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1

The impact of video motion analysis on kinematics graph interpretation skills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Video motion analysis software was used by introductory physics students in a variety of instructional settings. 368 high school and college students took part in a study where the effect of graduated variations in the use of a video analysis tool was examined. Post-instruction assessment of student ability to interpret kinematics graphs indicates that groups using the tool generally performed better than students taught via traditional instruction. The data further establishes that the greater the integration of video analysis into the kinematics curriculum, the larger the educational impact. An additional comparison showed that graph interpretation skills were significantly better when a few traditional labs were simply replaced with video analysis experiments. Hands-on involvement appeared to play a critical role. Limiting student experience with the video analysis technique to a single teacher-led demonstration resulted in no improvement in performance relative to traditional instruction. Offering more extensive demonstrations and carrying them out over an extended period of time proved somewhat effective. The greatest impact came from a combination of demonstrations with hands-on labs. The curricular modifications employed in the different classrooms and the methods used to evaluate them are discussed.

Beichner, Robert J.

1996-10-01

2

The impact of video motion analysis on kinematics graph interpretation skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Video motion analysis software was used by introductory physics students in a variety of instructional settings. 368 high school and college students took part in a study where the effect of graduated variations in the use of a video analysis tool was examined. Post-instruction assessment of student ability to interpret kinematics graphs indicates that groups using the tool generally performed better than students taught via traditional instruction. The data further establishes that the greater the integration of video analysis into the kinematics curriculum, the larger the educational impact. An additional comparison showed that graph interpretation skills were significantly better when a few traditional labs were simply replaced with video analysis experiments. Hands-on involvement appeared to play a critical role. Limiting student experience with the video analysis technique to a single teacher-led demonstration resulted in no improvement in performance relative to traditional instruction. Offering more extensive demonstrations and carrying them out over an extended period of time proved somewhat effective. The greatest impact came from a combination of demonstrations with hands-on labs. The curricular modifications employed in the different classrooms and the methods used to evaluate them are discussed.

Beichner, Robert J.

2005-10-11

3

Kinematics Graph Interpretation Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The primary goal of the Kinematics Graphing Project is to investigate the ability of students to interpret kinematics graphs and to generate a set of suggestions for faculty teaching the subject. Evaluation instruments are used to uncover the common misconceptions of students.

Beichner, Robert J.

2003-10-10

4

The relationships between spatial ability, logical thinking, mathematics performance and kinematics graph interpretation skills of 12th grade physics students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphs have a broad use in science classrooms, especially in physics. In physics, kinematics is probably the topic for which graphs are most widely used. The participants in this study were from two different grade-12 physics classrooms, advanced placement and calculus-based physics. The main purpose of this study was to search for the relationships between student spatial ability, logical thinking, mathematical achievement, and kinematics graphs interpretation skills. The Purdue Spatial Visualization Test, the Middle Grades Integrated Process Skills Test (MIPT), and the Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K) were used for quantitative data collection. Classroom observations were made to acquire ideas about classroom environment and instructional techniques. Factor analysis, simple linear correlation, multiple linear regression, and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the quantitative data. Each instrument has two principal components. The selection and calculation of the slope and of the area were the two principal components of TUG-K. MIPT was composed of a component based upon processing text and a second component based upon processing symbolic information. The Purdue Spatial Visualization Test was composed of a component based upon one-step processing and a second component based upon two-step processing of information. Student ability to determine the slope in a kinematics graph was significantly correlated with spatial ability, logical thinking, and mathematics aptitude and achievement. However, student ability to determine the area in a kinematics graph was only significantly correlated with student pre-calculus semester 2 grades. Male students performed significantly better than female students on the slope items of TUG-K. Also, male students performed significantly better than female students on the PSAT mathematics assessment and spatial ability. This study found that students have different levels of spatial ability, logical thinking, and mathematics aptitude and achievement levels. These different levels were related to student learning of kinematics and they need to be considered when kinematics is being taught. It might be easier for students to understand the kinematics graphs if curriculum developers include more activities related to spatial ability and logical thinking.

Bektasli, Behzat

5

Graphs: Interpret Line Plots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website application provides practice interpreting line plots. The format of the website makes it available to use with individual students on one computer or with an entire class on an interactive white board. Each practice problem is submitted to determine if it is correct, when an incorrect answer is submitted the correct answer and an option for an explanation appears. Each problem set is also timed and the user is provided with a percent correct. This website does have a membership option for a fee which would enable the teacher to track the progress of multiple students over time.

2012-01-01

6

Visualizing Missing Data: Graph Interpretation User Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Most visualization tools fail to provide support for missing data. In this paper, we identify sources of missing data and\\u000a describe three levels of impact missing data can have on the visualization: perceivable, invisible or propagating. We then\\u000a report on a user study with 30 participants that compared three design variants. A between-subject graph interpretation study\\u000a provides strong evidence for

Cyntrica Eaton; Catherine Plaisant; Terence Drizd

2005-01-01

7

The Use of Graphing Technology to Promote Transfer of Learning: the Interpretation of Graphs in Physics.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the relationship between mathematics background and performance on graph-related problems in physics before and after instruction on the graphical analysis of motion and several microcomputer-based laboratory experiences. Students identified as either having or not having a graphing technology enhanced precalculus mathematics background were further categorized into one of four groups according to mathematics placement at the university. The performances of these groups were compared to identity differences. Pre- and Post-test data were collected from 589 students and 312 students during Autumn Quarter 1990 and Winter Quarter 1991 respectively. Background information was collected from each student. Significant differences were found between students with the technology enhanced mathematics background and those without when considering the entire populations both quarters. The students with the technology background were favored Autumn quarter and students without the technology background were favored Winter quarter. However, the entire population included an underrepresentation of students at the highest and lowest placements; hence, these were eliminated from the analyses. No significant differences were found between the technology/no technology groups after the elimination of the underrepresented groups. All categories of students increased their mean scores from pretest to post-test; the average increase was 8.23 points Autumn Quarter and 11.41 points Winter Quarter. Males consistently outperformed females on both the pretest and the post-test Autumn 1990. All students found questions involving the concept of acceleration more difficult than questions involving velocity or distance. Questions requiring students to create graphs were more difficult than questions requiring students to interpret graphs. Further research involving a qualitative component is recommended to identify the specific skills students use when solving graph-related physics problems. In addition, it is recommended that a similar study be conducted to include a control group not participating in the microcomputer -based laboratory experiments.

Nichols, Jeri Ann

8

Data and graph interpretation practices among preservice science teachers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The interpretation of data and construction and interpretation of graphs are central practices in science, which, according to recent reform documents, science and mathematics teachers are expected to foster in their classrooms. However, are (preservice) science teachers prepared to teach inquiry with the purpose of transforming and analyzing data, and interpreting graphical representations? That is, are preservice science teachers prepared to teach data analysis and graph interpretation practices that scientists use by default in their everyday work? The present study was designed to answer these and related questions. We investigated the responses of preservice elementary and secondary science teachers to data and graph interpretation tasks. Our investigation shows that, despite considerable preparation, and for many, despite bachelor of science degrees, preservice teachers do not enact the ("authentic") practices that scientists rountinely do when asked to interpret data or graphs. Detailed analysis are provided of what data and graph interpretation practices actually were enacted. We conclude that traditional schooling emphasizes particular beliefs in the mathematical nature of the universe that make it difficult for many individuals to deal with data processing the random variation found in measurements of natural phenomena. The results suggest that preservice teachers need more experience in engaging in data and graph interpretation practices originating in activities that provide the degree of variation in and complexity of data present in realistic investigations.

Bowen, G. M.; Roth, Wolff-Michael

2006-06-08

9

Infusing Counseling Skills in Test Interpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an instructional model based on Neurolinguistic Programming that links counseling student course work in measurement and test interpretation with counseling techniques and theory. A process incorporating Neurolinguistic Programming patterns is outlined for teaching graduate students the counseling skills helpful in test interpretation.…

Rawlins, Melanie E.; And Others

1991-01-01

10

Supporting Fourth Graders' Ability to Interpret Graphs through Real-Time Graphing Technology: A Preliminary Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined to what extent inquiry-based instruction supported with real-time graphing technology improves fourth grader's ability to interpret graphs as representations of physical science concepts such as motion and temperature. This study also examined whether there is any difference between inquiry-based instruction supported with…

Deniz, Hasan; Dulger, Mehmet F.

2012-01-01

11

Supporting Fourth Graders' Ability to Interpret Graphs through Real-Time Graphing Technology: A Preliminary Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined to what extent inquiry-based instruction supported with real-time graphing technology improves fourth grader's ability to interpret graphs as representations of physical science concepts such as motion and temperature. This study also examined whether there is any difference between inquiry-based instruction supported with…

Deniz, Hasan; Dulger, Mehmet F.

2012-01-01

12

F-IF Interpreting the graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Use the graph (for example, by marking specific points) to illustrate the statements in (a)–(d). If possible, label the coordinates of any points...

13

Neural complexity: a graph theoretic interpretation.  

PubMed

One of the central challenges facing modern neuroscience is to explain the ability of the nervous system to coherently integrate information across distinct functional modules in the absence of a central executive. To this end, Tononi et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 91, 5033 (1994)] proposed a measure of neural complexity that purports to capture this property based on mutual information between complementary subsets of a system. Neural complexity, so defined, is one of a family of information theoretic metrics developed to measure the balance between the segregation and integration of a system's dynamics. One key question arising for such measures involves understanding how they are influenced by network topology. Sporns et al. [Cereb. Cortex 10, 127 (2000)] employed numerical models in order to determine the dependence of neural complexity on the topological features of a network. However, a complete picture has yet to be established. While De Lucia et al. [Phys. Rev. E 71, 016114 (2005)] made the first attempts at an analytical account of this relationship, their work utilized a formulation of neural complexity that, we argue, did not reflect the intuitions of the original work. In this paper we start by describing weighted connection matrices formed by applying a random continuous weight distribution to binary adjacency matrices. This allows us to derive an approximation for neural complexity in terms of the moments of the weight distribution and elementary graph motifs. In particular, we explicitly establish a dependency of neural complexity on cyclic graph motifs. PMID:21599200

Barnett, L; Buckley, C L; Bullock, S

2011-04-08

14

Sex Differences Related to Graphing Skills in Microcomputer-Based Labs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of an investigation of the effectiveness of a microcomputer-based laboratory (MBL) activity in developing students' graphing skills, this study was specifically designed to examine the differences between females and males in both performance on graphing tasks and on their attitudes to graphs and graph-based activities. Results based on a…

Brasell, Heather

15

Understanding and Interpreting Calculus Graphs: Refining an Instrument  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The objective of this ongoing study is to refine an instrument to evaluate conceptual understanding and graphical interpretation of a function and its derivative. The instrument is based on a modified version of the Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K) which consists of 26 items (7 dimensions). In the new instrument, Test of Understanding Graphs in Calculus (TUG-C), the kinematics context has been removed from the items creating a new context-free version. To favor the translation from kinematics to Calculus, the focus is on 5 out of the 7 original dimensions of the test, giving a 16-item test. A total of 526 students from a university level Introductory Physics course participated in the study. Half of the students were administered the kinematics test and the other half took the calculus test. This work will present data showing preliminary results of the instrument and new directions on improving the instrument.

Perez-Goytia, Nadia; Dominguez, Angeles; Zavala, Genaro

2010-12-31

16

Reading and Interpreting Tables and Graphs Involving Rates and Percentages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This survey, created by Milo Schield of Augsburg College, assesses statistical literacy. The survey focuses on the general use of informal statistics in everyday situations: reading and interpreting tables and graphs involving rates and percentages. The survey itself takes between thirty and forty minutes. The author does apologize for the length, but insists that it is due to how comprehensive the survey is. Sixty-nine questions in length, almost every topic concerning statistics is covered. The survey was funded by the W.M. Keck Statistical Literacy Project.

Schield, Milo

2009-03-11

17

Today's Forecast: Graphing Temperature Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students use Internet skills to find local and Antarctic weather data. They record the data, assemble it in a logical order, graph it, and interpret the graphed information. Students will: prepare a graph using an x and y axis; show graphing increments; arrange data on a graph; interpret graphed data; demonstrate conversion of Fahrenheit to Celsius and Celsius to Fahrenheit; and differentiate between below and above zero degrees temperature.

Kolb, Sandra

18

How Do Secondary School Science Students Interpret and Construct Scientific Graphs?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study explored how Grade 10 science students learned from scientific graphs. This paper explores (a) students' abilities to interpret graphical information; (b) students' abilities to represent information graphically; (c) factors that could impede the process of interpretation and construction of graphs among secondary school science…

Tairab, Hassan H.; Khalaf Al-Naqbi, Ali K.

2004-01-01

19

Cognitive Consequences of Microcomputer-Based Laboratories: Graphing Skills Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a study in which eighth grade physical science students studied graphing with a microcomputer as their lab partner in a microcomputer based laboratory. Graph templates were used to solve problems based on previous learning. It was concluded that the Computer as Lab Partner curriculum was effective in teaching graphing concepts.

Linn, Marcia; Layman, John W.; Nachmias, Rafi

2006-09-14

20

Bars, Lines, & Pies: A Graphing Skills Program. Expect the Unexpected with Math[R  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Bars, Lines, & Pies" is a dynamic math program designed to build graphing skills in students, while also showing them the relevance of math in their lives. Developed by The Actuarial Foundation along with Scholastic, the graphing lessons and activities involve engaging, real-world examples about the environment and recycling. In these lessons,…

Actuarial Foundation, 2013

2013-01-01

21

An interpretive analysis of life skills associated with sport participation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine how people may learn life skills through their involvement in regular competitive sport programmes. Interviews were conducted with 40 young adults (20 males and 20 females) who were participants in competitive youth sport during their adolescence. Data were transcribed verbatim and subjected to an interpretive analysis. We present three main interpretations of

Nicholas L. Holt; Katherine A. Tamminen; Lisa N. Tink; Danielle E. Black

2009-01-01

22

Evaluating Interpreter's Skill by Measurement of Prosody Recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sign language is a visual language in which main articulators are hands, torso, head, and face. For simultaneous interpreters of Japanese sign language (JSL) and spoken Japanese, it is very important to recognize not only the hands movement but also prosody such like head, eye, posture and facial expression. This is because prosody has grammatical rules for representing the case and modification relations in JSL. The goal of this study is to introduce an examination called MPR (Measurement of Prosody Recognition) and to demonstrate that it can be an indicator for the other general skills of interpreters. For this purpose, we conducted two experiments: the first studies the relationship between the interpreter's experience and the performance score on MPR (Experiment-1), and the second investigates the specific skill that can be estimated by MPR (Experiment-2). The data in Experiment-1 came from four interpreters who had more than 1-year experience as interpreters, and more four interpreters who had less than 1-year experience. The mean accuracy of MPR in the more experienced group was higher than that in the less experienced group. The data in Experiment-2 came from three high MPR interpreters and three low MPR interpreters. Two hearing subjects and three deaf subjects evaluated their skill in terms of the speech or sign interpretation skill, the reliability of interpretation, the expeditiousness, and the subjective sense of accomplishment for the ordering pizza task. The two experiments indicated a possibility that MPR could be useful for estimating if the interpreter is sufficiently experienced to interpret from sign language to spoken Japanese, and if they can work on the interpretation expeditiously without making the deaf or the hearing clients anxious. Finally we end this paper with suggestions for conclusions and future work.

Tanaka, Saori; Nakazono, Kaoru; Nishida, Masafumi; Horiuchi, Yasuo; Ichikawa, Akira

23

ECG interpretation skills of South African Emergency Medicine residents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The use and interpretation of electrocardiograms (ECGs) are widely accepted as an essential core skill in Emergency Medicine.\\u000a It is imperative that emergency physicians are expert in ECG interpretation when they exit their training programme.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim  It is unknown whether South African Emergency Medicine trainees are getting the necessary skills in ECG interpretation during\\u000a the training programme. Currently there are no

Japie de Jager; Lee Wallis; David Maritz

2010-01-01

24

The Science Fair as a Means for Developing Children's Graphing Skills in Elementary School  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on an ongoing research program aiming at the pedagogical exploitation of the science fair as a mechanism for developing investigative skills in elementary school and promoting student inquiry through a sequence of formal and non-formal activities. Specifically, this paper refers to the development of data graphing skills by children aged 10-12 years old. The students, who participated

Evaggelia Kyriazi; Constantinos P. Constantinou

25

A strategy to teach students to draw and interpret velocity-time graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study investigates the effectiveness of an instructional strategy to teach students with little or no prior knowledge in kinematics how to draw and interpret velocity-time graphs representing the motion of objects. The researchers test how presenting velocity-time graphs at the same time that the student observes the motion of an object effects comprehension.

Clark, Laura; Goldberg, Fred

2006-05-23

26

A Review of AP Calculus Graphing Calculator Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Review material on graphing calculator use from the College Board AP Calculus Course Description. The problems are mostly AB level. The page also contains a brief historical remark about Maria Gaetana Agnesi.

27

“No! He starts walking backwards!”: interpreting motion graphs and the question of space, place and distance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the interpretation of motion Cartesian graphs by Grade 8 students. Drawing on a sociocultural theoretical\\u000a framework, it pays attention to the discursive and semiotic process through which the students attempt to make sense of graphs.\\u000a The students’ interpretative processes are investigated through the theoretical construct of knowledge objectification and\\u000a the configuration of mathematical signs, gestures, and

Luis Radford

2009-01-01

28

Teaching the design and interpretation of graphs through computer-aided graphical data analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphs are one of the primary means of exploration and communication in the practice of science, but students in science laboratories are customarily taught only the low-level mechanics of constructing a single kind of graph when given a table of information. The use of a microcomputer can relieve the drudgery of plotting, allowing students to pursue higher-level issues in the design and interpretation of graphs through repeated thought experiments. We introduced computer-assisted graphical data analysis to inner-city high school students with weak math and science backgrounds, emphasizing the dynamic manipulation of various kinds of graphs to answer specific questions. Drawing on extensive recordings and classroom observations, we describe examples of the performance of these students on open-ended problem-solving tasks in which graphs can be used to arrive at meaningful answers to applied data analysis problems.

Jackson, David F.; Edwards, Billie Jean; Berger, Carl F.

29

AUDITORY AUGMENTATION OF HAPTIC GRAPHS: DEVELOPING A GRAPHIC TOOL FOR TEACHING PRECALCULUS SKILL TO BLIND STUDENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the development of a graphic tool to assist in the teaching of pre-calculus skills to blind students. More specifically, it reviews previous and on-going efforts to develop an instrument that will facilitate or enable blind students to examine and explore data and abstract graphs, and other mathematic entities haptically. The paper also discusses current research plans to

Frances Van Scoy; Don McLaughlin; Angela Fullmer

2005-01-01

30

Densities of Liquids, Significant Figures, and Graph Interpretation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a lesson plan for teaching students about fluid densities and significant figures. It includes a basic experiment, instructions for the students, and questions for the students that test their interpretation of the results.

Department, Brockport H.

2004-12-18

31

Line Graph Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this article, the learning progress of one fifth-grade student is examined with regard to the development of her graph interpretation skills as she participated in the Junior Science Institute (JSI), a two-week, science intensive summer camp in which participants engaged in microbiology research and application. By showcasing the student's development of graph interpretation skills, the authors hope to make apparent some of the cognitive processes students may go through as they attempt to master this important inquiry skill and thus provide fellow teachers with insight as to how to more effectively develop these skills in their own students.

Jamar, Idorenyin; Mutegi, Jomo W.; Bannister, Vanessa R.

2007-10-01

32

Attributed Programmed Graph Grammars and Their Application to Schematic Diagram Interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attributed programmed graph grammars are introduced in this paper and their application to the interpretation of schematic diagrams is proposed. In contrast with most of the approaches to syntactic pattern recognition, where the grammar controls a parser, the grammar in our system is used as a generative tool. Two classes of diagrams are studied, namely circuit diagrams and flowcharts. The

Horst Bunke

1982-01-01

33

On the Relation of Abstract and Concrete in Scientists' Graph Interpretations: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The notions of "abstract" and "concrete" are central to the conceptualization of mathematical knowing and learning. Much of the literature takes a dualist approach, leading to the privileging of the former term at the expense of the latter. In this article, we provide a concrete analysis of a scientist interpreting an unfamiliar graph to show how…

Roth, Wolff-Michael; Hwang, SungWon

2006-01-01

34

Attributed programmed graph grammars and their application to schematic diagram interpretation.  

PubMed

Attributed programmed graph grammars are introduced in this paper and their application to the interpretation of schematic diagrams is proposed. In contrast with most of the approaches to syntactic pattern recognition, where the grammar controls a parser, the grammar in our system is used as a generative tool. Two classes of diagrams are studied, namely circuit diagrams and flowcharts. The task is in either case to extract a description from an input diagram. PMID:22499631

Bunke, H

1982-06-01

35

Training and Assessment of ECG Interpretation Skills: Results From the 2005 CDIM Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Despite published consensus-based statements on assessment of ECG interpretation skills, studies and curricula regarding the training needed to obtain basic ECG interpretation skills are lacking. These consensus statements have focused on attaining competency in ECG interpretation during postgraduate training; however, recommendations regarding assessment of competency in the undergraduate curriculum are not discussed. Purpose: The purpose is to describe the

Kevin E. OBrien; Maria L. Cannarozzi; Dario M. Torre; Alex J. Mechaber; Steven J. Durning

2009-01-01

36

Collaborative Robotic Instruction: A Graph Teaching Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Graphing is a key skill in the study of Physics. Drawing and interpreting graphs play a key role in the understanding of science, while the lack of these has proved to be a handicap and a limiting factor in the learning of scientific concepts. It has been observed that despite the amount of previous graph-working experience, students of all ages…

Mitnik, Ruben; Recabarren, Matias; Nussbaum, Miguel; Soto, Alvaro

2009-01-01

37

Groovy Graphing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Geometry is everywhere! Use these links to learn about graphing and test your knowledge! Test your coordinate graphing skills and catch the Graph Mole We will be working with graphs in class. Make your own graph of information you compile with this link. Just for Fun! Have fun with some Tricky Tangrams. See how many shapes you ...

Cate, Ms.

2008-04-14

38

Graphing the Order of the Sexes: Constructing, Recalling, Interpreting, and Putting the Self in Gender Difference Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graphs seem to connote facts more than words or tables do. Consequently, they seem unlikely places to spot implicit sexism at work. Yet, in 6 studies (N = 741), women and men constructed (Study 1) and recalled (Study 2) gender difference graphs with men’s data first, and graphed powerful groups (Study 3) and individuals (Study 4) ahead of weaker ones.

Peter Hegarty; Anthony F. Lemieux; Grant McQueen

2010-01-01

39

Levels of line graph question interpretation with intermediate elementary students of varying scientific and mathematical knowledge and ability: A think aloud study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how intermediate elementary students' mathematics and science background knowledge affected their interpretation of line graphs and how their interpretations were affected by graph question levels. A purposive sample of 14 6th-grade students engaged in think aloud interviews (Ericsson & Simon, 1993) while completing an excerpted Test of Graphing in Science (TOGS) (McKenzie & Padilla, 1986). Hand gestures

Stacy Kathryn Keller

2008-01-01

40

Data and Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Practice your graphing skills with these fun activities! Work on your bar graphs with Bar Graph Bugs Take a survey with Data Picking Use pictures to graph with Pictograph Answer graphing questions Use coordinate graphing with Billy Bug and Graph a mole. Use coordinate graphing to Planet Hop! ...

Lerdahl, Miss

2010-02-23

41

Rated MPG for Confusion Using Gas Mileage to Learn Graphing and Data Analysis Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case study follows a family’s dilemma about how to save money on gasoline. Should they keep their SUV and trade in their Corolla for a hybrid sedan? Going from 28 (Corolla) to 48 (Hybrid) miles per gallon (MPG) should really save money on gas. That’s a change of 20 MPG! Or, should they keep their Corolla and trade in their SUV for a minivan? The SUV gets about 13 MPG while the Minivan gets 17 MPG. Students learn how to analyze fuel efficiency in terms of “gallons per miles” driven instead of miles per gallon, and gain graphing and data analysis skills. An extension activity also relates fuel efficiency to greenhouse gas emissions. The case was developed for use in a high school general science course. It could be adapted for use in introductory physics, chemistry, algebra, or environmental science courses at the high school or college level.

Bode, Claudia; Gleue, Alan; Pearson, Carolyn

2009-01-01

42

Beyond Behavioral Skills to Human-Involved Processes: Relational Nursing Practice and Interpretive Pedagogy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behaviorist teaching of communication skills can interfere with learning of humanistic nursing. Interpretive inquiry can help students experience the transformative power for relationships and develop confidence and trust in their capacity for relational nursing practice. (Contains 20 references.) (SK)

Doane, Gweneth A. Hartrick

2002-01-01

43

Assessing students' abilities to construct and interpret line graphs: Disparities between multiple-choice and free-response instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author is concerned about the methodology and instrumentation used to assess both graphing abilities and the impact of microcomputer-based laboratories (MBL) on students' graphing abilities for four reasons: (1) the ability to construct and interpret graphs is critical for developing key ideas in science; (2) science educators need to have valid information for making teaching decisions; (3) educators and researchers are heralding the arrival of MBL as a tool for developing graphing abilities; and (4) some of the research which supports using MBL appears to have significant validity problems. In this article, the author will describe the research which challenges the validity of using multiple-choice instruments to assess graphing abilities. The evidence from this research will identify numerous disparities between the results of multiple-choice and free-response instruments. In the first study, 72 subjects in the seventh, ninth, and eleventh grades were administered individual clinical interviews to assess their ability to construct and interpret graphs. A wide variety of graphs and situations were assessed. In three instances during the interview, students drew a graph that would best represent a situation and then explained their drawings. The results of these clinical graphing interviews were very different from similar questions assessed through multiple-choice formats in other research studies. In addition, insights into students' thinking about graphing reveal that some multiple-choice graphing questions from prior research studies and standardized tests do not discriminate between right answers/right reasons, right answers/wrong reasons, and answers scored wrong but correct for valid reasons. These results indicate that in some instances multiple-choice questions are not a valid measure of graphing abilities. In a second study, the researcher continued to pursue the questions raised about the validity of multiple-choice tests to assess graphing, researching the following questions: What can be learned about subjects' graphing abilities when students draw their own graphs compared to assessing by means of a multiple-choice instrument? Does the methodology used to assess graphing abilities: (1) affect the percentage of subjects who answer correctly; (2) alter the percentage of subjects affected by the picture of the event phenomenon? Instruments were constructed consisting of three graphing questions that asked students: (a) multiple-choice-choose a graph that best represents the situation; (b) free-response-draw a graph that best represents the situation. The sample of 1416 subjects from an urbadsuburban area in cluded 50% boys/50% girls from grades 8 through 12; subjects from high, medium, and low ability groups; and subjects from both public and private schools. The subjects completed either the multiple-choice or the free draw instrument. The free draw instrument was scored by comparing the subject's response to categories of possible answers that had been identified from the first study. The results show as much as 19% difference in correct responses, three times as many picture of the events from multiple-choice instruments, and significant differences in how multiple-choice and free-response affect various ability levels and grade levels. As such, some of the research studies that used multiple-choice instruments to examine giaphing and the impact of MBL on student's graphing abilities may be invalid.

Berg, Craig A.; Smith, Philip

44

An interpretative phenomenological analysis of how professional dance teachers implement psychological skills training in practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to examine how dance teachers work with psychological skills with their students in class. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six female professional teachers in jazz, ballet and contemporary dance. The interview transcripts were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (Smith 1996). Results revealed that all teachers used psychological skills training techniques such as goal setting

Ellinor Klockare; Henrik Gustafsson; Sanna M. Nordin-Bates

2011-01-01

45

Simple and direct interpretation of phase angles or derivation degrees in term of energy conservation vs. dissipation with Formal Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the help of a new theory using the notion of path in a graph, a physical interpretation and meaning can be given to electroanalytical\\u000a measurements, without recourse to mathematical treatments. The frequency dependence of impedances measured by ac techniques,\\u000a or the scan rate dependence of current vs. potential characterizations in large signal techniques (cyclic voltammetry), can\\u000a be interpreted through

Eric Vieil

2011-01-01

46

Supplantation of Mental Operations on Graphs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research findings show the difficulties younger students have in working with graphs. Higher mental operations are necessary for a skilled interpretation of abstract representations. We suggest connecting a concrete representation of the modeled problem with the related graph. The idea is to illustrate essential mental operations externally. This…

Vogel, Markus; Girwidz, Raimund; Engel, Joachim

2007-01-01

47

Sunspot Graphing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has students graph the number of sunspots over a long period of time. They then look for a pattern and discover the sunspot cycle. This activity helps to illustrate the need to accumulate data over time and graph that data to discern patterns. Students will also learn about sunspots, Galileo, and instruments for data collection, along with improving their graphing skills.

Rauch, Arden

48

Using the Computer to Teach Methods and Interpretative Skills in the Humanities: Implementing a Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of implementing computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in two religion courses and a logic course at California State College, Bakersfield, are examined along with student responses. The main purpose of the CAI project was to teach interpretive skills. The most positive results came in the logic course. The programs in the New Testament…

Jones, Bruce William

49

Using the Computer to Teach Methods and Interpretative Skills in the Humanities: Implementing a Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The results of implementing computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in two religion courses and a logic course at California State College, Bakersfield, are examined along with student responses. The main purpose of the CAI project was to teach interpretive skills. The most positive results came in the logic course. The programs in the New Testament…

Jones, Bruce William

50

Graphing Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bar Graphs and Pie Charts Students will practice graphing data on bar graphs and pie charts using quizzes and games. Students will also practice interpreting data given information. Watch this video to refresh your memory. Video Today

Johnston, Miss

2011-04-06

51

Graph Dance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners "dance" (move back and forth at varying speeds) by reading a graph. This is a kinesthetic way to help learners interpret and understand how motion is graphed. This resource includes instructions for three different graph "dances" and an optional extension activity.

Muller, Eric

2004-01-01

52

Beyond behavioral skills to human-involved processes: relational nursing practice and interpretive pedagogy.  

PubMed

This article argues that the teaching of behavioral communication skills may interfere with the learning of humanistic nursing practice. By inviting readers to consider moving beyond a method approach, the author discusses the pedagogical value of interpretive inquiry for the teaching-learning of relational practice. The author asserts that, as a "nonmethod," a pedagogy of interpretive inquiry can create opportunities for nursing students to learn and experience the transformative power of relationship, gain confidence in their capacity for relational being and a sense of trust in their ability to be with people in ways that are authentic and meaningful, and develop their overall ability to enact humanistic, relational nursing. PMID:12238897

Doane, Gweneth A Hartrick

2002-09-01

53

Categorization of First-Year University Students' Interpretations of Numerical Linear Distance-Time Graphs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We have investigated the various approaches taken by first-year university students (n[image omitted]550) when asked to determine the direction of motion, the constancy of speed, and a numerical value of the speed of an object at a point on a numerical linear distance-time graph. We investigated the prevalence of various well-known general…

Wemyss, Thomas; van Kampen, Paul

2013-01-01

54

Categorization of First-Year University Students' Interpretations of Numerical Linear Distance-Time Graphs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We have investigated the various approaches taken by first-year university students (n[image omitted]550) when asked to determine the direction of motion, the constancy of speed, and a numerical value of the speed of an object at a point on a numerical linear distance-time graph. We investigated the prevalence of various well-known general…

Wemyss, Thomas; van Kampen, Paul

2013-01-01

55

Measures of Fine Motor Skills in People with Tremor Disorders: Appraisal and Interpretation  

PubMed Central

People with Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, or other movement disorders involving tremor have changes in fine motor skills that are among the hallmarks of these diseases. Numerous measurement tools have been created and other methods devised to measure such changes in fine motor skills. Measurement tools may focus on specific features – e.g., motor skills or dexterity, slowness in movement execution associated with parkinsonian bradykinesia, or magnitude of tremor. Less obviously, some tools may be better suited than others for specific goals such as detecting subtle dysfunction early in disease, revealing aspects of brain function affected by disease, or tracking changes expected from treatment or disease progression. The purpose of this review is to describe and appraise selected measurement tools of fine motor skills appropriate for people with tremor disorders. In this context, we consider the tools’ content – i.e., what movement features they focus on. In addition, we consider how measurement tools of fine motor skills relate to measures of a person’s disease state or a person’s function. These considerations affect how one should select and interpret the results of these tools in laboratory and clinical contexts.

Norman, Kathleen E.; Heroux, Martin E.

