifying student difficulties with basic scientific reasoning skills: An example from control of variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudreaux, Andrew

    2006-05-01

    Current national and local standards for the science learning of K-12 students emphasize both basic concepts (such as density) and fundamental reasoning skills (such as proportional reasoning, the interpretation of graphs, and the use of control of variables). At Western Washington University (WWU) and the University of Washington (UW), an effort is underway to examine the ability of university students to apply these same concepts and skills. Populations include students in liberal arts physics courses, introductory calculus-based physics courses, and special courses for the preparation of teachers. One focus of the research has been on the idea of control of variables. This topic is studied by students at all levels, from the primary grades, in which the notion of a ``fair test,'' is sometimes used, to university courses. This talk will discuss research tasks in which students are expected to infer from experimental data whether a particular variable influences (i.e., affects) or by itself determines (i.e., predicts) a given result. Student responses will be presented to identify specific difficulties.

  2. Continuous-time quantum walks on star graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Salimi, S.

    2009-06-15

    In this paper, we investigate continuous-time quantum walk on star graphs. It is shown that quantum central limit theorem for a continuous-time quantum walk on star graphs for N-fold star power graph, which are invariant under the quantum component of adjacency matrix, converges to continuous-time quantum walk on K{sub 2} graphs (complete graph with two vertices) and the probability of observing walk tends to the uniform distribution.

  3. Preserving Differential Privacy in Degree-Correlation based Graph Generation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Wu, Xintao

    2013-08-01

    Enabling accurate analysis of social network data while preserving differential privacy has been challenging since graph features such as cluster coefficient often have high sensitivity, which is different from traditional aggregate functions (e.g., count and sum) on tabular data. In this paper, we study the problem of enforcing edge differential privacy in graph generation. The idea is to enforce differential privacy on graph model parameters learned from the original network and then generate the graphs for releasing using the graph model with the private parameters. In particular, we develop a differential privacy preserving graph generator based on the dK-graph generation model. We first derive from the original graph various parameters (i.e., degree correlations) used in the dK-graph model, then enforce edge differential privacy on the learned parameters, and finally use the dK-graph model with the perturbed parameters to generate graphs. For the 2K-graph model, we enforce the edge differential privacy by calibrating noise based on the smooth sensitivity, rather than the global sensitivity. By doing this, we achieve the strict differential privacy guarantee with smaller magnitude noise. We conduct experiments on four real networks and compare the performance of our private dK-graph models with the stochastic Kronecker graph generation model in terms of utility and privacy tradeoff. Empirical evaluations show the developed private dK-graph generation models significantly outperform the approach based on the stochastic Kronecker generation model. PMID:24723987

  4. Preserving Differential Privacy in Degree-Correlation based Graph Generation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Wu, Xintao

    2014-01-01

    Enabling accurate analysis of social network data while preserving differential privacy has been challenging since graph features such as cluster coefficient often have high sensitivity, which is different from traditional aggregate functions (e.g., count and sum) on tabular data. In this paper, we study the problem of enforcing edge differential privacy in graph generation. The idea is to enforce differential privacy on graph model parameters learned from the original network and then generate the graphs for releasing using the graph model with the private parameters. In particular, we develop a differential privacy preserving graph generator based on the dK-graph generation model. We first derive from the original graph various parameters (i.e., degree correlations) used in the dK-graph model, then enforce edge differential privacy on the learned parameters, and finally use the dK-graph model with the perturbed parameters to generate graphs. For the 2K-graph model, we enforce the edge differential privacy by calibrating noise based on the smooth sensitivity, rather than the global sensitivity. By doing this, we achieve the strict differential privacy guarantee with smaller magnitude noise. We conduct experiments on four real networks and compare the performance of our private dK-graph models with the stochastic Kronecker graph generation model in terms of utility and privacy tradeoff. Empirical evaluations show the developed private dK-graph generation models significantly outperform the approach based on the stochastic Kronecker generation model. PMID:24723987

  5. Interpreting. PEPNet Tipsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darroch, Kathy; Marshall, Liza

    1998-01-01

    An interpreter's role is to facilitate communication and convey all auditory and signed information so that both hearing and deaf individuals may fully interact. The common types of services provided by interpreters are: (1) American Sign Language (ASL) Interpretation--a visual-gestural language with its own linguistic features; (2) Sign Language…

  6. Interpreting. PEPNet Tipsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darroch, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    An interpreter's role is to facilitate communication and convey all auditory and signed information so that both hearing and deaf individuals may fully interact. The common types of services provided by interpreters are: (1) American Sign Language (ASL) Interpretation--a visual-gestural language with its own linguistic features; (2) Sign Language…

  7. Unsupervised active learning based on hierarchical graph-theoretic clustering.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weiming; Hu, Wei; Xie, Nianhua; Maybank, Steve

