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1

The impact of video motion analysis on kinematics graph interpretation skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Video motion analysis software was used by introductory physics students in a variety of instructional settings. 368 high school and college students took part in a study where the effect of graduated variations in the use of a video analysis tool was examined. Post-instruction assessment of student ability to interpret kinematics graphs indicates that groups using the tool generally performed better than students taught via traditional instruction. The data further establishes that the greater the integration of video analysis into the kinematics curriculum, the larger the educational impact. An additional comparison showed that graph interpretation skills were significantly better when a few traditional labs were simply replaced with video analysis experiments. Hands-on involvement appeared to play a critical role. Limiting student experience with the video analysis technique to a single teacher-led demonstration resulted in no improvement in performance relative to traditional instruction. Offering more extensive demonstrations and carrying them out over an extended period of time proved somewhat effective. The greatest impact came from a combination of demonstrations with hands-on labs. The curricular modifications employed in the different classrooms and the methods used to evaluate them are discussed.

Beichner, Robert J.

2005-10-11

2

The relationships between spatial ability, logical thinking, mathematics performance and kinematics graph interpretation skills of 12th grade physics students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphs have a broad use in science classrooms, especially in physics. In physics, kinematics is probably the topic for which graphs are most widely used. The participants in this study were from two different grade-12 physics classrooms, advanced placement and calculus-based physics. The main purpose of this study was to search for the relationships between student spatial ability, logical thinking, mathematical achievement, and kinematics graphs interpretation skills. The Purdue Spatial Visualization Test, the Middle Grades Integrated Process Skills Test (MIPT), and the Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K) were used for quantitative data collection. Classroom observations were made to acquire ideas about classroom environment and instructional techniques. Factor analysis, simple linear correlation, multiple linear regression, and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the quantitative data. Each instrument has two principal components. The selection and calculation of the slope and of the area were the two principal components of TUG-K. MIPT was composed of a component based upon processing text and a second component based upon processing symbolic information. The Purdue Spatial Visualization Test was composed of a component based upon one-step processing and a second component based upon two-step processing of information. Student ability to determine the slope in a kinematics graph was significantly correlated with spatial ability, logical thinking, and mathematics aptitude and achievement. However, student ability to determine the area in a kinematics graph was only significantly correlated with student pre-calculus semester 2 grades. Male students performed significantly better than female students on the slope items of TUG-K. Also, male students performed significantly better than female students on the PSAT mathematics assessment and spatial ability. This study found that students have different levels of spatial ability, logical thinking, and mathematics aptitude and achievement levels. These different levels were related to student learning of kinematics and they need to be considered when kinematics is being taught. It might be easier for students to understand the kinematics graphs if curriculum developers include more activities related to spatial ability and logical thinking.

Bektasli, Behzat

3

Challenges with graph interpretation: a review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the growing emphasis on the development of scientific inquiry skills, the display and interpretation of data are becoming increasingly important. Graph interpretation competence is, in fact, essential to understanding today’s world and to be scientifically literate. However, graph interpretation is a complex and challenging activity. Graph interpretation competence is affected by many factors, including aspects of graph characteristics, the

Nirit Glazer

2011-01-01

4

Challenges with Graph Interpretation: A Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the growing emphasis on the development of scientific inquiry skills, the display and interpretation of data are becoming increasingly important. Graph interpretation competence is, in fact, essential to understanding today's world and to be scientifically literate. However, graph interpretation is a complex and challenging activity. Graph

Glazer, Nirit

2011-01-01

5

Graphs: Interpret Line Plots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website application provides practice interpreting line plots. The format of the website makes it available to use with individual students on one computer or with an entire class on an interactive white board. Each practice problem is submitted to determine if it is correct, when an incorrect answer is submitted the correct answer and an option for an explanation appears. Each problem set is also timed and the user is provided with a percent correct. This website does have a membership option for a fee which would enable the teacher to track the progress of multiple students over time.

2012-01-01

6

DRAWING BY EAR: INTERPRETING SONIFIED LINE GRAPHS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research presented here describes a pilot study into the interpretation of sonified line graphs containing two data series. The experiment aimed to discover the level of accuracy with which sighted people were able to draw sketches of the graphs after listening to them. In addition, it aimed to identify any differences in performance when the graphs were presented using

Lorna M. Brown; Stephen A. Brewster

2003-01-01

7

Testing student interpretation of kinematics graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recent work has uncovered a consistent set of student difficulties with graphs of position, velocity, and acceleration versus time. These include misinterpreting graphs as pictures, slope/height confusion, problems finding the slopes of lines not passing through the origin, and the inability to interpret the meaning of the area under various graph curves. For this particular study, data from 895 students at the high school and college level was collected and analyzed. The test used to collect the data is included at the end of the article and should prove useful for other researchers studying kinematics learning as well as instructors teaching the material. The process of developing and analyzing the test is fully documented and is suggested as a model for similar assessment projects.

Beichner, Robert J.

2005-10-11

8

Drawing and Interpreting Data in a Bar Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Drawing and interpreting data in a bar graph will explicitly teach strategies for students to collect and solve simple put together, take-apart and compare problems using information presented in a bar graph.

Brockett, Reid

2012-08-02

9

Supporting Fourth Graders' Ability to Interpret Graphs Through Real-Time Graphing Technology: A Preliminary Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined to what extent inquiry-based instruction supported with real-time graphing technology improves fourth grader's ability to interpret graphs as representations of physical science concepts such as motion and temperature. This study also examined whether there is any difference between inquiry-based instruction supported with real-time graphing software and inquiry-based instruction supported with traditional laboratory equipment in terms of improving fourth graders' ability to interpret motion and temperature graphs. Results of this study showed that there is a significant advantage in using real-time graphing technology to support fourth graders' ability to interpret graphs.

Deniz, Hasan; Dulger, Mehmet F.

2012-12-01

10

Infusing Counseling Skills in Test Interpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an instructional model based on Neurolinguistic Programming that links counseling student course work in measurement and test interpretation with counseling techniques and theory. A process incorporating Neurolinguistic Programming patterns is outlined for teaching graduate students the counseling skills helpful in test interpretation.…

Rawlins, Melanie E.; And Others

1991-01-01

11

Adolescents' Graphing Skills: A Descriptive Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Clinical interviews were conducted with 25 seventh- and eighth-grade students to determine: (1) the extent to which they could produce correct graphical representations of familiar situations; (2) to what extent they could infer relationships from graphs; (3) what are the most commonly held graphing misconceptions and how stable they are; and (4)…

Clement, John; And Others

12

Data and graph interpretation practices among preservice science teachers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The interpretation of data and construction and interpretation of graphs are central practices in science, which, according to recent reform documents, science and mathematics teachers are expected to foster in their classrooms. However, are (preservice) science teachers prepared to teach inquiry with the purpose of transforming and analyzing data, and interpreting graphical representations? That is, are preservice science teachers prepared to teach data analysis and graph interpretation practices that scientists use by default in their everyday work? The present study was designed to answer these and related questions. We investigated the responses of preservice elementary and secondary science teachers to data and graph interpretation tasks. Our investigation shows that, despite considerable preparation, and for many, despite bachelor of science degrees, preservice teachers do not enact the ("authentic") practices that scientists rountinely do when asked to interpret data or graphs. Detailed analysis are provided of what data and graph interpretation practices actually were enacted. We conclude that traditional schooling emphasizes particular beliefs in the mathematical nature of the universe that make it difficult for many individuals to deal with data processing the random variation found in measurements of natural phenomena. The results suggest that preservice teachers need more experience in engaging in data and graph interpretation practices originating in activities that provide the degree of variation in and complexity of data present in realistic investigations.

Bowen, G. M.; Roth, Wolff-Michael

2006-06-08

13

Supporting Fourth Graders' Ability to Interpret Graphs through Real-Time Graphing Technology: A Preliminary Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined to what extent inquiry-based instruction supported with real-time graphing technology improves fourth grader's ability to interpret graphs as representations of physical science concepts such as motion and temperature. This study also examined whether there is any difference between inquiry-based instruction supported with…

Deniz, Hasan; Dulger, Mehmet F.

2012-01-01

14

Interpreting a Graph and Constructing Its Derivative Graph: Stability and Change in Students' Conceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This present study investigated engineering students' conceptions and misconceptions related to derivative, particularly interpreting the graph of a function and constructing its derivative graph. Participants were 147 first year engineering students from four universities enrolled in first year undergraduate calculus courses with or without the…

Ubuz, Behiye

2007-01-01

15

Interpretable whole-brain prediction analysis with GraphNet.  

PubMed

Multivariate machine learning methods are increasingly used to analyze neuroimaging data, often replacing more traditional "mass univariate" techniques that fit data one voxel at a time. In the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature, this has led to broad application of "off-the-shelf" classification and regression methods. These generic approaches allow investigators to use ready-made algorithms to accurately decode perceptual, cognitive, or behavioral states from distributed patterns of neural activity. However, when applied to correlated whole-brain fMRI data these methods suffer from coefficient instability, are sensitive to outliers, and yield dense solutions that are hard to interpret without arbitrary thresholding. Here, we develop variants of the Graph-constrained Elastic-Net (GraphNet), a fast, whole-brain regression and classification method developed for spatially and temporally correlated data that automatically yields interpretable coefficient maps (Grosenick et al., 2009b). GraphNet methods yield sparse but structured solutions by combining structured graph constraints (based on knowledge about coefficient smoothness or connectivity) with a global sparsity-inducing prior that automatically selects important variables. Because GraphNet methods can efficiently fit regression or classification models to whole-brain, multiple time-point data sets and enhance classification accuracy relative to volume-of-interest (VOI) approaches, they eliminate the need for inherently biased VOI analyses and allow whole-brain fitting without the multiple comparison problems that plague mass univariate and roaming VOI ("searchlight") methods. As fMRI data are unlikely to be normally distributed, we (1) extend GraphNet to include robust loss functions that confer insensitivity to outliers, (2) equip them with "adaptive" penalties that asymptotically guarantee correct variable selection, and (3) develop a novel sparse structured Support Vector GraphNet classifier (SVGN). When applied to previously published data (Knutson et al., 2007), these efficient whole-brain methods significantly improved classification accuracy over previously reported VOI-based analyses on the same data (Grosenick et al., 2008; Knutson et al., 2007) while discovering task-related regions not documented in the original VOI approach. Critically, GraphNet estimates fit to the Knutson et al. (2007) data generalize well to out-of-sample data collected more than three years later on the same task but with different subjects and stimuli (Karmarkar et al., submitted for publication). By enabling robust and efficient selection of important voxels from whole-brain data taken over multiple time points (>100,000 "features"), these methods enable data-driven selection of brain areas that accurately predict single-trial behavior within and across individuals. PMID:23298747

Grosenick, Logan; Klingenberg, Brad; Katovich, Kiefer; Knutson, Brian; Taylor, Jonathan E

2013-05-15

16

Understanding and Interpreting Calculus Graphs: Refining an Instrument  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The objective of this ongoing study is to refine an instrument to evaluate conceptual understanding and graphical interpretation of a function and its derivative. The instrument is based on a modified version of the Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K) which consists of 26 items (7 dimensions). In the new instrument, Test of Understanding Graphs in Calculus (TUG-C), the kinematics context has been removed from the items creating a new context-free version. To favor the translation from kinematics to Calculus, the focus is on 5 out of the 7 original dimensions of the test, giving a 16-item test. A total of 526 students from a university level Introductory Physics course participated in the study. Half of the students were administered the kinematics test and the other half took the calculus test. This work will present data showing preliminary results of the instrument and new directions on improving the instrument.

Perez-Goytia, Nadia; Dominguez, Angeles; Zavala, Genaro

2010-12-31

17

Mathematics. Analyzing and Interpreting Graphs in the Middle Grades: Bottles and Beyond.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes activities designed to encourage students to analyze and interpret graphs. Activities include using software to draw clear bottles, fill them gradually, measure and record the water height, then graph the volume and height relationship; graphing cause and effect relationships between gender, height, and shoe size; and graphing

Niess, Margaret L.

1995-01-01

18

Reading and Interpreting Tables and Graphs Involving Rates and Percentages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This survey, created by Milo Schield of Augsburg College, assesses statistical literacy. The survey focuses on the general use of informal statistics in everyday situations: reading and interpreting tables and graphs involving rates and percentages. The survey itself takes between thirty and forty minutes. The author does apologize for the length, but insists that it is due to how comprehensive the survey is. Sixty-nine questions in length, almost every topic concerning statistics is covered. The survey was funded by the W.M. Keck Statistical Literacy Project.

Schield, Milo

2009-03-11

19

Improving Graduate Students' Graphing Skills of Multiple Baseline Designs with Microsoft[R] Excel 2007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of a graphing task analysis using the Microsoft[R] Office Excel 2007 program on the single-subject multiple baseline graphing skills of three university graduate students. Using a multiple probe across participants design, the study demonstrated a functional relationship between the number of correct graphing

Lo, Ya-yu; Starling, A. Leyf Peirce

2009-01-01

20

Today's Forecast: Graphing Temperature Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students use Internet skills to find local and Antarctic weather data. They record the data, assemble it in a logical order, graph it, and interpret the graphed information. Students will: prepare a graph using an x and y axis; show graphing increments; arrange data on a graph; interpret graphed data; demonstrate conversion of Fahrenheit to Celsius and Celsius to Fahrenheit; and differentiate between below and above zero degrees temperature.

Kolb, Sandra

21

Evaluating Interpreter's Skill by Measurement of Prosody Recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sign language is a visual language in which main articulators are hands, torso, head, and face. For simultaneous interpreters of Japanese sign language (JSL) and spoken Japanese, it is very important to recognize not only the hands movement but also prosody such like head, eye, posture and facial expression. This is because prosody has grammatical rules for representing the case and modification relations in JSL. The goal of this study is to introduce an examination called MPR (Measurement of Prosody Recognition) and to demonstrate that it can be an indicator for the other general skills of interpreters. For this purpose, we conducted two experiments: the first studies the relationship between the interpreter's experience and the performance score on MPR (Experiment-1), and the second investigates the specific skill that can be estimated by MPR (Experiment-2). The data in Experiment-1 came from four interpreters who had more than 1-year experience as interpreters, and more four interpreters who had less than 1-year experience. The mean accuracy of MPR in the more experienced group was higher than that in the less experienced group. The data in Experiment-2 came from three high MPR interpreters and three low MPR interpreters. Two hearing subjects and three deaf subjects evaluated their skill in terms of the speech or sign interpretation skill, the reliability of interpretation, the expeditiousness, and the subjective sense of accomplishment for the ordering pizza task. The two experiments indicated a possibility that MPR could be useful for estimating if the interpreter is sufficiently experienced to interpret from sign language to spoken Japanese, and if they can work on the interpretation expeditiously without making the deaf or the hearing clients anxious. Finally we end this paper with suggestions for conclusions and future work.

Tanaka, Saori; Nakazono, Kaoru; Nishida, Masafumi; Horiuchi, Yasuo; Ichikawa, Akira

22

Assessing and Understanding Line Graph Interpretations Using a Scoring Rubric of Organized Cited Factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined how 12- and 13-year-old students' mathematics and science background knowledge affected line graph interpretations and how interpretations were affected by graph question levels. A purposive sample of 14 students engaged in think aloud interviews while completing an excerpted Test of Graphing in Science. Data were collected and coded using a rubric of previously cited factors, categorized by Bertin's (Semiology of graphics: Diagrams, networks, maps. The University of Wisconsin Press, Ltd., Madison, 1983) theory of graph interpretation. Data analysis revealed responses varied by graph question level. Across levels, students interpreted graphs in one or more of the three ways: mathematical word problems (focusing on an algorithm), science data to be analyzed (incorporating science knowledge), or no strategy. Although consistently used across levels, the frequency and usefulness of approaches varied by question level.

Boote, Stacy K.

2014-04-01

23

Bars, Lines, & Pies: A Graphing Skills Program. Expect the Unexpected with Math[R  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Bars, Lines, & Pies" is a dynamic math program designed to build graphing skills in students, while also showing them the relevance of math in their lives. Developed by The Actuarial Foundation along with Scholastic, the graphing lessons and activities involve engaging, real-world examples about the environment and recycling. In these lessons,…

Actuarial Foundation, 2013

2013-01-01

24

The Science Fair as a Means for Developing Children's Graphing Skills in Elementary School  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on an ongoing research program aiming at the pedagogical exploitation of the science fair as a mechanism for developing investigative skills in elementary school and promoting student inquiry through a sequence of formal and non-formal activities. Specifically, this paper refers to the development of data graphing skills by children aged 10-12 years old. The students, who participated

Evaggelia Kyriazi; Constantinos P. Constantinou

25

Interpretation of Extended Pawlak Flow Graphs Using Granular Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we mainly discuss the relationship between the extended Pawlak flow graph (EFG) with granular computing (GrC),\\u000a and develop a both simple and concrete model for EFG using GrC. The distinct advantage is that we can resort to merits of\\u000a GrC to benefit us in analyzing and processing data using flow graph, for its structure is inherently consistent

Huawen Liu; Jigui Sun; Huijie Zhang

2008-01-01

26

Students' Interpretation of a Function Associated with a Real-Life Problem from Its Graph  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The properties of a function such as limit, continuity, derivative, growth, or concavity can be determined more easily from its graph than by doing any algebraic operation. For this reason, it is important for students of mathematics to interpret some of the properties of a function from its graph. In this study, we investigated the competence of…

Mahir, Nevin

2010-01-01

27

So Many Graphs, So Little Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interpreting graphs found in various content areas is an important skill for students, especially in light of high-stakes testing. In addition, reading and understanding graphs is an important part of numeracy, or numeric literacy, a skill necessary for informed citizenry. This article explores the different categories of graphs, provides…

Wall, Jennifer J.; Benson, Christine C.

2009-01-01

28

Effects of Graphing Conventions and Response Options on Interpretation of Small n Graphs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the effects of manipulation of two graphing conventions on judgements of time-series data by novice raters. These conventions involved the presence of phase change lines between baseline and intervention data and whether data points across phase changes were connected. The 1990 study of Matyas and Greenwood was also…

Carter, Mark

2009-01-01

29

My Bar Graph Tells a Story  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Connecting stories to qualitative coordinate graphs has been suggested as an effective instructional strategy. Even students who are able to "create" bar graphs may struggle to correctly "interpret" them. Giving children opportunities to work with qualitative graphs can help them develop the skills to interpret, describe, and compare information…

McMillen, Sue; McMillen, Beth

2010-01-01

30

Hands-on Materials for Teaching about Global Climate Change through Graph Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers need to address global climate change with students in their classrooms as evidence for consequences from these environmental changes mounts. One way to approach global climate change is through examination of authentic data. Mathematics and science may be integrated by interpreting graphs from the professional literature. This study…

Rule, Audrey C.; Hallagan, Jean E.; Shaffer, Barbara

2008-01-01

31

On the Relation of Abstract and Concrete in Scientists' Graph Interpretations: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The notions of "abstract" and "concrete" are central to the conceptualization of mathematical knowing and learning. Much of the literature takes a dualist approach, leading to the privileging of the former term at the expense of the latter. In this article, we provide a concrete analysis of a scientist interpreting an unfamiliar graph to show how…

Roth, Wolff-Michael; Hwang, SungWon

2006-01-01

32

Training and Assessment of ECG Interpretation Skills: Results From the 2005 CDIM Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Despite published consensus-based statements on assessment of ECG interpretation skills, studies and curricula regarding the training needed to obtain basic ECG interpretation skills are lacking. These consensus statements have focused on attaining competency in ECG interpretation during postgraduate training; however, recommendations regarding assessment of competency in the undergraduate curriculum are not discussed. Purpose: The purpose is to describe the

Kevin E. OBrien; Maria L. Cannarozzi; Dario M. Torre; Alex J. Mechaber; Steven J. Durning

2009-01-01

33

The Relation between the Working Memory Skills of Sign Language Interpreters and the Quality of Their Interpretations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In two experiments we investigated the relationship between the working memory skills of sign language interpreters and the quality of their interpretations. In Experiment 1, we found that scores on 3-back tasks with signs and words were not related to the quality of interpreted narratives. In Experiment 2, we found that memory span scores for…

Van Dijk, Rick; Christoffels, Ingrid; Postma, Albert; Hermans, Daan

2012-01-01

34

An investigation of the relationship between logical thinking structures and the ability to construct and interpret line graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the relationship between logical thinking structures and the ability to construct and interpret line graphs. Seventy-two subjects in 7th, 9th, and 11th grades were administered individual Piagetian tasks to assess five specific mental structures: (Euclidean spatial structures) (a) Placement and Displacement of Objects (maintaining horizontal and vertical reference frames) and (b) One-One Multiplication of Placement and Displacement Relations (coordinate systems); (c) Multiplicative Measurement; (d) Multiplicative Seriation; and (e) Proportional Reasoning. Graphing abilities were assessed by having the subjects construct and interpret numerous graphs of varying content and difficulty. To minimize the researcher's guesses about interpretation, each subject's answers and reasons were subsequently explored during a clinical interview. The results indicate significant relationships of logical thinking to graphing ability. Multiplicative seriation, multiplicative measurement, and Euclidean spatial structures positively influenced graphing abilities. Subjects who showed evidence of proportional reasoning did significantly better on many graphing situations including choosing the part of the graph with the greatest rate of change. Locating points on a graph without a grid was significantly related to horizontal/vertical frames of reference. Students who did not possess the logical thinking structures were more likely to be dependent upon, and influenced by, perceptual cues and less able to interpret or construct graphs correctly.Received: 16 March 1993; Revised: 18 October 1993;

Berg, Craig A.; Phillips, Darrell G.

35

Collaborative Robotic Instruction: A Graph Teaching Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Graphing is a key skill in the study of Physics. Drawing and interpreting graphs play a key role in the understanding of science, while the lack of these has proved to be a handicap and a limiting factor in the learning of scientific concepts. It has been observed that despite the amount of previous graph-working experience, students of all ages…

Mitnik, Ruben; Recabarren, Matias; Nussbaum, Miguel; Soto, Alvaro

2009-01-01

36

Beyond Behavioral Skills to Human-Involved Processes: Relational Nursing Practice and Interpretive Pedagogy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behaviorist teaching of communication skills can interfere with learning of humanistic nursing. Interpretive inquiry can help students experience the transformative power for relationships and develop confidence and trust in their capacity for relational nursing practice. (Contains 20 references.) (SK)

Doane, Gweneth A. Hartrick

2002-01-01

37

Rated MPG for Confusion Using Gas Mileage to Learn Graphing and Data Analysis Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case study follows a family’s dilemma about how to save money on gasoline. Should they keep their SUV and trade in their Corolla for a hybrid sedan? Going from 28 (Corolla) to 48 (Hybrid) miles per gallon (MPG) should really save money on gas. That’s a change of 20 MPG! Or, should they keep their Corolla and trade in their SUV for a minivan? The SUV gets about 13 MPG while the Minivan gets 17 MPG. Students learn how to analyze fuel efficiency in terms of “gallons per miles” driven instead of miles per gallon, and gain graphing and data analysis skills. An extension activity also relates fuel efficiency to greenhouse gas emissions. The case was developed for use in a high school general science course. It could be adapted for use in introductory physics, chemistry, algebra, or environmental science courses at the high school or college level.

Bode, Claudia; Gleue, Alan; Pearson, Carolyn

2009-01-01

38

Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Practice how to use each of these types of graphs. 1. Learn All About Spinners. 2. Try using things from your life to draw a Pie Chart. 3. Use real life experiences to make a Bar Chart. 4. Practice drawing a Histogram. ...

Young, Mrs.

2007-11-23

39

Supplantation of Mental Operations on Graphs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research findings show the difficulties younger students have in working with graphs. Higher mental operations are necessary for a skilled interpretation of abstract representations. We suggest connecting a concrete representation of the modeled problem with the related graph. The idea is to illustrate essential mental operations externally. This…

Vogel, Markus; Girwidz, Raimund; Engel, Joachim

2007-01-01

40

An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of How Professional Dance Teachers Implement Psychological Skills Training in Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to examine how dance teachers work with psychological skills with their students in class. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six female professional teachers in jazz, ballet and contemporary dance. The interview transcripts were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (Smith 1996). Results…

Klockare, Ellinor; Gustafsson, Henrik; Nordin-Bates, Sanna M.

2011-01-01

41

Using the Computer to Teach Methods and Interpretative Skills in the Humanities: Implementing a Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of implementing computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in two religion courses and a logic course at California State College, Bakersfield, are examined along with student responses. The main purpose of the CAI project was to teach interpretive skills. The most positive results came in the logic course. The programs in the New Testament…

Jones, Bruce William

42

Measures of Fine Motor Skills in People with Tremor Disorders: Appraisal and Interpretation  

PubMed Central

People with Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, or other movement disorders involving tremor have changes in fine motor skills that are among the hallmarks of these diseases. Numerous measurement tools have been created and other methods devised to measure such changes in fine motor skills. Measurement tools may focus on specific features – e.g., motor skills or dexterity, slowness in movement execution associated with parkinsonian bradykinesia, or magnitude of tremor. Less obviously, some tools may be better suited than others for specific goals such as detecting subtle dysfunction early in disease, revealing aspects of brain function affected by disease, or tracking changes expected from treatment or disease progression. The purpose of this review is to describe and appraise selected measurement tools of fine motor skills appropriate for people with tremor disorders. In this context, we consider the tools’ content – i.e., what movement features they focus on. In addition, we consider how measurement tools of fine motor skills relate to measures of a person’s disease state or a person’s function. These considerations affect how one should select and interpret the results of these tools in laboratory and clinical contexts.

Norman, Kathleen E.; Heroux, Martin E.

2013-01-01

43

Graph Dance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners "dance" (move back and forth at varying speeds) by reading a graph. This is a kinesthetic way to help learners interpret and understand how motion is graphed. This resource includes instructions for three different graph "dances" and an optional extension activity.

Muller, Eric

2004-01-01

44

Categorization of First-Year University Students' Interpretations of Numerical Linear Distance-Time Graphs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We have investigated the various approaches taken by first-year university students (n[image omitted]550) when asked to determine the direction of motion, the constancy of speed, and a numerical value of the speed of an object at a point on a numerical linear distance-time graph. We investigated the prevalence of various well-known general…

Wemyss, Thomas; van Kampen, Paul

2013-01-01

45

An Algebra of Graphs and Graph Rewriting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose an axiomatization of partially abstract graphs, i.e., of suitable classes of monomorphisms in a category of graphs, which may be interpreted as graphs having both a concrete part and an abstract part (defined up to isomorphism). Morphisms between pa-graphs are pushout squares. We show that the basic notions of the algebraic theory of graph grammars

Andrea Corradini; Ugo Montanari

1991-01-01

46

The Impact of Microcomputer-Based Science Labs on Children's Graphing Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Microcomputer-based laboratories (MBL), the use of microcomputers for student-directed data acquisition and analysis, represents a promising new development in science laboratory instruction. This descriptive study determined the impact of MBLs on middle school students' understanding of graphs of distance and velocity. The study was based on the…

Mokros, Janice R.

47

Re-Examining the Power of Video Motion Analysis to Promote the Reading and Creating of Kinematic Graphs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One essential skill that students who learn physics should possess is the ability to create and interpret kinematic graphs. However, it is well documented in the literature that students show lack of competence in these abilities. They have problems in connecting graphs and physics concepts, as well as graphs and the real world. The present paper…

Eshach, Haim

2010-01-01

48

Offline signature verification and skilled forgery detection using HMM and sum graph features with ANN and knowledge based classifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Signature verification is one of the most widely researched areas in document analysis and signature biometric. Various methodologies have been proposed in this area for accurate signature verification and forgery detection. In this paper we propose a unique two stage model of detecting skilled forgery in the signature by combining two feature types namely Sum graph and HMM model for signature generation and classify them with knowledge based classifier and probability neural network. We proposed a unique technique of using HMM as feature rather than a classifier as being widely proposed by most of the authors in signature recognition. Results show a higher false rejection than false acceptance rate. The system detects forgeries with an accuracy of 80% and can detect the signatures with 91% accuracy. The two stage model can be used in realistic signature biometric applications like the banking applications where there is a need to detect the authenticity of the signature before processing documents like checks.

Mehta, Mohit; Choudhary, Vijay; Das, Rupam; Khan, Ilyas

2010-02-01

49

Interviewing patients using interpreters in an oncology setting: initial evaluation of a communication skills module | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

The authors developed a communication skills training module for health professionals who work with professional translators in interviewing patients. The module combines didactic presentation of information and group role-play exercises in which trained medical interpreters help trainees communicate with bilingual patients. The module stresses communication strategies, including optimal seating arrangements that strengthen the clinician-patient relationship and de-emphasize interpreter-patient and interpreter-clinician interactions.

50

How Do Students Learn to Apply their Mathematical Knowledge to Interpret Graphs in Physics?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a laboratory-based program in physics designed to help students build effective links between the mathematical equations used to solve problems in mechanics and the real world of moving objects. The program is based on a study conducted among senior college students, which illustrated out the value of laboratory work in science education for development of thinking skills and positive attitudes (Contains 14 references).

Woolnough, Jim

2006-09-14

51

How do students learn to apply their mathematical knowledge to interpret graphs in physics?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a laboratory-based program in physics designed to help students build effective links between the mathematical equations used to solve problems in mechanics and the real world of moving objects. Through the analysis of straight line graphs derived from their own data students have been able to achieve a considerable development towards a concept of slope, or gradient, and how it relates to the concept of proportionality, but they continue to demonstrate a great resistance to applying their mathematical knowledge to physics. A model designed to help us apply current research ideas to this problem is described. The work described in this paper was carried out at Dickson College, a government senior secondary college (Years 11 and 12) in the Australian Capital Territory, where the author taught physics and biology.

Woolnough, Jim

2000-09-01

52

Levels of line graph question interpretation with intermediate elementary students of varying scientific and mathematical knowledge and ability: A think aloud study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined how intermediate elementary students' mathematics and science background knowledge affected their interpretation of line graphs and how their interpretations were affected by graph question levels. A purposive sample of 14 6th-grade students engaged in think aloud interviews (Ericsson & Simon, 1993) while completing an excerpted Test of Graphing in Science (TOGS) (McKenzie & Padilla, 1986). Hand gestures were video recorded. Student performance on the TOGS was assessed using an assessment rubric created from previously cited factors affecting students' graphing ability. Factors were categorized using Bertin's (1983) three graph question levels. The assessment rubric was validated by Padilla and a veteran mathematics and science teacher. Observational notes were also collected. Data were analyzed using Roth and Bowen's semiotic process of reading graphs (2001). Key findings from this analysis included differences in the use of heuristics, self-generated questions, science knowledge, and self-motivation. Students with higher prior achievement used a greater number and variety of heuristics and more often chose appropriate heuristics. They also monitored their understanding of the question and the adequacy of their strategy and answer by asking themselves questions. Most used their science knowledge spontaneously to check their understanding of the question and the adequacy of their answers. Students with lower and moderate prior achievement favored one heuristic even when it was not useful for answering the question and rarely asked their own questions. In some cases, if students with lower prior achievement had thought about their answers in the context of their science knowledge, they would have been able to recognize their errors. One student with lower prior achievement motivated herself when she thought the questions were too difficult. In addition, students answered the TOGS in one of three ways: as if they were mathematics word problems, science data to be analyzed, or they were confused and had to guess. A second set of findings corroborated how science background knowledge affected graph interpretation: correct science knowledge supported students' reasoning, but it was not necessary to answer any question correctly; correct science knowledge could not compensate for incomplete mathematics knowledge; and incorrect science knowledge often distracted students when they tried to use it while answering a question. Finally, using Roth and Bowen's (2001) two-stage semiotic model of reading graphs, representative vignettes showed emerging patterns from the study. This study added to our understanding of the role of science content knowledge during line graph interpretation, highlighted the importance of heuristics and mathematics procedural knowledge, and documented the importance of perception attentions, motivation, and students' self-generated questions. Recommendations were made for future research in line graph interpretation in mathematics and science education and for improving instruction in this area.