2013-01-01

56

How do students learn to apply their mathematical knowledge to interpret graphs in physics?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a laboratory-based program in physics designed to help students build effective links between the mathematical\\u000a equations used to solve problems in mechanics and the real world of moving objects. Through the analysis of straight line\\u000a graphs derived from their own data students have been able to achieve a considerable development towards a concept of slope,\\u000a or gradient,

Jim Woolnough

2000-01-01

57

Re-Examining the Power of Video Motion Analysis to Promote the Reading and Creating of Kinematic Graphs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One essential skill that students who learn physics should possess is the ability to create and interpret kinematic graphs. However, it is well documented in the literature that students show lack of competence in these abilities. They have problems in connecting graphs and physics concepts, as well as graphs and the real world. The present paper…

Eshach, Haim

2010-01-01

58

Teaching and Learning Basic Social Studies Skills, Grades 7-12. Teacher and Pupil Resource Materials No. 311.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual contains 56 teacher-developed activities which can be used in social studies courses to improve students' basic skills. The activities teach location and map skills, writing and study skills, time skills, and thinking skills. Students also learn how to use reference books and how to read and interpret charts and graphs. Each activity…

Flowers, Emily

59

Offline signature verification and skilled forgery detection using HMM and sum graph features with ANN and knowledge based classifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Signature verification is one of the most widely researched areas in document analysis and signature biometric. Various methodologies have been proposed in this area for accurate signature verification and forgery detection. In this paper we propose a unique two stage model of detecting skilled forgery in the signature by combining two feature types namely Sum graph and HMM model for signature generation and classify them with knowledge based classifier and probability neural network. We proposed a unique technique of using HMM as feature rather than a classifier as being widely proposed by most of the authors in signature recognition. Results show a higher false rejection than false acceptance rate. The system detects forgeries with an accuracy of 80% and can detect the signatures with 91% accuracy. The two stage model can be used in realistic signature biometric applications like the banking applications where there is a need to detect the authenticity of the signature before processing documents like checks.

Mehta, Mohit; Choudhary, Vijay; Das, Rupam; Khan, Ilyas

2010-02-01

60

Biology and Graphing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rosemary Richardson and Jenny Laveglia created this course at Bellevue Community College in order to supply students with the graphing skills needed for biology. The creators provide a graphing project specifically tied to biological subjects. The projects provide practice with data collection, analysis, and graphing practice. This is a good resource for educators that want to introduce graphing to their biology students.

Laveglia, Jennifer; Richardson, Rosemary

2008-07-07

61

How Do Students Learn to Apply their Mathematical Knowledge to Interpret Graphs in Physics?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a laboratory-based program in physics designed to help students build effective links between the mathematical equations used to solve problems in mechanics and the real world of moving objects. The program is based on a study conducted among senior college students, which illustrated out the value of laboratory work in science education for development of thinking skills and positive attitudes (Contains 14 references).

Woolnough, Jim

2006-09-14

62

Levels of line graph question interpretation with intermediate elementary students of varying scientific and mathematical knowledge and ability: A think aloud study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined how intermediate elementary students' mathematics and science background knowledge affected their interpretation of line graphs and how their interpretations were affected by graph question levels. A purposive sample of 14 6th-grade students engaged in think aloud interviews (Ericsson & Simon, 1993) while completing an excerpted Test of Graphing in Science (TOGS) (McKenzie & Padilla, 1986). Hand gestures were video recorded. Student performance on the TOGS was assessed using an assessment rubric created from previously cited factors affecting students' graphing ability. Factors were categorized using Bertin's (1983) three graph question levels. The assessment rubric was validated by Padilla and a veteran mathematics and science teacher. Observational notes were also collected. Data were analyzed using Roth and Bowen's semiotic process of reading graphs (2001). Key findings from this analysis included differences in the use of heuristics, self-generated questions, science knowledge, and self-motivation. Students with higher prior achievement used a greater number and variety of heuristics and more often chose appropriate heuristics. They also monitored their understanding of the question and the adequacy of their strategy and answer by asking themselves questions. Most used their science knowledge spontaneously to check their understanding of the question and the adequacy of their answers. Students with lower and moderate prior achievement favored one heuristic even when it was not useful for answering the question and rarely asked their own questions. In some cases, if students with lower prior achievement had thought about their answers in the context of their science knowledge, they would have been able to recognize their errors. One student with lower prior achievement motivated herself when she thought the questions were too difficult. In addition, students answered the TOGS in one of three ways: as if they were mathematics word problems, science data to be analyzed, or they were confused and had to guess. A second set of findings corroborated how science background knowledge affected graph interpretation: correct science knowledge supported students' reasoning, but it was not necessary to answer any question correctly; correct science knowledge could not compensate for incomplete mathematics knowledge; and incorrect science knowledge often distracted students when they tried to use it while answering a question. Finally, using Roth and Bowen's (2001) two-stage semiotic model of reading graphs, representative vignettes showed emerging patterns from the study. This study added to our understanding of the role of science content knowledge during line graph interpretation, highlighted the importance of heuristics and mathematics procedural knowledge, and documented the importance of perception attentions, motivation, and students' self-generated questions. Recommendations were made for future research in line graph interpretation in mathematics and science education and for improving instruction in this area.

Keller, Stacy Kathryn

63

Graphing Predictions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do any of your students struggle with the scientific and mathematical concepts underlying a lab investigation or to articulate conclusions based on their data? If so, try enhancing their higher-order thinking skills by explicitly linking science and math together. Before students collect and graph their actual data, ask them to predict what they think their data will look like and to sketch a graph of their prediction. Asking students to graph their prediction before they begin a lab investigation helps them construct a theoretical context for the investigation.

Connery, Keely F.

2007-02-01

64

When There Isn't a Right Answer: Interpretation and Reasoning, Key Skills for Twenty-First Century Geoscience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A key challenge in university geoscience teaching is to give students the skills to cope with uncertainty. Professional geoscientists can rarely be certain of the "right answer" to problems posed by most geological datasets, and reasoning through this uncertainty, being intelligently flexible in interpreting data which are limited in resolution…

Bond, Clare Elizabeth; Philo, Chris; Shipton, Zoe Kai

2011-01-01

65

Success-producer and failure-preventer marketing skills: A social learning theory interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines organizations that emphasize differing types of marketing skills. It is based on a national survey of\\u000a Health Maintenance Organizations. The organizations are first classified into groups based on their distinctive marketing\\u000a skill configurations. Six groups were identified. Next, differences between these organization types are examined with respect\\u000a to organization strategy, characteristics of the chief marketing executive, organizational

Daryl O. McKee; Jeffery S. Conant; P. Rajan Varadarajan; Michael P. Mokwa

1992-01-01

66

Influence of interactive videodisc instruction using simultaneous-time analysis on kinematics graphing skills of high school physics students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study presents an investigation of (n=31) physics students' analysis of videodisc-recorded images with treatments over an extended time. Researchers found no significant learning difference between using simultaneous-time and delayed-time analysis for student understanding of kinematics graphs.

Brungardt, John B.; Zollman, Dean A.

2006-05-23

67

Interpreting and Using Commercial Achievement Test Results. Basic Skills Improvement Policy: Supplement to Implementation Guide 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This supplement is intended to help schools get the maximum amount of useful information from test results; information that will be helpful in program monitoring, grouping, planning instructional activities, and reporting results to parents and community. Contents include an introduction to test interpretation and interpreting of test scores;…

Massachusetts State Dept. of Education, Boston. Bureau of Research and Assessment.

68

Effect of Training with the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System Lexicon on Mammographic Interpretation Skills in Developing Countries 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale and ObjectivesThe authors evaluated the effect of training in the American College of Radiology (ACR) Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon on the interpretive skills of radiologists evaluating screening mammograms in Ukraine.

Constance D Lehman; Louise Miller; Carolyn M Rutter; Vivien Tsu

2001-01-01

69

Interpretive Guidelines and Survey Procedures for the Application of the Conditions of Participation for Skilled Nursing Facilities -- 20CFR Part 405. Appendix A.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Interpretive guidelines and survey procedures for applying conditions of participation in the Medicaid and Medicare programs to skilled medical facilities are outlined to aid the State survey agency, the State Medicaid agency, and providers. Standards are...

1978-01-01

70

Graphing is a Snap.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the development of graphing skills through a data collection activity that answers the question of the relationship between rubber band width and flight distance. Includes definitions of terms and instructions for helping students construct line and bar graphs. (DDR)

Rezba, Richard J.; Giese, Ronald N.; Cothron, Julia H.

1998-01-01

71

Graphs in Economics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PowerPoint presentation features an explanation of different types of graphs. Students will learn how to make and interpret a time-series graph, a cross-section graph, and a scatter diagram. Illustrations and text are used to define and calculate the slope of a line and distinguish between linear and nonlinear relationships and between relationships that have a maximum and a minimum.

Vellangany, Isaac; University, Rutgers

72

Growing and Graphing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students visit second- and fourth-grade classes to measure the heights of older students using large building blocks as a non-standard unit of measure. They also measure adults in the school community. Results are displayed in age-appropriate bar graphs (paper cut-outs of miniature building blocks glued on paper to form bar graphs) enabling a comparison of the heights of different age groups. The activities that comprise this activity help students develop the concepts and vocabulary to describe, in a non-ambiguous way, how heights change as children age. This introduction to graphing provides an important foundation for creating and interpreting graphs in future years.

Engineering K-Ph.d. Program

73

Evolutionary stability on graphs  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary stability is a fundamental concept in evolutionary game theory. A strategy is called an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS), if its monomorphic population rejects the invasion of any other mutant strategy. Recent studies have revealed that population structure can considerably affect evolutionary dynamics. Here we derive the conditions of evolutionary stability for games on graphs. We obtain analytical conditions for regular graphs of degree k > 2. Those theoretical predictions are compared with computer simulations for random regular graphs and for lattices. We study three different update rules: birth-death (BD), death-birth (DB), and imitation (IM) updating. Evolutionary stability on sparse graphs does not imply evolutionary stability in a well-mixed population, nor vice versa. We provide a geometrical interpretation of the ESS condition on graphs.

Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Nowak, Martin A.

2008-01-01

74

Graph Theory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Graph theory is widely used in computer science, engineering and of course, mathematics. Wikipedia offers this definition and overview of Graph Theory (1). This next website from Mega-Math (2) reviews some of the Vocabulary of Graphs and highlights some applications for graph theory, such as the design of computer systems and games. Some additional applications for Graph Theory are discussed in this more technical book called Graph Theory with Applications (3). This website from Georgia Tech (4) discusses a proof that allows a user to create a map of the U.S. using just four colors. For a more involved explanation of Graph Theory, see this Graph Theory book by Reinhard Diestel (5). On this next website (6), Christopher P. Mawata of the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga offers a collection of Graph Theory Lessons for educators. The final website provides a short biography of a key figure in Graph Theory who recently passed away, Frank Harary (7).

75

Using Physiology to Explore Graphing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Making graphs can be a challenging process for some students to understand. Using graphs and student collected data, the class will learn how to construct and interpret graphs. They will develop simple experiments; designate x and y axis, scale, label and plot points on a graph; determine blood pressure and extrapolate heart rate using pulse, sphygmomanometer, and stethoscope; collect, organize, display, and analyze experimental data; and discover factors affecting heart rate and pressure. Upon completion of this activity, students will be able to designate x and y axis, scale, label and plot points on a graph.

Mr. Bruce J. Dudek (St. Labre High School)

1998-12-01

76

Advantages of Micro-Based Labs: Electronic Data Acquisition, Computerized Graphing, or Both?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses a microcomputer-based laboratory (MBL) study (n=75) which uses multiple temperature gathering devices (mercury thermometer, digital thermometer, and computer probe) and graphing methods (hand graphs, delayed computer graphs, and real-time graphs). Reports that MBL real-time graphing provides significant increases in graphing skills.…

Stuessy, Carol L.; Rowland, Paul M.

1989-01-01

77

The development of scientific reasoning skills in conjunction with collaborative writing assignments: An interpretive study of six ninth-grade students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this investigation, three classes of ninth-grade general science students participated in a collaborative report-writing intervention. The purpose of this portion of the study was to evaluate students' collaboratively written laboratory reports for evidence of the use of scientific reasoning skills and to document qualitative changes in reasoning skill use over time. The participants in the study were 6 ninth-grade students, representing three collaborative writing pairs. During the intervention, students wrote 10 laboratory reports over a 4.5-month period. The author and classroom teacher designed report guideline prompts to scaffold students in the use of relevant scientific reasoning skills. The results indicated that students used reasoning skills to assess their current models of scientific understanding, make observations, interpret the meaning of results, and generate new models based on their data and relevant information. Participants showed the most improvement in writing that reflected the reasoning skills of (a) selecting and processing textbook passages, (b) drawing conclusions and formulating models, and (c) comparing/contrasting. Over time, participants improved their ability to compose explanations that represented a synthesis of prior knowledge, activity observations, and other sources of information. Collaborative writing encouraged students to construct their own understandings of science concepts by creating an environment in which thinking, reasoning, and discussion were valued.

Keys, Carolyn W.

78

Robustness of random graphs based on graph spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been recently proposed that the robustness of complex networks can be efficiently characterized through the natural connectivity, a spectral property of the graph which corresponds to the average Estrada index. The natural connectivity corresponds to an average eigenvalue calculated from the graph spectrum and can also be interpreted as the Helmholtz free energy of the network. In this article, we explore the use of this index to characterize the robustness of Erdo?s-Rényi (ER) random graphs, random regular graphs, and regular ring lattices. We show both analytically and numerically that the natural connectivity of ER random graphs increases linearly with the average degree. It is also shown that ER random graphs are more robust than the corresponding random regular graphs with the same number of vertices and edges. However, the relative robustness of ER random graphs and regular ring lattices depends on the average degree and graph size: there is a critical graph size above which regular ring lattices are more robust than random graphs. We use our analytical results to derive this critical graph size as a function of the average degree.

Wu, Jun; Barahona, Mauricio; Tan, Yue-jin; Deng, Hong-zhong

2012-12-01

79

Motion graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a novel method for creating realistic, controllable motion. Given a corpus of motion capture data, we automatically construct a directed graph called a motion graph that encapsulates connections among the database. The motion graph consists both of pieces of original motion and automatically generated transitions. Motion can be generated simply by building walks on the

Lucas Kovar; Michael Gleicher; Frederic H. Pighin

2002-01-01

80

Graph Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The contents of the book have focused so far on the mining of data where the underlying structure is characterized by special\\u000a types of graphs where cycles are not allowed, i.e. acyclic graphs or trees. The focus of this chapter is on the frequent pattern\\u000a mining problem where the underlying structure of the data can be of general graph type

Fedja Hadzic; Henry Tan; Tharam Dillon

81

Lesson 19: Graphs of Functions Reading  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The lesson begins with graphs of the Dow Jones Industrial Average and water levels of Lake Huron where points on the graph are interpreted. Intervals of increase and maxima are introduced before the graph of F(x) = sqrt (x+4) is completed by first generating a table of data. This is followed by the vertical line test and using graphs to solve equations and inequalities.

2011-01-01

82

An integrated software system for quality assurance-related kappa coefficient analysis of intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography interpretive skills.  

PubMed

This report describes the development of a quality assurance-oriented integrated software system designed for an anesthesiology-based intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography service. Entry data include patient and operation demographics, two-dimensional echocardiographic, saline-contrast, and color flow/pulsed Doppler assessments of the heart and great vessels, presented in a defined sequence. A statistical analysis component (kappa coefficient analysis) allows for comparison of intraoperative real-time interpretations with laboratory interpretations made by experienced full-time echocardiographers on a field-by-field basis. This provides a means of quantifying expertise in each individual aspect of the patient examination sequence. We believe that such self-appraisal data are essential for delineating the status and tracking the progress of service being provided. PMID:8222390

Rafferty, T; Edwards, B; Judd, J; Swamy, V; Workman, R; Lippmann, H; Harris, S; Cohen, I; Prokop, E; Ezekowitz, M

1993-10-01

83

Low-Income Children's Literacy Interpretations in a Skills-Based and a Whole-Language Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

This descriptive study investigated two groups of low-income, urban children who had whole-language instruction during their kindergarten and first-grade years. These 17 children were studied previously for those 2 years in their separate schools. The current investigation focused on the general academic success of the two groups and on eight, focal learners' interpretations. In one school, a group of children

Penny A. Freppon

1995-01-01

84

Probably Graphing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student will conduct a coin tossing experiment for 30 trials. Their results will be graphed, showing a line graph that progresses toward the theoretical probability. Students will observe that as the number of trials increases they begin to see a graphical representation of the Law of Large Numbers. Instructions, handouts, and a lesson extension are all included here.

Heitschmidt, Corey

2000-01-01

85

Graph Drawing Aesthetics—Created by Users, Not Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior empirical work on layout aesthetics for graph drawing algorithms has concentrated on the interpretation of existing graph drawings. We report on experiments which focus on the creation and layout of graph drawings: participants were asked to draw graphs based on adjacency lists, and to lay them out \\

Helen C. Purchase; Christopher Pilcher; Beryl Plimmer

2012-01-01

86

Graph Theory  

SciTech Connect

Graph theory is a branch of discrete combinatorial mathematics that studies the properties of graphs. The theory was pioneered by the Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler in the 18th century, commenced its formal development during the second half of the 19th century, and has witnessed substantial growth during the last seventy years, with applications in areas as diverse as engineering, computer science, physics, sociology, chemistry and biology. Graph theory has also had a strong impact in computational linguistics by providing the foundations for the theory of features structures that has emerged as one of the most widely used frameworks for the representation of grammar formalisms.

Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

2005-12-27

87

In-service elementary teachers' familiarity, interest, conceptual knowledge, and performance on science process skills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purposes of this research study were to determine (a) in-service elementary teachers' familiarity, interest, conceptual knowledge of , and performance on science process skills and (b) how in-service elementary teachers' familiarity with, interest in conceptual knowledge of and performance on science process skills relate to each other. The science process skills include the basic skills [observation, classification, measuring, predicting, inferring, and communication,] and the integrated skills [hypothesizing, experimenting, identifying and controlling variables, formulating models, interpreting data, and graphing]. Twenty-four in-service elementary teachers enrolled in a master of math and science education degree program participated in this study. Participants completed questionnaires on their familiarity and interest in the science process skills, a science processes conceptual knowledge test, and a performance test on science process skills. Results indicate that these teachers were highly familiar with the science process skills, but moderately interested in these skills. Results also indicate that teachers were more interested in learning more about integrated process skills than basic process skills. Teachers possessed very low conceptual knowledge of the science process skills. However, teachers performed well on science process skills performance test. Significant correlations among the four constructs (familiarity, interest, conceptual knowledge and performance) were only significant between familiarity and interest. The implications, discussion and recommendations for future research and instruction on science process skills in teacher education programs have been presented.

Miles, Erin

88

Acquisition of cognitive skill  

Microsoft Academic Search

A framework for skill acquisition is proposed that includes two major stages in the development of a cognitive skill: a declarative stage in which facts about the skill domain are interpreted and a procedural stage in which the domain knowl- edge is directly embodied in procedures for performing the skill. This general framework has been instantiated in the ACT system

John R. Anderson

1982-01-01

89

Active Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners track their movements with jumping and leaping graphs. In part A, learners jump as high as they can and press their inked fingers or hands against a large true-to-life chart with vertical distance marked along the vertical edge. Learners compare the results. In part B, learners jump as far as they can and use masking tape to mark their spot on a true-to-life bar graph. Again, learners compare the results.

Museum, Chicago C.

2011-01-01

90

Graphing Points  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let's learn how to use the lines on graphs (the x & y axis) to plot information. Choose any of the activities below to test your knowledge of identifying the coordinates correctly. Meteoroid Coordinates Soccer Coordinates Donut Coordinates Graphing Points Save the Zogs!-Using Linear Equations Using your coordinate plane knowledge and linear equations help to rescue the Zogs! Can you find the axis for these problems too? What have you noticed about linear equations? What do the lines in linear equations look ...

Izzy

2012-02-07

91

Analysis of processes used by middle-school students to interpret functions embedded in dynamic physical models and represented in tables, equations, and graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation examined the processes generated by eighth-grade students to interpret and represent the functions embedded in dynamic physical models and the instructional decisions that facilitated the processes. Using the teaching experiment method, students were paired to interactively explore a slack rope board. The slack rope board consisted of a string that had been attached to a corkboard and that

Mary Ellen Hines

1998-01-01

92

Graph Signatures for Visual Analytics  

SciTech Connect

We present a visual analytics technique to explore graphs using the concept of a data signature. A data signature, in our context, is a multidimensional vector that captures the local topology information surrounding each graph node. Signature vectors extracted from a graph are projected onto a low-dimensional scatterplot through the use of scaling. The resultant scatterplot, which reflects the similarities of the vectors, allows analysts to examine the graph structures and their corresponding real-life interpretations through repeated use of brushing and linking between the two visualizations. The interpretation of the graph structures is based on the outcomes of multiple participatory analysis sessions with intelligence analysts conducted by the authors at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The paper first uses three public domain datasets with either well-known or obvious features to explain the rationale of our design and illustrate its results. More advanced examples are then used in a customized usability study to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach. The study results reveal not only the limitations and weaknesses of the traditional approach based solely on graph visualization but also the advantages and strengths of our signature-guided approach presented in the paper.

Wong, Pak C.; Foote, Harlan P.; Chin, George; Mackey, Patrick S.; Perrine, Kenneth A.

2006-11-17

93

Graph signatures for visual analytics.  

PubMed

We present a visual analytics technique to explore graphs using the concept of a data signature. A data signature, in our context, is a multidimensional vector that captures the local topology information surrounding each graph node. Signature vectors extracted from a graph are projected onto a low-dimensional scatterplot through the use of scaling. The resultant scatterplot, which reflects the similarities of the vectors, allows analysts to examine the graph structures and their corresponding real-life interpretations through repeated use of brushing and linking between the two visualizations. The interpretation of the graph structures is based on the outcomes of multiple participatory analysis sessions with intelligence analysts conducted by the authors at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The paper first uses three public domain data sets with either well-known or obvious features to explain the rationale of our design and illustrate its results. More advanced examples are then used in a customized usability study to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach. The study results reveal not only the limitations and weaknesses of the traditional approach based solely on graph visualization, but also the advantages and strengths of our signature-guided approach presented in the paper. PMID:17073364

Wong, Pak Chung; Foote, Harlan; Chin, George; Mackey, Patrick; Perrine, Ken

94

Graphing Tides  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student graphing of high and low tide from locations showing the three tide types (diurnal, semi-diurnal, and mixed) and the Bay of Fundy (tidal amplitude increased by resonance). Students recognize that not all tides are the same and that location is an important control on tides.

Farley, Martin

95

Pi Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use a straight line to learn about circles. Learners measure and record the diameter and circumference of different sized cylindrical objects on a chart. Learners then plot the diameters and circumferences on a graph and calculate the slope to discover the linear relationship between the two proprieties.

Yu, Julie

2008-01-01

96

Great Graphing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You are going to put on your math-cap and think about points and graphs in order to solve problems. First you will help help Billy Bug s Grub get into his belly. Then you will find the Mean, Median, Mode of building heights. Finally you will find out: What s the point? ...

Craighill, Miss

2007-11-12

97

Graph Theory in Drama  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use graph theory to create social graphs for their own social networks and apply what learn to create a graph representing the social dynamics found in a dramatic text. Students then derive meaning based on what they know about the text from the graphs they created. Students learn graph theory vocabulary, as well as engineering applications of graph theory.

Impart Ret Program

98

The box graph in superstring theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In theories of closed oriented superstrings, the one-loop amplitude is given by a single diagram, with the topology of a torus. Its interpretation had remained obscure, because it was formally real, converged only for purely imaginary values of the Mandelstam variables, and had to account for the singularities of both the box graph and the one-particle reducible graphs in field

Eric D'Hoker; D. H. Phong

1995-01-01

99

Acquisition of Cognitive Skill.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A framework for skill acquisition is proposed in which there are two major stages in the development of a cognitive skill--a declarative stage in which facts about the skill domain are interpreted and a procedural stage in which the domain knowledge is em...

J. R. Anderson

1981-01-01

100

Computing Geodesics and Minimal Surfaces via Graph Cuts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geodesic active contours and graph cuts are two stan- dard image segmentation techniques. We introduce a new segmentation method combining some of their benefits. Our main intuition is that any cut on a graph embedded in some continuous space can be interpreted as a contour (in 2D) or a surface (in 3D). We show how to build a grid graph

Yuri Boykov; Vladimir Kolmogorov

2003-01-01

101

Problems Easy for Tree-Decomposable Graphs (Extended Abstract)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a variation of the interpretability concept we show that all graph properties definable in monadic second order logic (MS properties) with quantification over vertex and edge sets can be decided in linear time for classes of graphs of fixed bounded tree-width, giving an alternative proof of a recent result by Courcelle. We allow graphs with directed and\\/or undirected edges,

Stefan Arnborg; Jens Lagergren; Detlef Seese

1988-01-01

102

Compiling Conceptual Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper addresses problems in conceptual graph implementation: subsumption and classification in a taxonomy. Conceptual graphs are typically stored using a directed acyclic graph data structure based on the partial order over conceptual graphs. We give an improved algorithm for classifying conceptual graphs into this hierarchy. It prunes the search space in the database using the information gathered while searching.

Gerard Ellis

1995-01-01

103

Matching RDF Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Resource Description Framework (RDF) describes graphs ofstatements about resources. This paper explores the equality of twoRDF graphs in light of the graph isomorphism literature. Weconsider anonymous resources as unlabelled vertices in a graph,and show that the standard graph isomorphism algorithms,developed in the 1970's, can be used effectively for comparing RDFgraphs.

Jeremy J. Carroll

2002-01-01

104

On the centrality of vertices of molecular graphs.  

PubMed

For acyclic systems the center of a graph has been known to be either a single vertex of two adjacent vertices, that is, an edge. It has not been quite clear how to extend the concept of graph center to polycyclic systems. Several approaches to the graph center of molecular graphs of polycyclic graphs have been proposed in the literature. In most cases alternative approaches, however, while being apparently equally plausible, gave the same results for many molecules, but occasionally they differ in their characterization of molecular center. In order to reduce the number of vertices that would qualify as forming the center of the graph, a hierarchy of rules have been considered in the search for graph centers. We reconsidered the problem of "the center of a graph" by using a novel concept of graph theory, the vertex "weights," defined by counting the number of pairs of vertices at the same distance from the vertex considered. This approach gives often the same results for graph centers of acyclic graphs as the standard definition of graph center based on vertex eccentricities. However, in some cases when two nonequivalent vertices have been found as graph center, the novel approach can discriminate between the two. The same approach applies to cyclic graphs without additional rules to locate the vertex or vertices forming the center of polycyclic graphs, vertices referred to as central vertices of a graph. In addition, the novel vertex "weights," in the case of acyclic, cyclic, and polycyclic graphs can be interpreted as vertex centralities, a measure for how close or distant vertices are from the center or central vertices of the graph. Besides illustrating the centralities of a number of smaller polycyclic graphs, we also report on several acyclic graphs showing the same centrality values of their vertices. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23955387

Randi?, Milan; Novi?, Marjana; Vra?ko, Marjan; Plavši?, Dejan

2013-08-19

105

On cliques in graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clique is a maximal complete subgraph of a graph. The maximum number of cliques possible in a graph withn nodes is determined. Also, bounds are obtained for the number of different sizes of cliques possible in such a graph.

J. W. Moon; L. Moser

1965-01-01

106

Create A Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash applet allows students to create a variety of graphs: line graph, pie chart, bar graph, area graph and x-y plot. Each type provides a variety of layout and design options. Users enter data and labels and choose data parameters. Completed graphs may be printed, saved, and/or emailed. The accompanying tutorial provides general information about graphs and explains how to use the applet.

2008-01-01

107

Graph Parser Combinators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A graph language can be described by a graph grammar in a manner similar to a string grammar known from the theory of formal\\u000a languages. Unfortunately, graph parsing is known to be computationally expensive in general. There are quite simple graph\\u000a languages that crush most general-purpose graph parsers.\\u000a \\u000a In this paper we present graph parser combinators, a new approach to

Steffen Mazanek; Mark Minas

2007-01-01

108

Graphing is Groovy!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These games show what a bar graph is and how to develop one. Learn how to create your own graph here! Make sure to click "Okay" on the game to start it. This game will show you how to develop a bar graph using data. This game is showing how the bugs make up the bar graph. They are the data being entered into the graph. Create a graph using bugs! Use this game to ...

May, Miss

2012-03-09

109

Entropy and Distance of Random Graphs with Application to Structural Pattern Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notion of a random graph is formally defined. It deals with both the probabilistic and the structural aspects of relational data. By interpreting an ensemble of attributed graphs as the outcomes of a random graph, we can use its lower order distribution to characterize the ensemble. To reflect the variability of a random graph, Shannon's entropy measure is used.

Andrew K. C. Wong; Manlai You

1985-01-01

110

The interaction of size and density with graph-level indices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The size and density of graphs interact powerfully and subtly with other graph-level indices (GLIs), thereby complicating their interpretation. Here we examine these interactions by plotting changes in the distributions of several popular graph measures across graphs of varying sizes and densities. We provide a generalized framework for hypothesis testing as a means of controlling for size and density effects,

Brigham S. Anderson; Carter Butts; Kathleen Carley

1999-01-01

111

Considerations When Working with Interpreters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the current training and certification procedures in place for linguistic interpreters, the continuum of interpreter roles, and how interpreters' perspectives may influence the interpretive interaction. The specific skills needed for interpreting in either health care or educational settings are identified. A table compares…

Hwa-Froelich, Deborah A.; Westby, Carol E.

2003-01-01

112

Approximating Graphs by Graphs and Functions (Abstract)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many areas of science huge networks (graphs) are central objects of study: the internet, the brain, various social networks,\\u000a VLSI, statistical physics. To study these graphs, new paradigms are needed: What are meaningful questions to ask? When are\\u000a two huge graphs “similar”? How to “scale down” these graphs without changing their fundamental structure and algorithmic properties?\\u000a How to generate

László Lovász

2007-01-01

113

Honeycomb toroidal graphs are Cayley graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a particular family of trivalent vertex-transitive graphs that have been called generalized honeycomb tori by some and brick products by others. They have been studied as hexagonal embeddings on the torus as well. We show that all these graphs are Cayley graphs on generalized dihedral groups.

Brian Alspach; Matthew Dean

2009-01-01

114

Create a Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn how to create area, bar, pie, and line graphs. They are provided with information about what each type of graph shows and what it can be used for. Students are given an example of each type of graph, but they can create graphs using their own data in the interactive tool.

Statistics, National C.

2000-01-01

115

Interactive graph layout  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel methodology for viewing large graphs. The basic concept is to allow the user to interactively navigate through large graphs learning about them in appropriately small and concise pieces. An architecture is present to support graph exploration. It contains methods for building custom layout algorithms hierarchically, interactively decomposing large graphs, and creating interactive parameterized layout algorithms.

Tyson R. Henry; Scott E. Hudson

1991-01-01

116

Conceptual Graph Aboutness  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an information retrieval model base d on con- ceptual graphs named ELEN (1). In ELEN a conceptual graph is a representative of the information inherent in the document and query. Graph operators can be used to determine whether a graph is a generalisation of another g raph, in which case the information carried by the

Theo Huibers; Iadh Ounis; Jean-pierre Chevallet

1996-01-01

117

On Ramsey Minimal Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

. An elementary probabilistic argument is presented which shows that for everyforest F other than a matching, and every graph G containing a cycle, there exists an infinitenumber of graphs J such that J#(F, G)butifwedeletefromJ any edge e the graph J-eobtained in this way does not have this property.Introduction. All graphs in this note are undirected graphs, without loops and

Tomasz Luczak

1994-01-01

118

Knowing a Lot for One's Age: Vocabulary Skill and Not Age Is Associated with Anticipatory Incremental Sentence Interpretation in Children and Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Adults can incrementally combine information from speech with astonishing speed to anticipate future words. Concurrently, a growing body of work suggests that vocabulary ability is crucially related to lexical processing skills in children. However, little is known about this relationship with predictive sentence processing in children or adults.…

Borovsky, Arielle; Elman, Jeffrey L.; Fernald, Anne

2012-01-01

119

Improving Media Message Interpretation Processing Skills to Promote Healthy Decision Making About Substance Use: The Effects of the Middle School Media Ready Curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Media Ready Program was designed as a middle school, media literacy education, preventive intervention program to improve adolescents' media literacy skills and reduce their intention to use alcohol or tobacco products. In a short-term efficacy trial, schools in North Carolina were randomly assigned to conditions (Media Ready: n = 214; control: n = 198). Boys in the Media Ready group reported significantly less

Janis B. Kupersmidt; Tracy M. Scull; Jessica W. Benson

2012-01-01

120

Rich Interpretation vs. Deflationary Accounts in Cognitive Development: The Case of Means-End Skills in 7-Month-Old Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Tested whether 7-month-olds' means-end behaviors were genuine or the repetition of trained behaviors under conditions of greater arousal. Found that infants' learned button-pushing to light a set of distant lights differed from button-pushing to retrieve toys. Infants demonstrated means-end skills with behaviors that they had not been trained to…

Munakata, Yuko; Bauer, David; Stackhouse, Tracy; Landgraf, Laura; Huddleston, Jennifer

2002-01-01

121

Science Sampler: Node graph visualizations for eighth-grade mathematics students using a virus transmission simulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Because eighth-grade curriculum standards focus in part on systems analysis and graphing, a lesson was created to enhance students' analytical skills with the introduction of a type of graph, the node graph, which can be used to represent the interconnectedness of system components. This lesson is rooted in understanding real-world concepts regarding the transmission of infectious agents throughout a population.