    2009-10-01

    Most existing active learning approaches are supervised. Supervised active learning has the following problems: inefficiency in dealing with the semantic gap between the distribution of samples in the feature space and their labels, lack of ability in selecting new samples that belong to new categories that have not yet appeared in the training samples, and lack of adaptability to changes in the semantic interpretation of sample categories. To tackle these problems, we propose an unsupervised active learning framework based on hierarchical graph-theoretic clustering. In the framework, two promising graph-theoretic clustering algorithms, namely, dominant-set clustering and spectral clustering, are combined in a hierarchical fashion. Our framework has some advantages, such as ease of implementation, flexibility in architecture, and adaptability to changes in the labeling. Evaluations on data sets for network intrusion detection, image classification, and video classification have demonstrated that our active learning framework can effectively reduce the workload of manual classification while maintaining a high accuracy of automatic classification. It is shown that, overall, our framework outperforms the support-vector-machine-based supervised active learning, particularly in terms of dealing much more efficiently with new samples whose categories have not yet appeared in the training samples. PMID:19336318

  8. Interpretation reduces ecological impacts of visitors to world heritage site.

    PubMed

    Littlefair, Carolyn; Buckley, Ralf

    2008-07-01

    Minimal-impact interpretation is widely used to reduce the ecological impacts of visitors to protected areas. We tested whether verbal appeals and/or role-model demonstrations of minimal-impact behavior by a trained guide reduced noise, litter, and trampling impacts on hiking trails in a subtropical rainforest. Interpretation did reduce impacts significantly. Different interpretive techniques were more effective for different impacts. The experimental groups were mature, well-educated professionals; interpretation may differ in effectiveness for different visitors. Interpretation by skilled guides can indeed reduce visitor impacts in protected areas, especially if role modeling is combined with verbal appeals. PMID:18828278

  9. Competency in ECG Interpretation Among Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Kopeć, Grzegorz; Magoń, Wojciech; Hołda, Mateusz; Podolec, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Background Electrocardiogram (ECG) is commonly used in diagnosis of heart diseases, including many life-threatening disorders. We aimed to assess skills in ECG interpretation among Polish medical students and to analyze the determinants of these skills. Material/Methods Undergraduates from all Polish medical schools were asked to complete a web-based survey containing 18 ECG strips. Questions concerned primary ECG parameters (rate, rhythm, and axis), emergencies, and common ECG abnormalities. Analysis was restricted to students in their clinical years (4th–6th), and students in their preclinical years (1st–3rd) were used as controls. Results We enrolled 536 medical students (females: n=299; 55.8%), aged 19 to 31 (23±1.6) years from all Polish medical schools. Most (72%) were in their clinical years. The overall rate of good response was better in students in years 4th–5th than those in years 1st–3rd (66% vs. 56%; p<0.0001). Competency in ECG interpretation was higher in students who reported ECG self-learning (69% vs. 62%; p<0.0001) but no difference was found between students who attended or did not attend regular ECG classes (66% vs. 66%; p=0.99). On multivariable analysis (p<0.0001), being in clinical years (OR: 2.45 [1.35–4.46] and self-learning (OR: 2.44 [1.46–4.08]) determined competency in ECG interpretation. Conclusions Polish medical students in their clinical years have a good level of competency in interpreting the primary ECG parameters, but their ability to recognize ECG signs of emergencies and common heart abnormalities is low. ECG interpretation skills are determined by self-education but not by attendance at regular ECG classes. Our results indicate qualitative and quantitative deficiencies in teaching ECG interpretation at medical schools. PMID:26541993

  10. Better dual-task processing in simultaneous interpreters.

    PubMed

    Strobach, Tilo; Becker, Maxi; Schubert, Torsten; Kühn, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous interpreting (SI) is a highly complex activity and requires the performance and coordination of multiple, simultaneous tasks: analysis and understanding of the discourse in a first language, reformulating linguistic material, storing of intermediate processing steps, and language production in a second language among others. It is, however, an open issue whether persons with experience in SI possess superior skills in coordination of multiple tasks and whether they are able to transfer these skills to lab-based dual-task situations. Within the present study, we set out to explore whether interpreting experience is associated with related higher-order executive functioning in the context of dual-task situations of the Psychological Refractory Period (PRP) type. In this PRP situation, we found faster reactions times in participants with experience in simultaneous interpretation in contrast to control participants without such experience. Thus, simultaneous interpreters possess superior skills in coordination of multiple tasks in lab-based dual-task situations. PMID:26528232

