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The relationships between spatial ability, logical thinking, mathematics performance and kinematics graph interpretation skills of 12th grade physics students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphs have a broad use in science classrooms, especially in physics. In physics, kinematics is probably the topic for which graphs are most widely used. The participants in this study were from two different grade-12 physics classrooms, advanced placement and calculus-based physics. The main purpose of this study was to search for the relationships between student spatial ability, logical thinking, mathematical achievement, and kinematics graphs interpretation skills. The Purdue Spatial Visualization Test, the Middle Grades Integrated Process Skills Test (MIPT), and the Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K) were used for quantitative data collection. Classroom observations were made to acquire ideas about classroom environment and instructional techniques. Factor analysis, simple linear correlation, multiple linear regression, and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the quantitative data. Each instrument has two principal components. The selection and calculation of the slope and of the area were the two principal components of TUG-K. MIPT was composed of a component based upon processing text and a second component based upon processing symbolic information. The Purdue Spatial Visualization Test was composed of a component based upon one-step processing and a second component based upon two-step processing of information. Student ability to determine the slope in a kinematics graph was significantly correlated with spatial ability, logical thinking, and mathematics aptitude and achievement. However, student ability to determine the area in a kinematics graph was only significantly correlated with student pre-calculus semester 2 grades. Male students performed significantly better than female students on the slope items of TUG-K. Also, male students performed significantly better than female students on the PSAT mathematics assessment and spatial ability. This study found that students have different levels of spatial ability, logical thinking, and mathematics aptitude and achievement levels. These different levels were related to student learning of kinematics and they need to be considered when kinematics is being taught. It might be easier for students to understand the kinematics graphs if curriculum developers include more activities related to spatial ability and logical thinking.

Bektasli, Behzat


Challenges with Graph Interpretation: A Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the growing emphasis on the development of scientific inquiry skills, the display and interpretation of data are becoming increasingly important. Graph interpretation competence is, in fact, essential to understanding today's world and to be scientifically literate. However, graph interpretation is a complex and challenging activity. Graph

Glazer, Nirit



Graphs: Interpret Line Plots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website application provides practice interpreting line plots. The format of the website makes it available to use with individual students on one computer or with an entire class on an interactive white board. Each practice problem is submitted to determine if it is correct, when an incorrect answer is submitted the correct answer and an option for an explanation appears. Each problem set is also timed and the user is provided with a percent correct. This website does have a membership option for a fee which would enable the teacher to track the progress of multiple students over time.



Drawing and Interpreting Data in a Bar Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Drawing and interpreting data in a bar graph will explicitly teach strategies for students to collect and solve simple put together, take-apart and compare problems using information presented in a bar graph.

Brockett, Reid



Data and graph interpretation practices among preservice science teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interpretation of data and construction and interpretation of graphs are central practices in science, which, according to recent reform documents, science and mathematics teachers are expected to foster in their classrooms. However, are (preservice) science teachers prepared to teach inquiry with the purpose of transforming and analyzing data, and interpreting graphical representations? That is, are preservice science teachers prepared to teach data analysis and graph interpretation practices that scientists use by default in their everyday work? The present study was designed to answer these and related questions. We investigated the responses of preservice elementary and secondary science teachers to data and graph interpretation tasks. Our investigation shows that, despite considerable preparation, and for many, despite bachelor of science degrees, preservice teachers do not enact the (authentic) practices that scientists routinely do when asked to interpret data or graphs. Detailed analyses are provided of what data and graph interpretation practices actually were enacted. We conclude that traditional schooling emphasizes particular beliefs in the mathematical nature of the universe that make it difficult for many individuals to deal with data possessing the random variation found in measurements of natural phenomena. The results suggest that preservice teachers need more experience in engaging in data and graph interpretation practices originating in activities that provide the degree of variation in and complexity of data present in realistic investigations.

Bowen, G. Michael; Roth, Wolff-Michael



Supporting Fourth Graders' Ability to Interpret Graphs through Real-Time Graphing Technology: A Preliminary Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined to what extent inquiry-based instruction supported with real-time graphing technology improves fourth grader's ability to interpret graphs as representations of physical science concepts such as motion and temperature. This study also examined whether there is any difference between inquiry-based instruction supported with…

Deniz, Hasan; Dulger, Mehmet F.



Interpretable whole-brain prediction analysis with GraphNet.  


Multivariate machine learning methods are increasingly used to analyze neuroimaging data, often replacing more traditional "mass univariate" techniques that fit data one voxel at a time. In the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature, this has led to broad application of "off-the-shelf" classification and regression methods. These generic approaches allow investigators to use ready-made algorithms to accurately decode perceptual, cognitive, or behavioral states from distributed patterns of neural activity. However, when applied to correlated whole-brain fMRI data these methods suffer from coefficient instability, are sensitive to outliers, and yield dense solutions that are hard to interpret without arbitrary thresholding. Here, we develop variants of the Graph-constrained Elastic-Net (GraphNet), a fast, whole-brain regression and classification method developed for spatially and temporally correlated data that automatically yields interpretable coefficient maps (Grosenick et al., 2009b). GraphNet methods yield sparse but structured solutions by combining structured graph constraints (based on knowledge about coefficient smoothness or connectivity) with a global sparsity-inducing prior that automatically selects important variables. Because GraphNet methods can efficiently fit regression or classification models to whole-brain, multiple time-point data sets and enhance classification accuracy relative to volume-of-interest (VOI) approaches, they eliminate the need for inherently biased VOI analyses and allow whole-brain fitting without the multiple comparison problems that plague mass univariate and roaming VOI ("searchlight") methods. As fMRI data are unlikely to be normally distributed, we (1) extend GraphNet to include robust loss functions that confer insensitivity to outliers, (2) equip them with "adaptive" penalties that asymptotically guarantee correct variable selection, and (3) develop a novel sparse structured Support Vector GraphNet classifier (SVGN). When applied to previously published data (Knutson et al., 2007), these efficient whole-brain methods significantly improved classification accuracy over previously reported VOI-based analyses on the same data (Grosenick et al., 2008; Knutson et al., 2007) while discovering task-related regions not documented in the original VOI approach. Critically, GraphNet estimates fit to the Knutson et al. (2007) data generalize well to out-of-sample data collected more than three years later on the same task but with different subjects and stimuli (Karmarkar et al., submitted for publication). By enabling robust and efficient selection of important voxels from whole-brain data taken over multiple time points (>100,000 "features"), these methods enable data-driven selection of brain areas that accurately predict single-trial behavior within and across individuals. PMID:23298747

Grosenick, Logan; Klingenberg, Brad; Katovich, Kiefer; Knutson, Brian; Taylor, Jonathan E



Electrocardiographic interpretation skills of cardiology residents: are they competent?  


Achieving competency at electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretation among cardiology subspecialty residents has traditionally focused on interpreting a target number of ECGs during training. However, there is little evidence to support this approach. Further, there are no data documenting the competency of ECG interpretation skills among cardiology residents, who become de facto the gold standard in their practice communities. We tested 29 Cardiology residents from all 3 years in a large training program using a set of 20 ECGs collected from a community cardiology practice over a 1-month period. Residents interpreted half of the ECGs using a standard analytic framework, and half using their own approach. Residents were scored on the number of correct and incorrect diagnoses listed. Overall diagnostic accuracy was 58%. Of 6 potentially life-threatening diagnoses, residents missed 36% (123 of 348) including hyperkalemia (81%), long QT (52%), complete heart block (35%), and ventricular tachycardia (19%). Residents provided additional inappropriate diagnoses on 238 ECGs (41%). Diagnostic accuracy was similar between ECGs interpreted using an analytic framework vs ECGs interpreted without an analytic framework (59% vs 58%; F1,1333 = 0.26; P = 0.61). Cardiology resident proficiency at ECG interpretation is suboptimal. Despite the use of an analytic framework, there remain significant deficiencies in ECG interpretation among Cardiology residents. A more systematic method of addressing these important learning gaps is urgently needed. PMID:25475474

Sibbald, Matthew; Davies, Edward G; Dorian, Paul; Yu, Eric H C



Understanding and Interpreting Calculus Graphs: Refining an Instrument  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The objective of this ongoing study is to refine an instrument to evaluate conceptual understanding and graphical interpretation of a function and its derivative. The instrument is based on a modified version of the Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K) which consists of 26 items (7 dimensions). In the new instrument, Test of Understanding Graphs in Calculus (TUG-C), the kinematics context has been removed from the items creating a new context-free version. To favor the translation from kinematics to Calculus, the focus is on 5 out of the 7 original dimensions of the test, giving a 16-item test. A total of 526 students from a university level Introductory Physics course participated in the study. Half of the students were administered the kinematics test and the other half took the calculus test. This work will present data showing preliminary results of the instrument and new directions on improving the instrument.

Perez-Goytia, Nadia; Dominguez, Angeles; Zavala, Genaro



Assessing and Understanding Line Graph Interpretations Using a Scoring Rubric of Organized Cited Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined how 12- and 13-year-old students' mathematics and science background knowledge affected line graph interpretations and how interpretations were affected by graph question levels. A purposive sample of 14 students engaged in think aloud interviews while completing an excerpted Test of Graphing in Science. Data were…

Boote, Stacy K.



Reading and Interpreting Tables and Graphs Involving Rates and Percentages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This survey, created by Milo Schield of Augsburg College, assesses statistical literacy. The survey focuses on the general use of informal statistics in everyday situations: reading and interpreting tables and graphs involving rates and percentages. The survey itself takes between thirty and forty minutes. The author does apologize for the length, but insists that it is due to how comprehensive the survey is. Sixty-nine questions in length, almost every topic concerning statistics is covered. The survey was funded by the W.M. Keck Statistical Literacy Project.

Schield, Milo



Individual Differences and the Interpretation of Auditory Graphs: Cognitive Abilities and Demographics  

E-print Network

predictors of auditory graph interpretation. To be an effective predictor, working memory may need, and the interpretation of sounds used to represent data. Previous research has found some differences between groups of auditory graph interpretation. References Walker, B.N. (2002a). Magnitude estimation of conceptual data


Today's Forecast: Graphing Temperature Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students use Internet skills to find local and Antarctic weather data. They record the data, assemble it in a logical order, graph it, and interpret the graphed information. Students will: prepare a graph using an x and y axis; show graphing increments; arrange data on a graph; interpret graphed data; demonstrate conversion of Fahrenheit to Celsius and Celsius to Fahrenheit; and differentiate between below and above zero degrees temperature.

Kolb, Sandra


Bars, Lines, & Pies: A Graphing Skills Program. Expect the Unexpected with Math[R  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Bars, Lines, & Pies" is a dynamic math program designed to build graphing skills in students, while also showing them the relevance of math in their lives. Developed by The Actuarial Foundation along with Scholastic, the graphing lessons and activities involve engaging, real-world examples about the environment and recycling. In these lessons,…

Actuarial Foundation, 2013



Assessing and Understanding Line Graph Interpretations Using a Scoring Rubric of Organized Cited Factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined how 12- and 13-year-old students' mathematics and science background knowledge affected line graph interpretations and how interpretations were affected by graph question levels. A purposive sample of 14 students engaged in think aloud interviews while completing an excerpted Test of Graphing in Science. Data were collected and coded using a rubric of previously cited factors, categorized by Bertin's (Semiology of graphics: Diagrams, networks, maps. The University of Wisconsin Press, Ltd., Madison, 1983) theory of graph interpretation. Data analysis revealed responses varied by graph question level. Across levels, students interpreted graphs in one or more of the three ways: mathematical word problems (focusing on an algorithm), science data to be analyzed (incorporating science knowledge), or no strategy. Although consistently used across levels, the frequency and usefulness of approaches varied by question level.

Boote, Stacy K.



Interpretation of Radiological Images: Towards a Framework of Knowledge and Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The knowledge and skills that are required for radiological image interpretation are not well documented, even though medical imaging is gaining importance. This study aims to develop a comprehensive framework of knowledge and skills, required for two-dimensional and multiplanar image interpretation in radiology. A mixed-method study approach was…

van der Gijp, A.; van der Schaaf, M. F.; van der Schaaf, I. C.; Huige, J. C. B. M.; Ravesloot, C. J.; van Schaik, J. P. J.; ten Cate, Th. J.



A Review of AP Calculus Graphing Calculator Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Review material on graphing calculator use from the College Board AP Calculus Course Description. The problems are mostly AB level. The page also contains a brief historical remark about Maria Gaetana Agnesi.


Interpreting Unfamiliar Graphs: A Generative, Activity Theoretic Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on graphing presents its results as if knowing and understanding were something stored in peoples' minds independent of the situation that they find themselves in. Thus, there are no models that situate interview responses to graphing tasks. How, then, we question, are the interview texts produced? How do respondents begin and end…

Roth, Wolff-Michael; Lee, Yew Jin



Students' Interpretation of a Function Associated with a Real-Life Problem from Its Graph  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The properties of a function such as limit, continuity, derivative, growth, or concavity can be determined more easily from its graph than by doing any algebraic operation. For this reason, it is important for students of mathematics to interpret some of the properties of a function from its graph. In this study, we investigated the competence of…

Mahir, Nevin



A strategy to teach students to draw and interpret velocity-time graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study investigates the effectiveness of an instructional strategy to teach students with little or no prior knowledge in kinematics how to draw and interpret velocity-time graphs representing the motion of objects. The researchers test how presenting velocity-time graphs at the same time that the student observes the motion of an object effects comprehension.

Clark, Laura; Goldberg, Fred



Graph polynomials and their applications II: Interrelations and interpretations  

E-print Network

This paper surveys a comprehensive, although not exhaustive, sampling of graph polynomials with the goal of providing a brief overview of a variety of techniques defining a graph polynomial and then for decoding the combinatorial information it contains. The polynomials we discuss here are not generally specializations of the Tutte polynomial, but they are each in some way related to the Tutte polynomial, and often to one another. We emphasize these interrelations and explore how an understanding of one polynomial can guide research into others. We also discuss multivariable generalizations of some of these polynomials and the theory facilitated by this. We conclude with two examples, one from biology and one from physics, that illustrate the applicability of graph polynomials in other fields. This is the second chapter of a two chapter series, and concludes Graph Polynomials and Their Applications I: The Tutte Polynomial, arXiv:0803.3079

Ellis-Monaghan, Joanna A



So Many Graphs, So Little Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interpreting graphs found in various content areas is an important skill for students, especially in light of high-stakes testing. In addition, reading and understanding graphs is an important part of numeracy, or numeric literacy, a skill necessary for informed citizenry. This article explores the different categories of graphs, provides…

Wall, Jennifer J.; Benson, Christine C.



Beyond Behavioral Skills to Human-Involved Processes: Relational Nursing Practice and Interpretive Pedagogy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behaviorist teaching of communication skills can interfere with learning of humanistic nursing. Interpretive inquiry can help students experience the transformative power for relationships and develop confidence and trust in their capacity for relational nursing practice. (Contains 20 references.) (SK)

Doane, Gweneth A. Hartrick



Preliminary Toward GestureBased Programming: AgentBased Haptic Skill Acquisition and Interpretation  

E-print Network

or implied, of the United States Government. #12; #12; Advanced Mechatronics Lab ­ Carnegie Mellon University Toward Gesture­Based Programming: Agent­Based Haptic Skill Acquisition and Interpretation #12; AdvancedPreliminary Toward Gesture­Based Programming: Agent­Based Haptic Skill Acquisition


Putting Meaning Behind Bars: Children's Interpretations of Bar Graphs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A glance at any newspaper shows that graphs play an important part in presenting data to the public. It appears self-evident that children need to develop "graphical literacy" as part of their mathematics education. As part of a series of mathematically orientated science activities in the Practical Mechanics in Primary Mathematics project, 102…

Doig, Brian; Groves, Susie


Interpretation of radiological images: towards a framework of knowledge and skills.  


The knowledge and skills that are required for radiological image interpretation are not well documented, even though medical imaging is gaining importance. This study aims to develop a comprehensive framework of knowledge and skills, required for two-dimensional and multiplanar image interpretation in radiology. A mixed-method study approach was applied. First, a literature search was performed to identify knowledge and skills that are important for image interpretation. Three databases, PubMed, PsycINFO and Embase, were searched for studies using synonyms of image interpretation skills or visual expertise combined with synonyms of radiology. Empirical or review studies concerning knowledge and skills for medical image interpretation were included and relevant knowledge and skill items were extracted. Second, a preliminary framework was built and discussed with nine selective experts in individual semi-structured interviews. The expert team consisted of four radiologists, one radiology resident, two education scientists, one cognitive psychologist and one neuropsychologist. The framework was optimised based on the experts comments. Finally, the framework was applied to empirical data, derived from verbal protocols of ten clerks interpreting two-dimensional and multiplanar radiological images. In consensus meetings adjustments were made to resolve discrepancies of the framework with the verbal protocol data. We designed a framework with three main components of image interpretation: perception, analysis and synthesis. The literature study provided four knowledge and twelve skill items. As a result of the expert interviews, one skill item was added and formulations of existing items were adjusted. The think-aloud experiment showed that all knowledge items and three of the skill items were applied within all three main components of the image interpretation process. The remaining framework items were apparent only within one of the main components. After combining two knowledge items, we finally identified three knowledge items and thirteen skills, essential for image interpretation by trainees. The framework can serve as a guideline for education and assessment of two- and three-dimensional image interpretation. Further validation of the framework in larger study groups with different levels of expertise is needed. PMID:24449126

van der Gijp, A; van der Schaaf, M F; van der Schaaf, I C; Huige, J C B M; Ravesloot, C J; van Schaik, J P J; Ten Cate, Th J



My Bar Graph Tells a Story  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Connecting stories to qualitative coordinate graphs has been suggested as an effective instructional strategy. Even students who are able to "create" bar graphs may struggle to correctly "interpret" them. Giving children opportunities to work with qualitative graphs can help them develop the skills to interpret, describe, and compare information…

McMillen, Sue; McMillen, Beth



Line Graph Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this article, the learning progress of one fifth-grade student is examined with regard to the development of her graph interpretation skills as she participated in the Junior Science Institute (JSI), a two-week, science intensive summer camp in which participants engaged in microbiology research and application. By showcasing the student's development of graph interpretation skills, the authors hope to make apparent some of the cognitive processes students may go through as they attempt to master this important inquiry skill and thus provide fellow teachers with insight as to how to more effectively develop these skills in their own students.

Idorenyin Jamar



Densities of Liquids, Significant Figures, and Graph Interpretation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a lesson plan for teaching students about fluid densities and significant figures. It includes a basic experiment, instructions for the students, and questions for the students that test their interpretation of the results.

Department, Brockport H.



Physics Students' Performance Using Computational Modelling Activities to Improve Kinematics Graphs Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate undergraduate students' performance while exposed to complementary computational modelling activities to improve physics learning, using the software "Modellus." Interpretation of kinematics graphs was the physics topic chosen for investigation. The theoretical framework adopted was based on Halloun's…

Araujo, Ives Solano; Veit, Eliane Angela; Moreira, Marco Antonio



Hands-on Materials for Teaching about Global Climate Change through Graph Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers need to address global climate change with students in their classrooms as evidence for consequences from these environmental changes mounts. One way to approach global climate change is through examination of authentic data. Mathematics and science may be integrated by interpreting graphs from the professional literature. This study…

Rule, Audrey C.; Hallagan, Jean E.; Shaffer, Barbara



UNF graduates of the ASL/English Interpreting Program will demonstrate mastery of content knowledge and interpreting skills through proficiency on course embedded assessments, activities, and critical task assessments. It is expected that candidates apply  

E-print Network

-monitoring skills to assess interpretation for accuracy and make repairs when necessary. Critical Thinking Skills · Apply critical thinking skills to ethical decision-making. · Apply critical thinking skills and interpreting skills through proficiency on course embedded assessments, activities, and critical task

Asaithambi, Asai


Collaborative Robotic Instruction: A Graph Teaching Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Graphing is a key skill in the study of Physics. Drawing and interpreting graphs play a key role in the understanding of science, while the lack of these has proved to be a handicap and a limiting factor in the learning of scientific concepts. It has been observed that despite the amount of previous graph-working experience, students of all ages…

Mitnik, Ruben; Recabarren, Matias; Nussbaum, Miguel; Soto, Alvaro



Measures of Fine Motor Skills in People with Tremor Disorders: Appraisal and Interpretation  

PubMed Central

People with Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, or other movement disorders involving tremor have changes in fine motor skills that are among the hallmarks of these diseases. Numerous measurement tools have been created and other methods devised to measure such changes in fine motor skills. Measurement tools may focus on specific features – e.g., motor skills or dexterity, slowness in movement execution associated with parkinsonian bradykinesia, or magnitude of tremor. Less obviously, some tools may be better suited than others for specific goals such as detecting subtle dysfunction early in disease, revealing aspects of brain function affected by disease, or tracking changes expected from treatment or disease progression. The purpose of this review is to describe and appraise selected measurement tools of fine motor skills appropriate for people with tremor disorders. In this context, we consider the tools’ content – i.e., what movement features they focus on. In addition, we consider how measurement tools of fine motor skills relate to measures of a person’s disease state or a person’s function. These considerations affect how one should select and interpret the results of these tools in laboratory and clinical contexts. PMID:23717299

Norman, Kathleen E.; Héroux, Martin E.



The Effect of a Graph-Oriented Computer-Assisted Project-Based Learning Environment on Argumentation Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to explore how seventh graders in a suburban school in the United States developed argumentation skills and science knowledge in a project-based learning environment that incorporated a graph-oriented, computer-assisted application. A total of 54 students (three classes) comprised this treatment…

Hsu, P. -S.; Van Dyke, M.; Chen, Y.; Smith, T. J.



Teaching and Learning Basic Social Studies Skills, Grades 7-12. Teacher and Pupil Resource Materials No. 311.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual contains 56 teacher-developed activities which can be used in social studies courses to improve students' basic skills. The activities teach location and map skills, writing and study skills, time skills, and thinking skills. Students also learn how to use reference books and how to read and interpret charts and graphs. Each activity…

Flowers, Emily


Line Graph Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the learning progress of one fifth-grade student is examined with regard to the development of her graph interpretation skills as she participated in the Junior Science Institute (JSI), a two-week, science intensive summer camp in which participants engaged in microbiology research and application. By showcasing the student's…

Pitts Bannister, Vanessa R.; Jamar, Idorenyin; Mutegi, Jomo W.



Categorization of First-Year University Students' Interpretations of Numerical Linear Distance-Time Graphs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We have investigated the various approaches taken by first-year university students (n[image omitted]550) when asked to determine the direction of motion, the constancy of speed, and a numerical value of the speed of an object at a point on a numerical linear distance-time graph. We investigated the prevalence of various well-known general…

Wemyss, Thomas; van Kampen, Paul



On the Use of Graph Transformation in the Formal Specification of Model Interpreters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Model-based development necessitates the transformation of models be- tween different stages and tools of the design process. These transformations must be precisely, preferably formally, specified, such that end-to-end semantic interoperability is maintained. The paper introduces a graph-transformation-based technique for spec- ifying these model transformations, gives a formal definition for the semantics of the transformation language, describes an implementation of the

Gabor Karsai; Aditya Agrawal; Feng Shi; Jonathan Sprinkle




NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although nobody can question the practical efficiency of quantum mechanics, there remains the serious question of its interpretation. As Valerio Scarani puts it, "We do not feel at ease with the indistinguishability principle (that is, the superposition principle) and some of its consequences." Indeed, this principle which pervades the quantum world is in stark contradiction with our everyday experience. From the very beginning of quantum mechanics, a number of physicists--but not the majority of them!--have asked the question of its "interpretation". One may simply deny that there is a problem: according to proponents of the minimalist interpretation, quantum mechanics is self-sufficient and needs no interpretation. The point of view held by a majority of physicists, that of the Copenhagen interpretation, will be examined in Section 10.1. The crux of the problem lies in the status of the state vector introduced in the preceding chapter to describe a quantum system, which is no more than a symbolic representation for the Copenhagen school of thought. Conversely, one may try to attribute some "external reality" to this state vector, that is, a correspondence between the mathematical description and the physical reality. In this latter case, it is the measurement problem which is brought to the fore. In 1932, von Neumann was first to propose a global approach, in an attempt to build a purely quantum theory of measurement examined in Section 10.2. This theory still underlies modern approaches, among them those grounded on decoherence theory, or on the macroscopic character of the measuring apparatus: see Section 10.3. Finally, there are non-standard interpretations such as Everett's many worlds theory or the hidden variables theory of de Broglie and Bohm (Section 10.4). Note, however, that this variety of interpretations has no bearing whatsoever on the practical use of quantum mechanics. There is no controversy on the way we should use quantum mechanics!

Bellac, Michel Le



Reading Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to graphing functions and interpreting graphs of real life situations such as distance and velocity. The lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to graphing and gathering information from graphs as well as suggested ways to work them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one.



Graphing Reality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Graphing is an essential skill that forms the foundation of any physical science. Understanding the relationships between measurements ultimately determines which modeling equations are successful in predicting observations. Over the years, science and math teachers have approached teaching this skill with a variety of techniques. For secondary…

Beeken, Paul



Bar Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This bar graph application allows the learner to interpret one of three sets of pre-existing data or to input their own data and create their own bar graph. The display can be altered to increase or descrease the interval on the y-axis or to increase or descrease the width of the bars on the x-axis.



Total Quality & Basic Skills. The TQ Castle--Using Basic Skills Development to Evade Alligators in the Moat.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Key skills required in the total quality workplace are cross-functional teaming, interpreting charts/graphs, oral communication, brainstorming, understanding cause/effect, categorizing ideas, critical pathing, formulating suggestions, analyzing the needs of internal and external customers, and writing status reports. (SK)

Lewe, Glenda



C-o-n-n-e-c-t-i-n-g through Interpreters: A Skill To Be Learned.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a special class to train deaf students of all ages in ways to work with their interpreters in mainstream school settings. The class uses explanation, role play, and questions to clarify the roles of the teacher and the interpreter and to stress the importance of flexibility in the mainstream. (DB)

Bennett, Diane; McEnhill, Chris; Gemalsky-Larder, Lorraine



Graphing is a Snap.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the development of graphing skills through a data collection activity that answers the question of the relationship between rubber band width and flight distance. Includes definitions of terms and instructions for helping students construct line and bar graphs. (DDR)

Rezba, Richard J.; Giese, Ronald N.; Cothron, Julia H.



Task Analyses of Critical Evaluations of Quantitative Arguments: First Steps in Critical Interpretation of Graphically Presented Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to think critically in the presence of arguments with essential quantitative elements, most often graphical elements, will become an essential skill for educated citizens in the future. This paper takes one specific graphical display, a narrow series of observational and interpretational tasks related to a graph, and using a small set…

McKnight, Curtis C.; And Others


Mass Spectrometry: Using a Game Format to Develop Logic Skills While Applying Fundamental Chemistry Knowledge to Determine Possible Chemical Formula Represented in Graphic Output From A Mass Spetrometer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a series of game-like lessons that assist the student in developing the logic skills needed to read mass spectrometer output and formulate the identity of an unknown molecule. As students endeavor to identify the unknown they must apply fundamental chemistry knowledge including formula mass, isotopes, periodic table, relative abundance, interpreting graphs, organic chemistry, ionization, bonding rules, and structural formulas.

Paul Fenno, Ubah Medical Academy, Hopkins, MN, based on an activity presented by Olaf Runquist, Professor, Hamline University.


Growing and Graphing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students visit second- and fourth-grade classes to measure the heights of older students using large building blocks as a non-standard unit of measure. They also measure adults in the school community. Results are displayed in age-appropriate bar graphs (paper cut-outs of miniature building blocks glued on paper to form bar graphs) enabling a comparison of the heights of different age groups. The activities that comprise this activity help students develop the concepts and vocabulary to describe, in a non-ambiguous way, how heights change as children age. This introduction to graphing provides an important foundation for creating and interpreting graphs in future years.

Engineering K-PhD Program,


Knowing a Lot for One's Age: Vocabulary Skill and Not Age Is Associated with Anticipatory Incremental Sentence Interpretation in Children and Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adults can incrementally combine information from speech with astonishing speed to anticipate future words. Concurrently, a growing body of work suggests that vocabulary ability is crucially related to lexical processing skills in children. However, little is known about this relationship with predictive sentence processing in children or adults.…

Borovsky, Arielle; Elman, Jeffrey L.; Fernald, Anne



Data collection and graph generation using touchscreen technology  

E-print Network

This thesis describes the design and implementation of the TouchGraph system, whose goal is to help students develop graphing skills by allowing them to record their own data and access the data of their classmates using ...