Keller, Stacy Kathryn

53

Data-rich Case Studies Improve Students' Abilities to Interpret Graphs in a Large Non-majors Course  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The authors of this TIEE Research Paper evaluated the use of data-intensive case studies and small group discussion on students' quantitative abilities in a large environmental science lecture course. Students were asked to interpret graphs in pre- and post-course assessments. Most students (>80%) thought they did well on the initial assessment, although faculty evaluators scored about half as below minimally acceptable. There was no significant overall relationship between how students thought they performed and how their responses were scored. Student confidence in dealing with quantitative information increased from the start to the end of the course. Their rated ability did not increase significantly overall, although those students who scored poorly in the pre-course assessment scored significantly higher in the post-course assessment. In general, male students felt more confident than female students about their responses to quantitative information although their rated scores were similar. No background data could account for variation in initial performance or change in performance. Improvements in lower scoring students are encouraging as are increases in student perceptions of ability. However, the large number of poorly performing students in both the pre- and post-course assessments, and the disconnect between how students thought they performed and how they were scored, means that actual performance may not increase with increasing perceptions of ability. Students may need more opportunities for feedback to confront the disparity between their perceptions and the reality of their lack of success in interpreting quantitative information.

Workman, Margaret

2010-02-16

54

Location Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity adapted from Annenberg Learner’s Teaching Math Grades 6–8, students interpret two line graphs to identify possible locations where the data might have been gathered.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2012-06-29

55

When There Isn't a Right Answer: Interpretation and Reasoning, Key Skills for Twenty-First Century Geoscience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A key challenge in university geoscience teaching is to give students the skills to cope with uncertainty. Professional geoscientists can rarely be certain of the "right answer" to problems posed by most geological datasets, and reasoning through this uncertainty, being intelligently flexible in interpreting data which are limited in resolution…

Bond, Clare Elizabeth; Philo, Chris; Shipton, Zoe Kai

2011-01-01

56

The Graphing Game Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan assesses student interpretation of graphs utilizing cooperative learning to further students understanding. Types of graphs used are horizontal and vertical bar graphs, picture graphs, and pictographs. In the lesson students play a game called the Graphing Game Show, in which they must work as a team to answer questions about specific graphs. The lesson includes four student resource worksheets and suggestions for extension and differentiation.

2011-01-01

57

Bar Graph Mania  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use these activities to build and interpret data on bar graphs. Catch all the bugs in the system and put them in the correct column of the bar graph. Answer the questions about the bugs in the graph. Catch bugs in six rooms. Bugs in the system Do these bar graphing activities. You don\\'t have to do the last question ...

Thurlow, Ms.

2005-10-26

58

Acquisition of Visual Perceptual Skills from Worked Examples: Learning to Interpret Electrocardiograms (ECGs)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that for acquiring problem-solving skills, instruction consisting of studying worked examples is more effective and efficient for novice learners than instruction consisting of problem-solving. This study investigated whether worked examples would also be a useful instructional format for the acquisition of visual perceptual…

van den Berge, Kees; van Gog, Tamara; Mamede, Silvia; Schmidt, Henk G.; van Saase, Jan L. C. M.; Rikers, Remy M. J. P.

2013-01-01

59

Training and Practice in Geographic Skills: An Aerial Photo Interpretation Course Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a college level geography project which focused on land use identification from aerial photographs, land use mapping, and the identification and analysis of land use changes in the field. The project was intended to help students apply geographic skills to real world problems. (AM)

Rumney, Thomas

1982-01-01

60

Interpretations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although nobody can question the practical efficiency of quantum mechanics, there remains the serious question of its interpretation. As Valerio Scarani puts it, "We do not feel at ease with the indistinguishability principle (that is, the superposition principle) and some of its consequences." Indeed, this principle which pervades the quantum world is in stark contradiction with our everyday experience. From the very beginning of quantum mechanics, a number of physicists--but not the majority of them!--have asked the question of its "interpretation". One may simply deny that there is a problem: according to proponents of the minimalist interpretation, quantum mechanics is self-sufficient and needs no interpretation. The point of view held by a majority of physicists, that of the Copenhagen interpretation, will be examined in Section 10.1. The crux of the problem lies in the status of the state vector introduced in the preceding chapter to describe a quantum system, which is no more than a symbolic representation for the Copenhagen school of thought. Conversely, one may try to attribute some "external reality" to this state vector, that is, a correspondence between the mathematical description and the physical reality. In this latter case, it is the measurement problem which is brought to the fore. In 1932, von Neumann was first to propose a global approach, in an attempt to build a purely quantum theory of measurement examined in Section 10.2. This theory still underlies modern approaches, among them those grounded on decoherence theory, or on the macroscopic character of the measuring apparatus: see Section 10.3. Finally, there are non-standard interpretations such as Everett's many worlds theory or the hidden variables theory of de Broglie and Bohm (Section 10.4). Note, however, that this variety of interpretations has no bearing whatsoever on the practical use of quantum mechanics. There is no controversy on the way we should use quantum mechanics!

Bellac, Michel Le

2014-11-01

61

Influence of interactive videodisc instruction using simultaneous-time analysis on kinematics graphing skills of high school physics students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study presents an investigation of (n=31) physics students' analysis of videodisc-recorded images with treatments over an extended time. Researchers found no significant learning difference between using simultaneous-time and delayed-time analysis for student understanding of kinematics graphs.

Brungardt, John B.; Zollman, Dean A.

2006-05-23

62

K-6 Social Studies Skills for the Human Behavior and Urban Studies Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide was developed to aid elementary students deal with life experiences through skill development. Major skills stressed are: locating, organizing, and evaluating information; acquiring information through listening, observing, and reading; communicating orally and in writing; interpreting pictures, charts, graphs, and tables; and working…

Banks, Samuel L., Ed.

63

Graphing is a Snap.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the development of graphing skills through a data collection activity that answers the question of the relationship between rubber band width and flight distance. Includes definitions of terms and instructions for helping students construct line and bar graphs. (DDR)

Rezba, Richard J.; Giese, Ronald N.; Cothron, Julia H.

1998-01-01

64

Analysis of processes used by middle-school students to interpret functions embedded in dynamic physical models and represented in tables, equations, and graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation examined the processes generated by eighth-grade students to interpret and represent the functions embedded in dynamic physical models and the instructional decisions that facilitated the processes. Using the teaching experiment method, students were paired to interactively explore a slack rope board. The slack rope board consisted of a string that had been attached to a corkboard and that could be pulled taut to generate two segments of varying length. Students also explored the spool elevating system where an object was attached to a spool by string. The object could be raised or lowered by turning a handle attached to the spool. In each case, students identified variables, selected symbols to represent variables, and generated tables, equations, and graphs of observed functions. Students' equations were often treated as records of the action or relationship of the functions embedded in the dynamic physical models. Some students were reluctant to algebraically manipulate their equations because the record of the action or relationship was lost. Students' graphs, created using an Etch-a-Sketch, were generated via direct translation of the action of a dynamic physical model to the knobs of the Etch-a-Sketch. Several students developed a rate to accomplish the translation. In verbally presented real-world scenarios which differed in context from that of dynamic physical models but which had underlying structures similar to those of functions embedded in dynamic physical models, it was found that students focused on the underlying structure. The learning environment created by interactive use of the dynamic physical models supported development of instruction through which students' thinking could be challenged and through which students could connect their knowledge of functions generated in one representation to another. Use of the dynamic physical models enabled students to interpret functions as repeated actions with several students constructing generalized interpretation of the process. Instruction incorporating the use of dynamic physical models is indicated and recommended.

Hines, Mary Ellen

65

``Cheers for Rates of Change'' -- An Introductory Lab Used to Relate Graphs to Physical Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students entering physics courses in high school have seen graphs for years in math and science classes, but often do not have a deep understanding of the physical meaning of the graphs. This introductory activity is designed to allow students to collect data for a real world or physical situation (the height versus volume of water held in everyday drinking glasses), and interpret the meaning of the graph and how it describes the physical situation. This activity is well suited for students who don't have much physics knowledge. It uses familiar objects to start developing the skills of making and interpreting graphs and then relating them to the physical situations they analyze. These skills are used heavily all year in our physics classes, which are based on the Modeling Instruction in Physics framework developed at Arizona State University.1

Forrest, Doug; Whalen, Mary Battershell

2012-11-01

66

Global Warming Graph Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students interpret a variety of graphs from IPCC reports to learn the details of climate change. Pairs of students analyze data in graphs, and present their findings by addressing the following points: 1) Describe the axes and range of the graph; 2) Describe the general trend of the graph; and 3) What might your graph be telling us, and what can you infer from the data? This lesson appears to be relatively simple, but much of the peer-reviewed data in these reports are highly technical and require a great deal of analysis.

Larsen, Krista

67

Graphs in Economics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PowerPoint presentation features an explanation of different types of graphs. Students will learn how to make and interpret a time-series graph, a cross-section graph, and a scatter diagram. Illustrations and text are used to define and calculate the slope of a line and distinguish between linear and nonlinear relationships and between relationships that have a maximum and a minimum.

Vellangany, Isaac; University, Rutgers

68

Dynamic graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic graphs are defined in a linear space as a one-parameter group of transformations of the graph space into itself. Stability of equilibrium graphs is formulated in the sense of Lyapunov to study motions of positive graphs in the nonnegative orthant of the graph space. Relying on the isomorphism of graphs and adjacency matrices, a new concept of dynamic connective

D. D. Šiljak

2008-01-01

69

Graphs and Tracks Impresses as a Kinematics Teaching Tool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ability to construct and interpret graphs associated with simple motions of objects is unquestionably a desirable outcome of physics education. The computer program Graphs and Tracks was designed to help students build such skills. The genesis of Graphs and Tracks dates from the early 1980s, when the Physics Education Group at the University of Washington began conducting research on student understanding of the kinematic concepts of 1D velocity and acceleration. A physical system similar to the one simulated in Graphs and Tracks, consisting of a ball rolling on a slotted track, has been used by the Physics Education Group and has been integrated into curricular material. Graphs and Tracks was updated in the late 1980s to reflect insight drawn from research concerning student understanding of graphing concepts used in kinematics. The system simulated in Graphs and Tracks is a ball sliding without friction along a segmented track in which each segment can have a unique slope. Transitions from one segment of the track to another are artificially smooth. As users are informed, the vertical dimension of the track is exaggerated onscreen so that slopes appear up to nine times greater than they actually are. Thus, the appearance of the ball's motion onscreen is highly two-dimensional. The package is divided into two programs: Graphs and Tracks I: From Graphs to Motion and Graphs and Tracks II: From Motion to Graphs. Both sections include online tutorial instruction on how to operate the program. These tutorials thoroughly cover all of the basic functions used in the program.

Wilkinson, L. K.; Risley, John; Gastineau, J.; Engelhardt, P. V.; Schultz, S. F.

2006-10-11

70

Expanding our understanding of students' use of graphs for learning physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is generally agreed that the ability to visualize functional dependencies or physical relationships as graphs is an important step in modeling and learning. However, several studies in Physics Education Research (PER) have shown that many students in fact do not master this form of representation and even have misconceptions about the meaning of graphs that impede learning physics concepts. Working with graphs in classroom settings has been shown to improve student abilities with graphs, particularly when the students can interact with them. We introduce a novel problem type in an online homework system, which requires students to construct the graphs themselves in free form, and requires no hand-grading by instructors. A study of pre/post-test data using the Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K) over several semesters indicates that students learn significantly more from these graph construction problems than from the usual graph interpretation problems, and that graph interpretation alone may not have any significant effect. The interpretation of graphs, as well as the representation translation between textual, mathematical, and graphical representations of physics scenarios, are frequently listed among the higher order thinking skills we wish to convey in an undergraduate course. But to what degree do we succeed? Do students indeed employ higher order thinking skills when working through graphing exercises? We investigate students working through a variety of graph problems, and, using a think-aloud protocol, aim to reconstruct the cognitive processes that the students go through. We find that to a certain degree, these problems become commoditized and do not trigger the desired higher order thinking processes; simply translating ``textbook-like'' problems into the graphical realm will not achieve any additional educational goals. Whether the students have to interpret or construct a graph makes very little difference in the methods used by the students. We will also look at the results of using graph problems in an online learning environment. We will show evidence that construction problems lead to a higher degree of difficulty and degree of discrimination than other graph problems and discuss the influence the course has on these variables.

Laverty, James T.

71

Graphing Stratospheric Ozone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will seek to understand trends that are shown by graphical analysis of ozone measurements over time. Students will investigate ozone chemistry and issues around the preservation of the Earthâs ozone layer, and learn how to read false color images of ozone concentration. They will then interpret trends from graphs of data and construct a correctly labeled graph. This lesson uses NASA images of Antarctic ozone to motivate the graphing lesson and then presents more sophisticated examples of graphing using images from the Neumayer Antarctic Station. A printable student questionnaire and teacher answer key is provided.

72

Graphing - Scaling a Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In science, students often start their graphs at an origin other than (0, 0). Also the scales are often very large or very small and variables, other than x and y, are used. The students will need to use breaks in the graph to accommodate the values. For example with the first problem they will want to start the vertical axis at 350, and the horizontal at 0.1000. In the answer key a graph created in Excel gives a general view of the data, however it is not possible to insert the necessary break to indicate that the intersection of the axis in not (0, 0).

2011-01-01

73

Shedding Light on the Graph Schema.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current theories of graph comprehension have posited the graph schema as providing us the necessary knowledge to interpret any graph type. Yet, little is known about the nature of the graph schema, and no empirical data exist showing that there actual...

J. G. Trafton R. M. Ratwani

2005-01-01

74

Graph Theory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Graph theory is widely used in computer science, engineering and of course, mathematics. Wikipedia offers this definition and overview of Graph Theory (1). This next website from Mega-Math (2) reviews some of the Vocabulary of Graphs and highlights some applications for graph theory, such as the design of computer systems and games. Some additional applications for Graph Theory are discussed in this more technical book called Graph Theory with Applications (3). This website from Georgia Tech (4) discusses a proof that allows a user to create a map of the U.S. using just four colors. For a more involved explanation of Graph Theory, see this Graph Theory book by Reinhard Diestel (5). On this next website (6), Christopher P. Mawata of the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga offers a collection of Graph Theory Lessons for educators. The final website provides a short biography of a key figure in Graph Theory who recently passed away, Frank Harary (7).

75

Using Physiology to Explore Graphing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Making graphs can be a challenging process for some students to understand. Using graphs and student collected data, the class will learn how to construct and interpret graphs. They will develop simple experiments; designate x and y axis, scale, label and plot points on a graph; determine blood pressure and extrapolate heart rate using pulse, sphygmomanometer, and stethoscope; collect, organize, display, and analyze experimental data; and discover factors affecting heart rate and pressure. Upon completion of this activity, students will be able to designate x and y axis, scale, label and plot points on a graph.

Mr. Bruce J. Dudek (St. Labre High School)

1998-12-01

76

Bar Graphs!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mrs. Kohlar has been working with you on bar graphs. Here are a couple of games for you to play to help you practice using them. Catch all the Bugs in the system and put them in the correct column of the bar graph. Answer the questions about the bugs in the graph. You can play the game twice if you wish. Do these bar graph activities and have some bar graph fun! Don\\'t worry about the last question, just answer ...

Pocock, Mrs.

2006-10-26

77

An Unusual Exponential Graph  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is an addition to the series of papers on the exponential function begun by Albert Bartlett.1 In particular, we ask how the graph of the exponential function y =e-t/? would appear if y were plotted versus ln t rather than the normal practice of plotting ln y versus t. In answering this question, we find a new way to interpret the mean life (or time constant) ? using such a linear-log graph.

Syed, M. Qasim; Lovatt, Ian

2014-05-01

78

Shared networks of interpreter services, at relatively low cost, can help providers serve patients with limited english skills.  

PubMed

Language barriers in health care-a large and growing problem in the United States-contribute to disparities in health care quality and outcomes in populations with limited English proficiency. Providing access to adequate interpreter services has been shown to reduce health disparities in these populations. However, many health care organizations do not provide such services because of the perceived high cost. In this observational study we calculated the costs incurred by a group of California public hospitals that formed a network to make trained interpreters available via videoconference and telephone. We found that encounters in this network where interpreters helped patients and providers communicate lasted an average of 10.6 minutes and cost an average of $24.86 per encounter. Such costs should be weighed against the likely alternatives, such as the opportunity costs of having other hospital staff act as ad hoc interpreters; medical errors that could result from inadequate interpretation; and the fact that not providing such services may leave providers out of compliance with federal law. We also discuss ways in which providers could be compensated for providing interpreter services. PMID:21976337

Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Leos, Ginelle Sanchez; Rathouz, Paul J; Fu, Paul

2011-10-01

79

Evaluation of the interpretative skills of participants of a limited transthoracic echocardiography training course (H.A.R.T.scan course).  

PubMed

Limited transthoracic echocardiography performed by treating physicians may facilitate assessment of haemodynamic abnormalities in perioperative and critical care patients. The interpretative skills of one hundred participants who completed an education program in limited transthoracic echocardiography were assessed by reporting five pre-recorded case studies. A high level of agreement was observed in ventricular volume assessment (left 95%, right 96%), systolic function (left 99%, right 96%), left atrial pressure (96%) and haemodynamic state (97%). The highest failure to report answers (that is, no answer given) was for right ventricular volume and function. For moderate or severe valve lesions, agreement ranged from 90 to 98%, with failure to report <5% in all cases except for mitral stenosis (18%). For mild valve lesions, the range of agreement was lower (53 to 100%) due to overestimation of severity. Medical practitioners who completed the structured educational program showed good agreement with experts in interpretation of valve and ventricular function. PMID:22577916

Royse, C F; Haji, D L; Faris, J G; Veltman, M G; Kumar, A; Royse, A G

2012-05-01

80

Choose the Right Graph.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the importance of accurate graphic presentation and describes graphs available on "LabQuest" computer software. Highlights include graphing conventions; prerequisites for computer graphing; bar graphs; pie graphs; stacked bar graphs; line graphs; x/y graphs; scatter graphs; box plots; stem and leaf graphs; best fit graphs; and normal…

Moersch, Christopher

1995-01-01

81

Interpretation and use of inter-element correlation graphs obtained by scanning X-ray fluorescence micro-beam spectrometry from individual particles. Part II — application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inter-element correlation graphs from two-dimensional scanning X-ray fluorescence micro-beam spectrometry measurements of individual particles were modeled in the previous theoretical part of this study. It was shown that the investigation of the correlation graph gives an opportunity to find a simple geometrical shape to model individual particles. In the present work individual oil and coal fly ash particles were studied as an application of the method. The absorption characteristics of the residual matrices of the particles could be estimated from the width of the correlation plots. Inter-element concentration ratios were estimated from the slopes of the respective correlation graphs. These data were compared with the values determined by measuring a thin glass calibration standard NIST 1832.

Somogyi, A.; Janssens, K.; Vincze, L.; Vekemans, B.; Rindby, A.; Adams, F.

2000-07-01

82

Generating Chordal Graphs Included in Given Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A chordal graph is a graph which contains no chordless cycle of at least four edges as an induced subgraph. The class of chordal graphs contains many famous graph classes such as trees, interval graphs, and split graphs, and is also a subclass of perfect graphs. In this paper, we address the problem of enumerating all labeled chordal graphs

Masashi Kiyomi; Takeaki Uno

2006-01-01

83

Graph Expressions and Graph Rewritings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We define an algebraic structure for the set of finite graphs, a notion of graph expression for defining them, and a complete set of equational rules for manipulating graph expressions. (By agraph we mean an oriented hypergraph, the hyperedges of which are labeled with symbols from a fixed finite ranked alphabet and that is equipped with a finite sequence of

Michel Bauderon; Bruno Courcelle

1987-01-01

84

MY NASA DATA: Reading Bar Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity engages students in reading a bar graph using authentic NASA data. Students will identify major parts of bar graphs and make a generalization based their interpretation of the graphed data. The lesson provides detailed procedures, related links and sample graphs, follow-up questions, extensions, and teacher notes. Designed for student use, MY NASA DATA LAS samples micro datasets from large scientific data archives, and provides structured investigations engaging students in exploration of real data to answer real world questions.

85

Impossible Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to graphs that are not possible, either because they don't pass the vertical line test or simply because of the context of the graph, i.e. discontinuous graph of displacement vs. time. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to impossible graphs as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one.

2010-01-01

86

All About Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will practice creating and understanding bar graphs. Learn about making and reading graphs. BrainPOP! Bar Graph Video Bugs have gotten into the library! Help the Cybersquad get rid of them and graph which bugs showed up. Bugs in the System Graph colors and shapes! Bar Graph Sorter Practice using tally charts. IXL Tally Charts Practice using bar graphs. IXL Bar Graphs ...

Hoffmann, Mrs.

2011-06-09

87

Noncommutative Riemannian geometry on graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that arising out of noncommutative geometry is a natural family of edge Laplacians on the edges of a graph. The family includes a canonical edge Laplacian associated to the graph, extending the usual graph Laplacian on vertices, and we find its spectrum. We show that for a connected graph its eigenvalues are strictly positive aside from one mandatory zero mode, and include all the vertex degrees. Our edge Laplacian is not the graph Laplacian on the line graph but rather it arises as the noncommutative Laplace-Beltrami operator on differential 1-forms, where we use the language of differential algebras to functorially interpret a graph as providing a 'finite manifold structure' on the set of vertices. We equip any graph with a canonical 'Euclidean metric' and a canonical bimodule connection, and in the case of a Cayley graph we construct a metric compatible connection for the Euclidean metric. We make use of results on bimodule connections on inner calculi on algebras, which we prove, including a general relation between zero curvature and the braid relations.

Majid, Shahn

2013-07-01

88

Graph Theory  

SciTech Connect

Graph theory is a branch of discrete combinatorial mathematics that studies the properties of graphs. The theory was pioneered by the Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler in the 18th century, commenced its formal development during the second half of the 19th century, and has witnessed substantial growth during the last seventy years, with applications in areas as diverse as engineering, computer science, physics, sociology, chemistry and biology. Graph theory has also had a strong impact in computational linguistics by providing the foundations for the theory of features structures that has emerged as one of the most widely used frameworks for the representation of grammar formalisms.

Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

2005-12-27

89

Random graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We will review some of the major results in random graphs and some of the more challenging open problems. We will cover algorithmic and structural questions. We will touch on newer models, including those related to the WWW.

Alan M. Frieze

2006-01-01

90

Graphing Paleoclimate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will gain a basic understanding of climate, earth's energy budget, greenhouse gases, factors that affect the climate, paleoclimate, and how proxies are used. The students will then graph paleoclimates. All of the graphing data needed for this activity are contained within this unit. While presenting their findings, students will look for any connections to global climate and some of the variables suggested within the unit. There are corresponding assignments along with a scoring guide also available.

2012-01-01

91

Circle Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use preset data or input their own data that will be represented in a circle graph. This activity allows students to explore making circle graphs and calculating the percent of a circle that each data entry occupies. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Shodor

2012-04-02

92

Active Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners track their movements with jumping and leaping graphs. In part A, learners jump as high as they can and press their inked fingers or hands against a large true-to-life chart with vertical distance marked along the vertical edge. Learners compare the results. In part B, learners jump as far as they can and use masking tape to mark their spot on a true-to-life bar graph. Again, learners compare the results.

Museum, Chicago C.

2011-01-01

93

Bar Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use preset data or input their own data to be represented by a bar graph. This activity allows students to explore bar graphs and how changing scales will alter how their data is represented. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

94

Helping Students Make Sense of Graphs: An Experimental Trial of SmartGraphs Software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphs are commonly used in science, mathematics, and social sciences to convey important concepts; yet students at all ages demonstrate difficulties interpreting graphs. This paper reports on an experimental study of free, Web-based software called SmartGraphs that is specifically designed to help students overcome their misconceptions regarding graphs. SmartGraphs allows students to interact with graphs and provides hints and scaffolding to help students, if they need help. SmartGraphs activities can be authored to be useful in teaching and learning a variety of topics that use graphs (such as slope, velocity, half-life, and global warming). A 2-year experimental study in physical science classrooms was conducted with dozens of teachers and thousands of students. In the first year, teachers were randomly assigned to experimental or control conditions. Data show that students of teachers who use SmartGraphs as a supplement to normal instruction make greater gains understanding graphs than control students studying the same content using the same textbooks, but without SmartGraphs. Additionally, teachers believe that the SmartGraphs activities help students meet learning goals in the physical science course, and a great majority reported they would use the activities with students again. In the second year of the study, several specific variations of SmartGraphs were researched to help determine what makes SmartGraphs effective.

Zucker, Andrew; Kay, Rachel; Staudt, Carolyn

2014-06-01

95

Helping Students Make Sense of Graphs: An Experimental Trial of SmartGraphs Software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphs are commonly used in science, mathematics, and social sciences to convey important concepts; yet students at all ages demonstrate difficulties interpreting graphs. This paper reports on an experimental study of free, Web-based software called SmartGraphs that is specifically designed to help students overcome their misconceptions regarding graphs. SmartGraphs allows students to interact with graphs and provides hints and scaffolding to help students, if they need help. SmartGraphs activities can be authored to be useful in teaching and learning a variety of topics that use graphs (such as slope, velocity, half-life, and global warming). A 2-year experimental study in physical science classrooms was conducted with dozens of teachers and thousands of students. In the first year, teachers were randomly assigned to experimental or control conditions. Data show that students of teachers who use SmartGraphs as a supplement to normal instruction make greater gains understanding graphs than control students studying the same content using the same textbooks, but without SmartGraphs. Additionally, teachers believe that the SmartGraphs activities help students meet learning goals in the physical science course, and a great majority reported they would use the activities with students again. In the second year of the study, several specific variations of SmartGraphs were researched to help determine what makes SmartGraphs effective.

Zucker, Andrew; Kay, Rachel; Staudt, Carolyn

2013-10-01

96

The California Critical Thinking Skills Test--College Level. Technical Report #4. Interpreting the CCTST, Group Norms, and Sub-Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Group norms are provided for the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST)--College Level, a standardized 34-item multiple-choice test designed to assess the core critical thinking skills associated with baccalaureate general education. The CCTST offers three subtests conceptualized in terms of a national Delphi study on critical thinking.…

Facione, Peter A.

97

Graphing U.S. Presidential Elections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students in need of experience constructing and interpreting statistical graphs will find this exercise useful. The lesson uses data from past presidential elections; students will construct a variety of graphs (bar graphs, pie charts, stem & leaf plots and box & whiskers plots) based on the data. The interdisciplinary lesson may be used in conjunction with American history or political science coursework. The document also includes a student worksheet and activity assessments.

2010-12-15

98

Graphing Tides  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student graphing of high and low tide from locations showing the three tide types (diurnal, semi-diurnal, and mixed) and the Bay of Fundy (tidal amplitude increased by resonance). Students recognize that not all tides are the same and that location is an important control on tides.

Farley, Martin

99

Pi Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use a straight line to learn about circles. Learners measure and record the diameter and circumference of different sized cylindrical objects on a chart. Learners then plot the diameters and circumferences on a graph and calculate the slope to discover the linear relationship between the two proprieties.

Yu, Julie

2008-01-01

100

Sinusoidal Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Nathan Kahl for the Connected Curriculum Project, the purpose of this module is to study properties of the graphs of the basic trigonometric functions, sine and cosine. This is one within a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Kahl, Nathan

2010-05-07

101

A random graph model for massive graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a random graph model which is a special case of sparse random graphs with given degree sequences. This model involves only a small number of parameters, called logsize and log-log growth rate. These parameters capture some universal characteristics of massive graphs. Furthermore, from these parameters, various properties of the graph can be derived. For example, for certain ranges

William Aiello; Fan R. K. Chung; Linyuan Lu

2000-01-01

102

Tanner Graph Based Image Interpolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper interprets image interpolation as a channel decoding problem and proposes a tanner graph based interpolation framework, which regards each pixel in an image as a variable node and the local image structure around each pixel as a check node. The pixels available from low-resolution image are \\

Ruiqin Xiong; Wen Gao

2010-01-01

103

Can Comparison of Contrastive Examples Facilitate Graph Understanding?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors explore the role of comparison in improving graph fluency. The ability to use graphs fluently is crucial for STEM achievement, but graphs are challenging to interpret and produce because they often involve integration of multiple variables, continuous change in variables over time, and omission of certain details in order to highlight…

Smith, Linsey A.; Gentner, Dedre

2011-01-01

104

Graph Mole  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash activity provides an interactive application for plotting points on a Cartesian coordinate plane. If players already know how to graph Cartesian coordinates, they click on the "Play Game" button to start the easy version of the game. The goal is to bonk the mole before he gets all the vegetables by choosing the correct ordered pair of his location in the field. There are also a medium version and a hard version of the game.

Dun, Sulan

2011-08-30

105

Visualization of Social Networks with Node Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces the concept of node graphs for the purpose of visualizing social networks. The lesson is presented with an introductory physical activity where students create a living graph. Students, building on their existing knowledge regarding common graph types, learn how node graphs can be used to visualize data from social networks. Students will participate in a simulated contagious infection event and will accurately record data about the transmission of the disease. These data will be used to construct a single computer file to be used to create a single node graph for describing the network. Students will then be responsible for understanding how to interpret the resulting network graph in the context of the activity.

Santone, Adam

2012-02-13

106

Knowing a Lot for One's Age: Vocabulary Skill and Not Age Is Associated with Anticipatory Incremental Sentence Interpretation in Children and Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adults can incrementally combine information from speech with astonishing speed to anticipate future words. Concurrently, a growing body of work suggests that vocabulary ability is crucially related to lexical processing skills in children. However, little is known about this relationship with predictive sentence processing in children or adults.…

Borovsky, Arielle; Elman, Jeffrey L.; Fernald, Anne

2012-01-01

107

Dynamic graph models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in graph theory has focused on studying the structure of graphs with the assumption that they are static. However, in many applications, the graphs that arise change with time, i.e., they are dynamic in nature. This is especially true of applications involving graph models in computer science. We present an expository study of dynamic graphs with the main driving

F. Harary; G. Gupta

1997-01-01

108

Slide-Rule Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students use their Log Tapes as a reference for ordered pairs, and graph positive numbers as a function of their base-10 logarithms. They extend each plotted point to the vertical axis, thereby generating a logarithmic scale that cuts and folds into an improvised slide rule. This is activity E1 in the "Far Out Math" educator's guide. Lessons in the guide include activities in which students measure,compare quantities as orders of magnitude, become familiar with scientific notation, and develop an understanding of exponents and logarithms using examples from NASA's GLAST mission. These are skills needed to understand the very large and very small quantities characteristic of astronomical observations. Note: In 2008, GLAST was renamed Fermi, for the physicist Enrico Fermi. 

109

On cliques in graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clique is a maximal complete subgraph of a graph. The maximum number of cliques possible in a graph withn nodes is determined. Also, bounds are obtained for the number of different sizes of cliques possible in such a graph.

J. W. Moon; L. Moser

1965-01-01

110

Dynamic Graph Drawing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many graph drawing (GD) scenarios are dynamic inasmuch as they involve a repeated redrawing of the graph after frequently\\u000a occurring changes to the graph structure and\\/or some layout properties.

Jürgen Branke

1999-01-01

111

Graphing is Groovy!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These games show what a bar graph is and how to develop one. Learn how to create your own graph here! Make sure to click "Okay" on the game to start it. This game will show you how to develop a bar graph using data. This game is showing how the bugs make up the bar graph. They are the data being entered into the graph. Create a graph using bugs! Use this game to ...