Santone, Adam L.; Mccutcheon, Jennifer A.

2008-07-01

122

Givental Graphs and Inversion Symmetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inversion symmetry is a very non-trivial discrete symmetry of Frobenius manifolds. It was obtained by Dubrovin from one of the elementary Schlesinger transformations of a special ODE associated to a Frobenius manifold. In this paper, we review the Givental group action on Frobenius manifolds in terms of Feynman graphs and obtain an interpretation of the inversion symmetry in terms of the action of the Givental group. We also consider the implication of this interpretation of the inversion symmetry for the Schlesinger transformations and for the Hamiltonians of the associated principle hierarchy.

Dunin-Barkowski, Petr; Shadrin, Sergey; Spitz, Loek

2013-05-01

123

Wikipedia: Graph Theory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Drawing on the knowledge of the people, Wikipedia presents this site on graph theory. Here, the history, problems, and applications of graph theory are explained, and there are links to other print and online resources for more information.

1969-12-31

124

Complex Networks and Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about complex networks and how to represent them using graphs. They also learn that graph theory is a useful mathematical tool for studying complex networks in diverse applications of science and engineering, such as neural networks in the brain, biochemical reaction networks in cells, communication networks, such as the internet, and social networks. Topics covered include set theory, defining a graph, as well as defining the degree of a node and the degree distribution of a graph.

Complex Systems Science Laboratory

125

Minimal State Graph Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the problem of generating a minimal state graph from a program, without buildingthe whole state graph. Minimality is considered here with respect to bisimulation. Ageneration algorithm is derived and illustrated. Applications concern program verificationand control synthesis in reactive program compilation.1 IntroductionThis paper concerns the problem of explicitly building a state graph from a program, a formulaor any implicit

A. Bouajjani; J C Fernandez; N. Halbwachs; P. Raymond; C. Ratel

1994-01-01

126

Graphing Important People  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The "Toolbox" column features content adapted from ReadWriteThink.org lesson plans and provides practical tools for classroom teachers. This issue's column features a lesson plan adapted from "Graphing Plot and Character in a Novel" by Lisa Storm Fink and "Bio-graph: Graphing Life Events" by Susan Spangler. Students retell biographic events…

Reading Teacher, 2012

2012-01-01

127

Graphing Important People  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Toolbox" column features content adapted from ReadWriteThink.org lesson plans and provides practical tools for classroom teachers. This issue's column features a lesson plan adapted from "Graphing Plot and Character in a Novel" by Lisa Storm Fink and "Bio-graph: Graphing Life Events" by Susan Spangler. Students retell biographic events…

Reading Teacher, 2012

2012-01-01

128

Constrained Graph Layout  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most current graph layout technology does not lend itself to interactive applications such as animation or advanced user interfaces. We introduce the constrained graph layout model which is better suited for interactive applications. In this model, input to the layout module includes suggested positions for nodes and constraints over the node positions in the graph to be laid out. We

Weiqing He; Kim Marriott

1996-01-01

129

Graph Theory Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the Graduate Texts in Mathematics series comes this textbook on graph theory by Reinhard Diestel from the University of Hamburg. Topics covered include flows, planar graphs, infinite graphs, and Hamilton cycles. Visitors can read the full text (by clicking on "electronic edition") or summaries of each section, as well as reviews from different scholarly journals.

Diestel, Reinhard

1969-12-31

130

Graph Drawing Contest Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the Fourth Annual Graph Drawing Contest, held inconjunction with the 1997 Graph Drawing Symposium in Rome, Italy. Thepurpose of the contest is to monitor and challenge the current state of the artin graph-drawing technology [2, 3, 4].This work may not be copied or reproduced in whole or in part for any commercial purpose. Permission tocopy in whole

Peter Eades; Joe Marks; Stephen North; Falk Schreiber

1994-01-01

131

Signing RDF Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assuming Pgraph cannot be done in polynomial time. However, it is possible to define a large class of canonicalizable RDF graphs, such that digital signatures for graphs in this cla ss can be created and verified in O( nlog( n)). Without changing its meaning, an

Jeremy J. Carroll

2003-01-01

132

Community Structure in Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graph vertices are often organized into groups that seem to live fairly independently of the rest of the graph, with which they share but a few edges, whereas the relationships between group members are stronger, as shown by the large number of mutual connections. Such groups of vertices, or communities, can be considered as independent compartments of a graph. Detecting

Santo Fortunato; Claudio Castellano

2007-01-01

133

Exploring Data Displays and Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This multimedia mathematics resource deals with graphing data. A video illustrates how math plays a role in the way merchandise is displayed in retail stores. An interactive component allows students to explore and compare line graphs, bar graphs, and circle graphs to determine if the graphs represent the same data. A print activity about data, display, and graphs is included.

2003-01-01

134

A Skills Perspective for Liberal Arts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses the importance of acquiring skills in college to prepare students for the work force. The author describes how college students lack the skills and character needed to succeed. They might take statistics in college and score A's on tests of abstract problem-solving, but they cannot set up a bar graph to display real-world…

Coplin, Bill

2004-01-01

135

Graph Pattern Matching with Expressive Outerplanar Graph Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a An outerplanar graph is a planar graph that can be embedded in the plane in such a way that all vertices lie on the outer\\u000a boundary. Outerplanar graphs express many chemical compounds. An externally extensible outerplanar graph pattern (eeo-graph pattern for short) represents a graph pattern common to a finite set of outerplanar graphs, like a dataset of chemical compounds.

Hitoshi Yamasaki; Takashi Yamada; Takayoshi Shoudai

136

Functions and Models: Graphing Calculators and Computers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describe some situations where naive interpretation of Maple's output may be misleading;Show an appropriate viewing rectangle for the graph of a given function;Plot a function using Maple;Compare local and global properties of a given function;Find the solutions of a given equation using Maple.

Freeze, Michael

2003-01-22

137

Knowing a lot for one's age: Vocabulary skill and not age is associated with anticipatory incremental sentence interpretation in children and adults.  

PubMed

Adults can incrementally combine information from speech with astonishing speed to anticipate future words. Concurrently, a growing body of work suggests that vocabulary ability is crucially related to lexical processing skills in children. However, little is known about this relationship with predictive sentence processing in children or adults. We explore this question by comparing the degree to which an upcoming sentential theme is anticipated by combining information from a prior agent and action. 48 children, aged of 3 to 10, and 48 college-aged adults' eye-movements were recorded as they heard a sentence (e.g., The pirate hides the treasure) in which the object referred to one of four images that included an agent-related, action-related and unrelated distractor image. Pictures were rotated so that, across all versions of the study, each picture appeared in all conditions, yielding a completely balanced within-subjects design. Adults and children quickly made use of combinatory information available at the action to generate anticipatory looks to the target object. Speed of anticipatory fixations did not vary with age. When controlling for age, individuals with higher vocabularies were faster to look to the target than those with lower vocabulary scores. Together, these results support and extend current views of incremental processing in which adults and children make use of linguistic information to continuously update their mental representation of ongoing language. PMID:22632758

Borovsky, Arielle; Elman, Jeffrey L; Fernald, Anne

2012-05-23

138

Turning Spreadsheets into Graphs: An Information Technology Lesson in Whole Brain Thinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We have concluded that teaching undergraduate students to use spreadsheet software to analyze, interpret, and communicate spreadsheet data through a graph is an information technology exercise in whole brain thinking. In investigating why our students have difficulty constructing proper graphs, we have discovered that graphing requires two…

Patterson, Thomas F.; Leonard, Jonathan G.

2005-01-01

139

Graphing A Line  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this project is to provide resources for practicing graphing a line in slope-intercept form. Work through each step and make sure you do the assessment at the end. [Utah State Algebra 1 Core Curriculum - Standard II, Objectives 1-3.] Step 1: Click on the link to practice graphing lines. Try at least 10 different equations. Do more if you want to. Graphing Lines Practice Step 2: More Practice Here are some other activity that will help you better understand how to graph a line. Try them out! Graphing from slope intercept form Bug Zap Lines Butterfly slope game Slope Basketball Slope Quiz Interactive Graphing Tutorial (Make up your own equation. Move the ...

Hbinggeli

2010-06-02

140

Graphing Your Social Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students analyze their social networks using graph theory. They gather data on their own social relationships, either from Facebook interactions or the interactions they have throughout the course of a day, recording it in Microsoft Excel and using Cytoscape (a free, downloadable application) to generate social network graphs that visually illustrate the key persons (nodes) and connections between them (edges). The nodes in the Cytoscape graphs are color-coded and sized according to the importance of the node (in this activity, nodes are people in students' social networks). After the analysis, the graphs are further examined to see what can be learned from the visual representation. Students gain practice with graph theory vocabulary, including node, edge, betweeness centrality and degree on interaction, and learn about a range of engineering applications of graph theory.

Impart Ret Program

141

Recognition of Probe Ptolemaic Graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Let G denote a graph class. An undirected graph G is called a probe G graph if one can make G a graph in G by adding edges between vertices in some independent set of G. By definition graph class G is a subclass of probe G graphs. Ptolemaic graphs are chordal and induced gem free. They form a subclass of both chordal graphs and distance-hereditary graphs. Many problems NP-hard on chordal graphs can be solved in polynomial time on ptolemaic graphs. We proposed an O(nm)-time algorithm to recognize probe ptolemaic graphs where n and m are the numbers of vertices and edges of the input graph respectively.

Chang, Maw-Shang; Hung, Ling-Ju

142

Canonical labeling of graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We announce an algebraic approach to the problem of assigning canonical forms to graphs. We compute canonical forms and the associated canonical labelings (or renumberings) in polynomial time for graphs of bounded valence, in moderately exponential, exp(n˝ + &ogr;(1)),time for general graphs, in subexponential, nlog n, time for tournaments and for 2-(&ngr;,&kgr;,?) block designs with &kgr;,? bounded and nlog log

László Babai; Eugene M. Luks

1983-01-01

143

Hamiltonian Connected Line Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract A graph G is hamiltonian-connected if any two of its vertices are connected by a Hamilton path (a path including every vertex of G); and G is s-hamiltonian-connected if the deletion of any vertex subset with at most s vertices results in a hamiltonian-connected graph. In this paper, we prove that the line graph of a (t + 4)-edge-connected

Deng-Xin Li; Hong-jian Lai; Ye-Hong Shao; Mingquan Zhan

2007-01-01

144

Beginning Algebra Tutorial: Reading Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial from West Texas A&M University's Virtual Math Lab introduces bar graphs, line graphs, double line graphs and Venn diagrams to beginning algebra students. The unit explains each type of graph and includes examples. Students will use provided sample graphs to answer a series of questions about each example.

Seward, Kim

145

Voronoi Diagrams on Periodic Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A periodic graph models various natural and artificial periodic patterns with repetitions of a given static graph, and have vast applications in crystallography, scheduling, VLSI circuits and systems of uniform recurrence equations. This paper considers a graph Voronoi diagram for a given subset of vertices on a periodic graph. The simplest two-dimensional periodic graph is a square lattice, and the

Norie Fu; Hiroshi Imai; Sonoko Moriyama

2010-01-01

146

Graphing and Functions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Graphing points, lines, and writing equations from tables or graphs. Functions. Read carefully about plotting points at coolmath4kids. Coolmath Plotting Points Play the game twice or more if you aren't getting most of them right. A score of over 7000 would be good. Coordinate plane quadrants and ordered pairs. Read about Time/distance Time and distance graphs and then Time/speed. Time and speed graphs Read about and practice functions. Intro to functions Function crunchersDomain and range. Domain and Range Then vertical line test. Vertical Line Test ...

Arnold, Mrs.

2011-11-17

147

Fostering the Development of Quantitative Life Skills through Introductory Astronomy: Can it be Done?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present preliminary results from a student survey designed to test whether the all-important life skill of numeracy/quantitative literacy can be fostered and improved upon in college students through the vehicle of non-major introductory courses in Astronomy. Many instructors of introductory science courses for non-majors would state that a major goal of our classes is to teach our students to distinguish between science and pseudoscience, truth and fiction, in their everyday lives. It is difficult to believe that such a skill can truly be mastered without a fair amount of mathematical sophistication in the form of arithmetic, statistical and graph reading skills that many American college students unfortunately lack when they enter our classrooms. In teaching what is frequently their "terminal science course in life” can we instill in our students the numerical skills that they need to be savvy consumers, educated citizens and discerning interpreters of the ever-present polls, studies and surveys in which our society is awash? In what may well be their final opportunity to see applied mathematics in the classroom, can we impress upon them the importance of mathematical sophistication in interpreting the statistics that they are bombarded with by the media? Our study is in its second semester, and is designed to investigate to what extent it is possible to improve important quantitative skills in college students through a single semester introductory Astronomy course.

Follette, Katherine B.; McCarthy, D. W.

2012-01-01

148

Memory Skill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acquired memory skills best account for differences in memory performance. According to Chase and Ericsson's theory of skilled memory, improved memory or memory skills are due to the acquisition of more efficient storage and retrieval processes using long-term memory (LTM). Their theory specifies three principles which characterize the structure of memory skills. First, information rapidly stored in LTM is encoded

K. Anders Ericsson

1985-01-01

149

Bar Graph Sorter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students make bar graphs by sorting shapes either by shape or by color. This activity allows students to explore how to sort data to make bar graphs. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

150

Making "Photo" Graphs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Collecting data and analyzing the results of experiments is difficult for children. The authors found a surprising way to help their third graders make graphs and draw conclusions from their data: digital photographs. The pictures bridged the gap between an abstract graph and the plants it represented. With the support of the photos, students…

Doto, Julianne; Golbeck, Susan

2007-01-01

151

Real World Graph Connectivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present the topic of graph connectivity along with a famous theorem of Menger in the real-world setting of the national computer network infrastructure of "National LambdaRail". We include a set of exercises where students reinforce their understanding of graph connectivity by analysing the "National LambdaRail" network. Finally, we give…

Lind, Joy; Narayan, Darren

2009-01-01

152

Lesson 12: Graphing Parabolas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The lesson begins with an exploration of the family of graphs of y = ax^2, with an emphasis on tracking the changes in the y-values for differing values of the parameter a. The vertical shifts of y = ax^2 + c follow, leading into the graphs of y = ax^2 + bx and the derivation of the formula for the vertex.

2011-01-01

153

Validating Graph Drawing Aesthetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designers of graph drawing algorithms and systems claim to illuminate application data by producing layouts that optimize measurable aesthetic qualities. Examples of these aesthetics include symmetry (where possible, a symmetrical view of the graph should be displayed), minimize edge crossings (the number of edge crossings in the display should be minimized), and minimize bends (the total number of bends in

Helen C. Purchase; Robert F. Cohen; Murray I. James

1995-01-01

154

Graphing Electric Potential.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the powerful graphing ability of computer algebra systems (CAS) to create three-dimensional graphs or surface graphics of electric potentials. Provides equations along with examples of the printouts. Lists the programs Mathematica, Maple, Derive, Theorist, MathCad, and MATLAB as promising CAS systems. (MVL)|

De Jong, Marvin L.

1993-01-01

155

Drawing Graphs with GLEE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes novel methods we developed to lay out graphs using Sugiyama's scheme (16) in a tool named GLEE. The main contributions are: a heuristic for creating a graph layout with a given aspect ratio, an efficient method of edge-crossings counting while performing adjacent vertex swaps, and a simple and fast spline routing algorithm.

Lev Nachmanson; George G. Robertson; Bongshin Lee

2007-01-01

156

Graph Theory Tutorials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site includes: Introduction to Graph Theory, Euler Circuits and Paths, Coloring Problems, and Adjacency Matrices (under construction). Each section consists of an interactive tutorial discussing the basic concepts of graph theory. This site is useful for high school and college students.

Caldwell, Chris

2003-10-10

157

Multi Bar Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students enter in data to be represented in a double bar graph. Multi bar graphs allow the student to compare multiple characteristics of different subjects like population for different continents over time. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

158

Graphs and Tracks Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Graphs and Tracks Model allows instructors to create custom models of a ball rolling on a track with a variable shape. This EJS model was inspired by the Graphs and Tracks program by David Trowbridge. Instructors set the heights of the track segments and the model displays the motion of the ball. Optional displays, including position and velocity graphs, energy graphs, and data tables, can be added depending on the learning goals for the activity. Documents can aslo be added to the model to provide student instructions or activities. The customized simulation is then saved as a new jar file that can be redistributed. The Graphs and Tracks Model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2012-05-30

159

Instant graph routing: lightweight graph generation scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is one of the famous researching fields. There are many applications like Smart Grid, Automation Systems, etc. Especially, the ISA100.11a standard that is adapted to the wireless industrial monitoring and control system is most famous sensor network application. In this standard they are suggest a simple and reliable routing mechanism called by graph routing. However the

Yonghoon Chung; Ki-Hyung Kim; Seung-Wha Yoo

2011-01-01

160

Graph Structure Model  

SciTech Connect

The Graph Structure (GRPHSTRUC) Model is a software system tool specifically developed to be used by a computer security analyst to study the security and analyze the design of computer networks. However, any system that can be characterized and represented by a graph structure could employ GRPHSTRUC with some minor system modifications. The GRPHSTRUC model is a knowledge-based expert system using icons and object-oriented programming methodologies. GRPHSTRUC has been designed and developed to use classical graph theory and allow the display of components and links of a graph structure. A graph G = (V,E) is a structure that consists of a finite set of vertices V and a finite set of edges E. A computer network is a graph structure; the vertices are the components of the network and the edges are the links between components. The GRPHSTRUC model provides a user interface that is designed to give a user the ability to rapidly and efficiently represent graph components, connections, and relationships. 9 refs., 1 fig.

Dreicer, J.S.

1990-01-01

161

BUILDING THE NUMERACY SKILLS OF UNDERGRADUATE AND ELEMENTARY STUDENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will describe a project designed to enhance the numeracy skills of students at two educational levels - elementary and undergraduate. Under the guidance of the university students, students in grades four through six will formulate a research question, gather the appropriate data and summarize the data using graphs. The graphs along with a written summary of the project

Pam Boger

2002-01-01

162

The effect of real-time laboratory graphing on learning graphic representations of distance and velocity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article discusses a study which assessed the effect of a brief kinematics unit on: (1) students' ability to translate between a physical event and the graphic representation of it, and; (2) the effect of real-time on graphing skills. Reports the success of the use of a microcomputer-based laboratory with graphing velocity and distance.

Brasell, Heather

2006-05-23

163

Extensions of marginalized graph kernels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positive definite kernels between labeled graphs have recently been proposed. They enable the application of kernel methods, such as support vector machines, to the analysis and classification of graphs, for example, chemical compounds. These graph kernels are obtained by marginalizing a kernel between paths with respect to a random walk model on the graph vertices along the edges. We propose

Pierre Mahé; Nobuhisa Ueda; Tatsuya Akutsu; Jean-Luc Perret; Jean-Philippe Vert

2004-01-01

164

BIASED GRAPHS. IV. GEOMETRICAL REALIZATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gain graph is a graph whose oriented edges are labelled invertibly from a group G, the gain group. A gain graph determines a biased graph and therefore has three natural matroids (as shown in Parts I-II): the bias matroid G has connected circuits; the complete lift matroid L0 and its restriction to the edge set, the lift matroid L,

THOMAS ZASLAVSKY

2000-01-01

165

Attributed elementary programmed graph grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new mechanism for generating graph languages is introduced which is based on the controlled rewriting of graphs using only six elementary types of graph productions, namely the addition, the deletion and the renaming of a node or an edge. Although these elementary graph productions are acting strictly locally and no embedding transformations are needed, in the unrestricted and monotone

Rudolf Freund; Brigitte Haberstroh

166

Applications of Entropic Spanning Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents applications of entropic spanning graphs to imaging and feature clustering applications. Entropic spanning graphs span a set of feature vectors in such a way that the normalized spanning length of the graph converges to the entropy of the feature distribution as the number of random feature vectors increases. This property makes these graphs naturally suited to applications

Alfred Hero; Olivier Michel; John Gorman

2002-01-01

167

THE INFINITE LOCALLY RANDOM GRAPH  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate properties of a certain countably infl- nite graph called the inflnite locally random graph, written RN: The graph RN arises in the study of models for massive, self- organizing networks like the web graph. We characterize the iso- morphism type of RN as a limit of a random process, and via a domination elimination ordering. We prove that

MANUEL BODIRSKY; ANTHONY BONATO

168

Interpretation in medicine: An introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interpretation in medicine is both old and new: old in traditional medical practice and new in conceptual theory. Physicians in every culture have built reputations on skillful readings of signs and symptoms in their fellow humans, but only recently has there arisen shared scholarly reflection on the nature of interpretation as practiced by clinicians. It remains to be seen whether

Stephen L. Daniel

1990-01-01

169

Graph Theory with Applications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Written by J.A. Bondy and U.S.R. Murty of the Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris, this online 270-page textbook presents graph theory and its applications. The topics covered here include connectivity, independent sets and cliques, and planar and directed graphs. Each chapter has a list of references for further information, and most have exercises. Visitors can find the solution to those exercises in the Appendices here.

Bondy, J. A. (John Adrian); Murty, U. S.

1969-12-31

170

Linear Probing and Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

.    Mallows and Riordan showed in 1968 that labeled trees with a small number of inversions are related to labeled graphs that\\u000a are connected and sparse. Wright enumerated sparse connected graphs in 1977, and Kreweras related the inversions of trees\\u000a to the so-called ``parking problem'' in 1980. A combination of these three results leads to a surprisingly simple analysis

Donald E. Knuth

1998-01-01

171

Statistics and Graphing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Statistics play a vital role in the scientific enterprise. This activity provides background information and tutorials on basic statistics (mean, median, standard deviation, etc.) used in science. Topics include descriptive statistics (measures of central tendency and dispersion) and presenting data (tables, figures, and graphs). Sample datasets from actual scientific experiments are used to illustrate points. Links to an online statisitical tool and an online graphing application are also provided.

Laposata, Matt

172

Skill Set  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With competition to attract quality students into career and technical education programs and many entrants to the workforce inadequately prepared with employability skills, some community colleges have found a way to answer industry's call--they are launching SkillsUSA chapters on campus. In this article, the author features SkillsUSA, a…

Holdsworth, Tom

2007-01-01

173

Basic Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These four articles focus on developing basic reading, science, and job search skills: "Reading Program for Vocational Classes" by Augustus Luparelli; "Why Teach Employability Skills?" by Larry Siefferman; "Improving Vocabulary and Reading Skills" by Edythe Conway; and "Science in Everyday Life" by Virginia Eleazer and George Carney. (SK)

Luparelli, Augustus N.; And Others

1981-01-01

174

Direct reciprocity on graphs  

PubMed Central

Direct reciprocity is a mechanism for the evolution of cooperation based on the idea of repeated encounters between the same two individuals. Here we examine direct reciprocity in structured populations, where individuals occupy the vertices of a graph. The edges denote who interacts with whom. The graph represents spatial structure or a social network. For birth-death or pairwise comparison updating, we find that evolutionary stability of direct reciprocity is more restrictive on a graph than in a well-mixed population, but the condition for reciprocators to be advantageous is less restrictive on a graph. For death-birth and imitation updating, in contrast, both conditions are easier to fulfill on a graph. Moreover, for all four update mechanisms, reciprocators can dominate defectors on a graph, which is never possible in a well-mixed population. We also study the effect of an error rate, which increases with the number of links per individual; interacting with more people simultaneously enhances the probability of making mistakes. We provide analytic derivations for all results.

Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Nowak, Martin A.

2008-01-01

175

Communicating population health statistics through graphs: a randomised controlled trial of graph design interventions  

PubMed Central

Background Australian epidemiologists have recognised that lay readers have difficulty understanding statistical graphs in reports on population health. This study aimed to provide evidence for graph design improvements that increase comprehension by non-experts. Methods This was a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial of graph-design interventions, conducted as a postal survey. Control and intervention participants were randomly selected from telephone directories of health system employees. Eligible participants were on duty at the listed location during the study period. Controls received a booklet of 12 graphs from original publications, and intervention participants received a booklet of the same graphs with design modifications. A questionnaire with 39 interpretation tasks was included with the booklet. Interventions were assessed using the ratio of the prevalence of correct responses given by the intervention group to those given by the control group for each task. Results The response rate from 543 eligible participants (261 intervention and 282 control) was 67%. The prevalence of correct answers in the control group ranged from 13% for a task requiring knowledge of an acronym to 97% for a task identifying the largest category in a pie chart. Interventions producing the greatest improvement in comprehension were: changing a pie chart to a bar graph (3.6-fold increase in correct point reading), changing the y axis of a graph so that the upward direction represented an increase (2.9-fold increase in correct judgement of trend direction), a footnote to explain an acronym (2.5-fold increase in knowledge of the acronym), and matching the y axis range of two adjacent graphs (two-fold increase in correct comparison of the relative difference in prevalence between two population subgroups). Conclusion Profound population health messages can be lost through use of overly technical language and unfamiliar statistical measures. In our study, most participants did not understand age standardisation and confidence intervals. Inventive approaches are required to address this problem.

Muscatello, David J; Searles, Andrew; Macdonald, Robin; Jorm, Louisa

2006-01-01

176

Graph Theory Tutorials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Chris Caldwell of the University of Tennessee at Martin provides the Graph Theory Tutorials Website. Sections included at the site are Introduction to Graph Theory, Euler Circuits and Paths, Coloring Problems, and Adjacency Matrices (under construction). Each section consists of an interactive tutorial discussing the basic concepts of graph theory. Registration (press the REGISTER button at the bottom of first page of each tutorial) is required for each tutorial. The user must either pass a quiz in the tutorial section or write a comment before continuing to the next page. Links to related resources are also provided at the site. This site is useful for high school students and is definitely worth a visit.

177

Quantum Ergodicity on Graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the equidistribution of the eigenfunctions on quantum graphs in the high-energy limit. Our main result is an estimate of the deviations from equidistribution for large well-connected graphs. We use an exact field-theoretic expression in terms of a variant of the supersymmetric nonlinear ? model. Our estimate is based on a saddle-point analysis of this expression and leads to a criterion for when equidistribution emerges asymptotically in the limit of large graphs. Our theory predicts a rate of convergence that is a significant refinement of previous estimates, long assumed to be valid for quantum chaotic systems, agreeing with them in some situations but not all. We discuss specific examples for which the theory is tested numerically.

Gnutzmann, S.; Keating, J. P.; Piotet, F.

2008-12-01

178

Algebraic distance on graphs.  

SciTech Connect

Measuring the connection strength between a pair of vertices in a graph is one of the most important concerns in many graph applications. Simple measures such as edge weights may not be sufficient for capturing the effects associated with short paths of lengths greater than one. In this paper, we consider an iterative process that smooths an associated value for nearby vertices, and we present a measure of the local connection strength (called the algebraic distance; see [D. Ron, I. Safro, and A. Brandt, Multiscale Model. Simul., 9 (2011), pp. 407-423]) based on this process. The proposed measure is attractive in that the process is simple, linear, and easily parallelized. An analysis of the convergence property of the process reveals that the local neighborhoods play an important role in determining the connectivity between vertices. We demonstrate the practical effectiveness of the proposed measure through several combinatorial optimization problems on graphs and hypergraphs.

Chen, J.; Safro, I. (Mathematics and Computer Science); (Univ. of Minnesota)

2011-01-01

179

Subdominant pseudoultrametric on graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Let (G,w) be a weighted graph. We find necessary and sufficient conditions under which the weight w\\colon E(G)\\to {R}^+ can be extended to a pseudoultrametric on V(G), and establish a criterion for the uniqueness of such an extension. We demonstrate that (G,w) is a complete k-partite graph, for k \\geq 2, if and only if for any weight that can be extended to a pseudoultrametric, among all such extensions one can find the least pseudoultrametric consistent with w. We give a structural characterization of graphs for which the subdominant pseudoultrametric is an ultrametric for any strictly positive weight that can be extended to a pseudoultrametric. Bibliography: 14 titles.

Dovgoshei, A. A.; Petrov, E. A.

2013-08-01

180

Shop Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Shop Skills is a lesson plan which provides instruction in the safety procedures and work processes for hand and machine tools used in a metal machine shop. Specific skills include sawing, drilling, boring, grinding, lathing, and milling. After completing this module, students should be able to demonstrate proficiency in these skills through a variety of shop projects and in a final exercise that uses a combination of these skills. Note: This module is part of a modularized manufacturing technology curriculum created by the PSCME, found at www.pscme.org/educators.html.

2010-07-22

181

Graphing Stratospheric Ozone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is part of the Science Education Gateway (SEGway) project, funded by NASA, which is a national consortium of scientists, museums, and educators working together to bring the latest science to students, teachers, and the general public. This lesson uses NASA images of Antarctic ozone (from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, or TOMS) to motivate a how-to graphing lesson followed by more sophisticated examples of graphing using images from the Neumayer Antarctic Station. Links are provided for investigating current knowledge of the ozone layer, and the impact of human activity on this vital part of the Earth system.

Fetter, Neil

182

Equivalence between minimal generative model graphs and directed information graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new type of probabilistic graphical model, based on directed information, to represent the causal dynamics between processes in a stochastic system. We show the practical significance of such graphs by proving their equivalence to generative model graphs which succinctly summarize interde- pendencies for causal dynamical systems under mild assumptions. This equivalence means that directed information graphs may

Christopher J. Quinn; Negar Kiyavash; Todd P. Coleman

2011-01-01

183

Project on Teaching Charts and Graphs to ABE Students. Part I: Teacher's Guide [and] Part II: Transparency Assembly Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The teacher's guide and collection of transparency masters are designed for use in teaching adult basic education (ABE) students how to read and interpret graphs and charts. Covered in the individual lessons of the instructional unit are the reading and interpretation of charts as well as picture, line, bar, and circle graphs. Each unit contains…

Renton Vocational Inst., WA.

184

Distance Versus Time Graphs 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This inquiry activity should be used before students learn about velocity and distance versus time graphs. Students will discover how the slope of a distance versus time graph is related to the speed of the object.

Horton, Michael

2009-05-30

185

Bisimilarity in Term Graph Rewriting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We present a survey of confluence properties of (acyclic) term graph rewriting. Results and counterexamples are given for different kinds of term graph rewriting - besides plain applications of rewrite rules, extensions with the operations of collapsing a...

D. Plump J. W. Klop Z. M. Ariola

1998-01-01

186

AGG: A Graph Transformation Environment for Modeling and Validation of Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a AGG is a general development environment for algebraic graph transformation systems which follows the interpretative approach.\\u000a Its special power comes from a very flexible attribution concept. AGG graphs are allowed to be attributed by any kind of Java\\u000a objects. Graph transformations can be equipped with arbitrary computations on these Java objects described by a Java expression.\\u000a The AGG environment consists of a graphical user

Gabriele Taentzer

2003-01-01

187

Quantitative Literacy: Working with Log Graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for working with and understanding different types of graphs is a common occurrence in everyday life. Examples include anything having to do investments, being an educated juror in a case that involves evidence presented graphically, and understanding many aspect of our current political discourse. Within a science class graphs play a crucial role in presenting and interpreting data. In astronomy, where the range of graphed values is many orders of magnitude, log-axes must be used and understood. Experience shows that students do not understand how to read and interpret log-axes or how they differ from linear. Alters (1996), in a study of college students in an algebra-based physics class, found little understanding of log plotting. The purpose of this poster is to show the method and progression I have developed for use in my “ASTRO 101” class, with the goal being to help students better understand the H-R diagram, mass-luminosity relationship, and digital spectra.

Shawl, S.