Pope, John (John W.), Jr



Using Physiology to Explore Graphing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Making graphs can be a challenging process for some students to understand. Using graphs and student collected data, the class will learn how to construct and interpret graphs. They will develop simple experiments; designate x and y axis, scale, label and plot points on a graph; determine blood pressure and extrapolate heart rate using pulse, sphygmomanometer, and stethoscope; collect, organize, display, and analyze experimental data; and discover factors affecting heart rate and pressure. Upon completion of this activity, students will be able to designate x and y axis, scale, label and plot points on a graph.

Mr. Bruce J. Dudek (St. Labre High School)



Graphing - Scaling a Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In science, students often start their graphs at an origin other than (0, 0). Also the scales are often very large or very small and variables, other than x and y, are used. The students will need to use breaks in the graph to accommodate the values. For example with the first problem they will want to start the vertical axis at 350, and the horizontal at 0.1000. In the answer key a graph created in Excel gives a general view of the data, however it is not possible to insert the necessary break to indicate that the intersection of the axis in not (0, 0).



Using Sorting Networks for Skill Building and Reasoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sorting networks, used in graph theory, have instructional value as a skill- building tool as well as an interesting exploration in discrete mathematics. Students can practice mathematics facts and develop reasoning and logic skills with this topic. (Contains 4 figures.)

Andre, Robert; Wiest, Lynda R.



Leadership Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists skills identified by the Leadership Development Task Force as being critical skills for a leader. Discussion focuses on information managing skills, including problem solving, decision making, setting goals and objectives; project management; and people managing skills, including interpersonal communications, conflict management, motivation,…

Hutchison, Cathleen; And Others



Lesson 19: Graphs of Functions Reading  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The lesson begins with graphs of the Dow Jones Industrial Average and water levels of Lake Huron where points on the graph are interpreted. Intervals of increase and maxima are introduced before the graph of F(x) = sqrt (x+4) is completed by first generating a table of data. This is followed by the vertical line test and using graphs to solve equations and inequalities.



Lesson Summary Students graph and analyze raw data for  

E-print Network

gasses in our atmosphere Prior Knowledge & Skills · Graphing skills · Knowledge of the greenhouse effect. What is the greenhouse effect? How does it work? 8. Where are the two largest holes locatedLesson Summary Students graph and analyze raw data for concentrations of four different greenhouse

Mojzsis, Stephen J.


Graphing Calculators: The Newest Revolution in Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that there are numerous advantages to using graphing calculators, including the teaching of higher-level thinking skills and allowing students to draw conclusions about what they are learning. However, mathematics educators face such challenges as teaching students when it is appropriate to use graphing calculators, course-content…

Clutter, Martha



Planar graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We sum in closed form the planar graphs in a zero-dimensional theory and generalize a previously known solution. An appropriate expansion of this solution is useful to sum planar graphs in any dimensional space-time.

Cicuta, G. M.; Montaldi, E.



Random graphs: structural-contextual dichotomy.  


A formal definition of random graphs is introduced which is applicable to graphical pattern recognition problems. The definition is used to formulate rigorously the structural-contextual dichotomy of random graphs. The probability of outcome graphs is expressed as the product of two terms, one due to the statistical variability of structure among the outcome graphs and the other due to their contextual variability. Expressions are obtained to estimate the various probability, typicality, and entropy measures. The members in an ensemble of signed digraphs are interpreted as outcome graphs of a random graph. The synthesized random graph is used to quantify the structural, contextual, and overall typicality of the outcome graphs with respect to the random graph. PMID:21868910

Wong, A K; Ghahraman, D E



Insight into earthquake sequencing: Analysis and interpretation of time-series constructed from the directed graph of the Markov chain model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Directed graph representation of a Markov chain model to study global earthquake sequencing leads to a time-series of state-to-state transition probabilities. A state refers to a configuration comprised of zones with either the occurrence or non-occurrence of an earthquake in each zone in a pre-determined time interval. We generalize the Markov chain of earthquake sequences by including the recurrent events in space and time for each event in the record-breaking sense. The record-breaking recurrent events provide the basis for redefining the weights for the state-to-state transition probabilities. For the non-linear and non-stationary time-series generated, we apply decomposition procedures such as ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) to study the state-to-state fluctuations in each of the intrinsic mode functions. We subject the intrinsic mode functions, the orthogonal basis set derived from the time-series using the EEMD, to a detailed analysis to draw information-content of the time-series. Also, we investigate the influence of random-noise on the data-driven state-to-state transition probabilities. We consider a second aspect of earthquake sequencing that is closely tied to its time-correlative behavior. Here, we extend the Fano factor and Allan factor analysis to the time-series of state-to state transition frequencies of a Markov chain that includes the spatio-temporally linked recurrent events in the record-breaking sense. Our results derived from a global seismic catalogue support not only the usefulness of the intrinsic mode functions in examining the time-series but also the presence of power-law behaviour exemplified by the Fano factor and the Allan factor.

Vasudevan, K.; Cavers, M.



Math Skills Activities for Use with Newspapers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document includes 50 activities for reinforcement, practice, and maintenance of basic mathematics skills. Activities are designed for middle school students. Skills include addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of whole numbers, fractions, and decimals as well as graphing and measurement. Activities are based upon a daily…

Sadowski, Barbara


Helping Students Make Sense of Graphs: An Experimental Trial of SmartGraphs Software  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Graphs are commonly used in science, mathematics, and social sciences to convey important concepts; yet students at all ages demonstrate difficulties interpreting graphs. This paper reports on an experimental study of free, Web-based software called SmartGraphs that is specifically designed to help students overcome their misconceptions regarding…

Zucker, Andrew; Kay, Rachel; Staudt, Carolyn



The Nature of Employability Skills: Empirical Evidence from Singapore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper concerns the changing nature of employability skills, moving from the original life skills or basic skills concepts to the increasingly work-oriented interpretation. The early concept of employability skills linked employability skills to job readiness and holding down employment. However, the work-oriented focus is increasingly linking…

Sung, Johnny; Ng, Michael Chi Man; Loke, Fiona; Ramos, Catherine



Permutation Graphs and Transitive Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A graph G with vertex set N = {1, 2, .-. , n} is called a permutation graph there exists a permutation P on N such that for i,j E N, (i - j)(P-'(i) - P-'(j)) < 0 if ar only if i and j are joined by an edge in G. A structural relationship is established between permutation graphs

Shimon Even; Amir Pnueli; Abraham Lempel



Skill Set  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With competition to attract quality students into career and technical education programs and many entrants to the workforce inadequately prepared with employability skills, some community colleges have found a way to answer industry's call--they are launching SkillsUSA chapters on campus. In this article, the author features SkillsUSA, a…

Holdsworth, Tom



Fostering the Development of Quantitative Life Skills through Introductory Astronomy: Can it be Done?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present preliminary results from a student survey designed to test whether the all-important life skill of numeracy/quantitative literacy can be fostered and improved upon in college students through the vehicle of non-major introductory courses in Astronomy. Many instructors of introductory science courses for non-majors would state that a major goal of our classes is to teach our students to distinguish between science and pseudoscience, truth and fiction, in their everyday lives. It is difficult to believe that such a skill can truly be mastered without a fair amount of mathematical sophistication in the form of arithmetic, statistical and graph reading skills that many American college students unfortunately lack when they enter our classrooms. In teaching what is frequently their "terminal science course in life” can we instill in our students the numerical skills that they need to be savvy consumers, educated citizens and discerning interpreters of the ever-present polls, studies and surveys in which our society is awash? In what may well be their final opportunity to see applied mathematics in the classroom, can we impress upon them the importance of mathematical sophistication in interpreting the statistics that they are bombarded with by the media? Our study is in its second semester, and is designed to investigate to what extent it is possible to improve important quantitative skills in college students through a single semester introductory Astronomy course.

Follette, Katherine B.; McCarthy, D. W.



The Graph Choice Chart  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data literacy is complex. When students investigate the natural world, they must be able to gather data, organize it in tables and spreadsheets, analyze it in context, and describe and interpret it--usually as evidence to support a scientific argument. These skills are echoed in the science and engineering practices of the "Next Generation…

Webber, Hannah; Nelson, Sarah J.; Weatherbee, Ryan; Zoellick, Bill; Schauffler, Molly



Skill set analysis in knowledge structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We extend the theory of knowledge structures by taking into account information about the skills a subject has. In the first part of the paper we exhibit some structural properties of the skill-problem relationship and consequences for the interpretation of concurrent theories in terms of the skill theory. The second part of the paper offers a test theory based on

Gunther Gediga; Ivo Duntsch



Skill Matters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skill is a challenging topic for archeologists because it requires balancing the biases of cultural relativity with the commonsense\\u000a understanding that some humans are more able than others. Using the content and results model of technology, this paper identifies\\u000a skill as a variable of technological knowledge with recognizable material results. Late Paleolithic Japanese blade and microblade\\u000a assemblages suggest that skill

Peter Bleed



Shop Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Shop Skills is a lesson plan which provides instruction in the safety procedures and work processes for hand and machine tools used in a metal machine shop. Specific skills include sawing, drilling, boring, grinding, lathing, and milling. After completing this module, students should be able to demonstrate proficiency in these skills through a variety of shop projects and in a final exercise that uses a combination of these skills. Note: This module is part of a modularized manufacturing technology curriculum created by the PSCME, found at



Helping Students Make Sense of Graphs: An Experimental Trial of SmartGraphs Software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphs are commonly used in science, mathematics, and social sciences to convey important concepts; yet students at all ages demonstrate difficulties interpreting graphs. This paper reports on an experimental study of free, Web-based software called SmartGraphs that is specifically designed to help students overcome their misconceptions regarding graphs. SmartGraphs allows students to interact with graphs and provides hints and scaffolding to help students, if they need help. SmartGraphs activities can be authored to be useful in teaching and learning a variety of topics that use graphs (such as slope, velocity, half-life, and global warming). A 2-year experimental study in physical science classrooms was conducted with dozens of teachers and thousands of students. In the first year, teachers were randomly assigned to experimental or control conditions. Data show that students of teachers who use SmartGraphs as a supplement to normal instruction make greater gains understanding graphs than control students studying the same content using the same textbooks, but without SmartGraphs. Additionally, teachers believe that the SmartGraphs activities help students meet learning goals in the physical science course, and a great majority reported they would use the activities with students again. In the second year of the study, several specific variations of SmartGraphs were researched to help determine what makes SmartGraphs effective.

Zucker, Andrew; Kay, Rachel; Staudt, Carolyn



A Penrose polynomial for embedded graphs  

E-print Network

We extend the Penrose polynomial, originally defined only for plane graphs, to graphs embedded in arbitrary surfaces. Considering this Penrose polynomial of embedded graphs leads to new identities and relations for the Penrose polynomial which can not be realized within the class of plane graphs. In particular, by exploiting connections with the transition polynomial and the ribbon group action, we find a deletion-contraction-type relation for the Penrose polynomial. We relate the Penrose polynomial of an orientable checkerboard colourable graph to the circuit partition polynomial of its medial graph and use this to find new combinatorial interpretations of the Penrose polynomial. We also show that the Penrose polynomial of a plane graph G can be expressed as a sum of chromatic polynomials of twisted duals of G. This allows us to obtain a new reformulation of the Four Colour Theorem.

Ellis-Monaghan, Joanna A



Graph Theory  

SciTech Connect

Graph theory is a branch of discrete combinatorial mathematics that studies the properties of graphs. The theory was pioneered by the Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler in the 18th century, commenced its formal development during the second half of the 19th century, and has witnessed substantial growth during the last seventy years, with applications in areas as diverse as engineering, computer science, physics, sociology, chemistry and biology. Graph theory has also had a strong impact in computational linguistics by providing the foundations for the theory of features structures that has emerged as one of the most widely used frameworks for the representation of grammar formalisms.

Sanfilippo, Antonio P.



Skill set analysis in knowledge structures.  


We extend the theory of knowledge structures by taking into account information about the skills a subject has. In the first part of the paper we exhibit some structural properties of the skill-problem relationship and consequences for the interpretation of concurrent theories in terms of the skill theory. The second part of the paper offers a test theory based on skill functions: we present measurements for the data consistency of the skill-problem relationship, and estimate abilities in terms of lower and/or upper boundaries of problem states and skills, given a special instance of the skill-problem relationship. Some practical considerations are discussed, which enable the user of a skill-based system to optimize a partial theory about the skill-based behaviour of subjects based on empirical results. PMID:12473233

Gediga, Günther; Düntsch, Ivo



Can Comparison of Contrastive Examples Facilitate Graph Understanding?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors explore the role of comparison in improving graph fluency. The ability to use graphs fluently is crucial for STEM achievement, but graphs are challenging to interpret and produce because they often involve integration of multiple variables, continuous change in variables over time, and omission of certain details in order to highlight…

Smith, Linsey A.; Gentner, Dedre



Circle Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use preset data or input their own data that will be represented in a circle graph. This activity allows students to explore making circle graphs and calculating the percent of a circle that each data entry occupies. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.



Graphing Points  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let's learn how to use the lines on graphs (the x & y axis) to plot information. Choose any of the activities below to test your knowledge of identifying the coordinates correctly. Meteoroid Coordinates Soccer Coordinates Donut Coordinates Graphing Points Save the Zogs!-Using Linear Equations Using your coordinate plane knowledge and linear equations help to rescue the Zogs! Can you find the axis for these problems too? What have you noticed about linear equations? What do the lines in linear equations look ...




Graphing Paleoclimate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will gain a basic understanding of climate, earth's energy budget, greenhouse gases, factors that affect the climate, paleoclimate, and how proxies are used. The students will then graph paleoclimates. All of the graphing data needed for this activity are contained within this unit. While presenting their findings, students will look for any connections to global climate and some of the variables suggested within the unit. There are corresponding assignments along with a scoring guide also available.



Convex Graph Invariants  

E-print Network

Dec 2, 2010 ... tion; robust optimization; graph deconvolution; graph sampling; graph hypothesis testing ..... problem, which involves identifying hidden cliques embedded ... work setting, transcriptional regulatory networks of bacteria have ...



Graphs and Charts: An Important Topic for the Middle Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Graphs and charts are discussed in terms of levels of applications and skills necessary for effective use. Five activities, most appropriate for upper-elementary or junior high students, are suggested. (MK)

Wesson, James B.



National Association for Interpretation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NAI promotes the advancement of the profession of interpretation, a communication process used in on-site informal education programs at parks, zoos, nature centers, historic sites, museums, and aquaria. This site announces national and regional NAI conferences, workshops on diverse topics, skill certification programs, networking opportunities and job listing service. Includes membership information and application; can order newsletters, professional journals and books. Membership, program and publication fees apply.



National Association for Interpretation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NAI promotes the advancement of the profession of interpretation, a communication process used in on-site informal education programs at parks, zoos, nature centers, historic sites, museums, and aquaria. This site announces national and regional NAI conferences, workshops on diverse topics, skill certification programs, networking opportunities and job listing service. Includes membership information and application; can order newsletters, professional journals and books. Membership, program and publication fees apply.


Graph Theory in Drama  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use graph theory to create social graphs for their own social networks and apply what learn to create a graph representing the social dynamics found in a dramatic text. Students then derive meaning based on what they know about the text from the graphs they created. Students learn graph theory vocabulary, as well as engineering applications of graph theory.



Novice Interpretations of Visual Representations of Geosciences Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Past cognition research of individual's perception and comprehension of bar and line graphs are substantive enough that they have resulted in the generation of graph design principles and graph comprehension theories; however, gaps remain in our understanding of how people process visual representations of data, especially of geologic and atmospheric data. This pilot project serves to build on others' prior research and begin filling the existing gaps. The primary objectives of this pilot project include: (i) design a novel data collection protocol based on a combination of paper-based surveys, think-aloud interviews, and eye-tracking tasks to investigate student data handling skills of simple to complex visual representations of geologic and atmospheric data, (ii) demonstrate that the protocol yields results that shed light on student data handling skills, and (iii) generate preliminary findings upon which tentative but perhaps helpful recommendations on how to more effectively present these data to the non-scientist community and teach essential data handling skills. An effective protocol for the combined use of paper-based surveys, think-aloud interviews, and computer-based eye-tracking tasks for investigating cognitive processes involved in perceiving, comprehending, and interpreting visual representations of geologic and atmospheric data is instrumental to future research in this area. The outcomes of this pilot study provide the foundation upon which future more in depth and scaled up investigations can build. Furthermore, findings of this pilot project are sufficient for making, at least, tentative recommendations that can help inform (i) the design of physical attributes of visual representations of data, especially more complex representations, that may aid in improving students' data handling skills and (ii) instructional approaches that have the potential to aid students in more effectively handling visual representations of geologic and atmospheric data that they might encounter in a course, television news, newspapers and magazines, and websites. Such recommendations would also be the potential subject of future investigations and have the potential to impact the design features when data is presented to the public and instructional strategies not only in geoscience courses but also other science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses.

Burkemper, L. K.; Arthurs, L.



Graphing Tides  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student graphing of high and low tide from locations showing the three tide types (diurnal, semi-diurnal, and mixed) and the Bay of Fundy (tidal amplitude increased by resonance). Students recognize that not all tides are the same and that location is an important control on tides.

Martin Farley


Pi Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use a straight line to learn about circles. Learners measure and record the diameter and circumference of different sized cylindrical objects on a chart. Learners then plot the diameters and circumferences on a graph and calculate the slope to discover the linear relationship between the two proprieties.

Yu, Julie



Backyard Graphing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math activity, learners will create a scale diagram of their backyard or other outdoor area on graph paper. This activity encourages learners to use models and pictures to relate concepts of ratio, proportion and percentage, as well as to make estimates and comparisons using common units of measurement.




Library Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed to acquaint students of the University of Missouri-Columbia with the facilities and resources of the Ellis Library, and is intended for students enrolled in Library Science 105: Library Skills. The guide is organized into sections dealing with search strategies and types of library materials. It opens with an orientation to…

Bhullar, Pushpajit K., Ed.; Lawhorne, Anne R., Ed.


Leadership Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While this may not be a "complete list" of what leadership skills one needs to effectively lead in any/every situation, it should provide a great overview of many of the things s/he needs to do, at least initially.

Parish, Thomas S.



Graph Theory/Harju 2014 GRAPH THEORY  

E-print Network

problems of Graph Theory: ­ Planar graphs ­ Cauchy (1814) · König (1936): first book · Biggs, Lloyd, Wilson1 v2 v3 Later we concentrate on (simple) graphs. #12;DIGRAPHS In a directed graph or digraph D = (V

Harju, Tero


Slide-Rule Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students use their Log Tapes as a reference for ordered pairs, and graph positive numbers as a function of their base-10 logarithms. They extend each plotted point to the vertical axis, thereby generating a logarithmic scale that cuts and folds into an improvised slide rule. This is activity E1 in the "Far Out Math" educator's guide. Lessons in the guide include activities in which students measure,compare quantities as orders of magnitude, become familiar with scientific notation, and develop an understanding of exponents and logarithms using examples from NASA's GLAST mission. These are skills needed to understand the very large and very small quantities characteristic of astronomical observations. Note: In 2008, GLAST was renamed Fermi, for the physicist Enrico Fermi. 


Graph Decomposition Approaches for Terminology Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a graph-based decomposition methodology of a network of document features represented by a terminology graph. The\\u000a graph is automatically extracted from raw data based on Natural Language Processing techniques implemented in the TermWatch\\u000a system. These graphs are Small Worlds. Based on clique minimal separators and the associated graph of atoms: a subgraph without\\u000a clique separator, we show that

Mohamed Didi Biha; Bangaly Kaba; Marie-jean Meurs; Eric Sanjuan



Library Technician Skill Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents skill standards for library technicians. Introductory sections describe the industry and the job, what skill standards are, how the library technician skill standards were developed, employability skills and critical competencies, and the SCANS (Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills) foundation skills profile.…

Highline Community Coll., Des Moines, WA.


Design Document. EKG Interpretation Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching plan is designed to assist nursing instructors assigned to advanced medical surgical nursing courses in acquainting students with the basic skills needed to perform electrocardiographic (ECG or EKG) interpretations. The first part of the teaching plan contains a statement of purpose; audience recommendations; a flow chart detailing…

Webb, Sandra M.


Flexibility in data interpretation: effects of representational format.  


Graphs and tables differentially support performance on specific tasks. For tasks requiring reading off single data points, tables are as good as or better than graphs, while for tasks involving relationships among data points, graphs often yield better performance. However, the degree to which graphs and tables support flexibility across a range of tasks is not well-understood. In two experiments, participants detected main and interaction effects in line graphs and tables of bivariate data. Graphs led to more efficient performance, but also lower flexibility, as indicated by a larger discrepancy in performance across tasks. In particular, detection of main effects of variables represented in the graph legend was facilitated relative to detection of main effects of variables represented in the x-axis. Graphs may be a preferable representational format when the desired task or analytical perspective is known in advance, but may also induce greater interpretive bias than tables, necessitating greater care in their use and design. PMID:24427145

Braithwaite, David W; Goldstone, Robert L



On cliques in graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clique is a maximal complete subgraph of a graph. The maximum number of cliques possible in a graph withn nodes is determined. Also, bounds are obtained for the number of different sizes of cliques possible in such a graph.

J. W. Moon; L. Moser



Cayley Bipolar Fuzzy Graphs  

PubMed Central

We introduce the concept of Cayley bipolar fuzzy graphs and investigate some of their properties. We present some interesting properties of bipolar fuzzy graphs in terms of algebraic structures. We also discuss connectedness in Cayley bipolar fuzzy graphs. PMID:24453797

Alshehri, Noura O.



Skill Category Specific skill proficient in  

E-print Network

.edu Relationship Communication Creative #12;Skill Category Specific skill Highly or moderately proficient in EnjoySkill Category Specific skill Highly or moderately proficient in Enjoy using Work in teams as a liaison among professors, staff, and/or students to facilitate communication and build partnerships

Keinan, Alon


Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Machining Skills Cluster.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document of skill standards for the machining skills cluster serves as a guide to workforce preparation program providers in defining content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. These 67 occupational skill standards describe what people should know and be able to do in an…

Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.


Reading Bar Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bar graphs are simple ways to display data. Taking numbers and creating a bar graph makes it easier to read and draw conclusions. From bar graphs, you can easily compare data from more than one source. In this lesson, students will read two temperature bar graphs of data from Africa using authentic NASA data. They will identify major parts of bar graphs and make a generalization statement based on graphed data.


Adjusting protein graphs based on graph entropy  

PubMed Central

Measuring protein structural similarity attempts to establish a relationship of equivalence between polymer structures based on their conformations. In several recent studies, researchers have explored protein-graph remodeling, instead of looking a minimum superimposition for pairwise proteins. When graphs are used to represent structured objects, the problem of measuring object similarity become one of computing the similarity between graphs. Graph theory provides an alternative perspective as well as efficiency. Once a protein graph has been created, its structural stability must be verified. Therefore, a criterion is needed to determine if a protein graph can be used for structural comparison. In this paper, we propose a measurement for protein graph remodeling based on graph entropy. We extend the concept of graph entropy to determine whether a graph is suitable for representing a protein. The experimental results suggest that when applied, graph entropy helps a conformational on protein graph modeling. Furthermore, it indirectly contributes to protein structural comparison if a protein graph is solid. PMID:25474347



Givental graphs and inversion symmetry  

E-print Network

Inversion symmetry is a very non-trivial discrete symmetry of Frobenius manifolds. It was obtained by Dubrovin from one of the elementary Schlesinger transformations of a special ODE associated to a Frobenius manifold. In this paper, we review the Givental group action on Frobenius manifolds in terms of Feynman graphs and obtain an interpretation of the inversion symmetry in terms of the action of the Givental group. We also consider the implication of this interpretation of the inversion symmetry for the Schlesinger transformations and for the Hamiltonians of the associated principle hierarchy.

P. Dunin-Barkowski; S. Shadrin; L. Spitz



Consistent graph layout for weighted graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present three algorithms that build graph layouts for undirected, weighted graphs. Our goal is to generate layouts that are consistent with the weights in the graph. All of the algorithms are force-oriented and have been successful in solving the problem up to a certain preci- sion. They all start with a random layout and improve it

Dana Vrajitoru; Jason Deboni



Basic visual observation skills training course: Appendix A. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the basic visual observation skills course is to help safeguards inspectors evaluate and improve their skills in making observations during inspections and in evaluating and interpreting this information. The first 12 hours of the course provide training in five skill areas: perception and recognition; attention to detail; memory; mental imaging, mapping, and modeling skills; and judgment and decision making. Following this training is an integrating exercise involving a simulated safeguards inspection. This report contains the course manual and materials.

Toquam, J.L.; Morris, F.A.; Griggs, J.R.



Interpretive Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an interpretative experiment involving the application of symmetry and temperature-dependent proton and fluorine nmr spectroscopy to the solution of structural and kinetic problems in coordination chemistry. (MLH)

DeHaan, Frank, Ed.



Interpreting Bones.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an activity which introduces students to the nature and challenges of paleoanthropology. In the exercise, students identify diagrammed bones and make interpretations about the creature. Presents questions and tasks employed in the lesson. (ML)

Weymouth, Patricia P.



Prefix-Recognisable Graphs and Monadic Second-Order Logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We present several characterisations of the class of prefix-recognisable graphs including representations via graph-grammars and MSO-interpretations. The former implies that prefix-recognisable graphs have bounded clique-width; the latter is used to extend this class to arbitrary relational structures. We prove that the prefix-recognisable groups are exactly the context-free groups. Finally, we develop methods to prove that certain structures are not

Achim Blumensath



Structural Differentiation of Graphs Using Hosoya-Based Indices  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we introduce the Hosoya-Spectral indices and the Hosoya information content of a graph. The first measure combines structural information captured by partial Hosoya polynomials and graph spectra. The latter is a graph entropy measure which is based on blocks consisting of vertices with the same partial Hosoya polynomial. We evaluate the discrimination power of these quantities by interpreting numerical results. PMID:25019933

Dehmer, Matthias; Mowshowitz, Abbe; Shi, Yongtang



Using a Problem Solving-Cooperative Learning Approach to Improve Students' Skills for Interpreting [Superscript 1]H NMR Spectra of Unknown Compounds in an Organic Spectroscopy Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To address third- and fourth-year chemistry students' difficulties with the challenge of interpreting [superscript 1]H NMR spectra, a problem solving-cooperative learning technique was incorporated in a Spectra of Organic Compounds course. Using this approach helped students deepen their understanding of the basics of [superscript 1]H NMR…

Angawi, Rihab F.



Skills and knowledge structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suppose that is a set of problems and is a set of skills. A skill function assigns to each problem - i.e. to each element of - those sets of skills which are minimally sufficient to solve ; a problem function assigns to each set X of skills the set of problems which can be solved with these skills (a

Ivo Duntsch; Gunther Gediga



Graphing for Any Grade.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An instructional sequence for teaching graphing that has been extensively field tested in kindergarten through grade six is detailed. The material begins with point graphs, employs a movable y-axis to begin with minimal clutter, and has graphs constructed before reading graphs is required. (MP)

Nibbelink, William



Graphing Polar Curves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Graphing polar curves typically involves a combination of three traditional techniques, all of which can be time-consuming and tedious. However, an alternative method--graphing the polar function on a rectangular plane--simplifies graphing, increases student understanding of the polar coordinate system, and reinforces graphing techniques learned…

Lawes, Jonathan F.



DSM skills are marketing skills  

SciTech Connect

Skeptics may view DSM as a convenient cover for using ratepayer funds (in the form of rebates and other financial inducements) to keep customers on the grid, thus providing electric utilities with an unfair competitive advantage. Actually, the most powerful advantages may result from the marketing skills DSM fosters. Put simply, DSM teaches utilities to understand and meet customer needs more effectively. Managing customers use of electricity has taught utilities unprecedented amounts about specific end-use technologies, about customers fuel and equipment selection practices and preferences, and about what it costs to serve their customers. As DSM programs have become more market-driven, utilities have become better communicators and salesmen in order to win customer participation. The result: DSM departments play an increasingly central role in managing customer relationships overall and in developing and implementing competitive strategies.

Stone, C. (Easton Consultants, Inc., Stamford, CT (United States))



Bar Graph Investigations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan students conduct a survey of ten students, collect data in a tally chart, and then display and analyze the results in a bar graph. In the analysis students must compare numbers, add, and subtract using the data in the bar graph to generate questions as well as answer them. The lesson plan includes a graph template, a link to an interactive graphing tool, extension questions, and a fact family sheet to show the related facts from their graph analysis.