  11. Better dual-task processing in simultaneous interpreters

    PubMed Central

    Strobach, Tilo; Becker, Maxi; Schubert, Torsten; Kühn, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous interpreting (SI) is a highly complex activity and requires the performance and coordination of multiple, simultaneous tasks: analysis and understanding of the discourse in a first language, reformulating linguistic material, storing of intermediate processing steps, and language production in a second language among others. It is, however, an open issue whether persons with experience in SI possess superior skills in coordination of multiple tasks and whether they are able to transfer these skills to lab-based dual-task situations. Within the present study, we set out to explore whether interpreting experience is associated with related higher-order executive functioning in the context of dual-task situations of the Psychological Refractory Period (PRP) type. In this PRP situation, we found faster reactions times in participants with experience in simultaneous interpretation in contrast to control participants without such experience. Thus, simultaneous interpreters possess superior skills in coordination of multiple tasks in lab-based dual-task situations. PMID:26528232

  12. Unraveling Protein Networks with Power Graph Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Royer, Loïc; Reimann, Matthias; Andreopoulos, Bill; Schroeder, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Networks play a crucial role in computational biology, yet their analysis and representation is still an open problem. Power Graph Analysis is a lossless transformation of biological networks into a compact, less redundant representation, exploiting the abundance of cliques and bicliques as elementary topological motifs. We demonstrate with five examples the advantages of Power Graph Analysis. Investigating protein-protein interaction networks, we show how the catalytic subunits of the casein kinase II complex are distinguishable from the regulatory subunits, how interaction profiles and sequence phylogeny of SH3 domains correlate, and how false positive interactions among high-throughput interactions are spotted. Additionally, we demonstrate the generality of Power Graph Analysis by applying it to two other types of networks. We show how power graphs induce a clustering of both transcription factors and target genes in bipartite transcription networks, and how the erosion of a phosphatase domain in type 22 non-receptor tyrosine phosphatases is detected. We apply Power Graph Analysis to high-throughput protein interaction networks and show that up to 85% (56% on average) of the information is redundant. Experimental networks are more compressible than rewired ones of same degree distribution, indicating that experimental networks are rich in cliques and bicliques. Power Graphs are a novel representation of networks, which reduces network complexity by explicitly representing re-occurring network motifs. Power Graphs compress up to 85% of the edges in protein interaction networks and are applicable to all types of networks such as protein interactions, regulatory networks, or homology networks. PMID:18617988

  13. Graph optimized Laplacian eigenmaps for face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dornaika, F.; Assoum, A.; Ruichek, Y.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a variety of nonlinear dimensionality reduction techniques (NLDR) have been proposed in the literature. They aim to address the limitations of traditional techniques such as PCA and classical scaling. Most of these techniques assume that the data of interest lie on an embedded non-linear manifold within the higher-dimensional space. They provide a mapping from the high-dimensional space to the low-dimensional embedding and may be viewed, in the context of machine learning, as a preliminary feature extraction step, after which pattern recognition algorithms are applied. Laplacian Eigenmaps (LE) is a nonlinear graph-based dimensionality reduction method. It has been successfully applied in many practical problems such as face recognition. However the construction of LE graph suffers, similarly to other graph-based DR techniques from the following issues: (1) the neighborhood graph is artificially defined in advance, and thus does not necessary benefit the desired DR task; (2) the graph is built using the nearest neighbor criterion which tends to work poorly due to the high-dimensionality of original space; and (3) its computation depends on two parameters whose values are generally uneasy to assign, the neighborhood size and the heat kernel parameter. To address the above-mentioned problems, for the particular case of the LPP method (a linear version of LE), L. Zhang et al.1 have developed a novel DR algorithm whose idea is to integrate graph construction with specific DR process into a unified framework. This algorithm results in an optimized graph rather than a predefined one.

  14. A graph theoretic approach to scene matching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranganath, Heggere S.; Chipman, Laure J.

    1991-01-01

    The ability to match two scenes is a fundamental requirement in a variety of computer vision tasks. A graph theoretic approach to inexact scene matching is presented which is useful in dealing with problems due to imperfect image segmentation. A scene is described by a set of graphs, with nodes representing objects and arcs representing relationships between objects. Each node has a set of values representing the relations between pairs of objects, such as angle, adjacency, or distance. With this method of scene representation, the task in scene matching is to match two sets of graphs. Because of segmentation errors, variations in camera angle, illumination, and other conditions, an exact match between the sets of observed and stored graphs is usually not possible. In the developed approach, the problem is represented as an association graph, in which each node represents a possible mapping of an observed region to a stored object, and each arc represents the compatibility of two mappings. Nodes and arcs have weights indicating the merit or a region-object mapping and the degree of compatibility between two mappings. A match between the two graphs corresponds to a clique, or fully connected subgraph, in the association graph. The task is to find the clique that represents the best match. Fuzzy relaxation is used to update the node weights using the contextual information contained in the arcs and neighboring nodes. This simplifies the evaluation of cliques. A method of handling oversegmentation and undersegmentation problems is also presented. The approach is tested with a set of realistic images which exhibit many types of sementation errors.

  15. A graph theoretic approach to scene matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranganath, Heggere S.; Chipman, Laure J.