2013-04-01

188

Quantum walks on quotient graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A discrete-time quantum walk on a graph ? is the repeated application of a unitary evolution operator to a Hilbert space corresponding to the graph. If this unitary evolution operator has an associated group of symmetries, then for certain initial states the walk will be confined to a subspace of the original Hilbert space. Symmetries of the original graph, given by its automorphism group, can be inherited by the evolution operator. We show that a quantum walk confined to the subspace corresponding to this symmetry group can be seen as a different quantum walk on a smaller quotient graph. We give an explicit construction of the quotient graph for any subgroup H of the automorphism group and illustrate it with examples. The automorphisms of the quotient graph which are inherited from the original graph are the original automorphism group modulo the subgroup H used to construct it. The quotient graph is constructed by removing the symmetries of the subgroup H from the original graph. We then analyze the behavior of hitting times on quotient graphs. Hitting time is the average time it takes a walk to reach a given final vertex from a given initial vertex. It has been shown in earlier work [Phys. Rev. A 74, 042334 (2006)] that the hitting time for certain initial states of a quantum walks can be infinite, in contrast to classical random walks. We give a condition which determines whether the quotient graph has infinite hitting times given that they exist in the original graph. We apply this condition for the examples discussed and determine which quotient graphs have infinite hitting times. All known examples of quantum walks with hitting times which are short compared to classical random walks correspond to systems with quotient graphs much smaller than the original graph; we conjecture that the existence of a small quotient graph with finite hitting times is necessary for a walk to exhibit a quantum speedup.

Krovi, Hari; Brun, Todd A.

2007-06-01

189

Tough graphs and hamiltonian circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toughness of a graph G is defined as the largest real number t such that deletion of any s points from G results in a graph which is either connected or else has at most s\\/t components. Clearly, every hamiltonian graph is 1-tough. Conversely, we conjecture that for some t0, every t0-tough graph is hamiltonian. Since a square of

Vasek Chvátal

2006-01-01

190

Biased graphs IV: Geometrical realizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gain graph is a graph whose oriented edges are labelled invertibly from a group G, the gain group. A gain graph determines a biased graph and therefore has three natural matroids (as shown in Parts I and II): the bias matroidG has connected circuits; the complete lift matroidL0 and its restriction to the edge set, the lift matroidL, have

Thomas Zaslavsky

2003-01-01

191

Pseudo-Hamiltonian-connected graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given a graph G and a positive integer k, denote by G(k) the graph obtained from G by replacing each vertex of G with an independent set of size k. A graph G is called pseudo-k Hamiltonian-connected if G(k) is Hamiltonian-connected, i.e., every two distinct vertices of G(k) are connected by a Hamiltonian path. A graph G is called pseudo

Gerard J. Chang; Xuding Zhu

192

Pseudo-Hamiltonian-connected graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Given a graph G and a positive integer k, denote by G[k] the graph obtained from G by replacing each vertex of G with an independent set of size k. A graph G is called pseudo-k Hamiltonian-connected if G[k] is Hamiltonian-connected, i.e., every two distinct vertices of G[k] are connected by a Hamiltonian path. A graph G is called

Gerard J. Chang; Xuding Zhu

2000-01-01

193

Straight Line Graphs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author shares one effective lesson idea on straight line graphs that he applied in his lower ability Y9 class. The author wanted something interesting for his class to do, something that was fun and engaging with direct feedback, and something that worked because someone else had tried it before. In a word, the author admits…

Krueger, Tom

2010-01-01

194

What is a Graph?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past few years, the subject of graph theory (or network analysis) has come very much to the fore, not only as an important mathematical discipline in its own right, but also as a useful mathematical tool in a wide variety of subjects, ranging from organic chemistry and probability, through operational research and geography, to sociology and linguistics. In

Robin J. Wilson

1972-01-01

195

Distance-Time Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes a distance-time graph, how it compares to the equation for a line, and uses equations to calculate speed and slope. The steps and relationships are clear and specific, and the problems are solved using both graphic and computational methods.

2000-01-01

196

Graphing Linear Equations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Elizabeth Stapel at Purplemath, this module helps students understand how to graph linear equations by making a neat T-chart, finding plot points, plotting points, and drawing the line. There are four pages in this module with clear, systematically presented, step-by-step instructions and plenty of examples and illustrations to help students along.

Stapel, Elizabeth

2000-04-14

197

Coloring geographical threshold graphs  

SciTech Connect

We propose a coloring algorithm for sparse random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). Here, we analyze the GTG coloring algorithm together with the graph's clique number, showing formally that in spite of the differences in structure between GTG and RGG, the asymptotic behavior of the chromatic number is identical: {chi}1n 1n n / 1n n (1 + {omicron}(1)). Finally, we consider the leading corrections to this expression, again using the coloring algorithm and clique number to provide bounds on the chromatic number. We show that the gap between the lower and upper bound is within C 1n n / (1n 1n n){sup 2}, and specify the constant C.

Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Percus, Allon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Muller, Tobias [EINDHOVEN UNIV. OF TECH

2008-01-01

198

Belief Update Using Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a form of update based on the minimization of the geodesic distance on a graph. We provide a characterization of this class using set- theoretic operators and show that such operators bijectively correspond to geodesic metrics. As distance is generated by distinguishability, our framework is appropriate in contexts where distance is generated

Konstantinos Georgatos

2008-01-01

199

A Note on Hamiltonian Graphs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since 1952, several well-known graph theorists have proven numerous results regarding Hamiltonian graphs. In fact, many elementary graph theory textbooks contain the theorems of Ore, Bondy and Chvatal, Chvatal and Erdos, Posa, and Dirac, to name a few. In this note, the authors state and prove some propositions of their own concerning Hamiltonian…

Skurnick, Ronald; Davi, Charles; Skurnick, Mia

2005-01-01

200

Mississippi State Physics Labs: Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This inquiry-based lab for introductory physics courses explores the purpose of graphs. Students measure simple circular objects and blocks, graph the data, and look for relationships in the graphs. The lab was designed to help students discover the advantage of using graphical representations to understand numerical relationships. This material is part of a larger collection of introductory physics labs.

Ferguson, Joe; Denson, Jack

2008-09-08

201

Layout Problems on Lattice Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work deals with bounds on the cost of layout problems for lattice graphs and random lattice graphs. Our main result in this paper is a convergence theorem for the optimal cost of the Minim um Linear Arrangement problem and the Minimum Sum Cut problem, for the case where the underlying graph is obtained through a subcritical site percolation process.

Josep Díaz; Mathew D. Penrose; Jordi Petit; Maria J. Serna

1999-01-01

202

Cognitive measurements of graph aesthetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large class of diagrams can be informally characterized as node-link diagrams. Typically nodes represent entities, and links represent relationships between them. The discipline of graph drawing is concerned with methods for drawing abstract versions of such diagrams. At the foundation of the disci- pline are a set of graph aesthetics (rules for graph layout) that, it is assumed, will

Colin Ware; Helen C. Purchase; Linda Colpoys; Matthew Mcgill

2002-01-01

203

Graph-Drawing Contest Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the Fifth Annual Graph Drawing Con- test, held in conjunction with the 1998 Graph Drawing Symposium in Montreal, Canada. The purpose of the contest is to monitor and chal- lenge the current state of the art in graph-drawing technology (4, 5, 6, 7).

Peter Eades; Joe Marks; Petra Mutzel; Stephen C. North

1998-01-01

204

Embedding of Cycles in Arrangement Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arrangement graphs have been proposed as an attractive interconnection topology for large multiprocessor systems. The authors study these graphs by proving the existence of Hamiltonian cycles in any arrangement graph. They also prove that an arrangement graph contains cycles of all lengths ranging between 3 and the size of the graph. They show that an arrangement graph can be decomposed

Khaled Day; Anand R. Tripathi

1993-01-01

205

Modified risk graph method using fuzzy rule-based approach.  

PubMed

The risk graph is one of the most popular methods used to determine the safety integrity level for safety instrumented functions. However, conventional risk graph as described in the IEC 61508 standard is subjective and suffers from an interpretation problem of risk parameters. Thus, it can lead to inconsistent outcomes that may result in conservative SILs. To overcome this difficulty, a modified risk graph using fuzzy rule-based system is proposed. This novel version of risk graph uses fuzzy scales to assess risk parameters and calibration may be made by varying risk parameter values. Furthermore, the outcomes which are numerical values of risk reduction factor (the inverse of the probability of failure on demand) can be compared directly with those given by quantitative and semi-quantitative methods such as fault tree analysis (FTA), quantitative risk assessment (QRA) and layers of protection analysis (LOPA). PMID:18835093

Nait-Said, R; Zidani, F; Ouzraoui, N

2008-08-30

206

Comparison of Student Understanding of Line Graph Slope in Physics and Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study gives an insight into the differences between student understanding of line graph slope in the context of physics (kinematics) and mathematics. Two pairs of parallel physics and mathematics questions that involved estimation and interpretation of line graph slope were constructed and administered to 114 Croatian second year high school…

Planinic, Maja; Milin-Sipus, Zeljka; Katic, Helena; Susac, Ana; Ivanjek, Lana

2012-01-01

207

Interpreting Math  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is to give you practice preparing for and interpreting in math education settings. 1. Activate your extra linguistic knowledge (ELK) in preparation for interpreting a math lesson. Visit the Solving Equations website and familiarize yourself with the steps for solving linear equations. Clarify any concepts you do not understand. (Remember that you cannot interpret what you do not understand.) Solving Equations 2. Begin working on ...

2007-10-01

208

Manual Refinement System for Graph-Based Segmentation Results in the Medical Domain  

PubMed Central

The basic principle of graph-based approaches for image segmentation is to interpret an image as a graph, where the nodes of the graph represent 2D pixels or 3D voxels of the image. The weighted edges of the graph are obtained by intensity differences in the image. Once the graph is constructed, the minimal cost closed set on the graph can be computed via a polynomial time s-t cut, dividing the graph into two parts: the object and the background. However, no segmentation method provides perfect results, so additional manual editing is required, especially in the sensitive field of medical image processing. In this study, we present a manual refinement method that takes advantage of the basic design of graph-based image segmentation algorithms. Our approach restricts a graph-cut by using additional user-defined seed points to set up fixed nodes in the graph. The advantage is that manual edits can be integrated intuitively and quickly into the segmentation result of a graph-based approach. The method can be applied to both 2D and 3D objects that have to be segmented. Experimental results for synthetic and real images are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of our approach.

Colen, Rivka R.; Freisleben, Bernd; Nimsky, Christopher

2013-01-01

209

Basic visual observation skills training course: Appendix B. Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the basic visual observation skills course is to help safeguards inspectors evaluate and improve their skills in making observations during inspections and in evaluating and interpreting this information. The first 12 hours of the course pr...

J. L. Toquam F. A. Morris J. R. Griggs

1995-01-01

210

Graph Theoretical Model of a Sensorimotor Connectome in Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Mapping the detailed connectivity patterns (connectomes) of neural circuits is a central goal of neuroscience. The best quantitative approach to analyzing connectome data is still unclear but graph theory has been used with success. We present a graph theoretical model of the posterior lateral line sensorimotor pathway in zebrafish. The model includes 2,616 neurons and 167,114 synaptic connections. Model neurons represent known cell types in zebrafish larvae, and connections were set stochastically following rules based on biological literature. Thus, our model is a uniquely detailed computational representation of a vertebrate connectome. The connectome has low overall connection density, with 2.45% of all possible connections, a value within the physiological range. We used graph theoretical tools to compare the zebrafish connectome graph to small-world, random and structured random graphs of the same size. For each type of graph, 100 randomly generated instantiations were considered. Degree distribution (the number of connections per neuron) varied more in the zebrafish graph than in same size graphs with less biological detail. There was high local clustering and a short average path length between nodes, implying a small-world structure similar to other neural connectomes and complex networks. The graph was found not to be scale-free, in agreement with some other neural connectomes. An experimental lesion was performed that targeted three model brain neurons, including the Mauthner neuron, known to control fast escape turns. The lesion decreased the number of short paths between sensory and motor neurons analogous to the behavioral effects of the same lesion in zebrafish. This model is expandable and can be used to organize and interpret a growing database of information on the zebrafish connectome.

Stobb, Michael; Peterson, Joshua M.; Mazzag, Borbala; Gahtan, Ethan

2012-01-01

211

Towards scalable RDF graph analytics on MapReduce  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to exploit the growing amount of RDF data in decision-making, there is an increasing demand for analytics-style processing of such data. RDF data is modeled as a labeled graph that represents a collection of binary relations (triples). In this context, analytical queries can be interpreted as consisting of three main constructs namely pattern matching, grouping and aggregation, and

Padmashree Ravindra; Vikas V. Deshpande; Kemafor Anyanwu

2010-01-01

212

Lung segmentation with graph cuts: Graph size versus performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of graph size on segmentation performance and speed is investigated, where segmentation is based on the graph cuts algorithm. The study is performed on lung extraction in 50 complete multi detector computed tomography (MDCT) datasets, and a fully automatic procedure. The experiments were performed on different graph sizes for both 2-D (4 and 8 neighbours) and 3-D (6 and 26 neighbours) graphs. Five slices from each segmented dataset were compared to the reference delineation provided by a radiologist. Our evaluations highlight the fact that when medical image segmentation is performed using graph cuts, increasing graph and neighbourhood connection size does not necessarily improve the segmentation performance, but also increase the running time dramatically.

Pazokifard, Banafsheh; Sowmya, Arcot

2013-10-01

213

Generative Graph Grammar of Neo-Vai?e?ika Formal Ontology (NVFO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NLP applications for Sanskrit so far work within computational paradigm of string grammars. However, to compute 'meanings', as in traditional ?? bdabodha prakriy?-s, there is a need to develop suitable graph grammars. Ontological structures are fundamentally graphs. We work within the formal framework of Neo-Vai?e?ika Formal Ontology (NVFO) to propose a generative graph grammar. The proposed formal grammar only produces well-formed graphs that can be readily interpreted in accordance with Vai?e? ika Ontology. We show that graphs not permitted by Vai?e? ika ontology are not generated by the proposed grammar. Further, we write Interpreter of these graphical structures. This creates computational environment which can be deployed for writing computational applications of Vai?e? ika ontology. We illustrate how this environment can be used to create applications like computing ?? bdabodha of sentences.

Tavva, Rajesh; Singh, Navjyoti

214

Can Pediatric Residents Interpret Electrocardiograms?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess the electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretation skills of pediatric residents in a controlled environment and determine if the level of residency training (intern vs senior) improves accuracy. A list of ECG diagnoses was provided to four pediatric residency educators with instructions to categorize each diagnosis as follows: I, all residents; II, the majority of

C. S. Snyder; J. T. Bricker; A. L. Fenrich; R. A. Friedman; G. L. Rosenthal; C. L. Johnsrude; C. Kertesz; N. J. Kertesz

2005-01-01

215

Design Document. EKG Interpretation Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This teaching plan is designed to assist nursing instructors assigned to advanced medical surgical nursing courses in acquainting students with the basic skills needed to perform electrocardiographic (ECG or EKG) interpretations. The first part of the teaching plan contains a statement of purpose; audience recommendations; a flow chart detailing…

Webb, Sandra M.

216

Longest Path Problems on Ptolemaic Graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Longest path problem is a problem for finding a longest path in a given graph. While the graph classes in which the Hamiltonian path problem can be solved efficiently are widely investigated, there are few known graph classes such that the longest path problem can be solved efficiently. Polynomial time algorithms for finding a longest cycle and a longest path in a Ptolemaic graph are proposed. Ptolemaic graphs are the graphs that satisfy the Ptolemy inequality, and they are the intersection of chordal graphs and distance-hereditary graphs. The algorithms use the dynamic programming technique on a laminar structure of cliques, which is a recent characterization of Ptolemaic graphs.

Takahara, Yoshihiro; Teramoto, Sachio; Uehara, Ryuhei

217

Noncommuting graph of a group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let G be a non-abelian group and let Z(G) be the center of G. Associate a graph ?G (called non-commuting graph of G) with G as follows: Take G\\\\Z(G) as the vertices of ?G and join two distinct vertices x and y, whenever xy?yx. We want to explore how the graph theoretical properties of ?G can effect on the group

A. Abdollahi; S. Akbari; H. R. Maimani

2006-01-01

218

Concept Graphs and Predicate Logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the ICCS 2000 proceedings we introduced negation to simple concept graphs without generic markers by adding cuts to their definition. The aim of this paper is to extend this approach of cuts to simple concept graphs with generic markers. For these graphs, a set-theoretical semantics is presented. After this a modification of Peirce’s beta-calculus\\u000a is provided, and definitions for

Frithjof Dau

2001-01-01

219

TGFF: task graphs for free  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a user-controllable, general-purpose,pseudorandom task graph generator called TaskGraphs For Free (TGFF). TGFF creates probleminstances for use in allocation and scheduling research.It has the ability to generate independenttasks as well as task sets which are composed of partiallyordered task graphs. A complete description ofa scheduling problem instance is created, includingattributes for processors, communication resources,tasks, and inter-task communication. The user...

Robert P. Dick; David L. Rhodes; Wayne Wolf

1998-01-01

220

Graph-Drawing Contest Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

. This report describes the Sixth Annual Graph Drawing Contest,held in conjunction with the 1999 Graph Drawing Symposiumin Prague, Czech Republic. The purpose of the contest is to monitorand challenge the current state of the art in graph-drawing technology[2, 3, 5, 6, 4].1 IntroductionText descriptions of the four categories for the 1999 contest are available via theWorld Wide Web (WWW)

Franz-josef Brandenburg; Michael Jünger; Joe Marks; Petra Mutzel; Falk Schreiber

1999-01-01

221

Spectra of lifted Ramanujan graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A random $n$-lift of a base graph $G$ is its cover graph $H$ on the vertices $[n]\\\\times V(G)$, where for each edge $u v$ in $G$ there is an independent uniform bijection $\\\\pi$, and $H$ has all edges of the form $(i,u),(\\\\pi(i),v)$. A main motivation for studying lifts is understanding Ramanujan graphs, and namely whether typical covers of such a

Eyal Lubetzky; Benny Sudakov; Van Vu

2009-01-01

222

Flexible Comparison of Conceptual Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conceptual graphs allow for powerful and computationally affordable representation of the semantic contents of natural language\\u000a texts. We propose a method of comparison (approximate matching) of conceptual graphs. The method takes into account synonymy\\u000a and subtype\\/supertype relationships between the concepts and relations used in the conceptual graphs, thus allowing for greater\\u000a flexibility of approximate matching. The method also allows the

M. Montes-y-Gómez; A. Gelbukh; A. López-López; R. Baeza-Yates

223

Interpretive Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an interpretative experiment involving the application of symmetry and temperature-dependent proton and fluorine nmr spectroscopy to the solution of structural and kinetic problems in coordination chemistry. (MLH)|

DeHaan, Frank, Ed.

1977-01-01

224

Positive and Unlabeled Learning for Graph Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of graph classification has drawn much attention in the last decade. Conventional approaches on graph classification focus on mining discriminative sub graph features under supervised settings. The feature selection strategies strictly follow the assumption that both positive and negative graphs exist. However, in many real-world applications, the negative graph examples are not available. In this paper we study

Yuchen Zhao; Xiangnan Kong; Philip S. Yu

2011-01-01

225

Graph Grammar Engineering: A Software Specification Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graphs as conceptual data models are accepted and used in a wide range of different problem areas. Giving some examples we outline common aspects for modeling complex structures by graphs. We present a formal frame-work based on graph grammars to specify graph classes and the corresponding graph manipulations. We show that such a specification can be written in a systematic,

Gregor Engels; Claus Lewerentz I; Wilhelm Schäfer

1986-01-01

226

Forces and Graphing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity can be used to explore forces acting on an object, to practice graphing experimental data, and/or to introduce the algebra concepts of slope and intercept of a line. A wooden 2x4 beam is set on top of two scales. Students learn how to conduct an experiment by applying loads at different locations along the beam, recording the exact position of the applied load and the reaction forces measured by the scales at each end of the beam. In addition, students will analyze the experiment data with the use of a chart and a table and model linear equations to describe relationships between independent and dependent variables.

Center For Engineering And Computing Education

227

SNPEVG: a graphical tool for GWAS graphing with mouse clicks  

PubMed Central

Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generate large quantities of tests results. Global and local graphical viewing of the test results is an effective approach to digest and interpret GWAS results. Results SNPEVG is a set of graphical tools for instant global and local viewing and graphing of GWAS results for all chromosomes and for each trait. The current version includes three programs, SNPEVG1, SNPEVG2 and SNPEVG3. SNPEVG1 is a graphical tool for SNP effect viewing of P-values allowing multiple traits. The total number of graphs that can be generated by one ‘Run’ is n(c + 2), where n is number of ‘traits’ with 0 < n ? 100, and c is the number of chromosomes. SNP effect viewing and graphing is accomplished through a user friendly graphical user interface (GUI) that provides a wide-range of options for the user to choose. The GUI can produce the Manhattan plot, the Q-Q plot of all SNP effects, and graphs for SNP effects by chromosome by clicking one command. Any or all the graphs can be saved with publication quality by clicking one command. SNPEVG2 is for the viewing and graphing of multiple traits on the same graph with options to graph any or all of the traits, customizable colors and user specified Y1 or Y2 axis for each traits. The SNPEVG3 program uses the output file of single-locus test results from the epiSNP computer package as the input file. Each chromosome figure can display three genetic effects (genotypic, additive and dominance effects), and the number of observations. Conclusions The SNPEVG package is a versatile, flexible and efficient graphical tool for rapid digestion of large quantities of GWAS results with mouse clicks.

2012-01-01

228

GraphML specializations to codify ancestral recombinant graphs  

PubMed Central

Software which simulates, infers, or analyzes ancestral recombination graphs (ARGs) faces the problem of communicating them. Existing formats omit information either about the location of recombinations along the chromosome or the position of recombinations relative to the branching topology. We present a specialization of GraphML, an XML-based standard for mathematical graphs, for communication of ARGs. The GraphML type is specialized to contain the node type, time, recombination location, and name. The GraphML type is specialized to contain the ancestral material passed along that edge. This approach, which we call ArgML, retains all information in the original ARG. Due to its use of established formats ArgML can be parsed, checked and displayed by existing software.

McGill, James R.; Walkup, Elizabeth A.; Kuhner, Mary K.

2013-01-01

229

Sharing Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three articles describe methods for teaching library skills. The first presents a song used to teach students the Dewey Decimal system; the second describes a reading program incorporating Halloween and foreign countries; and the third includes short poems designed to teach students to care for library books properly. (CLB)

Mealy, Virginia; And Others

1987-01-01

230

Sharing Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three articles describe methods for teaching library skills. The first presents a song used to teach students the Dewey Decimal system; the second describes a reading program incorporating Halloween and foreign countries; and the third includes short poems designed to teach students to care for library books properly. (CLB)|

Mealy, Virginia; And Others

1987-01-01

231

Skills Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The services of the Living Skills Center for the Visually Handicapped, a habilitative service for blind young adults, are described. It is explained that the Center houses its participants in their own apartments in a large complex and has served over 70 young people in 4 years. The evaluation section describes such assessment instruments as an…

Canter, Patricia; And Others

232

Coping Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A high school program is described that uses an informal survey to help teachers identify potential academic, social, and career oriented problems facing mainstreamed handicapped students. These problems and suggested intervention procedures are listed for study/coping skills of time management, memory systems, listening ability, compensatory…

D'Zamko, Mary Elizabeth; And Others

233

Coping Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This annotated bibliography lists approximately 150 braille books and 300 audiocassettes of books which address coping skills for people in a variety of situations. All items listed are available in the network library collections provided by the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped of the Library of Congress.…

Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

234

Comparing pedigree graphs.  

PubMed

Pedigree graphs, or family trees, are typically constructed by an expensive process of examining genealogical records to determine which pairs of individuals are parent and child. New methods to automate this process take as input genetic data from a set of extant individuals and reconstruct ancestral individuals. There is a great need to evaluate the quality of these methods by comparing the estimated pedigree to the true pedigree. In this article, we consider two main pedigree comparison problems. The first is the pedigree isomorphism problem, for which we present a linear-time algorithm for leaf-labeled pedigrees. The second is the pedigree edit distance problem, for which we present (1) several algorithms that are fast and exact in various special cases, and (2) a general, randomized heuristic algorithm. In the negative direction, we first prove that the pedigree isomorphism problem is as hard as the general graph isomorphism problem, and that the sub-pedigree isomorphism problem is NP-hard. We then show that the pedigree edit distance problem is APX-hard in general and NP-hard on leaf-labeled pedigrees. We use simulated pedigrees to compare our edit-distance algorithms to each other as well as to a branch-and-bound algorithm that always finds an optimal solution. PMID:22897201

Kirkpatrick, Bonnie; Reshef, Yakir; Finucane, Hilary; Jiang, Haitao; Zhu, Binhai; Karp, Richard M

2012-08-16

235

Graph structure for image segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unified framework for grey value and texture segmentation has been developed. It makes use of a special graph structure (feature similarity graph - FSG) which is based on a feature similarity criterion and a feature smoothing procedure applied in each layer of the network. The feature similarity criterion reflects the fact that not the features themselves but their differences

Herbert Jahn

1997-01-01

236

Entropic Graphs for Manifold Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new algorithm that simultaneously estimates the intrinsic dimension and intrinsic entropy of random data sets lying on smooth manifolds. The method is based on asymptotic properties of entropic graph constructions. In particular, we compute the Euclidean -nearest neighbors ( - NN) graph over the sample points and use its overall total edge length to estimate intrinsic dimension

Jose A. Costa; Alfred O. Hero

2009-01-01

237

Marginalized Kernels Between Labeled Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new kernel function between two labeled graphs is presented. Feature vectors are de- fined as the counts of label paths produced by random walks on graphs. The kernel com- putation finally boils down to obtaining the stationary state of a discrete-time linear sys- tem, thus is eciently performed by solv- ing simultaneous linear equations. Our ker- nel is based

Hisashi Kashima; Koji Tsuda; Akihiro Inokuchi

2003-01-01

238

Unsupervised Clustering Using Graph Transduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a graph-based iterative algorithm for clustering task. The existing literatures in this domain often use the distance measure between the testing data point individual which is proved not enough in the real applications. In this paper, we think about the core concept in semi-supervised learning method, and use a graph to reflect the original distance measure, and combine

Jun Chen; Yu Zhou; Zhijun Yao; Linbo Luo; Bo Wang; Wenyu Liu

2010-01-01

239

Science Sampler: Walking Out Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the Walking Out Graphs Lesson described here, students experience several types of representations used to describe motion, including words, sentences, equations, graphs, data tables, and actions. The most important theme of this lesson is that students have to understand the consistency among these representations and form the habit of transforming among these representation (Shen and Confrey 2007).

Shen, Ji

2009-12-01

240

On the Perfect Graph Theorem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In a recent paper L. Lovasz has settled in the affirmative a conjecture due to Berge that had been outstanding in graph theory for over a decade, the perfect graph conjecture. In an earlier paper the author had obtained a closely related result, the plupe...

D. R. Fulkerson

1972-01-01

241

EIA publications manual: Statistical graphs  

SciTech Connect

Statistical graphs both illustrate a set of data and provide an analytical perspective. The distinction between these two functions is one of emphasis. Where the purpose of a graph is to dramatize or highlight a set of data, its primary function is illustration. Where the purpose of a graph is to explore, measure, calculate, and derive relationships, the primary function of the graph is analytical. In general practice, these two functions can be so interdependent as to be indistinguishable. The following guidelines are intended to aid in resolving problems common to the presentation of data in statistical graphs. The variety and complexity of data to be presented call for a flexible approach; therefore, the following examples are intended not as inflexible specifications but rather as guides to the design of graphs that are attractive and easily understood. All the types of graphs discussed here have appeared in EIA publications. A list of references that provides further examples is included. Also included is a glossary of statistical terms used in discussing the statistical properties of different types of graphs. 11 refs., 24 figs.

Not Available

1985-04-01

242

Fingerprint identification using graph matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new algorithm for automated fingerprint encoding and matching is presented. The algorithm is intended to be insensitive to imperfections introduced during fingerprint registration, such as noise. distortion and displacement. A fingerprint is represented in the form of a graph whose nodes correspond to ridges in the print. Edges of the graph connect nodes that represent neighboring or intersecting ridges.

D. K. Isenor; Safwat G. Zaky

1986-01-01

243

Restrained domination in unicyclic graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let G = (V,E) be a graph. A set S V is a restrained dominating set if every vertex in V S is adjacent to a vertex in S and to a vertex in V S. The restrained domination number of G, denoted by r(G), is the minimum cardinality of a restrained dominating set of G. A unicyclic graph is

Johannes H. Hattingh; Ernst J. Joubert; Marc Loizeaux; Andrew R. Plummer; Lucas van der Merwe

244

Energy Models for Graph Clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cluster structure of many real-world graphs is of great interest, as the clusters may correspond e.g. to communities in social networks or to cohesive modules in software systems. Layouts can naturally represent the cluster structure of graphs by grouping densely connected nodes and separating sparsely connected nodes. This article introduces two energy models whose minimum energy layouts represent the

Andreas Noack

2007-01-01

245

Partial Evaluation Using Dependence Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis describes the use of program dependence graphs, as opposed to control flow graphs, as the basis for the partial evaluation of imperative programs. Partial evaluation is a program specialization operation in which programs with multiple inputs are specialized to take into account known values for some of their inputs. Thus, the result of partially evaluating a program given

Manuvir Das

1998-01-01

246

Chameleon Graphing: The Coordinate Plane  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web unit introduces the coordinate plane with the help of Sam the Chameleon, who illustrates how to find points on a number line and graph points in the coordinate plane. A link to a Java applet for graphing with Sam is included.

Whitcher, Ursula

2000-01-01

247

Expander graphs and their applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Overview A major consideration we had in writing this survey was to make it accessible to mathematicians as well as to computer scientists, since expander graphs ,t he protagonists of our story, come up in numerous and often surprising contexts in both fields. But, perhaps, we should start with a few words about graphs in general. They are, of

Shlomo Hoory; Nathan Linial; Avi Wigderson

2006-01-01

248

Separating Graph Logic from MSO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graph logic (GL) is a spatial logic for querying graphs intro- duced by Cardelli et al. It has been observed that in terms of expressive power, this logic is a fragment of Monadic Second Order Logic (MSO), with quantication over sets of edges. We show that the containment is proper by exhibiting a property that is not GL denable but

Timos Antonopoulos; Anuj Dawar

2009-01-01

249

Text mining with conceptual graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for conceptual clustering of a collection of texts represented with conceptual graphs is presented. It uses an incremental strategy to construct the cluster hierarchy and incorporates some characteristics attractive for text mining purposes. For instance, it considers the structural information of the graphs, uses domain knowledge to detect the clusters with generalized descriptions, and uses a user-defined similarity

M. Montes-Y-Gomez; A. Gelbukh; A. Lopez-Lopez; R. Baeza-Yates

2001-01-01

250

TEXT MINING WITH CONCEPTUAL GRAPHS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for conceptual clustering of a collection of texts represented with conceptual graphs is presented. It uses the incremental strategy to construct the clus- ter hierarchy and incorporates some characteristics attractive for text mining proposes. For instance, it considers the structural information of the graphs, uses domain knowledge to detect the clusters with generalized descriptions, and uses a user-defined

M. MONTES-Y-GÓMEZ; A. GELBUKH; A. LÓPEZ-LÓPEZ; R. BAEZA-YATES

251

Graphs as Statements of Belief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Identifies points where beliefs are important when making decisions about how graphs are drawn. Describes a simple case of the reaction between 'bicarb soda' and orange or lemon juice and discusses how drawing a graph becomes a statement of belief. (KHR)|

Lake, David

2002-01-01

252

A SIMPLE INFINITE QUANTUM GRAPH  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the Schrödinger equation on an infinite metric graph where the Hamiltonian is given by a suitable one-dimensional Dirichlet Laplacian. The metric structure is defined by assigning an interval In = (0,ln), n 2 N, to each edge of the graph with ln = n. The spectrum of this system is purely discrete with the eigenvalues given by n

SEBASTIAN ENDRES; FRANK STEINER

253

Graphing and the Coordinate Plane  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to graphing coordinates and lines in the Cartesian coordinate plane. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to graphing as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one.

2010-01-01

254

Graphing Slope-Intercept Equations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This step by step lesson from Math Ops demonstrates graphing slope-intercept equations. Students can read the text on each slide or follow along as it is read out loud. Four examples are given along with detailed instructions on how to graph this type of equation.

2011-01-01

255

Characterizations of Reducible Flow Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is established that if G is a reducible flow graph, then edge (n, m) is backward (a back latch) if and only if either n = m or m dominates n in G. Thus, the backward edges of a reducible flow graph are unique.Further characterizations of reducibility are presented. In particular, the following are equivalent: (a) G = (N,

Matthew S. Hecht; Jeffrey D. Ullman

1974-01-01

256

Edge-pancyclicity of coupled graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coupled graph c(G) of a plane graph G is the graph de.ned on the vertex set V (G)?F(G) so that two vertices in c(G) are joined byan edge if and onlyif theyare adjacent or incident in G. We prove that the coupled graph of a 2-connected plane graph is edge-pancyclic. However, there exists a 2-edge-connected plane graph G such

Ko-Wei Liha; Song Zengmin; Wang Weifan; Zhang Kemin

257

Semi-Markov Graph Dynamics  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we outline a model of graph (or network) dynamics based on two ingredients. The first ingredient is a Markov chain on the space of possible graphs. The second ingredient is a semi-Markov counting process of renewal type. The model consists in subordinating the Markov chain to the semi-Markov counting process. In simple words, this means that the chain transitions occur at random time instants called epochs. The model is quite rich and its possible connections with algebraic geometry are briefly discussed. Moreover, for the sake of simplicity, we focus on the space of undirected graphs with a fixed number of nodes. However, in an example, we present an interbank market model where it is meaningful to use directed graphs or even weighted graphs.