Burton, Grace M.



Graphs and thermodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graphs are used in many fields of chemistry for codification and model purposes. One of these fields is widely known under\\u000a the acronym QSAR\\/QSPR, i.e., quantitative structure–activity\\/structure–property relationships. In chemical graph studies directed\\u000a graphs, known as digraphs, i.e., graphs with a preferred direction, have mainly been used to codify chemical reaction networks.\\u000a Actually, digraphs, especially directed acyclic graphs together with

Lionello Pogliani



Designing Better Graphs by Including Distributional Information and Integrating Words, Numbers, and Images  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statistical graphs are commonly used in scientific publications. Unfortunately, graphs in psychology journals rarely portray distributional information beyond central tendency, and few graphs portray inferential statistics. Moreover, those that do portray inferential information generally do not portray it in a way that is useful for interpreting

Lane, David M.; Sandor, Aniko



SkillsSkills EmployersEmployers  

E-print Network

TheThe SkillsSkills EmployersEmployers WantWant Communication Skills Spoken, comprehension, written language and grammar (U.S. English) · Class/Group Presentations - Basic Speech (COM 1010) or Debate (COM) Courses · Reading and Research, Trial, Error and Evaluate; Practice Objectivity C A Teamwork Ability

Berdichevsky, Victor


Engineering interpretation  

E-print Network

to interpret images using a small amount of edge and corner data. The Archer, Henry Moore. 8­bit greyscale image, 591 KBytes. Artist's line drawing of The Archer. Perhaps 200 bytes of information. Edges, it is important to bear in mind the invari­ able presence of image noise. Consider this signal I

Dyer, Charles R.


Programming Interpretation,  

E-print Network

/2004) Chapter 2: Basic Notions of Predicate Logic . Signature, Formula . Interpretation, Model . Implication2. Basic Notions of Predicate Logic 2­1 Deductive Databases and Logic Programming (Winter 2003 and Logic Programming Univ. Halle, 2011 2. Basic Notions of Predicate Logic 2­2 Objectives After completing

Brass, Stefan


Programming Interpretation,  

E-print Network

/2004) Chapter 2: Basic Notions of Predicate Logic . Signature, Formula . Interpretation, Model . Implication2. Basic Notions of Predicate Logic 2­1 Deductive Databases and Logic Programming (Winter 2003 and Logic Programming Univ. Halle, 2003 2. Basic Notions of Predicate Logic 2­2 Objectives After completing

Brass, Stefan


Programming Interpretation,  

E-print Network

/2004) Chapter 2: Basic Notions of Predicate Logic . Signature, Formula . Interpretation, Model . Implication2. Basic Notions of Predicate Logic 2­1 Deductive Databases and Logic Programming (Winter 2003 and Logic Programming Univ. Halle, 2006 2. Basic Notions of Predicate Logic 2­2 Objectives After completing

Brass, Stefan


Intrinsic graph structure estimation using graph laplacian.  


A graph is a mathematical representation of a set of variables where some pairs of the variables are connected by edges. Common examples of graphs are railroads, the Internet, and neural networks. It is both theoretically and practically important to estimate the intensity of direct connections between variables. In this study, a problem of estimating the intrinsic graph structure from observed data is considered. The observed data in this study are a matrix with elements representing dependency between nodes in the graph. The dependency represents more than direct connections because it includes influences of various paths. For example, each element of the observed matrix represents a co-occurrence of events at two nodes or a correlation of variables corresponding to two nodes. In this setting, spurious correlations make the estimation of direct connection difficult. To alleviate this difficulty, a digraph Laplacian is used for characterizing a graph. A generative model of this observed matrix is proposed, and a parameter estimation algorithm for the model is also introduced. The notable advantage of the proposed method is its ability to deal with directed graphs, while conventional graph structure estimation methods such as covariance selections are applicable only to undirected graphs. The algorithm is experimentally shown to be able to identify the intrinsic graph structure. PMID:24708372

Noda, Atsushi; Hino, Hideitsu; Tatsuno, Masami; Akaho, Shotaro; Murata, Noboru



Skill Scales Companion Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a reference document meant to accompany other National Skill Standards Board (NSSB) publications that describe the development of skill standards, including Built to Work: A Common Framework for Skill Standards. This companion guide provides the NSSB Complexity Rating Skill Scales. Chapter 1 explains briefly how this tool fits…

National Skill Standards Board (DOL/ETA), Washington, DC.


Interpretive Medicine  

PubMed Central

Patient-centredness is a core value of general practice; it is defined as the interpersonal processes that support the holistic care of individuals. To date, efforts to demonstrate their relationship to patient outcomes have been disappointing, whilst some studies suggest values may be more rhetoric than reality. Contextual issues influence the quality of patient-centred consultations, impacting on outcomes. The legitimate use of knowledge, or evidence, is a defining aspect of modern practice, and has implications for patient-centredness. Based on a critical review of the literature, on my own empirical research, and on reflections from my clinical practice, I critique current models of the use of knowledge in supporting individualised care. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), and its implementation within health policy as Scientific Bureaucratic Medicine (SBM), define best evidence in terms of an epistemological emphasis on scientific knowledge over clinical experience. It provides objective knowledge of disease, including quantitative estimates of the certainty of that knowledge. Whilst arguably appropriate for secondary care, involving episodic care of selected populations referred in for specialist diagnosis and treatment of disease, application to general practice can be questioned given the complex, dynamic and uncertain nature of much of the illness that is treated. I propose that general practice is better described by a model of Interpretive Medicine (IM): the critical, thoughtful, professional use of an appropriate range of knowledges in the dynamic, shared exploration and interpretation of individual illness experience, in order to support the creative capacity of individuals in maintaining their daily lives. Whilst the generation of interpreted knowledge is an essential part of daily general practice, the profession does not have an adequate framework by which this activity can be externally judged to have been done well. Drawing on theory related to the recognition of quality in interpretation and knowledge generation within the qualitative research field, I propose a framework by which to evaluate the quality of knowledge generated within generalist, interpretive clinical practice. I describe three priorities for research in developing this model further, which will strengthen and preserve core elements of the discipline of general practice, and thus promote and support the health needs of the public. PMID:21805819

Reeve, Joanne



Basic visual observation skills training course: Appendix B. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the basic visual observation skills course is to help safeguards inspectors evaluate and improve their skills in making observations during inspections and in evaluating and interpreting this information. The first 12 hours of the course provide training in five skill areas: perception and recognition; attention to detail; memory; mental imaging, mapping, and modeling skills; and judgment and decision making. Following this training is an integrating exercise involving a simulated safeguards inspection. This report contains the in-class exercises in the five skill areas; pre- and post-course exercises in closure, hidden figures, map memory, and mental rotations; the final examination; a training evaluation form; and the integrating exercise.

Toquam, J.L.; Morris, F.A.; Griggs, J.R.



Exponential Graphing Using Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is teacher/student directed for discovering and translating exponential functions using a graphing app. The lesson focuses on the translations from a parent graph and how changing the coefficient, base and exponent values relate to the transformation.

Gaynr, Cheryl



Distance in stratified graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A graph G is stratified if its vertex set is partitioned into classes, called strata. If there are k strata, then G is k-stratified. These graphs were introduced to study problems in VLSI design. The strata in a stratified graph are also referred to as color classes. For a color X in a stratified graph G, the X-eccentricity eX(v) of

Gary Chartrand; Lisa Hansen; Reza Rashidi; Naveed Sherwani



Complex Networks and Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about complex networks and how to represent them using graphs. They also learn that graph theory is a useful mathematical tool for studying complex networks in diverse applications of science and engineering, such as neural networks in the brain, biochemical reaction networks in cells, communication networks, such as the internet, and social networks. Topics covered include set theory, defining a graph, as well as defining the degree of a node and the degree distribution of a graph.



Flow-Critical Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce the concept of k-flow-critical graphs. These are graphs that do not admit a k-flow but such that any smaller graph obtained from it by con- traction of edges or of sets of vertices is k-flowable. Throughout this paper we will refer to k-flow-critical graphs simply as k-critical. Any minimum counterexample for Tutte's 3-Flow and 5-Flow

Cândida Nunes Da Silva; Cláudio Leonardo Lucchesi



Interpreting functions of one-dimensional kinematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work examined several factors related to interpreting graphical representations of motion concepts. Since the seminal work of Larkin and Simon (1987), cognitive research has investigated informational equivalence and computational efficiency by contrasting performance across different representations systems such as line versus bar graph (Ali & Peebles, 2012; Shah & Freedman, 2009; Zacks & Tversky, 1999), table versus graph (Speier, 2006; Vessey, 1991) or table versus map (Smelcer & Carmel, 1997). Physics education research has focused on difficulties related to interpreting motion concepts in graphs, accounting for them in terms of misconceptions. Kinematics, the branch of physics concerned with the motion of objects, makes an interesting study of informational equivalence and computational efficiency because its three primary representations -- position-time, velocity-time, and acceleration-time graphs -- can reflect the same information in the same representational system which provides a different type of contrast than has usually been used in this area of cognitive research. In the present work, four experiments were used to test several hypotheses concerned with whether information about the motion of objects can be directly read-off the graph or whether it needed additional processing beyond what was directly visible; Palmer (1987) referred to this as the derivational structure of representations. The main findings across the four experiments were that (a) graph type was not a reliable factor of graph interpretation difficulty, (b) derivational structure was useful for analyzing tasks but there was no evidence supporting it as a process account, (c) graph-based judgment is susceptible to visual features in the graph that trigger powerful spatial-conceptual correspondences particularly height (e.g., higher means more, lower means less), direction of slope (e.g., zero, positive, negative), and curvature (e.g., increasing rate of change, decreasing rate of change), (d) subjects primarily based their judgments on information from these features even when interpretation demanded more elaborate inferences with respect to the actual properties of motion depicted, and (e) domain knowledge was not enough to override the spatial-conceptual correspondences that biased judgment.

Canty, Reality S.


Reflections on "The Graph"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article responds to arguments by Skidmore and Thompson (this issue of "Educational Researcher") that a graph published more than 10 years ago was erroneously reproduced and "gratuitously damaged" perceptions of the quality of education research. After describing the purpose of the original graph, the author counters assertions that the graph

Petrosino, Anthony



Graphing Inequalities, Connecting Meaning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students often have difficulty with graphing inequalities (see Filloy, Rojano, and Rubio 2002; Drijvers 2002), and J. Matt Switzer's students were no exception. Although students can produce graphs for simple inequalities, they often struggle when the format of the inequality is unfamiliar. Even when producing a correct graph of an…

Switzer, J. Matt



Geodetic spectra of graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geodetic numbers of graphs and digraphs have been investigated in the literature recently. The main purpose of this paper is to study the geodetic spectrum of a graph. For any two vertices u and v in an oriented graph D ,a u-v geodesic is a shortest directed path from u to v .L etI (u ,v ) denote the set

Gerard J. Changa


Graphing Quadratic Equations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an introductory lesson to graphing quadratic equations. This lesson uses graphing technology to illustrate the differences between quadratic equations and linear equations. In addition, it allows students to identify important parts of the quadratic equation and how each piece changes the look of the graph.

Lengacher, Robert



Language Performance, Context and the Personality of the Interpreter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interpreting is an example of context-bound performance in which the interpreter has a prescribed role in infinitely varied contexts. The use of interpreting to train language students in confident and competent language use in less demanding contexts contributes to the development of both interpersonal skills and the ability to switch language…

Henderson, John


Algebraic thinking :A Basic Skill  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. The resources highlighted here aim to reflect students growing mathematical capacity over the span of the middle school years. The activities and lessons, intended as supplementary materials, range from introduction to the fundamentals of algebra to work on linear functions. Uniformly, they take into consideration the preference of the middle school student for concrete models, visual representations, and interactive tasks. You will find resources on: Working with algebraic expressions, solving equations, understanding graphs, and moving from patterns to rules to functions. Some are games, others are online simulations that can complement a lesson, and yet others are full-blown lesson plans. We believe you will find tasks here that motivate your students to expand their basic skills in algebra.

Terese Herrera


Reaction to Indispensable Manual Calculation Skills in a CAS Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reacts to an article published in a previous issue of this journal on the effects of graphing calculators and computer algebra systems (CAS) on students' manual calculation and algebraic manipulation skills. Considers the contribution made by Jean-Baptiste Lagrange to thinking about the role of CAS in teaching algebra. (ASK)

Monaghan, John



A First-Year Course That Teaches Research Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the Fall semester of 2009, I taught a first-year course that focused on skills required to successfully complete undergraduate research. This paper will discuss the Simpson College first-year course requirements, my course goals, the graph theory topics covered, student feedback, and instructor reflection.

Czarneski, Debra



Predictors of employer satisfaction: technical and non-technical skills.  


Employers of 2007-2009 graduates from Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine were asked to respond to a survey regarding their overall satisfaction with their new employees as well as their new employees' preparation in several technical and non-technical skill areas. Seventy-five responses contained complete data and were used in the analysis. Four technical skill areas (data collection, data interpretation, planning, and taking action) and five non-technical skill areas (interpersonal skills, ability to deal with legal issues, business skills, making referrals, and problem solving) were identified. All of the skill area subscales listed above had appropriate reliability (Cronbach's alpha>0.70) and were positively and significantly correlated with overall employer satisfaction. Results of two simultaneous regression analyses indicated that of the four technical skill areas, taking action is the most salient predictor of employer satisfaction. Of the five non-technical skill areas, interpersonal skills, business skills, making referrals, and problem solving were the most important skills in predicting employer satisfaction. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that all technical skills explained 25% of the variation in employer satisfaction; non-technical skills explained an additional 42% of the variation in employer satisfaction. PMID:22433741

Danielson, Jared A; Wu, Tsui-Feng; Fales-Williams, Amanda J; Kirk, Ryan A; Preast, Vanessa A



Graph Matching Motion Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Graph Matching Motion Model shows the graph of position as a function of time, and the motion diagram, for a particular object that experiences one-dimensional motion with constant acceleration. Using the sliders, try to match the motion of the red object to that of the blue object - this should also get the two position versus time graphs to match. Then, predict what the velocity and acceleration graphs look like, by sliding the end points of the red lines up or down to give correct straight-line graphs. The Graph Matching Motion model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_bu_vector_graph_matching.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Duffy, Andrew



How to Match Reading Materials to Student Reading Levels: I. Fry's graph and the Diagnostic Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The principles and skills of reading instruction must be expanded upon to improve student competence in social studies content. Two methods (Fry's Readability graph and the Diagnostic Survey) for determining readability and evaluation are presented as an aid to accomplishing reading skills. (JR)

Dolgin, Ann B.



Ecologies of Outdoor Skill: An Education of Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants' performances of outdoor skills and leadership are interpreted for environmental learning using Ingold's (2000) notion of an "education of attention": the fine-tuning of their perception. The actual tasks and activities of adventure travel have until recently gone largely unquestioned; but the relationship between skills and…

Mullins, Philip M.



Physical principles for economies of skilled movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents some elementary principles regarding constraints on movements, which may be useful in modeling and interpreting motor control strategies for skilled movements. Movements which are optimum with respect to various objectives, or “costs”, are analyzed and compared. The specific costs considered are related to movement time, distance, peak velocity, energy, peak acceleration, and rate of change of acceleration

W. L. Nelson



Interpretation Of Biomechanical Data To A Gymnastics Coach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several trials of many different gymnastics skills on various pieces of apparatus were filmed and the results were studied with the coach. The time to accomplish the entire skill as well as the time for each segment of the skill was important to the coach. He was also interested in angle of release or push-off and the path of the center of gravity. Lastly, graphs of velocities and accelerations of limb segments were revealing to the coach. Biomechanical analysis has helped him see why the performances were good; he is more interested in working with the investigator in all the events in gymnastics through the medium of cinematography.

Shierman, Gail



Spectral characterizations of sun graphs and broken sun graphs  

E-print Network

Spectral characterizations of sun graphs and broken sun graphs Romain Boulet 10 Dec 2009 Abstract- cyclic graphs. An odd (resp. even) sun is a graph obtained by appending a pendant vertex to each vertex of an odd (resp. even) cycle. A broken sun is a graph obtained by deleting pendant vertices of a sun

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Social Skills Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The term “social skills” encompasses an array of learned behaviors that share the common goal of maintaining or increasing\\u000a reinforcement within a social context. Deficits in social skills can occur at any developmental period and are not likely\\u000a to improve spontaneously because impaired social skills impede interactions with other people. In turn, unsatisfying or disruptive\\u000a interactions exacerbate social skill deficits

Ashley J. Smith; Judith A. Jordan; Mary Fran Flood; David J. Hansen


Noshing on Numbers: Using and Interpreting Data in Activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students must learn how to plot and analyze data as a fundamental science and math skill. Data must also be incorporated into activities in meaningful ways that allow students to build understanding of the concepts being shared. In this workshop, attendees participated in three graphing activities, which served as the basis for discussion of these numerical literacy issues in the science classroom.

Shupla, C. B.



Balanced Skills and Entrepreneurship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entrepreneurs are generalists who put together teams of people and assemble resources and capital. To do this effectively, they must have a general set of skills. Individuals may be endowed with a general set of skills, but endowments can be augmented by investment in human capital. It is shown that formal schooling is used to supplement the skill set of

Edward P. Lazear



Construction & Basic Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Basic skills education has become a pressing need in the construction industry as jobs become more complex and fewer workers have needed skills. However, the construction industry lags in spending on training for entry-level workers. The Home Builders Institute (HBI) is testing a pilot basic skills program that it hopes will prove useful to the…

BCEL Newsletter for the Business and Literacy Communities, 1991



School Leadership Skill Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between what is currently understood about skills for school leadership and the need for a greater understanding of those skills. The importance of developing leadership skills to improve school performance and effectiveness is great. In the field of school leadership, most leaders…

Weigel, Richard A.



Recognition of Probe Ptolemaic Graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Let G denote a graph class. An undirected graph G is called a probe G graph if one can make G a graph in G by adding edges between vertices in some independent set of G. By definition graph class G is a subclass of probe G graphs. Ptolemaic graphs are chordal and induced gem free. They form a subclass of both chordal graphs and distance-hereditary graphs. Many problems NP-hard on chordal graphs can be solved in polynomial time on ptolemaic graphs. We proposed an O(nm)-time algorithm to recognize probe ptolemaic graphs where n and m are the numbers of vertices and edges of the input graph respectively.

Chang, Maw-Shang; Hung, Ling-Ju


Interpretive Management: What General Managers Can Learn from Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An analytical management approach reflects a traditional perspective and an interpretive approach involves a perspective suited to rapidly changing, unpredictable markets. Both approaches are valid, but each serves different purposes and calls for different strategies and skills. (JOW)

Lester, Richard K.; Piore, Michael J.; Malek, Kamal M.



Weighted Competition Graphs YOSHIO SANO  

E-print Network

Weighted Competition Graphs YOSHIO SANO Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Kyoto a generalization of competition graphs, called weighted competi- tion graphs. The weighted competition graph) is the competition graph of D, and the weight w(e) of an edge e = xy E is the number of the common preys of x and y


Beginning Algebra Tutorial: Reading Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial from West Texas A&M University's Virtual Math Lab introduces bar graphs, line graphs, double line graphs and Venn diagrams to beginning algebra students. The unit explains each type of graph and includes examples. Students will use provided sample graphs to answer a series of questions about each example.



Speculation and Historical Interpretation for Fifth and Sixth Graders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a unit for fifth- and sixth-grade students that helps develop critical thinking skills. Explains that students read the book, "Leonardo da Vinci" (Diane Stanley), to develop their historical interpretation skills and demonstrate that there is not just one right answer in history. (CMK)

Schneider, Elizabeth; Gregory, Leslie A.



Bayesian Graph Edit Distance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a novel framework for comparing and matching corrupted relational graphs. The paper develops the idea of edit-distance originally introduced for graph-matching by Sanfeliu and Fu (1). We show how the Levenshtein distance can be used to model the probability distribution for structural errors in the graph-matching problem. This probability distribution is used to locate matches using MAP

Richard Myers; Richard C. Wilson; Edwin R. Hancock



4-polytopal graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

3-polytopes and their graphs have been objects of research since the time of Euler. The most important result concern- ing 3-polytopal graphs is the theorem of Steinitz (9), assert- ing that a graph is 3-polytopal if and only if it is planar and 3-connected. In fact, even the combinatorial type (i.e., the entire face lattice) of a 3-polytope P is

Jed Mihalisin; Falk Tschirschnitz


Grid Graph Reachability Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the complexity of restricted versions ofst- connectivity, which is the standard complete problem for NL. Grid graphs are a useful tool in this regard, since reachability on grid graphs is logspace-equivalent to reachability in general planar digraphs, and reachability on certain classes of grid graphs gives natural examples of problems that are hard forNC1 underAC0 reductions but are

Eric Allender; David A. Mix; Barringtony Tanmoy; Sambuddha Roy


Expert-Novice Differences in Mammogram Interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the results of two initial studies of the problem- solving strategies used by more and less skilled medical professionals during mammogram interpretation. The first study examined the cognitive processing of staff radiologists and radiology residents, while the second looked at surgical residents and medical students‚ as they individually solved a set of breast disease cases. Analyses of

Roger Azevedo; Sonia Faremo; Susanne P. Lajoie


Graphing Linear Equations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We graph equations to find where the line lies on the graph and thus are able to use this information to see or predict where it will cross at any given point. If you were absent or need a review you can watch the tutorial videos in our Holt on line text or you can read through this site. graphing equations tutorial If you need a review of the quadrants and points of the coordinate plane then work through these activities. Review of coordinate points and graphing. Please work through the activities ...

Arnold, Mrs.



Graph Generator Survey  

SciTech Connect

The benchmarking effort within the Extreme Scale Systems Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory seeks to provide High Performance Computing benchmarks and test suites of interest to the DoD sponsor. The work described in this report is a part of the effort focusing on graph generation. A previously developed benchmark, SystemBurn, allowed the emulation of dierent application behavior profiles within a single framework. To complement this effort, similar capabilities are desired for graph-centric problems. This report examines existing synthetic graph generator implementations in preparation for further study on the properties of their generated synthetic graphs.

Lothian, Josh [ORNL; Powers, Sarah S [ORNL; Sullivan, Blair D [ORNL; Baker, Matthew B [ORNL; Schrock, Jonathan [ORNL; Poole, Stephen W [ORNL



Rainbow Graphs and Switching Classes  

E-print Network

A rainbow graph is a graph that admits a vertex-coloring such that every color appears exactly once in the neighborhood of each vertex. We investigate some properties of rainbow graphs. In particular, we show that there ...

Oh, Suho


Movement Forms: A Graph-Dynamic Perspective  

PubMed Central

The focus of this paper is on characterizing the physical movement forms (e.g., walk, crawl, roll, etc.) that can be used to actualize abstract, functionally-specified behavioral goals (e.g., locomotion). Emphasis is placed on how such forms are distinguished from one another, in part, by the set of topological patterns of physical contact between agent and environment (i.e., the set of physical graphs associated with each form) and the transitions among these patterns displayed over the course of performance (i.e., the form’s physical graph dynamics). Crucial in this regard is the creation and dissolution of loops in these graphs, which can be related to the distinction between open and closed kinematic chains. Formal similarities are described within the theoretical framework of task-dynamics between physically-closed kinematic chains (physical loops) that are created during various movement forms and functionally-closed kinematic chains (functional loops) that are associated with task-space control of end-effectors; it is argued that both types of loop must be flexibly incorporated into the coordinative structures that govern skilled action. Final speculation is focused on the role of graphs and their dynamics, not only in processes of coordination and control for individual agents, but also in processes of inter-agent coordination and the coupling of agents with (non-sentient) environmental objects. PMID:24910507

Saltzman, Elliot; Holt, Ken



An Agent-Based Labor Market Simulation with Endogenous Skill-Demand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper considers an agent-based labor market simulation to examine the influence of skills on wages and unemployment rates. Therefore less and highly skilled workers as well as less and highly productive vacancies are implemented. The skill distribution is exogenous whereas the distribution of the less and highly productive vacancies is endogenous. The different opportunities of the skill groups on the labor market are established by skill requirements. This means that a highly productive vacancy can only be filled by a highly skilled unemployed. Different skill distributions, which can also be interpreted as skill-biased technological change, are simulated by incrementing the skill level of highly skilled persons exogenously. This simulation also provides a microeconomic foundation of the matching function often used in theoretical approaches.

Gemkow, S.


The Effect of Graphing Calculators on Student Achievement in College Algebra and Pre-Calculus Mathematics Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the relationship between the use of graphing calculators employed as Type II technology and student achievement, as determined by assessing students' problem solving skills associated with the concept of function, at the college algebra and pre-calculus level. In addition, this study explores the integration of graphing

Hatem, Neil



Multi Bar Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students enter in data to be represented in a double bar graph. Multi bar graphs allow the student to compare multiple characteristics of different subjects like population for different continents over time. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.



Bar Graph Sorter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students make bar graphs by sorting shapes either by shape or by color. This activity allows students to explore how to sort data to make bar graphs. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.



Grid Graph Reachability Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the complexity of reachability problems on various classes of grid graphs. Reachability on certain classes of grid graphs gives natural examples of problems that are hard for NC1 under AC0 reductions but are not known to be hard far L; they thus give insight into the structure of L. In addition to explicating the structure of L, another

Eric Allender; David A. Mix Barrington; Tanmoy Chakraborty; Samir Datta; Sambuddha Roy



Graphing Current Drug Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Graphing Current Drug Data gives (1) some current views on the drug issue, (2) a history of drug use, (3) specific data on alcohol, caffeine, cocaine, marijuana and nicotine, and (4) data on high school drug trends from 1975-1985. The unit could supply graphing data for any math class 7-12, and could also be used in a social studies class.


Walking Out Graphs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the Walking Out Graphs Lesson described here, students experience several types of representations used to describe motion, including words, sentences, equations, graphs, data tables, and actions. The most important theme of this lesson is that students have to understand the consistency among these representations and form the habit of…

Shen, Ji



Distance-Time Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation is an animated slide show which: -describes a distance-time graph -explains what the slope of a distance time graph represents -explains its usefulness in understanding an objects motion This resource also includes an interactive test and review of the material, and can be downloaded for offline use.


Validating Graph Drawing Aesthetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designers of graph drawing algorithms and systems claim to illuminate application data by producing layouts that optimize measurable aesthetic qualities. Examples of these aesthetics include symmetry (where possible, a symmetrical view of the graph should be displayed), minimize edge crossings (the number of edge crossings in the display should be minimized), and minimize bends (the total number of bends in

Helen C. Purchase; Robert F. Cohen; Murray I. James



Using Specialized Graph Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of logarithm and reciprocal graphs in the college physics classroom. Provides examples, such as electrical conductivity, reliability function in the Weibull model, and the Clausius-Clapeyron equation for latent heat of vaporation. Shows graphs with weighting of points. (YP)

James, C.



Real World Graph Connectivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present the topic of graph connectivity along with a famous theorem of Menger in the real-world setting of the national computer network infrastructure of "National LambdaRail". We include a set of exercises where students reinforce their understanding of graph connectivity by analysing the "National LambdaRail" network. Finally, we give…

Lind, Joy; Narayan, Darren



Graphing Electric Potential.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the powerful graphing ability of computer algebra systems (CAS) to create three-dimensional graphs or surface graphics of electric potentials. Provides equations along with examples of the printouts. Lists the programs Mathematica, Maple, Derive, Theorist, MathCad, and MATLAB as promising CAS systems. (MVL)

De Jong, Marvin L.



Lesson 12: Graphing Parabolas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The lesson begins with an exploration of the family of graphs of y = ax^2, with an emphasis on tracking the changes in the y-values for differing values of the parameter a. The vertical shifts of y = ax^2 + c follow, leading into the graphs of y = ax^2 + bx and the derivation of the formula for the vertex.



Graphing the Globe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about the relation between day length and temperature. In one team, learners will create and analyze a graph of hours of sunlight versus month of the year for a number of latitudes. In another team, learners will graph temperature versus month for the same latitudes. The teams then compare data and draw conclusions from their analyses.


Equitable random graphs.  