    1991-08-01

    The ability to match two scenes is a fundamental requirement in a variety of computer vision tasks. A graph theoretic approach to inexact scene matching is presented which is useful in dealing with problems due to imperfect image segmentation. A scene is described by a set of graphs, with nodes representing objects and arcs representing relationships between objects. Each node has a set of values representing the relations between pairs of objects, such as angle, adjacency, or distance. With this method of scene representation, the task in scene matching is to match two sets of graphs. Because of segmentation errors, variations in camera angle, illumination, and other conditions, an exact match between the sets of observed and stored graphs is usually not possible. In the developed approach, the problem is represented as an association graph, in which each node represents a possible mapping of an observed region to a stored object, and each arc represents the compatibility of two mappings. Nodes and arcs have weights indicating the merit or a region-object mapping and the degree of compatibility between two mappings. A match between the two graphs corresponds to a clique, or fully connected subgraph, in the association graph. The task is to find the clique that represents the best match. Fuzzy relaxation is used to update the node weights using the contextual information contained in the arcs and neighboring nodes. This simplifies the evaluation of cliques. A method of handling oversegmentation and undersegmentation problems is also presented. The approach is tested with a set of realistic images which exhibit many types of sementation errors.

  16. Interpreting Abstract Interpretations in Membership Equational Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Rosu, Grigore

    2001-01-01

    We present a logical framework in which abstract interpretations can be naturally specified and then verified. Our approach is based on membership equational logic which extends equational logics by membership axioms, asserting that a term has a certain sort. We represent an abstract interpretation as a membership equational logic specification, usually as an overloaded order-sorted signature with membership axioms. It turns out that, for any term, its least sort over this specification corresponds to its most concrete abstract value. Maude implements membership equational logic and provides mechanisms to calculate the least sort of a term efficiently. We first show how Maude can be used to get prototyping of abstract interpretations "for free." Building on the meta-logic facilities of Maude, we further develop a tool that automatically checks and abstract interpretation against a set of user-defined properties. This can be used to select an appropriate abstract interpretation, to characterize the specified loss of information during abstraction, and to compare different abstractions with each other.

  17. Test Interpretation Competence: A Comparison of Microskills and Mental Practice Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Stanley B.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Studied behavioral versus mental rehearsal in acquiring test interpretation skills. Treatment groups practiced in either a microskills (MS) or mental practice (MP) mode. MS and MP trainees did not differ but were superior to controls on measures of general counseling and test interpretation skills. (Author/MCF)

  18. Simultaneous interpretation selectively influences working memory and attentional networks.

    PubMed

    Morales, Julia; Padilla, Francisca; Gómez-Ariza, Carlos J; Bajo, M Teresa

    2015-02-01

    Recent research has shown that becoming an expert in a certain domain may lead to a transfer of the acquired skills to other domains requiring similar abilities. Thus, the cognitive skills acquired by professional interpreters after intensive training may also transfer to other domains. Simultaneous interpreters are known to develop high working memory capacity (e.g., Christoffels, de Groot, & Kroll, 2006; Signorelli, Haarmann, & Obler, 2012). However, little is known about transfer of other processes such us updating and some aspects of attention also involved in interpretation. In Experiment 1, we found that interpreters outperformed a control group in updating skills, as measured through a dual version of the n-back task (Jaeggi et al., 2007). In Experiment 2, use of the ANTI-V allowed us to reveal that interpreting differentially modulates the interactions between attentional networks. Thus, we found no group differences in conflict resolution, but the interaction between the alertness and orienting networks differed between interpreters and non-interpreters. Taken together, these results suggest that experience in simultaneous interpreting transfers to other domains, but this transfer seems specific to the cognitive processes more closely involved in the interpreting tasks. PMID:25577491

  19. Data handling in the primary classroom: Children's perception of the purpose of graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Susan

    1994-12-01

    The National Curriculum programme of study for Science 1 in England and Wales states that pupils should be encouraged to develop investigative skills and understanding of science through activities which “promote the search for patterns in data and the ability to make simple predictions based on findings” (Department of Education and Science, 1991, p. 14). In order to search for patterns children have to first understand the purpose of graphs and the relationship of variables. This paper describes some of the preliminary findings of the Data Handling in Primary Science Project. The majority of primary school children, involved in a data handling project (Rodrigues, 1994), see graphs in science as an end product to be displayed. In addition the children appeared to have a very limited understanding for the type of graph employed being determined by the variable involved. Furthermore whilst some of the children were able to read information from a graph, the language used had a marked effect on cueing the response.