Raberto, Marco; Rapallo, Fabio; Scalas, Enrico

2011-01-01

258

Revolutionizing Volunteer Interpreter Services: An Evaluation of an Innovative Medical Interpreter Education Program.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: In our ever-increasingly multicultural, multilingual society, medical interpreters serve an important role in the provision of care. Though it is known that using untrained interpreters leads to decreased quality of care for limited English proficiency patients, because of a short supply of professionals and a lack of formalized, feasible education programs for volunteers, community health centers and internal medicine practices continue to rely on untrained interpreters. OBJECTIVE: To develop and formally evaluate a novel medical interpreter education program that encompasses major tenets of interpretation, tailored to the needs of volunteer medical interpreters. DESIGN: One-armed, quasi-experimental retro-pre-post study using survey ratings and feedback correlated by assessment scores to determine educational intervention effects. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-eight students; 24 Spanish, nine Mandarin, and five Vietnamese. The majority had prior interpreting experience but no formal medical interpreter training. OUTCOME MEASURES: Students completed retrospective pre-test and post-test surveys measuring confidence in and perceived knowledge of key skills of interpretation. Primary outcome measures were a 10-point Likert scale for survey questions of knowledge, skills, and confidence, written and oral assessments of interpreter skills, and qualitative evidence of newfound knowledge in written reflections. RESULTS: Analyses showed a statistically significant (P <0.001) change of about two points in mean self-ratings on knowledge, skills, and confidence, with large effect sizes (d?>?0.8). The second half of the program was also quantitatively and qualitatively shown to be a vital learning experience, resulting in 18 % more students passing the oral assessments; a 19 % increase in mean scores for written assessments; and a newfound understanding of interpreter roles and ways to navigate them. CONCLUSIONS: This innovative program was successful in increasing volunteer interpreters' skills and knowledge of interpretation, as well as confidence in own abilities. Additionally, the program effectively taught how to navigate the roles of the interpreter to maintain clear communication. PMID:23739810

Hasbún Avalos, Oswaldo; Pennington, Kaylin; Osterberg, Lars

2013-06-01

259

Quantum Interpretations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Difficulties and discomfort with the interpretation of quantum mechanics are due to differences in language between it and classical physics. Analogies to The Special Theory of Relativity, which also required changes in the basic worldview and language of non-relativistic classical mechanics, may help in absorbing the changes called for by quantum physics. There is no need to invoke extravagances such

A. R. P. Rau

2006-01-01

260

Interpreters for Deaf People: Selection, Evaluation, and Classification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A project (1972-1973) designed to study methods of evaluating the skills of interpreters for deaf people and to establish criteria for classifying such interpreters according to their levels of skill distributed a survey questionnaire to 300 of the partic...

S. P. Quigley B. E. Babbini Brasel D. S. Montanelli

1973-01-01

261

A Graph Mining Algorithm for Classifying Chemical Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graph data mining algorithms are increasingly applied to biological graph dataset. However, while existing graph mining algorithms can identify frequently occurring sub-graphs, these do not necessarily represent useful patterns. In this paper, we propose a novel graph mining algorithm, MIGDAC (Mining Graph DAta for Classification), that applies graph theory and an interestingness measure to discover interesting sub-graphs which can be

Winnie W. M. Lam; Keith C. C. Chan

2008-01-01

262

Skill puzzles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These are short exercises that allow students practice with concepts in Structural Geology, Tectonics, or Geophysics. (Many of them were designed with Eric Horsman.) The basic idea is to give students opportunities for frequent practice with difficult concepts, many of which require spatial visualization skills. These activities nearly always fit on a half-sheet of paper, and include a visual and verbal component. Instructors may use them for formative assessment or as group activities in class.

Titus, Sarah

263

GRAPH III: a digitizing and graph plotting program  

SciTech Connect

GRAPH is an interactive program that allows the user to perform two functions. The first is to plot two dimensional graphs and the second is to digitize graphs or plots to create data files of points. The program is designed to allow the user to get results quickly and easily. It is written in RATIV (a FORTRAN preprocessor) and is currently in use at Sandia under VMS on a VAX computer and CTSS on a Cray supercomputer. The program provides graphical output through all of the Sandia Virtual Device Interface (VDI) graphics devices. 2 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Selleck, C.B.

1986-03-01

264

GraphGrep: A Fast and Universal Method for Querying Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

GraphGrep is an application-independent method for querying graphs, finding all the occurrences of a sub- graph in a database of graphs. The interface to Graph- Grep is a regular expression graph query language Glide that combines features from XPath and Smart. Glide in- corporates both single node and variable-length wildcards. Our algorithm uses hash-based fingerprinting to represent the graphs in

Rosalba Giugno; Dennis Shasha

2002-01-01

265

Inscriptional practices in two inquiry-based classrooms: A case study of seventh graders' use of data tables and graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case study characterizes the inscriptional practices demonstrated by seventh graders, particularly their use of data tables and graphs, in an inquiry-based learning environment. Using a naturalistic approach, we collected multiple sources of data during an 8-month instructional unit that emphasized water quality and relevant concepts. The analyses show that constructing and interpreting graphs and tables provided students with opportunities

Hsin-Kai Wu; Joseph S. Krajcik

2006-01-01

266

Inquiring minds: Case studies of two middle school science teachers as they include inquiry and graphing in their curricula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current reform documents in science and mathematics call for teachers to include inquiry and data analysis in their teaching. This interpretive quasi-ethnographic case study examined two middle school science teachers as they planned and implemented inquiry and graphing in their science curricula. The focus question for this research was: What are middle school science teachers' experiences as they include graphing

Grace Hotchkiss Scarano

2000-01-01

267

Semantic graphs and associative memories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphs have been increasingly utilized in the characterization of complex networks from diverse origins, including different kinds of semantic networks. Human memories are associative and are known to support complex semantic nets; these nets are represented by graphs. However, it is not known how the brain can sustain these semantic graphs. The vision of cognitive brain activities, shown by modern functional imaging techniques, assigns renewed value to classical distributed associative memory models. Here we show that these neural network models, also known as correlation matrix memories, naturally support a graph representation of the stored semantic structure. We demonstrate that the adjacency matrix of this graph of associations is just the memory coded with the standard basis of the concept vector space, and that the spectrum of the graph is a code invariant of the memory. As long as the assumptions of the model remain valid this result provides a practical method to predict and modify the evolution of the cognitive dynamics. Also, it could provide us with a way to comprehend how individual brains that map the external reality, almost surely with different particular vector representations, are nevertheless able to communicate and share a common knowledge of the world. We finish presenting adaptive association graphs, an extension of the model that makes use of the tensor product, which provides a solution to the known problem of branching in semantic nets.

Pomi, Andrés; Mizraji, Eduardo

2004-12-01

268

Quantum Interpretations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Difficulties and discomfort with the interpretation of quantum mechanics are\\u000adue to differences in language between it and classical physics. Analogies to\\u000aThe Special Theory of Relativity, which also required changes in the basic\\u000aworldview and language of non-relativistic classical mechanics, may help in\\u000aabsorbing the changes called for by quantum physics. There is no need to invoke\\u000aextravagances such

A. R. P. Rau

2006-01-01

269

Interpret Rankings  

Cancer.gov

Interpreting Rankings Data A natural reaction of some readers when looking at charts that rank their state's cancer rates is to seek explanations as to why their state has higher incidence rates for some cancers than other states or than the national average. Some may be alarmed that exposure to environmental carcinogens may be responsible when in fact there are several other more likely explanations.

270

Flying through Graphs: An Introduction to Graph Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents an activity incorporating basic terminology, concepts, and solution methods of graph theory in the context of solving problems related to air travel. Discusses prerequisite knowledge and resources and includes a teacher's guide with a student worksheet. (KHR)|

McDuffie, Amy Roth

2001-01-01

271

Edge compression techniques for visualization of dense directed graphs.  

PubMed

We explore the effectiveness of visualizing dense directed graphs by replacing individual edges with edges connected to 'modules'-or groups of nodes-such that the new edges imply aggregate connectivity. We only consider techniques that offer a lossless compression: that is, where the entire graph can still be read from the compressed version. The techniques considered are: a simple grouping of nodes with identical neighbor sets; Modular Decomposition which permits internal structure in modules and allows them to be nested; and Power Graph Analysis which further allows edges to cross module boundaries. These techniques all have the same goal-to compress the set of edges that need to be rendered to fully convey connectivity-but each successive relaxation of the module definition permits fewer edges to be drawn in the rendered graph. Each successive technique also, we hypothesize, requires a higher degree of mental effort to interpret. We test this hypothetical trade-off with two studies involving human participants. For Power Graph Analysis we propose a novel optimal technique based on constraint programming. This enables us to explore the parameter space for the technique more precisely than could be achieved with a heuristic. Although applicable to many domains, we are motivated by-and discuss in particular-the application to software dependency analysis. PMID:24051826

Dwyer, Tim; Henry Riche, Nathalie; Marriott, Kim; Mears, Christopher

2013-12-01

272

Pointed drawings of planar graphs?  

PubMed Central

We study the problem how to draw a planar graph crossing-free such that every vertex is incident to an angle greater than ?. In general a plane straight-line drawing cannot guarantee this property. We present algorithms which construct such drawings with either tangent-continuous biarcs or quadratic Bézier curves (parabolic arcs), even if the positions of the vertices are predefined by a given plane straight-line drawing of the graph. Moreover, the graph can be drawn with circular arcs if the vertices can be placed arbitrarily. The topic is related to non-crossing drawings of multigraphs and vertex labeling.

Aichholzer, Oswin; Rote, Gunter; Schulz, Andre; Vogtenhuber, Birgit

2012-01-01

273

CSERD Interactivate: Bar Graph Lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation-based lesson for grades 5-9 provides hands-on practice in exploring bar graphs using authentic information. It features an interactive Java graphing applet to create and read bar graphs. Students can work within parameters provided in the applet or input their own data sets. This resource includes a complete lesson plan, teaching tips, and alignment to NCTM standards. This resource is part of CSERD (Computational Science Education Reference Desk), a portal of the National Science Digital Library. The Interactivate collection contains more than 200 standards-based activities, many of which have been classroom tested.

2011-03-01

274

Single-Channel Seismic Graphing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will learn about seismic data and the basics of how to use it. Using a single-channel seismomgraph, they will establish a survey line, set up the instrument, and make readings (time, in milliseconds) at measured intervals. They will graph their data, attempt to locate the water table (indicated by a break in slope in the graph), and calculate its depth. Sample data for constructing practice graphs, instructions for using the seismograph, and the formula for calculating depth are provided. Instructions for obtaining a video that outlines the procedure are also included.

275

Multigraph: Reusable Interactive Data Graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are surprisingly few good software tools available for presenting time series data on the internet. The most common practice is to use a desktop program such as Excel or Matlab to save a graph as an image which can be included in a web page like any other image. This disconnects the graph from the data in a way that makes updating a graph with new data a cumbersome manual process, and it limits the user to one particular view of the data. The Multigraph project defines an XML format for describing interactive data graphs, and software tools for creating and rendering those graphs in web pages and other internet connected applications. Viewing a Multigraph graph is extremely simple and intuitive, and requires no instructions; the user can pan and zoom by clicking and dragging, in a familiar "Google Maps" kind of way. Creating a new graph for inclusion in a web page involves writing a simple XML configuration file. Multigraph can read data in a variety of formats, and can display data from a web service, allowing users to "surf" through large data sets, downloading only those the parts of the data that are needed for display. The Multigraph XML format, or "MUGL" for short, provides a concise description of the visual properties of a graph, such as axes, plot styles, data sources, labels, etc, as well as interactivity properties such as how and whether the user can pan or zoom along each axis. Multigraph reads a file in this format, draws the described graph, and allows the user to interact with it. Multigraph software currently includes a Flash application for embedding graphs in web pages, a Flex component for embedding graphs in larger Flex/Flash applications, and a plugin for creating graphs in the WordPress content management system. Plans for the future include a Java version for desktop viewing and editing, a command line version for batch and server side rendering, and possibly Android and iPhone versions. Multigraph is currently in use on several web sites including the US Drought Portal (www.drought.gov), the NOAA Climate Services Portal (www.climate.gov), the Climate Reference Network (www.ncdc.noaa.gov/crn), NCDC's State of the Climate Report (www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc), and the US Forest Service's Forest Change Assessment Viewer (ews.forestthreats.org/NPDE/NPDE.html). More information about Multigraph is available from the web site www.multigraph.org. Interactive Multigraph Display of Real Time Weather Data

Phillips, M. B.

2010-12-01

276

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Machining Skills Cluster.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document of skill standards for the machining skills cluster serves as a guide to workforce preparation program providers in defining content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. These 67 occupational skill standards describe what people should know and be able to do in an…

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

277

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Machining Skills Cluster.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document of skill standards for the machining skills cluster serves as a guide to workforce preparation program providers in defining content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. These 67 occupational skill standards describe what people should know and be able to do in an…

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

278

Learning Oral Presentation Skills  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Oral presentation skills are central to physician-physician communication; however, little is known about how these skills are learned. Rhetoric is a social science which studies communication in terms of context and explores the action of language on knowledge, attitudes, and values. It has not previously been applied to medical discourse. We used rhetorical principles to qualitatively study how students learn oral presentation skills and what professional values are communicated in this process. DESIGN Descriptive study. SETTING Inpatient general medicine service in a university-affiliated public hospital. PARTICIPANTS Twelve third-year medical students during their internal medicine clerkship and 14 teachers. MEASUREMENTS One-hundred sixty hours of ethnographic observation. including 73 oral presentations on rounds. Discoursed-based interviews of 8 students and 10 teachers. Data were qualitatively analyzed to uncover recurrent patterns of communication. MAIN RESULTS Students and teachers had different perceptions of the purpose of oral presentation, and this was reflected in performance. Students described and conducted the presentation as a rule-based, data-storage activity governed by “order” and “structure.” Teachers approached the presentation as a flexible means of “communication” and a method for “constructing” the details of a case into a diagnostic or therapeutic plan. Although most teachers viewed oral presentations rhetorically (sensitive to context), most feedback that students received was implicit and acontextual, with little guidance provided for determining relevant content. This led to dysfunctional generalizations by students, sometimes resulting in worse communication skills (e.g., comment “be brief” resulted in reading faster rather than editing) and unintended value acquisition (e.g., request for less social history interpreted as social history never relevant). CONCLUSIONS Students learn oral presentation by trial and error rather than through teaching of an explicit rhetorical model. This may delay development of effective communication skills and result in acquisition of unintended professional values. Teaching and learning of oral presentation skills may be improved by emphasizing that context determines content and by making explicit the tacit rules of presentation.

Haber, Richard J; Lingard, Lorelei A

2001-01-01

279

NGCE - Network Graphs for Computer Epidemiologists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graphs are useful data structures capable of efficiently repre- senting a variety of technological and social networks. They are therefore utilized in simulation-based studies of new algorithms and protocols. In- spired by the popular tgff (Task Graphs For Free) toolkit, which creates task graphs for embedded systems, we present the ngce ,a n easy to use graph generator that produces

Vasileios Vlachos; Vassiliki Vouzi; Damianos Chatziantoniou; Diomidis Spinellis

2005-01-01

280

Entire regularization paths for graph data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graph data such as chemical compounds and XML documents are getting more common in many application domains. A main di-culty of graph data processing lies in the intrinsic high dimensionality of graphs, namely, when a graph is represented as a binary feature vector of indicators of all possible subgraph patterns, the dimensionality gets too large for usual statistical methods. We

Koji Tsuda; Max Planck

2007-01-01

281

Introduction to Graph-Link Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper is an introduction to a combinatorial theory arising as a natural generalisation of classical and virtual knot theory. There is a way to encode links by a class of `realisable' graphs. When passing to generic graphs with the same equivalence relations we get `graph-links'. On one hand graph-links generalise the notion of virtual link, on the other

Denis P. Ilyutko; Vassily O. Manturov

2008-01-01

282

Cryptographic Hash Functions from Expander Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose constructing provable collision resistant hash functions from expander graphs in which finding cycles is hard. As examples, we investigate two spe- cific families of optimal expander graphs for provable collision resistant hash function constructions: the families of Ramanujan graphs constructed by Lubotzky-Phillips- Sarnak and Pizer respectively. When the hash function is constructed from one of Pizer's Ramanujan graphs,

Denis Xavier Charles; Kristin E. Lauter; Eyal Z. Goren

2009-01-01

283

Cryptographic hash functions from expander graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose constructing provable collision resistant hash functions from expander graphs. As examples, we investigate two spe- cific families of optimal expander graphs for provable hash function con- structions: the families of Ramanujan graphs constructed by Lubotzky- Phillips-Sarnak and Pizer respectively. When the hash function is con- structed from one of Pizer's Ramanujan graphs, (the set of supersingular elliptic curves

Denis X. Charles; Eyal Z. Goren; Kristin E. Lauter

2006-01-01

284

Structural Graph Indexing for Mining Complex Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems such as proteins, chemical compounds, and the Internet are being modeled as complex networks to identify local and global characteristics of the system. In many instances, these graphs are very large in size presenting challenges in their analysis. Hence, graph indexing techniques are developed to enhance various graph mining algorithms. In this paper, we propose a new Structural Graph

Hakan Kardes; Mehmet Hadi Gunes

2010-01-01

285

Inference of Edge Replacement Graph Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an algorithm and experiments for inference of edge replacement graph grammars. This method generates candidate recursive graph grammar productions based on isomorphic subgraphs which overlap by two nodes. If there is no edge between the two overlapping nodes, the method generates a recursive graph grammar production with a virtual edge. We guide the search for the graph grammar

Jacek P. Kukluk; Lawrence B. Holder; Diane J. Cook

2007-01-01

286

Finding common structured patterns in linear graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A linear graph is a graph whose vertices are linearly ordered. This linear ordering allows pairs of disjoint edges to be either preceding (<), nesting (?) or crossing (?). Given a family of linear graphs, and a non-empty subset R?{,?,?}, we are interested in the Maximum Common Structured Pattern (MCSP) problem: find a maximum size edge-disjoint graph, with edge pairs

Guillaume Fertin; Danny Hermelin; Romeo Rizzi; Stéphane Vialette

2010-01-01

287

Pacific Temperature Anomalies with Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the El Nino-La Nina Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly from January 1997 through July 1999. A graph inset shows the global average sea surface temperature fluctuation during this time period.

Shirah, Greg; Bridgman, Tom; Starr, Cindy; Busalacchi, Antonio; Schultz, Peter

2003-08-30

288

Distance Versus Time Graphs 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This inquiry activity should be performed before students have learned about acceleration but after they have learned about speed. Students should have already completed distance versus time graphs for objects traveling at constant speed (see Lab 1). Some

Horton, Michael

2009-05-30

289

Graph anomalies in cyber communications  

SciTech Connect

Enterprises monitor cyber traffic for viruses, intruders and stolen information. Detection methods look for known signatures of malicious traffic or search for anomalies with respect to a nominal reference model. Traditional anomaly detection focuses on aggregate traffic at central nodes or on user-level monitoring. More recently, however, traffic is being viewed more holistically as a dynamic communication graph. Attention to the graph nature of the traffic has expanded the types of anomalies that are being sought. We give an overview of several cyber data streams collected at Los Alamos National Laboratory and discuss current work in modeling the graph dynamics of traffic over the network. We consider global properties and local properties within the communication graph. A method for monitoring relative entropy on multiple correlated properties is discussed in detail.

Vander Wiel, Scott A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Storlie, Curtis B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandine, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hagberg, Aric A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fisk, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-11

290

Flexible parametrization of scene graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scene graphs have become an established tool for developing interactive 3D applications, but with the focus lying on support for multi-processor and multi-pipeline systems, for distributed applications and for advanced rendering effects. Contrary to these developments, this work focusses on the expressiveness of the scene graph structure as a central tool for developing 3D user interfaces. We present the idea

Gerhard Reitmayr; Dieter Schmalstieg

2005-01-01

291

KGB - A Customizable Graph Browser  

Microsoft Academic Search

ionCommon visualization techniques like windowing, zooming, fish-eye view or graphfolding are not suitable to render graphs larger than a few thousand vertices and edges[7, 8, 9, 11]. Beyond this threshold either the required drawing area gets too large orthe size of the graph elements approaches the size of a pixel. In any case the amount ofthe displayed information easily overloads

Hartmut Benz

1995-01-01

292

Bayesian clustering in decomposable graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a class of prior distributions on decomposable graphs, allowing\\u000afor improved modeling flexibility. While existing methods solely penalize the number of edges,\\u000athe proposed work empowers practitioners to control clustering, level of separation, and other\\u000afeatures of the graph. Emphasis is placed on a particular prior distribution which derives its\\u000amotivation from the class of

Luke Bornn; Francois Caron

2011-01-01

293

Swarming on Random Graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a compromise model in one dimension in which pairs of agents interact through first-order dynamics that involve both attraction and repulsion. In the case of all-to-all coupling of agents, this system has a lowest energy state in which half of the agents agree upon one value and the other half agree upon a different value. The purpose of this paper is to study the behavior of this compromise model when the interaction between the N agents occurs according to an Erd?s-Rényi random graph {G}(N,p). We study the effect of changing p on the stability of the compromised state, and derive both rigorous and asymptotic results suggesting that the stability is preserved for probabilities greater than pc=O(log N/N). In other words, relatively few interactions are needed to preserve stability of the state. The results rely on basic probability arguments and the theory of eigenvalues of random matrices.

von Brecht, James; Kolokolnikov, Theodore; Bertozzi, Andrea L.; Sun, Hui

2013-04-01

294

Evolutionary games on graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Game theory is one of the key paradigms behind many scientific disciplines from biology to behavioral sciences to economics. In its evolutionary form and especially when the interacting agents are linked in a specific social network the underlying solution concepts and methods are very similar to those applied in non-equilibrium statistical physics. This review gives a tutorial-type overview of the field for physicists. The first four sections introduce the necessary background in classical and evolutionary game theory from the basic definitions to the most important results. The fifth section surveys the topological complications implied by non-mean-field-type social network structures in general. The next three sections discuss in detail the dynamic behavior of three prominent classes of models: the Prisoner's Dilemma, the Rock Scissors Paper game, and Competing Associations. The major theme of the review is in what sense and how the graph structure of interactions can modify and enrich the picture of long term behavioral patterns emerging in evolutionary games.

Szabó, György; Fáth, Gábor

2007-07-01

295

The Replicator Equation on Graphs  

PubMed Central

We study evolutionary games on graphs. Each player is represented by a vertex of the graph. The edges denote who meets whom. A player can use any one of n strategies. Players obtain a payoff from interaction with all their immediate neighbors. We consider three different update rules, called ‘birth-death’, ‘death-birth’ and ‘imitation’. A fourth update rule, ‘pairwise comparison’, is shown to be equivalent to birth-death updating in our model. We use pair-approximation to describe the evolutionary game dynamics on regular graphs of degree k. In the limit of weak selection, we can derive a differential equation which describes how the average frequency of each strategy on the graph changes over time. Remarkably, this equation is a replicator equation with a transformed payoff matrix. Therefore, moving a game from a well-mixed population (the complete graph) onto a regular graph simply results in a transformation of the payoff matrix. The new payoff matrix is the sum of the original payoff matrix plus another matrix, which describes the local competition of strategies. We discuss the application of our theory to four particular examples, the Prisoner’s Dilemma, the Snow-Drift game, a coordination game and the Rock-Scissors-Paper game.

Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Nowak, Martin A.

2008-01-01

296

Knowledge-based ECG interpretation: a critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a brief review of some selected knowledge-based approaches to electrocardiographic (ECG) pattern interpretation for diagnosing various malfunctions of the human heart. The knowledge-based approaches discussed here include modeling an ECG pattern through an AND\\/OR graph, a rule-based approach and a procedural semantic network (PSN) based approach for ECG interpretation. However, certain syntactic approaches to ECG interpretation are

Mahantapas Kundu; Mita Nasipuri; Dipak Kumar Basu

2000-01-01

297

Developing Science Process Skills in Special Schools in South Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers were taught "Translation Activities" (TA) to teach science process skills in three special education schools in South Africa. In TA, information and data are provided as text, diagrams, tables, or graphs, and cooperative learning takes place. Teachers indicated the use of TA enabled them to deliver Outcomes Based Education. (Contains…

Johnson, Sally; Sadeck, Melanie; Hodges, Merle

2002-01-01

298

Finding One Variable Statistics With a Graphing Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This quick YouTube video from high school statistics teacher Roger W. Davis explains how to find one variable statistics using the TI-84 graphing calculator. The demonstration goes through three steps: entering the data, finding one variable statistics using the STAT menu, and interpreting the results. The data created includes mean, sum, median and more. Flash player is required to view this video, and the running time for the clip is 3:12.

Davis, Roger W.

2009-02-12

299

A comparison of auditory and visual graphs for use in physics and mathematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to interpret graphical information is a prime concern in physics as graphs are widely used to give quick summaries of data sets, for pattern recognition, and for analysis of information. While visual graphs have been developed so that their content can be readily and concisely discerned, there is great difficulty when someone is unable, because of their environment or due to physical handicaps, to view graphs. An alternative to the visual graph is the auditory graph. An auditory graph uses sound rather than pictures to transmit information. This study shows that useful auditory graphs of single valued x-y data were constructed by mapping the y axis to pitch, the x axis to time, and by including drum beats to mark first and second derivative information. Further audio enhancement was used to indicate negative data values. The study used a World Wide Web based test consisting of a series of math and physics questions. Each question was based on a graph and had multiple-choice answers. The test instrument was refined through a series of pilot tests. The main study compared the results of over 200 introductory physics students at Oregon State University, as well as other selected subjects. A computer program randomly assigned subjects to one of three groups. Each group was presented with the same test but had a different graph presentation method. The presentation methods were: only visual graphs, only auditory graphs, or both auditory and visual graphs. This study shows that students with very little training can use auditory graphs to answer analytical and identification type questions. Student performance for the group using only auditory graphs is 70% of the level attained by subjects using visually presented graphs. In addition, five blind subjects from remote locations participated in this test. Their performance level exceeded that of the first-year physics students. This work also displays the results from a pilot study of various auditory preference choices. Elements of this test may be useful for future auditory graph research and development.

Sahyun, Steven Carl

300

Describing Structure and Semantics of Graphs Using an RDF Vocabulary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The RDF Graph Modeling Language (RGML) is a W3C RDF vocabulary to describe graph structures, including semantic information associated with a graph. Viewing general graphs as Web resources, RGML defines graph, node, and edge as RDF classes and attributes of graphs (such as label and weight) as RDF properties. Some of these RDF properties establish relationships between graph, node, and

John R. Punin; Mukkai S. Krishnamoorthy

2001-01-01

301

Patterns of Skill Premia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I develop a model to analyze how skill premia differ over time and across countries, and use this model to study the impact of international trade on wage inequality. Skill premia are determined by technology and the relative supply of skills. An increase in the relative supply of skills, holding technology constant, reduces the skill premium. Among

Daron Acemoglu

1999-01-01

302

Straight-Line Drawing Algorithms for Hierarchical Graphs and Clustered Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hierarchical graphs and clustered graphs are useful non-classical graph models for structured relational information. Hierarchical\\u000a graphs are\\u000a graphs with layering structures; clustered graphs are graphs with\\u000a recursive clustering structures. Both have applications in CASE tools, software visualization and VLSI design. Drawing algorithms\\u000a for hierarchical\\u000a graphs have been well investigated. However, the problem of planar straight-line representation has not been solved

Peter Eades; Qing-wen Feng; Xuemin Lin; Hiroshi Nagamochi

2006-01-01

303

DSM skills are marketing skills  

SciTech Connect

Skeptics may view DSM as a convenient cover for using ratepayer funds (in the form of rebates and other financial inducements) to keep customers on the grid, thus providing electric utilities with an unfair competitive advantage. Actually, the most powerful advantages may result from the marketing skills DSM fosters. Put simply, DSM teaches utilities to understand and meet customer needs more effectively. Managing customers use of electricity has taught utilities unprecedented amounts about specific end-use technologies, about customers fuel and equipment selection practices and preferences, and about what it costs to serve their customers. As DSM programs have become more market-driven, utilities have become better communicators and salesmen in order to win customer participation. The result: DSM departments play an increasingly central role in managing customer relationships overall and in developing and implementing competitive strategies.

Stone, C. (Easton Consultants, Inc., Stamford, CT (United States))

1993-10-01

304

Topological covers of complete graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Let [Gamma] be a connected G-symmetric graph of valency r, whose vertex set V admits a non-trivial G-partition [script B], with blocks B[set membership][script B] of size v and with k[less-than-or-eq, slant]v independent edges joining each pair of adjacent blocks. In a previous paper we introduced a framework for analysing such graphs [Gamma] in terms of (a) the natural quotient graph [Gamma][script B] of valency b=vr/k, and (b) the 1-design [script D](B) induced on each block. Here we examine the case where k=v and [Gamma][script B]=Kb+1 is a complete graph. The 1-design [script D](B) is then degenerate, so gives no information: we therefore make the additional assumption that the stabilizer G(B) of the block B acts 2-transitively on B. We prove that there is then a unique exceptional graph for which [mid R:]B[mid R:]=v>b+1.

Gardiner, A.; Praeger, Cheryl E.

1998-05-01

305

Eigenfunction statistics on quantum graphs  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the spatial statistics of the energy eigenfunctions on large quantum graphs. It has previously been conjectured that these should be described by a Gaussian Random Wave Model, by analogy with quantum chaotic systems, for which such a model was proposed by Berry in 1977. The autocorrelation functions we calculate for an individual quantum graph exhibit a universal component, which completely determines a Gaussian Random Wave Model, and a system-dependent deviation. This deviation depends on the graph only through its underlying classical dynamics. Classical criteria for quantum universality to be met asymptotically in the large graph limit (i.e. for the non-universal deviation to vanish) are then extracted. We use an exact field theoretic expression in terms of a variant of a supersymmetric {sigma} model. A saddle-point analysis of this expression leads to the estimates. In particular, intensity correlations are used to discuss the possible equidistribution of the energy eigenfunctions in the large graph limit. When equidistribution is asymptotically realized, our theory predicts a rate of convergence that is a significant refinement of previous estimates. The universal and system-dependent components of intensity correlation functions are recovered by means of an exact trace formula which we analyse in the diagonal approximation, drawing in this way a parallel between the field theory and semiclassics. Our results provide the first instance where an asymptotic Gaussian Random Wave Model has been established microscopically for eigenfunctions in a system with no disorder.

Gnutzmann, S. [School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Keating, J.P. [School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TW (United Kingdom); Piotet, F., E-mail: fabien.piotet@weizmann.ac.i [School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TW (United Kingdom); Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel)

2010-12-15

306

An Examination of Some Personal Characteristics & Abilities of Sign Language Interpreters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study of 30 sign language interpreters (N=30) attempted to isolate cognitive, perceptual, psychomotor, and affective factors predictive of effective interpretive skills. Analysis revealed that family background (hearing or deaf family members) significantly affected certain personality traits and interpretive skills. (Author/CB)|

Rudser, Steven Fritsch; Strong, Michael

1986-01-01

307

Biotechnology Skills Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here users will find an assortment of Bioscience/Agricultural Biotechnology Skills Standards. These should be useful for development of new programs as well as for comparisons with existing programs. The sections discussed are: Biopharmaceutical Manufacturing Skill Standards, Combined Bioscience/Agricultural Biotechnology Skill Standards, Agricultural Biotechnology Skill Standards, Bioscience Industry Skill Standards, National Association of Scientific Materials Managers, ACAP Austin Competency Analysis Profile - Biotechnology, Making Skill Standards Work, and Window on the Workplace.

2009-09-16

308

Algebraic connectivity and graph robustness.  

SciTech Connect

Recent papers have used Fiedler's definition of algebraic connectivity to show that network robustness, as measured by node-connectivity and edge-connectivity, can be increased by increasing the algebraic connectivity of the network. By the definition of algebraic connectivity, the second smallest eigenvalue of the graph Laplacian is a lower bound on the node-connectivity. In this paper we show that for circular random lattice graphs and mesh graphs algebraic connectivity is a conservative lower bound, and that increases in algebraic connectivity actually correspond to a decrease in node-connectivity. This means that the networks are actually less robust with respect to node-connectivity as the algebraic connectivity increases. However, an increase in algebraic connectivity seems to correlate well with a decrease in the characteristic path length of these networks - which would result in quicker communication through the network. Applications of these results are then discussed for perimeter security.