May, Miss

2012-03-09

112

Recognizing Cartesian graph bundles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graph bundles generalize the notion of covering graphs and graph products. In this paper we extend some of the methods for recognizing Cartesian product graphs to graph bundles. Two main notions are used. The first one is the well-known equivalence relation ?? defined on the edge-set of a graph. The second one is the concept of k-convex subgraphs. A subgraph

Wilfried Imrich; Tomaz Pisanski; Janez Zerovnik

1997-01-01

113

Graphing and Percentage Applications Using the Personal Computer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper describes how "IBM Graphing Assistant" and "Apple Softgraph" can foster a multifaceted approach to application of mathematical concepts and how a survey can be undertaken using the computer as word processor, data bank, and source of visual displays. Mathematical skills reinforced include estimating, rounding, graphing, and solving…

Innes, Jay

1985-01-01

114

The Strong Perfect Graph Conjecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A graph is perfect if, in all its induced subgraphs, the size of a largest clique is equal to the chromatic number. Examples of perfect graphs include bipartite graphs, line graphs of bipartite graphs and the complements of such graphs. These four classes of perfect graphs will be called basic. In 1960, Berge formulated two conjectures about perfect graphs, one

Gerard Cornuejols

2002-01-01

115

Concurrent Graph and Term Graph Rewriting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graph Rewriting Systems are a powerful formalism for the specification of parallel and distributed systems, and the corresponding theory is rich of results concerning parallelism and concurrency. I will review the main results of the theory of concurrency for the algebraic approach to graph rewriting, emphasizing the relationship with the theory of Petri nets. In fact, graph rewriting systems can

Andrea Corradini

1996-01-01

116

Box graphs and singular fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determine the higher codimension fibers of elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau fourfolds with section by studying the three-dimensional = 2 supersymmetric gauge theory with matter which describes the low energy effective theory of M-theory compactified on the associated Weierstrass model, a singular model of the fourfold. Each phase of the Coulomb branch of this theory corresponds to a particular resolution of the Weierstrass model, and we show that these have a concise description in terms of decorated box graphs based on the representation graph of the matter multiplets, or alternatively by a class of convex paths on said graph. Transitions between phases have a simple interpretation as "flopping" of the path, and in the geometry correspond to actual flop transitions. This description of the phases enables us to enumerate and determine the entire network between them, with various matter representations for all reductive Lie groups. Furthermore, we observe that each network of phases carries the structure of a (quasi-)minuscule representation of a specific Lie algebra. Interpreted from a geometric point of view, this analysis determines the generators of the cone of effective curves as well as the network of flop transitions between crepant resolutions of singular elliptic Calabi-Yau fourfolds. From the box graphs we determine all fiber types in codimensions two and three, and we find new, non-Kodaira, fiber types for E 6, E7 and E 8.

Hayashi, Hirotaka; Lawrie, Craig; Morrison, David R.; Schafer-Nameki, Sakura

2014-05-01

117

Science Sampler: Node graph visualizations for eighth-grade mathematics students using a virus transmission simulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Because eighth-grade curriculum standards focus in part on systems analysis and graphing, a lesson was created to enhance students' analytical skills with the introduction of a type of graph, the node graph, which can be used to represent the interconnectedness of system components. This lesson is rooted in understanding real-world concepts regarding the transmission of infectious agents throughout a population.

Santone, Adam L.; Mccutcheon, Jennifer A.

2008-07-01

118

Graphing Polar Curves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Graphing polar curves typically involves a combination of three traditional techniques, all of which can be time-consuming and tedious. However, an alternative method--graphing the polar function on a rectangular plane--simplifies graphing, increases student understanding of the polar coordinate system, and reinforces graphing techniques learned…

Lawes, Jonathan F.

2013-01-01

119

Geometric representations of graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of geometrically defined graphs, and of the reverse ques- tion, the construction of geometric representations of graphs, leads to unexpected connections between geometry and graph theory. We survey the surprisingly large variety of graph properties related to ge- ometric representations, construction methods for geometric represen- tations, and their applications in proofs and algorithms.

Laszlo Lovasz; Katalin Vesztergombi

1999-01-01

120

Convex Graph Invariants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The structural properties of graphs are usually characterized in terms of invariants, which are functions of graphs that do not depend on the labeling of the nodes. In this paper we study convex graph invariants, which are graph invariants that are convex...

A. S. Willsky P. A. Parrilo V. Chandrasekaran

2010-01-01

121

An Encounter with Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

So far diagnosis of some problems we came across during our works with algorithms, graphs played significant roles. In this paper, we have tried to show that graphs really occupy a major role in computer science and engineering. The abstraction of problems as different graph models as well as graphs in digital system design methodology allows us to have a

Rajat Kumar Pal; Samar Sen Sarma

2006-01-01

122

Automatic Graph Drawing Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embeddings of graphs have been of interest to theoreticians for some time, in particular those of planar graphs and graphs that are close to being planar. One definition of a planar graph is one that can be drawn in the plane with no edge crossings. While working on the four-colour problem, Wagner(1936) was the first to show that every planar

Susan Sim

1996-01-01

123

Cellular Graph Acceptors, 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In an earlier report, sequential and parallel acceptors were defined whose languages are sets of d-graphs, i.e., labelled graphs of bounded degree whose arcs at each node are numbered. This report defines graph acceptance by cellular d-graph automata, and...

A. Wu

1977-01-01

124

Distance visibility graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new necessary condition for a graph G to be the visibility graph of a simple polygon is given: each 3connected component of G must. have a vertex ordering in which every vertex is adjacent to a previous 3-clique. This property is used to give an algorithm for the distance visibility graph problem: given an edge-weighted graph G, is it

Collette R. Coullard; Anna Lubiw

1991-01-01

125

On rectangle visibility graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the problem of drawing a graph in the plane so that the vertices of the graph are rectangles that are aligned with the axes, and the edges of the graph are horizontal or vertical lines-of-sight. Such a drawing is useful, for example, when the vertices of the graph contain information that we wish displayed on the drawing; it

Prosenjit Bose; Alice Dean; Joan Hutchinson; Thomas Shermer

126

Capacitated max -Batching with Interval Graph Compatibilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the problem of partitioning interval graphs into cliques of bounded size. Each interval has a weight, and the weight of a clique is the maximum weight of any interval in the clique. This natural graph problem can be interpreted as a batch scheduling problem. Solving a long-standing open problem, we show NP-hardness, even if the bound on the clique sizes is constant. Moreover, we give a PTAS based on a novel dynamic programming technique for this case.

Nonner, Tim

127

Visualization of graph products.  

PubMed

Graphs are a versatile structure and abstraction for binary relationships between objects. To gain insight into such relationships, their corresponding graph can be visualized. In the past, many classes of graphs have been defined, e.g. trees, planar graphs, directed acyclic graphs, and visualization algorithms were proposed for these classes. Although many graphs may only be classified as "general" graphs, they can contain substructures that belong to a certain class. Archambault proposed the TopoLayout framework: rather than draw any arbitrary graph using one method, split the graph into components that are homogeneous with respect to one graph class and then draw each component with an algorithm best suited for this class. Graph products constitute a class that arises frequently in graph theory, but for which no visualization algorithm has been proposed until now. In this paper, we present an algorithm for drawing graph products and the aesthetic criterion graph product's drawings are subject to. We show that the popular High-Dimensional Embedder approach applied to cartesian products already respects this aestetic criterion, but has disadvantages. We also present how our method is integrated as a new component into the TopoLayout framework. Our implementation is used for further research of graph products in a biological context. PMID:20975146

Jänicke, Stefan; Heine, Christian; Hellmuth, Marc; Stadler, Peter F; Scheuermann, Gerik

2010-01-01

128

Intrinsic graph structure estimation using graph laplacian.  

PubMed

A graph is a mathematical representation of a set of variables where some pairs of the variables are connected by edges. Common examples of graphs are railroads, the Internet, and neural networks. It is both theoretically and practically important to estimate the intensity of direct connections between variables. In this study, a problem of estimating the intrinsic graph structure from observed data is considered. The observed data in this study are a matrix with elements representing dependency between nodes in the graph. The dependency represents more than direct connections because it includes influences of various paths. For example, each element of the observed matrix represents a co-occurrence of events at two nodes or a correlation of variables corresponding to two nodes. In this setting, spurious correlations make the estimation of direct connection difficult. To alleviate this difficulty, a digraph Laplacian is used for characterizing a graph. A generative model of this observed matrix is proposed, and a parameter estimation algorithm for the model is also introduced. The notable advantage of the proposed method is its ability to deal with directed graphs, while conventional graph structure estimation methods such as covariance selections are applicable only to undirected graphs. The algorithm is experimentally shown to be able to identify the intrinsic graph structure. PMID:24708372

Noda, Atsushi; Hino, Hideitsu; Tatsuno, Masami; Akaho, Shotaro; Murata, Noboru

2014-07-01

129

Create a Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the National Center for Education Statistics' Classroom feature, Create a Graph is a simple, visual program in which kids can create a custom bar, area, line or pie graph. Clicking on the graph type from the menu leads to a brief overview about that type of graph, what sorts of data it is useful for, and links to the data entry page. On the data entry page, kids can enter up to 15 data values, type titles, select graph size and colors (12 to choose from), designate .png or .jpeg file type, and create a printer-ready graph. This is an excellent tool for homework assignments and educational play.

2002-01-01

130

Interpreting Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This application provides students with practice completing frequency tables, bar graphs, and pictographs. The application includes 6 sets of data and provides feedback for each representation completed.

2011-01-18

131

Structural Differentiation of Graphs Using Hosoya-Based Indices  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we introduce the Hosoya-Spectral indices and the Hosoya information content of a graph. The first measure combines structural information captured by partial Hosoya polynomials and graph spectra. The latter is a graph entropy measure which is based on blocks consisting of vertices with the same partial Hosoya polynomial. We evaluate the discrimination power of these quantities by interpreting numerical results.

Dehmer, Matthias; Mowshowitz, Abbe; Shi, Yongtang

2014-01-01

132

TIGRE: Combinator graph reduction on the RTX 2000  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An efficient evaluation technique is examined for lazy functional programs based on combinator graph reduction. Graph reduction is widely believed to be slow and inefficient, but an abstract machine called the Threaded Interpretive Graph Reduction Engine (TIGRE) achieves a substantial speedup over previous reduction techniques. The runtime system of TIGRE is a threaded system that permits self-modifying program execution with compiler-guaranteed safety. This paper describes an implementation of TIGRE in Forth for the Harris RTX 2000 stack processor.

Koopman, Philip, Jr.

1990-01-01

133

Statistical Graphs and Logo.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides examples of such statistical graphs as line, bar, picture and pie. Suggests uses of Logo Turtle Graphics in graph construction. Includes several program procedures for creating designs with the computer. (RT)

Haigh, William E.

1989-01-01

134

Exponential Graphing Using Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is teacher/student directed for discovering and translating exponential functions using a graphing app. The lesson focuses on the translations from a parent graph and how changing the coefficient, base and exponent values relate to the transformation.

Gaynr, Cheryl

2012-07-27

135

Convex drawings of hierarchical planar graphs and clustered planar graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hierarchical graphs are graphs with layering structures; clustered graphs are graphs with recursive clustering structures. Both have applications in VLSI de- sign, CASE tools, software visualisation and visualisation of social networks and bi- ological networks. Straight-line drawing algorithms for hierarchical graphs and clus- tered graphs have been presented in (P. Eades, Q. Feng, X. Lin and H. Nagamochi, Straight-line drawing

Seok-Hee Hong; Hiroshi Nagamochi

2010-01-01

136

Complex Networks and Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about complex networks and how to represent them using graphs. They also learn that graph theory is a useful mathematical tool for studying complex networks in diverse applications of science and engineering, such as neural networks in the brain, biochemical reaction networks in cells, communication networks, such as the internet, and social networks. Topics covered include set theory, defining a graph, as well as defining the degree of a node and the degree distribution of a graph.

Complex Systems Science Laboratory

137

Distance in Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The distance between two vertices is the basis of the definition of several graph parameters including diameter, radius, average\\u000a distance and metric dimension. These invariants are examined, especially how they relate to one another and to other graph\\u000a invariants and their behaviour in certain graph classes. We also discuss characterizations of graph classes described in terms\\u000a of distance or shortest

Wayne Goddard; Ortrud R. Oellermann

138

Universal Quantum Graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For time-reversal invariant graphs we prove the Bohigas-Giannoni-Schmit conjecture in its most general form: For graphs that are mixing in the classical limit, all spectral correlation functions coincide with those of the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble of random matrices. For open graphs, we derive the analogous identities for all S-matrix correlation functions.

Pluha?, Z.; Weidenmüller, H. A.

2014-04-01

139

Graph-Plotting Routine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plotter routine for IBM PC (AKPLOT) designed for engineers and scientists who use graphs as integral parts of their documentation. Allows user to generate graph and edit its appearance on cathode-ray tube. Graph may undergo many interactive alterations before finally dumped from screen to be plotted by printer. Written in BASIC.

Kantak, Anil V.

1987-01-01

140

Flips in planar graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review a selection of results concerning edge flips in triangulations and planar graphs concentrating mainly on various aspects of the following problem: Given two different planar graphs of the same size, how many edge flips are necessary and sufficient to transform one graph into another. We study the problem both from a combinatorial perspective (where only a combinatorial embedding

Prosenjit Bose; Ferran Hurtado

2009-01-01

141

Towards Compressing Web Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We consider the problem of compressing graphs of the link structure of the World Wide Web. We provide efficient algorithms for such compression that are motivated by recently proposed random graph models for describing the Web. The algorithms are based on reducing the compression problem to the problem of finding a minimum,spanning tree in a directed graph related to

Micah Adler; Michael Mitzenmacher

2001-01-01

142

Supervised Graph Inference  

Microsoft Academic Search

We formulate the problem of graph inference where part of the graph is known as a supervised learning problem, and propose an algorithm to solve it. The method involves the learning of a mapping of the vertices to a Euclidean space where the graph is easy to infer, and can be formu- lated as an optimization problem in a reproducing

Jean-philippe Vert; Yoshihiro Yamanishi

2004-01-01

143

Algorithmic graph embeddings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexity of embedding a graph into a variety of topological surfaces is investigated. A new data structure for graph embeddings is introduced and shown to be superior to the previously known data structures. In particular, the new data structure efficiently supports all on-line operations for general graph embeddings. Based on this new data structure, very efficient algorithms are developed

Jianer Chen

144

Reflections on "The Graph"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article responds to arguments by Skidmore and Thompson (this issue of "Educational Researcher") that a graph published more than 10 years ago was erroneously reproduced and "gratuitously damaged" perceptions of the quality of education research. After describing the purpose of the original graph, the author counters assertions that the graph

Petrosino, Anthony

2012-01-01

145

Building Brilliant Bar Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this series of three lesson plans, students create bar graphs, double bar graphs, and determine appropriate intervals for scale. Each lesson incorporates teacher modeling, student practice (students have an opportunity to label and create the scale for their own graphs), assessment (including rubrics), and reteaching or extension options.

Bower, Briana; Miller, Mary

2005-01-01

146

Visibility Graphs of Towers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tower is a polygon consisting of two reflex chains sharing one common endpoint, together with one edge joining the other endpoints of the chains. A linear time algorithm is given to recognize the [vertex] visibility graphs of towers, and these graphs are characterized as bipartite permutation graphs with an added Hamiltonian cycle. Similar results have been obtained independently by

Paul Colley; Anna Lubiw; Jeremy Spinrad

1997-01-01

147

Online Dynamic Graph Drawing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract, This paper presents an algorithm for drawing a sequence of graphs online. The algorithm strives to maintain the global structure of the graph and, thus, the user's mental map while allowing arbitrary modifications between consecutive layouts. The algorithm works online and uses various execution culling methods in order to reduce the layout time and handle large dynamic graphs. Techniques

Yaniv Frishman; Ayellet Tal

2008-01-01

148

Symmetrizations for clustering directed graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graph clustering has generally concerned itself with clustering undirected graphs; however the graphs from a number of important domains are essentially directed, e.g. networks of web pages, research papers and Twitter users. This paper investigates various ways of symmetrizing a directed graph into an undirected graph so that previous work on clustering undirected graphs may subsequently be leveraged. Recent work

Venu Satuluri; Srinivasan Parthasarathy

2011-01-01

149

The average tree solution for cycle-free graph games  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we study cooperative games with limited cooperation possibilities, represented by an undirected cycle-free communication graph. Players in the game can cooperate if and only if they are connected in the graph. We introduce a new single-valued solution concept, the average tree solution. Our solution is characterized by component efficiency and component fairness. The interpretation of component fairness

P. Jean Jacques Herings; Gerard van der Laan; Dolf Talman

2008-01-01

150

Foundations of arrhythmia interpretation.  

PubMed

Basic arrhythmia monitoring is being used with increasing frequency in both inpatient and outpatient care settings. Nurses are being asked to interpret cardiac rhythms and develop critical thinking skills that assist in evaluating the significance of the rhythms identified for individual patients. The foundations needed for nurses to evaluate cardiac rhythms and assess the significance of the rhythms identified are provided. Cardiac anatomy, physiology, and cardiac properties are used to provide a framework for interpreting and understanding rhythms. PMID:9313546

Scrima, D A

1997-08-01

151

An Efficient Algorithm for Graph Isomorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for determining whether two graphs are isomorphic is described. During the procedure, from any given graph two graphs, the representative graph and the reordered graph, are derived. The representative graph is a homomorphic image of the original graph; the reordered graph is constructed from the representative graph to be isomorphic to the given graph. Unique labels are assigned

Derek G. Corneil; C. C. Gotlieb

1970-01-01

152

Methods of visualizing graphs  

DOEpatents

Methods for visualizing a graph by automatically drawing elements of the graph as labels are disclosed. In one embodiment, the method comprises receiving node information and edge information from an input device and/or communication interface, constructing a graph layout based at least in part on that information, wherein the edges are automatically drawn as labels, and displaying the graph on a display device according to the graph layout. In some embodiments, the nodes are automatically drawn as labels instead of, or in addition to, the label-edges.

Wong, Pak C. (Richland, WA); Mackey, Patrick S. (Kennewick, WA); Perrine, Kenneth A. (Richland, WA); Foote, Harlan P. (Richland, WA); Thomas, James J. (Richland, WA)

2008-12-23

153

Graph Matching Motion Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Graph Matching Motion Model shows the graph of position as a function of time, and the motion diagram, for a particular object that experiences one-dimensional motion with constant acceleration. Using the sliders, try to match the motion of the red object to that of the blue object - this should also get the two position versus time graphs to match. Then, predict what the velocity and acceleration graphs look like, by sliding the end points of the red lines up or down to give correct straight-line graphs. The Graph Matching Motion model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_bu_vector_graph_matching.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Duffy, Andrew

2010-05-02

154

"What Does This Graph Mean?" Formative Assessment With Science Inquiry to Improve Data Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the use of formative assessment to improve three specific data analysis skills within the context of a high school chemistry class: graph interpretation, pattern recognition, and making conclusions based on data. Students need to be able to collect data, analyze that data, and produce accurate scientific explanations (NRC, 2011) if they want to be ready for college and careers after high school. This mixed methods study, performed in a high school chemistry classroom, investigated the impact of the formative assessment process on data analysis skills that require higher order thinking. We hypothesized that the use of evaluative feedback within the formative assessment process would improve specific data analysis skills. The evaluative feedback was given to the one group and withheld from the other for the first part of the study. The treatment group had statistically better data analysis skills after evaluative feedback over the control. While these results are promising, they must be considered preliminary due to a number of limitations involved in this study.

Leech, Andrea Dawn

155

Functions and Models: Graphing Calculators and Computers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describe some situations where naive interpretation of Maple's output may be misleading;Show an appropriate viewing rectangle for the graph of a given function;Plot a function using Maple;Compare local and global properties of a given function;Find the solutions of a given equation using Maple.

Freeze, Michael

2003-01-22

156

Graphing in the Information Age: Using Data from the World Wide Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes five activities using the World Wide Web that teach students to experience searching, locating, and organizing data. Students learn to summarize statistics, analyze data, make conjectures, and communicate information. They interpret or create bar graphs, line graphs, histograms, and circle graphs. (PVD)

Dixon, Juli K.; Falba, Christy J.

1997-01-01

157

Designing Better Graphs by Including Distributional Information and Integrating Words, Numbers, and Images  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statistical graphs are commonly used in scientific publications. Unfortunately, graphs in psychology journals rarely portray distributional information beyond central tendency, and few graphs portray inferential statistics. Moreover, those that do portray inferential information generally do not portray it in a way that is useful for interpreting

Lane, David M.; Sandor, Aniko

2009-01-01

158

Turning Spreadsheets into Graphs: An Information Technology Lesson in Whole Brain Thinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We have concluded that teaching undergraduate students to use spreadsheet software to analyze, interpret, and communicate spreadsheet data through a graph is an information technology exercise in whole brain thinking. In investigating why our students have difficulty constructing proper graphs, we have discovered that graphing requires two…

Patterson, Thomas F.; Leonard, Jonathan G.

2005-01-01

159

Beyond Slopes and Points: Teaching Students How Graphs Describe the Relationships between Scientific Pheomena  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Graphs represent complex information. They show relationships and help students see patterns and compare data. Students often do not appreciate the illuminating power of graphs, interpreting them literally rather than as symbolic representations (Leinhardt, Zaslavsky, and Stein 1990). Students often read graphs point by point instead of seeing…

Harris, David; Gomez Zwiep, Susan

2013-01-01

160

An algorithm for automatic reduction of complex signal flow graphs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer algorithm is developed that provides efficient means to compute transmittances directly from a signal flow graph or a block diagram. Signal flow graphs are cast as directed graphs described by adjacency matrices. Nonsearch computation, designed for compilers without symbolic capability, is used to identify all arcs that are members of simple cycles for use with Mason's gain formula. The routine does not require the visual acumen of an interpreter to reduce the topology of the graph, and it is particularly useful for analyzing control systems described for computer analyses by means of interactive graphics.

Young, K. R.; Hoberock, L. L.; Thompson, J. G.

1976-01-01

161

Graph Ear Decompositions and Graph Embeddings (Extended Abstract)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ear decomposition of a graph has been extensively studied in relation to graph connectivity. In this paper, a connection of ear decomposition to graph embeddings is exhibited. It is shown that constructing a maximumpaired ear decomposition of a graph and constructing a maximum-genus embedding of the graph are O (e log n)-time equivalent. This gives a polynomial time algorithm for

Jianer Chen; Saroja P. Kanchi

1993-01-01

162

Skill Set  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With competition to attract quality students into career and technical education programs and many entrants to the workforce inadequately prepared with employability skills, some community colleges have found a way to answer industry's call--they are launching SkillsUSA chapters on campus. In this article, the author features SkillsUSA, a…

Holdsworth, Tom

2007-01-01

163

Topologies on directed graphs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Given a directed graph, a natural topology is defined and relationships between standard topological properties and graph theoretical concepts are studied. In particular, the properties of connectivity and separatedness are investigated. A metric is introduced which is shown to be related to separatedness. The topological notions of continuity and homeomorphism. A class of maps is studied which preserve both graph and topological properties. Applications involving strong maps and contractions are also presented.

Lieberman, R. N.

1972-01-01

164

Bayesian Graph Edit Distance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a novel framework for comparing and matching corrupted relational graphs. The paper develops the idea of edit-distance originally introduced for graph-matching by Sanfeliu and Fu (1). We show how the Levenshtein distance can be used to model the probability distribution for structural errors in the graph-matching problem. This probability distribution is used to locate matches using MAP

Richard Myers; Richard C. Wilson; Edwin R. Hancock

2000-01-01

165

Bayesian Graph Edit Distance  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractDThis paper describes a novel framework for comparing and matching corrupted relational graphs. The paper develops the idea of edit-distance originally introduced for graph-matching by Sanfeliu and Fu [1]. We show how the Levenshtein distance can be used to model the probability distribution for structural errors in the graph-matching problem. This probability distribution is used to locate matches using MAP

Richard Myers; Richard C. Wilson; Edwin R. Hancock

1999-01-01

166

Curved geometry and Graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum Graphity is an approach to quantum gravity based on a background independent formulation of condensed matter systems on graphs. We summarize recent results obtained on the notion of emergent geometry from the point of view of a particle hopping on the graph. We discuss the role of connectivity in emergent Lorentzian perturbations in a curved background and the Bose-Hubbard (BH) model defined on graphs with particular symmetries.

Caravelli, Francesco

2012-05-01

167

Visibility Graphs and Oriented Matroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a set of necessary conditions for a given graph to be the visibility graph of a simple polygon. For every graph satisfying these conditions we show that a uniform rank 3 oriented matroid can be constructed in polynomial time, which if affinely coordinatizable yields a simple polygon whose visibility graph is isomorphic to the given graph.

James Abello; Krishna Kumar

1994-01-01

168

Beginning Algebra Tutorial: Reading Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial from West Texas A&M University's Virtual Math Lab introduces bar graphs, line graphs, double line graphs and Venn diagrams to beginning algebra students. The unit explains each type of graph and includes examples. Students will use provided sample graphs to answer a series of questions about each example.

Seward, Kim

169

Teaching Effectiveness and Social Skill Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores relationships between adjudicated teaching-effectiveness scores, an observation-based assessment instrument, and social-skills scores of preservice teachers. Finds that an individual's nonverbal communication skills, skills in receiving and interpreting nonverbal communication, and ability to engage in social discourse were related to…

Hamann, Donald L.; Lineburgh, Nancy; Paul, Stephen

1998-01-01

170

Novice Interpretations of Visual Representations of Geosciences Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Past cognition research of individual's perception and comprehension of bar and line graphs are substantive enough that they have resulted in the generation of graph design principles and graph comprehension theories; however, gaps remain in our understanding of how people process visual representations of data, especially of geologic and atmospheric data. This pilot project serves to build on others' prior research and begin filling the existing gaps. The primary objectives of this pilot project include: (i) design a novel data collection protocol based on a combination of paper-based surveys, think-aloud interviews, and eye-tracking tasks to investigate student data handling skills of simple to complex visual representations of geologic and atmospheric data, (ii) demonstrate that the protocol yields results that shed light on student data handling skills, and (iii) generate preliminary findings upon which tentative but perhaps helpful recommendations on how to more effectively present these data to the non-scientist community and teach essential data handling skills. An effective protocol for the combined use of paper-based surveys, think-aloud interviews, and computer-based eye-tracking tasks for investigating cognitive processes involved in perceiving, comprehending, and interpreting visual representations of geologic and atmospheric data is instrumental to future research in this area. The outcomes of this pilot study provide the foundation upon which future more in depth and scaled up investigations can build. Furthermore, findings of this pilot project are sufficient for making, at least, tentative recommendations that can help inform (i) the design of physical attributes of visual representations of data, especially more complex representations, that may aid in improving students' data handling skills and (ii) instructional approaches that have the potential to aid students in more effectively handling visual representations of geologic and atmospheric data that they might encounter in a course, television news, newspapers and magazines, and websites. Such recommendations would also be the potential subject of future investigations and have the potential to impact the design features when data is presented to the public and instructional strategies not only in geoscience courses but also other science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses.

Burkemper, L. K.; Arthurs, L.

2013-12-01

171

A plane graph representation of triconnected graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given a graph G=(V,E), a set S={s1,s2,…,sk} of k vertices of V, and k natural numbers n1,n2,…,nk such that ?i=1kni=|V|, the k-partition problem is to find a partition V1,V2,…,Vk of the vertex set V such that |Vi|=ni, si?Vi, and Vi induces a connected subgraph of G for each i=1,2,…,k. For the tripartition problem on a triconnected graph, a naive algorithm

Shunsuke Ota; Ehab Morsy; Hiroshi Nagamochi

2010-01-01

172

Graphing Current Drug Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Graphing Current Drug Data gives (1) some current views on the drug issue, (2) a history of drug use, (3) specific data on alcohol, caffeine, cocaine, marijuana and nicotine, and (4) data on high school drug trends from 1975-1985. The unit could supply graphing data for any math class 7-12, and could also be used in a social studies class.

2007-04-18

173

Using Specialized Graph Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of logarithm and reciprocal graphs in the college physics classroom. Provides examples, such as electrical conductivity, reliability function in the Weibull model, and the Clausius-Clapeyron equation for latent heat of vaporation. Shows graphs with weighting of points. (YP)

James, C.

1988-01-01

174

Eigenvectors of Graphs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This grant has supported work in several areas. 1) A study of graph eigenvectors shows connections to graph structure in ways that are reminiscent of eigenfunctions of the laplacian operator in two or three dimensions. Methods developed in this study have...

D. Powers

1988-01-01

175

Graphs and Binary Relations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Much attention has recently been paid to characterizations of important classes of graphs by means of certain subgraphs which they must not contain. As the first characterization of this type was given by Kuratowski for the class of planar graphs, these w...

M. Aigner

1969-01-01

176

Walking Out Graphs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the Walking Out Graphs Lesson described here, students experience several types of representations used to describe motion, including words, sentences, equations, graphs, data tables, and actions. The most important theme of this lesson is that students have to understand the consistency among these representations and form the habit of…

Shen, Ji

2009-01-01

177

Multi Bar Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students enter in data to be represented in a double bar graph. Multi bar graphs allow the student to compare multiple characteristics of different subjects like population for different continents over time. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

Shodor

2012-04-02

178

Graphing Electric Potential.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the powerful graphing ability of computer algebra systems (CAS) to create three-dimensional graphs or surface graphics of electric potentials. Provides equations along with examples of the printouts. Lists the programs Mathematica, Maple, Derive, Theorist, MathCad, and MATLAB as promising CAS systems. (MVL)

De Jong, Marvin L.

1993-01-01

179

Planar Graph Augmentation Problems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problem of adding a minimum number of edges to a planar graph in such a way that the resulting graph is biconnected and still planar is investigated. This problem is shown to be NP complete. Two approximation algorithms for this planar biconnectivity ...

G. Kant H. L. Bodlaender

1991-01-01

180

Planar Graph Augmentation Problems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problem of adding a minimum number of edges to a planar graph, in such a way that the resulting graph is biconnected and still planar, is investigated. This problem is shown to be NP complete. An approximation algorithm for this planar biconnectivity ...

G. Kant H. L. Bodlaender

1991-01-01

181

Exploring Graphs: WYSIWYG.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Graphs from media sources and questions developed from them can be used in the middle school mathematics classroom. Graphs depict storage temperature on a milk carton; air pressure measurements on a package of shock absorbers; sleep-wake patterns of an infant; a dog's breathing patterns; and the angle, velocity, and radius of a leaning bicyclist…

Johnson, Millie

1997-01-01

182

Bar Graph Sorter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students make bar graphs by sorting shapes either by shape or by color. This activity allows students to explore how to sort data to make bar graphs. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

183

Validating Graph Drawing Aesthetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designers of graph drawing algorithms and systems claim to illuminate application data by producing layouts that optimize measurable aesthetic qualities. Examples of these aesthetics include symmetry (where possible, a symmetrical view of the graph should be displayed), minimize edge crossings (the number of edge crossings in the display should be minimized), and minimize bends (the total number of bends in

Helen C. Purchase; Robert F. Cohen; Murray I. James

1995-01-01

184

Planar segment visibility graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given a set of n disjoint line segments in the plane, the segment visibility graph is the graph whose 2n vertices correspond to the endpoints of the line segments and whose edges connect every pair of vertices whose corresponding endpoints can see each other. In this paper we characterize and provide a polynomial time recognition algorithm for planar segment visibility

Hazel Everett; Chính T. Hoàng; Kyriakos Kilakos; Marc Noy

2000-01-01

185

Real World Graph Connectivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present the topic of graph connectivity along with a famous theorem of Menger in the real-world setting of the national computer network infrastructure of "National LambdaRail". We include a set of exercises where students reinforce their understanding of graph connectivity by analysing the "National LambdaRail" network. Finally, we give…

Lind, Joy; Narayan, Darren

2009-01-01

186

Graphs and Tracks Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Graphs and Tracks Model allows instructors to create custom models of a ball rolling on a track with a variable shape. This EJS model was inspired by the Graphs and Tracks program by David Trowbridge. Instructors set the heights of the track segments and the model displays the motion of the ball. Optional displays, including position and velocity graphs, energy graphs, and data tables, can be added depending on the learning goals for the activity. Documents can aslo be added to the model to provide student instructions or activities. The customized simulation is then saved as a new jar file that can be redistributed. The Graphs and Tracks Model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2012-05-30

187

Graphs of Maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work studies certain aspects of graphs embedded on surfaces. Initially, a colored graph model for a map of a graph on a surface is developed. Then, a concept analogous to (and extending) planar graph is introduced in the same spirit as planar abstract duality, and is characterized topologically. An extension of the Gauss code problem treating together the cases in which the surface involved is the plane or the real projective plane is established. The problem of finding a minimum transversal of orientation-reversing circuits in graphs on arbitrary surfaces is proved to be NP-complete and is algorithmically solved for the special case where the surface is the real projective plane.