  20. Proverb interpretation changes in aging.

    PubMed

    Uekermann, Jennifer; Thoma, Patrizia; Daum, Irene

    2008-06-01

    Recent investigations have emphasized the involvement of fronto-subcortical networks to proverb comprehension. Although the prefrontal cortex is thought to be affected by normal aging, relatively little work has been carried out to investigate potential effects of aging on proverb comprehension. In the present investigation participants in three age groups were assessed on a proverb comprehension task and a range of executive function tasks. The older group showed impairment in selecting correct interpretations from alternatives. They also showed executive function deficits, as reflected by reduced working memory and deficient set shifting and inhibition abilities. The findings of the present investigation showed proverb comprehension deficits in normal aging which appeared to be related to reduced executive skills. PMID:18164527

  1. Polynomial Kernels for Hard Problems on Disk Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Bart

    Kernelization is a powerful tool to obtain fixed-parameter tractable algorithms. Recent breakthroughs show that many graph problems admit small polynomial kernels when restricted to sparse graph classes such as planar graphs, bounded-genus graphs or H-minor-free graphs. We consider the intersection graphs of (unit) disks in the plane, which can be arbitrarily dense but do exhibit some geometric structure. We give the first kernelization results on these dense graph classes. Connected Vertex Cover has a kernel with 12k vertices on unit-disk graphs and with 3k 2 + 7k vertices on disk graphs with arbitrary radii. Red-Blue Dominating Set parameterized by the size of the smallest color class has a linear-vertex kernel on planar graphs, a quadratic-vertex kernel on unit-disk graphs and a quartic-vertex kernel on disk graphs. Finally we prove that H -Matching on unit-disk graphs has a linear-vertex kernel for every fixed graph H.

  2. An analysis of spectral transformation techniques on graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djurović, Igor; Sejdić, Ervin; Bulatović, Nikola; Simeunović, Marko

    2015-05-01

    Emerging methods for the spectral analysis of graphs are analyzed in this paper, as graphs are currently used to study interactions in many fields from neuroscience to social networks. There are two main approaches related to the spectral transformation of graphs. The first approach is based on the Laplacian matrix. The graph Fourier transform is defined as an expansion of a graph signal in terms of eigenfunctions of the graph Laplacian. The calculated eigenvalues carry the notion of frequency of graph signals. The second approach is based on the graph weighted adjacency matrix, as it expands the graph signal into a basis of eigenvectors of the adjacency matrix instead of the graph Laplacian. Here, the notion of frequency is then obtained from the eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix or its Jordan decomposition. In this paper, advantages and drawbacks of both approaches are examined. Potential challenges and improvements to graph spectral processing methods are considered as well as the generalization of graph processing techniques in the spectral domain. Its generalization to the time-frequency domain and other potential extensions of classical signal processing concepts to graph datasets are also considered. Lastly, it is given an overview of the compressive sensing on graphs concepts.

  3. Exploiting graph properties of game trees

    SciTech Connect

    Plaat, A.; Pijls, W.; Bruin, A. de; Schaeffer, J.

    1996-12-31

    The state space of most adversary games is a directed graph. However, due to the success of simple recursive algorithms based on alpha-beta, theoreticians and practitioners have concentrated on the traversal of trees, giving the field the name {open_quotes}game-tree search,{close_quotes} This paper shows that the focus on trees has obscured some important properties of the underlying graphs. One of the hallmarks of the field of game-tree search has been the notion of the minimal tree, the smallest tree that has to be searched by any algorithm to find the minimax value. In fact, for most games it is a directed graph. As demonstrated in chess and checkers, we show that the minimal graph is significantly smaller than previously thought, proving that there is more room for improvement of current algorithms. We exploit the graph properties of the search space to reduce the size of trees built in practice by at least 25%. For over a decade, fixed-depth alpha-beta searching has been considered a closed subject, with research moving on to more application-dependent techniques. This work opens up new avenues of research for further application-independent improvements.

  4. Modeling Transmission Line Networks Using Quantum Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Trystan; Antonsen, Thomas

    Quantum graphs--one dimensional edges, connecting nodes, that support propagating Schrödinger wavefunctions--have been studied extensively as tractable models of wave chaotic behavior (Smilansky and Gnutzmann 2006, Berkolaiko and Kuchment 2013). Here we consider the electrical analog, in which the graph represents an electrical network where the edges are transmission lines (Hul et. al. 2004) and the nodes contain either discrete circuit elements or intricate circuit elements best represented by arbitrary scattering matrices. Including these extra degrees of freedom at the nodes leads to phenomena that do not arise in simpler graph models. We investigate the properties of eigenfrequencies and eigenfunctions on these graphs, and relate these to the statistical description of voltages on the transmission lines when driving the network externally. The study of electromagnetic compatibility, the effect of external radiation on complicated systems with numerous interconnected cables, motivates our research into this extension of the graph model. Work supported by the Office of Naval Research (N0014130474) and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  5. Improved transcript isoform discovery using ORF graphs