Feddema, John Todd; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Abdallah, Chaouki T. (University of New Mexico)

2009-07-01

309

Optimal preparation of graph states  

SciTech Connect

We show how to prepare any graph state of up to 12 qubits with (a) the minimum number of controlled-Z gates and (b) the minimum preparation depth. We assume only one-qubit and controlled-Z gates. The method exploits the fact that any graph state belongs to an equivalence class under local Clifford operations. We extend up to 12 qubits the classification of graph states according to their entanglement properties, and identify each class using only a reduced set of invariants. For any state, we provide a circuit with both properties (a) and (b), if it does exist, or, if it does not, one circuit with property (a) and one with property (b), including the explicit one-qubit gates needed.

Cabello, Adan; Lopez-Tarrida, Antonio J. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41012 Sevilla (Spain); Danielsen, Lars Eirik [Department of Informatics, University of Bergen, P.O. Box 7803, Bergen N-5020 (Norway); Portillo, Jose R. [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada I, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41012 Sevilla (Spain)

2011-04-15

310

COMPLEX DIFFUSION ON IMAGE GRAPHS  

PubMed Central

Complex diffusion was introduced in image processing literature as a means to achieve simultaneous denoising and enhancement of scalar valued images. In this paper, we present a novel geometric framework for achieving complex diffusion on color images expressed as image graphs. In this framework, we develop a new variational formulation for achieving complex diffusion. This formulation involves a modified harmonic map functional and is quite distinct from the Polyakov action described in earlier work by Sochen et al. Our formulation provides a framework for simultaneous (feature preserving) denoising and enhancement. We present results of comparison between the complex diffusion, and Beltrami flow all in the image graph framework.

Seo, Dohyung; Vemuri, Baba C

2009-01-01

311

Interacting particle systems on graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this dissertation, the dynamics of socially or biologically interacting populations are investigated. The individual members of the population are treated as particles that interact via links on a social or biological network represented as a graph. The effect of the structure of the graph on the properties of the interacting particle system is studied using statistical physics techniques. In the first chapter, the central concepts of graph theory and social and biological networks are presented. Next, interacting particle systems that are drawn from physics, mathematics and biology are discussed in the second chapter. In the third chapter, the random walk on a graph is studied. The mean time for a random walk to traverse between two arbitrary sites of a random graph is evaluated. Using an effective medium approximation it is found that the mean first-passage time between pairs of sites, as well as all moments of this first-passage time, are insensitive to the density of links in the graph. The inverse of the mean-first passage time varies non-monotonically with the density of links near the percolation transition of the random graph. Much of the behavior can be understood by simple heuristic arguments. Evolutionary dynamics, by which mutants overspread an otherwise uniform population on heterogeneous graphs, are studied in the fourth chapter. Such a process underlies' epidemic propagation, emergence of fads, social cooperation or invasion of an ecological niche by a new species. The first part of this chapter is devoted to neutral dynamics, in which the mutant genotype does not have a selective advantage over the resident genotype. The time to extinction of one of the two genotypes is derived. In the second part of this chapter, selective advantage or fitness is introduced such that the mutant genotype has a higher birth rate or a lower death rate. This selective advantage leads to a dynamical competition in which selection dominates for large populations, while for small populations the dynamics are similar to the neutral case. The likelihood for the fitter mutants to drive the resident genotype to extinction is calculated.

Sood, Vishal

312

Graph-based semisupervised learning.  

PubMed

Graph-based learning provides a useful approach for modeling data in classification problems. In this modeling scenario, the relationship between labeled and unlabeled data impacts the construction and performance of classifiers, and therefore a semi-supervised learning framework is adopted. We propose a graph classifier based on kernel smoothing. A regularization framework is also introduced, and it is shown that the proposed classifier optimizes certain loss functions. Its performance is assessed on several synthetic and real benchmark data sets with good results, especially in settings where only a small fraction of the data are labeled. PMID:18000333

Culp, Mark; Michailidis, George

2008-01-01

313

Midlet Navigation Graphs in JML  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of the EU project Mobius on Proof Carrying Code for Java programs (midlets) on mobile devices, we present a way to express midlet navigation graphs in JML. Such navigation graphs express certain security policies for a midlet. The resulting JML specifications can be automatically checked with the static checker ESC/Java2. Our work was guided by a realistically sized case study developed as demonstrator in the project. We discuss practical difficulties with creating efficient and meaningful JML specifications for automatic verification with a lightweight verification tool such as ESC/Java2, and the potential use of these specifications for PCC.

Mostowski, Wojciech; Poll, Erik

314

Finding Communities in Site Web-Graphs and Citation Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Web is a typical example of a social network. One of the most intriguing features of the Web is its self-organization behavior, which is usually faced through the existence of communities. The dis- covery of the communities in a Web-graph can be used to improve the eectiv eness of search engines, for purposes of prefetching, bibliographic citation ranking, spam

Antonis Sidiropoulos

2006-01-01

315

Graphing Stories: Fifteen seconds at a time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of one-minute videos depicts scenarios with measurements that can be graphed over a time scale of zero to 15 seconds. Eight different types of graphs are represented. A pdf file of grids is provided.

Meyer, Dan; Buzzmath

2013-01-01

316

Steiner's Problem in Graphs and Its Implications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A graph theoretic version of Steiner's problem in plane geometry is described. An approach for solving the problem, related to Melzak's solution to Steiner's problem, is presented. The problems of finding shortest route and minimal spanning tree in graphs...

S. L. Hakimi

1970-01-01

317

Lake Phosphorus Loading Graphs: An Alternative.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As an alternative to loading graphs, a graph of mean influent phosphorus concentration versus phosphorus retention capacity is proposed to express the relationship between phosphorus supply and hydraulic flow to, and resultant trophic state of, lakes. Lin...

D. P. Larsen H. T. Mercier

1975-01-01

318

Seabirds and Shorebirds Maps and Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of maps and graphs provides information on the locations of breeding colonies, distributions of biomass, seasonal species density, and deposition graphs for seabird and shorebird species of the central California coast.

319

Experiment on Graph Analysis Methodologies for Scenarios.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Visual graph representations are increasingly used to represent, display, and explore scenarios and the structure of organizations. The graph representations of scenarios are readily understood, and commercial software is available to create and manage th...

A. J. Brothers P. D. Whitney K. E. Wolf O. A. Kuchar G. Chin

2005-01-01

320

Manipulating Raw Data into Tables and Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describe and represent patterns and functional relationships, using tables, charts, graphs, algebraic expressions, rules, and verbal descriptions. Includes: Organize and analyze data resulting in function applications through use of a table of values, sentence, formula, graph and prediction.

Fayne Winter

2004-01-01

321

Standard Distributions: One Graph Fits All  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Standard distributions are ubiquitous but not unique. With suitable scaling, the graph of a standard distribution serves as the graph for every distribution in the family. The standard exponential can easily be taught in elementary statistics courses.|

Wagner, Clifford H.

2007-01-01

322

Shape Classification Using a Flexible Graph Kernel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The medial axis being an homotopic transformation, the skeleton of a 2D shape corresponds to a planar graph having one face for each hole of the shape and one node for each junction or extremity of the branches. This graph is non simple since it can be composed of loops and multiple-edges. Within the shape comparison framework, such a graph is usually transformed into a simpler structure such as a tree or a simple graph hereby loosing major information about the shape. In this paper, we propose a graph kernel combining a kernel between bags of trails and a kernel between faces. The trails are defined within the original complex graph and the kernel between trails is enforced by an edition process. The kernel between bags of faces allows to put an emphasis on the holes of the shapes and hence on their genre. The resulting graph kernel is positive semi-definite on the graph domain.

Dupé, François-Xavier; Brun, Luc

323

On Sparse Spanners of Weighted Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given a graphG, a subgraphG' is at-spanner ofG if, for everyu,v ?V, the distance fromu tov inG' is at mostt times longer than the distance inG. In this paper we give a simple algorithm for constructing sparse spanners for arbitrary weighted graphs. We then apply this algorithm to obtain specific results for planar graphs and Euclidean graphs. We discuss the

Ingo Althöfer; Gautam Das; David P. Dobkin; Deborah Joseph; José Soares

1993-01-01

324

Conceptual Graphs: An Overview, Software and Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conceptual graphs are similar to entity-relationship diagrams. They are however a visual, advanced knowledge-based representation formalism based upon much richer philosophical, psychological, linguistic, and object-oriented principles. Although there is much interesting and ongoing work in the conceptual graphs arena, there is little of an introductory nature for newcomers to conceptual graphs. Given the beauty of conceptual graphs is that their

Simon Polovina

325

The search for chromatically unique graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of vertex-colourings of a simple graphG in not more than? colours is a polynomial in?. This polynomial, denoted byP(G, ?), is called the chromatic polynomial ofG. A graphG is said to be chromatically unique, in short?-unique, ifH ? G for any graphH withP(H, ?) = P(G, ?). Since the appearance of the first paper on?-unique graphs by Chao

K. M. Koh; K. L. Teo

1990-01-01

326

PEGASUS: mining peta-scale graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe PeGaSus, an open source Peta Graph Mining library which performs typical graph mining tasks such as computing the diameter of the\\u000a graph, computing the radius of each node, finding the connected components, and computing the importance score of nodes. As\\u000a the size of graphs reaches several Giga-, Tera- or Peta-bytes, the necessity for such a

U. Kang; Charalampos E. Tsourakakis; Christos Faloutsos

2011-01-01

327

CP(Graph): Introducing a Graph Computation Domain in Constraint Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an increasing number of domains such as bioinformatics, combi- natorial graph problems arise. We propose a novel way to solve these problems, mainly those that can be translated to constrained subgraph nding. Our approach extends constraint programming by introducing CP(Graph), a new computation domain focused on graphs including a new type of variable: graph domain vari- ables as well

Grégoire Dooms; Yves Deville; Pierre Dupont

2005-01-01

328

Shock Graphs and Shape Matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. We have been developing a theory for the generic representation of 2-D shape, where structural descriptions are derived from the shocks (singularities) of a curve evolution process, acting on bounding contours. We now apply the theory to the problem of shape matching. The shocks are organized into a directed, acyclic shock graph, and complexity is managed by attending to

Kaleem Siddiqi; Ali Shokoufandeh; Sven J. Dickinson; Steven W. Zucker

1999-01-01

329

Shock Graphs and Shape Matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have been developing a theory for the generic representation of 2-D shape, where structural de- scriptions are derived from the shocks (singularities) of a curve evolution process, acting on bounding contours. We now apply the theory to the problem of shape matching. The shocks are organized into a directed, acyclic shock graph, and complexity is managed by attending to

Kaleem Siddiqit; Ali Shokoufandehs; Sven J. Dickinsons; Steven W. Zuckert

1998-01-01

330

Optimal Sequential Partitions of Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an algorithm for finding a minimum cost partition of the nodes of a graph into subsets of a given size, subject to the constraint that the sequence of the nodes may not be changed, that is, that the nodes in a subset must have consecutive numbers. The running time of the procedure is proportional to the number

Brian W. Kernighan

1971-01-01

331

Ancestral Genres of Mathematical Graphs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Drawing from sources in gesture studies, cognitive science, the anthropology of religion and art/architecture history, this article explores cultural, bodily and cosmological resonances carried (unintentionally) by mathematical graphs on Cartesian coordinates. Concepts of asymmetric bodily spaces, grids, orthogonality, mapping and sacred spaces…

Gerofsky, Susan

2011-01-01

332

Graphing Parametric Curves Using Spreadsheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, using only pencil and paper the graphing of parametric functions was a time-consuming task. Microsoft Excel is a convenient tool that can be used in the classroom to facilitate and enhance this procedure. A simple, but effective, spreadsheet is described.

Didenko, A.; Allison, D.; Miller, G.

2008-10-01

333

Graph kernels for chemical informatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased availability of large repositories of chemical compounds is creating new challenges and opportunities for the application of machine learning methods to problems in computational chemistry and chemical informatics. Because chemical compounds are often represented by the graph of their covalent bonds, machine learning methods in this domain must be capable of processing graphical structures with variable size. Here we

Liva Ralaivola; Sanjay Joshua Swamidass; Hiroto Saigo; Pierre Baldi

2005-01-01

334

Matching Game in Bipartite Graphs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Matching Game is a two person game, which is played on a (possibly infinite) bipartite graph (X,Y). The analysis of this game leads to some interesting results in the theory of matchings. It turns out that the first player has a winning strategy if an...

J. Waestlund

1996-01-01

335

DOMATIC NUMBER OF GRAPH PRODUCTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A partition of V (G), all of whose classes are dominating sets in G, is called a domatic partition of G. The maximum number of classes of a domatic partition of G is called the domatic number of G. The concept of a domatic number was introduced in (1). More interesting results on domatically full graphs, domatically critical, domatically cocritical

Monika Kijewska; Maria Kwasnik

2002-01-01

336

On the Closed Graph Theorem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several versions of the closed graph theorem are presented. That is, various conditions on pairs (E,F) of locally convex linear topological spaces are given which ensure that every closed linear map T of E into F is continuous. Additional restraints (such...

A. McIntosh

1967-01-01

337

Fibonacci Identities, Matrices, and Graphs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|General strategies used to help discover, prove, and generalize identities for Fibonacci numbers are described along with some properties about the determinants of square matrices. A matrix proof for identity (2) that has received immense attention from many branches of mathematics, like linear algebra, dynamical systems, graph theory and others…

Huang, Danrun

2005-01-01

338

Situating Graphs as Workplace Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We investigate the use and knowledge of graphs in the context of a large industrial factory. We are particularly interested in the question of "transparency", a question that has been extensively considered in the general literature on tool use and, more recently, by Michael Roth and his colleagues in the context of scientific work. Roth uses the…

Noss, Richard; Bakker, Arthur; Hoyles, Celia; Kent, Phillip

2007-01-01

339

Ancestral Genres of Mathematical Graphs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing from sources in gesture studies, cognitive science, the anthropology of religion and art/architecture history, this article explores cultural, bodily and cosmological resonances carried (unintentionally) by mathematical graphs on Cartesian coordinates. Concepts of asymmetric bodily spaces, grids, orthogonality, mapping and sacred spaces…

Gerofsky, Susan

2011-01-01

340

Graphs and Enhancing Maple Multiplication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Description of a technique in Maple programming language that automatically prints all paths of any desired length along with the name of each vertex, proceeding in order from the beginning vertex to the ending vertex for a given graph. (Author/MM)

Cecil, David R.; Wang, Rongdong

2002-01-01

341

An introduction to factor graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graphical models such as factor graphs allow a unified approach to a number of key topics in coding and signal processing such as the iterative decoding of turbo codes, LDPC codes and similar codes, joint decoding, equalization, parameter estimation, hidden-Markov models, Kalman filtering, and recursive least squares. Graphical models can represent complex real-world systems, and such representations help to derive

Hans-Andrea Loeliger; ETH Zurich

2004-01-01

342

Hash Functions and Cayley Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce cryptographic hash functions that are in correspondence with directed Cayley graphs, and for which finding collisions is essentially equivalent to finding short factorisations in groups. We show why having a large girth and a small diameter are properties that are relevant to hashing, and illustrate those ideas by proposing actual easily computable hash functions that meet those requirements.

Gilles Zémor

1994-01-01

343

Situating Graphs as Workplace Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigate the use and knowledge of graphs in the context of a large industrial factory. We are particularly interested in the question of "transparency", a question that has been extensively considered in the general literature on tool use and, more recently, by Michael Roth and his colleagues in the context of scientific work. Roth uses the…

Noss, Richard; Bakker, Arthur; Hoyles, Celia; Kent, Phillip

2007-01-01

344

Graphs with maximum connectivity index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let G be a graph and dv the degree (=number of first neighbors) of its vertex v. The connectivity index of G is ?=?(dudv)?1\\/2, with the summation ranging over all pairs of adjacent vertices of G. In a previous paper (Comput. Chem. 23 (1999) 469), by applying a heuristic combinatorial optimization algorithm, the structure of chemical trees possessing extremal (maximum

Gilles Caporossi; Ivan Gutman; Pierre Hansen; Ljiljana Pavlovic

2003-01-01

345

Summarizing graphs by regular expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows how to rapidly determine the path relationships between k different elements of a graph (of the type primarily resulting from programs) in time proportional to k log k. Given the path relations between elements u,v, and w, it is easy to answer questions like \\

Mark N. Wegman

1983-01-01

346

Laplacian dynamics on general graphs.  

PubMed

In previous work, we have introduced a "linear framework" for time-scale separation in biochemical systems, which is based on a labelled, directed graph, G, and an associated linear differential equation, [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] is the Laplacian matrix of G. Biochemical nonlinearity is encoded in the graph labels. Many central results in molecular biology can be systematically derived within this framework, including those for enzyme kinetics, allosteric proteins, G-protein coupled receptors, ion channels, gene regulation at thermodynamic equilibrium, and protein post-translational modification. In the present paper, in response to new applications, which accommodate nonequilibrium mechanisms in eukaryotic gene regulation, we lay out the mathematical foundations of the framework. We show that, for any graph and any initial condition, the dynamics always reaches a steady state, which can be algorithmically calculated. If the graph is not strongly connected, which may occur in gene regulation, we show that the dynamics can exhibit flexible behavior that resembles multistability. We further reveal an unexpected equivalence between deterministic Laplacian dynamics and the master equations of continuous-time Markov processes, which allows rigorous treatment within the framework of stochastic, single-molecule mechanisms. PMID:24018536

Mirzaev, Inomzhon; Gunawardena, Jeremy

2013-09-10

347

$\\\\pi_1$ -injective surfaces in graph manifolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A criterion is given for an immersed horizontal 1-injective surface in a graph mani- fold to be separable. Examples are constructed of such surfaces, which are not separable and do not satisfy the k-plane property, for any k. It is shown that the simple loop conjecture holds in graph manifolds and that any graph manifold with boundary has an immersed

J. Hyam Rubinstein; Shicheng Wang

1998-01-01

348

Facilities design with graph theory and strings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A facilities design algorithm is developed based upon such graph theory concepts as maximal spanning trees and planar graphs. The upper bound to the demands made by closeness ratings is developed from graph theory. The algorithm lends itself to computer solution minimizing the costs of flow between activities. An alternative approach using strings and the list processing capabilities of computers

James M Moore

1976-01-01

349

Generalized matrix tree theorem for mixed graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we provide a combinatorial description of an arbitrary minor of the Laplacian matrix (L) of a mixed graph (a graph with some oriented and some unoriented edges). This is a generalized Matrix Tree Theorem. We also characterize the non-singular substructures of a mixed graph. The sign attached to a nonsingular substructure is described in terms of labeling

Ravindra B. Bapat; Jerrold W. Grossman; Devadatta M. Kulkarni

1999-01-01

350

Local Graph Partitions for Approximation and Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a new tool for approximation and testing algorithms called partitioning oracles. We develop methods for constructing them for any class of bounded-degree graphs with an excluded minor, and in general, for any hyperfinite class o f bounded-degree graphs. These oracles utilize only local compu- tation to consistently answer queries about a global partition that breaks the graph into

Avinatan Hassidim; Jonathan A. Kelner; Huy N. Nguyen; Krzysztof Onak

2009-01-01

351

Partial least squares regression for graph mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attributed graphs are increasingly more common in many appli- cation domains such as chemistry, biology and text processing. A central issue in graph mining is how to collect informative subgraph patterns for a given learning task. We propose an iterative mining method based on partial least squares regression (PLS). To apply PLS to graph data, a sparse version of PLS

Hiroto Saigo; Nicole Krämer; Koji Tsuda

2008-01-01

352

Teaching and Assessing Graphing Using Active Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As a college biology instructor, I often see graphs in lab reports that do not meet my expectations. I also observe that many college students do not always adequately differentiate between good and poor (or misleading) graphs. The activity described in this paper is the result of my work with students to improve their graphing literacy. The…

McFarland, Jenny

2010-01-01

353

Constructions for Cubic Graphs with Large Girth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to give a coherent account of the problem of constructing cubic graphs with large girth. There is a well-dened integer 0(g), the smallest number of vertices for which a cubic graph with girth at leastg exists, and furthermore, the minimum value 0(g) is attained by a graph whose girth is exactly g .T he

Norman Biggs

1998-01-01

354

Massive Graph Visualization: LDRD Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Graphs are a vital way of organizing data with complex correlations. A good visualization of a graph can fundamentally change human understanding of the data. Consequently, there is a rich body of work on graph visualization. Although there are many techn...

B. Wylie K. Moreland

2007-01-01

355

Computing Simulations on Finite and Infinite Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

. We present algorithms for computing similarityrelations of labeled graphs. Similarity relations haveapplications for the refinement and verification of reactivesystems. For finite graphs, we present an O(mn) algorithmfor computing the similarity relation of a graphwith n vertices and m edges (assuming m n). For effectivelypresented infinite graphs, we present a symbolicsimilarity-checking procedure that terminates if a finitesimilarity relation exists. We

Monika Rauch Henzinger; Thomas A. Henzinger; Peter W. Kopke

1995-01-01

356

Stationary nonlinear Schrödinger equation on simplest graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We treat the stationary (cubic) nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) on simplest graphs. The solutions are obtained for primary star graph with the boundary conditions providing vertex matching and flux conservation. Both, repulsive and attractive nonlinearities are considered. It is shown that the method can be extended to the case of arbitrary number of bonds in star graphs and for other simplest topologies.

Sabirov, K. K.; Sobirov, Z. A.; Babajanov, D.; Matrasulov, D. U.

2013-05-01

357

Output Space Sampling for Graph Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent interest in graph pattern mining has shifted from finding all frequent subgraphs to obtaining a small subset of frequent subgraphs that are representative, discriminative or significant. The main motivation behind that is to cope with the scalability problem that the graph mining algorithms suffer when mining databases of large graphs. Another mo- tivation is to obtain a succinct output

Mohammad Al Hasan; Mohammed J. Zaki

2009-01-01

358

Drawing graphs nicely using simulated annealing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paradigm of simulated annealing is applied to the problem of drawing graphs “nicely.” Our algorithm deals with general undirected graphs with straight-line edges, and employs several simple criteria for the aesthetic quality of the result. The algorithm is flexible, in that the relative weights of the criteria can be changed. For graphs of modest size it produces good results,

Ron Davidson; David Harel

1996-01-01

359

Coloring Inductive Graphs On-Line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online graph coloring, in which the vertices are presented one at a time, is considered. Each vertex must be assigned a color, different from the colors of its neighbors, before the next vertex is given. The class of d-inductive graphs is treated. A graph G is said to be d-inductive if the vertices of G can be numbered so that

Sandy Irani

1990-01-01

360

Serialization graph algorithms for multiversion concurrency control  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new algorithmic framework for database concurrency control using multiple versions of data items and a serialization graph of the transactions as a synchronization technique, which generalizes all concurrency control methods known so far. This class of algorithms, called MVSGA for Multi Version Serialization Graph set of Algorithms, works by monitoring the acyclicity of the serialization graph which

Thanasis Hadzilacos

1988-01-01

361

On the sample mean of graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an analytic and geometric view of the sample mean of graphs. The theoretical framework yields efficient subgradient methods for approximating a structural mean and a simple plug-in mechanism to extend existing central clustering algorithms to graphs. Experiments in clustering protein structures show the benefits of the proposed theory. I. INTRODUCTION Graphs often occur as \\

Brijnesh J. Jain; Klaus Obermayer

2008-01-01

362

Practical Attack Graph Generation for Network Defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attack graphs are a valuable tool to network defenders, illustrating paths an attacker can use to gain access to a targeted network. Defenders can then focus their efforts on patching the vulnerabilities and configuration errors that allow the attackers the greatest amount of access. We have created a new type of attack graph, themultiple-prerequisite graph, that scales nearly linearly as

Kyle Ingols; Richard Lippmann; Keith Piwowarski

2006-01-01

363

Locally grid graphs: classification and Tutte uniqueness  

Microsoft Academic Search

We define a locally grid graph as a graph in which the structure around each vertex is a 3×3 grid ?, the canonical examples being the toroidal grids Cp×Cq. The paper contains two main results. First, we give a complete classification of locally grid graphs, showing that each of them has a natural embedding in the torus or in the

Alberto Márquez; Anna De Mier; Marc Noy; Maria Pastora Revuelta Marchena

2003-01-01

364

Conceptual Graphs For Representing Conceptual Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual graph (CG) is a graph representation for logic based on the semantic networks of artificial intelligence and the existential graphs of Charles Sanders Peirce. CG design principles emphasize the requirements for a cognitive representation: a smooth mapping to and from natural languages; an \\

John F. Sowa

365

Algorithms for mining uncertain graph data  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid development of advanced data acquisition techniques such as high-throughput biological experiments and wireless sensor networks, large amount of graph-structured data, graph data for short, have been collected in a wide range of applications. Discovering knowledge from graph data has witnessed a number of applications and received a lot of research attentions. Recently, it is observed that uncertainties

Jianzhong Li

2012-01-01

366

Coloring graphs with xed genus and girth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. It is well known,that the maximum,chromatic number,of a graph on the orientable surface Sg is (g,=7). For specic surfaces we prove that every graph on the double torus and of girth at least six is 3-colorable and we characterize completely those triangle-free projective graphs that are not 3-colorable.

J. Gimbel; C. Thomassen

1997-01-01

367

Unified approach to fuzzy graph problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a taxonomy of fuzzy graphs that treats fuzziness in vertex existence, edge existence, edge connectivity, and edge weight. Within that framework, we formulate some standard graph-theoretic problems (shortest paths and minimum cut) for fuzzy graphs using a uni\\

M. Blue; B. Bush; J. Puckett

2002-01-01

368

Examining student ability to interpret and use potential energy diagrams for classical systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Physics Education Group at the University of Washington is examining the extent to which students are able to use graphs of potential energy vs. position to infer kinematic and dynamic quantities for a system. The findings indicate that many students have difficulty in relating the graphs to real-world systems. Some problems seem to be graphical in nature (e.g., interpreting graphs of potential energy vs. position as graphs of position vs. time). Others involve relating the graphs to total, kinetic, and potential energies, especially when the potential energy is negative. The results have implications beyond the introductory level since graphs of potential energy are used in advanced courses on classical and quantum mechanics.

Stephanik, Brian M.; Shaffer, Peter S.

2012-05-15

369

Algorithmic Graph Minor Theory: Decomposition, Approximation, and Coloring  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the core of the seminal Graph Minor Theory of Robertson and Seymour is a powerful structural theorem capturing the structure of graphs excluding a fixed minor. This result is used throughout graph theory and graph al- gorithms, but is existential. We develop a polynomial- time algorithm using topological graph theory to decom- pose a graph into the structure guaranteed

Erik D. Demaine; Mohammad Taghi Hajiaghayi; Ken-ichi Kawarabayashi

2005-01-01

370

Mining of Frequent Externally Extensible Outerplanar Graph Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outerplanar graph is a planar graph which can be embedded in the plane in such a way that all of vertices lie on the outer boundary. Many chemical compounds are known to be expressed by outerplanar graphs. In this paper, firstly, we introduce an externally extensible outerplanar graph pattern (eeo-graph pattern for short) as a graph pattern common to

Hitoshi Yamasaki; Takayoshi Shoudai

2008-01-01

371

Graph indexing: a frequent structure-based approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graph has become increasingly important in modelling complicated structures and schemaless data such as proteins, chemical compounds, and XML documents. Given a graph query, it is desirable to retrieve graphs quickly from a large database via graph-based indices. In this paper, we investigate the issues of indexing graphs and propose a novel solution by applying a graph mining technique. Different

Xifeng Yan; Philip S. Yu; Jiawei Han

2004-01-01

372

Zigzag and Replacement Product Graphs and LDPC Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of codes defined from graphs depends on the expansion property of the underlying graph in a crucial way. Graph products, such as the zig-zag product (13) and replacement product provide new infinite families of constant degree expander graphs. The paper investigates the use of zig-zag and replacement product graphs for the construction of codes on graphs (16). A

Christine A. Kelley; Deepak Sridhara; Joachim Rosenthal

2006-01-01

373

Basic visual observation skills training course: Appendix B. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the basic visual observation skills course is to help safeguards inspectors evaluate and improve their skills in making observations during inspections and in evaluating and interpreting this information. The first 12 hours of the course provide training in five skill areas: perception and recognition; attention to detail; memory; mental imaging, mapping, and modeling skills; and judgment and decision making. Following this training is an integrating exercise involving a simulated safeguards inspection. This report contains the in-class exercises in the five skill areas; pre- and post-course exercises in closure, hidden figures, map memory, and mental rotations; the final examination; a training evaluation form; and the integrating exercise.

Toquam, J.L.; Morris, F.A.; Griggs, J.R.

1995-06-01

374

Field Geology Reasoning Skills in the Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When geology students are confronted with their first rock exposure, they are often bewildered by the volume of information available and the need to filter out the irrelevant and unnecessary while recording the remainder in a format that lends itself to later analysis. In spite of the problems, the first experience of fieldwork provides many students with the inspiration to devote themselves to this branch of science. The critical factor appears to be the realisation that many of the vaguely interesting topics that have previously been studied in isolation all contribute to an understanding of the rocks in front of the observer. Even with only basic facts and limited understanding, the willing student rapidly gains a deeper appreciation of the ways in which the disparate fields of geoscience are inter-related. However, the initial enthusiasm this generates can be lost if the student is unable to record the information systematically and analyse it logically. The current project seeks to develop in students the intellectual skills necessary to analyse an exposure. In many ways finding the answers to any exposure's history is easy; the difficult part is formulating the right questions. By creating a series of 'Outcrop Exercises', I am seeking to imbue students with an appreciation of the way a structured series of questions can lead to understanding. If they go into the field knowing the sort of questions that they will have to ask themselves, they are more likely to understand the nature and purpose of the data they will have to collect. The earliest exercises were designed to enhance a stratigraphy course, and were intended for use by students who already had field experience. Rather than providing them with accepted facies models for the geological past, the data and questions with which they were provided allowed them to generate their own environmental interpretations. The success of these suggested that they had wider applicability: they could be used to develop essential reasoning skills before going into the field; they could form the basis of follow-up work after a field day, or could be used as a substitute for field work if severe weather prevented an excursion. Each Outcrop Exercise consists of an A3 data sheet, a question sheet, specimen cards and, if appropriate, topographic and geologic maps. The most important dimension of each exercise is the nature and structure of the questions, which begin by requiring the student to make simple observations and lead to a comprehensive interpretation of the exposure. The materials are intended to be used in a variety of ways: for example, if the resources are available it is preferable to replace the specimen cards with real specimens; if time is short, data processing can be omitted by supplying students with prepared graphs. With future developments, it will be possible to link exercises together to generate a geological history for a whole area from primary data. These exercises must not be seen as a substitute for real fieldwork, but it is hoped that they will enhance students' appreciation of the data that they must collect in the field.

Richardson, Alan

2013-04-01

375

Measuring geographic segregation: a graph-based approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Residential segregation is a multidimensional phenomenon that encompasses several conceptually distinct aspects of geographical separation between populations. While various indices have been developed as a response to different definitions of segregation, the reliance on such single-figure indices could oversimplify the complex, multidimensional phenomena. In this regard, this paper suggests an alternative graph-based approach that provides more detailed information than simple indices: The concentration profile graphically conveys information about how evenly a population group is distributed over the study region, and the spatial proximity profile depicts the degree of clustering across different threshold levels. These graphs can also be summarized into single numbers for comparative purposes, but the interpretation can be more accurate by inspecting the additional information. To demonstrate the use of these methods, the residential patterns of three major ethnic groups in Auckland, namely M?ori, Pacific peoples, and Asians, are examined using the 2006 census data.

Hong, Seong-Yun; Sadahiro, Yukio

2013-08-01

376

3D manifolds, graph invariants and Chern-Simons theory  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors show how the Turaev-Viro invariant, which is closely related to the partition function of three-dimensional gravity, can be understood within the framework of SU(2) Chern-Simons theory. The authors also show that, for S{sub 3} and RP{sub 3}, this invariant is equal to the absolute value square of their respective partition functions in SU(2) Chern-Simons theory and give a method of evaluating the latter in a closed form for a class of 3D manifolds, thus in effect obtaining the partition function of three-dimensional gravity for these manifolds. By interpreting the triangulation of a manifold as a graph consisting of crossings and vertices with three lines we also describe a new invariant for certain class of graphs.

Rama, S.K.; Sen, S. (Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India))

1992-07-30

377

Cognition for Interpreting Scientific Concepts: A Study of Acceleration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Diagrams of trajectories of two-dimensional motions were shown to five students in introductory physics and five physics faculty. Analysis of how the two groups interpreted the diagrams enabled the investigators to identify the underlying knowledge and skills required.