Lins, Sostenes

2003-05-01

188

State of the Atmosphere: Interpreting Weather Observations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this lesson is to let students analyze atmospheric radiosonde data from a balloon launched at NASA Langley Research Center by teachers attending a workshop. Other resources are included to assist in interpreting the observations. Students are asked to explain in paragraph format their interpretation of the atmospheric conditions depicted by the data and the graph produced using the data.

Lafrance, Kim

189

Drawing Planar Graphs Symmetrically, II: Biconnected Planar Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symmetry is one of the most important aesthetic criteria in graph drawing because it reveals struc- ture in the graph. This paper discusses symmetric drawings of oneconnected planar graphs. More specifically, we discuss planar (geometric) automorphisms, that is, automorphisms of a graph G that can be represented as symmetries of a planar drawing of G. Finding planar automorphisms is the

Seok-hee Hong; Peter Eades

2005-01-01

190

An Algorithm for Visibility Graph Recognition on Planar Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

To decide whether a given graph is the visibility graph of some simple polygon, is not known to be NP, nor is it known to be NP-hard. It is only known to be PSPACE. The problem of characterizing visibility graphs of an arbitrary simple polygons and the related problem of efficiently recognizing such graphs have remained important open problem in

Gholamreza Dehghani; Hossein Morady

2009-01-01

191

National Association for Interpretation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NAI promotes the advancement of the profession of interpretation, a communication process used in on-site informal education programs at parks, zoos, nature centers, historic sites, museums, and aquaria. This site announces national and regional NAI conferences, workshops on diverse topics, skill certification programs, networking opportunities and job listing service. Includes membership information and application; can order newsletters, professional journals and books. Membership, program and publication fees apply.

192

Gaining a Better Understanding of Estuarine Circulation and Improving Data Visualization Skills Through a Hands-on Contouring Exercise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The creation and accurate interpretation of graphs is becoming a lost art among students. The availability of numerous graphing software programs makes the act of graphing data easy but does not necessarily aide students in interpreting complex visual data. This is especially true for contour maps; which have become a critical skill in the earth sciences and everyday life. In multiple classes, we have incorporated a large-scale, hands-on, contouring exercise of temperature, salinity, and density data collected in the Hudson River Estuary. The exercise allows students to learn first-hand how to plot, analyze, and present three dimensional data. As part of a day-long sampling expedition aboard an 80' research vessel, students deploy a water profiling instrument (Seabird CTD). Data are collected along a transect between the Verrazano and George Washington Bridges. The data are then processed and binned at 0.5 meter intervals. The processed data is then used during a later laboratory period for the contouring exercise. In class, students work in groups of 2 to 4 people and are provided with the data, a set of contouring instructions, a piece of large (3' x 3') graph paper, a ruler, and a set of colored markers. We then let the groups work together to determine the details of the graphs. Important steps along the way are talking to the students about X and Y scales, interpolation, and choices of contour intervals and colors. Frustration and bottlenecks are common at the beginning when students are unsure how to even begin with the raw data. At some point during the exercise, students start to understand the contour concept and each group usually produces a finished contour map in an hour or so. Interestingly, the groups take pride in the coloring portion of the contouring as it indicates successful interpretation of the data. The exercise concludes with each group presenting and discussing their contour plot. In almost every case, the hands-on graphing has improved the "students" visualization skills. Contouring has been incorporated into the River Summer (www.riversumer.org, http://www.riversumer.org/) program and our Environmental Measurements laboratory course. This has resulted in the exercise being utilized with undergraduates, high-school teachers, graduate students, and college faculty. We are in the process of making this curricular module available online to educators.

Mailloux, B. J.; Kenna, T. C.

2008-12-01

193

A Semantic Graph Query Language  

SciTech Connect

Semantic graphs can be used to organize large amounts of information from a number of sources into one unified structure. A semantic query language provides a foundation for extracting information from the semantic graph. The graph query language described here provides a simple, powerful method for querying semantic graphs.

Kaplan, I L

2006-10-16

194

Connectivity of addable graph classes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A non-empty class A of labeled graphs is weakly addable if for each graph G?A and any two distinct components of G, any graph that can be obtained by adding an edge between the two components is also in A. For a weakly addable graph class A, we consider a random element Rn chosen uniformly from the set of all

Paul Balister; Béla Bollobás; Stefanie Gerke

2008-01-01

195

Extensions of marginalized graph kernels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positive definite kernels between labeled graphs have recently been proposed. They enable the application of kernel methods, such as support vector machines, to the analysis and classification of graphs, for example, chemical compounds. These graph kernels are obtained by marginalizing a kernel between paths with respect to a random walk model on the graph vertices along the edges. We propose

Pierre Mahé; Nobuhisa Ueda; Tatsuya Akutsu; Jean-Luc Perret; Jean-Philippe Vert

2004-01-01

196

Desmos Graphing Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This browser-based calculator provides a platform for users to perform calculations , share, and create interactive Whiteboard resources. Choose from Cartesian or polar grids, select angle measurement in degrees or radians, and use the embedded keyboard to enter equations. You can zoom in or out, drag a graph onto the page, and change axes. View multiple graphs on one grid and select color coding. Parabolic graphs can be viewed in standard, vertex, or intercept form. The platform also supports conic sections, Fourier expansions, Taylor expansions, and polar graphing. When you're finished, you can publish your resource or embed the file into a blog or other virtual learning environment. This resource was developed by Desmos, Inc., a free web-based platform for creating, sharing, and publishing interactive lessons based on Whiteboard technology.

2011-10-31

197

Position versus Time Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An animation of a red car moving to the right, hitting a wall and then moving backward to the left is shown. Also shown is one of four possible graphs depicting the car's position as a function of time.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2006-01-14

198

Tailored Random Graph Ensembles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tailored graph ensembles are a developing bridge between biological networks and statistical mechanics. The aim is to use this concept to generate a suite of rigorous tools that can be used to quantify and compare the topology of cellular signalling networks, such as protein-protein interaction networks and gene regulation networks. We calculate exact and explicit formulae for the leading orders in the system size of the Shannon entropies of random graph ensembles constrained with degree distribution and degree-degree correlation. We also construct an ergodic detailed balance Markov chain with non-trivial acceptance probabilities which converges to a strictly uniform measure and is based on edge swaps that conserve all degrees. The acceptance probabilities can be generalized to define Markov chains that target any alternative desired measure on the space of directed or undirected graphs, in order to generate graphs with more sophisticated topological features.

Roberts, E. S.; Annibale, A.; Coolen, A. C. C.

2013-02-01

199

Graphs and Ellipses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an introduction (or refresher) of the concept of graphs in Cartesian coordinates, starting with graphs of a straight line and a simple parabola. It is part of a high school course on astronomy, Newtonian mechanics and spaceflight. The implicit relationship x2+y2 = R2 for a circle is given, and from that the Cartesian equation of an ellipse is developed. Students will learn or re-acquire the use of graphs in Cartesian coordinates, become acquainted with linear graphs, the parabola and the rectangular hyperbola and also learn to prepare tables of paired values for plotting a line. Students will also learn about the Cartesian equation of an ellipse, with a worked example and the historical definition of the ellipse.

Stern, David

200

Visibility Improvement Graphs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study blends pure climatology with subjective reasoning to produce a visibility improvement forecast. It presents a method of deriving visibility improvement graphs from persistence-probability tables prepared by the USAF Environmental Technical Appl...

R. C. Sabin

1968-01-01

201

Statistics and Graphing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Statistics play a vital role in the scientific enterprise. This activity provides background information and tutorials on basic statistics (mean, median, standard deviation, etc.) used in science. Topics include descriptive statistics (measures of central tendency and dispersion) and presenting data (tables, figures, and graphs). Sample datasets from actual scientific experiments are used to illustrate points. Links to an online statisitical tool and an online graphing application are also provided.

Laposata, Matt

202

Higher Eigenvalues of Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a general method for proving upper bounds on the eigenvalues of the graph Laplacian. In particular, we show that for any positive integer k, the kth smallest eigenvalue of the Laplacian on a bounded-degree planar graph is O(k\\/n). This bound is asymptotically tight for every k, as it is easily seen to be achieved for planar grids. We

Jonathan A. Kelner; James R. Lee; Gregory N. Price; Shang-Hua Teng

2009-01-01

203

Cohen-macaulay graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a graph G we consider its associated ideal I(G). We uncover large classes of Cohen-Macaulay (=CM) graphs, in particular\\u000a the full subclass of CM trees is presented. A formula for the Krull dimension of the symmetric algebra of I(G) is given along\\u000a with a description of when this algebra is a domain. The first Koszul homology module of a

Rafael H. Villarreal

1990-01-01

204

Histograms and Bar Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to histograms and bar graphs as graphical representations of data. The lesson also covers the distinction between histograms and bar graphs and the concepts of class intervals and scale. The lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to these topics as well as worksheets for further practice. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with this one.

2010-01-01

205

Graphing Trash Material (Illuminations)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan students gather data about the items that they would normally throw in the trash. Once students collect the data they create a bar graph to display the number and kinds of materials they discard and then use this data to create a plan to reduce garbage and help the environment. The lesson plan includes an activity sheet (PDF) for graphing data and extension activity suggestions.

2008-01-01

206

CREATING SINGLE-SUBJECT DESIGN GRAPHS IN MICROSOFT EXCELTM 2007  

PubMed Central

Over 10 years have passed since the publication of Carr and Burkholder's (1998) technical article on how to construct single-subject graphs using Microsoft Excel. Over the course of the past decade, the Excel program has undergone a series of revisions that make the Carr and Burkholder paper somewhat difficult to follow with newer versions. The present article provides task analyses for constructing various types of commonly used single-subject design graphs in Microsoft Excel 2007. The task analyses were evaluated using a between-subjects design that compared the graphing skills of 22 behavior-analytic graduate students using Excel 2007 and either the Carr and Burkholder or newly developed task analyses. Results indicate that the new task analyses yielded more accurate and faster graph construction than the Carr and Burkholder instructions.

Dixon, Mark R; Jackson, James W; Small, Stacey L; Horner-King, Mollie J; Lik, Nicholas Mui Ker; Garcia, Yors; Rosales, Rocio

2009-01-01

207

Basic visual observation skills training course: Appendix B. Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the basic visual observation skills course is to help safeguards inspectors evaluate and improve their skills in making observations during inspections and in evaluating and interpreting this information. The first 12 hours of the course pr...

J. L. Toquam F. A. Morris J. R. Griggs

1995-01-01

208

Basic visual observation skills training course: Appendix A. Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the basic visual observation skills course is to help safeguards inspectors evaluate and improve their skills in making observations during inspections and in evaluating and interpreting this information. The first 12 hours of the course pr...

J. L. Toquam F. A. Morris J. R. Griggs

1995-01-01

209

Graph Products, Fourier Analysis and Spectral Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider powers of regular graphs defined by the weak graph product and give a character- ization of maximum-size independent sets for a wide family of base graphs which includes, among others, complete graphs, line graphs of regular graphs which contain a perfect matching and Kneser graphs. In many cases this also characterizes the optimal colorings of these products. We

Noga Alon; Irit Dinur; Ehud Friedgut; Benny Sudakov

2003-01-01

210

Graph Products, Fourier Analysis and Spectral Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  We consider powers of regular graphs defined by the weak graph product and give a characterization of maximum-size independent sets for a wide family of base graphs which includes, among others, complete graphs, line graphs of regular graphs which contain a perfect matching and Kneser graphs. In many cases this also characterizes the optimal colorings of these products.We show that

N. Alon; I. Dinur; E. Friedgut; B. Sudakov

2004-01-01

211

Improving Computer-Assisted Instruction in Teaching Higher-Order Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) has been shown to enhance rote memory skills and improve higher order critical thinking skills. The challenge now is to identify what aspects of CAI improve which specific higher-order skills. This study focuses on the effectiveness of using CAI to teach logarithmic graphing and dimensional analysis. Two groups…

Sinclair, Kelsey J.; Renshaw, Carl E.; Taylor, Holly A.

2004-01-01

212

Using graph approach for managing connectivity in integrative landscape modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In cultivated landscapes, a lot of landscape elements such as field boundaries, ditches or banks strongly impact water flows, mass and energy fluxes. At the watershed scale, these impacts are strongly conditionned by the connectivity of these landscape elements. An accurate representation of these elements and of their complex spatial arrangements is therefore of great importance for modelling and predicting these impacts.We developped in the framework of the OpenFLUID platform (Software Environment for Modelling Fluxes in Landscapes) a digital landscape representation that takes into account the spatial variabilities and connectivities of diverse landscape elements through the application of the graph theory concepts. The proposed landscape representation consider spatial units connected together to represent the flux exchanges or any other information exchanges. Each spatial unit of the landscape is represented as a node of a graph and relations between units as graph connections. The connections are of two types - parent-child connection and up/downstream connection - which allows OpenFLUID to handle hierarchical graphs. Connections can also carry informations and graph evolution during simulation is possible (connections or elements modifications). This graph approach allows a better genericity on landscape representation, a management of complex connections and facilitate development of new landscape representation algorithms. Graph management is fully operational in OpenFLUID for developers or modelers ; and several graph tools are available such as graph traversal algorithms or graph displays. Graph representation can be managed i) manually by the user (for example in simple catchments) through XML-based files in easily editable and readable format or ii) by using methods of the OpenFLUID-landr library which is an OpenFLUID library relying on common open-source spatial libraries (ogr vector, geos topologic vector and gdal raster libraries). OpenFLUID-landr library has been developed in order i) to be used with no GIS expert skills needed (common gis formats can be read and simplified spatial management is provided), ii) to easily develop adapted rules of landscape discretization and graph creation to follow spatialized model requirements and iii) to allow model developers to manage dynamic and complex spatial topology. Graph management in OpenFLUID are shown with i) examples of hydrological modelizations on complex farmed landscapes and ii) the new implementation of Geo-MHYDAS tool based on the OpenFLUID-landr library, which allows to discretize a landscape and create graph structure for the MHYDAS model requirements.

Rabotin, Michael; Fabre, Jean-Christophe; Libres, Aline; Lagacherie, Philippe; Crevoisier, David; Moussa, Roger

2013-04-01

213

Interpreting recent carbon dioxide data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using web-accessed climate data, students will examine the latitudinal distribution of CO2 and explain how (and why) that has changed over (recent) time. They will then work in groups of two or three to download, graph, and interpret carbon dioxide concentration data from one individual location (different groups will be assigned a different site). Each student will complete a series of questions to ensure their understanding of the concepts outlined above.

Gordon, Elizabeth

214

Interpreting Math  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is to give you practice preparing for and interpreting in math education settings. 1. Activate your extra linguistic knowledge (ELK) in preparation for interpreting a math lesson. Visit the Solving Equations website and familiarize yourself with the steps for solving linear equations. Clarify any concepts you do not understand. (Remember that you cannot interpret what you do not understand.) Solving Equations 2. Begin working on ...

2007-10-01

215

Characterization of Graphs with Interval Two-Step Graphs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the intriguing open problems on competition graphs is determining what digraphs have interval competition graphs. In this paper we consider this problem for the class of loopless symmetric digraphs. Here we first consider forbidden subgraph charact...

J. R. Lundgren S. K. Merz J. S. Maybee C. W. Rasmussen

1993-01-01

216

Algebraic distance on graphs.  

SciTech Connect

Measuring the connection strength between a pair of vertices in a graph is one of the most important concerns in many graph applications. Simple measures such as edge weights may not be sufficient for capturing the effects associated with short paths of lengths greater than one. In this paper, we consider an iterative process that smooths an associated value for nearby vertices, and we present a measure of the local connection strength (called the algebraic distance; see [D. Ron, I. Safro, and A. Brandt, Multiscale Model. Simul., 9 (2011), pp. 407-423]) based on this process. The proposed measure is attractive in that the process is simple, linear, and easily parallelized. An analysis of the convergence property of the process reveals that the local neighborhoods play an important role in determining the connectivity between vertices. We demonstrate the practical effectiveness of the proposed measure through several combinatorial optimization problems on graphs and hypergraphs.

Chen, J.; Safro, I. (Mathematics and Computer Science); (Univ. of Minnesota)

2011-01-01

217

Graphing Stratospheric Ozone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is part of the Science Education Gateway (SEGway) project, funded by NASA, which is a national consortium of scientists, museums, and educators working together to bring the latest science to students, teachers, and the general public. This lesson uses NASA images of Antarctic ozone (from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, or TOMS) to motivate a how-to graphing lesson followed by more sophisticated examples of graphing using images from the Neumayer Antarctic Station. Links are provided for investigating current knowledge of the ozone layer, and the impact of human activity on this vital part of the Earth system.

Fetter, Neil

218

Forces and Graphing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use this activity to explore forces acting on objects, practice graphing experimental data, and introduce the algebra concepts of slope and intercept of a line. A wooden 2 x 4 beam is set on top of two scales. Students learn how to conduct an experiment by applying loads at different locations along the beam, recording the exact position of the applied load and the reaction forces measured by the scales at each end of the beam. In addition, students analyze the experiment data with the use of a chart and a table, and model/graph linear equations to describe relationships between independent and dependent variables.

GK-12 Program, Center for Engineering and Computing Education, College of Engineering and Information Technology,

219

DebateGraph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DebateGraph states, "to change the world you need to look at it in a different way." Many would agree; this platform gives multiple partners the ability to visualize and share different ideas. It's a neat concept and it's one that has been used by the United Kingdom's Foreign Office and CNN. A helpful "how-to" area can get users started and the application allows visitors to link ideas visually via a very easy-to-use interface. This version of debate graph is compatible with all operating systems.

220

Project on Teaching Charts and Graphs to ABE Students. Part I: Teacher's Guide [and] Part II: Transparency Assembly Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teacher's guide and collection of transparency masters are designed for use in teaching adult basic education (ABE) students how to read and interpret graphs and charts. Covered in the individual lessons of the instructional unit are the reading and interpretation of charts as well as picture, line, bar, and circle graphs. Each unit contains a…

Renton Vocational Inst., WA.

221

Bond Graphs III: Bond Graphs and Electrical Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical networks are defined and a definition of when a bond graph and an electrical network are equivalent is given. Bond graphs and electrical networks are defined to be primitive if they contain no transformers or gyrators. A bond graph is defined to be realisable if it is equivalent to an electrical network and primitively realisable if it is equivalent

John D. Lamb; Gregory M. Asher; Douglas R. Woodall

1997-01-01

222

Treedecomposition of geometric constraint graphs based on computing graph circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The graph-based geometric constraint solving technique works in two steps. First the geometric problem is translated into a graph whose vertices represent the set of geometric elements and whose edges are the constraints. Then the constraint problem is solved by decomposing the graph into a collection of subgraphs each representing a standard problem which is solved by a dedicated equational

Robert Joan-arinyo; Marta Tarrés-puertas; Sebastià Vila-marta

2009-01-01

223

Homomorphisms of Products of Graphs into Graphs Without Four Cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Given two graphs A and G, we write if there is a homomorphism of A to G and if there is no such homomorphism. The graph G is -free if, whenever both a and c are adjacent to b and d, then a = c or b = d. We will prove that if A and B are connected graphs,

Christian Delhommé; Norbert Sauer

2002-01-01

224

GRAPH III: A Digitizing and Graph Plotting Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

GRAPH is an interactive program that allows the user to perform two functions. The first is to plot two dimensional graphs and the second is to digitize graphs or plots to create data files of points. The program is designed to allow the user to get resul...

C. B. Selleck

1986-01-01

225

GRAPH II: A Digitizing and Graph Plotting Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

GRAPH is an interactive program that allows the user to achieve two objectives. The first is digitizing graphs or plots to create data files of points. The second is the inverse of the first: plotting graphs from data files onto a graphics device. The pro...

C. B. Selleck

1984-01-01

226

Introduction to Feynman Graph Calculations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An introduction to Feynman graph calculations is presented through 6 examples treated in extenso at the first order of perturbation theory. It recalls the necessary formulas of quantum field theory, matrix element calculation and graph representation for ...

J. Picard

1986-01-01

227

Introduction to Feynman Graph Calculations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An introduction to Feynman graph calculations is presented through 6 examples treated in extenso at the first order of perturbation theory. It recalls the necessary formulas of quantum field theory, matrix element calculation and graph representation for ...

J. Picard

1983-01-01

228

Graph for locked rotor current  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Graph determines effect of stalled motor on a distribution system and eliminates hand calculation of amperage in emergencies. Graph is useful to any manufacturer, contractor, or maintenance department involved in electrical technology.

Peck, R. R.

1972-01-01

229

Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static piece...

G. M. Abdulla J. J. Levandoski

2007-01-01

230

Numerical Optimization Approach to General Graph Drawing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Graphs are ubiquitous, finding applications in domains ranging from software engineering to computational biology. While graph theory and graph algorithms are some of the oldest, most studied fields in computer science, the problem of visualizing graphs i...

D. Tunkelang D. Sleator P. Heckbert B. Maggs

1999-01-01

231

Can Pediatric Residents Interpret Electrocardiograms?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess the electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretation skills of pediatric residents in a controlled environment and determine if the level of residency training (intern vs senior) improves accuracy. A list of ECG diagnoses was provided to four pediatric residency educators with instructions to categorize each diagnosis as follows: I, all residents; II, the majority of

C. S. Snyder; J. T. Bricker; A. L. Fenrich; R. A. Friedman; G. L. Rosenthal; C. L. Johnsrude; C. Kertesz; N. J. Kertesz

2005-01-01

232

Lesson 3: Graphs and Equations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson begins with linear equations and inequalities in 1 variable and then moves on to linear equations in 2 variables. Graphs of linear equations in 2 variables are introduced as "a picture of all its solutions." Exercises targeting the links between equations, solutions, points, and graphs follows, with the final activities focusing on use of a graphing calculator to graph equations and find coordinates. There aren't any application problems in this lesson.

2011-01-01

233

Quantum walks on quotient graphs  

SciTech Connect

A discrete-time quantum walk on a graph {gamma} is the repeated application of a unitary evolution operator to a Hilbert space corresponding to the graph. If this unitary evolution operator has an associated group of symmetries, then for certain initial states the walk will be confined to a subspace of the original Hilbert space. Symmetries of the original graph, given by its automorphism group, can be inherited by the evolution operator. We show that a quantum walk confined to the subspace corresponding to this symmetry group can be seen as a different quantum walk on a smaller quotient graph. We give an explicit construction of the quotient graph for any subgroup H of the automorphism group and illustrate it with examples. The automorphisms of the quotient graph which are inherited from the original graph are the original automorphism group modulo the subgroup H used to construct it. The quotient graph is constructed by removing the symmetries of the subgroup H from the original graph. We then analyze the behavior of hitting times on quotient graphs. Hitting time is the average time it takes a walk to reach a given final vertex from a given initial vertex. It has been shown in earlier work [Phys. Rev. A 74, 042334 (2006)] that the hitting time for certain initial states of a quantum walks can be infinite, in contrast to classical random walks. We give a condition which determines whether the quotient graph has infinite hitting times given that they exist in the original graph. We apply this condition for the examples discussed and determine which quotient graphs have infinite hitting times. All known examples of quantum walks with hitting times which are short compared to classical random walks correspond to systems with quotient graphs much smaller than the original graph; we conjecture that the existence of a small quotient graph with finite hitting times is necessary for a walk to exhibit a quantum speedup.

Krovi, Hari; Brun, Todd A. [Communication Sciences Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)

2007-06-15

234

Tough graphs and hamiltonian circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toughness of a graph G is defined as the largest real number t such that deletion of any s points from G results in a graph which is either connected or else has at most s\\/t components. Clearly, every hamiltonian graph is 1-tough. Conversely, we conjecture that for some t0, every t0-tough graph is hamiltonian. Since a square of

Vasek Chvátal

2006-01-01

235

Listing Triconnected Rooted Plane Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A plane graph is a drawing of a planar graph in the plane such that no two edges cross each other. A rooted plane graph has\\u000a a designated outer vertex. For given positive integers n???1 and g???3, let G3(n,g){\\\\cal G}_3(n,g) denote the set of all triconnected rooted plane graphs with exactly n vertices such that the size of each inner

Bingbing Zhuang; Hiroshi Nagamochi

2010-01-01

236

Sharing Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three articles describe methods for teaching library skills. The first presents a song used to teach students the Dewey Decimal system; the second describes a reading program incorporating Halloween and foreign countries; and the third includes short poems designed to teach students to care for library books properly. (CLB)

Mealy, Virginia; And Others

1987-01-01

237

Graphing Linear Equations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Elizabeth Stapel at Purplemath, this module helps students understand how to graph linear equations by making a neat T-chart, finding plot points, plotting points, and drawing the line. There are four pages in this module with clear, systematically presented, step-by-step instructions and plenty of examples and illustrations to help students along.

Stapel, Elizabeth

2000-04-14

238

Coloring geographical threshold graphs  

SciTech Connect

We propose a coloring algorithm for sparse random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). Here, we analyze the GTG coloring algorithm together with the graph's clique number, showing formally that in spite of the differences in structure between GTG and RGG, the asymptotic behavior of the chromatic number is identical: {chi}1n 1n n / 1n n (1 + {omicron}(1)). Finally, we consider the leading corrections to this expression, again using the coloring algorithm and clique number to provide bounds on the chromatic number. We show that the gap between the lower and upper bound is within C 1n n / (1n 1n n){sup 2}, and specify the constant C.

Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Percus, Allon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Muller, Tobias [EINDHOVEN UNIV. OF TECH

2008-01-01

239

Straight Line Graphs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author shares one effective lesson idea on straight line graphs that he applied in his lower ability Y9 class. The author wanted something interesting for his class to do, something that was fun and engaging with direct feedback, and something that worked because someone else had tried it before. In a word, the author admits…

Krueger, Tom

2010-01-01

240

Graph-Theoretical Exorcism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Given a graph G and an ordering phi of the vertices, V(G), we define a parsimonious proper coloring (PPC) of V(G) under phi to be a proper coloring of V(G) in the order phi, where a new color is introduced only when a vertex cannot be properly colored in ...

G. J. Simmons

1985-01-01

241

Graph-theoretical exorcism  

SciTech Connect

Given a graph G and an ordering phi of the vertices, V(G), we define a parsimonious proper coloring (PPC) of V(G) under phi to be a proper coloring of V(G) in the order phi, where a new color is introduced only when a vertex cannot be properly colored in its order with any of the colors already used.

Simmons, G.J.

1985-01-01

242

Evolutionary dynamics on graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary dynamics have been traditionally studied in the context of homogeneous or spatially extended populations. Here we generalize population structure by arranging individuals on a graph. Each vertex represents an individual. The weighted edges denote reproductive rates which govern how often individuals place offspring into adjacent vertices. The homogeneous population, described by the Moran process, is the special case of

Erez Lieberman; Christoph Hauert; Martin A. Nowak

2005-01-01

243

Editing graphs for maximum effect  

SciTech Connect

The paper contains over eighty rules for editing graphs, arranged under nine major headings in a logical sequence for editing all the graphs in a manuscript. It is excerpted from a monograph used at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to train beginning technical editors in editing graphs; a corresponding Hypercard stack is also used in this training. 6 refs., 4 figs.

Murphy, P.W.; Rhiner, R.W.

1991-01-08

244

Mississippi State Physics Labs: Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This inquiry-based lab for introductory physics courses explores the purpose of graphs. Students measure simple circular objects and blocks, graph the data, and look for relationships in the graphs. The lab was designed to help students discover the advantage of using graphical representations to understand numerical relationships. This material is part of a larger collection of introductory physics labs.

Ferguson, Joe; Denson, Jack

2008-09-08

245

A Note on Hamiltonian Graphs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1952, several well-known graph theorists have proven numerous results regarding Hamiltonian graphs. In fact, many elementary graph theory textbooks contain the theorems of Ore, Bondy and Chvatal, Chvatal and Erdos, Posa, and Dirac, to name a few. In this note, the authors state and prove some propositions of their own concerning Hamiltonian…

Skurnick, Ronald; Davi, Charles; Skurnick, Mia

2005-01-01

246

Dependence graphs and compiler optimizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dependence graphs can be used as a vehicle for formulating and implementing compiler optimizations. This paper defines such graphs and discusses two kinds of transformations. The first are simple rewriting transformations that remove dependence arcs. The second are abstraction transformations that deal more globally with a dependence graph. These transformations have been implemented and applied to several different types of

David J. Kuck; Robert H. Kuhn; David A. Padua; Bruce Leasure; Michael Wolfe

1981-01-01

247

Nonplanar Core Reduction of Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a reduction method that reduces a graph to a smaller core graph which behaves invariant with respect to planarity measures like cross- ing number, skewness, and thickness. The core reduction is based on the decom- position of a graph into its triconnected components and can be computed in linear time. It has applications in heuristic and exact optimization

Carsten Gutwenger; Markus Chimani

2005-01-01

248

Word Graphs: The Third Set.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the third paper in a series of natural language processing in terms of knowledge graphs. A word is a basic unit in natural language processing. This is why we study word graphs. Word graphs were already built for prepositions and adwords (includin...

C. Hoede L. Zhang

2000-01-01

249

Cognitive measurements of graph aesthetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large class of diagrams can be informally characterized as node-link diagrams. Typically nodes represent entities, and links represent relationships between them. The discipline of graph drawing is concerned with methods for drawing abstract versions of such diagrams. At the foundation of the disci- pline are a set of graph aesthetics (rules for graph layout) that, it is assumed, will

Colin Ware; Helen C. Purchase; Linda Colpoys; Matthew Mcgill

2002-01-01

250

Rank-tolerance graph classes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce certain classes of graphs that generalize -tolerance chain graphs. In a rank-tolerance representation of a graph, each vertex is assigned two parameters: a rank, which represents the size of that vertex, and a tolerance which represents an allowed extent of conict with other vertices. Two vertices are adjacent if and only if their joint rank

Martin Charles Golumbic; Robert E. Jamison

2006-01-01

251

Ring graphs and complete intersection toric ideals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the family of graphs whose number of primitive cycles equals its cycle rank. It is shown that this family is precisely the family of ring graphs. Then we study the complete intersection property of toric ideals of bipartite graphs and oriented graphs. An interesting application is that complete intersection toric ideals of bipartite graphs correspond to ring graphs

Isidoro Gitler; Enrique Reyes; Rafael H. Villarreal

2010-01-01

252

What Structural Features Make Graph Problems to Have Efficient Parallel Algorithms? —Using Outerplanar Graphs, Trapezoid Graphs and In-Tournament Graphs as Examples  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This paper analyzes what structural features of graph problems allow efficient parallel algorithms. We survey some parallel algorithms for typical problems on three kinds of graphs, outerplanar graphs, trapezoid graphs and in-tournament graphs. Our results on the shortest path problem, the longest path problem and the maximum flow problem on outerplanar graphs, the minimum-weight connected dominating set problem and

Shigeru MASUYAMA; Shin-ichi NAKAYAMA

253

The Effects of Data and Graph Type on Concepts and Visualizations of Variability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing and interpreting variability in data lies at the heart of statistical reasoning. Since graphical displays should facilitate communication about data, statistical literacy should include an understanding of how variability in data can be gleaned from a graph. This paper identifies several types of graphs that students typically…

Cooper, Linda L.; Shore, Felice S.