Random graph models have played a dominant role in the theoretical study of networked systems. The Poisson random graph of Erd?s and Rényi, in particular, as well as the so-called configuration model, have served as the starting point for numerous calculations. In this paper we describe another large class of random graph models, which we call equitable random graphs and which are flexible enough to represent networks with diverse degree distributions and many nontrivial types of structure, including community structure, bipartite structure, degree correlations, stratification, and others, yet are exactly solvable for a wide range of properties in the limit of large graph size, including percolation properties, complete spectral density, and the behavior of homogeneous dynamical systems, such as coupled oscillators or epidemic models. PMID:25493850

Newman, M E J; Martin, Travis



Spectral distances on graphs  

E-print Network

By assigning a probability measure via the spectrum of the normalized Laplacian to each graph and using L^p Wasserstein distances between probability measures, we define the corresponding spectral distances d_p on the set of all graphs. This approach can even be extended to measuring the distances between infinite graphs. We prove that the diameter of the set of graphs, as a pseudo-metric space equipped with d_1, is one. We further study the behavior of d_1 when the size of graphs tends to infinity by interlacing inequalities aiming at exploring large real networks. A monotonic relation between d_1 and the evolutionary distance of biological networks is observed in simulations.

Jiao Gu; Bobo Hua; Shiping Liu



Equitable random graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Random graph models have played a dominant role in the theoretical study of networked systems. The Poisson random graph of Erd?s and Rényi, in particular, as well as the so-called configuration model, have served as the starting point for numerous calculations. In this paper we describe another large class of random graph models, which we call equitable random graphs and which are flexible enough to represent networks with diverse degree distributions and many nontrivial types of structure, including community structure, bipartite structure, degree correlations, stratification, and others, yet are exactly solvable for a wide range of properties in the limit of large graph size, including percolation properties, complete spectral density, and the behavior of homogeneous dynamical systems, such as coupled oscillators or epidemic models.

Newman, M. E. J.; Martin, Travis



Nevada Skills Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Nevada Department of Education Career & Technical Ed webpage hosts downloadable skills standards for various areas. Some areas of interest for the manufacturing industry are:Automotive Technology Computer-Aided Drafting & Design Metalworking Skills Standards Welding Skills Standards This resource is based on the Advanced Manufacturing Competency Model. A detailed description of the model is located at:



New development trend of college English interpretation teaching in the E-learning environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

English interpretation course is a training course of skills and techniques based on the grasp of the basic English competence. The subject of interpretation training is students, so it is very essential to provide students with an authentic English environment. Traditional college English interpretation class can hardly offer authentic interpretation situations, thus some problems have occurred, which have greatly influenced

Shao Xingyu; He Xiaoqin



Using graph approach for managing connectivity in integrative landscape modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In cultivated landscapes, a lot of landscape elements such as field boundaries, ditches or banks strongly impact water flows, mass and energy fluxes. At the watershed scale, these impacts are strongly conditionned by the connectivity of these landscape elements. An accurate representation of these elements and of their complex spatial arrangements is therefore of great importance for modelling and predicting these impacts.We developped in the framework of the OpenFLUID platform (Software Environment for Modelling Fluxes in Landscapes) a digital landscape representation that takes into account the spatial variabilities and connectivities of diverse landscape elements through the application of the graph theory concepts. The proposed landscape representation consider spatial units connected together to represent the flux exchanges or any other information exchanges. Each spatial unit of the landscape is represented as a node of a graph and relations between units as graph connections. The connections are of two types - parent-child connection and up/downstream connection - which allows OpenFLUID to handle hierarchical graphs. Connections can also carry informations and graph evolution during simulation is possible (connections or elements modifications). This graph approach allows a better genericity on landscape representation, a management of complex connections and facilitate development of new landscape representation algorithms. Graph management is fully operational in OpenFLUID for developers or modelers ; and several graph tools are available such as graph traversal algorithms or graph displays. Graph representation can be managed i) manually by the user (for example in simple catchments) through XML-based files in easily editable and readable format or ii) by using methods of the OpenFLUID-landr library which is an OpenFLUID library relying on common open-source spatial libraries (ogr vector, geos topologic vector and gdal raster libraries). OpenFLUID-landr library has been developed in order i) to be used with no GIS expert skills needed (common gis formats can be read and simplified spatial management is provided), ii) to easily develop adapted rules of landscape discretization and graph creation to follow spatialized model requirements and iii) to allow model developers to manage dynamic and complex spatial topology. Graph management in OpenFLUID are shown with i) examples of hydrological modelizations on complex farmed landscapes and ii) the new implementation of Geo-MHYDAS tool based on the OpenFLUID-landr library, which allows to discretize a landscape and create graph structure for the MHYDAS model requirements.

Rabotin, Michael; Fabre, Jean-Christophe; Libres, Aline; Lagacherie, Philippe; Crevoisier, David; Moussa, Roger



On limit graphs of finite vertex-primitive graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The class of all connected vertex-transitive graphs forms a metric space under a natural combinatorially defined metric. In this paper we study graphs which are limit points in this metric space of the subset consisting of all finite graphs that admit a vertex-primitive group of automorphisms. A description of these limit graphs provides a useful description of the pos- sible

Michael Giudici; Cai Heng Li; Cheryl E. Praeger; Ákos Seress; Vladimir Ivanovich Trofimov



The cliqueseparator graph for chordal graphs # Louis Ibarra +  

E-print Network

, Telecommunications, and Information Systems, DePaul University, 243 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago, IL 60604, U.S.A., phone graphs. For example, the star K 1,n is an interval graph, a split graph, and a ptolemaic graph, and yet

Ibarra, Louis


Partial cubes as subdivision graphs and as generalized Petersen graphs  

E-print Network

Partial cubes as subdivision graphs and as generalized Petersen graphs Sandi Klavzar Department email: Abstract Isometric subgraphs of hypercubes are known as partial cubes that for a connected graph G its subdivision graph is a partial cube if and only if every block of G is either a cycle

Klavzar, Sandi


Partial cubes as subdivision graphs and as generalized Petersen graphs  

E-print Network

Partial cubes as subdivision graphs and as generalized Petersen graphs Sandi KlavŸzar # Department email: alenka.lipovec@uni­ Abstract Isometric subgraphs of hypercubes are known as partial cubes that for a connected graph G its subdivision graph is a partial cube if and only if every block of G is either a cycle

Klavzar, Sandi


The Effect of Using Graphing Calculators in Complex Function Graphs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the role of graphing calculators in multiple representations for knowledge transfer and the omission of oversimplification in complex function graphs. The main aim is to examine whether graphing calculators were used efficiently to see different cases and multiple perspectives among complex function graphs, or whether…

Ocak, Mehmet Akif



Development of Students' Critical-Reasoning Skills through Content-Focused Activities in a General Education Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in a general education science course made significant gains in scientific reasoning skills when they were taught using carefully designed hands-on activities and writing assignments. The activities required students to make use of scientific skills such as graphing, predicting outcomes under changing conditions, or designing experiments,…

Fencl, Heidi S.




E-print Network

rewriting systems generate non recursive infinite graphs. 1. Introduction In 1956, and then in 1959 Noam Chomsky wrote two articles which defined the Chomsky hierarchy. This hierarchy has had a tremendous impact is established with the Chomsky hierarchy. In this paper we propose an external characterisation of rational

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Named graphs, provenance and trust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Semantic Web consists of many RDF graphs nameable by URIs. This paper extends the syntax and semantics of RDF to cover such Named Graphs. This enables RDF statements that describe graphs, which is beneficial in many Semantic Web application areas. As a case study, we explore the application area of Semantic Web publishing: Named Graphs allow publishers to communicate

Jeremy J. Carroll; Christian Bizer; Patrick J. Hayes; Patrick Stickler




Microsoft Academic Search

A gain graph is a graph whose oriented edges are labelled invertibly from a group G, the gain group. A gain graph determines a biased graph and therefore has three natural matroids (as shown in Parts I-II): the bias matroid G has connected circuits; the complete lift matroid L0 and its restriction to the edge set, the lift matroid L,




Introduction Balanced Group Labeled Graphs  

E-print Network

Introduction Results Summary Balanced Group Labeled Graphs M. Joglekar N. Shah A.A. Diwan.A.Diwan Balanced Group Labeled Graphs #12;Introduction Results Summary Outline 1 Introduction Group Labeled Graphs Balanced Labellings Characterization 2 Results Counting Number of Balanced labellings Proof Markable Graphs

Diwan, Ajit A


Critical Thinking Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of a quarterly newsletter focuses on the theme of critical thinking skills. "Critical Thinking Skills: An Interview with Dr. Richard Paul" (Barbara Christopher) is the text of an interview in which the director of research at Sonoma State University's Center for Critical Thinking examines the meaning of critical thinking and the ways…

Word's Worth: A Quarterly Newsletter of the Lifelong Learning Network, 1998



Knowledge & Skills Foundations  

E-print Network

methods and contextual understanding, critical thinking and hands-on skills. Basic Knowledge In the fields Charitable Trusts the sciences employ critical thinking skills as they learn scientific concepts. Beyond mere with scientific experiments but does not replace the thinking processes required to estimate, question and solve

Hood, Craig


Teaching Basic Caregiver Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructor's guide provides materials for a nursing skills course designed to teach basic home nursing skills to families who plan to care for a chronically ill or elderly family member at home. It may be taught by a registered nurse with knowledge of all areas or by a team, with each instructor concentrating on his/her area of expertise.…

Schenk, Susan, Ed.; Harrah, Doris, Ed.


Early Communicative Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for parents and teachers, the manual offers guidelines for developing communication skills in severely and profoundly mentally handicapped children. An introduction helps the reader determine a suitable starting point and provides a description of early communication skills; Part II describes the five stages in communication development.…

MacKay, Gilbert F.; Dunn, William R.


Electromechanical Technician Skills Questionnaire.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains test items to measure the job skills of electromechanical technicians. Questions are organized in four sections that cover the following topics: (1) shop math; (2) electricity and electronics; (3) mechanics and machining; and (4) plumbing, heating, ventilation and air conditioning, and welding skills. Questions call for…

Anoka-Hennepin Technical Coll., Minneapolis, MN.



ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes LabSkills, a revolutionary teaching tool to improve practical science in schools. LabSkills offers the chance to help improve the exposure that the average Key Stage 5 (age 16-19) student has to practical work. This is a huge area for development being highlighted by universities who are seeing a worryingly growing trend in…

O'Brien, Nick



More Life Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to supplement already existing life skills instructional materials, this manual consists of 30 lessons to help students develop general, transferrrable skills in four areas--attending behaviors, cognition, self-management, and critical thinking. The following topics are among those covered in the lessons: eye contact, body posture,…

Hearn, Joan


Testing Skills in Vertebrates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors present a project that gives students examples of basic skills that many vertebrate species develop as they grow and function in their ecosystem. These activities involve information gathering about surroundings, learning how to use objects, and tracking and searching skills. Different vertebrate species may acquire…

Funk, Mildred Sears; Tosto, Pat



Michigan Consumer Education Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The booklet identifies consumer skills which a committee of the Michigan Consumers Council believes are essential for students to master prior to graduation from high school. The purpose of the document is to give direction to school districts and teachers on which consumer education skills are needed. The booklet does not contain teaching methods…

Michigan State Consumers Council, Lansing.


Skills for the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains two miniunits to help students in grades 7-12 build skills for the future. The exercises can also be adapted for use in grades 4-6. Each of the miniunits contains several exercises to build specific skills. Miniunit One, "The Arithmetic of Growth," deals with two concepts--exponential growth and doubling time. These two…

Smith, Gary R.


Building Science Process Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A well-designed and executed field trip experience serves not only to enrich and supplement course content, but also creates opportunities to build basic science process skills. This article describes an onsite trip to the Bronx Zoo that allowed collaborating students to develop acquisitive and organizational skills while exploring rain forest habitat characteristics and species diversity.

Anthony V. DeFina



Elementary TIG Welding Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The text was prepared to help deaf students develop the skills needed by an employed welder. It uses simplified language and illustrations to present concepts which should be reinforced by practical experience with welding skills. Each of the 12 lessons contains: (1) an information section with many illustrations which presents a concept or…

Pierson, John E., III


Decision-Making Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issue emphasizes decision-making skills. Human beings are constantly confronted with choices in all aspects of life. The five basic skill categories in the decision-making process are identified and explained: (1) Conceptualizing; (2) Sequencing; (3) Creating Alternative Sequences; (4) Evaluating Alternatives; and (5) Implementing a Decision.…

Hartoonian, H. Michael; Laughlin, Margaret A.



Not-so-Soft Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much recent discussion about the skills needed to secure Britain's economic recovery has focused on skills for employability. However, too often, these fundamental skills are understood in narrow functional or vocational terms. So-called "soft skills", what Penelope Tobin, in her 2008 paper "Soft Skills: the hard facts", terms "traits and…

Curran, Mary



Introduction to Bar Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to bar graphs as a way to represent categorical data. Caution should be used not to use bar graph and histogram interchangeably when using this lesson. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to bar graphs as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one. Note, reading level is not indicated because the lesson does not include student reading material.



Degree-equipartite graphs  

E-print Network

A graph $G$ of order $2n$ is called degree-equipartite if for every $n$-element set $A\\subseteq V(G)$, the degree sequences of the induced subgraphs $G[A]$ and $G[V(G)\\setminus A]$ are the same. In this paper, we characterize all degree-equipartite graphs. This answers Problem 1 in the paper by Gr\\"{u}nbaum et al [B. Gr\\"{u}nbaum, T. Kaiser, D. Kr\\'{a}l, and M. Rosenfeld, Equipartite graphs, {\\it Israel J. Math.} {\\bf 168} (2008), 431-444].

Bibak, Khodakhast; 10.1016/j.disc.2011.02.018



STRATEGIESEMPLOYERS Translation/Interpretation  

E-print Network

STRATEGIESEMPLOYERS GOVERNMENT Translation/Interpretation Journalism/Broadcasting Linguistics,MEDIA,ENTERTAINMENT FOREIGN LANGUAGE AREAS Advertising Translation/Interpretation Journalism/Broadcasting Publishing to keep up with developments overseas. INDUSTRYANDCOMMERCE Translation/Interpretation Banking

Kaminsky, Werner


Wages and Skills Utilization: Effect of Broad Skills and Generic Skills on Wages in Singapore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many people go for training to upgrade their skills which is hoped to pave the way for better pay. But what are the kinds of skills that really affect wages? Employers have emphasized the value of generic skills such as interpersonal and communication skills, teamwork and problem solving. Does possession of these skills translate to at least the…

Ramos, Catherine R.; Ng, Michael Chi Man; Sung, Johnny; Loke, Fiona



Graph algorithms experimentation facility  

E-print Network

We provide a facility to experiment with graph algorithms. The facility is implemented as a client to XAGE, a software environment developed under the direction of Dr. James Abello. XAGE allows a user to visually animate algorithmic actions...

Sonom, Donald George



Position versus Time Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An animation of a red car moving to the right, hitting a wall and then moving backward to the left is shown. Also shown is one of four possible graphs depicting the car's position as a function of time.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario



Unit Rectangle Visibility Graphs  

E-print Network

Over the past twenty years, rectangle visibility graphs have generated considerable interest, in part due to their applicability to VLSI chip design. Here we study unit rectangle visibility graphs, with fixed dimension restrictions more closely modeling the constrained dimensions of gates and other circuit components in computer chip applications. A graph $G$ is a unit rectangle visibility graph (URVG) if its vertices can be represented by closed unit squares in the plane with sides parallel to the axes and pairwise disjoint interiors, in such a way that two vertices are adjacent if and only if there is a non-degenerate horizontal or vertical band of visibility joining the two rectangles. Our results include necessary and sufficient conditions for $K_n$, $K_{m,n}$, and trees to be URVGs, as well as a number of general edge bounds.

Dean, Alice; Hamilton, Sarah; Pangborn, Greta



Querying graphs with data   

E-print Network

Graph data is becoming more and more pervasive. Indeed, services such as Social Networks or the Semantic Web can no longer rely on the traditional relational model, as its structure is somewhat too rigid for the applications ...

Vrgoc, Domagoj



Graph homomorphisms between trees  

E-print Network

In this paper we study several problems concerning the number of homomorphisms of trees. We begin with an algorithm for the number of homomorphisms from a tree to any graph. By using this algorithm and some transformations ...

Csikvari, Peter


Graphs and Ellipses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an introduction (or refresher) of the concept of graphs in Cartesian coordinates, starting with graphs of a straight line and a simple parabola. It is part of a high school course on astronomy, Newtonian mechanics and spaceflight. The implicit relationship x2+y2 = R2 for a circle is given, and from that the Cartesian equation of an ellipse is developed. Students will learn or re-acquire the use of graphs in Cartesian coordinates, become acquainted with linear graphs, the parabola and the rectangular hyperbola and also learn to prepare tables of paired values for plotting a line. Students will also learn about the Cartesian equation of an ellipse, with a worked example and the historical definition of the ellipse.

Stern, David


Desmos Graphing Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This browser-based calculator provides a platform for users to perform calculations , share, and create interactive Whiteboard resources. Choose from Cartesian or polar grids, select angle measurement in degrees or radians, and use the embedded keyboard to enter equations. You can zoom in or out, drag a graph onto the page, and change axes. View multiple graphs on one grid and select color coding. Parabolic graphs can be viewed in standard, vertex, or intercept form. The platform also supports conic sections, Fourier expansions, Taylor expansions, and polar graphing. When you're finished, you can publish your resource or embed the file into a blog or other virtual learning environment. This resource was developed by Desmos, Inc., a free web-based platform for creating, sharing, and publishing interactive lessons based on Whiteboard technology.



Higher eigenvalues of graphs  

E-print Network

We present a general method for proving upper bounds on the eigenvalues of the graph Laplacian. In particular, we show that for any positive integer k, the kth smallest eigenvalue of the Laplacian on a bounded-degree planar ...

Price, Gregory N.


Efficacy of a Self-monitoring Technique to Improve Academic Skill Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined archival data from an assisted self-graphing intervention for improving early literacy skills in first grade students from one elementary school. The purpose of the investigation is to examine the use of a self-graphing supplemental intervention that occurred outside of the class-wide first grade reading instruction. The participants included first grade students from three classroom settings in one

Carrie L. Winfield



Histograms and Bar Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to histograms and bar graphs as graphical representations of data. The lesson also covers the distinction between histograms and bar graphs and the concepts of class intervals and scale. The lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to these topics as well as worksheets for further practice. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with this one.



Statistics and Graphing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Statistics play a vital role in the scientific enterprise. This activity provides background information and tutorials on basic statistics (mean, median, standard deviation, etc.) used in science. Topics include descriptive statistics (measures of central tendency and dispersion) and presenting data (tables, figures, and graphs). Sample datasets from actual scientific experiments are used to illustrate points. Links to an online statisitical tool and an online graphing application are also provided.

Laposata, Matt


Graph Theory with Applications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Written by J.A. Bondy and U.S.R. Murty of the Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris, this online 270-page textbook presents graph theory and its applications. The topics covered here include connectivity, independent sets and cliques, and planar and directed graphs. Each chapter has a list of references for further information, and most have exercises. Visitors can find the solution to those exercises in the Appendices here.

Bondy, J. A. (John Adrian); Murty, U. S.



Simultaneous interpretation selectively influences working memory and attentional networks.  


Recent research has shown that becoming an expert in a certain domain may lead to a transfer of the acquired skills to other domains requiring similar abilities. Thus, the cognitive skills acquired by professional interpreters after intensive training may also transfer to other domains. Simultaneous interpreters are known to develop high working memory capacity (e.g., Christoffels, de Groot, & Kroll, 2006; Signorelli, Haarmann, & Obler, 2012). However, little is known about transfer of other processes such us updating and some aspects of attention also involved in interpretation. In Experiment 1, we found that interpreters outperformed a control group in updating skills, as measured through a dual version of the n-back task (Jaeggi et al., 2007). In Experiment 2, use of the ANTI-V allowed us to reveal that interpreting differentially modulates the interactions between attentional networks. Thus, we found no group differences in conflict resolution, but the interaction between the alertness and orienting networks differed between interpreters and non-interpreters. Taken together, these results suggest that experience in simultaneous interpreting transfers to other domains, but this transfer seems specific to the cognitive processes more closely involved in the interpreting tasks. PMID:25577491

Morales, Julia; Padilla, Francisca; Gómez-Ariza, Carlos J; Bajo, M Teresa



Student difficulties in connecting graphs and physics: Examples from kinematics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some common errors exhibited by students in interpreting graphs in physics are illustrated by examples from kinematics. These are taken from the results of a descriptive study extending over a period of several years and involving several hundred university students who were enrolled in a laboratory-based preparatory physics course. Subsequent testing indicated that the graphing errors made by this group of students are not idiosyncratic, but are found in different populations and across different levels of sophistication. This paper examines two categories of difficulty identified in the investigation: difficulty in connecting graphs to physical concepts and difficulty in connecting graphs to the real world. Specific difficulties in each category are discussed in terms of student performance on written problems and laboratory experiments. A few of the instructional strategies that have been designed to address some of these difficulties are described.

Mcdermott, Lillian C.; Rosenquist, Mark; Van Zee, Emily



New Graph Calculi for Planar Non-3-Colorable Graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hajós calculus is a nondeterministic procedure which generates the class of non-3-colorable graphs. If all non-3-colorable graphs can be constructed in polynomial steps by the calculus, then NP=co-NP holds. Up to date, however, it remains open whether there exists a family of graphs that cannot be generated in polynomial steps. To attack this problem, we propose two graph calculi PHC and PHC* that generate non-3-colorable planar graphs, where intermediate graphs in the calculi are also restricted to be planar. Then we prove that PHC and PHC* are sound and complete. We also show that PHC* can polynomially simulate PHC.

Hanatani, Yoichi; Horiyama, Takashi; Iwama, Kazuo; Tamaki, Suguru


SimGraph: A Flight Simulation Data Visualization Workstation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Today's modern flight simulation research produces vast amounts of time sensitive data, making a qualitative analysis of the data difficult while it remains in a numerical representation. Therefore, a method of merging related data together and presenting it to the user in a more comprehensible format is necessary. Simulation Graphics (SimGraph) is an object-oriented data visualization software package that presents simulation data in animated graphical displays for easy interpretation. Data produced from a flight simulation is presented by SimGraph in several different formats, including: 3-Dimensional Views, Cockpit Control Views, Heads-Up Displays, Strip Charts, and Status Indicators. SimGraph can accommodate the addition of new graphical displays to allow the software to be customized to each user s particular environment. A new display can be developed and added to SimGraph without having to design a new application, allowing the graphics programmer to focus on the development of the graphical display. The SimGraph framework can be reused for a wide variety of visualization tasks. Although it was created for the flight simulation facilities at NASA Langley Research Center, SimGraph can be reconfigured to almost any data visualization environment. This paper describes the capabilities and operations of SimGraph.

Kaplan, Joseph A.; Kenney, Patrick S.



Applied photo interpretation for airbrush cartography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New techniques of cartographic portrayal have been developed for the compilation of maps of lunar and planetary surfaces. Conventional photo interpretation methods utilizing size, shape, shadow, tone, pattern, and texture are applied to computer processed satellite television images. The variety of the image data allows the illustrator to interpret image details by inter-comparison and intra-comparison of photographs. Comparative judgements are affected by illumination, resolution, variations in surface coloration, and transmission or processing artifacts. The validity of the interpretation process is tested by making a representational drawing by an airbrush portrayal technique. Production controls insure the consistency of a map series. Photo interpretive cartographic portrayal skills are used to prepare two kinds of map series and are adaptable to map products of different kinds and purposes.

Inge, J. L.; Bridges, P. M.



Basic visual observation skills training course. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This is the third report in a series prepared to assist the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA or Agency) in enhancing the effectiveness of its international safeguards inspections through inspector training in Observation Skills. The first report (Phase 1) was essentially exploratory. It defined Observation Skills` broadly to include all appropriate cognitive, communications, and interpersonal techniques that have the potential to help IAEA safeguards inspectors function more effectively. The second report (Phase 2) provided a more specific basis for the actual design and delivery of Observation Skills training to IAEA inspectors. The present report (Phase 3) documents the design of a Basic Visual Observation Skills course and delivery of the course to safeguards inspectors at IAEA Headquarters Vienna in February and May of 1995. The purpose of the course is to help safeguards inspectors evaluate and improve their skills in making observations during inspections and in evaluating and interpreting this information. The course is basic in the sense that it provides training in skills which are generally applicable to inspections of all types of facilities and activities subject to safeguards. The course is designed for 16 hours of classroom delivery, ideally in four 4-hour sessions over a period of four days. The first 12 hours provide training in five skill areas: perception and recognition; attention and attention to detail; memory; mental imaging, mapping, and modeling skills; and judgment and decision making. Following the training in each of the five skill areas is an Integrating Exercise involving a simulated safeguards inspection.

Toquam, J.L.; Morris, F.A.; Griggs, J.R.



Psychological testing of sign language interpreters.  


Twenty-eight sign language interpreters participated in a battery of tests to determine if a profile of cognitive, motor, attention, and personality attributes might distinguish them as a group and at different credential levels. Eight interpreters held Level II and nine held Level III Virginia Quality Assurance Screenings (VQAS); the other 11 held Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf (RID) certification. Six formal tests, the Quick Neurological Screening Test-II, the Wonderlic Personnel Test, the Test of Visual-Motor Skills (TVMS), the d2 Test of Attention, the Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test, and the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF), were administered to the interpreters. Average scores were high on most of the tests; differences across the three groups were not statistically significant. Results from only one test, the d2 Test of Attention, were significantly correlated with interpreter level. Comparisons between educational and community interpreters also revealed no differences. Personality traits were widely distributed, but one trait, abstract reasoning, tested extremely high in 18 interpreters. Discussion of the potential implications of these results, particularly for educational interpreters, is offered. PMID:15304401

Seal, Brenda C



Crew Skills and Training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the major focus points for the workshop was the topic of crew skills and training necessary for the Mars surface mission. Discussions centered on the mix of scientific skills necessary to accomplish the proposed scientific goals, and the training environment that can bring the ground and flight teams to readiness. Subsequent discussion resulted in recommendations for specific steps to begin the process of training an experienced Mars exploration team.

Jones, Thomas; Burbank, Daniel C.; Eppler, Dean; Garrison, Robert; Harvey, Ralph; Hoffman, Paul; Schmitt, Harrison



Migration, Skills and Productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on international migration has repeatedly emphasized that the extent and structure of migration has an important impact on the competitiveness of regions and countries. This report provides an overview of the extent and the potential effects of high-skill migration to the EU27. It shows how many high-skilled migrants live in the EU, where these migrants come from, and

Robert Hierländer; Peter Huber; Anna Iara; Michael Landesmann; Klaus Nowotny; Mary OMahony; Fei Peng; Catherine Robinson; Robert Stehrer



Feynman motives of banana graphs  

E-print Network

We consider the infinite family of Feynman graphs known as the ``banana graphs'' and compute explicitly the classes of the corresponding graph hypersurfaces in the Grothendieck ring of varieties as well as their Chern--Schwartz--MacPherson classes, using the classical Cremona transformation and the dual graph, and a blowup formula for characteristic classes. We outline the interesting similarities between these operations and we give formulae for cones obtained by simple operations on graphs. We formulate a positivity conjecture for characteristic classes of graph hypersurfaces and discuss briefly the effect of passing to noncommutative spacetime.

Aluffi, Paolo



Feynman motives of banana graphs  

E-print Network

We consider the infinite family of Feynman graphs known as the "banana graphs" and compute explicitly the classes of the corresponding graph hypersurfaces in the Grothendieck ring of varieties as well as their Chern-Schwartz-MacPherson classes, using the classical Cremona transformation and the dual graph, and a blowup formula for characteristic classes. We outline the interesting similarities between these operations and we give formulae for cones obtained by simple operations on graphs. We formulate a positivity conjecture for characteristic classes of graph hypersurfaces and discuss briefly the effect of passing to noncommutative spacetime.

Paolo Aluffi; Matilde Marcolli



Strategies for Learning: Teaching Thinking Skills across the Curriculum through Science. Analyzing Information and Data. Teacher's Edition. First Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science process skills such as observing, classifying, inferring, interpreting, predicting, and hypothesizing can all be classified as a sub category of thinking skills. This book is part of the series "Strategies for Learning" that focuses on the step-by-step development and application of thinking skills as a vehicle for learning science. The…

Pauker, Robert A.; Roy, Kenneth Russell


PhET Teacher Activities: Moving Man - Velocity vs. Time Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan was developed specifically for use with the PhET simulation "The Moving Man". It is intended to help beginning students differentiate velocity vs. time graphs from position vs. time graphs, and also to promote understanding of multiple frames of reference in analyzing an object's motion. Only basic graphing skills are required of the student. The lesson was created by a high school teacher under the sponsorship of the PhET project. SEE RELATED ITEMS for a link to "The Moving Man" simulation. which must be running to complete the activity.