    PubMed Central

    Majoros, William H.; Lebeck, Niel; Ohler, Uwe; Li, Song

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: High-throughput sequencing of RNA in vivo facilitates many applications, not the least of which is the cataloging of variant splice isoforms of protein-coding messenger RNAs. Although many solutions have been proposed for reconstructing putative isoforms from deep sequencing data, these generally take as their substrate the collective alignment structure of RNA-seq reads and ignore the biological signals present in the actual nucleotide sequence. The majority of these solutions are graph-theoretic, relying on a splice graph representing the splicing patterns and exon expression levels indicated by the spliced-alignment process. Results: We show how to augment splice graphs with additional information reflecting the biology of transcription, splicing and translation, to produce what we call an ORF (open reading frame) graph. We then show how ORF graphs can be used to produce isoform predictions with higher accuracy than current state-of-the-art approaches. Availability and implementation: RSVP is available as C++ source code under an open-source licence: http://ohlerlab.mdc-berlin.de/software/RSVP/. Contact: bmajoros@duke.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24659106

  6. Towards Scalable Graph Computation on Mobile Devices

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yiqi; Lin, Zhiyuan; Pienta, Robert; Kahng, Minsuk; Chau, Duen Horng

    2015-01-01

    Mobile devices have become increasingly central to our everyday activities, due to their portability, multi-touch capabilities, and ever-improving computational power. Such attractive features have spurred research interest in leveraging mobile devices for computation. We explore a novel approach that aims to use a single mobile device to perform scalable graph computation on large graphs that do not fit in the device's limited main memory, opening up the possibility of performing on-device analysis of large datasets, without relying on the cloud. Based on the familiar memory mapping capability provided by today's mobile operating systems, our approach to scale up computation is powerful and intentionally kept simple to maximize its applicability across the iOS and Android platforms. Our experiments demonstrate that an iPad mini can perform fast computation on large real graphs with as many as 272 million edges (Google+ social graph), at a speed that is only a few times slower than a 13″ Macbook Pro. Through creating a real world iOS app with this technique, we demonstrate the strong potential application for scalable graph computation on a single mobile device using our approach. PMID:25859564

  7. DT-MRI segmentation using graph cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weldeselassie, Yonas T.; Hamarneh, Ghassan

    2007-03-01

    An important problem in medical image analysis is the segmentation of anatomical regions of interest. Once regions of interest are segmented, one can extract shape, appearance, and structural features that can be analyzed for disease diagnosis or treatment evaluation. Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) is a relatively new medical imaging modality that captures unique water diffusion properties and fiber orientation information of the imaged tissues. In this paper, we extend the interactive multidimensional graph cuts segmentation technique to operate on DT-MRI data by utilizing latest advances in tensor calculus and diffusion tensor dissimilarity metrics. The user interactively selects certain tensors as object ("obj") or background ("bkg") to provide hard constraints for the segmentation. Additional soft constraints incorporate information about both regional tissue diffusion as well as boundaries between tissues of different diffusion properties. Graph cuts are used to find globally optimal segmentation of the underlying 3D DT-MR image among all segmentations satisfying the constraints. We develop a graph structure from the underlying DT-MR image with the tensor voxels corresponding to the graph vertices and with graph edge weights computed using either Log-Euclidean or the J-divergence tensor dissimilarity metric. The topology of our segmentation is unrestricted and both obj and bkg segments may consist of several isolated parts. We test our method on synthetic DT data and apply it to real 2D and 3D MRI, providing segmentations of the corpus callosum in the brain and the ventricles of the heart.

  8. Deformed graph laplacian for semisupervised learning.

    PubMed

    Gong, Chen; Liu, Tongliang; Tao, Dacheng; Fu, Keren; Tu, Enmei; Yang, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Graph Laplacian has been widely exploited in traditional graph-based semisupervised learning (SSL) algorithms to regulate the labels of examples that vary smoothly on the graph. Although it achieves a promising performance in both transductive and inductive learning, it is not effective for handling ambiguous examples (shown in Fig. 1). This paper introduces deformed graph Laplacian (DGL) and presents label prediction via DGL (LPDGL) for SSL. The local smoothness term used in LPDGL, which regularizes examples and their neighbors locally, is able to improve classification accuracy by properly dealing with ambiguous examples. Theoretical studies reveal that LPDGL obtains the globally optimal decision function, and the free parameters are easy to tune. The generalization bound is derived based on the robustness analysis. Experiments on a variety of real-world data sets demonstrate that LPDGL achieves top-level performance on both transductive and inductive settings by comparing it with popular SSL algorithms, such as harmonic functions, AnchorGraph regularization, linear neighborhood propagation, Laplacian regularized least square, and Laplacian support vector machine. PMID:25608310