2010-01-01

254

MY NASA DATA: Correlation of Variables by Graphing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Activities in this lesson promote a fundamental understanding of relationships between graphed data. Sample graphs allow students to become familiar with interpreting data and to recognize relationships between variables. Additional microsets of atmospheric data (gases, clouds, pressures, temperatures, precipitation) are included. Students will use that data to predict the appearance of a graph, plot the data points, study the data pattern and draw a conclusion. In addition, students will determine if a relationship exists between two variables; leading to an understanding that relationships between variables can be more complicated than simple linear ones. This lesson uses student- and citizen science-friendly microsets of authentic NASA Earth system science data from the MY NASA DATA project. It also includes sample graphs, related links, extensions, and an online glossary.

255

Interpretive Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an interpretative experiment involving the application of symmetry and temperature-dependent proton and fluorine nmr spectroscopy to the solution of structural and kinetic problems in coordination chemistry. (MLH)

DeHaan, Frank, Ed.

1977-01-01

256

What is a complex graph?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many papers published in recent years show that real-world graphs G(n,m) ( n nodes, m edges) are more or less “complex” in the sense that different topological features deviate from random graphs. Here we narrow the definition of graph complexity and argue that a complex graph contains many different subgraphs. We present different measures that quantify this complexity, for instance C1e, the relative number of non-isomorphic one-edge-deleted subgraphs (i.e. DECK size). However, because these different subgraph measures are computationally demanding, we also study simpler complexity measures focussing on slightly different aspects of graph complexity. We consider heuristically defined “product measures”, the products of two quantities which are zero in the extreme cases of a path and clique, and “entropy measures” quantifying the diversity of different topological features. The previously defined network/graph complexity measures Medium Articulation and Offdiagonal complexity ( OdC) belong to these two classes. We study OdC measures in some detail and compare it with our new measures. For all measures, the most complex graph G has a medium number of edges, between the edge numbers of the minimum and the maximum connected graph n-1graph complexity measures are characterized with the help of different example graphs. For all measures the corresponding time complexity is given. Finally, we discuss the complexity of 33 real-world graphs of different biological, social and economic systems with the six computationally most simple measures (including OdC). The complexities of the real graphs are compared with average complexities of two different random graph versions: complete random graphs (just fixed n,m) and rewired graphs with fixed node degrees.

Kim, Jongkwang; Wilhelm, Thomas

2008-04-01

257

Graphs, They Are Changing Dynamic Graph Drawing for a Sequence of Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a generic algorithm for drawing se- quences of graphs. This algorithm works for different layout algorithms and related metrics and adjustment strategies. It differs from previous work on dynamic graph drawing in that it considers all graphs in the sequence (offline) instead of just the previous ones (online) when com- puting the layout for each

Stephan Diehl; Carsten Gorg

2002-01-01

258

Listing Triconnected Rooted Plane Graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A plane graph is a drawing of a planar graph in the plane such that no two edges cross each other. A rooted plane graph has a designated outer vertex. For given positive integers n ? 1 and g ? 3, let {\\cal G}_3(n,g) denote the set of all triconnected rooted plane graphs with exactly n vertices such that the size of each inner face is at most g. In this paper, we give an algorithm that enumerates all plane graphs in {\\cal G}_3(n,g). The algorithm runs in constant time per each by outputting the difference from the previous output.

Zhuang, Bingbing; Nagamochi, Hiroshi

259

Exploring Data Display and Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning unit from Math Interactives demonstrates data display and graphs. A video is included which explains the role graphs have in the retail world. The interactive portion of the learning unit has students compare line graphs, bar graphs and circle graphs. They will compare two different data displays and determine if they represent the same data. This lesson will help students understand that the same data may be demonstrated in vastly different ways, and the importance of how data is displayed. A print version of the activity is available for download in Microsoft Word and PDF file formats.

2012-08-06

260

Graph characterization via Ihara coefficients.  

PubMed

The novel contributions of this paper are twofold. First, we demonstrate how to characterize unweighted graphs in a permutation-invariant manner using the polynomial coefficients from the Ihara zeta function, i.e., the Ihara coefficients. Second, we generalize the definition of the Ihara coefficients to edge-weighted graphs. For an unweighted graph, the Ihara zeta function is the reciprocal of a quasi characteristic polynomial of the adjacency matrix of the associated oriented line graph. Since the Ihara zeta function has poles that give rise to infinities, the most convenient numerically stable representation is to work with the coefficients of the quasi characteristic polynomial. Moreover, the polynomial coefficients are invariant to vertex order permutations and also convey information concerning the cycle structure of the graph. To generalize the representation to edge-weighted graphs, we make use of the reduced Bartholdi zeta function. We prove that the computation of the Ihara coefficients for unweighted graphs is a special case of our proposed method for unit edge weights. We also present a spectral analysis of the Ihara coefficients and indicate their advantages over other graph spectral methods. We apply the proposed graph characterization method to capturing graph-class structure and clustering graphs. Experimental results reveal that the Ihara coefficients are more effective than methods based on Laplacian spectra. PMID:21118772

Ren, Peng; Wilson, Richard C; Hancock, Edwin R

2011-02-01

261

Manual Refinement System for Graph-Based Segmentation Results in the Medical Domain  

PubMed Central

The basic principle of graph-based approaches for image segmentation is to interpret an image as a graph, where the nodes of the graph represent 2D pixels or 3D voxels of the image. The weighted edges of the graph are obtained by intensity differences in the image. Once the graph is constructed, the minimal cost closed set on the graph can be computed via a polynomial time s-t cut, dividing the graph into two parts: the object and the background. However, no segmentation method provides perfect results, so additional manual editing is required, especially in the sensitive field of medical image processing. In this study, we present a manual refinement method that takes advantage of the basic design of graph-based image segmentation algorithms. Our approach restricts a graph-cut by using additional user-defined seed points to set up fixed nodes in the graph. The advantage is that manual edits can be integrated intuitively and quickly into the segmentation result of a graph-based approach. The method can be applied to both 2D and 3D objects that have to be segmented. Experimental results for synthetic and real images are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of our approach.

Colen, Rivka R.; Freisleben, Bernd; Nimsky, Christopher

2013-01-01

262

Basic Skills for Reflective Inquiry in the Social Studies. Bridges to the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document consists of five social studies units for developing basic inquiry skills at the secondary level. Students read and analyze data through the construction of a table and a graph in Unit I, "Reading Graphs and Charts." Topics include a model of consumer demand, census information, and national budgeting. In Unit II, "Community Change,"…

Rodabaugh, Mary Jane; And Others

263

Graph Theoretical Model of a Sensorimotor Connectome in Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Mapping the detailed connectivity patterns (connectomes) of neural circuits is a central goal of neuroscience. The best quantitative approach to analyzing connectome data is still unclear but graph theory has been used with success. We present a graph theoretical model of the posterior lateral line sensorimotor pathway in zebrafish. The model includes 2,616 neurons and 167,114 synaptic connections. Model neurons represent known cell types in zebrafish larvae, and connections were set stochastically following rules based on biological literature. Thus, our model is a uniquely detailed computational representation of a vertebrate connectome. The connectome has low overall connection density, with 2.45% of all possible connections, a value within the physiological range. We used graph theoretical tools to compare the zebrafish connectome graph to small-world, random and structured random graphs of the same size. For each type of graph, 100 randomly generated instantiations were considered. Degree distribution (the number of connections per neuron) varied more in the zebrafish graph than in same size graphs with less biological detail. There was high local clustering and a short average path length between nodes, implying a small-world structure similar to other neural connectomes and complex networks. The graph was found not to be scale-free, in agreement with some other neural connectomes. An experimental lesion was performed that targeted three model brain neurons, including the Mauthner neuron, known to control fast escape turns. The lesion decreased the number of short paths between sensory and motor neurons analogous to the behavioral effects of the same lesion in zebrafish. This model is expandable and can be used to organize and interpret a growing database of information on the zebrafish connectome.

Stobb, Michael; Peterson, Joshua M.; Mazzag, Borbala; Gahtan, Ethan

2012-01-01

264

Building a Theory of Graphicacy: How Do Students Read Graphs?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined middle grades students' learning of concepts related to the use and interpretation of graphs. Subjects of the study were 76 sixth-grade students in 3 different mathematics classes in a central North Carolina middle school. The first two parts of the written instrument were administered as both a pretest and a posttest, using line…

Friel, Susan N.; Bright, George W.

265

An Exponential Family of Probability Distributions for Directed Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Directed graph (or digraph) data arise in many fields, especially in contemporary research on structures of social relationships. We describe an exponential family of distributions that can be used for analyzing such data. A substantive rationale for the general model is presented, and several special cases are discussed along with some possible substantive interpretations. A computational algorithm based on iterative

Paul W. Holland; Samuel Leinhardt

1981-01-01

266

Quantum interpretations  

SciTech Connect

Four interpretations of quantum theory are compared: the Copenhagen interpretation (C.I.) with the additional assumption that the quantum description also applies to the mental states of the observer, and three recent ones, by Kochen, Deutsch, and Cramer. Since they interpret the same mathematical structure with the same empirical predictions, it is assumed that they formulate only different linguistic expressions of one identical theory. C.I. as a theory on human knowledge rests on a phenomenological description of time. It can be reconstructed from simple assumptions on predictions. Kochen shows that mathematically every composite system can be split into an object and an observer. Deutsch, with the same decomposition, describes futuric possibilities under the Everett term worlds. Cramer, using four-dimensional action at a distance (Wheeler-Feynman), describes all future events like past facts. All three can be described in the C.I. frame. The role of abstract nonlocality is discussed.

Goernitz, T.; Weizsaecker, C.F.V.

1987-10-01

267

Eternal Security in Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consider placing a guard on each vertex of a dominating set S0 of a graph. If for every vertex v = 2 S0, there is a corresponding guard at an adjacent vertex u for which the resulting set S1 = S0 fug(fvg is dominating, then we say that S0 is 1-secure. It is eternally 1-secure if for any sequence v1;

Wayne Goddard; Sandra M. Hedetniemi; Stephen T. Hedetniemi

268

Graphs with small boundary  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a pair of vertices x and y in a graph G, we denote by dG(x,y) the distance between x and y in G. We call x a boundary vertex of y if x and y belong to the same component and dG(y,v)?dG(y,x) for each neighbor v of x in G. A boundary vertex of some vertex is simply called

Yoko Hasegawa; Akira Saito

2007-01-01

269

Teaching Media Skills: Selected Sources. Bibliographic Series No. 87.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography of materials that facilitate the teaching of library skills on the elementary and secondary levels is organized under 12 clusters of essential skills: orientation, citizenship, listening and interpreting skills, selection of media, parts of a book, publication terminology, nonbook terminology, introduction and location of…

Povsic, Frances F.

270

Skills-Based Occupational Representations: Implications for Career Counseling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measures of workplace skills used to construct graphical representations of occupations. Interpretable groupings of occupations based on similar skills emerged, as did an occupational map with salient skill dimensions. Implications for career counseling context discussed with respect to (a) selection of courses; (b) consideration of alternative…

Smith, Thomas J.; Campbell, Cynthia

2003-01-01

271

Library Technician Skill Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents skill standards for library technicians. Introductory sections describe the industry and the job, what skill standards are, how the library technician skill standards were developed, employability skills and critical competencies, and the SCANS (Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills) foundation skills profile.…

Highline Community Coll., Des Moines, WA.

272

Properties of CrystalGraphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphs, both as mathematical abstractions and abstract data types, are a natural way to represent crystal structures, with atoms being represented as vertices and bonds as edges. Once an appropriate graph representation for crystals has been chosen, algorithms can be designed to process these graphs in the computer. Good graph representations of crystals will have properties that correlate with properties of interest in their corresponding crystals, and analyzing the graphs will provide insight into the crystals. This paper will develop a representation that we call a crystalGraph, which is in its essence the same as the quotient graphs of Chung et al. (1984), but with a different labeling system for the vertices and edges and with vertices and edges for every atom and bond in the unit cell. The crystalGraphs are derived in a manner suitable for and specific to proving the following useful results: ? Placement of a unit cell with given size and shape in a crystal does not affect the crystalGraph (resulting graphs are isomorphic). ? Space group isometries displayed by crystal structures have corresponding automorphisms in the crystal structures' corresponding crystalGraphs. ? Vertices representing crystallographically equivalent atoms are similar (belong to the same automorphism vertex partition). Subgraphs representing crystallographically equivalent portions of a crystal are also similar. ? The set of subgraphs containing a vertex representing a given atom and the set of subgraphs containing any vertex representing a crystallographically equivalent atom are equal under subgraph isomorphism. ? The space group of a crystal is isomorphic to a subgroup of the automorphism group of its crystalGraph. In addition to their intrinsic theoretical importance, these results provide the basis for designing pruning strategies to be incorporated into computationally expensive algorithms for processing crystalGraphs that may decrease processing times.

Thompson, R. M.; Cohen, P. R.; Downs, R. T.

2011-12-01

273

Performing Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Utilizing a/r/tographic methodology to interrogate interpretive acts in museums, multiple areas of inquiry are raised in this paper, including: which knowledge is assigned the greatest value when preparing a gallery talk; what lies outside of disciplinary knowledge; how invitations to participate invite and disinvite in the same gesture; and what…

Kothe, Elsa Lenz; Berard, Marie-France

2013-01-01

274

On the Decomposition of Graphs into Complete Bipartite Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a complete bipartite decomposition ? of a graph, we consider the number ?(v;?) of complete bipartite subgraphs incident with a vertex v. Let ?(G)=\\u000a $$\\\\min \\\\limits_{\\\\pi } \\\\max \\\\limits_{v\\\\in V(G)}$$\\u000a ?(v;?). In this paper the exact values of ?(G) for complete graphs and hypercubes and a sharp upper bound on ?(G) for planar graphs are provided, respectively. An open

Jinquan Dong; Yanpei Liu

2007-01-01

275

Drawing Planar Graphs Symmetrically, III: Oneconnected Planar Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symmetry is one of the most important aesthetic criteria in graph\\u000a drawing because it reveals structure in the graph. This paper\\u000a discusses symmetric drawings of oneconnected planar graphs.\\u000a More specifically, we discuss planar (geometric)\\u000a automorphisms, that is, automorphisms of a graph G that can be\\u000a represented as symmetries of a planar drawing of G. Finding\\u000a planar automorphisms is the first

Seok-hee Hong; Peter Eades

2006-01-01

276

Spin models on thin graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the utility of analytical and numerical investigation of spin\\u000amodels, in particular spin glasses, on ordinary ``thin'' random graphs (in\\u000aeffect Feynman diagrams) using methods borrowed from the ``fat'' graphs of two\\u000adimensional gravity. We highlight the similarity with Bethe lattice\\u000acalculations and the advantages of the thin graph approach both analytically\\u000aand numerically for investigating mean field

C. F. Baillie; D. A. Johnston

1996-01-01

277

A cluster algorithm for graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cluster algorithm for graphs called the emph{Markov Cluster algorithm (MCL~algorithm) is introduced. The algorithm provides basically an interface to an algebraic process defined on stochastic matrices, called the MCL~process. The graphs may be both weighted (with nonnegative weight) and directed. Let~$G$~be such a graph. The MCL~algorithm simulates flow in $G$ by first identifying $G$ in a canonical way with

S. Van Dongen

2000-01-01

278

Shortest Paths in Euclidean Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze a simple method for finding shortest paths inEuclidean graphs (where vertices are points in a Euclidean space and edge weights are Euclidean distances between points). For many graph\\u000a models, the average running time of the algorithm to find the shortest path between a specified pair of vertices in a graph\\u000a withV vertices andE edges is shown to beO(V)

Robert Sedgewick; Jeffrey Scott Vitter

1986-01-01

279

Graph Matching Using Spectral Seriation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper is concerned with computing graph edit distance. One of the criticisms that can be leveled at existing methods\\u000a for computing graph edit distance is that it lacks the formality and rigour of string edit distance computation. Hence, our\\u000a aim is to convert graphs to string sequences so that standard string edit distance techniques can be used. To do

Antonio Robles-Kellyand; Edwin R. Hancock

2003-01-01

280

Word Graphs: The Second Set  

Microsoft Academic Search

In continuation of the paper of Hoede and Li on word graphs for a set of prepositions, word graphs are given for adjectives,\\u000a adverbs and Chinese classifier words. It is argued that these three classes of words belong to a general class of words that\\u000a may be called adwords. These words express the fact that certain graphs may be brought

Cornelis Hoede; X. Liu

1998-01-01

281

Cactus Graphs for Genome Comparisons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a data structure, analysis and visualization scheme called a cactus graph for comparing sets of related genomes. Cactus graphs capture some of the advantages of de Bruijn and breakpoint graphs in one unified framework. They naturally decompose the common substructures in a set of related genomes into a hierarchy of chains that can be visualized as multiple alignments and nets that can be visualized in circular genome plots.

Paten, Benedict; Diekhans, Mark; Earl, Dent; St. John, John; Ma, Jian; Suh, Bernard; Haussler, David

282

The Web as a graph  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pages and hyperlinks of the World-Wide Web may be viewed as nodes and edges in a directed graph. This graph has about a billion nodes today, several billion links, and appears to grow exponentially with time. There are many reasons—mathematical, sociological, and commercial—for studying the evolution of this graph. We first review a set of algorithms that operate on

Ravi Kumar; Prabhakar Raghavan; Sridhar Rajagopalan; D. Sivakumar; Andrew Tompkins; Eli Upfal

2000-01-01

283

Hyperspectral Data Classification Using Factor Graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate classification of hyperspectral data is still a competitive task and new classification methods are developed to achieve desired tasks of hyperspectral data use. The objective of this paper is to develop a new method for hyperspectral data classification ensuring the classification model properties like transferability, generalization, probabilistic interpretation, etc. While factor graphs (undirected graphical models) are unfortunately not widely employed in remote sensing tasks, these models possess important properties such as representation of complex systems to model estimation/decision making tasks. In this paper we present a new method for hyperspectral data classification using factor graphs. Factor graph (a bipartite graph consisting of variables and factor vertices) allows factorization of a more complex function leading to definition of variables (employed to store input data), latent variables (allow to bridge abstract class to data), and factors (defining prior probabilities for spectral features and abstract classes; input data mapping to spectral features mixture and further bridging of the mixture to an abstract class). Latent variables play an important role by defining two-level mapping of the input spectral features to a class. Configuration (learning) on training data of the model allows calculating a parameter set for the model to bridge the input data to a class. The classification algorithm is as follows. Spectral bands are separately pre-processed (unsupervised clustering is used) to be defined on a finite domain (alphabet) leading to a representation of the data on multinomial distribution. The represented hyperspectral data is used as input evidence (evidence vector is selected pixelwise) in a configured factor graph and an inference is run resulting in the posterior probability. Variational inference (Mean field) allows to obtain plausible results with a low calculation time. Calculating the posterior probability for each class and comparison of the probabilities leads to classification. Since the factor graphs operate on input data represented on an alphabet (the represented data transferred into multinomial distribution) the number of training samples can be relatively low. Classification assessment on Salinas hyperspectral data benchmark allowed to obtain a competitive accuracy of classification. Employment of training data consisting of 20 randomly selected points for a class allowed to obtain the overall classification accuracy equal to 85.32% and Kappa equal to 0.8358. Representation of input data on a finite domain discards the curse of dimensionality problem allowing to use large hyperspectral data with a moderately high number of bands.

Makarau, A.; Müller, R.; Palubinskas, G.; Reinartz, P.

2012-07-01

284

Sociometry analysis applying fuzzy node fuzzy graph  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sociometry is a social structure measurement and evaluation method, which we can effectively analyze by applying fuzzy graph theory. We extend the fuzzy graph theory, and propose a fuzzy node fuzzy graph, and we transform it to a crisp node fuzzy graph using by T-norm. The authors explain a fuzzy node fuzzy graph, and propose new T-norm family quasi logical

H. Uesu; H. Yamashita; M. Yanai; M. Tomita

2001-01-01

285

Constructing Dense Graphs with Unique Hamiltonian Cycles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is not difficult to construct dense graphs containing Hamiltonian cycles, but it is difficult to generate dense graphs that are guaranteed to contain a unique Hamiltonian cycle. This article presents an algorithm for generating arbitrarily large simple graphs containing "unique" Hamiltonian cycles. These graphs can be turned into dense graphs

Lynch, Mark A. M.

2012-01-01

286

On the Termination of Clause Graph Resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introducesextended clause graph resolution, a variant of Kowalski's clause graph resolution that is terminating at the full first-order level. This terminating variant is obtained by extending the definitions of clause graph and clause graph resolution to include more information about the interdependencies between links and clauses in the graph, by restricting purity slightly and by employing an exhaustive

C. A. Johnson

1994-01-01

287

Eigensolutions of dodecahedron graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eigensolutions of 20-vertex cage (i.e. dodecahedron) have been determined with the use of fivefold rotational symmetry. For homo-dodecahedron the eigensolutions become analytical but for the hetero-dodecahedron having two different types of atoms ((C,N),(C,B),(B,N)) the eigensolutions are found to be factored out into five 4-degree polynomials with one corresponding to nondegenerate and other four corresponding to two degenerate eigensolutions. Eigenspectra and total ?-electron energies of homo- and hetero-dodecahedron graphs have been calculated.

Ghosh, Piyali; Karmakar, Somnath; Mandal, Bholanath

2014-02-01

288

Contact Graph Routing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contact Graph Routing (CGR) is a dynamic routing system that computes routes through a time-varying topology of scheduled communication contacts in a network based on the DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) architecture. It is designed to enable dynamic selection of data transmission routes in a space network based on DTN. This dynamic responsiveness in route computation should be significantly more effective and less expensive than static routing, increasing total data return while at the same time reducing mission operations cost and risk. The basic strategy of CGR is to take advantage of the fact that, since flight mission communication operations are planned in detail, the communication routes between any pair of bundle agents in a population of nodes that have all been informed of one another's plans can be inferred from those plans rather than discovered via dialogue (which is impractical over long one-way-light-time space links). Messages that convey this planning information are used to construct contact graphs (time-varying models of network connectivity) from which CGR automatically computes efficient routes for bundles. Automatic route selection increases the flexibility and resilience of the space network, simplifying cross-support and reducing mission management costs. Note that there are no routing tables in Contact Graph Routing. The best route for a bundle destined for a given node may routinely be different from the best route for a different bundle destined for the same node, depending on bundle priority, bundle expiration time, and changes in the current lengths of transmission queues for neighboring nodes; routes must be computed individually for each bundle, from the Bundle Protocol agent's current network connectivity model for the bundle s destination node (the contact graph). Clearly this places a premium on optimizing the implementation of the route computation algorithm. The scalability of CGR to very large networks remains a research topic. The information carried by CGR contact plan messages is useful not only for dynamic route computation, but also for the implementation of rate control, congestion forecasting, transmission episode initiation and termination, timeout interval computation, and retransmission timer suspension and resumption.

Burleigh, Scott C.

2011-01-01

289

Interpretive Medicine  

PubMed Central

Patient-centredness is a core value of general practice; it is defined as the interpersonal processes that support the holistic care of individuals. To date, efforts to demonstrate their relationship to patient outcomes have been disappointing, whilst some studies suggest values may be more rhetoric than reality. Contextual issues influence the quality of patient-centred consultations, impacting on outcomes. The legitimate use of knowledge, or evidence, is a defining aspect of modern practice, and has implications for patient-centredness. Based on a critical review of the literature, on my own empirical research, and on reflections from my clinical practice, I critique current models of the use of knowledge in supporting individualised care. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), and its implementation within health policy as Scientific Bureaucratic Medicine (SBM), define best evidence in terms of an epistemological emphasis on scientific knowledge over clinical experience. It provides objective knowledge of disease, including quantitative estimates of the certainty of that knowledge. Whilst arguably appropriate for secondary care, involving episodic care of selected populations referred in for specialist diagnosis and treatment of disease, application to general practice can be questioned given the complex, dynamic and uncertain nature of much of the illness that is treated. I propose that general practice is better described by a model of Interpretive Medicine (IM): the critical, thoughtful, professional use of an appropriate range of knowledges in the dynamic, shared exploration and interpretation of individual illness experience, in order to support the creative capacity of individuals in maintaining their daily lives. Whilst the generation of interpreted knowledge is an essential part of daily general practice, the profession does not have an adequate framework by which this activity can be externally judged to have been done well. Drawing on theory related to the recognition of quality in interpretation and knowledge generation within the qualitative research field, I propose a framework by which to evaluate the quality of knowledge generated within generalist, interpretive clinical practice. I describe three priorities for research in developing this model further, which will strengthen and preserve core elements of the discipline of general practice, and thus promote and support the health needs of the public.

Reeve, Joanne

2010-01-01

290

Match The Position Graph (Match x(t) graph)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation depicts a toy monster truck in a java applet animation. The student is shown a position-time graph and is asked to control the motion of the truck with the mouse. The goal of the exercise is to match the position vs. time graph as shown in the animation.

291

Experimental Comparison of Graph Drawing Algorithms for Cubic Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the results of an experimental study in which we have compared the performances of three algorithms for drawing general cubic graphs on the bidimensional orthogonal grid. The comparison works on 18,000 randomly generated graphs with up to 300 vertices and analyzes the number of bends and crossings, the area, the edge length and the running time.

Tiziana Calamoneri; Simone Jannelli; Rossella Petreschi

1999-01-01

292

A Temporal Graph Logic for Verification of Graph Transformation Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We extend our approach for verifying properties of graph transformation systems using suitable abstractions. In the original ap- proach properties are specified as formulae of a propositional temporal logic whose atomic predicates are monadic second-order graph formulae. We generalize this aspect by considering more expressive logics, where edge quantifiers and temporal modalities can be interleaved, a feature which allows, e.g.,

Paolo Baldan; Andrea Corradini; Barbara Konig; Alberto Lluch Lafuente

2006-01-01

293

Multiple directed graph large-class multi-spectral processor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerical analysis techniques for the interpretation of high-resolution imaging-spectrometer data are described and demonstrated. The method proposed involves the use of (1) a hierarchical classifier with a tree structure generated automatically by a Fisher linear-discriminant-function algorithm and (2) a novel multiple-directed-graph scheme which reduces the local maxima and the number of perturbations required. Results for a 500-class test problem involving simulated imaging-spectrometer data are presented in tables and graphs; 100-percent-correct classification is achieved with an improvement factor of 5.

Casasent, David; Liu, Shiaw-Dong; Yoneyama, Hideyuki

1988-01-01

294

Feynman Graphs, Rooted Trees, and Ringel-Hall Algebras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct symmetric monoidal categories {mathcal{LRF}, mathcal{LFG}} of rooted forests and Feynman graphs. These categories closely resemble finitary abelian categories, and in particular, the notion of Ringel-Hall algebra applies. The Ringel-Hall Hopf algebras of {mathcal{LRF}, mathcal{LFG}}, {{H}_mathcal{LRF}, {H}_mathcal{LFG}} are dual to the corresponding Connes-Kreimer Hopf algebras on rooted trees and Feynman diagrams. We thus obtain an interpretation of the Connes-Kreimer Lie algebras on rooted trees and Feynman graphs as Ringel-Hall Lie algebras.

Kremnizer, Kobi; Szczesny, Matt

2009-07-01

295

Quantization of gauge fields, graph polynomials and graph homology  

SciTech Connect

We review quantization of gauge fields using algebraic properties of 3-regular graphs. We derive the Feynman integrand at n loops for a non-abelian gauge theory quantized in a covariant gauge from scalar integrands for connected 3-regular graphs, obtained from the two Symanzik polynomials. The transition to the full gauge theory amplitude is obtained by the use of a third, new, graph polynomial, the corolla polynomial. This implies effectively a covariant quantization without ghosts, where all the relevant signs of the ghost sector are incorporated in a double complex furnished by the corolla polynomial–we call it cycle homology–and by graph homology. -- Highlights: •We derive gauge theory Feynman from scalar field theory with 3-valent vertices. •We clarify the role of graph homology and cycle homology. •We use parametric renormalization and the new corolla polynomial.

Kreimer, Dirk, E-mail: kreimer@physik.hu-berlin.de [Humboldt University, 10099 Berlin (Germany)] [Humboldt University, 10099 Berlin (Germany); Sars, Matthias [Humboldt University, 10099 Berlin (Germany)] [Humboldt University, 10099 Berlin (Germany); Suijlekom, Walter D. van [Radboud University Nijmegen, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)] [Radboud University Nijmegen, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)

2013-09-15

296

Teaching Skill in Theorizing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses whether theoretical skills, meaning skills in evaluating and improving existing theories and in creating new theories, should be taught in psychology programs. Three questions are posed: (1) Should theoretical skills be taught at all?; (2) How are theoretical skills best taught?; and (3) Which theoretical skills should be…

Parrott, W. Gerrod

297

Noshing on Numbers: Using and Interpreting Data in Activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students must learn how to plot and analyze data as a fundamental science and math skill. Data must also be incorporated into activities in meaningful ways that allow students to build understanding of the concepts being shared. In this workshop, attendees participated in three graphing activities, which served as the basis for discussion of these numerical literacy issues in the science classroom.

Shupla, C. B.

2014-07-01

298

A Collection of Features for Semantic Graphs  

SciTech Connect

Semantic graphs are commonly used to represent data from one or more data sources. Such graphs extend traditional graphs by imposing types on both nodes and links. This type information defines permissible links among specified nodes and can be represented as a graph commonly referred to as an ontology or schema graph. Figure 1 depicts an ontology graph for data from National Association of Securities Dealers. Each node type and link type may also have a list of attributes. To capture the increased complexity of semantic graphs, concepts derived for standard graphs have to be extended. This document explains briefly features commonly used to characterize graphs, and their extensions to semantic graphs. This document is divided into two sections. Section 2 contains the feature descriptions for static graphs. Section 3 extends the features for semantic graphs that vary over time.

Eliassi-Rad, T; Fodor, I K; Gallagher, B

2007-05-02

299

On a Programming Language for Graph Algorithms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An algorithmic language, GRAAL, is presented for describing and implementing graph algorithms of the type primarily arising in applications. The language is based on a set algebraic model of graph theory which defines the graph structure in terms of morph...

C. K. Mesztenyi V. R. Basili W. C. Rheinboldt

1971-01-01

300

Interval Graphs, Chronological Orderings, and Related Matters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper is concerned with special interval representations of interval graphs. The basic notion is that of a chronological ordering of an interval graph, which is an equivalence class of interval representations of the graph in question. Consider a ref...

D. J. Skrien

1980-01-01

301

Certificates and lookahead in dynamic graph problems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent work in dynamic graph algorithms has led to efficient algorithms for dynamic undirected graph problems such as connectivity. However, no efficient algorithms are known for the dynamic versions of fundamental directed graph problems like strong conn...