Reeves, Steve


Assessment of Basic Social Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following recent developments in the measurement of individual differences in nonverbal social skills, we proposed a conceptual framework for defining and assessing basic social skills. Preliminary testing resulted in the development of a 105-item, pencil-and-paper measure of seven basic dimensions of social skills, called the Social Skills Inventory (SSI). In a series of validation studies using undergraduate students, the SSI

Ronald E. Riggio



A Center for Communications Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nationwide problem of declining communication skills is evident in the large numbers of students entering college with deficiencies in reading, writing, and speaking skills. This paper discusses the operation of a communication skills program within a college communication skills center which functions as a supportive resource service and…

Coons, Daniel E.


Skills Verdict: Must Do Better  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Ambition 2020: World Class Skills and Jobs" is the UK Commission for Employment and Skills' annual assessment, to the four UK nations, of their progress towards becoming "world class" in productivity, employment and skills by 2020. "Ambition 2020" provides a robust independent account of economic and skills developments. This report is the…

Spilsbury, Mark



The clique-separator graph for chordal graphs Louis Ibarra  

E-print Network

, and Information Systems, DePaul University, 243 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago, IL 60604, U.S.A., phone: 312. For example, the star K1,n is an interval graph, a split graph, and a ptolemaic graph, and yet any tree on its

Ibarra, Louis


Graph Ensemble Boosting for Imbalanced Noisy Graph Stream Classification.  


Many applications involve stream data with structural dependency, graph representations, and continuously increasing volumes. For these applications, it is very common that their class distributions are imbalanced with minority (or positive) samples being only a small portion of the \\hbox{population}, which imposes significant challenges for learning models to accurately identify minority samples. This problem is further complicated with the presence of noise, because they are similar to minority samples and any treatment for the class imbalance may falsely focus on the noise and result in deterioration of accuracy. In this paper, we propose a classification model to tackle imbalanced graph streams with noise. Our method, graph ensemble boosting, employs an ensemble-based framework to partition graph stream into chunks each containing a number of noisy graphs with imbalanced class distributions. For each individual chunk, we propose a boosting algorithm to combine discriminative subgraph pattern selection and model learning as a unified framework for graph classification. To tackle concept drifting in graph streams, an instance level weighting mechanism is used to dynamically adjust the instance weight, through which the boosting framework can emphasize on difficult graph \\hbox{samples}. The classifiers built from different graph chunks form an ensemble for graph stream classification. Experiments on real-life imbalanced graph streams demonstrate clear benefits of our boosting design for handling imbalanced noisy graph stream. PMID:25167562

Pan, Shirui; Wu, Jia; Zhu, Xingquan; Zhang, Chengqi



Digitizer auditory graph: making graphs accessible to the visually impaired  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design goal, design approach, and user testing of an assistive technology called Digitizer Auditory Graphfia sonification software tool that allows users to upload or take an image of a line graph with an optical input device (e.g., webcam, digital camera, cell phone camera) and then hear an auditory graph of the digitized graph image. This technique

Stephen H. Choi; Bruce N. Walker



Rainbow Coloring of Graphs Rainbow Coloring of Graphs  

E-print Network

Rainbow Coloring of Graphs Rainbow Coloring of Graphs L. Sunil Chandran Computer Science and Automation Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore Email: #12;Rainbow Coloring of Graphs What is Rainbow Coloring? Consider an edge coloring, not necessarily proper. #12;Rainbow Coloring

Narasayya, Vivek


A Graph Based Davidson Algorithm for the Graph Partitioning Problem  

E-print Network

A Graph Based Davidson Algorithm for the Graph Partitioning Problem Michael Holzrichter Sandia the eigensolver is the Davidson algorithm, which is a subspace method allowing the use of preconditioners. The use of the Davidson algorithm for graph partitioning has not previously appeared in the literature. We modify


Community detection in graphs  

E-print Network

The modern science of networks has brought significant advances to our understanding of complex systems. One of the most relevant features of graphs representing real systems is community structure, or clustering, i. e. the organization of vertices in clusters, with many edges joining vertices of the same cluster and comparatively few edges joining vertices of different clusters. Such clusters, or communities, can be considered as fairly independent compartments of a graph, playing a similar role like, e. g., the tissues or the organs in the human body. Detecting communities is of great importance in sociology, biology and computer science, disciplines where systems are often represented as graphs. This problem is very hard and not yet satisfactorily solved, despite the huge effort of a large interdisciplinary community of scientists working on it over the past few years. We will attempt a thorough exposition of the topic, from the definition of the main elements of the problem, to the presentation of most me...

Fortunato, Santo



Soft skills and dental education.  


Soft skills and hard skills are essential in the practice of dentistry. While hard skills deal with technical proficiency, soft skills relate to a personal values and interpersonal skills that determine a person's ability to fit in a particular situation. These skills contribute to the success of organisations that deal face-to-face with clients. Effective soft skills benefit the dental practice. However, the teaching of soft skills remains a challenge to dental schools. This paper discusses the different soft skills, how they are taught and assessed and the issues that need to be addressed in their teaching and assessment. The use of the module by the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya for development of soft skills for institutions of higher learning introduced by the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia. PMID:23574183

Gonzalez, M A G; Abu Kasim, N H; Naimie, Z



Proverb interpretation changes in aging.  


Recent investigations have emphasized the involvement of fronto-subcortical networks to proverb comprehension. Although the prefrontal cortex is thought to be affected by normal aging, relatively little work has been carried out to investigate potential effects of aging on proverb comprehension. In the present investigation participants in three age groups were assessed on a proverb comprehension task and a range of executive function tasks. The older group showed impairment in selecting correct interpretations from alternatives. They also showed executive function deficits, as reflected by reduced working memory and deficient set shifting and inhibition abilities. The findings of the present investigation showed proverb comprehension deficits in normal aging which appeared to be related to reduced executive skills. PMID:18164527

Uekermann, Jennifer; Thoma, Patrizia; Daum, Irene



Mapping Reconfigurable Antennas Using Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the modeling of reconfigurable antennas using graphs. Several examples are presented and analyzed. Graphs are shown herein to be useful for modeling reconfigurable antennas with different techniques and properties.

J. Costantine; C. G. Christodoulou; S. E. Barbin



Range charts and no-space graphs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

No-space graphs present one solution to the familiar problem: given data on the occurrence of fossil taxa in separate, well-sampled sections, determine a range chart; that is, a reasonable working hypothesis of the total range in the area in question of each taxon studied. The solution presented here treats only the relative sequence of biostratigraphic events (first and last occurrences of taxa) and does not attempt to determine an amount of spacing between events. Relative to a hypothesized sequence, observed events in any section may be in-place or out-of-place. Out-of-place events may indicate (1) the event in question reflects a taxon that did not fill its entire range (unfilled-range event), or (2) the event in question indicates a need for the revision of the hypothesized sequence. A graph of relative position only (no-space graph) can be used to facilitate the recognition of in-place and out-of-place events by presenting a visual comparison of the observations from each section with the hypothesized sequence. The geometry of the graph as constructed here is such that in-place events will lie along a line series and out-of-place events will lie above or below it. First-occurrence events below the line series and last-occurrence events above the line series indicate unfilled ranges. First-occurrence events above the line series and last-occurrence events below the line series indicate a need for the revision of the hypothesis. Knowing this, the stratigrapher considers alternative positionings of the line series as alternative range hypotheses and seeks the line series that best fits his geologic and paleontologic judgment. No-space graphs are used to revise an initial hypothesis until a final hypothesis is reached. In this final hypothesis every event is found in-place in at least one section, and all events in all sections may be interpreted to represent in-place events or unfilled-range events. No event may indicate a need for further range revision. The application of the no-space graph method requires the assumption of lack of reworking and the assumption that taxa that are present in a single horizon indicate taxa whose ranges overlap. When applied to hypothetical and actual data, the no-space graph technique produces geologically reasonable range charts that compare favorably with results produced by other methods. ?? 1978.

Edwards, L.E.



Graphing Stratospheric Ozone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is part of the Science Education Gateway (SEGway) project, funded by NASA, which is a national consortium of scientists, museums, and educators working together to bring the latest science to students, teachers, and the general public. This lesson uses NASA images of Antarctic ozone (from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, or TOMS) to motivate a how-to graphing lesson followed by more sophisticated examples of graphing using images from the Neumayer Antarctic Station. Links are provided for investigating current knowledge of the ozone layer, and the impact of human activity on this vital part of the Earth system.

Fetter, Neil


Graphing Calculator Mini Course  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The "Graphing Calculator Mini Course" project provided a mathematically-intensive technologically-based summer enrichment workshop for teachers of American Indian students on the Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation. Eleven such teachers participated in the six-day workshop in summer of 1996 and three Sunday workshops in the academic year. The project aimed to improve science and mathematics education on the reservation by showing teachers effective ways to use high-end graphing calculators as teaching and learning tools in science and mathematics courses at all levels. In particular, the workshop concentrated on applying TI-82's user-friendly features to understand the various mathematical and scientific concepts.

Karnawat, Sunil R.




NSDL National Science Digital Library

DebateGraph states, "to change the world you need to look at it in a different way." Many would agree; this platform gives multiple partners the ability to visualize and share different ideas. It's a neat concept and it's one that has been used by the United Kingdom's Foreign Office and CNN. A helpful "how-to" area can get users started and the application allows visitors to link ideas visually via a very easy-to-use interface. This version of debate graph is compatible with all operating systems.


Graphs associated with semigroups  

E-print Network

is not considered to be connected. A maximal connected subgraph of g phGI llf ~t f G. If I p I g ph G I f !. gl *, th G t ~tt 11 disconnected. With a given arbitrary graph G we can associate a system of sets ( in the following manner. Let each set S in E a... by Szpilrajn-Marczewski [9]. Theorem. Let G be an arbit. rary graph. There is a system of sets C={S , S , . . . ) which can be put into one-to-one correspondence with the vertices, VI, V2, . . . , of G in such a way that V and V are adjacent if and only...

Baber, Stephen Asa



Lecture Notes on GRAPH THEORY  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 6.1 Digraphs book on graph theory was written. This was "Theorie der endlichen und unendlichen Graphen" ( Teubne

Harju, Tero


Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs  

SciTech Connect

A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M



Densities in graphs and matroids  

E-print Network

|E(H)| |V (H)|?1 ? |E(T)| |V (T)|?1 = 1 for all non-trivial subgraphs of T. In general, a balanced graph G is a graph such that |E(H)| |V (H)| ? |E(G)| |V (G)| and a 1-balanced graph is a graph such that |E(H)| |V (H)|?1 ? |E(G)| |V (G)|?1 for all non...

Kannan, Lavanya



Lesson 3: Graphs and Equations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson begins with linear equations and inequalities in 1 variable and then moves on to linear equations in 2 variables. Graphs of linear equations in 2 variables are introduced as "a picture of all its solutions." Exercises targeting the links between equations, solutions, points, and graphs follows, with the final activities focusing on use of a graphing calculator to graph equations and find coordinates. There aren't any application problems in this lesson.



Biased graphs IV: Geometrical realizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gain graph is a graph whose oriented edges are labelled invertibly from a group G, the gain group. A gain graph determines a biased graph and therefore has three natural matroids (as shown in Parts I and II): the bias matroidG has connected circuits; the complete lift matroidL0 and its restriction to the edge set, the lift matroidL, have

Thomas Zaslavsky



It is Graph-Tastic!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use your knowledge of coordinates to play these graphing games! Have fun playing Driving Down the Grid. You must drive your car to the given coordinate. Make sure you do not crash into anything! Play Graph Mole for even more graphing fun! A farmer is trying to plant vegetables, until some pesky moles try to eat them. Choose with coordinate that the mole ...

Justin, Ms.



A Note on Hamiltonian Graphs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1952, several well-known graph theorists have proven numerous results regarding Hamiltonian graphs. In fact, many elementary graph theory textbooks contain the theorems of Ore, Bondy and Chvatal, Chvatal and Erdos, Posa, and Dirac, to name a few. In this note, the authors state and prove some propositions of their own concerning Hamiltonian…

Skurnick, Ronald; Davi, Charles; Skurnick, Mia



Planar Graphs with Topological Constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address in this paper the problem of constructing embeddings of planar graphs satisfying declarative, user-dened topological constraints. The constraints consist each of a cycle of the given graph and a set of its edges to be embedded inside this cycle and a set of its edges to be embedded outside this cycle. Their practical importance in graph visual- ization

Christoph Dornheim



Edit Distance From Graph Spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with computing graph edit dis- tance. One of the criticisms that can be leveled at existing methods for computing graph edit distance is that it lacks the formality and rigour of the computation of string edit distance. Hence, our aim is to convert graphs to string se- quencesso that standardstring edit distancetechniquescan be used. To do

Antonio Robles-kelly; Edwin R. Hancock



Mississippi State Physics Labs: Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This inquiry-based lab for introductory physics courses explores the purpose of graphs. Students measure simple circular objects and blocks, graph the data, and look for relationships in the graphs. The lab was designed to help students discover the advantage of using graphical representations to understand numerical relationships. This material is part of a larger collection of introductory physics labs.

Ferguson, Joe; Denson, Jack



Editing graphs for maximum effect  

SciTech Connect

The paper contains over eighty rules for editing graphs, arranged under nine major headings in a logical sequence for editing all the graphs in a manuscript. It is excerpted from a monograph used at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to train beginning technical editors in editing graphs; a corresponding Hypercard stack is also used in this training. 6 refs., 4 figs.

Murphy, P.W.; Rhiner, R.W.



Cognitive measurements of graph aesthetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large class of diagrams can be informally characterized as node-link diagrams. Typically nodes represent entities, and links represent relationships between them. The discipline of graph drawing is concerned with methods for drawing abstract versions of such diagrams. At the foundation of the disci- pline are a set of graph aesthetics (rules for graph layout) that, it is assumed, will

Colin Ware; Helen C. Purchase; Linda Colpoys; Matthew Mcgill



On rational graphs Christophe Morvan  

E-print Network

On rational graphs Christophe Morvan IRISA, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes, France Abstract. Using rationality, like in language theory, we define a family of infinite graphs. This family. More recently Caucal introduced (in [Ca 96]) a characterization of graphs in terms of inverse (rational

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Implementing Calibrated Peer Review to Enhance Technical Critiquing Skills in a Bioengineering Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed at UCLA, Calibrated Peer Review (CPR) is a web-based tool developed to help students improve their technical writing and critiquing skills. In 2006 and 2007 we used CPR in an upper-level tissue culture laboratory course in which students conduct viability, attachment, and proliferation assays using fibroblast cells. After completing their experiments, students use PowerPoint to construct a technical poster that illustrates their experimental methods, results, and conclusions. For the CPR component of the assignment, students first evaluate three sample posters supplied by the instructor to calibrate their critiquing skills. After this step, students conduct a blind review of three peers posters and then evaluate their own. During the calibration, peer critiquing and self evaluation stages, students respond to 15 statements about the quality of the posters. Eleven statements cover technical content, including succinct summary of objectives, clear experimental methods, quality of graphs, and key results interpreted in words. Three statements probe the posters visual appeal, including appropriate size and style of font. One final statement requires a holistic evaluation of the poster. Following CPR, students turn in a revised copy of their technical poster. In 2006, students had difficulty during the calibration phase. Following a major revision of the calibration phase in 2007, 79% of students passed all three calibration posters. Instructor, peer, and self evaluations were compared. There was a strong linear correlation between instructor evaluation and peer evaluation (r = 0.60, regression model ANOVA P0.2). These results suggest that students may be better able to technically evaluate others work, rather than their own. Students perceived the peer evaluation process as generally helpful, although they noted that their peers comments were less specific and occasionally inconsistent with their instructors feedback. Students reported on surveys that peer evaluation was effective in helping them to recognize many facets of technical poster design, such as errors and omissions, data presentation, and technical argument. 97% of the students claimed their technical critiquing skills improved as a result of this experience. We feel that using CPR to facilitate the peer evaluation process is an effective way to enhance undergraduate engineering students technical critiquing skills.

Saterbak, Ann


STRATEGIESEMPLOYERS Translation/Interpretation  

E-print Network

STRATEGIESEMPLOYERS GOVERNMENT Translation/Interpretation Language Analysis Linguistics Diplomacy vacancies. Review special hiring authorizations to be hired and to advance more quickly. Participate, Page 2) AREAS Translation/Interpretation Airline Services Management Booking and Reservations Travel

New Hampshire, University of


Straight Line Graphs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author shares one effective lesson idea on straight line graphs that he applied in his lower ability Y9 class. The author wanted something interesting for his class to do, something that was fun and engaging with direct feedback, and something that worked because someone else had tried it before. In a word, the author admits…

Krueger, Tom



Graphs, Strings, and Actions  

E-print Network

West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA ..... however, convenient to keep both notions. By an angle ... duality, since one can recover the ribbon graph from its dual tree. .... outside circle or the perimeter, and the vertex ?(mk(c0)) is called the global zero.



Graphing Fall Leaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this biology lab extension, student will have already collected leaves from the playground and surrounding school areas and sorted them into categories according to leaf properties. Students will use the leave classifications/ sorts to graph the properties of the leaves.

Bonnie DePeel


Distributed social graph embedding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed recommender systems are becoming increasingly important for they address both scalability and the Big Brother syndrome. Link prediction is one of the core mechanism in recommender systems and relies on extracting some notion of proximity between entities in a graph. Applied to social networks, defining a proximity metric between users enable to predict potential relevant future relationships. In this

Anne-Marie Kermarrec; Vincent Leroy; Gilles Trédan



Editor's Note: Literacy Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Our science and literacy issue is always one of the most popular issues of the year, and we're betting this jam-packed issue will be no exception. Why? There are many probable reasons. Many elementary teachers are more comfortable with teaching science literacy so they look for ways to use their strengths. No Child Left Behind legislation has put the spotlight on literacy in the elementary grades, sometimes pushing science (and social studies and PE and art) out of the busy day. Teaching science with literacy skills may be one way to convey important science skills while still teaching and reinforcing literacy.

Ohana, Chris



Translation and Interpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines recent trends in the fields of translation and interpretation, focusing on translation and interpretation theory and practice, language-specific challenges, computer-assisted translation, machine translation, subtitling, and translator and interpreter training. An annotated bibliography discusses seven important works in the field. (112…

Nicholson, Nancy Schweda



Journalists as Interpretive Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes viewing journalists as members of an interpretive community (not a profession) united by its shared discourse and collective interpretations of key public events. Applies the frame of the interpretive community to journalistic discourse about two events central for American journalists--Watergate and McCarthyism. (SR)

Zelizer, Barbie



Data Acquisition Interpretation  

E-print Network

Data Acquisition Inversion Interpretation Discussion Virgin River DCIP Report Justin Granek1 1 Report #12;Data Acquisition Inversion Interpretation Discussion Outline 1 Data Acquisition Location Survey Specications 2 Inversion Data Errors DCIP2D DCIP3D 3 Interpretation Correlations Snowbird Tectonic

Oldenburg, Douglas W.


Exploring Data Display and Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning unit from Math Interactives demonstrates data display and graphs. A video is included which explains the role graphs have in the retail world. The interactive portion of the learning unit has students compare line graphs, bar graphs and circle graphs. They will compare two different data displays and determine if they represent the same data. This lesson will help students understand that the same data may be demonstrated in vastly different ways, and the importance of how data is displayed. A print version of the activity is available for download in Microsoft Word and PDF file formats.



Spectral fluctuations of quantum graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We prove the Bohigas-Giannoni-Schmit conjecture in its most general form for completely connected simple graphs with incommensurate bond lengths. We show that for graphs that are classically mixing (i.e., graphs for which the spectrum of the classical Perron-Frobenius operator possesses a finite gap), the generating functions for all (P,Q) correlation functions for both closed and open graphs coincide (in the limit of infinite graph size) with the corresponding expressions of random-matrix theory, both for orthogonal and for unitary symmetry.

Pluha?, Z.; Weidenmüller, H. A.



Mathematical Inscriptions and the Reflexive Elaboration of Understanding: An Ethnography of Graphing and Numeracy in a Fish Hatchery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The power of mathematical inscriptions, such as graphs, is often attributed to the fact that they summarize a lot of information independent of their contextual particulars. There is evidence, however, that even quintessential experts and scientists have difficulties interpreting graphs when they are unfamiliar with the entities represented and…

Roth, Wolff-Michael



Essential Skills for Principals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

No matter what standards they follow, principals must be skilled team builders, instructional leaders, and visionary risk-takers. There are five emerging roles: historian, cheerleader, lightning rod, landscaper (environmental scanner), and anthropologist. To succeed, principals must be empowered by districts, become authentic leaders, and make…

Terry, Paul M.



Hierarchical skills in typewriting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to discover whether there is an hierarchy of letter, word, and phrase habits in the acquisition of the typewriting skill. Operators at 6 levels of typing performance ranging between the beginning student in typewriting and the demonstration expert were tested on connected discourse, word jumbles, and letter jumbles. The following conclusions are based on

P. Fendrick



Developing Scientists' "Soft" Skills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A great deal of professional advice directed at undergraduates, graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and even early-career scientists focuses on technical skills necessary to succeed in a complex work environment in which problems transcend disciplinary boundaries. Collaborative research approaches are emphasized, as are cross-training and gaining nonacademic experiences [Moslemi et al., 2009].

Gordon, Wendy



Adult Survival Skills Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this instrument is to supplement data from the Adult Basic Learning Examination in assessing the functional level of adults in daily situations. It may also be used as a teaching tool for adults requesting tutoring in specific concepts and skills presented in the instrument. This instrument is an informal assessment instrument and…

Walsko, Gregory M.


The Skills Paradox  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite a vocal commitment to fairness, the British Government has, according to these authors, wholeheartedly failed to live up to this pledge when it comes to skills and adult training. A report on adult learning released in December by Demos found a system rife with inequality and contradictions. As the jobs market becomes increasingly…

Burks, Beatrice Karol; Reeves, Richard



Construction Superintendent Skill Sets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first of a series of articles reviewing the results of an ongoing qualitative research project designed to document construction superintendent skill sets and develop postsecondary curricula to support superintendent education. Varying views of the role of the superintendent and an historical perspective are presented in a review of literature. The research methodology for the entire project, as

David E. Gunderson; Philip L. Barlow; Allan J. Hauck


Group Work Skills Rubric  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document provides a rubric for grading group work skills. With this, instructors can evaluate students in the areas of initiative, preparation, cooperation and time management.This rubric would be useful for grading groups at most educational levels. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.


State Skill Standards: Welding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide occupational skill standards. The standards in this document are for welding programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program. The writing team determined that any statewide…

Pointer, Mike; Naylor, Randy; Warden, John; Senek, Gene; Shirley, Charles; Lefcourt, Lew; Munson, Justin; Johnson, Art



Math Skills Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This math skills review was written for first year college chemistry students who have weak math backgrounds, but is useful for all science students in high school and college. Topics covered include algebraic manipulation, dimensional analysis, significant figures, manipulation of exponents, scientific notation, logarithms, the quadratic equation and standard deviation.

Keeney-Kennicutt, Wendy



Skilled Veterans Corps  

E-print Network

once and for all. A group of elders has volunteered to clean up the reactors damaged by the tsunami and earthquake. Calling itself the Skilled Veteran Corps, the group consists of engineers and other specialists over 60 who are able?and willing--to do a...

Hacker, Randi



Developing Leadership Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Principals often think of professional development in terms of activities--attending a workshop, networking with colleagues at a conference, reading a professional article or book, and so on. Although these are all good things in and of themselves, genuine professional growth does not occur until knowledge and skills are put into practice at the…

Kinney, Patti



Measuring Skills and Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Customized skills assessments can perform a number of functions: help training departments demonstrate their effectiveness; provide a foundation for career development programs; reinforce company values; add feedback from the bottom up for performance evaluation; provide a concentrated focus for customer service improvement; and serve as a…

Ludeman, Kate



The Impact of Climate Change on Prairie Potholes Activity 2: Graphing/Data Analysis  

E-print Network

into chemical energy through photosynthesis. That energy then passes from organism to organism in food webs. #12. Prerequisite Knowledge: ! Content: o Weather patterns o Climate change ! Skills: o Graphing ! Discuss dependent environment. How a species moves, obtains food, reproduces, and responds to danger are based in the species


The development and implementation of an instrument to assess students' data analysis skills in molecular biology.  


Developing visual literacy skills is an important component of scientific literacy in undergraduate science education. Comprehension, analysis, and interpretation are parts of visual literacy that describe related data analysis skills important for learning in the biological sciences. The Molecular Biology Data Analysis Test (MBDAT) was developed to measure students' data analysis skills connected with scientific reasoning when analyzing and interpreting scientific data generated from experimental research. The skills analyzed included basic skills, such as identification of patterns and trends in data and connecting a method that generated the data, and advanced skills, such as distinguishing positive and negative controls, synthesizing conclusions, determining if data supports a hypothesis, and predicting alternative or next-step experiments. Construct and content validity were established and calculated statistical parameters demonstrate that the MBDAT is valid and reliable for measuring students' data analysis skills in molecular and cell biology contexts. The instrument also measures students' perceived confidence in their data interpretation abilities. As scientific research continues to evolve in complexity, interpretation of scientific information in visual formats will continue to be an important component of scientific literacy. Thus science education will need to support and assess students' development of these skills as part of students' scientific training. PMID:25574292

Rybarczyk, Brian J; Walton, Kristen L W; Grillo, Wendy Heck



ELM Branches Out! A Language and Life Skill Competency Based Curriculum Integrated with MELT Competencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An adult education curriculum integrating language and life skills instruction for students of English as a Second Language, based on the English Language Matrix (ELM) model, is presented. The curriculum is designed to meet the adult language learner's life competency needs, integrating communicative language skills of listening, interpreting

Bell, Eleanora S.; Evans, Twila S.


The Development and Implementation of an Instrument to Assess Students’ Data Analysis Skills in Molecular Biology †  

PubMed Central

Developing visual literacy skills is an important component of scientific literacy in undergraduate science education. Comprehension, analysis, and interpretation are parts of visual literacy that describe related data analysis skills important for learning in the biological sciences. The Molecular Biology Data Analysis Test (MBDAT) was developed to measure students’ data analysis skills connected with scientific reasoning when analyzing and interpreting scientific data generated from experimental research. The skills analyzed included basic skills, such as identification of patterns and trends in data and connecting a method that generated the data, and advanced skills, such as distinguishing positive and negative controls, synthesizing conclusions, determining if data supports a hypothesis, and predicting alternative or next-step experiments. Construct and content validity were established and calculated statistical parameters demonstrate that the MBDAT is valid and reliable for measuring students’ data analysis skills in molecular and cell biology contexts. The instrument also measures students’ perceived confidence in their data interpretation abilities. As scientific research continues to evolve in complexity, interpretation of scientific information in visual formats will continue to be an important component of scientific literacy. Thus science education will need to support and assess students’ development of these skills as part of students’ scientific training. PMID:25574292

Rybarczyk, Brian J.; Walton, Kristen L.W.; Grillo, Wendy Heck



The relationship between graphing calculator use and the development of classroom norms in an exemplay teacher's college algebra course  

E-print Network

The purpose of this study was to advance knowledge about the relationship between graphing calculator use and classroom norm development. An interpretive case study design incorporating qualitative and quantitative research methods was used...

Gerren, Sally Sue



A Study of the Effects of Frequency of Probe Data Collection and Graph Characteristics on Teachers' Visual Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the reliability of teacher's interpretations of graphed performance data on students with moderate to profound mental retardation revealed that teacher judgments are consistent and accurate for continuous improvement in performance, but less consistent for variable performance. (MSE)

Munger, Gail F.; And Others



Diagrammatic Reasoning Skills of Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study attempted to explore a possible relationship between diagrammatic reasoning and geometric knowledge of pre-service mathematics teachers. Diagrammatic reasoning skills, as a sequence of steps from visualization, to interpretation, to formalisms, are at the core of teachers' content knowledge for teaching. However, there is no course…

Karrass, Margaret



Towards an Integrated Model for Developing Sustainable Assessment Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the goals of current education is to ensure that graduates can act as independent lifelong learners. Graduates need to be able to assess their own learning and interpret assessment results. The central question in this article is how to acquire sustainable assessment skills, enabling students to assess their performance and learning…

Fastre, Greet M. J.; van der Klink, Marcel R.; Sluijsmans, Dominique; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.