Reif, Frederick; Allen, Sue

2006-06-23

378

Guidelines for Graphing Data with Microsoft[R] Office 2007[TM], Office 2010[TM], and Office for Mac[TM] 2008 and 2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The interpretation of single-case data requires systematic visual analysis across and within conditions. Graphs are a vital component for analyzing and communicating single-case design data and a necessary tool for applied researchers and practitioners. Several articles have been published with task analyses for graphing data with the new…

Barton, Erin E.; Reichow, Brian

2012-01-01

379

Infants Interpret Ambiguous Requests for Absent Objects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current studies investigated 2 skills involved in 14- to 20-month-olds' ability to interpret ambiguous requests for absent objects: tracking others' experiences (Study 1) and representing links between speakers and object features across present and absent reference episodes (Study 2). In the basic task, 2 experimenters played separately with…

Saylor, Megan M.; Ganea, Patricia

2007-01-01

380

Describing Graphs: a First-Order Approach to Graph Canonization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we ask the question, "What must be added tofirst-order logic plus least-fixed point to obtain exactly the polynomial-timeproperties of unordered graphs?" We consider the languages Lk consistingof first-order logic restricted to k variables and Ck consisting of Lk plus"counting quantifiers". We give efficient canonization algorithms for graphscharacterized by Ck or Lk . It follows from known results

Neil Immerman Eric Lander

1990-01-01

381

Development of Students' Critical-Reasoning Skills through Content-Focused Activities in a General Education Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in a general education science course made significant gains in scientific reasoning skills when they were taught using carefully designed hands-on activities and writing assignments. The activities required students to make use of scientific skills such as graphing, predicting outcomes under changing conditions, or designing experiments,…

Fencl, Heidi S.

2010-01-01

382

Constrained Graph Optimization: Interdiction and Preservation Problems  

SciTech Connect

The maximum flow, shortest path, and maximum matching problems are a set of basic graph problems that are critical in theoretical computer science and applications. Constrained graph optimization, a variation of these basic graph problems involving modification of the underlying graph, is equally important but sometimes significantly harder. In particular, one can explore these optimization problems with additional cost constraints. In the preservation case, the optimizer has a budget to preserve vertices or edges of a graph, preventing them from being deleted. The optimizer wants to find the best set of preserved edges/vertices in which the cost constraints are satisfied and the basic graph problems are optimized. For example, in shortest path preservation, the optimizer wants to find a set of edges/vertices within which the shortest path between two predetermined points is smallest. In interdiction problems, one deletes vertices or edges from the graph with a particular cost in order to impede the basic graph problems as much as possible (for example, delete edges/vertices to maximize the shortest path between two predetermined vertices). Applications of preservation problems include optimal road maintenance, power grid maintenance, and job scheduling, while interdiction problems are related to drug trafficking prevention, network stability assessment, and counterterrorism. Computational hardness results are presented, along with heuristic methods for approximating solutions to the matching interdiction problem. Also, efficient algorithms are presented for special cases of graphs, including on planar graphs. The graphs in many of the listed applications are planar, so these algorithms have important practical implications.

Schild, Aaron V [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-30

383

Students' Interpretation of Photographs in High School Biology Textbooks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In some contexts, a photograph may be worth a thousand words. Previous research revealed a dialectical character of photo- graphs: they simultaneously lack determinacy and exhibit an excess of meaning. The purpose of this study was to understand how, under this condition, high school students interpret photographs that were accom- panied by different amounts and types of co-text (caption, main

Lilian Pozzer-Ardenghi; Wolff-Michael Roth

2004-01-01

384

Using Graph Theory to Analyze Drama  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students analyze dramatic works using graph theory. They gather data, record it in Microsoft Excel and use Cytoscape (a free, downloadable application) to generate graphs that visually illustrate the key characters (nodes) and connections between them (edges). The nodes in the Cytoscape graphs are color-coded and sized according to the importance of the node (in this activity nodes represent characters in the work and their relative importance to the story). After the analysis, the graphs are further examined to see what the visual depiction of the story in the form of a graph tells readers about the inner workings of the dramatic work. Students gain practice with graph theory vocabulary, including node, edge, betweeness centrality and degree on interaction, and learn about a range of engineering applications of graph theory.

Impart Ret Program

385

Interpreting short circuit study coordination curves  

SciTech Connect

Short circuit studies are undertaken to determine if equipment selections have adequate electrical and mechanical ratings. In addition to the ratings check, the devices` performance in the time periods required to minimize damage during a system component failure is examined. The results are shown as computer listings of voltages and currents at each node of the network. While full of useful information, they are hard to visualize. Graphs developed from the computer printouts make interpretation of the numbers easier. The following explains how the graphs are created and each device`s meaning. The data presented are from a real installation: a pumping station with four 1,000-hp pumps and a small 125-hp pump. Each portion of a coordination curve will be discussed and, at the end of the article, the composite curves will be shown.

Bauman, D.E. [Contemporary Solutions, Inc., Memphis, TN (United States)

1996-04-01

386

Line graphs as social networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was demonstrated recently that the line graphs are clustered and assortative. These topological features are known to characterize some social networks [M.E.J. Newman, Y. Park, Why social networks are different from other types of networks, Phys. Rev. E 68 (2003) 036122]; it was argued that this similarity reveals their cliquey character. In the model proposed here, a social network is the line graph of an initial network of families, communities, interest groups, school classes and small companies. These groups play the role of nodes, and individuals are represented by links between these nodes. The picture is supported by the data on the LiveJournal network of about 8×106 people.

Krawczyk, M. J.; Muchnik, L.; Ma?ka-Kraso?, A.; Ku?akowski, K.

2011-07-01

387

Flux networks in metabolic graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A metabolic model can be represented as a bipartite graph comprising linked reaction and metabolite nodes. Here it is shown how a network of conserved fluxes can be assigned to the edges of such a graph by combining the reaction fluxes with a conserved metabolite property such as molecular weight. A similar flux network can be constructed by combining the primal and dual solutions to the linear programming problem that typically arises in constraint-based modelling. Such constructions may help with the visualization of flux distributions in complex metabolic networks. The analysis also explains the strong correlation observed between metabolite shadow prices (the dual linear programming variables) and conserved metabolite properties. The methods were applied to recent metabolic models for Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Methanosarcina barkeri. Detailed results are reported for E. coli; similar results were found for other organisms.

Warren, P. B.; Duarte Queiros, S. M.; Jones, J. L.

2009-12-01

388

Flux networks in metabolic graphs.  

PubMed

A metabolic model can be represented as a bipartite graph comprising linked reaction and metabolite nodes. Here it is shown how a network of conserved fluxes can be assigned to the edges of such a graph by combining the reaction fluxes with a conserved metabolite property such as molecular weight. A similar flux network can be constructed by combining the primal and dual solutions to the linear programming problem that typically arises in constraint-based modelling. Such constructions may help with the visualization of flux distributions in complex metabolic networks. The analysis also explains the strong correlation observed between metabolite shadow prices (the dual linear programming variables) and conserved metabolite properties. The methods were applied to recent metabolic models for Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Methanosarcina barkeri. Detailed results are reported for E. coli; similar results were found for other organisms. PMID:19773605

Warren, P B; Queiros, S M Duarte; Jones, J L

2009-09-22

389

The Poor Cartographer: Graph Coloring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners help a poor cartographer color in the countries on a map, making sure each country is colored a different color than any of its neighbors. Through this exercise, learners discover the "has-to-be" rule and the value of place-holders. This activity reveals the complexity of graph coloring algorithms in computer science. Variations, extensions, background information, and solutions are included in the PDF.

Bell, Tim; Witten, Ian; Fellows, Mike

1995-01-01

390

Wishart distributions for decomposable graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

When considering a graphical Gaussian model ${\\\\mathcal{N}}_G$ Markov with respect to a decomposable graph $G$, the parameter space of interest for the precision parameter is the cone $P_G$ of positive definite matrices with fixed zeros corresponding to the missing edges of $G$. The parameter space for the scale parameter of ${\\\\mathcal{N}}_G$ is the cone $Q_G$, dual to $P_G$, of incomplete

Gérard Letac; Hélčne Massam

2007-01-01

391

Set-homogeneous directed graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A directed graph is set-homogeneous if, whenever U and V are isomorphic finite subdigraphs, there is an automorphism g of the digraph with U^g=V. Here, extending work of Lachlan on finite homogeneous digraphs, we classify finite set-homogeneous digraphs, where we allow some pairs of vertices to have arcs in both directions. Under the assumption that such pairs of vertices are

Robert Gray; Dugald Macpherson; Cheryl E. Praeger; Gordon F. Royle

2010-01-01

392

Set-homogeneous directed graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A directed graph is set-homogeneous if, whenever U and V are isomorphic finite subdigraphs, there is an automorphism g of the digraph with Ug=V. Here, extending work of Lachlan on finite homogeneous digraphs, we classify finite set-homogeneous digraphs, where we allow some pairs of vertices to have arcs in both directions. Under the assumption that such pairs of vertices are

Robert Gray; Dugald Macpherson; Cheryl E. Praeger; Gordon F. Royle

2010-01-01

393

Critical Thinking Skills Evidenced in Graduate Students Blogs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this research was to identify Facione's six critical thinking skills using graduate students blogs as a reflection tool in the context of leadership using structured and unstructured blogs. The skills researched were (a) Interpretation, (b) Analysis, (c) Evaluation, (d) Inference, (e) Explanation, and (f) Self-Regulation (Facione,…

Cain, Holly Reed; Giraud, Vivana; Stedman, Nicole L. P.; Adams, Brittany L.

2012-01-01

394

Ecologies of Outdoor Skill: An Education of Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Participants' performances of outdoor skills and leadership are interpreted for environmental learning using Ingold's (2000) notion of an "education of attention": the fine-tuning of their perception. The actual tasks and activities of adventure travel have until recently gone largely unquestioned; but the relationship between skills and…

Mullins, Philip M.

2011-01-01

395

Empirical data for the semantic interpretation of prepositional phrases in medical documents.  

PubMed Central

We report on the results from an empirical study deal-ing with the semantic interpretation of prepositional phrases in medical free texts. We use a small number of semantic interpretation schemata only, which operate on well-defined configurations in dependency graphs. We provide a quantitative analysis of the performance of the semantic interpreter in terms of recall/precision data, and consider, in qualitative terms, the impact semantic interpretation patterns have on the construction of the underlying medical ontology.

Romacker, M.; Hahn, U.

2001-01-01

396

Generalized Optimization Framework for Graph-based Semi-supervised Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a generalized optimization framework for graph-based semi-supervised learning. The framework gives as particular cases the Standard Laplacian, Normalized Laplacian and PageRank based methods. We have also provided new probabilistic interpretation based on random walks and characterized the limiting behaviour of the methods. The random walk based interpretation allows us to explain di erences between the performances of methods

Konstantin Avrachenkov; Paulo Gonçalves; Alexey Mishenin; Marina Sokol

2011-01-01

397

Topological structure of dictionary graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the topological structure of the subgraphs of dictionary graphs constructed from WordNet and Moby thesaurus data. In the process of learning a foreign language, the learner knows only a subset of all words of the language, corresponding to a subgraph of a dictionary graph. When this subgraph grows with time, its topological properties change. We introduce the notion of the pseudocore and argue that the growth of the vocabulary roughly follows decreasing pseudocore numbers—that is, one first learns words with a high pseudocore number followed by smaller pseudocores. We also propose an alternative strategy for vocabulary growth, involving decreasing core numbers as opposed to pseudocore numbers. We find that as the core or pseudocore grows in size, the clustering coefficient first decreases, then reaches a minimum and starts increasing again. The minimum occurs when the vocabulary reaches a size between 103 and 104. A simple model exhibiting similar behavior is proposed. The model is based on a generalized geometric random graph. Possible implications for language learning are discussed.

Fuk?, Henryk; Krzemi?ski, Mark

2009-09-01

398

Metabolic networks: beyond the graph.  

PubMed

Drugs are devised to enter into the metabolism of an organism in order to produce a desired effect. From the chemical point of view, cellular metabolism is constituted by a complex network of reactions transforming metabolites one in each other. Knowledge on the structure of this network could help to develop novel methods for drug design, and to comprehend the root of known unexpected side effects. Many large-scale studies on the structure of metabolic networks have been developed following models based on different kinds of graphs as the fundamental image of the reaction network. Graphs models, however, comport wrong assumptions regarding the structure of reaction networks that may lead into wrong conclusions if they are not taken into account. In this article we critically review some graph-theoretical approaches to the analysis of centrality, vulnerability and modularity of metabolic networks, analyzing their limitations in estimating these key network properties, consider some proposals explicit or implicitly based on directed hypergraphs regarding their ability to overcome these issues, and review some recent implementation improvements that make the application of these models in increasingly large networks a viable option. PMID:21539508

Bernal, Andrés; Daza, Edgar

2011-06-01

399

Embodied Semiotic Activities and Their Role in the Construction of Mathematical Meaning of Motion Graphs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the relation between bodily actions, artifact-mediated activities, and semiotic processes that students experience while producing and interpreting graphs of two-dimensional motion in the plane. We designed a technology-based setting that enabled students to engage in embodied semiotic activities and experience two modes of…

Botzer, Galit; Yerushalmy, Michal

2008-01-01

400

Mining top-k and bottom-k correlative crime patterns through graph representations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crime activities are geospatial phenomena and as such are geospatially, thematically and temporally correlated. Thus, crime datasets must be interpreted and analyzed in conjunction with various factors that can contribute to the formulation of crime. Discovering these correlations allows a deeper insight into the complex nature of criminal behavior. We introduce a graph based dataset representation that allows us to

Peter Phillips; Ickjai Lee

2009-01-01

401

Individualized Math Problems in Graphs and Tables. Oregon Vo-Tech Mathematics Problem Sets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of eighteen sets of individualized mathematics problems developed by the Oregon Vo-Tech Math Project. Each of these problem packages is organized around a mathematical topic and contains problems related to diverse vocations. Solutions are provided for all problems. Problems involving the construction and interpretation of graphs and…

Cosler, Norma, Ed.

402

Interpretive media study and interpretive social science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Described by their proponents as an alternative to positivistic perspectives on media effects that ignore audience activity, interpretive approaches center on the interpretive processes employed by audience members in their decoding of media content. Meaning is viewed as a product of the interaction between media texts and the varied, at times contradictory, interpretive strategies employed by audience members. This article

Kevin M. Carragee

1990-01-01

403

Interpreting Route Instructions as Qualitative Spatial Actions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we motivate the use of qualitative spatial actions as the fundamental unit in processing user route instructions. The spatial action model has been motivated by an analysis of empirical studies in human-robot interaction on the navigation task, and can be interpreted as a conceptual representation of the spatial action to be performed by the agent in their navigation space. Furthermore, we sketch out two distinct models of interpretation for these actions in cognitive robotics. In the first, the actions are related to a formalized conceptual user modeling of navigation space, while in the second the actions are interpreted as fuzzy operations on a voronoi graph. Moreover, we show how this action model allows us to better capture the points at which user route instructions become out of alignment with a robot's knowledge of the environment through a number of examples.

Shi, Hui; Mandel, Christian; Ross, Robert J.

404

Survival Skills: A Basic Skills Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The guide describes an approach designed to promote the basic skills of hearing impaired students Basic or survival skills are identified which cover the student's daily functioning at home, school, and in the community. The guide is aimed at the 10-15 year old hearing impaired student, but techniques are expected to be applicable to both…

Mahoney, Don

405

Survival Skills: A Basic Skills Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guide describes an approach designed to promote the basic skills of hearing impaired students Basic or survival skills are identified which cover the student's daily functioning at home, school, and in the community. The guide is aimed at the 10-15 year old hearing impaired student, but techniques are expected to be applicable to both…

Mahoney, Don

406

Fieldcrest Cannon, Inc. Advanced Technical Preparation. Statistical Process Control (SPC). PRE-SPC 11: SPC & Graphs. Instructor Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This instructor guide, which was developed for use in a manufacturing firm's advanced technical preparation program, contains the materials required to present a learning module that is designed to prepare trainees for the program's statistical process control module by improving their basic math skills in working with line graphs and teaching…

Averitt, Sallie D.

407

Inferring Pedigree Graphs from Genetic Distances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we study a problem of inferring blood relationships which satisfy a given matrix of genetic distances between all pairs of n nodes. Blood relationships are represented by our proposed graph class, which is called a pedigree graph. A pedigree graph is a directed acyclic graph in which the maximum indegree is at most two. We show that the number of pedigree graphs which satisfy the condition of given genetic distances may be exponential, but they can be represented by one directed acyclic graph with n nodes. Moreover, an O(n3) time algorithm which solves the problem is also given. Although phylogenetic trees and phylogenetic networks are similar data structures to pedigree graphs, it seems that inferring methods for phylogenetic trees and networks cannot be applied to infer pedigree graphs since nodes of phylogenetic trees and networks represent species whereas nodes of pedigree graphs represent individuals. We also show an O(n2) time algorithm which detects a contradiction between a given pedigreee graph and distance matrix of genetic distances.

Tamura, Takeyuki; Ito, Hiro

408

Computing Information Value from RDF Graph Properties  

SciTech Connect

Information value has been implicitly utilized and mostly non-subjectively computed in information retrieval (IR) systems. We explicitly define and compute the value of an information piece as a function of two parameters, the first is the potential semantic impact the target information can subjectively have on its recipient's world-knowledge, and the second parameter is trust in the information source. We model these two parameters as properties of RDF graphs. Two graphs are constructed, a target graph representing the semantics of the target body of information and a context graph representing the context of the consumer of that information. We compute information value subjectively as a function of both potential change to the context graph (impact) and the overlap between the two graphs (trust). Graph change is computed as a graph edit distance measuring the dissimilarity between the context graph before and after the learning of the target graph. A particular application of this subjective information valuation is in the construction of a personalized ranking component in Web search engines. Based on our method, we construct a Web re-ranking system that personalizes the information experience for the information-consumer.

al-Saffar, Sinan; Heileman, Gregory

2010-11-08

409

Social Skills Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The term “social skills” encompasses an array of learned behaviors that share the common goal of maintaining or increasing\\u000a reinforcement within a social context. Deficits in social skills can occur at any developmental period and are not likely\\u000a to improve spontaneously because impaired social skills impede interactions with other people. In turn, unsatisfying or disruptive\\u000a interactions exacerbate social skill deficits

Ashley J. Smith; Judith A. Jordan; Mary Fran Flood; David J. Hansen

410

Using Observations to Interpret Magma Processes in the Sierra Nevada: An Undergraduate Petrology Laboratory Exercise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undergraduate igneous and metamorphic petrology is often one of the few courses in which students use field, thin section, hand sample and geochemical observations to interpret a suite of related rocks. Many students may not have encountered the idea of separating observation from interpretation prior to petrology; yet being able to distinguish these is an important skill for any budding petrologist to learn. Labs that require students to integrate abstract concepts from the lecture portion of the course to present a coherent story based on observations are essential to producing students that are well versed in petrology. A capstone-type lab allows students use many of their recently acquired skills to solve real problems in petrology. These integrated labs can take a number of forms from a short lab looking at a few related thin sections, to a multi-week lab with specified tasks, to a semester-long project culminating in a paper or a presentation. For the past few years, I have used a suite of rocks from the Sierra Nevada batholith to give petrology students a capstone experience for the igneous portion of the course. Students are given thin sections with hand samples, a map and a table of geochemical analyses and asked to record hand-sample and thin section observations with the idea that these will be used to understand processes that were active during batholith generation. Because students are given geochemical analyses, they are also expected to experiment with the use of graphs (e.g., Harker and spider diagrams) to better understand tables of geochemical analyses. The students use observations about rocks and geochemistry to build a coherent story around these rocks; the final product is a short paper in which they use petrographic observations and geochemical diagrams to back up their interpretations. Although the lab presented is specifically designed around a set of thin sections housed at the University of Wisconsin Oshkosh for an upper level course, the lab is highly adaptable. I present some options for adapting this lab to any set of thin sections and hand samples with associated geochemical analyses. This lab can also be tailored to a variety of skill levels - from 2nd year introductory petrology to a graduate course.

Wenner, J. M.

2003-12-01

411

Life Skills Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, Bates, the Inmate Programs Manager of the Hillsborough County Sheriff's Office in Tampa, Florida, describes her office's Life Skills Project, a comprehensive program that has significantly enhanced three existing programs by adding extensive life skills components. The added life skills modules reinforce the importance of…

Bates, Jan P.

2005-01-01

412

Evaluating Physical Assessment Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes methods used in the nursing curriculum at the University of Iowa College of Nursing to evaluate inclusion of physical assessment skills and to test students' use of cognitive, perceptual, and psychomotor assessment skills in nursing diagnosis. Includes an example of motor and perceptual skill objectives for examining thorax and lungs.…

And Others; Reese, Jean L.

1979-01-01

413

Enhancing Employee Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains four symposium papers on enhancing employee skills. "The Effect of Study Skills Training Intervention on United States Air Force Aeromedical Apprentices" (John C. Griffith) demonstrates how study skills intervention resulted in a significant increase in the end-of-course scores of a sample of 90 randomly selected Air Force…

1999

414

Understanding Thinking Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Issues pertaining to thinking skills are discussed in an attempt to clarify what thinking skills are and their components, how they function and how they can be developed in the teaching-learning environment. Chapter 1 reviews the definitions of thinking skills. These definitions are selected from the current literature on education and…

Shrestha, Bijaya K.

1989-01-01

415

Enhancing Employee Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four symposium papers on enhancing employee skills. "The Effect of Study Skills Training Intervention on United States Air Force Aeromedical Apprentices" (John C. Griffith) demonstrates how study skills intervention resulted in a significant increase in the end-of-course scores of a sample of 90 randomly selected Air Force…

1999

416

Assessing Skill Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most educators are familiar with instances of authentic assessment of "content" within the disciplines or of authentic assessment of "discipline-specific skills." In such authentic assessments, students apply the knowledge and skills of the discipline to situations or tasks that replicate real world challenges. The measurement of skills is…

Mueller, Jon

2008-01-01

417

Transformation-Based Operationalization of Graph Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graph Languages 1 emerged during the seventies from the necessity to process data structures with complex interrelations. Nowadays, various variants of these languages can be found for querying (1)(2), in-place transforming (3)(4), and trans- lating graph structures (5)(6). Still, new graph languages supporting dierent paradigms and usage scenarios are proposed regularly. In fact, languages tai- lored for a dedicated application

Erhard Weinell

2008-01-01

418

Algorithms for Glushkov K-graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The automata arising from the well known conversion of regular expression to\\u000anon deterministic automata have rather particular transition graphs. We refer\\u000ato them as the Glushkov graphs, to honour his nice expression-to-automaton\\u000aalgorithmic short cut (On a synthesis algorithm for abstract automata, Ukr.\\u000aMatem. Zhurnal, 12(2):147-156, 1960, In Russian). The Glushkov graphs have been\\u000acharacterized (P. Caron and D.

Pascal Caron; Marianne Flouret

2009-01-01

419

Trends in Chemical Graph Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining chemical compounds in silico has drawn increasing attention from both academia and pharmaceutical industry due to its effectiveness in aiding the drug\\u000a discovery process. Since graphs are the natural representation for chemical compounds, most of the mining algorithms focus\\u000a on mining chemical graphs. Chemical graph mining approaches have many applications in the drug discovery process that include\\u000a structure-activity-relationship (SAR)

Nikil Wale; Xia Ning; George Karypis

420

Optimizing Regular Path Expressions Using Graph Schemas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several languages, such as LOREL and UnQL, support querying of semi-structured data. Others, such as WebSQL and WebLog, query Web sites. All these languages model data as labeled graphs and use regular path expressions to express queries that traverse arbitrary paths in graphs. Naive execution of path expressions is inefficient, however, because it often requires exhaustive graph search. We describe

Mary F. Fernandez; Dan Suciu

1998-01-01

421

Drawing Planar Graphs Using the Canonical Ordering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a new method to optimize the required area, minimum angle, and number of bends of planar graph drawings on a grid. The main tool is a new type of ordering on the vertices and faces of triconnected planar graphs. Using this method linear-time-and-space algorithms can be designed for many graph-drawing problems. Our main results are as follows:Every triconnected

Goos Kant

1996-01-01

422

INTRODUCTION TO GRAPH-LINK THEORY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper is an introduction to a combinatorial theory arising as a\\u000anatural generalisation of classical and virtual knot theory. There is a way to\\u000aencode links by a class of `realisable' graphs. When passing to generic graphs\\u000awith the same equivalence relations we get `graph-links'. On one hand\\u000agraph-links generalise the notion of virtual link, on the other

DENIS PETROVICH ILYUTKO; VASSILY OLEGOVICH MANTUROV

2009-01-01

423

Protocol Design Beyond Graph-Based Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we shed new light on the fundamental gap between graph-based models used by protocol designers and fading channel models used by communication theo- rists in wireless networks. We experimentally demonstrate that graph-based models capture real-world phenomena in- adequately. Consequentially, we advocate studying models beyond graphs even for protocol-design. In the main part of the paper we present

Thomas Moscibroda; Roger Wattenhofer; ETH Zurich; Yves Weber

424

Efficient hierarchical graph-based video segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an efficient and scalable technique for spatiotemporal segmentation of long video sequences using a hierarchical graph-based algorithm. We begin by over-segmenting a volumetric video graph into space-time regions grouped by appearance. We then construct a “region graph” over the obtained segmentation and iteratively repeat this process over multiple levels to create a tree of spatio-temporal segmentations. This hierarchical

Matthias Grundmann; Vivek Kwatra; Mei Han; Irfan A. Essa

2010-01-01

425

Developments on spectral characterizations of graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In (E.R. van Dam and W.H. Haemers, Which graphs are determined by their spectrum?, Linear Alge- bra Appl. 373 (2003), 241-272) we gave a survey of answers to the question of which graphs are determined by the spectrum of some matrix associated to the graph. In particular, the usual adjacency matrix and the Laplacian matrix were addressed. Furthermore, we formulated

Edwin R. van Dam; Willem H. Haemers

2009-01-01

426

Comparing Columns on a Bar Graph (Illuminations)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan students learn to create bar graphs using unifix cubes, translate this representation to graph paper, and then compare the data that has been collected and displayed. Students are encouraged to make up their own questions about the data (favorite juice) and to practice with multiple sets of data. Sample questions for students and extension ideas are included. The lesson contains links to a PDF of graph paper and the Bar Grapher tool which is cataloged separately in this database.

Burton, Grace M.

2012-01-01

427

The phase transition in inhomogeneous random graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 'classical' random graph models, in particular G(n,p), are 'homogeneous', in the sense that the degrees (for example) tend to be concentrated around a typical value. Many graphs arising in the real world do not have this property, having, for example, power-law degree distributions. Thus there has been a lot of recent interest in defining and studying 'inhomogeneous' random graph

Béla Bollobás; Svante Janson; Oliver Riordan

2007-01-01

428

Conceptual Graphs for Semantic Web Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we aim at showing the advantages of Conceptual Graph formalism for the Semantic Web through several real-world applications in the framework of Corporate Semantic Webs. We describe the RDF(S)-dedicated semantic search engine, CORESE, based on a correspondence between RDF(S) and Conceptual Graphs, and we illustrate the interest of Conceptual Graphs through the analysis of several real-world applications

Rose Dieng-Kuntz; Olivier Corby

2005-01-01

429

Analysis of the contact graph routing algorithm: Bounding interplanetary paths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interplanetary communication networks comprise orbiters, deep-space relays, and stations on planetary surfaces. These networks must overcome node mobility, constrained resources, and significant propagation delays. Opportunities for wireless contact rely on calculating transmit and receive opportunities, but the Euclidean-distance diameter of these networks (measured in light-seconds and light-minutes) precludes node discovery and contact negotiation. Propagation delay may be larger than the line-of-sight contact between nodes. For example, Mars and Earth orbiters may be separated by up to 20.8 min of signal propagation time. Such spacecraft may never share line-of-sight, but may uni-directionally communicate if one orbiter knows the other's future position. The Contact Graph Routing (CGR) approach is a family of algorithms presented to solve the messaging problem of interplanetary communications. These algorithms exploit networks where nodes exhibit deterministic mobility. For CGR, mobility and bandwidth information is pre-configured throughout the network allowing nodes to construct transmit opportunities. Once constructed, routing algorithms operate on this contact graph to build an efficient path through the network. The interpretation of the contact graph, and the construction of a bounded approximate path, is critically important for adoption in operational systems. Brute force approaches, while effective in small networks, are computationally expensive and will not scale. Methods of inferring cycles or other librations within the graph are difficult to detect and will guide the practical implementation of any routing algorithm. This paper presents a mathematical analysis of a multi-destination contact graph algorithm (MD-CGR), demonstrates that it is NP-complete, and proposes realistic constraints that make the problem solvable in polynomial time, as is the case with the originally proposed CGR algorithm. An analysis of path construction to complement hop-by-hop forwarding is presented as the CGR-EB algorithm. Future work is proposed to handle the presence of dynamic changes to the network, as produced by congestion, link disruption, and errors in the contact graph. We conclude that pre-computation, and thus CGR style algorithms, is the only efficient method of routing in a multi-node, multi-path interplanetary network and that algorithmic analysis is the key to its implementation in operational systems.

Birrane, Edward; Burleigh, Scott; Kasch, Niels

2012-06-01

430

What Energy Functions Can Be Minimized via Graph Cuts?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last few years, several new algorithms based on graph cuts have been developed to solve energy minimization problems in com- puter vision. Each of these techniques constructs a graph such that the minimum cut on the graph also minimizes the energy. Yet because these graph constructions are complex and highly specific to a particular en- ergy function, graph

Vladimir Kolmogorov; Ramin Zabih

2002-01-01

431

A graph reading behavior: Geodesic-path tendency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The end result of graph visualization is that people read the graph and understand the data. To make this effective, it is essential to construct visualizations based on how people read graphs. Despite the popularity and importance of graph usage in a variety of application domains, little is known about how people read graphs. The lack of this knowledge has

Weidong Huang; Peter Eades; Seok-Hee Hong

2009-01-01

432

Applying Graph Grammars for Task-Oriented User Interface Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a graph with attributes assigned to its nodes is very well suited for the specification of semi-structured application domains, attributed graphs and adequate graph rewriting systems are also useful tools for the specification and representation of user interfaces based on end user tasks. A rewriting system for attributed graphs, which is based on the controlled rewriting of graphs using

Rudolf Freund; Brigitte Haberstroh; Christian Stary

1992-01-01

433

Tight Bounds for Testing Bipartiteness in General Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider the problem of testing bipartitene ss of gen- eral graphs. The problem has previously been studied in two models, one most suitable for dense graphs, and one most suitable for bounded-degree graphs. Roughly speaking, dense graphs can be tested for bipartiteness with constant complexity, while the complexity of testing bounded-degree graphs is , where is

Tali Kaufman; Michael Krivelevich; Dana Ron

2003-01-01

434

Tight Bounds for Testing Bipartiteness in General Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: In this paper we consider the problem of testing bipartiteness of general graphs. The problem has previously been studied in two models, one most suitable for dense graphs, and one most suitable for bounded-degree graphs. Roughly speaking, dense graphs can be tested for bipartiteness with constant complexity, while the complexity of testing bounded-degree graphs is ~ where n is

Tali Kaufman; Michael Krivelevich; Dana Ron

2004-01-01

435

Automatic learning of cost functions for graph edit distance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graph matching and graph edit distance have become important tools in structural pattern recognition. The graph edit distance concept allows us to measure the structural similarity of attributed graphs in an error-tolerant way. The key idea is to model graph variations by structural distortion operations. As one of its main constraints, however, the edit distance requires the adequate definition of

Michel Neuhaus; Horst Bunke

2007-01-01

436

Journal of Graph Algorithms and Applications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Journal of Graph Algorithms and Applications found at this Web site is the electronic version of the scientific journal with the same name. It is a collection of research papers dealing with the "analysis, design, implementation, and applications of graph algorithms." The current volume consists of select papers presented at the 1999 Symposium on Graph Drawing, which have since been revised. Previous volumes are archived on this site as well, and they can be freely accessed. Almost any discipline requires some sort of graphical representation, and specific uses of graph algorithms in various fields are addressed in this journal.

2007-06-27

437

Reeb graph computation through spectral clustering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Reeb graph provides a structure that encodes the topology of a shape, and it has been gaining in popularity in shape analysis and understanding. We introduce a spectral clustering method to compute the Reeb graph. Given a 3-D model embedded in the Euclidean space, we define the Morse function according to the connected components of the 3-D model in a spectral space. The spectral clustering formulation gives rise to a consistent Reeb graph over pose changes of the same object with meaningful subparts and yields a hierarchical computation of the Reeb graph. We prove that this method is theoretically reasonable, and experimental results show its efficiency.