S. Khanna R. Motwani R. H. Wilson

1995-01-01

302

Developing Science Process Skills in Special Schools in South Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers were taught "Translation Activities" (TA) to teach science process skills in three special education schools in South Africa. In TA, information and data are provided as text, diagrams, tables, or graphs, and cooperative learning takes place. Teachers indicated the use of TA enabled them to deliver Outcomes Based Education. (Contains…

Johnson, Sally; Sadeck, Melanie; Hodges, Merle

2002-01-01

303

Regular Projections of Spatial Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study of the regular projection in spatial graph theory is more rich in content as compared with the regular projection in knot theory. Actually some interesting phenomena in the regular projection of spatial graphs which are not appeared in the one of knots and links have been discovered Since 1990's. In this article we introduce the recent topics in the

Ryo NIKKUNI

304

EIA publications manual: Statistical graphs  

SciTech Connect

Statistical graphs both illustrate a set of data and provide an analytical perspective. The distinction between these two functions is one of emphasis. Where the purpose of a graph is to dramatize or highlight a set of data, its primary function is illustration. Where the purpose of a graph is to explore, measure, calculate, and derive relationships, the primary function of the graph is analytical. In general practice, these two functions can be so interdependent as to be indistinguishable. The following guidelines are intended to aid in resolving problems common to the presentation of data in statistical graphs. The variety and complexity of data to be presented call for a flexible approach; therefore, the following examples are intended not as inflexible specifications but rather as guides to the design of graphs that are attractive and easily understood. All the types of graphs discussed here have appeared in EIA publications. A list of references that provides further examples is included. Also included is a glossary of statistical terms used in discussing the statistical properties of different types of graphs. 11 refs., 24 figs.

Not Available

1985-04-01

305

On Spectra of Starlike Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper we show that the spectrum of an arbitrary starlike graph\\u000acan be completely determined via separating functions $\\\\rho_t$ (see\\u000a\\\\cite{NazRoi,RedRoi,Red3}). This fact helps to get in an easy way several\\u000aresults for the spectra of starlike graphs.

I. K. Redchuk

2006-01-01

306

On Spectra of Starlike Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper we show that the spectrum of an arbitrary starlike graph can be completely determined via separating functions $\\\\rho_t$ (see \\\\cite{NazRoi,RedRoi,Red3}). This fact helps to get in an easy way several results for the spectra of starlike graphs.

I. K. Redchuk

2006-01-01

307

Interprocedural slicing using dependence graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper made two main contributions: it defined system de- pendence graphs (SDGs), which extended program dependence graphs (PDGs) (31, 17) to incorporate collections of procedures (with procedure calls) rather than just monolithic programs. It then defined an interprocedural slicing algorithm that identifies the com- ponents of the SDG that might affect the values of the variables de- fined at

Susan Horwitz; Thomas W. Reps; David Binkley

1990-01-01

308

Characterizations of Reducible Flow Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is established that if G is a reducible flow graph, then edge (n, m) is backward (a back latch) if and only if either n = m or m dominates n in G. Thus, the backward edges of a reducible flow graph are unique.Further characterizations of reducibility are presented. In particular, the following are equivalent: (a) G = (N,

Matthew S. Hecht; Jeffrey D. Ullman

1974-01-01

309

A PVS Graph Theory Library  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper documents the NASA Langley PVS graph theory library. The library provides fundamental definitions for graphs, subgraphs, walks, paths, subgraphs generated by walks, trees, cycles, degree, separating sets, and four notions of connectedness. Theorems provided include Ramsey's and Menger's and the equivalence of all four notions of connectedness.

Butler, Ricky W.; Sjogren, Jon A.

1998-01-01

310

Expansion of product replacement graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expanders are highly connected sparse graphs of great interest in computer science, in areas ranging from parallel computation to complexity theory, from cryptography to coding theory, and, most recently, computational group theory (see e.g. [AKS, G+, LP, SS, V, WZ].) The explicit constructions of expander graphs [M1, M2, LPS] (see also [GG, Lu]) use deep mathematical tools to construct families

Alexander Gamburd; Igor Pak

2002-01-01

311

Graphs with four boundary vertices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vertex v of a graph G is a boundary vertex if there exists a vertex u such that the distance in G from u to v is at least the distance from u to any neighbour of v. We give a full description of all graphs that have exactly four boundary vertices, which answers a question of Hasegawa and

Tobias Müller; A. Por; J.-S. Sereni

2011-01-01

312

Genetic Algorithm and Graph Partitioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid genetic algorithms (GAs) for the graph partitioning problem are described. The algorithms include a fast local improvement heuristic. One of the novel features of these algorithms is the schema preprocessing phase that improves GAs' space searching capability, which in turn improves the performance of GAs. Experimental tests on graph problems with published solutions showed that the new genetic algorithms

Thang Nguyen Bui; Byung Ro Moon

1996-01-01

313

Science House: Motion and Graphing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab activity uses computer operated motion detectors and software to generate motion graphs. Students provide the data by walking in front of the motion detector, or rolling balls. Questions are provided to help the students explore the motion concepts. There are also questions asking students to predict the motion graphs before running the experiment. No calculations are needed.

2006-09-08

314

Graph structure in the Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of the web as a graph is not only fascinating in its own right, but also yields valuable insight into web algorithms for crawling, searching and community discovery, and the sociological phenomena which characterize its evolution. We report on experiments on local and global properties of the web graph using two Altavista crawls each with over 200 million

Andrei Z. Broder; Ravi Kumar; Farzin Maghoul; Prabhakar Raghavan; Sridhar Rajagopalan; Raymie Stata; Andrew Tomkins; Janet L. Wiener

2000-01-01

315

CANCER MORTALITY MAPS AND GRAPHS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Cancer Mortality Maps & Graph Web Site provides interactive maps, graphs (which are accessible to the blind and visually-impaired), text, tables and figures showing geographic patterns and time trends of cancer death rates for the time period 1950-1994 for more than 40 cancer...

316

Graphing and the Coordinate Plane  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to graphing coordinates and lines in the Cartesian coordinate plane. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to graphing as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one.

2010-01-01

317

Chameleon Graphing: The Coordinate Plane  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web unit introduces the coordinate plane with the help of Sam the Chameleon, who illustrates how to find points on a number line and graph points in the coordinate plane. A link to a Java applet for graphing with Sam is included.

Whitcher, Ursula

2000-01-01

318

Word Graphs: The Second Set.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In continuation of the paper of Hoede and Li on word graphs for a set of prepositions, word graphs are given for adjectives, adverbs and Chinese classifier words. It is argued that these three classes of words belong to a general class of words that may b...

C. Hoede X. Liu

1998-01-01

319

XML graphs in program analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

XML graphs have shown to be a simple and effective formalism for representing sets of XML documents in program analysis. It has evolved through a six year period with variants tailored for a range of applications. We present a unified definition, outline the key properties including validation of XML graphs against different XML schema languages, and provide a software package

Anders Møller; Michael I. Schwartzbach

2011-01-01

320

XML graphs in program analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

XML graphs have shown to be a simple and effective formalism for representing sets of XML documents in program analysis. It has evolved through a six year period with variants tailored for a range of applications. We present a unified definition, outline the key properties including validation of XML graphs against different XML schema languages, and provide a software package

Anders Møller; Michael I. Schwartzbach

2007-01-01

321

Covering the de Bruijn Graph.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Random-like sequences of 0's and 1's are generated efficiently by binary shift registers. The output of n-stage shift registers viewed as a sequence of binary n-tuples also give rise to a special graph called the de Bruijn graph B sub n. The de Bruijn gra...

R. D. Bryant

1986-01-01

322

Graphing Slope-Intercept Equations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This step by step lesson from Math Ops demonstrates graphing slope-intercept equations. Students can read the text on each slide or follow along as it is read out loud. Four examples are given along with detailed instructions on how to graph this type of equation.

2011-01-01

323

Removable Edges in 4Connected Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on structural characterizations of graphs is a very popular topic in graph theory. The concepts of contractible edges and removable edges of graphs are powerful tools to study the structure of graphs and to prove properties of graphs by induction. \\u000aIn 1998, Yin gave a convenient method to construct 4-connected graphs by using the existence of removable edges and

Jichang Wu

2009-01-01

324

Cubic s-arc transitive Cayley graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a characterization of connected cubic s-transitive Cayley graphs. It is shown that, for s?3, every connected cubic s-transitive Cayley graph is a normal cover of one of 13 graphs: three 3-transitive graphs, four 4-transitive graphs and six 5-transitive graphs. Moreover, the argument in this paper also gives another proof for a well-known result which says that all

Jing Jian Li; Zai Ping Lu

2009-01-01

325

Path similarity skeleton graph matching.  

PubMed

This paper presents a novel framework to for shape recognition based on object silhouettes. The main idea is to match skeleton graphs by comparing the shortest paths between skeleton endpoints. In contrast to typical tree or graph matching methods, we completely ignore the topological graph structure. Our approach is motivated by the fact that visually similar skeleton graphs may have completely different topological structures. The proposed comparison of shortest paths between endpoints of skeleton graphs yields correct matching results in such cases. The skeletons are pruned by contour partitioning with Discrete Curve Evolution, which implies that the endpoints of skeleton branches correspond to visual parts of the objects. The experimental results demonstrate that our method is able to produce correct results in the presence of articulations, stretching, and occlusion. PMID:18550909

Bai, Xiang; Latecki, Longin Jan

2008-07-01

326

Elicited Speech from Graph Items on the Test of Spoken English[TM]. Research Reports. Report 74. RR-04-06  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research applied a cognitive model to identify item features that lead to irrelevant variance on the Test of Spoken English[TM] (TSE[R]). The TSE is an assessment of English oral proficiency and includes an item that elicits a description of a statistical graph. This item type sometimes appears to tap graph-reading skills--an irrelevant…

Katz, Irvin R.; Xi, Xiaoming; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Cheng, Peter C. H.

2004-01-01

327

Biotechnology Skills Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here users will find an assortment of Bioscience/Agricultural Biotechnology Skills Standards. These should be useful for development of new programs as well as for comparisons with existing programs. The sections discussed are: Biopharmaceutical Manufacturing Skill Standards, Combined Bioscience/Agricultural Biotechnology Skill Standards, Agricultural Biotechnology Skill Standards, Bioscience Industry Skill Standards, National Association of Scientific Materials Managers, ACAP Austin Competency Analysis Profile - Biotechnology, Making Skill Standards Work, and Window on the Workplace.

2009-09-16

328

Graph hierarchies for phylogeography.  

PubMed

Bayesian phylogeographic methods simultaneously integrate geographical and evolutionary modelling, and have demonstrated value in assessing spatial spread patterns of measurably evolving organisms. We improve on existing phylogeographic methods by combining information from multiple phylogeographic datasets in a hierarchical setting. Consider N exchangeable datasets or strata consisting of viral sequences and locations, each evolving along its own phylogenetic tree and according to a conditionally independent geographical process. At the hierarchical level, a random graph summarizes the overall dispersion process by informing which migration rates between sampling locations are likely to be relevant in the strata. This approach provides an efficient and improved framework for analysing inherently hierarchical datasets. We first examine the evolutionary history of multiple serotypes of dengue virus in the Americas to showcase our method. Additionally, we explore an application to intrahost HIV evolution across multiple patients. PMID:23382428

Cybis, Gabriela B; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Lemey, Philippe; Suchard, Marc A

2013-03-19

329

Graph hierarchies for phylogeography  

PubMed Central

Bayesian phylogeographic methods simultaneously integrate geographical and evolutionary modelling, and have demonstrated value in assessing spatial spread patterns of measurably evolving organisms. We improve on existing phylogeographic methods by combining information from multiple phylogeographic datasets in a hierarchical setting. Consider N exchangeable datasets or strata consisting of viral sequences and locations, each evolving along its own phylogenetic tree and according to a conditionally independent geographical process. At the hierarchical level, a random graph summarizes the overall dispersion process by informing which migration rates between sampling locations are likely to be relevant in the strata. This approach provides an efficient and improved framework for analysing inherently hierarchical datasets. We first examine the evolutionary history of multiple serotypes of dengue virus in the Americas to showcase our method. Additionally, we explore an application to intrahost HIV evolution across multiple patients.

Cybis, Gabriela B.; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Lemey, Philippe; Suchard, Marc A.

2013-01-01

330

GenoLink: a graph-based querying and browsing system for investigating the function of genes and proteins  

PubMed Central

Background A large variety of biological data can be represented by graphs. These graphs can be constructed from heterogeneous data coming from genomic and post-genomic technologies, but there is still need for tools aiming at exploring and analysing such graphs. This paper describes GenoLink, a software platform for the graphical querying and exploration of graphs. Results GenoLink provides a generic framework for representing and querying data graphs. This framework provides a graph data structure, a graph query engine, allowing to retrieve sub-graphs from the entire data graph, and several graphical interfaces to express such queries and to further explore their results. A query consists in a graph pattern with constraints attached to the vertices and edges. A query result is the set of all sub-graphs of the entire data graph that are isomorphic to the pattern and satisfy the constraints. The graph data structure does not rely upon any particular data model but can dynamically accommodate for any user-supplied data model. However, for genomic and post-genomic applications, we provide a default data model and several parsers for the most popular data sources. GenoLink does not require any programming skill since all operations on graphs and the analysis of the results can be carried out graphically through several dedicated graphical interfaces. Conclusion GenoLink is a generic and interactive tool allowing biologists to graphically explore various sources of information. GenoLink is distributed either as a standalone application or as a component of the Genostar/Iogma platform. Both distributions are free for academic research and teaching purposes and can be requested at academy@genostar.com. A commercial licence form can be obtained for profit company at info@genostar.com. See also .

Durand, Patrick; Labarre, Laurent; Meil, Alain; Divo1, Jean-Louis; Vandenbrouck, Yves; Viari, Alain; Wojcik, Jerome

2006-01-01

331

Inquiring minds: Case studies of two middle school science teachers as they include inquiry and graphing in their curricula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current reform documents in science and mathematics call for teachers to include inquiry and data analysis in their teaching. This interpretive quasi-ethnographic case study examined two middle school science teachers as they planned and implemented inquiry and graphing in their science curricula. The focus question for this research was: What are middle school science teachers' experiences as they include graphing

Grace Hotchkiss Scarano

2000-01-01

332

Graphing in Physics: Processes and Sources of Error in Tertiary Entrance Examinations in Western Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interpretation and construction of graphs are central to the study of physics and to performance in physics. In this paper, I explore the interpretation and construction processes called upon in questions with a graphical component, in Western Australian Physics Tertiary Entrance Examinations. In addition, I list errors made by students as…

Forster, Patricia A.

2004-01-01

333

Graph Metrics for Temporal Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temporal networks, i.e., networks in which the interactions among a set of elementary units change over time, can be modelled in terms of time-varying graphs, which are time-ordered sequences of graphs over a set of nodes. In such graphs, the concepts of node adjacency and reachability crucially depend on the exact temporal ordering of the links. Consequently, all the concepts and metrics proposed and used for the characterisation of static complex networks have to be redefined or appropriately extended to time-varying graphs, in order to take into account the effects of time ordering on causality. In this chapter we discuss how to represent temporal networks and we review the definitions of walks, paths, connectedness and connected components valid for graphs in which the links fluctuate over time. We then focus on temporal node-node distance, and we discuss how to characterise link persistence and the temporal small-world behaviour in this class of networks. Finally, we discuss the extension of classic centrality measures, including closeness, betweenness and spectral centrality, to the case of time-varying graphs, and we review the work on temporal motifs analysis and the definition of modularity for temporal graphs.

Nicosia, Vincenzo; Tang, John; Mascolo, Cecilia; Musolesi, Mirco; Russo, Giovanni; Latora, Vito

334

Semantic graphs and associative memories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphs have been increasingly utilized in the characterization of complex networks from diverse origins, including different kinds of semantic networks. Human memories are associative and are known to support complex semantic nets; these nets are represented by graphs. However, it is not known how the brain can sustain these semantic graphs. The vision of cognitive brain activities, shown by modern functional imaging techniques, assigns renewed value to classical distributed associative memory models. Here we show that these neural network models, also known as correlation matrix memories, naturally support a graph representation of the stored semantic structure. We demonstrate that the adjacency matrix of this graph of associations is just the memory coded with the standard basis of the concept vector space, and that the spectrum of the graph is a code invariant of the memory. As long as the assumptions of the model remain valid this result provides a practical method to predict and modify the evolution of the cognitive dynamics. Also, it could provide us with a way to comprehend how individual brains that map the external reality, almost surely with different particular vector representations, are nevertheless able to communicate and share a common knowledge of the world. We finish presenting adaptive association graphs, an extension of the model that makes use of the tensor product, which provides a solution to the known problem of branching in semantic nets.

Pomi, Andrés; Mizraji, Eduardo

2004-12-01

335

Early Adolescence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of graphing skills in the science classroom is described, including prerequisite knowledge, bar graphs and histograms, line graphs, and interpreting line graphs. Graphing skills are utilized as a reinforcement for process skills activities such as data collection and data interpretation. (DS)

Padilla, Michael J.; McKenzie, Danny L.

1981-01-01

336

Multigraph: Reusable Interactive Data Graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are surprisingly few good software tools available for presenting time series data on the internet. The most common practice is to use a desktop program such as Excel or Matlab to save a graph as an image which can be included in a web page like any other image. This disconnects the graph from the data in a way that makes updating a graph with new data a cumbersome manual process, and it limits the user to one particular view of the data. The Multigraph project defines an XML format for describing interactive data graphs, and software tools for creating and rendering those graphs in web pages and other internet connected applications. Viewing a Multigraph graph is extremely simple and intuitive, and requires no instructions; the user can pan and zoom by clicking and dragging, in a familiar "Google Maps" kind of way. Creating a new graph for inclusion in a web page involves writing a simple XML configuration file. Multigraph can read data in a variety of formats, and can display data from a web service, allowing users to "surf" through large data sets, downloading only those the parts of the data that are needed for display. The Multigraph XML format, or "MUGL" for short, provides a concise description of the visual properties of a graph, such as axes, plot styles, data sources, labels, etc, as well as interactivity properties such as how and whether the user can pan or zoom along each axis. Multigraph reads a file in this format, draws the described graph, and allows the user to interact with it. Multigraph software currently includes a Flash application for embedding graphs in web pages, a Flex component for embedding graphs in larger Flex/Flash applications, and a plugin for creating graphs in the WordPress content management system. Plans for the future include a Java version for desktop viewing and editing, a command line version for batch and server side rendering, and possibly Android and iPhone versions. Multigraph is currently in use on several web sites including the US Drought Portal (www.drought.gov), the NOAA Climate Services Portal (www.climate.gov), the Climate Reference Network (www.ncdc.noaa.gov/crn), NCDC's State of the Climate Report (www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc), and the US Forest Service's Forest Change Assessment Viewer (ews.forestthreats.org/NPDE/NPDE.html). More information about Multigraph is available from the web site www.multigraph.org. Interactive Multigraph Display of Real Time Weather Data

Phillips, M. B.

2010-12-01

337

Pointed drawings of planar graphs?  

PubMed Central

We study the problem how to draw a planar graph crossing-free such that every vertex is incident to an angle greater than ?. In general a plane straight-line drawing cannot guarantee this property. We present algorithms which construct such drawings with either tangent-continuous biarcs or quadratic Bézier curves (parabolic arcs), even if the positions of the vertices are predefined by a given plane straight-line drawing of the graph. Moreover, the graph can be drawn with circular arcs if the vertices can be placed arbitrarily. The topic is related to non-crossing drawings of multigraphs and vertex labeling.

Aichholzer, Oswin; Rote, Gunter; Schulz, Andre; Vogtenhuber, Birgit

2012-01-01

338

CSERD Interactivate: Bar Graph Lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation-based lesson for grades 5-9 provides hands-on practice in exploring bar graphs using authentic information. It features an interactive Java graphing applet to create and read bar graphs. Students can work within parameters provided in the applet or input their own data sets. This resource includes a complete lesson plan, teaching tips, and alignment to NCTM standards. This resource is part of CSERD (Computational Science Education Reference Desk), a portal of the National Science Digital Library. The Interactivate collection contains more than 200 standards-based activities, many of which have been classroom tested.

2011-03-01

339

A LEGO® Introduction to Graphing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use a LEGO® ball shooter to demonstrate and analyze the motion of a projectile through use of a line graph. This activity involves using a method of data organization and trend observation with respect to dynamic experimentation with a complex machine. Also, the topic of line data graphing is covered. The main objective is to introduce students graphs in terms of observing and demonstrating their usefulness in scientific and engineering inquiries. During the activity, students point out trends in the data and the overall relationship that can be deduced from plotting data derived from test trials with the ball shooter.

Applying Mechatronics to Promote Science (AMPS) Program GK-12,

340

A Focus and Constraint-Based Genetic Algorithm for Interactive Directed Graph Drawing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a user-driven genetic algorithm for directed graph drawing. An interactive framework is considered where users can focus the algorithm on regions of the drawing that need major improvement, or include domain knowledge as layout constraints. The paper describes how focus and user constraints are managed by the genetic algorithm. The combination of user's skills with automatic tools

Hugo A. D. Do Nascimento; Peter Eades

2002-01-01

341

Metrized graphs, electrical networks, and Fourier analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A metrized graph is a finite weighted graph whose edges are thought of as line segments. In this expository paper, we study the Laplacian operator on a metrized graph and some important functions related to it, including the ``j-function'', the effective resistance, and eigenfunctions of the Laplacian. We discuss the relationship between metrized graphs and electrical networks, which provides some

Matthew Baker; Xander Faber

2004-01-01

342

Shortest-Path Kernels on Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data mining algorithms are facing the challenge to deal with an increasing number of complex objects. For graph data, a whole toolbox of data mining algorithms becomes available by defining a kernel function on instances of graphs. Graph kernels based on walks, subtrees and cycles in graphs have been proposed so far. As a general problem, these kernels are either

Karsten M. Borgwardt; Hans-peter Kriegel

2005-01-01

343

Some Graphs Containing Unique Hamiltonian Cycles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, two classes of graphs of arbitrary order are described which contain unique Hamiltonian cycles. All the graphs have mean vertex degree greater than one quarter the order of the graph. The Hamiltonian cycles are detailed, their uniqueness proved and simple rules for the construction of the adjacency matrix of the graphs are given.…

Lynch, Mark A. M.

2002-01-01

344

Symmetric drawings of triconnected planar graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symmetry is one of the most important aesthetic criteria in graph drawing because it reveals structure in the graph. To draw graphs symmetrically, we need two steps. The first step is to find appropriate automorphisms. The second step is to draw the graph to display the automorphisms. Our aim in this paper is to construct maximally symmetric straight-line drawings of

Seok-Hee Hong; Brendan D. McKay; Peter Eades

2002-01-01

345

Plan Recognition through Goal Graph Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel approach to plan recognition based on a two-stage paradigm of graph construction and analysis. First, a graph structure called a Goal Graph is constructed to represent the observed actions, the state of the world, and the achieved goals as well various connections between these nodes at consecutive time steps. Then, the Goal Graph is analysed at

Jun Hong

2000-01-01

346

Accelerating CUDA graph algorithms at maximum warp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graphs are powerful data representations favored in many computational domains. Modern GPUs have recently shown promising results in accelerating computationally challenging graph problems but their performance suffered heavily when the graph structure is highly irregular, as most real-world graphs tend to be. In this study, we first observe that the poor performance is caused by work imbalance and is an

Sungpack Hong; Sang Kyun Kim; Tayo Oguntebi; Kunle Olukotun

2011-01-01

347

Graphing Calculator by Desmos.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fluid, intuitive graphing calculator, compatible with Chrome browsers, makes graphing complex equations a snap. It includes all the functions of the large, rectangular model many high-school students are familiar with and produces easy-to read graphs with marked intercepts. Users can use the program to plot multiple graphs on top of one another, making this a great teaching tool.

2013-01-10

348

Thickness of Bar 1Visibility Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bar k-visibility graphs are graphs admitting a representation in which the vertices correspond to horizontal line segments, called bars, and the edges correspond to vertical lines of sight which can traverse up to k bars. These graphs were introduced by Dean et al. (3) who conjec- tured that bar 1-visibility graphs have thickness at most 2. We construct a bar

Stefan Felsner; Mareike Massow

2006-01-01

349

Parameters of Bar k-Visibility Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bar k-visibility graphs are graphs admitting a representation in which the vertices correspond to horizontal line segments, called bars, and the edges correspond to vertical lines of sight which can traverse up to k bars. These graphs were introduced by Dean et al. (4) who conjectured that bar 1-visibility graphs have thickness at most 2. We construct a bar 1-visibility

Stefan Felsner; Mareike Massow

2008-01-01

350

Evaluating text descriptions of mathematical graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

One approach to making graphs more accessible has been the incorporation of natural language descriptions of graphs into multimodal assistive technologies. MathTrax is software targeted at middle and high school students that employs a Math Description Engine (MDE) [1] to produce a textual description of graphs, as well as a visual and auditory representation of the graphs. Our study compared

Yarden Moskovitch; Bruce N. Walker

2010-01-01

351

Social Skills Intervention Guide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social skills training procedures that can be used in a group format are described. These procedures are contained in the Social Skills Intervention Guide (Elliott & Gresham, 1991) which is a systematic approach to teaching social skills to children between the ages of 6 and 16 years. A system for classifying social skills deficits based on acquisition performance deficits and

Frank M. Gresham; Stephen N. Elliott

1993-01-01

352

Discovery Algebra: Graphing Linear Equations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes one teacher's effort to change the classroom environment in order to create student-directed exploratory learning. Presents a lesson in which students use the computer program Lesson Graph to study the effects of coefficients on linear equations. (ASK)

Thomas, David A.; Thomas, Rex A.

1999-01-01

353

Ising spins on thin graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ising model on "thin" graphs (standard Feynman diagrams) displays several interesting properties. For ferromagnetic couplings there is a mean-field phase transition at the corresponding Bethe-lattice transition point. For antiferromagnetic couplings the replica trick gives some evidence for a spin-glass phase. In this paper we investigate both the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic models with the aid of simulations. We confirm the Bethe-lattice values of the critical points for the ferromagnetic model on ?3 and ?4 graphs and examine the putative spin-glass phase in the antiferromagnetic model by looking at the overlap between replicas in a quenched ensemble of graphs. We also compare the Ising results with those for higher-state Potts models and Ising models on "fat" graphs, such as those used in 2D gravity simulations.

Baillie, C. F.; Johnston, D. A.; Kownacki, J. P.

1994-12-01

354

Pacific Temperature Anomalies with Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the El Nino-La Nina Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly from January 1997 through July 1999. A graph inset shows the global average sea surface temperature fluctuation during this time period.

Shirah, Greg; Bridgman, Tom; Starr, Cindy; Busalacchi, Antonio; Schultz, Peter

2003-08-30

355

Stacked graphs--geometry & aesthetics.  

PubMed

In February 2008, the New York Times published an unusual chart of box office revenues for 7500 movies over 21 years. The chart was based on a similar visualization, developed by the first author, that displayed trends in music listening. This paper describes the design decisions and algorithms behind these graphics, and discusses the reaction on the Web. We suggest that this type of complex layered graph is effective for displaying large data sets to a mass audience. We provide a mathematical analysis of how this layered graph relates to traditional stacked graphs and to techniques such as ThemeRiver, showing how each method is optimizing a different "energy function". Finally, we discuss techniques for coloring and ordering the layers of such graphs. Throughout the paper, we emphasize the interplay between considerations of aesthetics and legibility. PMID:18988970

Byron, Lee; Wattenberg, Martin

2008-01-01

356

Charts and Graphs for BCPT  

Cancer.gov

Charts and Graphs for BCPT National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT) Cumulative Rates of Breast Cancers Tamoxifen Reduced Invasive Breast Cancer in All Age Groups Events Among BCPT Participants BCPT

357

An Interactive Graph Theory System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper describes an interactive graphics system for solving graph theoretic problems. The system is implemented on a remote graphics terminal with processing power connected by voice-grade telephone line to a central computer. The potential of using th...

M. S. Wolfberg

1970-01-01

358

Regular graphs with four eigenvalues  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the connected regular graphs with four distinct eigenvalues. Properties and feasibility conditions of the eigenvalues are found. Several examples, constructions and characterizations are given, as well as some uniqueness and nonexistence results.

Edwin R. van Dam

1995-01-01

359

Regular graphs with four eigenvalues  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the connected regular graphs with four distinct eigenvalues. Properties and feasibility conditions of the eigenvalues are found. Several examples, constructions and characterizations are given, as well as some uniqueness and nonexistence results.

E. R. van Dam

1994-01-01

360

Multibody graph transformations and analysis  

PubMed Central

This two-part paper uses graph transformation methods to develop methods for partitioning, aggregating, and constraint embedding for multibody systems. This first part focuses on tree-topology systems and reviews the key notion of spatial kernel operator (SKO) models for such systems. It develops systematic and rigorous techniques for partitioning SKO models in terms of the SKO models of the component subsystems based on the path-induced property of the component subgraphs. It shows that the sparsity structure of key matrix operators and the mass matrix for the multibody system can be described using partitioning transformations. Subsequently, the notions of node contractions and subgraph aggregation and their role in coarsening graphs are discussed. It is shown that the tree property of a graph is preserved after subgraph aggregation if and only if the subgraph satisfies an aggregation condition. These graph theory ideas are used to develop SKO models for the aggregated tree multibody systems.

2013-01-01

361

Simple and Efficient Graph Compression Schemes for Dense and Complement Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present two graph compression schemes for solving problems on dense graphs and complement graphs. They compress a graph or its complement graph into two kinds of succinct representations based on adjacency intervals and adjacency integers, respectively. These two schemes complement each other for different ranges of density. Using these schemes, we develop optimal or near optimal

Ming-yang Kao; Shang-hua Teng

1994-01-01

362

Asteroidal Triple-Free Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

An independent set of three vertices such that each pair is joined by a path that avoids the neighborhood of the third is called an asteroidal triple. A graph is asteroidal triple-free (AT-free) if it contains no asteroidal triples. The motivation for this investigation was provided, in part, by the fact that the AT-free graphs provide a common generalization of

Derek G. Corneil; Stephan Olariu; Lorna Stewart

1997-01-01

363

Visualizing graphs with Krylov subspaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visualizing large graphs is a difficult problem, and requires balancing of the need to express global structure and the need to preserve local detail. The commute-time embedding is an attractive choice for providing a geometric embedding for graph vertices, but is high-dimensional. Dimension reduc- tion of the commute-time embedding may be accomplished with Krylov subspace methods, which can preserve local

Alex Breuer

2011-01-01

364

Pursuit Evasion Games n Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Two players, Red and Blue, each independently choose a vertex of a connected,graph,G. Red must,then pay Blue an amount,equal to the distance between the vertices chosen. In this note, we investigate the value v(G) of this pursuit-evasion game for various classes of graphs G, as well as those optimal mixed,strategies for achieving v(G). It is shown that some rather

F. R. K. Chung; Joel E. Cohen; R. L. Graham

365

Psych-Aetiology Graph (PAG)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will introduce the 'Psych-Aetiology Graph', PAG for short. The concept of PAG is devised by the author as a way of conceptualising\\/formalising\\/summarising the client's condition. The term 'Psych-Aetiology' is used to encompass all the Bio-Psycho-Social factors contributing to the client's presenting condition. Also, the graph has no arithmetic value and is not based on any particular measurements or

Saoud Al Mualla

2009-01-01

366

Graph Mutual Reinforcement Based Bootstrapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a new bootstrapping method based on Graph Mutual Reinforcement (GMR-Bootstrapping) to learn semantic\\u000a lexicons. The novelties of this work include 1) We integrate Graph Mutual Reinforcement method with the Bootstrapping structure\\u000a to sort the candidate words and patterns; 2) Pattern’s uncertainty is defined and used to enhance GMR-Bootstrapping to learn\\u000a multiple categories simultaneously. Experimental results

Qi Zhang; Yaqian Zhou; Xuanjing Huang; Lide Wu

2008-01-01

367

Dynamically Maintaining the Visibility Graph  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm is presented to maintain the visibility graph of a set of N line segments in the plane in O(log2N+K log N) time, where K is the total number of arcs of the visibility graph that are destroyed or created upon insertion or deletion of a line segment. The line segments should be disjoint, except possibly at their end-points.