  9. Field Geology Reasoning Skills in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Alan

    2013-04-01

    When geology students are confronted with their first rock exposure, they are often bewildered by the volume of information available and the need to filter out the irrelevant and unnecessary while recording the remainder in a format that lends itself to later analysis. In spite of the problems, the first experience of fieldwork provides many students with the inspiration to devote themselves to this branch of science. The critical factor appears to be the realisation that many of the vaguely interesting topics that have previously been studied in isolation all contribute to an understanding of the rocks in front of the observer. Even with only basic facts and limited understanding, the willing student rapidly gains a deeper appreciation of the ways in which the disparate fields of geoscience are inter-related. However, the initial enthusiasm this generates can be lost if the student is unable to record the information systematically and analyse it logically. The current project seeks to develop in students the intellectual skills necessary to analyse an exposure. In many ways finding the answers to any exposure's history is easy; the difficult part is formulating the right questions. By creating a series of 'Outcrop Exercises', I am seeking to imbue students with an appreciation of the way a structured series of questions can lead to understanding. If they go into the field knowing the sort of questions that they will have to ask themselves, they are more likely to understand the nature and purpose of the data they will have to collect. The earliest exercises were designed to enhance a stratigraphy course, and were intended for use by students who already had field experience. Rather than providing them with accepted facies models for the geological past, the data and questions with which they were provided allowed them to generate their own environmental interpretations. The success of these suggested that they had wider applicability: they could be used to develop essential reasoning skills before going into the field; they could form the basis of follow-up work after a field day, or could be used as a substitute for field work if severe weather prevented an excursion. Each Outcrop Exercise consists of an A3 data sheet, a question sheet, specimen cards and, if appropriate, topographic and geologic maps. The most important dimension of each exercise is the nature and structure of the questions, which begin by requiring the student to make simple observations and lead to a comprehensive interpretation of the exposure. The materials are intended to be used in a variety of ways: for example, if the resources are available it is preferable to replace the specimen cards with real specimens; if time is short, data processing can be omitted by supplying students with prepared graphs. With future developments, it will be possible to link exercises together to generate a geological history for a whole area from primary data. These exercises must not be seen as a substitute for real fieldwork, but it is hoped that they will enhance students' appreciation of the data that they must collect in the field.

  10. Aligning graphs and finding substructures by a cavity approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradde, S.; Braunstein, A.; Mahmoudi, H.; Tria, F.; Weigt, M.; Zecchina, R.

    2010-02-01

    We introduce a new distributed algorithm for aligning graphs or finding substructures within a given graph. It is based on the cavity method and is used to study the maximum-clique and the graph-alignment problems in random graphs. The algorithm allows to analyze large graphs and may find applications in fields such as computational biology. As a proof of concept we use our algorithm to align the similarity graphs of two interacting protein families involved in bacterial signal transduction, and to predict actually interacting protein partners between these families.

  11. Analytical calculation of average fixation time in evolutionary graphs.

    PubMed

    Askari, Marziyeh; Samani, Keivan Aghababaei

    2015-10-01

    The ability of a mutant individual to overtake the whole of a population is one of the fundamental problems in evolutionary dynamics. Fixation probability and Average Fixation Time (AFT) are two important parameters to quantify this ability. In this paper we introduce an analytical approach for exact calculation of AFT. Using this method we obtain AFT for two types of evolutionary graphs: cycle graph, as a highly homogeneous graph and star graph, as a highly heterogeneous graph. We use symmetries of these graphs to calculate AFT. Analytical results are confirmed with simulation. We also examine the effect of adding some random edges to each of these structures. PMID:26565272

  12. Interactive Web Graphs with Fewer Restrictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiedler, James

    2012-01-01

    There is growing popularity for interactive, statistical web graphs and programs to generate them. However, it seems that these programs tend to be somewhat restricted in which web browsers and statistical software are supported. For example, the software might use SVG (e.g., Protovis, gridSVG) or HTML canvas, both of which exclude most versions of Internet Explorer, or the software might be made specifically for R (gridSVG, CRanvas), thus excluding users of other stats software. There are more general tools (d3, Rapha lJS) which are compatible with most browsers, but using one of these to make statistical graphs requires more coding than is probably desired, and requires learning a new tool. This talk will present a method for making interactive web graphs, which, by design, attempts to support as many browsers and as many statistical programs as possible, while also aiming to be relatively easy to use and relatively easy to extend.

  13. Visibility graph approach to exchange rate series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yue; Wang, Jianbo; Yang, Huijie; Mang, Jingshi

    2009-10-01

    By means of a visibility graph, we investigate six important exchange rate series. It is found that the series convert into scale-free and hierarchically structured networks. The relationship between the scaling exponents of the degree distributions and the Hurst exponents obeys the analytical prediction for fractal Brownian motions. The visibility graph can be used to obtain reliable values of Hurst exponents of the series. The characteristics are explained by using the multifractal structures of the series. The exchange rate of EURO to Japanese Yen is widely used to evaluate risk and to estimate trends in speculative investments. Interestingly, the hierarchies of the visibility graphs for the exchange rate series of these two currencies are significantly weak compared with that of the other series.