A Unified Geometric Approach to Graph Separators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class of graphs called k-overlap graphs is proposed. Special cases of k-overlap graphs include planar graphs, k-nearest neighbor graphs, and earlier classes of graphs associated with finite element methods. A separator bound is proved for k-overlap graphs embedded in d dimensions. The result unifies several earlier separator results. All the arguments are based on geometric properties of embedding. The

Gary L. Miller; Shang-hua Teng; Stephen A. Vavasis



SkillScan Online: Have Skills, Will Travel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Counselors today have a variety of choices when working with clients. They are challenged to select the most timely and cost effective ways to work with clients. SkillScan Online is a self-directed process that enables clients to assess skills and competencies, explore career options, and plan skill development activities to keep pace with the…

Beckhusen, Lesah


What Skills Should Students of Undergraduate Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Programs Have Upon Graduation?  

PubMed Central

Biochemistry and molecular biology (BMB) students should demonstrate proficiency in the foundational concepts of the discipline and possess the skills needed to practice as professionals. To ascertain the skills that should be required, groups of BMB educators met in several focused workshops to discuss the expectations with the ultimate goal of clearly articulating the skills required. The results of these discussions highlight the critical importance of experimental, mathematical, and interpersonal skills including collaboration, teamwork, safety, and ethics. The groups also found experimental design, data interpretation and analysiand the ability to communicate findings to diverse audience to be essential skills. To aid in the development of appropriate assessments these skills are grouped into three categories, 1) Process of Science, 2) Communication and Comprehension of Science, and 3) Community of Practice Aspects of Science. Finally, the groups worked to align these competencies with the best practices in both teaching and in skills assessment. PMID:24019246

White, Harold B.; Benore, Marilee A.; Sumter, Takita F.; Caldwell, Benjamin D.; Bell, Ellis



What skills should students of undergraduate biochemistry and molecular biology programs have upon graduation?  


Biochemistry and molecular biology (BMB) students should demonstrate proficiency in the foundational concepts of the discipline and possess the skills needed to practice as professionals. To ascertain the skills that should be required, groups of BMB educators met in several focused workshops to discuss the expectations with the ultimate goal of clearly articulating the skills required. The results of these discussions highlight the critical importance of experimental, mathematical, and interpersonal skills including collaboration, teamwork, safety, and ethics. The groups also found experimental design, data interpretation and analysiand the ability to communicate findings to diverse audience to be essential skills. To aid in the development of appropriate assessments these skills are grouped into three categories, 1) Process of Science, 2) Communication and Comprehension of Science, and 3) Community of Practice Aspects of Science. Finally, the groups worked to align these competencies with the best practices in both teaching and in skills assessment. PMID:24019246

White, Harold B; Benore, Marilee A; Sumter, Takita F; Caldwell, Benjamin D; Bell, Ellis



Graphs in molecular biology  

PubMed Central

Graph theoretical concepts are useful for the description and analysis of interactions and relationships in biological systems. We give a brief introduction into some of the concepts and their areas of application in molecular biology. We discuss software that is available through the Bioconductor project and present a simple example application to the integration of a protein-protein interaction and a co-expression network. PMID:17903289

Huber, Wolfgang; Carey, Vincent J; Long, Li; Falcon, Seth; Gentleman, Robert



Drawing symmetric planar graphs  

E-print Network

16 17 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 A drawing generated by repeating graphs. Generation of the drawing with the unit cell. Calculation of the converted lines. Rectangular unit cell for hexagonal groups. Construction ofhexagonal cells by using... in the early twentieth century [2]. The seventeen two-dimensional symmeny groups are enumerated by the Russian crystallographer E. S. Fedorov [3]. Thus, mathematically, there are only seventeen distinct types of patterns which have different symmetries...

Meric, Burak Necati



Main graphs: Quadratic equation  

E-print Network

Main graphs: Quadratic equation: Equation A2 +B+C = 0, has solutions given by the following 'abc equations: Equation dN dt = kN has the solution: N(t) = N0ekt; N0 is an (arbitrary) initial value of N. Characteristic time of change is = 1/k. Systems of linear differential equations: For system dx dt = ax+by dy dt

Utrecht, Universiteit


An Unusual Exponential Graph  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is an addition to the series of papers on the exponential function begun by Albert Bartlett. In particular, we ask how the graph of the exponential function y = e[superscript -t/t] would appear if y were plotted versus ln t rather than the normal practice of plotting ln y versus t. In answering this question, we find a new way to…

Syed, M. Qasim; Lovatt, Ian



Puzzle Play Improves Math Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief press release from the National Science Foundation summarizes the results of a University of Chicago study linking puzzle play with math skills. The study found that puzzle play proved to be a significant predictor of spatial skills. The study also found gender differences in child/parent interactions and in acquired skills.



Improving Motor Skills in Kindergartners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This action research project evaluated a program for improving motor skills in kindergartners by incorporating into the core curriculum motor activities, new materials focused on motor skills, and authentic assessments of motor skills. Teacher observations, scores from the DIAL-R (Developmental Indicators for the Assessment of Learning-Revised)…

Bosma, Anne; Domka, Amy; Peterson, Jill


Teaching Self-Care Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Survival skills instruction for latchkey kids with special needs is discussed. Methods for cultivation of skills pertaining to physical well-being, accident prevention, emergency procedures, healthy lifestyles, and mental, social and emotional well-being are described. Sources of model programs and curriculum materials for self-care skills

Koblinsky, Sally A.; Todd, Christine M.



Employability Skills. At a Glance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a competitive workforce it is not just having the right qualification or technical skills that will land an individual a job; it could very well be their interpersonal skills. How someone communicates is often the first impression an employer has of a possible worker. Yet, it is precisely communication skills that employers feel applicants are…

Wibrow, Bridget



Longest Path Problems on Ptolemaic Graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Longest path problem is a problem for finding a longest path in a given graph. While the graph classes in which the Hamiltonian path problem can be solved efficiently are widely investigated, there are few known graph classes such that the longest path problem can be solved efficiently. Polynomial time algorithms for finding a longest cycle and a longest path in a Ptolemaic graph are proposed. Ptolemaic graphs are the graphs that satisfy the Ptolemy inequality, and they are the intersection of chordal graphs and distance-hereditary graphs. The algorithms use the dynamic programming technique on a laminar structure of cliques, which is a recent characterization of Ptolemaic graphs.

Takahara, Yoshihiro; Teramoto, Sachio; Uehara, Ryuhei


Graph Coarsening for Path Finding in Cybersecurity Graphs  

SciTech Connect

n the pass-the-hash attack, hackers repeatedly steal password hashes and move through a computer network with the goal of reaching a computer with high level administrative privileges. In this paper we apply graph coarsening in network graphs for the purpose of detecting hackers using this attack or assessing the risk level of the network's current state. We repeatedly take graph minors, which preserve the existence of paths in the graph, and take powers of the adjacency matrix to count the paths. This allows us to detect the existence of paths as well as find paths that have high risk of being used by adversaries.

Hogan, Emilie A.; Johnson, John R.; Halappanavar, Mahantesh



Interpreting Technical Drawings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interpreting Technical Drawings introduces students to the various sources of information found within technical drawings and provides practice interpreting various projections. After completing this module, students should be able to identify orthographic, isometric, and sectional views and interpret key information on technical drawings. Note: This module is part of a modularized manufacturing technology curriculum created by the PSCME, found at



Skill analysis part 2: evaluating a practice skill.  


This is the second of three articles exploring skill analysis, assisting readers to evaluate a practice skill of their choice. Sometimes evaluations are made against external reference points, the competencies of the registered nurse or a job description for a post eagerly sought after; sometimes they are made with reference to aspirations--an ideal of the skill in use that the nurse and colleagues admire. Nurses may be understandably anxious about the evaluation of practice skills, as they work in a performance-orientated world where they are judged on whether their practice is competent, safe, ethical, cost effective and efficient. Nonetheless, understanding the strengths and weaknesses of a chosen practice skill is central to practice development. If the skill is to be affirmed, improved or adjusted, it is necessary to evaluate the skill in use. PMID:22272540

Price, Bob


Constructing Dense Graphs with Unique Hamiltonian Cycles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is not difficult to construct dense graphs containing Hamiltonian cycles, but it is difficult to generate dense graphs that are guaranteed to contain a unique Hamiltonian cycle. This article presents an algorithm for generating arbitrarily large simple graphs containing "unique" Hamiltonian cycles. These graphs can be turned into dense graphs

Lynch, Mark A. M.



Motion Graph & Motion Retargeting motion capture  

E-print Network

display MoCap database motion 10 Motion Graph Motion Graph skeleton skin Motion Retargeting skeleton skeleton skin model skeleton project Motion Graph Motion Retargeting 2 Related Work MotionMotion Graph & Motion Retargeting R02944001 Abstract motion capture project Motion Graph

Ouhyoung, Ming


Sociometry analysis applying fuzzy node fuzzy graph  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sociometry is a social structure measurement and evaluation method, which we can effectively analyze by applying fuzzy graph theory. We extend the fuzzy graph theory, and propose a fuzzy node fuzzy graph, and we transform it to a crisp node fuzzy graph using by T-norm. The authors explain a fuzzy node fuzzy graph, and propose new T-norm family quasi logical

H. Uesu; H. Yamashita; M. Yanai; M. Tomita



Statistical mechanics on isoradial graphs  

E-print Network

Isoradial graphs are a natural generalization of regular graphs which give, for many models of statistical mechanics, the right framework for studying models at criticality. In this survey paper, we first explain how isoradial graphs naturally arise in two approaches used by physicists: transfer matrices and conformal field theory. This leads us to the fact that isoradial graphs provide a natural setting for discrete complex analysis, to which we dedicate one section. Then, we give an overview of explicit results obtained for different models of statistical mechanics defined on such graphs: the critical dimer model when the underlying graph is bipartite, the 2-dimensional critical Ising model, random walk and spanning trees and the q-state Potts model.

Cédric Boutillier; Béatrice De Tilière



Graph Classification Using Genetic Algorithm and Graph Probing Application to Symbol Recognition  

E-print Network

Graph Classification Using Genetic Algorithm and Graph Probing Application to Symbol Recognition classification approach using genetic algorithm and a fast dissimilarity measure between graphs called graph this learning set, a graph based Genetic Algorithm (GA) is applied. Its aim is to generate a set of K graph

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Graph Matching Using Spectral Seriation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper is concerned with computing graph edit distance. One of the criticisms that can be leveled at existing methods\\u000a for computing graph edit distance is that it lacks the formality and rigour of string edit distance computation. Hence, our\\u000a aim is to convert graphs to string sequences so that standard string edit distance techniques can be used. To do

Antonio Robles-Kellyand; Edwin R. Hancock



Cactus Graphs for Genome Comparisons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a data structure, analysis and visualization scheme called a cactus graph for comparing sets of related genomes. Cactus graphs capture some of the advantages of de Bruijn and breakpoint graphs in one unified framework. They naturally decompose the common substructures in a set of related genomes into a hierarchy of chains that can be visualized as multiple alignments and nets that can be visualized in circular genome plots.

Paten, Benedict; Diekhans, Mark; Earl, Dent; St. John, John; Ma, Jian; Suh, Bernard; Haussler, David


Locating Information: Targets for Learning. Reading and Interpreting Workplace Graphics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of a series of instructor guides designed to support Ohio's ACT Work Keys System, this book is designed for teachers and industry trainers seeking strategies to prepare people to read and interpret workplace graphics. It is for instructors of all subject areas, parents, mentors, and trainers; has skills meant for all learners; supports what…

Bidwell, Sheri E.


Clinical skills assessment of procedural and advanced communication skills: performance expectations of residency program directors  

PubMed Central

Background High stakes medical licensing programs are planning to augment and adapt current examinations to be relevant for a two-decision point model for licensure: entry into supervised practice and entry into unsupervised practice. Therefore, identifying which skills should be assessed at each decision point is critical for informing examination development, and gathering input from residency program directors is important. Methods Using data from previously developed surveys and expert panels, a web-delivered survey was distributed to 3,443 residency program directors. For each of the 28 procedural and 18 advanced communication skills, program directors were asked which clinical skills should be assessed, by whom, when, and how. Descriptive statistics were collected, and Intraclass Correlations (ICC) were conducted to determine consistency across different specialties. Results Among 347 respondents, program directors reported that all advanced communication and some procedural tasks are important to assess. The following procedures were considered ‘important’ or ‘extremely important’ to assess: sterile technique (93.8%), advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS) (91.1%), basic life support (BLS) (90.0%), interpretation of electrocardiogram (89.4%) and blood gas (88.7%). Program directors reported that most clinical skills should be assessed at the end of the first year of residency (or later) and not before graduation from medical school. A minority were considered important to assess prior to the start of residency training: demonstration of respectfulness (64%), sterile technique (67.2%), BLS (68.9%), ACLS (65.9%) and phlebotomy (63.5%). Discussion Results from this study support that assessing procedural skills such as cardiac resuscitation, sterile technique, and phlebotomy would be amenable to assessment at the end of medical school, but most procedural and advanced communications skills would be amenable to assessment at the end of the first year of residency training or later. Conclusions Gathering data from residency program directors provides support for developing new assessment tools in high-stakes licensing examinations. PMID:22833698

Langenau, Erik E.; Zhang, Xiuyuan; Roberts, William L.; DeChamplain, Andre F.; Boulet, John R.



Graphing the West Corridor Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity introduces students to using graphical analysis of data to analyze flaws in a local regional transit system's design. Students will evaluate factors such as ride time, wait time, and percentage of capacity used in a train. This activity requires the use of the FasTracks Living Lab at: After completing this activity, students should be able to: 1. Plot simple variables versus time on graph paper 2. Calculate percentages and graph them versus time on graph paper 3. Answer questions quantitatively using information obtained from a graph.

Mooney, Mike; Fehr, Stuart



47 CFR 80.761 - Conversion graphs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conversion graphs. 80.761 Section 80.761 Telecommunication...Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.761 Conversion graphs. The following graphs must be employed where conversion from one to...



The Zagreb coindices of graph operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently introduced Zagreb coindices are a generalization of classical Zagreb indices of chemical graph theory. We explore here their basic mathematical properties and present explicit formulae for these new graph invariants under several graph operations.

Ali Reza Ashrafi; Tomislav Doslic; A. Hamzeh



Edge compression techniques for visualization of dense directed graphs.  


We explore the effectiveness of visualizing dense directed graphs by replacing individual edges with edges connected to 'modules'-or groups of nodes-such that the new edges imply aggregate connectivity. We only consider techniques that offer a lossless compression: that is, where the entire graph can still be read from the compressed version. The techniques considered are: a simple grouping of nodes with identical neighbor sets; Modular Decomposition which permits internal structure in modules and allows them to be nested; and Power Graph Analysis which further allows edges to cross module boundaries. These techniques all have the same goal--to compress the set of edges that need to be rendered to fully convey connectivity--but each successive relaxation of the module definition permits fewer edges to be drawn in the rendered graph. Each successive technique also, we hypothesize, requires a higher degree of mental effort to interpret. We test this hypothetical trade-off with two studies involving human participants. For Power Graph Analysis we propose a novel optimal technique based on constraint programming. This enables us to explore the parameter space for the technique more precisely than could be achieved with a heuristic. Although applicable to many domains, we are motivated by--and discuss in particular--the application to software dependency analysis. PMID:24051826

Dwyer, Tim; Henry Riche, Nathalie; Marriott, Kim; Mears, Christopher



Interpreting Proportional Relationships  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This series of activities allows students to experiment to discover proportional relationships This activity has three objectives: "(1) Students generate data by translating information from a verbal problem, record results in tabular form, and write a rule for the number patterns discovered in the table. (2) Students plot a set of data points and connect the points to form a graph of the related rule. (3) Students learn to discriminate proportional from nonproportional relationships on the basis of formulas and graphs used to describe these situations." It consists of four worksheets. The first allows students see the proportional relationship between surface area of Cuisenaire robs and develop formulae to express that relationship. The second worksheet asks students to graph the data they collected and determine if the relationships are proportional or nonproportional. The third and fourth sheets give students extra practice using the steps they have learned to determine proportionality in two different problems. This site gives a helpful explanation of the pedagogical choices present in the lesson as well as answers and steps to solving the problems presented.

Cramer, Kathleen A.; Post, Thomas R.; Behr, Merlyn J.



Graphs with the same determinant as a complete graph  

Microsoft Academic Search

A family of n×n symmetric circulant (0, 1) matrices is studied. It is shown that the determinant of each matrix is (?1)n?1(n?1), a property shared with the adjacency matrix of the complete graph on n nodes. As a result, each matrix in this family generates an incomplete graph that forms a counterexample to a recent conjecture.

D. D. Olesky; P. van den Driessche; J. H. Verner



Quilting Stochastic Kronecker Product Graphs to Generate Multiplicative Attribute Graphs  

E-print Network

S.V. N. Vishwanathan Department of Statistics Purdue University Departments of Statistics and 20 billion edges in under 6 hours. 1 Introduction In this paper we are concerned with statistical and compares graph statistics of the samples with the original graph (Hunter et al. 2008). . To test whether

Vishwanathan, S V N


Quilting Stochastic Kronecker Product Graphs to Generate Multiplicative Attribute Graphs  

E-print Network

S.V. N. Vishwanathan Department of Statistics Purdue University Departments of Statistics billion edges in under 6 hours. 1 Introduction In this paper we are concerned with statistical models and compares graph statistics of the samples with the original graph (Hunter et al. 2008). · To test whether

Vishwanathan, S V N


Assessment of Interpersonal Communication Skills Among Sari Health Centers’ Staff  

PubMed Central

Background and aim: Ability to communicate correctly has been one of the life's basic social skills and its significance in human life is to some extent that some of the experts attribute the human growth foundation owners of the leading personal injuries and progress to human relationship. Purpose of this study was to evaluate the interpersonal communication skills among the health care centers staff. Methods: This study was a descriptive–cross sectional study was done among 85 staff in 12 metropolitan and 9 urban health centers in 2013. According to Kerejsi and Morgan's table, 70 employees were determined as samples. Seventy questionnaires were distributed at the mentioned centers and 60 measurable health questionnaires were examined. Demographic data and measure of communication skills: is a 36-items consisting of seven domains: (general Communication, speaking, listening, interpretation and clarification, asking, feedback, and reward and punishment), obtained data were analyzed by inferential statistical tests (Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis and correlation coefficient). Results: Most respondents 38 (63.3%) were women, 57 (95%) married and 17 (28.1 %) age means of 43-47 years. In the study status of the communication skills status of employees employed in health centres, Sari, “Punish and encourage skills” with mean and total standard deviation of 4.11±37.0 assigned the highest score and “feedback” skill with mean and total standard deviation of 3.68±045 assigned the less score. Conclusion: Findings showed that public relation skill, listening, reward and punishment in good scope and other skills were in the average scope. No need for training skills of empowerment of staff and their mental health. These results could be used for developing similar instruments in other health workers. PMID:25568632

Siamian, Hasan; Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Nia, Roobabe Darvish; Nezhad, Fereshteh Reza; Akbari, Hadise; Balaghafari, Azita; Vahdei, Mohammad



Finding One Variable Statistics With a Graphing Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This quick YouTube video from high school statistics teacher Roger W. Davis explains how to find one variable statistics using the TI-84 graphing calculator. The demonstration goes through three steps: entering the data, finding one variable statistics using the STAT menu, and interpreting the results. The data created includes mean, sum, median and more. Flash player is required to view this video, and the running time for the clip is 3:12.

Davis, Roger W.



Pathwidth and Searching in Parameterized Threshold Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Treewidth and pathwidth are important graph parameters that represent how close the graph is to trees and paths respectively.\\u000a We calculate treewidth and pathwidth on parameterized chordal and threshold graphs. We define a chordal?+?1v graph as a graph that can be made into a chordal graph by removing a vertex. We give polynomial time algorithms for computing\\u000a the treewidth of

D. Sai Krishna; T. V. Thirumala Reddy; B. Sai Shashank; C. Pandu Rangan



Quantization of gauge fields, graph polynomials and graph homology  

SciTech Connect

We review quantization of gauge fields using algebraic properties of 3-regular graphs. We derive the Feynman integrand at n loops for a non-abelian gauge theory quantized in a covariant gauge from scalar integrands for connected 3-regular graphs, obtained from the two Symanzik polynomials. The transition to the full gauge theory amplitude is obtained by the use of a third, new, graph polynomial, the corolla polynomial. This implies effectively a covariant quantization without ghosts, where all the relevant signs of the ghost sector are incorporated in a double complex furnished by the corolla polynomial–we call it cycle homology–and by graph homology. -- Highlights: •We derive gauge theory Feynman from scalar field theory with 3-valent vertices. •We clarify the role of graph homology and cycle homology. •We use parametric renormalization and the new corolla polynomial.

Kreimer, Dirk, E-mail: [Humboldt University, 10099 Berlin (Germany)] [Humboldt University, 10099 Berlin (Germany); Sars, Matthias [Humboldt University, 10099 Berlin (Germany)] [Humboldt University, 10099 Berlin (Germany); Suijlekom, Walter D. van [Radboud University Nijmegen, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)] [Radboud University Nijmegen, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)



Skewed graph partitioning  

SciTech Connect

Graph partitioning is an important abstraction used in solving many scientific computing problems. Unfortunately, the standard partitioning model does not incorporate considerations that are important in many settings. We address this by describing a generalized partitioning model which incorporates the notion of partition skew and is applicable to a variety of problems. We then develop enhancements to several important partitioning algorithms necessary to solve the generalized partitioning problem. Finally we demonstrate the benefit of employing several of these generalized methods to static decomposition of parallel computing problems.

Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Van Driessche, R. [Alcatel Telecom, Antwerp (Belgium)



Reconceptualised life skills in secondary education in the African context: Lessons learnt from reforms in Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early notions of life skills in Africa did not take into account the importance of a flexible and portable set of skills that would enable youth to adapt to changes in the world of work and lay the foundations for productive well-being and behaviour. Rather, life skills education in many secondary education curricula in Africa started with an emphasis on developing specific technical vocational skills considered essential for employability or self-employment. Using Ghana as an example, this paper shows how secondary education curriculum reformers recommended shifts that embraced a new interpretation of life skills focused on 21st-century skills. This gradual move also reflected the difficulty that secondary education in general has had in networking with the world of work to provide work experience that would lead to the development of work-related skills and enhance employability. The author's main argument is that although the reconceptualisation of life skills in secondary education to reflect 21st-century skills is a welcome shift in the African context, this needs to be accompanied by reforms in teacher education. Classroom teaching and learning need to be adapted in a fundamental way in order to ensure that youth fully benefit from the inclusion of 21st-century life skills in secondary education curricula. Such reforms must include pedagogical practices which nurture communication, collaboration, creativity and critical thinking skills.

Akyeampong, Kwame



Theory Interpretations in PVS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this task was to provide a mechanism for theory interpretations in a prototype verification system (PVS) so that it is possible to demonstrate the consistency of a theory by exhibiting an interpretation that validates the axioms. The mechanization makes it possible to show that one collection of theories is correctly interpreted by another collection of theories under a user-specified interpretation for the uninterpreted types and constants. A theory instance is generated and imported, while the axiom instances are generated as proof obligations to ensure that the interpretation is valid. Interpretations can be used to show that an implementation is a correct refinement of a specification, that an axiomatically defined specification is consistent, or that a axiomatically defined specification captures its intended models. In addition, the theory parameter mechanism has been extended with a notion of theory as parameter so that a theory instance can be given as an actual parameter to an imported theory. Theory interpretations can thus be used to refine an abstract specification or to demonstrate the consistency of an axiomatic theory. In this report we describe the mechanism in detail. This extension is a part of PVS version 3.0, which will be publicly released in mid-2001.

Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan; Butler, Ricky W. (Technical Monitor)



Microcomputer programming skills  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some differences in skill and techniques required for conversion from programmer to microprogrammer are discussed. The primary things with which the programmer should work are hardware architecture, hardware/software trade off, and interfacing. The biggest differences, however, will stem from the differences in applications than from differences in machine size. The change to real-time programming is the most important of these differences, particularly on dedicated microprocessors. Another primary change is programming with a more computer-naive user in mind, and dealing with his limitations and expectations.

Barth, C. W.



Graphs as Statements of Belief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies points where beliefs are important when making decisions about how graphs are drawn. Describes a simple case of the reaction between 'bicarb soda' and orange or lemon juice and discusses how drawing a graph becomes a statement of belief. (KHR)

Lake, David



Graphing Slope-Intercept Equations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This step by step lesson from Math Ops demonstrates graphing slope-intercept equations. Students can read the text on each slide or follow along as it is read out loud. Four examples are given along with detailed instructions on how to graph this type of equation.



Genetic Algorithm and Graph Partitioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid genetic algorithms (GAs) for the graph partitioning problem are described. The algorithms include a fast local improvement heuristic. One of the novel features of these algorithms is the schema preprocessing phase that improves GAs' space searching capability, which in turn improves the performance of GAs. Experimental tests on graph problems with published solutions showed that the new genetic algorithms

Thang Nguyen Bui; Byung Ro Moon



Science Sampler: Walking Out Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the Walking Out Graphs Lesson described here, students experience several types of representations used to describe motion, including words, sentences, equations, graphs, data tables, and actions. The most important theme of this lesson is that students have to understand the consistency among these representations and form the habit of transforming among these representation (Shen and Confrey 2007).

Ji Shen



Geodesic Convexity and Chordal Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A convexity on a flnite set X is a family C of subsets of X (each such set called a convex set), which is closed under intersection and which contains both X and the empty set. The pair (X;C) is called a convexity space. A (flnite) graph convexity space is a pair (G;C), formed by a flnite connected graph G

Ignacio M. Pelayo


Some problems in permutation graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some problems concerning the stability index of the permutation graph (Pn, ?) are investigated. It is shown that for a certain class of permutation graphs, called Roman numerals, the stability index\\u000a can be only 2n, 2n ? 4, 2n ? 5, 2n ? 6 or 2n ? 7. The general situation for (Pn, ?) is more complicated and some open

D. Holton; K. Stacey


Graphs and Zero-Divisors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The last ten years have seen an explosion of research in the zero-divisor graphs of commutative rings--by professional mathematicians "and" undergraduates. The objective is to find algebraic information within the geometry of these graphs. This topic is approachable by anyone with one or two semesters of abstract algebra. This article gives the…

Axtell, M.; Stickles, J.



Cubature formulas on combinatorial graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many contemporary applications, for example, cataloging of galaxies, document analysis, face recognition, learning theory, image processing, operate with a large amount of data which is often represented as a graph embedded into a high dimensional Euclidean space. The variety of problems arising in contemporary data processing requires development on graphs such topics of the classical harmonic analysis as Shannon sampling,

Isaac Z. Pesenson; Meyer Z. Pesenson




EPA Science Inventory

The Cancer Mortality Maps & Graph Web Site provides interactive maps, graphs (which are accessible to the blind and visually-impaired), text, tables and figures showing geographic patterns and time trends of cancer death rates for the time period 1950-1994 for more than 40 cancer...


Graph structure in the Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of the web as a graph is not only fascinating in its own right, but also yields valuable insight into web algorithms for crawling, searching and community discovery, and the sociological phenomena which characterize its evolution. We report on experiments on local and global properties of the web graph using two Altavista crawls each with over 200 million

Andrei Z. Broder; Ravi Kumar; Farzin Maghoul; Prabhakar Raghavan; Sridhar Rajagopalan; Raymie Stata; Andrew Tomkins; Janet L. Wiener



Fingerprint identification using graph matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new algorithm for automated fingerprint encoding and matching is presented. The algorithm is intended to be insensitive to imperfections introduced during fingerprint registration, such as noise. distortion and displacement. A fingerprint is represented in the form of a graph whose nodes correspond to ridges in the print. Edges of the graph connect nodes that represent neighboring or intersecting ridges.

D. K. Isenor; Safwat G. Zaky



Chameleon Graphing: The Coordinate Plane  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web unit introduces the coordinate plane with the help of Sam the Chameleon, who illustrates how to find points on a number line and graph points in the coordinate plane. A link to a Java applet for graphing with Sam is included.

Ursula Whitcher



A PVS Graph Theory Library  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper documents the NASA Langley PVS graph theory library. The library provides fundamental definitions for graphs, subgraphs, walks, paths, subgraphs generated by walks, trees, cycles, degree, separating sets, and four notions of connectedness. Theorems provided include Ramsey's and Menger's and the equivalence of all four notions of connectedness.