Gert Vegter

1991-01-01

368

Fully Dynamic Biconnectivity in Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an algorithm for maintaining the biconnected components of a graph during a sequence of edge insertions and deletions. It requires linear storage and preprocessing time. The amortized running time for insertions and for deletions isO(m2\\/3), wherem is the number of edges in the graph. Any query of the form ‘Are the verticesu andv biconnected?’ can be answered in

Monika Rauch Henzinger

1995-01-01

369

Fully Dynamic Biconnectivity in Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author presents an algorithm for maintaining the bi-connected components of a graph during a sequence of edge insertions and deletions. It requires linear storage and preprocessing time. The amortized running time for insertions and for deletions is O(m2\\/3 ), where m is the number of edges in the graph. Each query of the form `Are the vertices u and

Monika Rauch

1992-01-01

370

Graph norms and Sidorenko's conjecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let $H$ and $G$ be two finite graphs. Define $h_H(G)$ to be the number of homomorphisms from $H$ to $G$. The function $h_H(\\\\cdot)$ extends in a natural way to a function from the set of symmetric matrices to $\\\\mathbb{R}$ such that for $A_G$, the adjacency matrix of a graph $G$, we have $h_H(A_G)=h_H(G)$. Let $m$ be the number of edges

Hamed Hatami

2008-01-01

371

Computing Ext for graph algebras  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a row-finite graph G with no sinks and in which every loop has an exit, we construct an isomorphism between Ext(C*(G)) and coker(A-I), where A is the vertex matrix of G. If c is the class in Ext(C*(G)) associated to a graph obtained by attaching a sink to G, then this isomorphism maps c to the class of a

Mark Tomforde

2001-01-01

372

Finding One Variable Statistics With a Graphing Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This quick YouTube video from high school statistics teacher Roger W. Davis explains how to find one variable statistics using the TI-84 graphing calculator. The demonstration goes through three steps: entering the data, finding one variable statistics using the STAT menu, and interpreting the results. The data created includes mean, sum, median and more. Flash player is required to view this video, and the running time for the clip is 3:12.

Davis, Roger W.

2009-02-12

373

High-level fusion based on conceptual graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of studies in the field of information fusion focus on the production of high-level information from low-level data. The challenge is then to fuse this high-level information to produce a global and coherent information. Another approach consists in interpreting data as high-level information and fuse it at once. Our approach relies on the use of conceptual graphs model. The

Claire Laudy; Jean-Gabriel Ganascia; Célestin Sedogbo

2007-01-01

374

Social Skills, Social Research Skills, Sociological Skills: Teaching Reflexivity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that training in social research methods is a central part of sociology education. Maintains that, while social and communication skills are managerially and epistemologically important to successful research, they often are ignored. Argues for the inclusion of these skills in research methods courses. (CFR)

Jenkins, Richard

1995-01-01

375

Khovanov homology of graph-links  

SciTech Connect

Graph-links arise as the intersection graphs of turning chord diagrams of links. Speaking informally, graph-links provide a combinatorial description of links up to mutations. Many link invariants can be reformulated in the language of graph-links. Khovanov homology, a well-known and useful knot invariant, is defined for graph-links in this paper (in the case of the ground field of characteristic two). Bibliography: 14 titles.

Nikonov, Igor M [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2012-08-31

376

Visibility Graph Analysis of Geophysical Time Series - Potentials and Possible Pitfalls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, complex network approaches to time series analysis have been developed and successfully applied to geophysical records. In this paper, the visibility graph approach is re-considered, which has been found useful as an alternative tool for describing the fractal properties of a time series. The interpretation of various graph-theoretical measures in the context of visibility graphs, their mutual interdependence, and their sensitivity in the presence of missing values and uncertainties (posing typical challenges in geophysical time series analysis) are thoroughly discussed. The obtained results are illustrated for some exemplary re-cords from different fields of geosciences.

Donner, R. V.; Donges, J. F.

2012-04-01

377

Visibility graph analysis of geophysical time series: Potentials and possible pitfalls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, complex network approaches to time series analysis have been developed and successfully applied to geophysical records. In this paper, the visibility graph approach is re-considered, which has been found useful as an alternative tool for describing the fractal properties of a time series. The interpretation of various graph-theoretical measures in the context of visibility graphs, their mutual interdependence, and their sensitivity in the presence of missing values and uncertainties (posing typical challenges in geophysical time series analysis) are thoroughly discussed. The obtained results are illustrated for some exemplary records from different fields of geosciences.

Donner, Reik V.; Donges, Jonathan F.

2012-06-01

378

A comparison of auditory and visual graphs for use in physics and mathematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to interpret graphical information is a prime concern in physics as graphs are widely used to give quick summaries of data sets, for pattern recognition, and for analysis of information. While visual graphs have been developed so that their content can be readily and concisely discerned, there is great difficulty when someone is unable, because of their environment or due to physical handicaps, to view graphs. An alternative to the visual graph is the auditory graph. An auditory graph uses sound rather than pictures to transmit information. This study shows that useful auditory graphs of single valued x-y data were constructed by mapping the y axis to pitch, the x axis to time, and by including drum beats to mark first and second derivative information. Further audio enhancement was used to indicate negative data values. The study used a World Wide Web based test consisting of a series of math and physics questions. Each question was based on a graph and had multiple-choice answers. The test instrument was refined through a series of pilot tests. The main study compared the results of over 200 introductory physics students at Oregon State University, as well as other selected subjects. A computer program randomly assigned subjects to one of three groups. Each group was presented with the same test but had a different graph presentation method. The presentation methods were: only visual graphs, only auditory graphs, or both auditory and visual graphs. This study shows that students with very little training can use auditory graphs to answer analytical and identification type questions. Student performance for the group using only auditory graphs is 70% of the level attained by subjects using visually presented graphs. In addition, five blind subjects from remote locations participated in this test. Their performance level exceeded that of the first-year physics students. This work also displays the results from a pilot study of various auditory preference choices. Elements of this test may be useful for future auditory graph research and development.

Sahyun, Steven Carl

379

Sharing Teaching Ideas: Graphing Families of Curves Using Transformations of Reference Graphs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides for a fast extremely accurate approach to graphing functions that is based on learning function reference graphs and then applying algebraic transformations to these reference graphs.

Kukla, David

2007-01-01

380

Predictors of employer satisfaction: technical and non-technical skills.  

PubMed

Employers of 2007-2009 graduates from Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine were asked to respond to a survey regarding their overall satisfaction with their new employees as well as their new employees' preparation in several technical and non-technical skill areas. Seventy-five responses contained complete data and were used in the analysis. Four technical skill areas (data collection, data interpretation, planning, and taking action) and five non-technical skill areas (interpersonal skills, ability to deal with legal issues, business skills, making referrals, and problem solving) were identified. All of the skill area subscales listed above had appropriate reliability (Cronbach's alpha>0.70) and were positively and significantly correlated with overall employer satisfaction. Results of two simultaneous regression analyses indicated that of the four technical skill areas, taking action is the most salient predictor of employer satisfaction. Of the five non-technical skill areas, interpersonal skills, business skills, making referrals, and problem solving were the most important skills in predicting employer satisfaction. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that all technical skills explained 25% of the variation in employer satisfaction; non-technical skills explained an additional 42% of the variation in employer satisfaction. PMID:22433741

Danielson, Jared A; Wu, Tsui-Feng; Fales-Williams, Amanda J; Kirk, Ryan A; Preast, Vanessa A

2012-01-01

381

Interpreter's Interpretation: Sign Language Interpreters' View of Musculoskeletal Disorders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sign language interpreters are at increased risk for musculoskeletal disorders. This study used content analysis to obtain detailed information about these disorders from the interpreters' point of view. Risk factors for the initiation and/or exacerbation...

W. L. Johnson

2003-01-01

382

A representation for dynamic graphs in reconfigurable hardware and its application to fundamental graph algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a representation for graph data structures as electronic circuits in reconfigurable hardware. Graph properties, such as vertex reachability, are computed quickly by exploiting a graph's edge parallelism—signals propagate along many graph edges concurrently. This new representation admits arbitrary graphs in which vertices\\/edges may be inserted and deleted dynamically at low cost—graph modification does not entail any re-fitting

Lorenz Huelsbergen

2000-01-01

383

Assessing the Interpretation Competencies of Ecotour Guides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The job knowledge and performance of 23 Australian ecotour guides were systematically observed and compared with client satisfaction ratings. Client satisfaction was quite high, and evaluators gave the guides high scores on content and knowledge. However, scores were lower on certain aspects of communication and interpretive skills and were poor…

Weiler, Betty

1999-01-01

384

Straight-Line Drawing Algorithms for Hierarchical Graphs and Clustered Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hierarchical graphs and clustered graphs are useful non-classical graph models for structured relational information. Hierarchical\\u000a graphs are\\u000a graphs with layering structures; clustered graphs are graphs with\\u000a recursive clustering structures. Both have applications in CASE tools, software visualization and VLSI design. Drawing algorithms\\u000a for hierarchical\\u000a graphs have been well investigated. However, the problem of planar straight-line representation has not been solved

Peter Eades; Qing-wen Feng; Xuemin Lin; Hiroshi Nagamochi

2006-01-01

385

Using Dialogues to Develop Critical Thinking Skills: A Practical Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a two-step approach that uses classroom dialogs to guide students in developing and applying critical-thinking skills. Describes how students evaluate written dialogs for biases, evidence, interpretations, and errors in reasoning, then take part in discussion as role players, analyzing errors in thinking, identifying reasoning skills,…

Robertson, Julie Fisher; Rane-Szostak, Donna

1996-01-01

386

Science Skills: The Building Blocks for Scientific Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the place of science process skills in a quality science program. Introduces activities for the basic and integrated science skills that will lead to an understanding of the basic element of scientific literacy. Describes definitions, activities, and assessment techniques for developing interpreting data, controlling variables,…

Colvill, Marj; Pattie, Ian

2003-01-01

387

Ecologies of Outdoor Skill: An Education of Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants' performances of outdoor skills and leadership are interpreted for environmental learning using Ingold's (2000) notion of an "education of attention": the fine-tuning of their perception. The actual tasks and activities of adventure travel have until recently gone largely unquestioned; but the relationship between skills and…

Mullins, Philip M.

2011-01-01

388

The $C^*$-Algebras of Arbitrary Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

To an arbitrary directed graph we associate a row-finite directed graph whose\\u000aC*-algebra contains the C*-algebra of the original graph as a full corner. This\\u000aallows us to generalize results for C*-algebras of row-finite graphs to\\u000aC*-algebras of arbitrary graphs: the uniqueness theorem, simplicity criteria,\\u000adescriptions of the ideals and primitive ideal space, and conditions under\\u000awhich a graph algebra

D. Drinen; M. Tomforde

2005-01-01

389

Early Reading Skills  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Skills HealthDay March 5, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Page Infant and Newborn Development Transcript Armed with an arsenal ... Educational Psychology tracked reading skills among 117 healthy infants between 10 and 18 months old. For 7 ...

390

Graph Analytics for Signature Discovery  

SciTech Connect

Within large amounts of seemingly unstructured data it can be diffcult to find signatures of events. In our work we transform unstructured data into a graph representation. By doing this we expose underlying structure in the data and can take advantage of existing graph analytics capabilities, as well as develop new capabilities. Currently we focus on applications in cybersecurity and communication domains. Within cybersecurity we aim to find signatures for perpetrators using the pass-the-hash attack, and in communications we look for emails or phone calls going up or down a chain of command. In both of these areas, and in many others, the signature we look for is a path with certain temporal properties. In this paper we discuss our methodology for finding these temporal paths within large graphs.

Hogan, Emilie A.; Johnson, John R.; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Lo, Chaomei

2013-06-01

391

Optimal preparation of graph states  

SciTech Connect

We show how to prepare any graph state of up to 12 qubits with (a) the minimum number of controlled-Z gates and (b) the minimum preparation depth. We assume only one-qubit and controlled-Z gates. The method exploits the fact that any graph state belongs to an equivalence class under local Clifford operations. We extend up to 12 qubits the classification of graph states according to their entanglement properties, and identify each class using only a reduced set of invariants. For any state, we provide a circuit with both properties (a) and (b), if it does exist, or, if it does not, one circuit with property (a) and one with property (b), including the explicit one-qubit gates needed.

Cabello, Adan; Lopez-Tarrida, Antonio J. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41012 Sevilla (Spain); Danielsen, Lars Eirik [Department of Informatics, University of Bergen, P.O. Box 7803, Bergen N-5020 (Norway); Portillo, Jose R. [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada I, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41012 Sevilla (Spain)

2011-04-15

392

Quantum snake walk on graphs  

SciTech Connect

I introduce a continuous-time quantum walk on graphs called the quantum snake walk, the basis states of which are fixed-length paths (snakes) in the underlying graph. First, I analyze the quantum snake walk on the line, and I show that, even though most states stay localized throughout the evolution, there are specific states that most likely move on the line as wave packets with momentum inversely proportional to the length of the snake. Next, I discuss how an algorithm based on the quantum snake walk might potentially be able to solve an extended version of the glued trees problem, which asks to find a path connecting both roots of the glued trees graph. To the best of my knowledge, no efficient quantum algorithm solving this problem is known yet.

Rosmanis, Ansis [David R. Cheriton School of Computer Science and Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, West Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

2011-02-15

393

Subgraph fluctuations in random graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pattern of over- and under-representations of three-node subgraphs has become a standard method of characterizing complex networks and evaluating how this intermediate level of organization contributes to network function. Understanding statistical properties of subgraph counts in random graphs, their fluctuations, and their interdependences with other topological attributes is an important prerequisite for such investigations. Here we introduce a formalism for predicting subgraph fluctuations induced by perturbations of unidirectional and bidirectional edge densities. On this basis we predict the over- and under-representation of subgraphs arising from a density mismatch between a network and the corresponding pool of randomized graphs serving as a null model. Such mismatches occur, for example, in modular and hierarchical graphs.

Fretter, Christoph; Müller-Hannemann, Matthias; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten

2012-05-01

394

Consensus on de Bruijn graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the consensus dynamics with or without time-delays on directed and undirected de Bruijn graphs. Our results show that consensus on an undirected de Bruijn graph has a lower converging speed and larger time-delay tolerance in comparison with that on an undirected scale-free network. Although there is not much difference between the eigenvalue ratios of the two undirected networks, we found that their dynamical properties are remarkably different; consequently, it is seemingly more informative to consider the second smallest and the largest eigenvalues separately rather than considering their ratio in the study of synchronization of a coupled oscillators network. Moreover, our study on directed de Bruijn graphs reveals that properly setting directions on edges can improve the converging speed and time-delay tolerance simultaneously.

Yan, G.; Fu, Z.-Q.; Chen, G.

2008-06-01

395

Social Skills Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The term “social skills” encompasses an array of learned behaviors that share the common goal of maintaining or increasing\\u000a reinforcement within a social context. Deficits in social skills can occur at any developmental period and are not likely\\u000a to improve spontaneously because impaired social skills impede interactions with other people. In turn, unsatisfying or disruptive\\u000a interactions exacerbate social skill deficits

Ashley J. Smith; Judith A. Jordan; Mary Fran Flood; David J. Hansen

396

Manufacturing Engineering Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Manufacturing Engineering Skills provides an assessment of what the key manufacturing skills along with skill gaps are in the marketplace. Joe Loughrey is president and chief operating officer of Cummins Inc. and chairman of The Manufacturing Institute, the research and education arm of the National Association of Manufacturers. Additionally, Manufacturing Engineering Skills was shared by Mike Mohlar and by Roger Lang at an SME mfg executive roundtable in 2005 to provide clarity and encouragement about careers in manufacturing.

Loughrey, Joe

2009-08-03

397

Graph run-length matrices for histopathological image segmentation.  

PubMed

The histopathological examination of tissue specimens is essential for cancer diagnosis and grading. However, this examination is subject to a considerable amount of observer variability as it mainly relies on visual interpretation of pathologists. To alleviate this problem, it is very important to develop computational quantitative tools, for which image segmentation constitutes the core step. In this paper, we introduce an effective and robust algorithm for the segmentation of histopathological tissue images. This algorithm incorporates the background knowledge of the tissue organization into segmentation. For this purpose, it quantifies spatial relations of cytological tissue components by constructing a graph and uses this graph to define new texture features for image segmentation. This new texture definition makes use of the idea of gray-level run-length matrices. However, it considers the runs of cytological components on a graph to form a matrix, instead of considering the runs of pixel intensities. Working with colon tissue images, our experiments demonstrate that the texture features extracted from "graph run-length matrices" lead to high segmentation accuracies, also providing a reasonable number of segmented regions. Compared with four other segmentation algorithms, the results show that the proposed algorithm is more effective in histopathological image segmentation. PMID:21097378

Tosun, Akif Burak; Gunduz-Demir, Cigdem

2011-03-01

398

Examining student ability to interpret and use potential energy diagrams for classical systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Physics Education Group at the University of Washington is examining the extent to which students are able to use graphs of potential energy vs. position to infer kinematic and dynamic quantities for a system. The findings indicate that many students have difficulty in relating the graphs to real-world systems. Some problems seem to be graphical in nature (e.g., interpreting graphs of potential energy vs. position as graphs of position vs. time). Others involve relating the graphs to total, kinetic, and potential energies, especially when the potential energy is negative. The results have implications beyond the introductory level since graphs of potential energy are used in advanced courses on classical and quantum mechanics.

Stephanik, Brian M.; Shaffer, Peter S.

2012-05-15

399

Enhancing Employee Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four symposium papers on enhancing employee skills. "The Effect of Study Skills Training Intervention on United States Air Force Aeromedical Apprentices" (John C. Griffith) demonstrates how study skills intervention resulted in a significant increase in the end-of-course scores of a sample of 90 randomly selected Air Force…

1999

400

Winning the Skills Race.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document reports on how key stakeholders in work force preparedness nationwide are responding to pressures of the skills race. Part 1 presents an overview of the skills challenge and the economic and social consequences of failing to meet the challenge. Part 2 examines the impact of the skills shortage on major stakeholders and explains how…

Council on Competitiveness, Washington, DC.

401

Global Skill Shortages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book discusses the causes and impact of global skill shortages, focusing on data from skill shortages measured in the period 1995-1998 in 19 developed and emerging economies. Chapter one contains a brief introduction. Chapter two is a review of theoretical literature on skill shortages, including static and dynamic shortages, efficiency wage…

Cohen, Malcolm S.; Zaidi, Mahmood A.

402

Midlet Navigation Graphs in JML  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of the EU project Mobius on Proof Carrying Code for Java programs (midlets) on mobile devices, we present a way to express midlet navigation graphs in JML. Such navigation graphs express certain security policies for a midlet. The resulting JML specifications can be automatically checked with the static checker ESC/Java2. Our work was guided by a realistically sized case study developed as demonstrator in the project. We discuss practical difficulties with creating efficient and meaningful JML specifications for automatic verification with a lightweight verification tool such as ESC/Java2, and the potential use of these specifications for PCC.

Mostowski, Wojciech; Poll, Erik

403

Dynamic Graph Drawing of Sequences of Orthogonal and Hierarchical Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce two novel algorithms for draw- ing sequences of orthogonal and hierarchical graphs while preserving the mental map. Both algorithms can be parameterized to trade layout qual- ity for dynamic stability. In particular, we had to develop new metrics which work upon the intermediate results of layout phases. We discuss some properties of the resulting animations

Carsten Görg; Peter Birke; Mathias Pohl; Stephan Diehl

2004-01-01

404

A Local Graph Clustering Algorithm for Discovering Subgoals in Reinforcement Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reinforcement Learning studies the problem of learning through interaction with the unknown environment. Learning efficiently in large scale problems and complex tasks demands a decomposition of the original complex task to simple and smaller subtasks. In this paper a local graph clustering algorithm is represented for discovering subgoals. The main advantage of the proposed algorithm is that only the local information of the graph is considered to cluster the agent state space. Subgoals discovered by the algorithm are then used to generate skills. Experimental results show that the proposed subgoal discovery algorithm has a dramatic effect on the learning performance.

Entezari, Negin; Shiri, Mohammad Ebrahim; Moradi, Parham

405

One Dimensional Motion: Position versus Time Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the following exercises, the graph drawn is of position versus time. The animation shows the position of a puck as time progresses. Note the position of the puck at various times and compare the animation to the graph.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2008-02-19

406

Graphing Stories: Fifteen seconds at a time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of one-minute videos depicts scenarios with measurements that can be graphed over a time scale of zero to 15 seconds. Eight different types of graphs are represented. A pdf file of grids is provided.

Meyer, Dan; Buzzmath

2013-01-01

407

Relative neighborhood graphs and their relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of neighborhood graphs are surveyed. Properties, bounds on the size, algorithms, and variants of the neighborhood graphs are discussed. Numerous applications including computational morphology, spatial analysis, pattern classification, and databases for computer vision are described

JERZY W. JAROMCZYK; GODFRIED T. TOUSSAINT

1992-01-01

408

Standard Distributions: One Graph Fits All  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standard distributions are ubiquitous but not unique. With suitable scaling, the graph of a standard distribution serves as the graph for every distribution in the family. The standard exponential can easily be taught in elementary statistics courses.

Wagner, Clifford H.

2007-01-01

409

Seabirds and Shorebirds Maps and Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of maps and graphs provides information on the locations of breeding colonies, distributions of biomass, seasonal species density, and deposition graphs for seabird and shorebird species of the central California coast.

410

JUNG - Java Universal Network/Graph Framework  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

JUNG ??? the Java Universal Network/Graph Framework--is a software library that provides a common and extensive language for the modeling, analysis, and visualization of data that can be represented as a graph or network.

Joshua O'Madadhain, Danyel Fisher, and Scott White.

411

Upward Numbering Testing for Triconnected Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we look at the problem of upward planar drawings of planar graphs whose vertices have preassigned y-coordinates. We give a linear time algorithm for testing whether such an embedding is feasible for triconnected labelled graphs.

M. Chandramouli; A. A. Diwan

1995-01-01

412

Graphs with four distinct Laplacian eigenvalues  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate connected nonregular graphs with four distinct Laplacian eigenvalues. We characterize all such\\u000a graphs which are bipartite or have exactly one multiple Laplacian eigenvalue. Other examples of interest are also presented.

A. Mohammadian; B. Tayfeh-Rezaie

413

Steiner's Problem in Graphs and Its Implications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A graph theoretic version of Steiner's problem in plane geometry is described. An approach for solving the problem, related to Melzak's solution to Steiner's problem, is presented. The problems of finding shortest route and minimal spanning tree in graphs...

S. L. Hakimi

1970-01-01

414

Lake Phosphorus Loading Graphs: An Alternative.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As an alternative to loading graphs, a graph of mean influent phosphorus concentration versus phosphorus retention capacity is proposed to express the relationship between phosphorus supply and hydraulic flow to, and resultant trophic state of, lakes. Lin...

D. P. Larsen H. T. Mercier

1975-01-01

415

Construction of Cycle Double Covers for Certain Classes of Graphs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors introduce two classes of graphs, Indonesian graphs and k-doughnut graphs. Cycle double covers are constructed for these classes. In case of doughnut graphs this is done for the values k = 1,2,3 and 4.

C. Hoede M. Kriesell S. Uttunggadewa

2000-01-01

416

Control by quantum dynamics on graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We address the study of controllability of a closed quantum system whose dynamical Lie algebra is generated by adjacency matrices of graphs. We characterize a large family of graphs that renders a system controllable. The key property is a graph-theoretic feature consisting of a particularly disordered cycle structure. Disregarding efficiency of control functions, but choosing subfamilies of sparse graphs, the results translate into continuous-time quantum walks for universal computation.

Godsil, Chris; Severini, Simone

2010-05-01

417

Almost All Regular Graphs Are Hamiltonian  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous paper the authors showed that almost all labelled cubic graphs are hamiltonian. In the present paper, this result is used to show that almost all r-regular graphs are hamiltonian for any fixed r 3, by an analysis of the distribution of 1-factors in random regular graphs. Moreover, almost all such graphs are r-edge-colourable if they have an

Robert W. Robinson; Nicholas C. Wormald

1994-01-01

418

Quantum graphs: I. Some basic structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantum graph is a graph equipped with a self-adjoint differential or pseudo-differential Hamiltonian. Such graphs have been studied recently in relation to some problems of mathematics, physics and chemistry. The paper has a survey nature and is devoted to the description of some basic notions concerning quantum graphs, including the boundary conditions, self-adjointness, quadratic forms, and relations between quantum

Peter Kuchment

2004-01-01

419

A General Method for Graph Isomorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general method is presented for testing graph isomorphism, which exploits those sufficient conditions that define linear\\u000a orderings on the vertices of the graphs. The method yields simple and constructive, low-order polynomial graph isomorphism\\u000a algorithms for classes of graphs which have a unique ordering, or a small (not necessarily bounded) number of different orderings.\\u000a The general method is instantiated to

Gabriel Valiente

2001-01-01

420

Fast Minor Testing in Planar Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Minor containment is a fundamental problem in Algorithmic Graph Theory, as numerous graph algorithms use it as a subroutine.\\u000a A model of a graph H in a graph G is a set of disjoint connected subgraphs of G indexed by the vertices of H, such that if {u,v} is an edge of H, then there is an edge of G

Isolde Adler; Frederic Dorn; Fedor V. Fomin; Ignasi Sau; Dimitrios M. Thilikos

2010-01-01

421

Rectangle Visibility Graphs: Characterization, Construction, and Compaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-overlapping axis-aligned rectangles in the plane define visibility graphs in which vertices are associated with rectangles\\u000a and edges with visibility in either the horizontal or vertical direction. The recognition problem for such graphs is known\\u000a to be NP-complete. This paper introduces the topological rectangle visibility graph.We give a polynomial time algorithm for recognizing such a graph and for constructing, when

Ileana Streinu; Sue Whitesides

2003-01-01

422

Sequences, Maps, Genomes, and Graphs: Graph Compression Algorithms for Efficiently Comparing Genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We present a novel algorithm for finding repeats in a text. Any text written in a finite alphabet has a representation as a path in the de Bruijn graph. Our graph compression,algorithm (GCA) constructs the adjacency list representation of a di- rected word graph which is equivalent to the original de Bruijn graph and has the minimal number,of vertices.

Steve Goldstein; Adam Briska; Shiguo Zhou; David C. Schwartz

423

Regular Edge Labeling of 4Connected Plane Graphs and Its Applications in Graph Drawing Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we extend the concept of the regular edge labeling for general plane graphs and for triconnected triangulated plane graphs to 4-connected triangulated plane graphs. We present two different linear time algorithms for constructing such a labeling. By using regular edge labeling, we present a new linear time algorithm for constructing rectangular dual of planar graphs. Our algorithm

Goos Kant; Xin He

1997-01-01

424

Graph Classification Using Genetic Algorithm and Graph Probing Application to Symbol Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present in this paper a graph classification approach using genetic algorithm and a fast dissimilarity measure between graphs called graph probing. The approach consists in the learning of a set of synthetic graph prototypes which are used for a 1NN classification step. Some experiments are performed on real data sets, representing 10 symbols. These tests demonstrate the interest to

Eugen Barbu; Romain Raveaux; Hervé Locteau; Sébastien Adam; Pierre Héroux; Éric Trupin

2006-01-01

425

Integral Drawings of Planar Graphs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An integral drawing of a graph G is such a realization of G in the plane that the vertices of G are mapped into distinct points, also called vertices, and the edges of G are mapped into straight line segments of integer length, also called edges, which co...

A. Kemnitz

1991-01-01

426

Situating Graphs as Workplace Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigate the use and knowledge of graphs in the context of a large industrial factory. We are particularly interested in the question of "transparency", a question that has been extensively considered in the general literature on tool use and, more recently, by Michael Roth and his colleagues in the context of scientific work. Roth uses the…

Noss, Richard; Bakker, Arthur; Hoyles, Celia; Kent, Phillip

2007-01-01

427

Interactive Histogram with Error Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet allows the user to construct a histogram by clicking on a number line to generate the sample data. The graph of an error function is shown, either mean square error or mean absolute error.

Siegrist, Kyle

428

Humidity Graphs for All Seasons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a previous article in this journal (Vol. 17, p358, 1979), a wet-bulb depression table was recommended for two simple experiments to determine relative humidity. However, the use of a graph is suggested because it gives the relative humidity directly from the wet and dry bulb readings. (JN)

Esmael, F.

1982-01-01

429

Drawing polytopal graphs with polymake  

Microsoft Academic Search

This note wants to explain how to obtain meaningful pictures of (possibly high-dimensional) convex polytopes, triangulated manifolds, and other objects from the realm of geometric combinatorics such as tight spans of finite metric spaces and tropical polytopes. In all our cases we arrive at specific, geometrically motivated, graph drawing problems. The methods displayed are implemented in the software system polymake.

Ewgenij Gawrilow; Michael Joswig; Thilo Rörig; Nikolaus Witte

2007-01-01

430

Motorcycle graphs and straight skeletons  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new algorithm to compute a motorcycle graph. It runs in O(n?n log n) time when n is the size of the input. We give a new characterization of the straight skeleton of a polygon possibly with holes. For a simple polygon, we show that it yields a randomized algorithm that reduces the straight skeleton computation to a

Siu-Wing Cheng; Antoine Vigneron

2002-01-01

431

Highly connected random geometric graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let P be a Poisson process of intensity one in a square Sn of area n. We construct a random geometric graph Gn,k by joining each point of P to its k nearest neighbours. For many applications it is desirable that Gn,k is highly connected, that is, it remains connected even after the removal of a small number of its

Paul N. Balister; Béla Bollobás; Amites Sarkar; Mark Walters

2009-01-01

432

Angles of planar triangular graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give a characterization of all the planar drawings of a triangular graph through a system of equations and inequalities relating its angles, solving a problem that is explicitly mentioned as open by several authors; we also discuss minimalit y properties of the charact erization. The characterization can be used: (1) to decide in linear time whether a given distribution

Giuseppe Di Battista; Luca Vismara

1993-01-01

433

Constraint Propagation in Graph Coloring  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a method for integrating constraint propagation algorithms into an optimization procedure for vertex coloring with the goal of finding improved lower bounds. The key point we address is how to get instances of Constraint Satisfaction Problems (CSPs) from a graph coloring problem in order to give rise to new lower bounds outperforming the maximum clique

Massimiliano Caramia; Paolo Dell'Olmo

2002-01-01

434

Introduction to Charts and Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is designed to teach students how to use charts and graphs to present data effectively. It features an introduction to the many different types of charts that are available and shows the types of data for which they are appropriate. Students will also learn to recognize misleading and inappropriate charts.