Ma, Teng; Wu, Zhuangzhi; Luo, Pei; Feng, Lu

2012-01-01

438

Graph-Based Induction for General Graph Structured Data and Its Application to Chemical Compound Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the relations are represented by a graph structure, e.g., chemical bonding, Web browsing record, DNA sequence, Inference\\u000a pattern (program trace), to name a few. Thus, efficiently finding characteristic substructures in a graph will be a useful\\u000a technique in many important KDD\\/ML applications. However, graph pattern matching is a hard problem. We propose a machine learning\\u000a technique called Graph-

Takashi Matsuda; Tadashi Horiuchi; Hiroshi Motoda; Takashi Washio

2000-01-01

439

Approximation of Graph Kernel Similarities for Chemical Graphs by Kernel Principal Component Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Graph kernels have been successfully applied on chemical graphs on small to medium sized machine learning problems. However,\\u000a graph kernels often require a graph transformation before the computation can be applied. Furthermore, the kernel calculation\\u000a can have a polynomial complexity of degree three and higher. Therefore, they cannot be applied in large instance-based machine\\u000a learning problems. By using kernel principal

Georg Hinselmann; Andreas Jahn; Nikolas Fechner; Lars Rosenbaum; Andreas Zell

2011-01-01

440

Automatic Skill Acquisition in Reinforcement Learning Agents Using Connection Bridge Centrality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Incorporating skills in reinforcement learning methods results in accelerate agents learning performance. The key problem of automatic skill discovery is to find subgoal states and create skills to reach them. Among the proposed algorithms, those based on graph centrality measures have achieved precise results. In this paper we propose a new graph centrality measure for identifying subgoal states that is crucial to develop useful skills. The main advantage of the proposed centrality measure is that this measure considers both local and global information of the agent states to score them that result in identifying real subgoal states. We will show through simulations for three benchmark tasks, namely, "four-room grid world", "taxi driver grid world" and "soccer simulation grid world" that a procedure based on the proposed centrality measure performs better than the procedure based on the other centrality measures.

Moradi, Parham; Shiri, Mohammad Ebrahim; Entezari, Negin

441

Naming on a Directed Graph  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We address how the structure of a social communication system affects language coordination. The naming game is an abstraction of lexical acquisition dynamics, in which N agents try to find an agreement on the names to give to objects. Most results on naming games are specific to certain communication network topologies. We present two important results that are general to any graph topology: the first proves that under certain topologies the system always converges to a name-object agreement; the second proves that if these conditions are not met the system may end up in a state in which sub-networks with different competing object-name associations coexist.

Gosti, Giorgio; Batchelder, William H.

442

Elementary Abelian Covers of Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let \\u000a$${\\\\mathcal{C}}$$\\u000aG(X) be the set of all (equivalence classes of) regular covering projections of a given connected graph X along which a given group G = Aut X of automorphisms lifts. There is a natural lattice structure on \\u000a$${\\\\mathcal{C}}$$\\u000aG(X), where P1 = P2 whenever P2 factors through P1. The sublattice \\u000a$${\\\\mathcal{C}}$$\\u000aG(P) of coverings which are below a

Aleksander Malni?; Dragan Maruši?; Primož Poto?nik

2004-01-01

443

k-Subdomination in graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a positive integer k, a k-subdominating function of a graph G=(V,E) is a function f:V?{?1,1} such that ?u?NG[v]f(u)?1 for at least k vertices v of G. The k-subdomination number of G, denoted by ?ks(G), is the minimum of ?v?Vf(v) taken over all k-subdominating functions f of G. In this article, we prove a conjecture for k-subdomination on trees proposed

Gerard J. Chang; Sheng-chyang Liaw; Hong-gwa Yeh

2002-01-01

444

Inverse scattering for lasso graph  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inverse problem for the magnetic Schrödinger operator on the lasso graph with different matching conditions at the vertex is investigated. It is proven that the Titchmarsh-Weyl function known for different values of the magnetic flux through the cycle determines the unique potential on the loop, provided the entries of the vertex scattering matrix S parametrizing matching conditions satisfy s12s23s31 ? s13s21s32. This is in contrast to numerous examples showing that the potential on the loop cannot be reconstructed from the boundary measurements.

Kurasov, Pavel

2013-04-01

445

Secondary Students' Cognitive Processes for the Line Graph from Graph Components  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2002 Physics Education Research Conference, presents the results of a study intended to investigate students' cognitive processes when reading line graphs. The researchers developed a computer program to determine the order readers glance the components of a line graph, and then analyzed the glancing order of each component. The results help identify secondary students' cognitive processes for line graphs.

Kim, Tae-Sun; Kim, Beom-Ki

2010-07-06

446

GraphFind: enhancing graph searching by low support data mining techniques  

PubMed Central

Background Biomedical and chemical databases are large and rapidly growing in size. Graphs naturally model such kinds of data. To fully exploit the wealth of information in these graph databases, a key role is played by systems that search for all exact or approximate occurrences of a query graph. To deal efficiently with graph searching, advanced methods for indexing, representation and matching of graphs have been proposed. Results This paper presents GraphFind. The system implements efficient graph searching algorithms together with advanced filtering techniques that allow approximate search. It allows users to select candidate subgraphs rather than entire graphs. It implements an effective data storage based also on low-support data mining. Conclusions GraphFind is compared with Frowns, GraphGrep and gIndex. Experiments show that GraphFind outperforms the compared systems on a very large collection of small graphs. The proposed low-support mining technique which applies to any searching system also allows a significant index space reduction.

Ferro, Alfredo; Giugno, Rosalba; Mongiovi, Misael; Pulvirenti, Alfredo; Skripin, Dmitry; Shasha, Dennis

2008-01-01

447

Skill and Will: Test-Taking Motivation and Assessment Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An achievement test score can be viewed as a joint function of skill and will, of knowledge and motivation. However, when interpreting and using test scores, the "will" part is not always acknowledged and scores are mostly interpreted and used as pure measures of student knowledge. This paper argues that students' motivation to do their best on…

Eklof, Hanna

2010-01-01

448

The Unity of Interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is interpretation? One can imagine a range of answers to this question. One answer might begin with the observation that the English word “interpretation” is used to refer to a variety of human activities. Translators at the United Nations interpret remarks made in French when they offer an English translation. Literary critics interpret novels when they investigate the deep

Lawrence B. Solum

2010-01-01

449

Are Family Practice Residents Able to Interpret Electrocardiograms?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Teaching electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretation is a recommended component of the family practice residency curriculum.\\u000a Published information concerning the ECG interpretation ability of residents is sparse. This study sought to ascertain the\\u000a base line knowledge of family practice residents' ECG interpretation skills and extent of improvement after one year of training.\\u000a \\u000a Methods: A 15 ECG examination was administered to 38

John M. Boltri; Robert B. Hash; Robert L. Vogel

2003-01-01

450

Feature Tracking Using Reeb Graphs  

SciTech Connect

Tracking features and exploring their temporal dynamics can aid scientists in identifying interesting time intervals in a simulation and serve as basis for performing quantitative analyses of temporal phenomena. In this paper, we develop a novel approach for tracking subsets of isosurfaces, such as burning regions in simulated flames, which are defined as areas of high fuel consumption on a temperature isosurface. Tracking such regions as they merge and split over time can provide important insights into the impact of turbulence on the combustion process. However, the convoluted nature of the temperature isosurface and its rapid movement make this analysis particularly challenging. Our approach tracks burning regions by extracting a temperature isovolume from the four-dimensional space-time temperature field. It then obtains isosurfaces for the original simulation time steps and labels individual connected 'burning' regions based on the local fuel consumption value. Based on this information, a boundary surface between burning and non-burning regions is constructed. The Reeb graph of this boundary surface is the tracking graph for burning regions.

Weber, Gunther H.; Bremer, Peer-Timo; Day, Marcus S.; Bell, John B.; Pascucci, Valerio

2010-08-02

451

Path integral on star graph  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we study path integral for a single spinless particle on a star graph with N edges, whose vertex is known to be described by U(N) family of boundary conditions. After carefully studying the free particle case, both at the critical and off-critical levels, we propose a new path integral formulation that correctly captures all the scale-invariant subfamily of boundary conditions realized at fixed points of boundary renormalization group flow. Our proposal is based on the folding trick, which maps a scalar-valued wave function on star graph to an N-component vector-valued wave function on half-line. All the parameters of scale-invariant subfamily of boundary conditions are encoded into the momentum independent weight factors, which appear to be associated with the two distinct path classes on half-line that form the cyclic group Z2. We show that, when bulk interactions are edge-independent, these weight factors are generally given by an N-dimensional unitary representation of Z2. Generalization to momentum dependent weight factors and applications to worldline formalism are briefly discussed.

Ohya, Satoshi

2012-06-01

452

The assessment of laboratory performance skills in grade 9 science via individuals and pairs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research study focused on the development and administration of a laboratory investigation task involving ninth grade students currently studying Earth Science. Students were required to Plan and Perform the investigation based on concepts of Chemical Weathering. Science inquiry skills associated with Planning, Data Collection, Graphing, and Reasoning were evaluated using an analytical scoring rubric. Students completed a Survey Instrument, which provided contextual information about their prior laboratory experiences, and preferences about working individually versus pairs while completing science experiments. The sample was composed of 446 students from five schools in Western New York. Students completed the laboratory investigation individually and in pairs. One hundred and fifty students completed the task individually, and 296 students assigned to 148 pairs completed the task. T-tests and ANOVA's were used to evaluate achievement differences between individuals and pairs; by gender and individual ability for the individual sub-sample; and by the gender and ability composition for the pairs' sub-sample respectively. Mean scores for the Likert type Survey instrument provided contextual data about students' prior laboratory experiences. Factor analysis generally supported the theoretical model used to design the investigation. The results indicated there were significant differences in achievement between individuals and pairs in Graphing and Reasoning skills. Females outperformed males on the Total task, Data Collection, Graphing and Reasoning categories of skills. High ability students outperformed medium and low ability students on the Total Task, Planning, Graphing and Reasoning categories of skills. The composition of pairs by ability indicated significant differences in achievement on the Total Task, Planning and Reasoning skills. There were significant differences in achievement by female/female versus male/male and male/female pairs on the Total Task, Data Collection, Graphing and Reasoning skills.

Chan, Alfred William

453

An Agent-Based Labor Market Simulation with Endogenous Skill-Demand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper considers an agent-based labor market simulation to examine the influence of skills on wages and unemployment rates. Therefore less and highly skilled workers as well as less and highly productive vacancies are implemented. The skill distribution is exogenous whereas the distribution of the less and highly productive vacancies is endogenous. The different opportunities of the skill groups on the labor market are established by skill requirements. This means that a highly productive vacancy can only be filled by a highly skilled unemployed. Different skill distributions, which can also be interpreted as skill-biased technological change, are simulated by incrementing the skill level of highly skilled persons exogenously. This simulation also provides a microeconomic foundation of the matching function often used in theoretical approaches.

Gemkow, S.

454

The labeled perfect matching in bipartite graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we deal with both the complexity and the approximability of the labeled perfect matching problem in bipartite graphs. Given a simple graph G = (V,E) with |V | =2 n vertices such that E contains a perfect matching (of size n), together with a color (or label) function L : E ?{ c1,...,cq}, the labeled perfect matching

Jérôme Monnot

2005-01-01

455

Motion Lab: Position - Time Graphs of Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation depicts a position-time graph showing the motion of an object as it is moved by the user. The user can also move the object to match the motion represented on 8 different types of position-time graphs.

Clement, John M.

456

Frequent Subgraph Retrieval in Geometric Graph Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discovery of knowledge from geometric graph databases is of particular importance in chemistry and biology, be- cause chemical compounds and proteins are represented as graphs with 3D geometric coordinates. In such applica- tions, scientists are not interested in the statistics of the whole database. Instead they need information about a novel drug candidate or protein at hand, represented as a

Sebastian Nowozin; Koji Tsuda

2008-01-01

457

Scalable, graph-based network vulnerability analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even well administered networks are vulnerable to attack. Recent work in network security has focused on the fact that combinations of exploits are the typical means by which an attacker breaks into a network. Researchers have proposed a variety of graph-based algorithms to generate attack trees (or graphs). Either structure represents all possible sequences of exploits, where any given exploit

Paul Ammann; Duminda Wijesekera; Saket Kaushik

2002-01-01

458

DYNAMICS OF MULTIBODY SYSTEMS WITH BOND GRAPHS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work a general multibody system theory is implemented within a bond graph modeling framework. In classical mechanics several procedures exist by which differential equations can be derived of a system of rigid bodies. In the case of large systems these procedures are labor-intensive and consequently error-prone, unless they are computerized. The bond graphs formalism allows for a unified

Germán Filippini; Diego Delarmelina; Jorge Pagano; Juan Pablo Alianak; Sergio Junco; Norberto Nigro

459

Graphs (networks) with golden spectral ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose two new spectral measures for graphs and networks which characterize the ratios between the width of the “bulk” part of the spectrum and the spectral gap, as well as the ratio between spectral spread and the width of the “bulk” part of the spectrum. Using these definitions we introduce the concept of golden spectral graphs (GSG), which are

Ernesto Estrada; Edificio CACTUS

2007-01-01

460

REEB GRAPH BASED SHAPE RETRIEVAL FOR CAD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our recent work has described a framework for matching solid of mechanical artifacts models based on scale-space feature decomposition. In this work we adopt a method of comparing solid models based on Multiresolutional Reeb Graphs (MRG) similarity computations. This method was originally proposed by Hilaga et al. in (1). Reeb Graph technique applies MRG struc- ture to comparisons of approximate

Dmitriy Bespalov; William C. Regli; Ali Shokoufandeh

2003-01-01

461

Using a Microcomputer for Graphing Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a laboratory exercise that introduces physics students to graphing. Presents the program format and sample output of a computer simulation of an experiment which tests the effects of sound intensity on the crawling speed of a snail. Provides students with practice in making exponential or logarithmic graphs. (ML)|

Beichner, Robert J.

1986-01-01

462

Directed Self-Assembly Using Graph Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe the graph grammar approach to modeling self-assembly. The approach is used to describe how the topol- ogy of an assembling aggregate changes as it grows. The main purpose of the paper is to demonstrate the utility of the approach by giving detailed examples. We also describe the beginnings of our approach to physically embedding graph

Eric Klavins

2004-01-01

463

An Introduction to Virtual Spatial Graph Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two natural generalizations of knot theory are the study of spatial graphs and virtual knots. Our goal is to unify these two approaches into the study of virtual spatial graphs. This paper is a survey, and does not contain any new results. We state the definitions, provide some examples, and survey the known results. We hope that this paper will

Thomas Fleming; Blake Mellor

2006-01-01

464

A new algorithm for graph mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining frequent substructures has gained importance in the recent past. Number of algorithms has been presented for mining undirected graphs. Focus of this paper is on mining frequent substructures in directed labeled graphs since it has variety of applications in the area of biology, web mining etc. A novel approach of using equivalence class principle has been proposed for reducing

B. Chandra; Shalini Bhaskar

2011-01-01

465

Online Prediction on Large Diameter Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We continue our study of online prediction of the labelling of a graph. We show a fundamental limitation of Laplacian-based algorithms: if the graph has a large di- ameter then the number of mistakes made by such algorithms may be proportional to the square root of the number of vertices, even when tackling simple problems. We overcome this drawback by

Mark Herbster; Guy Lever; Massimiliano Pontil

2008-01-01

466

Forces and Motion - Distance-Time Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation depicts an animated distance time graph for a vehicle that moves at a constant velocity, stops and then changes direction to move at a different constant velocity. A speedometer is also shown. Resource is first graph on this page

467

Workshop on Natural Computing and Graph Transformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several graph related formalisms such as Petri nets, abstract state machines, automata, membrane systems, mobile ambients, etc., are already used as modeling tools for nat- ural processes. On the other hand, in human-designed computing inspired by nature, graph theoretical formulations and problems are often used as benchmarks,for the in- vestigation of the potential of the proposed computational paradigms. The program

Ion Petre; Grzegorz Rozenberg

2008-01-01

468

Eigenvalue asymptotics for differential operators on graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the spectral structure for differential equations on graphs. In particular, we show that self-adjointness does not necessarily imply regularity, we also show that the algebraic and geometric eigenvalue multiplicities of formally self-adjoint differential operators on graphs are equal. Asymptotic bounds for the eigenvalues are then found.

Currie, Sonja; Watson, Bruce A.

2005-10-01

469

TAO: how facebook serves the social graph  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 800 million people around the world share their social interactions with friends on Facebook, providing a rich body of information referred to as the social graph. In this talk, I describe how we model and serve this graph. Our model uses typed nodes (fbobjects) and edges (associations) to express the relationships and actions that happen on Facebook. We access

Venkateshwaran Venkataramani; Zach Amsden; Nathan Bronson; George Cabrera III; Prasad Chakka; Peter Dimov; Hui Ding; Jack Ferris; Anthony Giardullo; Jeremy Hoon; Sachin Kulkarni; Nathan Lawrence; Mark Marchukov; Dmitri Petrov; Lovro Puzar

2012-01-01

470

Algorithms for the Sample Mean of Graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measures of central tendency for graphs are important for protoype construction, frequent substructure mining, and multiple alignment of protein structures. This contribution proposes subgradient-based methods for determining a sample mean of graphs. We assess the performance of the proposed algorithms in a comparative empirical study.

Jain, Brijnesh J.; Obermayer, Klaus

471

Random Walks on Graphs: A Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various aspects of the theory of random walks on graphs are surveyed. In particular, estimates on the important parameters of access time, commute time, cover time and mixing time are discussed. Connections with the eigenvalues of graphs and with electrical networks, and the use of these connections in the study of random walks is described. We also sketch recent algorithmic

L. LOV

1996-01-01

472

The PI index of product graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Padmakar–Ivan index of a graph G is the sum over all edges uv of G of number of edges which are not equidistant from u and v. In this work, an exact expression for the PI index of the Cartesian product of bipartite graphs is computed. Using this formula, the PI indices of C4 nanotubes and nanotori are computed.

H. Yousefi-azari; B. Manoochehrian; A. R. Ashrafi

2008-01-01

473

Combinatorial synthesis approach employing graph networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper proposes a methodology to assist the designer at the initial stages of the design synthesis process by enabling him\\/her to employ knowledge and algorithms existing in graph network theory. The proposed method comprises three main stages: transforming the synthesis problem into a graph theoretic problem; devising the topology possessing special engineering properties corresponding to the system requirements; finding

Offer Shai; Noel Titus; Karthik Ramani

2008-01-01

474

ATTRACTORS FOR GRAPH CRITICAL RATIONAL MAPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We call a rational map f graph critical if any critical point either belongs to an invariant nite graph G, or has minimal limit set, or is non- recurrent and has limit set disjoint from G. We prove that, for any conformal measure, either for almost every point of the Julia set J(f) its limit set coin- cides with J(f),

ALEXANDER BLOKH; MICHA L MISIUREWICZ

2000-01-01

475

A Basic Mathematical Framework for Conceptual Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the original idea of Sowa on conceptual graph and a recent formalism by Corbett on ontology, this paper presents a rigorous mathematization of basic concepts encountered in the conceptual structure theory, including canon, ontology, conceptual graph, projection, and canonical formation operations, with the aim of deriving their mathematical properties and applying them to future research and development on

Philip H. P. Nguyen; Dan Corbett

2006-01-01

476

Embedding Graphs into the Extended Grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let G = (V, E) be an arbitrary undirected source graph to be embedded in a target graph EM, the extended grid with vertices on integer grid points and edges to nearest and next-nearest neighbours. We present an algorithm showing how to embed G into EM in both time and space O(|V |2) using the new notions of islands and

Michael D. Coury

2007-01-01

477

Translations Between Flowchart Schemes and Process Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a flowchart scheme an atomic action is modelled as a vertex (box), while in a process graph an atomic action is modelled as an edge. We define translations between these two graphical representations. By using these translations, we show that the classical bisimulation equivalence on process graphs coincides with the natural extension of the classical step-bystep flowchart equivalence to

Jan A. Bergstra; Gheorghe Stefanescu

1993-01-01

478

GRAPH LAPLACIANS AND STABILIZATION OF VEHICLE FORMATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control of vehicle formations has emerged as a topic of signiflcant interest to the controls community. In this paper, we merge tools from graph theory and control theory to derive stability criteria for vehicle formations. The interconnection between vehicles (i.e., which vehicles are sensed by other vehicles) is modeled as a graph, and the eigenvalues of the Laplacian matrix of

J. Alexander Fa; Richard M. Murray

479

One Dimensional Motion: Acceleration versus Time Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the following exercises, the graph drawn is of acceleration versus time. The animation still shows the position of the particle as time progresses. There, a couple of assumptions had to be taken. An acceleration versus time graph does not provide all the information necessary for deducing position.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2008-02-19

480

An Evolutionary Annealing Approach to Graph Coloring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new heuristic algorithm for the graph coloring problem based on a combination of genetic algorithms and sim- ulated annealing. Our algorithm exploits a novel crossover operator for graph coloring. Moreover, we investigate various ways in which simulated annealing can be used to enhance the performance of an evolutionary al- gorithm. Experiments performed on various collections of

Dimitris A. Fotakis; Spiridon D. Likothanassis; Stamatis K. Stefanakos

2001-01-01

481

From Game Trees to Game Graphs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The definition of the score of a game tree is extended using the minimax rule to game graphs containing cycles. This is accomplished by taking the limit of a sequence of scores of game trees that in some sense approximate the game graph. It is shown that ...

W. T. M. Kars

1990-01-01

482

Conceptual Graphs from a Knowledge Systems Viewpoint  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Artificial Intelligence (AI) literature contains a wide range of suggestions for capturing semantic concepts. One that has received wide attention through two international conferences is Sowa's conceptual graphs. The claim made is that these conceptual graphs are a good knowledge representation language which could be used as an intermediate stage towards a relational database schema. It is this latter

Peter N. Creasy

1988-01-01

483

Graph layout techniques and multidimensional data analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we explore the relationship between multivariate data analysis and techniques for graph drawing or graph layout. Although both classes of techniques were created for quite different purposes, we find many common principles and implemen- tations. We start with a discussion of the data analysis techniques, in particular multiple correspondence analysis, multidimensional scaling, parallel coordinate plotting, and seri-

Jan de Leeuw; George Michailidis

2000-01-01

484

Power Pole Detection Based on Graph Cut  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power pole detection from images is an important problem in the future electric power industry application. A precise detection is essential to inspect the defects of a power pole. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to detect the power pole object from images. Graph cut for image segmentation is a newly developing graph based image segmentation technique. It

Wengang Cheng; Zhengzheng Song

2008-01-01

485

New sufficient condition for Hamiltonian graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Let G be a graph, and ?(G) and ?(G) be the minimum degree and the independence number of G, respectively. For a vertex v ? V (G), d(v) and N(v) represent the degree of v and the neighborhood of v in G, respectively. A number of sufficient conditions for a connected simple graph G of order n to be

Kewen Zhao; Hong-jian Lai; Yehong Shao

2007-01-01

486

Haptic Graphs for Blind Computer Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss the design of computer-based haptic graphs for blind and visually impaired people with the support of our preliminary experimental results. Since visual impairment makes data visualisation techniques inappropriate for blind people, we are developing a system which can make graphs accessible through haptic and audio media. The disparity between human haptic perception and the sensation

Wai Yu; Rameshsharma Ramloll; Stephen A. Brewster

2000-01-01

487

Canonical forms for cycles in bridge graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let G = (V,E) be a biconnected graph and let C be a cycle in G. The subgraphs of G identified with the biconnected components of the contraction of C in G are called the bridges of C. Associated with the set of bridges of a cycle C is an auxilliary graphical structure GC called a bridge graph or an

S. Gill Williamson

1993-01-01

488

Regular trees in random regular graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the size of the embedded regular tree rooted at a vertex in a $d$ regular random graph. We show that almost always, the radius of this tree will be ${1\\/2}\\\\log n$, where $n$ is the number of vertices in the graph. And we give an asymptotic estimate for Gauss' Hypergeometric Function.

Eran Makover; Jeffrey McGowan

2006-01-01

489

Multi-A Graph Patrolling and Partitioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a novel multi agent patrolling algorithm inspired by the behavior of gas filled balloons. Very low capability ant-like agents are considered with the task of patrolling an unknown area modeled as a graph. While executing the proposed algorithm, the agents dynamically partition the graph between them using simple local interactions, every agent assuming the responsibility for patrolling his subgraph. Balanced graph partition is an emergent behavior due to the local interactions between the agents in the swarm. Extensive simulations on various graphs (environments) showed that the average time to reach a balanced partition is linear with the graph size. The simulations yielded a convincing argument for conjecturing that if the graph being patrolled contains a balanced partition, the agents will find it. However, we could not prove this. Nevertheless, we have proved that if a balanced partition is reached, the maximum time lag between two successive visits to any vertex using the proposed strategy is at most twice the optimal so the patrol quality is at least half the optimal. In case of weighted graphs the patrol quality is at least (1)/(2){lmin}/{lmax} of the optimal where lmax (lmin) is the longest (shortest) edge in the graph.

Elor, Y.; Bruckstein, A. M.

2012-12-01

490

Algorithms for drawing graphs: An annotated bibliography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Several data presentation problems involve drawing graphs so that they are easy to read and un- derstand. Examples include circuit schematics and software engineering diagrams. In this paper we present a bibliographic survey on algorithms whose goal is to produce aesthetically pleasing drawings of graphs. Research on this topic is spread over the broad spectrum of Computer Science. This

P. Eades; R. Tamassia

1987-01-01

491

Algorithms for Drawing Graphs: an Annotated Bibliography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several data presentation problems involve drawing graphs so that they are easy to read and un- derstand. Examples include circuit schematics and software engineering diagrams. In this paper we present a bibliographic survey on algorithms whose goal is to produce aesthetically pleasing drawings of graphs. Research on this topic is spread over the broad spectrum of Computer Science. This bibliogra-

Giuseppe Di Battista; Peter Eades; Roberto Tamassia; Ioannis G. Tollis

1994-01-01

492

Using Motion Graph for Interactive Motion Edit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motion Graph, as an effective data structure for captured data, can be adopted to improve the automatism in motion edit, preserving the details of motion. But the traditional method based on Motion Graph always takes lot of time in constructing and searching, especially searching time which makes it not suitable for interactive editing. This paper introduces a novel method about

Le Zheng; Zhigeng Pan; Bing Tang

493

Psychological testing of sign language interpreters.  

PubMed

Twenty-eight sign language interpreters participated in a battery of tests to determine if a profile of cognitive, motor, attention, and personality attributes might distinguish them as a group and at different credential levels. Eight interpreters held Level II and nine held Level III Virginia Quality Assurance Screenings (VQAS); the other 11 held Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf (RID) certification. Six formal tests, the Quick Neurological Screening Test-II, the Wonderlic Personnel Test, the Test of Visual-Motor Skills (TVMS), the d2 Test of Attention, the Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test, and the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF), were administered to the interpreters. Average scores were high on most of the tests; differences across the three groups were not statistically significant. Results from only one test, the d2 Test of Attention, were significantly correlated with interpreter level. Comparisons between educational and community interpreters also revealed no differences. Personality traits were widely distributed, but one trait, abstract reasoning, tested extremely high in 18 interpreters. Discussion of the potential implications of these results, particularly for educational interpreters, is offered. PMID:15304401

Seal, Brenda C

2004-01-01

494

Tensor network methods with graph enhancement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present applications of the renormalization algorithm with graph enhancement (RAGE). This analysis extends the algorithms and applications given for approaches based on matrix product states introduced in [Phys. Rev. A10.1103/PhysRevA.79.022317 79, 022317 (2009)] to other tensor-network states such as the tensor tree states (TTS) and projected entangled pair states. We investigate the suitability of the bare TTS to describe ground states, showing that the description of certain graph states and condensed-matter models improves. We investigate graph-enhanced tensor-network states, demonstrating that in some cases (disturbed graph states and for certain quantum circuits) the combination of weighted graph states with TTS can greatly improve the accuracy of the description of ground states and time-evolved states. We comment on delineating the boundary of the classically efficiently simulatable states of quantum many-body systems.

Hübener, R.; Kruszynska, C.; Hartmann, L.; Dür, W.; Plenio, M. B.; Eisert, J.

2011-09-01

495

Why skill matters.  

PubMed

Maximizing rewards per unit time is ideal for success and survival in humans and animals. This goal can be approached by speeding up behavior aiming at rewards and this is done most efficiently by acquiring skills. Importantly, reward-directed skills consist of two components: finding a good object (i.e., object skill) and acting on the object (i.e., action skill), which occur sequentially. Recent studies suggest that object skill is based on high-capacity memory for object-value associations. When a learned object is encountered the corresponding memory is quickly expressed as a value-based gaze bias, leading to the automatic acquisition or avoidance of the object. Object skill thus plays a crucial role in increasing rewards per unit time. PMID:23911579

Hikosaka, Okihide; Yamamoto, Shinya; Yasuda, Masaharu; Kim, Hyoung F

2013-08-01

496

Community detection and graph partitioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many methods have been proposed for community detection in networks. Some of the most promising are methods based on statistical inference, which rest on solid mathematical foundations and return excellent results in practice. In this paper we show that two of the most widely used inference methods can be mapped directly onto versions of the standard minimum-cut graph partitioning problem, which allows us to apply any of the many well-understood partitioning algorithms to the solution of community detection problems. We illustrate the approach by adapting the Laplacian spectral partitioning method to perform community inference, testing the resulting algorithm on a range of examples, including computer-generated and real-world networks. Both the quality of the results and the running time rival the best previous methods.

Newman, M. E. J.

2013-07-01

497

Resources for Interpreters: Bibliographies for Historical Interpretation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains fourteen bibliographies on a variety of topics. These bibliographies are designed as basic references for park interpreters. Each bibliography has two parts: a key list of ten annotated references followed by other less significant wor...

H. Huyck

1982-01-01

498

Image Interpretation Cell.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Image Interpretation Cell is to generate forward echelon accurate intelligence data in the form of Flash and Immediate Photo Interpretation Reports. The IIC is a completely self-contained, deployable and adaptable image data system. It ...

V. Abraham A. Dobbs J. K. Libby

1964-01-01

499

Discriminative graph embedding for label propagation.  

PubMed

In many applications, the available information is encoded in graph structures. This is a common problem in biological networks, social networks, web communities and document citations. We investigate the problem of classifying nodes' labels on a similarity graph given only a graph structure on the nodes. Conventional machine learning methods usually require data to reside in some Euclidean spaces or to have a kernel representation. Applying these methods to nodes on graphs would require embedding the graphs into these spaces. By embedding and then learning the nodes on graphs, most methods are either flexible with different learning objectives or efficient enough for large scale applications. We propose a method to embed a graph into a feature space for a discriminative purpose. Our idea is to include label information into the embedding process, making the space representation tailored to the task. We design embedding objective functions that the following learning formulations become spectral transforms. We then reformulate these spectral transforms into multiple kernel learning problems. Our method, while being tailored to the discriminative tasks, is efficient and can scale to massive data sets. We show the need of discriminative embedding on some simulations. Applying to biological network problems, our method is shown to outperform baselines. PMID:21788187

Nguyen, Canh Hao; Mamitsuka, Hiroshi

2011-07-22

500

Unraveling Protein Networks with Power Graph Analysis  

PubMed Central

Networks play a crucial role in computational biology, yet their analysis and representation is still an open problem. Power Graph Analysis is a lossless transformation of biological networks into a compact, less redundant representation, exploiting the abundance of cliques and bicliques as elementary topological motifs. We demonstrate with five examples the advantages of Power Graph Analysis. Investigating protein-protein interaction networks, we show how the catalytic subunits of the casein kinase II complex are distinguishable from the regulatory subunits, how interaction profiles and sequence phylogeny of SH3 domains correlate, and how false positive interactions among high-throughput interactions are spotted. Additionally, we demonstrate the generality of Power Graph Analysis by applying it to two other types of networks. We show how power graphs induce a clustering of both transcription factors and target genes in bipartite transcription networks, and how the erosion of a phosphatase domain in type 22 non-receptor tyrosine phosphatases is detected. We apply Power Graph Analysis to high-throughput protein interaction networks and show that up to 85% (56% on average) of the information is redundant. Experimental networks are more compressible than rewired ones of same degree distribution, indicating that experimental networks are rich in cliques and bicliques. Power Graphs are a novel representation of networks, which reduces network complexity by explicitly representing re-occurring network motifs. Power Graphs compress up to 85% of the edges in protein interaction networks and are applicable to all types of networks such as protein interactions, regulatory networks, or homology networks.

Royer, Loic; Reimann, Matthias; Andreopoulos, Bill; Schroeder, Michael

2008-01-01