  14. Impact Analysis on an Attributed Goal Graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Shinpei; Tanabe, Daisuke; Kaiya, Haruhiko; Saeki, Motoshi

    Requirements changes frequently occur at any time of a software development process, and their management is a crucial issue to develop software of high quality. Meanwhile, goal-oriented analysis techniques are being put into practice to elicit requirements. In this situation, the change management of goal graphs and its support are necessary. This paper presents a technique related to the change management of goal graphs, realizing impact analysis on a goal graph when its modifications occur. Our impact analysis detects conflicts that arise when a new goal is added, and investigates the achievability of the other goals when an existing goal is deleted. We have implemented a supporting tool for automating the analysis. Two case studies suggested the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  15. A graph algebra for scalable visual analytics.

    PubMed

    Shaverdian, Anna A; Zhou, Hao; Michailidis, George; Jagadish, Hosagrahar V

    2012-01-01

    Visual analytics (VA), which combines analytical techniques with advanced visualization features, is fast becoming a standard tool for extracting information from graph data. Researchers have developed many tools for this purpose, suggesting a need for formal methods to guide these tools' creation. Increased data demands on computing requires redesigning VA tools to consider performance and reliability in the context of analysis of exascale datasets. Furthermore, visual analysts need a way to document their analyses for reuse and results justification. A VA graph framework encapsulated in a graph algebra helps address these needs. Its atomic operators include selection and aggregation. The framework employs a visual operator and supports dynamic attributes of data to enable scalable visual exploration of data. PMID:24806630

  16. A Gradient Descent Approximation for Graph Cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Alparslan; Akgul, Yusuf Sinan

    Graph cuts have become very popular in many areas of computer vision including segmentation, energy minimization, and 3D reconstruction. Their ability to find optimal results efficiently and the convenience of usage are some of the factors of this popularity. However, there are a few issues with graph cuts, such as inherent sequential nature of popular algorithms and the memory bloat in large scale problems. In this paper, we introduce a novel method for the approximation of the graph cut optimization by posing the problem as a gradient descent formulation. The advantages of our method is the ability to work efficiently on large problems and the possibility of convenient implementation on parallel architectures such as inexpensive Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). We have implemented the proposed method on the Nvidia 8800GTS GPU. The classical segmentation experiments on static images and video data showed the effectiveness of our method.

  17. Directed transport in quantum star graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusupov, Jambul; Dolgushev, Maxim; Blumen, Alexander; Mülken, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    We study the quantum dynamics of Gaussian wave packets on star graphs whose arms feature each a periodic potential and an external time-dependent field. Assuming that the potentials and the field can be manipulated separately for each arm of the star, we show that it is possible to manipulate the direction of the motion of a Gaussian wave packet through the bifurcation point by a suitable choice of the parameters of the external fields. In doing so, one can achieve a transmission of the wave packet into the desired arm with nearly 70 % while also keeping the shape of the wave packet approximately intact. Since a star graph is the simplest element of many other complex graphs, the obtained results can be considered as the first step to wave packet manipulations on complex networks.

  18. Dynamic graph system for a semantic database

    DOEpatents

    Mizell, David

    2016-04-12

    A method and system in a computer system for dynamically providing a graphical representation of a data store of entries via a matrix interface is disclosed. A dynamic graph system provides a matrix interface that exposes to an application program a graphical representation of data stored in a data store such as a semantic database storing triples. To the application program, the matrix interface represents the graph as a sparse adjacency matrix that is stored in compressed form. Each entry of the data store is considered to represent a link between nodes of the graph. Each entry has a first field and a second field identifying the nodes connected by the link and a third field with a value for the link that connects the identified nodes. The first, second, and third fields represent the rows, column, and elements of the adjacency matrix.

  19. Dynamic graph system for a semantic database

    DOEpatents

    Mizell, David

    2015-01-27

    A method and system in a computer system for dynamically providing a graphical representation of a data store of entries via a matrix interface is disclosed. A dynamic graph system provides a matrix interface that exposes to an application program a graphical representation of data stored in a data store such as a semantic database storing triples. To the application program, the matrix interface represents the graph as a sparse adjacency matrix that is stored in compressed form. Each entry of the data store is considered to represent a link between nodes of the graph. Each entry has a first field and a second field identifying the nodes connected by the link and a third field with a value for the link that connects the identified nodes. The first, second, and third fields represent the rows, column, and elements of the adjacency matrix.

  20. Directed transport in quantum star graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusupov, Jambul; Dolgushev, Maxim; Blumen, Alexander; Mülken, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    We study the quantum dynamics of Gaussian wave packets on star graphs whose arms feature each a periodic potential and an external time-dependent field. Assuming that the potentials and the field can be manipulated separately for each arm of the star, we show that it is possible to manipulate the direction of the motion of a Gaussian wave packet through the bifurcation point by a suitable choice of the parameters of the external fields. In doing so, one can achieve a transmission of the wave packet into the desired arm with nearly 70 % while also keeping the shape of the wave packet approximately intact. Since a star graph is the simplest element of many other complex graphs, the obtained results can be considered as the first step to wave packet manipulations on complex networks.