Hunt, Neville; University, Coventry

435

Totally Magic Injections of Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a simple graph G consider an injection µ: V ( E ! N. If for every vertex x 2 V we have µ(x )+ P yx µ(xy )= h, and for every edge xy 2 E we have µ(x )+ µ(xy )+ µ(y )= k, for some constants h and k, then µ is a totally magic injection (TMI)

John P. McSorley

436

Graph kernels for chemical informatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased availability of large repositories of chemical compounds is creating new challenges and opportunities for the application of machine learning methods to problems in computational chemistry and chemical informatics. Because chemical compounds are often represented by the graph of their covalent bonds, machine learning methods in this domain must be capable of processing graphical structures with variable size. Here we

Liva Ralaivola; Sanjay Joshua Swamidass; Hiroto Saigo; Pierre Baldi

2005-01-01

437

Controlling Connectivity of Dynamic Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control of mobile networks of multiple agents raises fundamental and novel problems in controlling the structure of the resulting dynamic graphs. In this paper, we consider the problem of controlling a network of agents so that the resulting motion always preserves various connectivity properties. In particular, we consider preserving k-hop connectivity, where agents are allowed to move while maintaining

Michael M. Zavlanos; George J. Pappas

2005-01-01

438

Graphical fisheye views of graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fisheye lens is a very wide angle lens that shows places nearby in detail while also showing remote regions in successively less detail. This paper describes a system for viewing and browsing planar graphs using a software analog of a fisheye lens. We first show how to implement such a view using solely geometric transformations. We then describe a

Manojit Sarkar; Marc H. Brown

1992-01-01

439

Graphs with maximum connectivity index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let G be a graph and dv the degree (=number of first neighbors) of its vertex v. The connectivity index of G is ?=?(dudv)?1\\/2, with the summation ranging over all pairs of adjacent vertices of G. In a previous paper (Comput. Chem. 23 (1999) 469), by applying a heuristic combinatorial optimization algorithm, the structure of chemical trees possessing extremal (maximum

Gilles Caporossi; Ivan Gutman; Pierre Hansen; Ljiljana Pavlovic

2003-01-01

440

Graph-Constrained Group Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-adaptive group testing involves grouping arbitrary subsets of n items into different pools. Each pool is then tested and defective items are identified. A fundamental question involves minimizing the number of pools required to identify at most d defective items. Motivated by applications in network tomography, sensor networks and infection propagation we formulate group testing problems on graphs. Unlike conventional

Mahdi Cheraghchi; Amin Karbasi; Soheil Mohajer; Venkatesh Saligrama

2010-01-01

441

Graph-Constrained Group Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonadaptive group testing involves grouping arbitrary subsets of $n$ items into different pools. Each pool is then tested and defective items are identified. A fundamental question involves minimizing the number of pools required to identify at most $d$ defective items. Motivated by applications in network tomography, sensor networks and infection propagation, a variation of group testing problems on graphs is

Mahdi Cheraghchi; Amin Karbasi; Soheil Mohajer; Venkatesh Saligrama

2012-01-01

442

Encyclopedia of Sparse Graph Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of Gallager codes for low error tolerance, short block length andhigh rate applications.Sparse graph codes include Gallager codes, Tanner codes, MN codes Repeat--Accumulate codes (RA codes), and turbo codes, all of which have near--Shannonlimit performance.This paper (which is still in preparation) describes empirical properties of a wideselection of these codes, comparing in particular the codes\\

David J. C. Mackay

1999-01-01

443

Least Squares Ranking on Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given a set of alternatives to be ranked, and some pairwise comparison data, ranking is a least squares computation on a graph. The vertices are the alternatives, and the edge values comprise the comparison data. The basic idea is very simple and old: come up with values on vertices such that their differences match the given edge data. Since an

Anil N. Hirani; Kaushik Kalyanaraman; Seth Watts

2010-01-01

444

Teaching and Assessing Graphing Using Active Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a college biology instructor, I often see graphs in lab reports that do not meet my expectations. I also observe that many college students do not always adequately differentiate between good and poor (or misleading) graphs. The activity described in this paper is the result of my work with students to improve their graphing literacy. The…

McFarland, Jenny

2010-01-01

445

Partial least squares regression for graph mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attributed graphs are increasingly more common in many appli- cation domains such as chemistry, biology and text processing. A central issue in graph mining is how to collect informative subgraph patterns for a given learning task. We propose an iterative mining method based on partial least squares regression (PLS). To apply PLS to graph data, a sparse version of PLS

Hiroto Saigo; Nicole Krämer; Koji Tsuda

2008-01-01

446

Enumeration of Cyclic Graphs and Cyclic Designs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The close relationship of cyclic graphs and cyclic designs is pointed out and used in the enumeration of cyclic graphs. An explicit formula is given for graphs with a prime number of vertices and a general constructive method of enumeration is developed. ...

H. A. David

1972-01-01

447

Practical Attack Graph Generation for Network Defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attack graphs are a valuable tool to network defenders, illustrating paths an attacker can use to gain access to a targeted network. Defenders can then focus their efforts on patching the vulnerabilities and configuration errors that allow the attackers the greatest amount of access. We have created a new type of attack graph, themultiple-prerequisite graph, that scales nearly linearly as

Kyle Ingols; Richard Lippmann; Keith Piwowarski

2006-01-01

448

Hamilton-Connectedness of Cayley Graphs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The question of whether or not every connected Cayley graph has a Hamilton cycle is discussed. A result about Cayley graphs in abelian groups is stated. If a graph X has the property that given any two vertices u and v there is a Hamilton path whose end v...

B. Alspach

1992-01-01

449

Randomized Pursuit-Evasion in Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze a randomized pursuit-evasion game on graphs. This game is played by two players, a hunter and a rabbit. Let G be any connected, undi- rected graph with n nodes. The game is played in rounds and in each round both the hunter and the rabbit are located at a node of the graph. Between rounds both the hunter

Micah Adler; Harald Räcke; Naveen Sivadasan; Christian Sohler; Berthold Vöcking

2002-01-01

450

Planarity Testing of Double Periodic Infinite Graphs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This reprint describes an efficient way to test the VAP-free (Vertex Accumulation Point free) planarity of one- and two-dimensional dynamic graphs. Dynamic graphs are infinite graphs consisting of an infinite number of basic cells connected regularly acco...

K. Iwano K. Steiglitz

1988-01-01

451

Drawing Huge Graphs by Algebraic Multigrid Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an extremely fast graph drawing algorithm for very large graphs, which we term ACE (for Algebraic multigrid Computation of Eigenvectors). ACE exhibits a vast improvement over the fastest algorithms we are currently aware of; using a serial PC, it draws graphs of millions of nodes in less than a minute. ACE nds an optimal drawing by minimizing a

Yehuda Koren; Liran Carmel; David Harel

2003-01-01

452

47 CFR 80.761 - Conversion graphs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conversion graphs. 80.761 Section 80.761 Telecommunication...Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.761 Conversion graphs. The following graphs must be employed where conversion from one to...

2010-10-01

453

Face Recognition by Elastic Bunch Graph Matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a system for recognizing human faces fromsingle images out of a large database containing one imageper person. Faces are represented by labeled graphs, basedon a Gabor wavelet transform. Image graphs of new facesare extracted by an elastic graph matching process andcan be compared by a simple similarity function. Thesystem differs from the preceding one [1] in three respects.Phase

Laurenz Wiskott; Jean-marc Fellous; Norbert Krüger; Christoph Von Der Malsburg

1997-01-01

454

Introduction or review of types of graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online slide show is a great way to introduce different types of graphs for your students, or a great way to review them. After an introduction that explains each graph and its parts, it becomes interactive and has your students review the missing parts of each graph.

Center, Beacon L.

2011-10-10

455

47 CFR 80.761 - Conversion graphs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Conversion graphs. 80.761 Section 80.761 Telecommunication...Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.761 Conversion graphs. The following graphs must be employed where conversion from one to...

2009-10-01

456

Parallel Recognition of Series-Parallel Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, He and Yesha gave an algorithm for recognizing directed series parallel graphs, in time O(log2n) with linearly many EREW processors. We give a new algorithm for this problem, based on a structural characterization of series parallel graphs in terms of their ear decompositions. Our algorithm can recognize undirected as well as directed series parallel graphs. It can be implemented

David Eppstein

1992-01-01

457

Revisiting decomposition analysis of geometric constraint graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geometric problems defined by constraints can be represented by geometric constraint graphs whose nodes are geometric elements and whose arcs represent geometric constraints. Reduction and decomposition are techniques commonly used to analyze geometric constraint graphs in geometric constraint solving. In this paper we first introduce the concept of deficit of a constraint graph. Then we give a new formalization of

Robert Joan-Arinyo; Antoni Soto-Riera; S. Vila-Marta; Josep Vilaplana-Pasto

2002-01-01

458

New results on drawing angle graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

An angle graph is a graph with a fixed cyclic order of the edges around each vertex and an angle specified for every pair of consecutive edges incident on a vertex. We study the problem of constructing a drawing of an angle graph that preserves its angles, and present several new results. •• We disprove the conjectures of Vijayan (1986)

Ashim Garg

1998-01-01

459

Revisiting decomposition analysis of geometric constraint graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geometric problems defined by constraints can be represented by geometric constraint graphs whose nodes are geometric elements and whose arcs represent geometric constraints. Reduction and decomposition are techniques commonly used to analyze geometric constraint graphs in geometric constraint solving.In this paper we first introduce the concept of deficit of a constraint graph. Then we give a new formalization of the

Robert Joan-arinyo; Antoni Soto-riera; S. Vila-marta; Josep Vilaplana-pasto

2004-01-01

460

The geometric thickness of low degree graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prove that the geometric thickness of graphs whose maximum degree is no more than four is two. All of our algorithms run in O(n) time, where n is the number of vertices in the graph. In our proofs, we present an embedding algorithm for graphs with maximum degree three that uses an n x n grid and a more

Christian A. Duncan; David Eppstein; Stephen G. Kobourov

2004-01-01

461

The ultimate interval graph recognition algorithm?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An independent set of three vertices is called an asteroidal triple if between every two vertices in the triple there exists a path avoiding the neighbourhood of the third. A graph is asteroidal triple-free (AT-free, for short) if it contains no asteroidal triple. A classic result states that a graph is an interval graph if and only if it is

Derek G. Corneil; Stephan Olariu; Lorna Stewart

1998-01-01

462

A construction of 3-connected graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that the 3-connected graphs can be generated from the complete graph on four vertices and the complete 3,3 bipartite\\u000a graph by adding vertices and adding edges with endpoints on two edges meeting at a 3-valent vertex.

D. W. Barnette

1994-01-01

463

Graph Edit Distance from Spectral Seriation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with computing graph edit distance. One of the criticisms that can be leveled at existing methods for computing graph edit distance is that they lack some of the formality and rigour of the computation of string edit distance. Hence, our aim is to convert graphs to string sequences so that string matching techniques can be used.

Antonio Robles-kelly; Edwin R. Hancock

2005-01-01

464

Semi-supervised Learning on Directed Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Given a directed graph in which some of the nodes are labeled, we investigate the question of how to exploit the link structure of the graph to infer the labels of the remaining unlabeled nodes. To that extent we propose a regularization framework for functions dened,over nodes of a directed graph that forces the classication function to change slowly

Dengyong Zhou; Bernhard Schölkopf; Thomas Hofmann

2004-01-01

465

Constructing Higher-Order De Bruijn Graphs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We construct binary de Bruijn graphs of odd order using recursive generation. We also explore the properties and nuances of these particular graphs. The recursive method developed for this thesis could in principle be used for other de Bruijn graphs of a ...

D. J. Hunt

2002-01-01

466

Rectangle-visibility Representations of Bipartite Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper considers representations of bipartite graphs as rectangle-visibility graphs, i.e., graphs whose vertices are rectangles in the plane, with adjacency determined by horizontal and vertical visibility. It is shown that, for p ? q, Kp,q has a representation with no rectangles having collinear sides if and only if p ? 2 or p = 3 and q ? 4.

Alice M. Dean; Joan P. Hutchinson

1997-01-01

467

Negative Results on Characterizing Visibility Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no known combinatorial characterization of the visibility graphs of simple polygons. In this paper we show negative results on two different approaches to finding such a characterization. We show that Ghosh's three necessary conditions for a graph to be a visibility graph are not sufficient thus disproving his conjecture. We also show that there is no finite set

Hazel Everett; Derek G. Corneil

1995-01-01

468

Reduction of Visual Complexity in Dynamic Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graphs are used extensively in software visualization to represent both static aspects of software structure and dynamic aspects of execution-time behavior. However, for realistic subject software systems, there are far too many nodes and edges in the displayed graphs to be comprehensible to an end user. Further, for presentation of dynamics, continual change and redisplay of such large graphs is

Doug Kimelman; Bruce Leban; Tova Roth; Dror Zernik

1994-01-01

469

A Bayesian Paradigm for Dynamic Graph Layout  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Dynamic graph layout refers to the layout of graphs thatchange over time. These changes are due to user interaction, algorithms,or other underlying processes determining the graph. Typically, usersspend a noteworthy amount of time to get familiar with a layout, i.e.

Ulrik Brandes; Dorothea Wagner

1997-01-01

470

Exploring Systems of Equations using Graphing Calculators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan introduces the concept of graphing a system of linear equations. Students will use graphing technology to explore the meaning of the solution of a linear system including solutions that correspond to intersecting lines, parallel lines, and coinciding lines. Students will also do graph linear systems by hand.

2012-12-18

471

Experimental studies on graph drawing algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Graph drawing plays an important role in the solution of many information visualization problems. Most of the graph drawing algorithms are accompanied by a theoretical analysis of their characteristics, but only extensive experimentations can assess the practical performance of graph drawing algorithms in real- life applications. In this paper, we describe the results of some of the most popular

Luca Vismara; Giuseppe Di Battista; Ashim Garg; Giuseppe Liotta; Roberto Tamassia; Francesco Vargiu

2000-01-01

472

Stochastic models for the Web graph  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Web may be viewed as a directed graph each of whose vertices is a static HTML Web page, and each of whose edges corresponds to a hyperlink from one Web page to another. We propose and analyze random graph models inspired by a series of empirical observations on the Web. Our graph models differ from the traditional Gn,p models

Ravi Kumar; Prabhakar Raghavant; Sridhar Rajagopalan; D. Sivakumar; Andrew Tomkins; Eli Upfal

2000-01-01

473

Algorithmic Graph Minor Theory: Decomposition, Approximation, and Coloring  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the core of the seminal Graph Minor Theory of Robertson and Seymour is a powerful structural theorem capturing the structure of graphs excluding a fixed minor. This result is used throughout graph theory and graph al- gorithms, but is existential. We develop a polynomial- time algorithm using topological graph theory to decom- pose a graph into the structure guaranteed

Erik D. Demaine; Mohammad Taghi Hajiaghayi; Ken-ichi Kawarabayashi

2005-01-01

474

Measuring geographic segregation: a graph-based approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Residential segregation is a multidimensional phenomenon that encompasses several conceptually distinct aspects of geographical separation between populations. While various indices have been developed as a response to different definitions of segregation, the reliance on such single-figure indices could oversimplify the complex, multidimensional phenomena. In this regard, this paper suggests an alternative graph-based approach that provides more detailed information than simple indices: The concentration profile graphically conveys information about how evenly a population group is distributed over the study region, and the spatial proximity profile depicts the degree of clustering across different threshold levels. These graphs can also be summarized into single numbers for comparative purposes, but the interpretation can be more accurate by inspecting the additional information. To demonstrate the use of these methods, the residential patterns of three major ethnic groups in Auckland, namely M?ori, Pacific peoples, and Asians, are examined using the 2006 census data.

Hong, Seong-Yun; Sadahiro, Yukio

2014-04-01

475

Geometric properties of graph layouts optimized for greedy navigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The graph layouts used for complex network studies have been mainly developed to improve visualization. If we interpret the layouts in metric spaces such as Euclidean ones, however, the embedded spatial information can be a valuable cue for various purposes. In this work, we focus on encoding useful navigational information to geometric coordinates of vertices of spatial graphs, which is a reverse problem of harnessing geometric information for better navigation. In other words, the coordinates of the vertices are a map of the topology, not the other way around. We use a recently developed user-centric navigation protocol to explore spatial layouts of complex networks that are optimal for navigation. These layouts are generated with a simple simulated annealing optimization technique. We compare these layouts to others targeted at better visualization and discuss the spatial statistical properties of the optimized layouts for better navigability and its implication.

Lee, Sang Hoon; Holme, Petter

2012-12-01

476

Guidelines for Graphing Data with Microsoft[R] Office 2007[TM], Office 2010[TM], and Office for Mac[TM] 2008 and 2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The interpretation of single-case data requires systematic visual analysis across and within conditions. Graphs are a vital component for analyzing and communicating single-case design data and a necessary tool for applied researchers and practitioners. Several articles have been published with task analyses for graphing data with the new versions…

Barton, Erin E.; Reichow, Brian

2012-01-01

477

A preliminary study on atrial epicardial mapping signals based on Graph Theory.  

PubMed

In order to get a better understanding of atrial fibrillation, we introduced a method based on Graph Theory to interpret the relations of different parts of the atria. Atrial electrograms under sinus rhythm and atrial fibrillation were collected from eight living mongrel dogs with cholinergic AF model. These epicardial signals were acquired from 95 unipolar electrodes attached to the surface of the atria and four pulmonary veins. Then, we analyzed the electrode correlations using Graph Theory. The topology, the connectivity and the parameters of graphs during different rhythms were studied. Our results showed that the connectivity of graphs varied from sinus rhythm to atrial fibrillation and there were parameter gradients in various parts of the atria. The results provide spatial insight into the interaction between different parts of the atria and the method may have its potential for studying atrial fibrillation. PMID:24768086

Sun, Liqian; Yang, Cuiwei; Zhang, Lin; Chen, Ying; Wu, Zhong; Shao, Jun

2014-07-01

478

Empirical data for the semantic interpretation of prepositional phrases in medical documents.  

PubMed Central

We report on the results from an empirical study deal-ing with the semantic interpretation of prepositional phrases in medical free texts. We use a small number of semantic interpretation schemata only, which operate on well-defined configurations in dependency graphs. We provide a quantitative analysis of the performance of the semantic interpreter in terms of recall/precision data, and consider, in qualitative terms, the impact semantic interpretation patterns have on the construction of the underlying medical ontology.

Romacker, M.; Hahn, U.

2001-01-01

479

Interpreter Training at R.M.I.T.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Australia has a need for trained interpreters, particularly to work in social services involving immigrants. Training courses have begun for such interpreters, one at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology. This course aims toward bilingual fluency and teaches communication skills and both Australian and foreign sociology. (CHK)

Strauss, G.

1975-01-01

480

Mapping graphs Of parallel programs onto graphs of distributed computer systems by recurrent neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A problem of mapping graphs of parallel programs onto graphs of distributed computer systems by recurrent neural network is\\u000a formulated. Parameter values providing absence of incorrect solutions are experimentally determined. Because of introduction\\u000a of penalty coefficient into Lyapunov function for the program graph edges non-coincided with the system graph edges, optimal\\u000a solutions are found for mapping a “line”-graph onto a

M. S. Tarkov; A. V. Rzhanov’s

2011-01-01

481

Orderly spanning trees with applications to graph encoding and graph drawing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The canonical ordering for triconnected planar graphs is a powerful method for designing graph algorithms. This paper introduces the orderly pair of connected planar graphs, which extends the concept of canonical ordering to planar graphs not required to be triconnected.Let G be a connected planar graph. We give a linear-time algorithm that obtains an orderly pair (H,T) of G, where

Yi-Ting Chiang; Ching-Chi Lin; Hsueh-I Lu

2001-01-01

482

On Stable Cutsets in Claw-Free Graphs and Planar Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

To decide whether a line graph (hence a claw-free graph) of maximum degree five admits a stable cutset has been proven to be an NP-complete problem. The same result has been known for K4-free graphs. Here we show how to decide this problem in polynomial time for (claw, K4)-free graphs and for a claw-free graph of maximum degree at most

Raffaele Mosca; Haiko Muller; G. D'Annunzio

483

Learning to look: developing clinical observational skills at an art museum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context Clinical diagnosis involves the observation, description, and interpretation of visual information. These skills are also the special province of the visual arts. We describe an educational collaboration between a medical school and an art museum, designed for the purpose of developing student skills in observation, description, and interpretation. Objectives In the programme, medical students first examine painted portraits, under

Charles L Bardes; Debra Gillers; Amy E Herman

2001-01-01

484

Skill and Will: Test-Taking Motivation and Assessment Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An achievement test score can be viewed as a joint function of skill and will, of knowledge and motivation. However, when interpreting and using test scores, the "will" part is not always acknowledged and scores are mostly interpreted and used as pure measures of student knowledge. This paper argues that students' motivation to do their best on…

Eklof, Hanna

2010-01-01

485

A graph edit dictionary for correcting errors in roof topology graphs reconstructed from point clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the task of 3D building model reconstruction from point clouds we face the problem of recovering a roof topology graph in the presence of noise, small roof faces and low point densities. Errors in roof topology graphs will seriously affect the final modelling results. The aim of this research is to automatically correct these errors. We define the graph correction as a graph-to-graph problem, similar to the spelling correction problem (also called the string-to-string problem). The graph correction is more complex than string correction, as the graphs are 2D while strings are only 1D. We design a strategy based on a dictionary of graph edit operations to automatically identify and correct the errors in the input graph. For each type of error the graph edit dictionary stores a representative erroneous subgraph as well as the corrected version. As an erroneous roof topology graph may contain several errors, a heuristic search is applied to find the optimum sequence of graph edits to correct the errors one by one. The graph edit dictionary can be expanded to include entries needed to cope with errors that were previously not encountered. Experiments show that the dictionary with only fifteen entries already properly corrects one quarter of erroneous graphs in about 4500 buildings, and even half of the erroneous graphs in one test area, achieving as high as a 95% acceptance rate of the reconstructed models.

Xiong, B.; Oude Elberink, S.; Vosselman, G.

2014-07-01

486

Automatic Skill Acquisition in Reinforcement Learning Agents Using Connection Bridge Centrality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Incorporating skills in reinforcement learning methods results in accelerate agents learning performance. The key problem of automatic skill discovery is to find subgoal states and create skills to reach them. Among the proposed algorithms, those based on graph centrality measures have achieved precise results. In this paper we propose a new graph centrality measure for identifying subgoal states that is crucial to develop useful skills. The main advantage of the proposed centrality measure is that this measure considers both local and global information of the agent states to score them that result in identifying real subgoal states. We will show through simulations for three benchmark tasks, namely, "four-room grid world", "taxi driver grid world" and "soccer simulation grid world" that a procedure based on the proposed centrality measure performs better than the procedure based on the other centrality measures.

Moradi, Parham; Shiri, Mohammad Ebrahim; Entezari, Negin

487

Fieldcrest Cannon, Inc. Advanced Technical Preparation. Statistical Process Control (SPC). PRE-SPC 11: SPC & Graphs. Instructor Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructor guide, which was developed for use in a manufacturing firm's advanced technical preparation program, contains the materials required to present a learning module that is designed to prepare trainees for the program's statistical process control module by improving their basic math skills in working with line graphs and teaching…

Averitt, Sallie D.

488

On a programming language for graph algorithms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An algorithmic language, GRAAL, is presented for describing and implementing graph algorithms of the type primarily arising in applications. The language is based on a set algebraic model of graph theory which defines the graph structure in terms of morphisms between certain set algebraic structures over the node set and arc set. GRAAL is modular in the sense that the user specifies which of these mappings are available with any graph. This allows flexibility in the selection of the storage representation for different graph structures. In line with its set theoretic foundation, the language introduces sets as a basic data type and provides for the efficient execution of all set and graph operators. At present, GRAAL is defined as an extension of ALGOL 60 (revised) and its formal description is given as a supplement to the syntactic and semantic definition of ALGOL. Several typical graph algorithms are written in GRAAL to illustrate various features of the language and to show its applicability.

Rheinboldt, W. C.; Basili, V. R.; Mesztenyi, C. K.

1971-01-01

489

Sketching for Developing Critical Thinking Skills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sketching is a valuable field technique to support a person's observation, recording, interpretation and communication of important features in both natural and human-made landscapes. The Singapore geography syllabus employs an inquiry approach and encourages sketching as a fundamental geographical skill. Sketching allows the learner to connect with the world through a personal and kinesthetic experience. The Earth Observatory of Singapore collaborates with the Singapore Geography Teachers' Association, Urban Sketchers, and National Institute of Education professional development to give teachers both basic sketching skills and the opportunity to develop those skills in a scaffolded environment. In Singapore, geography and geology skills overlap in content area of coastal processes, climate change, and plate tectonics with its associated natural hazards such as volcanoes, earthquakes, and tsunami. Both disciplines are interested in how people live on the Earth. Likewise, basic skills such as observing, classifying, measuring, and communicating cut across disciplines of social and natural sciences in order to analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information about the world. Hence, sketching, commonly considered an art skill, is used to further scientific thinking. This somewhat unique collaboration to develop sketching in teachers is based on the long tradition of sketches in geological field work, the newly popular urban sketching community, and professional development by a professional organization and the Singapore National Institute of Education. Workshops provide technique as well as opportunities for sketching with experts in different areas relevant to the geography curriculum.

Eriksson, S. C.; Wang, P.; Sim, T. B.; Goh, E.; Ng, H. K.

2013-12-01

490

A rapid assessment of skills in young children with autism.  

PubMed Central

Educational interventions based on the principles of behavior analysis are highly effective for establishing skills in young children with autism. As a first step in program development, the child's current skill level is determined by evaluating performance on tasks drawn from a preestablished curriculum. However, few specific guidelines have been delineated for conducting these skills assessments or interpreting the results. In this study, we evaluated an efficient methodology for conducting skills assessments. Six children who had been diagnosed with autism participated. The relative efficacy of two assessment packages--one containing several reinforcement procedures and one containing several potentially effective prompts--was evaluated across two to three skills for each child using multiple baseline and reversal designs. Results suggested that the methodology was useful for matching targeted skills to appropriate interventions.

Lerman, Dorothea C; Vorndran, Christina; Addison, Laura; Kuhn, Stephanie A

2004-01-01

491

A Statics Skills Inventory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Engineering faculty recognize the value of assessment instruments to measure student learningand to evaluate changes in teaching. As a result, a number of engineering subject assessmentinstruments formulated as âÂÂconceptâ inventories have been developed. Taking a different tack,the authors of this paper decided to focus on assessment of student skills in statics and this paperprovides details of the development of a statics skills assessment tool. The use of only conceptinventories to provide proof of student learning is an incomplete assessment as effectiveapplication of engineering knowledge consists of both a sound understanding of conceptualknowledge and skill intertwined. For instance, while demonstrating understanding of theconcept of equilibrium is valuable, it is also important students are able to generate correctequations of equilibrium. A multi-step Delphi process involving statics educators was used toreach consensus on the important skills of statics. The Delphi rankings, including the importanceof the skill as judged by the Delphi participants as well as an estimate of the proportion ofstudents whom can perform the skill, were used to develop the final list of top ranked skills.Initial skill-based questions were developed to probe these areas and tested with students. Thecurrent status of the skill assessment instrument is discussed.

Danielson, Scott

2011-05-19

492

Graph approach to quantum systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a graph approach to quantum systems, we show that descriptions of 3-dim Kochen-Specker (KS) setups as well as descriptions of 3-dim spin systems by means of Greechie diagrams (a kind of lattice) that we find in the literature are wrong. Correct lattices generated by McKay-Megill-Pavicic (MMP) hypergraphs and Hilbert subspace equations are given. To enable future exhaustive generation of 3-dim KS setups by means of our recently found stripping technique, bipartite graph generation is used to provide us with lattices with equal numbers of elements and blocks (orthogonal triples of elements)-up to 41 of them. We obtain several new results on such lattices and hypergraphs, in particular, on properties such as superposition and orthoraguesian equations.

Pavi?i?, Mladen; McKay, Brendan D.; Megill, Norman D.; Fresl, Krešimir

2010-10-01

493

Embodied Semiotic Activities and Their Role in the Construction of Mathematical Meaning of Motion Graphs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the relation between bodily actions, artifact-mediated activities, and semiotic processes that students experience while producing and interpreting graphs of two-dimensional motion in the plane. We designed a technology-based setting that enabled students to engage in embodied semiotic activities and experience two modes of…

Botzer, Galit; Yerushalmy, Michal

2008-01-01

494

Mining top-k and bottom-k correlative crime patterns through graph representations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crime activities are geospatial phenomena and as such are geospatially, thematically and temporally correlated. Thus, crime datasets must be interpreted and analyzed in conjunction with various factors that can contribute to the formulation of crime. Discovering these correlations allows a deeper insight into the complex nature of criminal behavior. We introduce a graph based dataset representation that allows us to

Peter Phillips; Ickjai Lee

2009-01-01

495

Ising spins on thin graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ising model on ``thin'' graphs (standard Feynman diagrams) displays\\u000aseveral interesting properties. For ferromagnetic couplings there is a mean\\u000afield phase transition at the corresponding Bethe lattice transition point. For\\u000aantiferromagnetic couplings the replica trick gives some evidence for a spin\\u000aglass phase. In this paper we investigate both the ferromagnetic and\\u000aantiferromagnetic models with the aid of simulations.

C. F. Baillie; D. A. Johnston; J. P. Kownacki

1994-01-01

496

Ising spins on thin graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ising model on ``thin'' graphs (standard Feynman diagrams) displays several interesting properties. For ferromagnetic couplings there is a mean-field phase transition at the corresponding Bethe-lattice transition point. For antiferromagnetic couplings the replica trick gives some evidence for a spin-glass phase. In this paper we investigate both the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic models with the aid of simulations. We confirm the

C. F. Baillie; D. A. Johnston; J. P. Kownacki

1994-01-01

497

Drawing polytopal graphs with polymake  

Microsoft Academic Search

This note wants to explain how to obtain meaningful pictures of (possibly high-dimensional) convex polytopes, triangulated\\u000a manifolds, and other objects from the realm of geometric combinatorics such as tight spans of finite metric spaces and tropical\\u000a polytopes. In all our cases we arrive at specific, geometrically motivated, graph drawing problems. The methods displayed\\u000a are implemented in the software system polymake.

Ewgenij Gawrilow; Michael Joswig; Thilo Rörig; Nikolaus Witte

2010-01-01

498

The Poor Cartographer: Graph Coloring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners help a poor cartographer color in the countries on a map, making sure each country is colored a different color than any of its neighbors. Through this exercise, learners discover the "has-to-be" rule and the value of place-holders. This activity reveals the complexity of graph coloring algorithms in computer science. Variations, extensions, background information, and solutions are included in the PDF.

Bell, Tim; Witten, Ian; Fellows, Mike

1995-01-01

499

Using Graphs to Show Connections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to show how graphs of GLOBE data over time show the interconnectedness of Earth's system components at the local level. Students visit a study site, where they observe and recall their existing knowledge of air, water, soil, and living things to make a list of interconnections among the four Earth system components. They make predictions about the effects of a change in a system, inferring ways these changes affect the characteristics of other related components.

The GLOBE Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

2003-08-01

500

Dynamic molecular graphs: "hopping" structures.  

PubMed

This work aims to contribute to the discussion about the suitability of bond paths and bond-critical points as indicators of chemical bonding defined within the theoretical framework of the quantum theory of atoms in molecules. For this purpose, we consider the temporal evolution of the molecular structure of [Fe{C(CH2 )3 }(CO)3 ] throughout Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD), which illustrates the changing behaviour of the molecular graph (MG) of an electronic system. Several MGs with significant lifespans are observed across the BOMD simulations. The bond paths between the trimethylenemethane and the metallic core are uninterruptedly formed and broken. This situation is reminiscent of a "hopping" ligand over the iron atom. The molecular graph wherein the bonding between trimethylenemethane and the iron atom takes place only by means of the tertiary carbon atom has the longest lifespan of all the considered structures, which is consistent with the MG found by X-ray diffraction experiments and quantum chemical calculations. In contrast, the ?(4) complex predicted by molecular-orbital theory has an extremely brief lifetime. The lifespan of different molecular structures is related to bond descriptors on the basis of the topology of the electron density such as the ellipticities at the Fe?CH2 bond-critical points and electron delocalisation indices. This work also proposes the concept of a dynamic molecular graph composed of the different structures found throughout the BOMD trajectories in analogy to a resonance hybrid of Lewis structures. It is our hope that the notion of dynamic molecular graphs will prove useful in the discussion of electronic systems, in particular for those in which analysis on the basis of static structures leads to controversial conclusions. PMID:24692252

Cortés-Guzmán, Fernando; Rocha-Rinza, Tomas; Guevara-Vela, José Manuel; Cuevas, Gabriel; Gómez, Rosa María

2014-05-01