Butler, Ricky W.; Sjogren, Jon A.



Interprocedural slicing using dependence graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper made two main contributions: it defined system de- pendence graphs (SDGs), which extended program dependence graphs (PDGs) (31, 17) to incorporate collections of procedures (with procedure calls) rather than just monolithic programs. It then defined an interprocedural slicing algorithm that identifies the com- ponents of the SDG that might affect the values of the variables de- fined at

Susan Horwitz; Thomas W. Reps; David Binkley



Graphs from the Unit Circle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson from Illuminations teaches students the features of sine and cosine graphs. Students use uncooked spaghetti to demonstrate the properties of the unit circle, which they will then represent with graphs. It is intended for students who have already learned about unit circle trigonometry, and is best for upper level high school classes. The lesson should require 3 class periods to complete.



Chromatic scheduling of dynamic data-graph computations  

E-print Network

Data-graph computations are a parallel-programming model popularized by programming systems such as Pregel, GraphLab, PowerGraph, and GraphChi. A fundamental issue in parallelizing data-graph computations is the avoidance ...

Kaler, Tim (Tim F. S.)



Application of machine learning and expert systems to Statistical Process Control (SPC) chart interpretation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Statistical Process Control (SPC) charts are one of several tools used in quality control. Other tools include flow charts, histograms, cause and effect diagrams, check sheets, Pareto diagrams, graphs, and scatter diagrams. A control chart is simply a graph which indicates process variation over time. The purpose of drawing a control chart is to detect any changes in the process signalled by abnormal points or patterns on the graph. The Artificial Intelligence Support Center (AISC) of the Acquisition Logistics Division has developed a hybrid machine learning expert system prototype which automates the process of constructing and interpreting control charts.

Shewhart, Mark



Digital video, learning styles, and student understanding of kinematics graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Student ability to analyze and interpret motion graphs following laboratory instruction that utilized interactive digital video as well as traditional instructional techniques was investigated. Research presented suggested that digital video tools serve to motivate students and may be an effective mechanism to enhance student understanding of motion concepts. Two laboratory exercises involving motion concepts were developed for this study. Students were divided into two instructional groups. The treatment group used digital video techniques and the control group used traditional techniques to perform the laboratory exercises. Student understanding of motion concepts were assessed, in part, using the Test of Understanding Graphs-Kinematics. Other assessment measures included student responses to a set of written graphical analysis questions and two post-lab activities. Possible relationships between individual learning style preferences and student understanding of motion concepts were also addressed. Learning style preferences were assessed using the Productivity Environmental Preference Survey prior to the instructional treatments. Students were asked to comment in writing about their learning styles before and after they were given the learning style assessment. Student comments revealed that the results they received from Productivity Environmental Preference Survey accurately reflected their learning styles. Results presented in this study showed that no significant relationship exists between students' learning style preferences and their ability to interpret motion graphs as measured by scores on the Test of Understanding Graphs-Kinematics. In addition, the results showed no significant difference between instructional treatment and mean scores on the Test of Understanding Graphs-Kinematics. Analysis of writing activities revealed that students in the treatment group responded more effectively than students in the control group to graphical interpretation questions that closely paralleled the motions they had observed during the laboratory. However, students in both instructional groups displayed similar levels of difficulty when confronted with motions that deviated from what they had observed in the laboratory. After controlling for differences in student ability levels using SAT scores and course grades, a significant difference in mean scores on the Test of Understanding Graphs-Kinematics was observed between males and females. Males and females as a separate population had similar mean SAT scores and course grades. A suggestion was made that the observed difference between males and females based on mean scores on the Test of Understanding Graphs- Kinematics could be due to a gender bias inherent in the instrument. A recommendation was made that future studies could address this observed gender difference.

Hein, Teresa Lee



Random rectangular Graphs  

E-print Network

A generalization of the random geometric graph (RGG) model is proposed by considering a set of points uniformly and independently distributed on a rectangle of unit area instead of on a unit square \\left[0,1\\right]^{2}. The topological properties, such as connectivity, average degree, average path length and clustering, of the random rectangular graphs (RRGs) generated by this model are then studied as a function of the rectangle sides lengths a and b=1/a, and the radius r used to connect the nodes. When a=1 we recover the RGG, and when a\\rightarrow\\infty the very elongated rectangle generated resembles a one-dimensional RGG. We provided computational and analytical evidence that the topological properties of the RRG differ significantly from those of the RGG. The connectivity of the RRG depends not only on the number of nodes as in the case of the RGG, but also on the side length of the rectangle. As the rectangle is more elongated the critical radius for connectivity increases following first a power-law an...

Estrada, Ernesto



Integrating Key Skills in Higher Education: Employability, Transferable Skills and Learning for Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book addresses issues related to the skills agenda in higher education, focusing on key skills, employability skills, transferable skills, and core skills. The chapters provide a practical guide to the ways skills can be effectively integrated into courses and institutions. The chapters are: (1) "The Skills Agenda" (Stephen Fallows and…

Fallows, Stephen, Ed.; Steven, Christine, Ed.


MY NASA DATA: State of the Atmosphere - Interpreting Weather Observations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson consists of three activities. Students will discover the effect of temperature and pressure on cloud formation, analyze weather balloon data, and interpret a graph created from the synthesis of data sets on temperature, relative humidity and dew point. This lesson uses student- and citizen science-friendly microsets of authentic NASA Earth system science data from the MY NASA DATA project. It includes related links.



Semi-Markov Graph Dynamics  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we outline a model of graph (or network) dynamics based on two ingredients. The first ingredient is a Markov chain on the space of possible graphs. The second ingredient is a semi-Markov counting process of renewal type. The model consists in subordinating the Markov chain to the semi-Markov counting process. In simple words, this means that the chain transitions occur at random time instants called epochs. The model is quite rich and its possible connections with algebraic geometry are briefly discussed. Moreover, for the sake of simplicity, we focus on the space of undirected graphs with a fixed number of nodes. However, in an example, we present an interbank market model where it is meaningful to use directed graphs or even weighted graphs. PMID:21887245

Raberto, Marco; Rapallo, Fabio; Scalas, Enrico



Interpretation of Bernoulli's Equation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses Bernoulli's equation with regards to: horizontal flow of incompressible fluids, change of height of incompressible fluids, gases, liquids and gases, and viscous fluids. Provides an interpretation, properties, terminology, and applications of Bernoulli's equation. (MVL)

Bauman, Robert P.; Schwaneberg, Rolf



GRAPH III: a digitizing and graph plotting program  

SciTech Connect

GRAPH is an interactive program that allows the user to perform two functions. The first is to plot two dimensional graphs and the second is to digitize graphs or plots to create data files of points. The program is designed to allow the user to get results quickly and easily. It is written in RATIV (a FORTRAN preprocessor) and is currently in use at Sandia under VMS on a VAX computer and CTSS on a Cray supercomputer. The program provides graphical output through all of the Sandia Virtual Device Interface (VDI) graphics devices. 2 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Selleck, C.B.



Guidelines for the Preparation of Oral Interpreters: Support Specialists for Hearing-Impaired Individuals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of the oral interpreter for speechreading assistance to deaf and hard of hearing individuals is reviewed; desired characteristics and skills are outlined (including attitudes, knowledge, and curriculum offerings); and a seven-item code of ethics developed by the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf is presented. (CL)

Northcott, Winifred H.; And Others



Policy: Twenty tips for interpreting scientific claims  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Calls for the closer integration of science in political decision-making have been commonplace for decades. However, there are serious problems in the application of science to policy — from energy to health and environment to education. To address these problems this article suggests to improve policy-makers' understanding of the imperfect nature of science through the understanding of 20 key concepts. An understanding of these concepts promotes improving interpretive scientific skills which allow policy makers to intelligently interrogate experts and advisers, and to understand the quality, limitations and biases of evidence. These skills are more accessible than those required to understand the fundamental science itself, and can form part of the broad skill set of most politicians and other professions. These concepts should be part of the education of civil servants, politicians, policy advisers and journalists — and anyone else who may have to interact with science or scientists. Although this article is geared towards politicians, it provides an outstanding summary of how to talk and inquire about science and technology issues for anyone involved in technology at pretty much any level.



Stability of graph communities across time scales  

PubMed Central

The complexity of biological, social, and engineering networks makes it desirable to find natural partitions into clusters (or communities) that can provide insight into the structure of the overall system and even act as simplified functional descriptions. Although methods for community detection abound, there is a lack of consensus on how to quantify and rank the quality of partitions. We introduce here the stability of a partition, a measure of its quality as a community structure based on the clustered autocovariance of a dynamic Markov process taking place on the network. Because the stability has an intrinsic dependence on time scales of the graph, it allows us to compare and rank partitions at each time and also to establish the time spans over which partitions are optimal. Hence the Markov time acts effectively as an intrinsic resolution parameter that establishes a hierarchy of increasingly coarser communities. Our dynamical definition provides a unifying framework for several standard partitioning measures: modularity and normalized cut size can be interpreted as one-step time measures, whereas Fiedler’s spectral clustering emerges at long times. We apply our method to characterize the relevance of partitions over time for constructive and real networks, including hierarchical graphs and social networks, and use it to obtain reduced descriptions for atomic-level protein structures over different time scales. PMID:20615936

Delvenne, J.-C.; Yaliraki, S. N.; Barahona, M.



Generic ICT Skills Profiles: Future Skills for Tomorrow's World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document describes generic skills profiles relevant to key jobs in information and communications technology (ICT). The profiles cover the main job areas for which the ICT industry is experiencing skills shortages. These types of information are provided for 18 generic job profiles: job description (vision, role, lifestyle); examples of job…

International Co-operation Europe Ltd. (ICEL), Brussels, Belgium.


Peer Assessment of Soft Skills and Hard Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both the information technology (IT) industry and the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) demand soft-skill training in higher education and require IT graduates to demonstrate competence in interpersonal communication, teamwork, and conflict management. Group projects provide teamwork environment for soft-skill training, but…

Zhang, Aimao



Semantic graphs and associative memories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphs have been increasingly utilized in the characterization of complex networks from diverse origins, including different kinds of semantic networks. Human memories are associative and are known to support complex semantic nets; these nets are represented by graphs. However, it is not known how the brain can sustain these semantic graphs. The vision of cognitive brain activities, shown by modern functional imaging techniques, assigns renewed value to classical distributed associative memory models. Here we show that these neural network models, also known as correlation matrix memories, naturally support a graph representation of the stored semantic structure. We demonstrate that the adjacency matrix of this graph of associations is just the memory coded with the standard basis of the concept vector space, and that the spectrum of the graph is a code invariant of the memory. As long as the assumptions of the model remain valid this result provides a practical method to predict and modify the evolution of the cognitive dynamics. Also, it could provide us with a way to comprehend how individual brains that map the external reality, almost surely with different particular vector representations, are nevertheless able to communicate and share a common knowledge of the world. We finish presenting adaptive association graphs, an extension of the model that makes use of the tensor product, which provides a solution to the known problem of branching in semantic nets.

Pomi, Andrés; Mizraji, Eduardo



Environmental evolutionary graph theory.  


Understanding the influence of an environment on the evolution of its resident population is a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Great progress has been made in homogeneous population structures while heterogeneous structures have received relatively less attention. Here we present a structured population model where different individuals are best suited to different regions of their environment. The underlying structure is a graph: individuals occupy vertices, which are connected by edges. If an individual is suited for their vertex, they receive an increase in fecundity. This framework allows attention to be restricted to the spatial arrangement of suitable habitat. We prove some basic properties of this model and find some counter-intuitive results. Notably, (1) the arrangement of suitable sites is as important as their proportion, and (2) decreasing the proportion of suitable sites may result in a decrease in the fixation time of an allele. PMID:25016047

Maciejewski, Wes; Puleo, Gregory J



Graphing Calculator by  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fluid, intuitive graphing calculator, compatible with Chrome browsers, makes graphing complex equations a snap. It includes all the functions of the large, rectangular model many high-school students are familiar with and produces easy-to read graphs with marked intercepts. Users can use the program to plot multiple graphs on top of one another, making this a great teaching tool.



CP(Graph): Introducing a Graph Computation Domain in Constraint Programming  

E-print Network

CP(Graph): Introducing a Graph Computation Domain in Constraint Programming Gregoire Dooms, Yves constraint programming by introducing CP(Graph), a new computation domain focused on graphs including a new and its associated propagator are sketched. CP(Graph) is in- tegrated with finite domain and finite sets

Deville, Yves


Guidelines for Graphing Data with Microsoft[R] Office 2007[TM], Office 2010[TM], and Office for Mac[TM] 2008 and 2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The interpretation of single-case data requires systematic visual analysis across and within conditions. Graphs are a vital component for analyzing and communicating single-case design data and a necessary tool for applied researchers and practitioners. Several articles have been published with task analyses for graphing data with the new versions…

Barton, Erin E.; Reichow, Brian



A LEGO Introduction to Graphing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use a LEGO® ball shooter to demonstrate and analyze the motion of a projectile through use of a line graph. This activity involves using a method of data organization and trend observation with respect to dynamic experimentation with a complex machine. Also, the topic of line data graphing is covered. The main objective is to introduce students graphs in terms of observing and demonstrating their usefulness in scientific and engineering inquiries. During the activity, students point out trends in the data and the overall relationship that can be deduced from plotting data derived from test trials with the ball shooter.

AMPS GK-12 Program,


Skill Sheets for Agricultural Mechanics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This set of 33 skill sheets for agricultural mechanics was developed for use in high school and vocational school agricultural mechanics programs. Some sheets teach operational procedures while others are for simple projects. Each skill sheet covers a single topic and includes: (1) a diagram, (2) a step-by-step construction or operational…

Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Agricultural Education.


21st Century Skills Map  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) has forged alliances with key national organizations representing the core academic subjects, including Social Studies, English, Math, Science, Geography, World Languages and the Arts. These collaborations have resulted in the development of 21st Century Skills Maps that illustrate the essential…

Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011



Entrepreneurship Education: Learning the Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to emphasize entrepreneurial skills in relation to management and industry skills, this first volume of the Entrepreneurship Education curriculum guide is comprised of nineteen sessions. The initial session is an orientation to the course and is followed by eighteen sessions divided into four instructional units: (1) inner control, (2)…

Scanlan, Thomas J.; And Others


Assessing Pupils' Skills in Experimentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is concerned with different forms of assessment of pupils' skills in experimentation. The findings of three studies are reported. Study 1 investigates whether it is possible to develop reliable multiple-choice tests for the skills of forming hypotheses, designing experiments and analysing experimental data. Study 2 compares scores from…

Hammann, Marcus; Phan, Thi Thanh Hoi; Ehmer, Maike; Grimm, Tobias



Teaching 'soft' skills to engineers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineering departments widely recognise an increasing need to equip students with effective study skills early in their university education and basic professional skills prior to graduation. These, however, are traditionally difficult modules to teach successfully to larger groups through traditional lecturing. Observations suggest a poor absorption rate from the students and thus a lack in their ability to benefit from

Susan H. Pulko; Samir Parikh


Cognitive skills programmes for offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the impact of the meta-analyses and ‘What Works’ in offender treatment, cognitive skills programmes for offenders have become widely used in both the community and in custody. This overview is primarily concerned with the issue of effectiveness: do cognitive skills programmes have an effect on reoffending? The extant evidence suggests that there are lower rates of reoffending among offenders

Clive R. Hollin; Emma J. Palmer



Social skills deficits associated with depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the empirical evidence of impaired social skills associated with depression. Conceptualizations of social skills are examined followed by evidence from self-report, observer-rating, and behavioral assessments of depressed people's social skills. Evidence of social skills deficits in children with depression and in people with bipolar disorder is also examined. The effectiveness of social skills training as a treatment

Chris Segrin



Meeting the Demand: Teaching "Soft" Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four papers (and an introduction by William Wilhelm) on teaching "soft" skills in business education programs. "The Skill Building Challenge: Preparing a Bridge for the Workforce Skills Gap" (Sheila M. Smith) examines the following topics: the workforce skills gap; the importance of academic and behavioral skills; and public…

Wilhelm, William J.; Logan, Joyce; Smith, Sheila M.; Szul, Linda F.


Teaching Weather and the Seasons in the Lower Elementary Grades: The Weather Calendar and Monthly Weather Graph.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a teaching technique that develops concepts of weather and seasons through the use of a weather calendar and graph. Suggests daily and monthly activities for the first-, second-, and third-grade curriculum. Concludes that this technique helps students develop a foundation of essential geography skills and processes. (KO)

Johnson, Peter C.



Social-Emotional Learning Skill, Self-Regulation, and Social Competence in Typically Developing and Clinic-Referred Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social-emotional learning (SEL) skill includes the ability to encode, interpret, and reason about social and emotional information. In two related studies, we examined the relationship between children's SEL skill, their ability to regulate their own behavior, and the competence of their social interactions. Study 1 included 158 typically developing children ages 4 to 14 years. Study 2 included 126 clinic-referred

Clark McKown; Laura M. Gumbiner; Nicole M. Russo; Meryl Lipton



Children of Somali Refugees in Australian Schools: Self-Descriptions of School-Related Skills and Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined self-descriptions of children of Somali refugee families in Australian primary schools, focusing on how children's school-related skills and needs relate to the interpretive frames of mainstream and ethnic cultures. Three groups of Grade 5 and 6 children (Somali, Disadvantaged, Advantaged) made choices among school-related skills, and…

Dodds, Agnes E.; Lawrence, Jeanette A.; Karantzas, Kellie; Brooker, Abi; Lin, Ying Han; Champness, Vivienne; Albert, Nadia



Hospitals as interpretation systems.  

PubMed Central

In this study of 162 hospitals, it was found that the chief executive officer's (CEO's) interpretation of strategic issues is related to the existing hospital strategy and the hospital's information processing structure. Strategy was related to interpretation in terms of the extent to which a given strategic issue was perceived as controllable or uncontrollable. Structure was related to the extent to which an issue was defined as positive or negative, was labeled as controllable or uncontrollable, and was perceived as leading to a gain or a loss. Together, strategy and structure accounted for a significant part of the variance in CEO interpretations of strategic events. The theoretical and managerial implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:1991677

Thomas, J B; McDaniel, R R; Anderson, R A



CONTENT KNOWLEDGE (Research Skills, Technical Skills): CONTENT KNOWLEDGE (Declarative Knowledge): Graduates will be knowledgeable  

E-print Network

) and COMMUNICATION (Other Forms of Communication: Musical Performance) and CRITICAL THINKING (Creative Skills. COMMUNICATION (Oral Communication) and CRITICAL THINKING (Analytical Skills): In each semester, students) and CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS (Practical Skills): Graduates with B. Mus. (Music Education) will demonstrate

Fernandez, Eduardo


Rulegraphs for graph matching in pattern recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Pattern Recognition, the Graph Matching problem involves thematching of a sample graph with the subgraph of a larger model graph wherevertices and edges correspond to pattern parts and their relations. In this paper,we present Rulegraphs, a new method that combines the Graph Matchingapproach with Rule-Based approaches from Machine Learning. They reducethe cardinality of the (NP-Complete) Graph Matching problem by

Adrian R. Pearce; Terry M. Caelli; Walter F. Bischof



Cliques in Odd-Minor-Free Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is about: (1) bounds on the number of cliques in a graph in a particular class, and (2) algorithms for listing all cliques in a graph. We present a simple algorithm that lists all cliques in an $n$-vertex graph in O(n) time per clique. For O(1)-degenerate graphs, such as graphs excluding a fixed minor, we describe a O(n)

Ken-ichi Kawarabayashi; David R. Wood



Balanced Cayley graphs and balanced planar Joy Morris 1  

E-print Network

Balanced Cayley graphs and balanced planar graphs Joy Morris 1 , Pablo Spiga 2 and Kerri Webb, Alberta, Canada Abstract A balanced graph is a bipartite graph with no induced circuit of length 2 (mod 4). These graphs arise in linear programming. We focus on graph-algebraic properties of balanced graphs to prove

Morris, Joy


Charts and Graphs for BCPT

Charts and Graphs for BCPT National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT) Cumulative Rates of Breast Cancers Tamoxifen Reduced Invasive Breast Cancer in All Age Groups Events Among BCPT Participants BCPT


Graph anomalies in cyber communications  

SciTech Connect

Enterprises monitor cyber traffic for viruses, intruders and stolen information. Detection methods look for known signatures of malicious traffic or search for anomalies with respect to a nominal reference model. Traditional anomaly detection focuses on aggregate traffic at central nodes or on user-level monitoring. More recently, however, traffic is being viewed more holistically as a dynamic communication graph. Attention to the graph nature of the traffic has expanded the types of anomalies that are being sought. We give an overview of several cyber data streams collected at Los Alamos National Laboratory and discuss current work in modeling the graph dynamics of traffic over the network. We consider global properties and local properties within the communication graph. A method for monitoring relative entropy on multiple correlated properties is discussed in detail.

Vander Wiel, Scott A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Storlie, Curtis B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandine, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hagberg, Aric A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fisk, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory



Standards for graph algorithm primitives  

E-print Network

It is our view that the state of the art in constructing a large collection of graph algorithms in terms of linear algebraic operations is mature enough to support the emergence of a standard set of primitive building ...

Mattson, Tim


Discrete Signal Processing on Graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In social settings, individuals interact through webs of relationships. Each individual is a node in a complex network (or graph) of interdependencies and generates data, lots of data. We label the data by its source, or formally stated, we index the data by the nodes of the graph. The resulting signals (data indexed by the nodes) are far removed from time or image signals indexed by well ordered time samples or pixels. DSP, discrete signal processing, provides a comprehensive, elegant, and efficient methodology to describe, represent, transform, analyze, process, or synthesize these well ordered time or image signals. This paper extends to signals on graphs DSP and its basic tenets, including filters, convolution, z-transform, impulse response, spectral representation, Fourier transform, frequency response, and illustrates DSP on graphs by classifying blogs, linear predicting and compressing data from irregularly located weather stations, or predicting behavior of customers of a mobile service provider.

Sandryhaila, Aliaksei; Moura, José M. F.



Weighted pebbling numbers on graphs  

E-print Network

We expand the theory of pebbling to graphs with weighted edges. In a weighted pebbling game, one player distributes a set amount of weight on the edges of a graph and his opponent chooses a target vertex and places a configuration of pebbles on the vertices. Player one wins if, through a series of pebbling moves, he can move at least one pebble to the target. A pebbling move of p pebbles across an edge with weight w leaves the floor of pw pebbles on the next vertex. We find the weighted pebbling numbers of stars, graphs with at least 2|V|-1 edges, and trees with given targets. We give an explicit formula for the minimum total weight required on the edges of a length-2 path, solvable with p pebbles and exhibit a graph which requires an edge with weight 1/3 in order to achieve its weighted pebbling number.

Jones, Stephanie; McLeman, Cameron; Nyman, Kathryn



Graphing the Spread of Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students simulate disease transmission by collecting data based on their proximity to other students. One option for measuring proximity is by having Bluetooth devices "discover" each other. After data is collected, students apply graph theory to analyze it, and summarize their data and findings in lab report format. Students learn real-world engineering applications of graph theory and see how numerous instances of real-world relationships can be more thoroughly understood by applying graph theory. Also, by applying graph theory the students are able to come up with possible solutions to limit the spread of disease. The activity is intended to be part of a computer science curriculum and knowledge of the Java programming language is required. To complete the activity, a computer with Java installed and appropriate editing software is needed.

IMPART RET Program, College of Information Science & Technology,


Doing time : inducing temporal graphs  

E-print Network

We consider the problem of constructing a directed acyclic graph that encodes temporal relations found in a text. The unit of our analysis is a temporal segment, a fragment of text that maintains temporal coherence. The ...

Bramsen, Philip James



Europe's Skill Challenge: Lagging Skill Demand Increases Risks of Skill Mismatch. Briefing Note  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main findings of Cedefop's latest skill demand and supply forecast for the European Union (EU) for 2010-20, indicate that although further economic troubles will affect the projected number of job opportunities, the major trends, including a shift to more skill-intensive jobs and more jobs in services, will continue. Between 2008 and 2010…

Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2012



How to Guard a Graph?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We initiate the study of the algorithmic foundations of games in which a set of cops has to guard a region in a graph (or\\u000a digraph) against a robber. The robber and the cops are placed on vertices of the graph; they take turns in moving to adjacent\\u000a vertices (or staying). The goal of the robber is to enter the

Fedor V. Fomin; Petr A. Golovach; Alex Hall; Matúš Mihalák; Elias Vicari; Peter Widmayer


How to Guard a Graph?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We initiate the study of the algorithmic foundations of games in which a set of cops has to guard a region in a graph (or\\u000a digraph) against a robber. The robber and the cops are placed on vertices of the graph; they take turns in moving to adjacent\\u000a vertices (or staying). The goal of the robber is to enter the

Fedor V. Fomin; Petr A. Golovach; Alexander Hall; Matús Mihalák; Elias Vicari; Peter Widmayer



Limits of dense graph sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that if a sequence of dense graphs Gn has the property that for every fixed graph F, the density of copies of F in Gn tends to a limit, then there is a natural “limit object,” namely a symmetric measurable function W:[0,1]2?[0,1]. This limit object determines all the limits of subgraph densities. Conversely, every such function arises as

László Lovász; Balázs Szegedy



Graph theory findings in the pathophysiology of temporal lobe epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of adult epilepsy. Accumulating evidence has shown that TLE is a disorder of abnormal epileptogenic networks, rather than focal sources. Graph theory allows for a network-based representation of TLE brain networks, and has potential to illuminate characteristics of brain topology conducive to TLE pathophysiology, including seizure initiation and spread. We review basic concepts which we believe will prove helpful in interpreting results rapidly emerging from graph theory research in TLE. In addition, we summarize the current state of graph theory findings in TLE as they pertain its pathophysiology. Several common findings have emerged from the many modalities which have been used to study TLE using graph theory, including structural MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, surface EEG, intracranial EEG, magnetoencephalography, functional MRI, cell cultures, simulated models, and mouse models, involving increased regularity of the interictal network configuration, altered local segregation and global integration of the TLE network, and network reorganization of temporal lobe and limbic structures. As different modalities provide different views of the same phenomenon, future studies integrating data from multiple modalities are needed to clarify findings and contribute to the formation of a coherent theory on the pathophysiology of TLE. PMID:24831083

Chiang, Sharon; Haneef, Zulfi



Medicare and Skilled Nursing Facility Care Benefits  


... 2008 www. medicare. gov/ nhcompare Medicare and Skilled Nursing Facility Care Benefi ts GETTING STARTED Skilled Care ... Program (SHIP). To fi nd and compare skilled nursing facilities in your area , visit ...


The Changing Skill Composition of Labour Demand.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of Australian data on distribution of employment across skill groups and growth of hours worked concluded that the relative demand for skilled workers is rising and growth in low-skill work is virtually nil. (SK)

Wooden, Mark



Interpreting the Constitution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

Brennan, William J., Jr.



Fractal interpretation of intermittency  

SciTech Connect

Implication of intermittency in high-energy collisions is first discussed. Then follows a description of the fractal interpretation of intermittency. A basic quantity with asymptotic fractal behavior is introduced. It is then shown how the factorial moments and the G moments can be expressed in terms of it. The relationship between the intermittency indices and the fractal indices is made explicit.

Hwa, R.C.



Interpretation as Abduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hobbs, J.R., M.E. Stickel, D.E. Appelt and P. Martin, Interpretation as abduction, Artificial Intelligence 63 (1993) 69-142. Abduction is inference to the best explanation. In the TACITUS project at SRI we have developed an approach to abductive inference, called \\

Jerry R. Hobbs; Mark E. Stickel; Douglas E. Appelt; Paul A. Martin



Listening and Message Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Message interpretation, the notion that individuals assign meaning to stimuli, is related to listening presage, listening process, and listening product. As a central notion of communication, meaning includes (a) denotation and connotation, and (b) content and relational meanings, which can vary in ambiguity and vagueness. Past research on message…

Edwards, Renee



Interpreting & Biomechanics. PEPNet Tipsheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) refers to a collection of disorders associated with nerves, muscles, tendons, bones, and the neurovascular (nerves and related blood vessels) system. CTD symptoms may involve the neck, back, shoulders, arms, wrists, or hands. Interpreters with CTD may experience a variety of symptoms including: pain, joint…

PEPNet-Northeast, 2001



Chromatic polynomials of random graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chromatic polynomials and related graph invariants are central objects in both graph theory and statistical physics. Computational difficulties, however, have so far restricted studies of such polynomials to graphs that were either very small, very sparse or highly structured. Recent algorithmic advances (Timme et al 2009 New J. Phys. 11 023001) now make it possible to compute chromatic polynomials for moderately sized graphs of arbitrary structure and number of edges. Here we present chromatic polynomials of ensembles of random graphs with up to 30 vertices, over the entire range of edge density. We specifically focus on the locations of the zeros of the polynomial in the complex plane. The results indicate that the chromatic zeros of random graphs have a very consistent layout. In particular, the crossing point, the point at which the chromatic zeros with non-zero imaginary part approach the real axis, scales linearly with the average degree over most of the density range. While the scaling laws obtained are purely empirical, if they continue to hold in general there are significant implications: the crossing points of chromatic zeros in the thermodynamic limit separate systems with zero ground state entropy from systems with positive ground state entropy, the latter an exception to the third law of thermodynamics.

Van Bussel, Frank; Ehrlich, Christoph; Fliegner, Denny; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Timme, Marc



Enhancing graphical literacy skills in the high school science classroom via authentic, intensive data collection and graphical representation exposure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research project was developed to provide extensive practice and exposure to data collection and data representation in a high school science classroom. The student population engaged in this study included 40 high school sophomores enrolled in two microbiology classes. Laboratory investigations and activities were deliberately designed to include quantitative data collection that necessitated organization and graphical representation. These activities were embedded into the curriculum and conducted in conjunction with the normal and expected course content, rather than as a separate entity. It was expected that routine practice with graph construction and interpretation would result in improved competency when graphing data and proficiency in analyzing graphs. To objectively test the effectiveness in achieving this goal, a pre-test and post-test that included graph construction, interpretation, interpolation, extrapolation, and analysis was administered. Based on the results of a paired T-Test, graphical literacy was significantly enhanced by extensive practice and exposure to data representation.

Palmeri, Anthony


Multilevel spectral clustering : graph partitions and image segmentation  

E-print Network

While the spectral graph partitioning method gives high quality segmentation, segmenting large graphs by the spectral method is computationally expensive. Numerous multilevel graph partitioning algorithms are proposed to ...

Kong, Tian Fook



Assessing core manipulative skills in a large, first-year laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Responding to the concern from our faculty that undergraduate students do not have robust laboratory skills, we designed and implemented a strategy to individually teach and assess the manipulative skills of students in first-year laboratories. Five core laboratory skills were selected for the course entitled Human Biology, a large, first-year class of students, most of whom were enrolled in Bachelor of Pharmacy and Human Movement Studies. Here, we report details for the 365 students enrolled primarily in Pharmacy and Human Movement Studies bachelor degree programs in semester 1 of 2006. We designed a specific strategy to assess five core laboratory skills: 1) accurate and precise use of a micropipette, 2) calculation of dilutions and preparation of diluted samples of saline, 3) accurate representation of data using a graph, 4) use of a light microscope, and 5) acquisition of digital data by measuring the latent period for the Achilles reflex. Graduate tutors were trained to teach and assess each student on each skill. The development of competency was tracked for all students across all five skills. Most students demonstrated proficiency on their first attempt. The development of proficiency across the core skills depended on both the skill and degree program. In semester 2 of 2006, 854 students mostly enrolled in the Bachelor of Science degree program and were similarly taught and assessed on the same five core skills. This approach was an effective teaching and assessment strategy that, when applied beyond first year, should increase the level of laboratory skills across undergraduate programs in physiology.

Dr. Roger W. Moni (The University of Queensland School of Biomedical Sciences); Deanne H. Hryciw (The University of Queensland Educational Research Unit, School of Biomedical Sciences); Dr. Philip Poronnik (University of Queensland Faculty of Biological & Chemical Sciences); Lesley J Lluka (The University of Queensland Educational Research Unit); Karen B. Moni (The University of Queensland School of Education)



EVA Skills Training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Parazynski and a colleague from Extravehicular Activity (EVA), Robotics, & Crew Systems Operations (DX) worked closely to build the EVA Skills Training Program, and for the first time, defined the gold standards of EVA performance, allowing crewmembers to increase their performance significantly. As part of the program, individuals had the opportunity to learn at their own rate, taking additional water time as required, to achieve that level of performance. This focus on training to one's strengths and weaknesses to bolster them enabled the Crew Office and DX to field a much larger group of spacewalkers for the daunting "wall of EVA" required for the building and maintenance of the ISS. Parazynski also stressed the need for designers to understand the capabilities and the limitations of a human in a spacesuit, as well as opportunities to improve future generations of space. He shared lessons learned (how the Crew Office engaged in these endeavors) and illustrated the need to work as a team to develop these complex systems.

Parazynski, Scott



The Online Graph Exploration Problem on Restricted Graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the online graph exploration problem is to visit all the nodes of a given graph and come back to the starting node with the minimum total traverse cost. However, unlike the classical Traveling Salesperson Problem, information of the graph is given online. When an online algorithm (called a searcher) visits a node ?, then it learns information on nodes and edges adjacent to ?. The searcher must decide which node to visit next depending on partial and incomplete information of the graph that it has gained in its searching process. The goodness of the algorithm is evaluated by the competitive analysis. If input graphs to be explored are restricted to trees, the depth-first search always returns an optimal tour. However, if graphs have cycles, the problem is non-trivial. In this paper we consider two simple cases. First, we treat the problem on simple cycles. Recently, Asahiro et al. proved that there is a 1.5-competitive online algorithm, while no online algorithm can be (1.25-?)-competitive for any positive constant ?. In this paper, we give an optimal online algorithm for this problem; namely, we give a \\frac{1+\\sqrt{3}}{2}(\\simeq1.366)-competitive algorithm, and prove that there is no (\\frac{1+\\sqrt{3}}{2}-\\epsilon)-competitive algorithm for any positive constant ?. Furthermore, we consider the problem on unweighted graphs. We also give an optimal result; namely we give a 2-competitive algorithm and prove that there is no (2-?)-competitive online algorithm for any positive constant ?.

Miyazaki, Shuichi; Morimoto, Naoyuki; Okabe, Yasuo


Skill Standards for Wireless Telecommunications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developing and implementing strong educational programs are essential steps to take toward affirmatively responding to the shortage of qualified workers for the wireless industry. Community and technical colleges have an enviable opportunity to respond quickly and creatively to wireless manpower supply gaps and manpower shortages. Key to this effort, however, is the necessity to identify core skills and knowledge bases for technicians and engineers. Merely training individuals is not a sufficient response to the need for skilled workers. Achieving consistently high levels of quality both in product and in productivity is an imperative in all sectors of the wireless industry. This realization in turn underscores the need for industry-driven standards for the skill development of workers. For Seattle Central Community College, North Seattle Community College, Bellevue Community College and their industry and labor partners, identifying generic skills and requisite and unique wireless skills and abilities through the skill standards process is tantamount to the task of developing educational programs that prepare individuals for the wireless workplace. The wireless skill standards have been developed at a critical timesignificant changes in local and global wireless technology require clearly articulated standards for both product and employee performance. The outcome of this process is critical to the ability of companies to hire and retain excellent RF talent in a highly competitive market. Both industry and labor recognize the importance of clearly articulated universal skills as a basis for the preparation of qualified and competent workers for the industry, and they will be the ultimate beneficiaries of the results of the wireless skill standards project. Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Faculty/Administrators



A bonding model of entanglement for $N$-qubit graph states  

E-print Network

The class of entangled $N$-qubit states known as graph states, and the corresponding stabilizer groups of $N$-qubit Pauli observables, have found a wide range of applications in quantum information processing and the foundations of quantum mechanics. A review of the properties of graph states is given and core spaces of graph states are introduced and discussed. A bonding model of entanglement for generalized graph states is then presented, in which the presence or absence of a bond between two qubits unequivocally specifies whether or not they are entangled. A physical interpretation of these bonds is given, along with a characterization of how they can be created or destroyed by entangling unitary operations and how they can be destroyed by local Pauli measurements. It is shown that local unitary operations do not affect the bond structure of a graph state, and therefore that if two graph states have nonisomorphic bond structures, then local unitary operations and/or reordering of qubits cannot change one into the other. Color multigraphs are introduced to depict the bond structures of graph states and to make some of their properties more apparent.

Mordecai Waegell



Mathematical Properties of Gromov Hyperbolic Graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we deal with Gromov hyperbolic graphs. We obtain several tight bounds for the hyperbolicity constant of a graph. In particular, we investigate the relationship between the hyperbolicity constant of a graph and its edge number. We prove that the study of the hyperbolicity on graphs can be reduced to the study of the hyperbolicity on simpler graphs. In particular, we show that the study of the hyperbolicity on a graph with loops and multiple edges can be reduced to the study of the hyperbolicity in its subjacent simple graph; we also prove that the study of the hyperbolicity of an arbitrary graph is equivalent to the study of the hyperbolicity of a 3-regular graph obtained from it by adding some edges and vertices.

Bermudo, Sergio; Rodríguez, José M.; Sigarreta, José M.; Vilaire, Jean-Marie



Improving Undergraduates' Critical Thinking Skills through Peer-learning Workshops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Critical thinking skills are among the primary learning outcomes of undergraduate education, but they are rarely explicitly taught. Here I present a two-fold study aimed at analyzing undergraduate students' critical thinking and information literacy skills, and explicitly teaching these skills, in an introductory Planetary Science course. The purpose of the research was to examine the students' information-filtering skills and to develop a short series of peer-learning workshops that would enhance these skills in both the students' coursework and their everyday lives. The 4 workshops are designed to be easily adaptable to any college course, with little impact on the instructor's workload. They make use of material related to the course's content, enabling the instructor to complement a pre-existing syllabus while explicitly teaching students skills essential to their academic and non-academic lives. In order to gain an understanding of undergraduates' existing information-filtering skills, I examined the material that they consider to be appropriate sources for a college paper. I analyzed the Essay 1 bibliographies of a writing-based introductory Planetary Science course for non-majors. The 22 essays cited 135 (non-unique) references, only half of which were deemed suitable by their instructors. I divided the sources into several categories and classified them as recommended, recommended with caution, and unsuitable for this course. The unsuitable sources ranged from peer-reviewed journal articles, which these novice students were not equipped to properly interpret, to websites that cannot be relied upon for scientific information (e.g.,, The workshops aim to improve the students' information-filtering skills by sequentially teaching them to evaluate search engine results, identify claims made on websites and in news articles, evaluate the evidence presented, and identify specific correlation/causation fallacies in news articles and advertisements. Students work in groups of 3-4, discussing worksheet questions that lead them step-by-step through 1) verbalizing their preconceptions of the workshop theme, 2) dissecting instructional materials to discover the cognitive processes they already use, 3) applying skills step-by-step in real-world situations (search engine results, news articles, ads, etc.), and 4) using metacognitive strategies of questioning and reflecting. Student participants in the pilot study often verbalized metacognition, and retained concepts as evidenced by a post-test conducted 2 months after the first workshop. They additionally reported consciously using skills learned in the workshops over a year later.

Cole, S. B.



Tips for Mental Health Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper offers tips for working with interpreters in mental health settings. These tips include: (1) Using trained interpreters, not bilingual staff or community members; (2) Explaining "interpreting procedures" to the providers and clients; (3) Addressing the stigma associated with mental health that may influence interpreters; (4) Defining…

Whitsett, Margaret



Embodied Semiotic Activities and Their Role in the Construction of Mathematical Meaning of Motion Graphs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the relation between bodily actions, artifact-mediated activities, and semiotic processes that students experience while producing and interpreting graphs of two-dimensional motion in the plane. We designed a technology-based setting that enabled students to engage in embodied semiotic activities and experience two modes of…

Botzer, Galit; Yerushalmy, Michal



High Performance Descriptive Semantic Analysis of Semantic Graph Databases  

SciTech Connect

As semantic graph database technology grows to address components ranging from extant large triple stores to SPARQL endpoints over SQL-structured relational databases, it will become increasingly important to be able to understand their inherent semantic structure, whether codified in explicit ontologies or not. Our group is researching novel methods for what we call descriptive semantic analysis of RDF triplestores, to serve purposes of analysis, interpretation, visualization, and optimization. But data size and computational complexity makes it increasingly necessary to bring high performance computational resources to bear on this task. Our research group built a novel high performance hybrid system comprising computational capability for semantic graph database processing utilizing the large multi-threaded architecture of the Cray XMT platform, conventional servers, and large data stores. In this paper we describe that architecture and our methods, and present the results of our analyses of basic properties, connected components, namespace interaction, and typed paths such for the Billion Triple Challenge 2010 dataset.

Joslyn, Cliff A.; Adolf, Robert D.; al-Saffar, Sinan; Feo, John T.; Haglin, David J.; Mackey, Greg E.; Mizell, David W.



Measuring geographic segregation: a graph-based approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Residential segregation is a multidimensional phenomenon that encompasses several conceptually distinct aspects of geographical separation between populations. While various indices have been developed as a response to different definitions of segregation, the reliance on such single-figure indices could oversimplify the complex, multidimensional phenomena. In this regard, this paper suggests an alternative graph-based approach that provides more detailed information than simple indices: The concentration profile graphically conveys information about how evenly a population group is distributed over the study region, and the spatial proximity profile depicts the degree of clustering across different threshold levels. These graphs can also be summarized into single numbers for comparative purposes, but the interpretation can be more accurate by inspecting the additional information. To demonstrate the use of these methods, the residential patterns of three major ethnic groups in Auckland, namely M?ori, Pacific peoples, and Asians, are examined using the 2006 census data.

Hong, Seong-Yun; Sadahiro, Yukio



A streamlined software environment for situated skills  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper documents a powerful set of software tools used for developing situated skills. These situated skills form the reactive level of a three-tiered intelligent agent architecture. The architecture is designed to allow these skills to be manipulated by a task level engine which is monitoring the current situation and selecting skills necessary for the current task. The idea is to coordinate the dynamic activations and deactivations of these situated skills in order to configure the reactive layer for the task at hand. The heart of the skills environment is a data flow mechanism which pipelines the currently active skills for execution. A front end graphical interface serves as a debugging facility during skill development and testing. We are able to integrate skills developed in different languages into the skills environment. The power of the skills environment lies in the amount of time it saves for the programmer to develop code for the reactive layer of a robot.

Yu, Sophia T.; Slack, Marc G.; Miller, David P.



Interpreting Geologic Sections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Athro, Limited is a for-profit corporation that publishes high school and college level biology, earth science, and geology course supplements and independent learning materials on the Web. This site provides instruction in interpreting the order of events in three hypothetical and one real geological section. For each section there is a list of events and an animation of the history of the section once the student has decided on the order of events.

Paul Morris


A Coordinated Approach to Curricular Review and Development in Undergraduate Geoscience Programs: Using a Matrix to Identify and Track Skills and Skill Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One approach to curriculum review and development is to construct a matrix of the desired skills versus courses in the departmental curriculum. The matrix approach requires faculty to articulate their goals, identify specific skills, and assess where in the curriculum students will learn and practice these skills and where there are major skills gaps. Faculty members in the Geology Department at Carleton College developed a matrix of skills covered in geology courses with the following objectives: 1) Geology majors should begin their "senior integrative exercise" having practiced multiple times all of the formal steps in the research process (recognizing problems, writing proposals, carrying out a project, reporting a project in several ways); 2) Geology majors should learn and practice a variety of professional and life skills life (e.g. computer skills, field skills, lab skills, and interpretive skills).The matrix was used to identify where in the curriculum various research methods and skills were addressed and to map potential student experiences to the objectives. In Carleton's non-hierarchical curriculum, the matrix was used to verify that students have many opportunities to practice research and life skills regardless of the path they take to completion of the major. In William and Mary's more structured curriculum, the matrix was used to ensure that skills build upon each other from course to course. Faculty members in the Geology Department at the College of William and Mary first used this approach to focus on teaching quantitative skills across the geology curriculum, and later used it in terms of teaching research, communication, and information literacy skills. After articulating goals and skills, faculty members in both departments developed more specific skill lists within each category of skills, then described the current assignments and activities in each course relative to the specific components of the matrix and discussed whether to add assignment or activities. We have found that much conversation among faculty and change within courses happens simply as a result of compiling the matrix. One effect of the use of the matrix is that faculty in the department know fairly specifically what skills students are learning and practicing in their other geology courses. Moreover, some faculty members are better suited by background or inclination to teach certain sets of skills. This coordinated approach avoids unnecessary duplication and allows faculty to build on skills and topics developed in previous courses. The matrix can also be used as a planning tool to identify gaps in the curriculum. In our experience, the skills matrix is a powerful organizational and communication tool. The skills matrix is a representation of what the department believes actually happens in the curriculum. Thus, development of a skills matrix provides a basis for departmental discussions of student learning goals and objectives as well as for describing the existing curriculum. The matrix is also a graphic representation, to college administrators and outside evaluators, of the "intentionality" of an entire curriculum, going beyond single courses and their syllabi. It can be used effectively to engage administration in discussions of departmental planning and needs analysis.

MacDonald, R.; Savina, M. E.



Interpreting uncertainty terms.  


Uncertainty terms (e.g., some, possible, good, etc.) are words that do not have a fixed referent and hence are relatively ambiguous. A model is proposed that specifies how, from the hearer's perspective, recognition of facework as a potential motive for the use of an uncertainty term results in a calibration of the intended meaning of that term. Four experiments are reported that examine the impact of face threat, and the variables that affect it (e.g., power), on the manner in which a variety of uncertainty terms (probability terms, quantifiers, frequency terms, etc.) are interpreted. Overall, the results demonstrate that increased face threat in a situation will result in a more negative interpretation of an utterance containing an uncertainty term. That the interpretation of so many different types of uncertainty terms is affected in the same way suggests the operation of a fundamental principle of language use, one with important implications for the communication of risk, subjective experience, and so on. PMID:25090127

Holtgraves, Thomas



Why Do Social Skills Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I propose a model where social skills of a manager signal the workers that their e¤ort is productive. In this model …rms with a high productivity of e¤ort hire a socially skilled manager and pay higher wages, and workers hired by these …rms exert higher e¤ort. In a broader context, the paper argues the employees are compensated

Suren Basov



Urban College Graduates: Their Investments in and Returns for Strong Quantitative Skills, Social Capital Skills, and Soft Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study examined strong quantitative skills, social capital skills, and soft skills of urban college graduates using data from the Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality Household Survey. The urban college graduates lived in Atlanta, Boston, or Los Angeles and had bachelor's, master's, PhD, and professional degrees. Among the three skills

Haynes, Marie Ellen



Brutal Edges and Tender Surfaces: An Exhibition Arousing Gender-based Interpretations  

Microsoft Academic Search

so I thought, lovingly rendered and abstracted black and white photo- graphs of my husband, received critical reviews from gallery visitors whose interpretations differed from the documentary,perspective that I had envisioned. For example, according to Oda (1997), a middle-aged male reviewer observed “[these] works convey a sense of male objec- tification, in which the act of covering or exposing the

K. B. Basseches



0-1 graph partitioning and image segmentation  

E-print Network

Graph partitioning is the grouping of all the nodes in a graph into two or more partitions based on certain criteria. Graph cut techniques are used to partition a graph. The Minimum Cut method gives imbalanced partitions. ...

Goh, Chun Fan



Exploration of Constantly Connected Dynamic Graphs Based on Cactuses  

E-print Network

Exploration of Constantly Connected Dynamic Graphs Based on Cactuses David Ilcinkas, Ralf Klasing consider the same problem and we suppose that the underlying graph is a cactus graph (a connected graph

Ilcinkas, David


Developing Geoscience Students' Quantitative Skills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sophisticated quantitative skills are an essential tool for the professional geoscientist. While students learn many of these sophisticated skills in graduate school, it is increasingly important that they have a strong grounding in quantitative geoscience as undergraduates. Faculty have developed many strong approaches to teaching these skills in a wide variety of geoscience courses. A workshop in June 2005 brought together eight faculty teaching surface processes and climate change to discuss and refine activities they use and to publish them on the Teaching Quantitative Skills in the Geosciences website ( for broader use. Workshop participants in consultation with two mathematics faculty who have expertise in math education developed six review criteria to guide discussion: 1) Are the quantitative and geologic goals central and important? (e.g. problem solving, mastery of important skill, modeling, relating theory to observation); 2) Does the activity lead to better problem solving? 3) Are the quantitative skills integrated with geoscience concepts in a way that makes sense for the learning environment and supports learning both quantitative skills and geoscience? 4) Does the methodology support learning? (e.g. motivate and engage students; use multiple representations, incorporate reflection, discussion and synthesis) 5) Are the materials complete and helpful to students? 6) How well has the activity worked when used? Workshop participants found that reviewing each others activities was very productive because they thought about new ways to teach and the experience of reviewing helped them think about their own activity from a different point of view. The review criteria focused their thinking about the activity and would be equally helpful in the design of a new activity. We invite a broad international discussion of the criteria( Teaching activities can be found on the Teaching Quantitative Skills in the Geosciences website ( In addition to the teaching activity collection (85 activites), this site contains a variety of resources to assist faculty with the methods they use to teach quantitative skills at both the introductory and advanced levels; information about broader efforts in quantitative literacy involving other science disciplines, and a special section of resources for students who are struggling with their quantitative skills. The site is part of the Digital Library for Earth Science Education and has been developed by geoscience faculty in collaboration with mathematicians and mathematics educators with funding from the National Science Foundation.

Manduca, C. A.; Hancock, G. S.



Essential Learning Skills in Vocational Technical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides basic skill performance expectations for all Oregon students by the end of grade 11 to be incorporated into 15 vocational programs. (Exceptions are that in technology education, the skills identified are only for grade 8; in home economics, the identified skills are for grades 8 and 11.) The skills, which are in reading,…

Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Div. of Vocational Education.


Career Pathways Skill-Building Activities Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to relate academic skills with workplace skills and facilitate the transition from school to work, the Community College of Rhode Island developed a skill-based instructional model targeted at 9th through 12th graders and consisting of 6 instructional areas, or strands, and 31 related skills. This guide provides suggested activities…

Community Coll. of Rhode Island, Warwick.


Quantum Snake Walk on Graphs  

E-print Network

I introduce a new type of continuous-time quantum walk on graphs called the quantum snake walk, the basis states of which are fixed-length paths (snakes) in the underlying graph. First I analyze the quantum snake walk on the line, and I show that, even though most states stay localized throughout the evolution, there are specific states which most likely move on the line as wave packets with momentum inversely proportional to the length of the snake. Next I discuss how an algorithm based on the quantum snake walk might potentially be able to solve an extended version of the glued trees problem which asks to find a path connecting both roots of the glued trees graph. No efficient quantum algorithm solving this problem is known yet.

Ansis Rosmanis



Quantum snake walk on graphs  

SciTech Connect

I introduce a continuous-time quantum walk on graphs called the quantum snake walk, the basis states of which are fixed-length paths (snakes) in the underlying graph. First, I analyze the quantum snake walk on the line, and I show that, even though most states stay localized throughout the evolution, there are specific states that most likely move on the line as wave packets with momentum inversely proportional to the length of the snake. Next, I discuss how an algorithm based on the quantum snake walk might potentially be able to solve an extended version of the glued trees problem, which asks to find a path connecting both roots of the glued trees graph. To the best of my knowledge, no efficient quantum algorithm solving this problem is known yet.

Rosmanis, Ansis [David R. Cheriton School of Computer Science and Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, West Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)



JUNG - Java Universal Network/Graph Framework  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

JUNG ??? the Java Universal Network/Graph Framework--is a software library that provides a common and extensive language for the modeling, analysis, and visualization of data that can be represented as a graph or network.

Joshua O'Madadhain, Danyel Fisher, and Scott White.


Mathematical Minute: Rotating a Function Graph  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using calculus only, we find the angles you can rotate the graph of a differentiable function about the origin and still obtain a function graph. We then apply the solution to odd and even degree polynomials.

Bravo, Daniel; Fera, Joseph



Relative neighborhood graphs and their relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of neighborhood graphs are surveyed. Properties, bounds on the size, algorithms, and variants of the neighborhood graphs are discussed. Numerous applications including computational morphology, spatial analysis, pattern classification, and databases for computer vision are described




Standard Distributions: One Graph Fits All  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standard distributions are ubiquitous but not unique. With suitable scaling, the graph of a standard distribution serves as the graph for every distribution in the family. The standard exponential can easily be taught in elementary statistics courses.

Wagner, Clifford H.



Interpretation of Conventional Mass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conventional mass is not a precise physical quantity but useful virtual one in mass metrology. Because the precise level of conventional mass is related to the OIML class, it is necessary to check if the assignment of weight class is under control. The documents of OIML (International Organization of Legal Metrology) D 28 and R 111 describe the limitation of the quantity in real application. In this presentation, we are trying to interpret and review the concept of conventional mass, for example, by estimating buoyancy deviation and maximum permissible error, in weight calibrations in Korea. Note from Publisher: This article contains the abstract only.

Lee, Sungjun; Kim, Kwang Pyo


Interpreting Paleoenvironments with Microfossils  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is constructed to help students gain a better understanding of how scientists can use foraminifera to interpret past environments. Specifically, they will have the opportunity to understand one of the basic tenets of geology: the present is the key to the past, a principle otherwise known as uniformitarianism. Objectives include: distinguishing between planktonic, benthic, hyaline, porcelaneous, and agglutinated foraminifera, calculating the proportion of planktonic specimens in a sample, establishing the species diversity of a sample, establishing the shell-type ratio of a sample, and reconstructing the environment of deposition of the sample.

Culver, Stephen


CPM: A Graph Pattern Matching Kernel with Diffusion for Accurate Graph Classification  

E-print Network

with Diffusion for Accurate Graph Classification Aaron Smalter, Jun Huan Department of Electrical Engineering databases search algorithms [17, 32, 40, 42], graph classification aims to construct accurate predictiveCPM: A Graph Pattern Matching Kernel with Diffusion for Accurate Graph Classification Aaron Smalter

Kansas, University of


Regular Edge Labeling of 4Connected Plane Graphs and Its Applications in Graph Drawing Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we extend the concept of the regular edge labeling for general plane graphs and for triconnected triangulated plane graphs to 4-connected triangulated plane graphs. We present two different linear time algorithms for constructing such a labeling. By using regular edge labeling, we present a new linear time algorithm for constructing rectangular dual of planar graphs. Our algorithm

Goos Kant; Xin He



Investigating Differences in General Comprehension Skill  

PubMed Central

For adults, skill at comprehending written language correlates highly with skill at comprehending spoken language. Does this general comprehension skill extend beyond language-based modalities? And if it does, what cognitive processes and mechanisms differentiate individuals who are more versus less proficient in general comprehension skill? In our first experiment, we found that skill in comprehending written and auditory stories correlates highly with skill in comprehending nonverbal, picture stories. This finding supports the hypothesis that general comprehension skill extends beyond language. We also found support for the hypotheses that poorer access to recently comprehended information marks less proficient general comprehension skill (Experiment 2) because less skilled comprehenders develop too many mental substructures during comprehension (Experiment 3), perhaps because they inefficiently suppress irrelevant information (Experiment 4). Thus, the cognitive processes and mechanisms involved in capturing and representing the structure of comprehensible information provide one source of individual differences in general comprehension skill. PMID:2140402

Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Varner, Kathleen R.; Faust, Mark E.



Affinity learning with diffusion on tensor product graph.  


In many applications, we are given a finite set of data points sampled from a data manifold and represented as a graph with edge weights determined by pairwise similarities of the samples. Often the pairwise similarities (which are also called affinities) are unreliable due to noise or due to intrinsic difficulties in estimating similarity values of the samples. As observed in several recent approaches, more reliable similarities can be obtained if the original similarities are diffused in the context of other data points, where the context of each point is a set of points most similar to it. Compared to the existing methods, our approach differs in two main aspects. First, instead of diffusing the similarity information on the original graph, we propose to utilize the tensor product graph (TPG) obtained by the tensor product of the original graph with itself. Since TPG takes into account higher order information, it is not a surprise that we obtain more reliable similarities. However, it comes at the price of higher order computational complexity and storage requirement. The key contribution of the proposed approach is that the information propagation on TPG can be computed with the same computational complexity and the same amount of storage as the propagation on the original graph. We prove that a graph diffusion process on TPG is equivalent to a novel iterative algorithm on the original graph, which is guaranteed to converge. After its convergence we obtain new edge weights that can be interpreted as new, learned affinities. We stress that the affinities are learned in an unsupervised setting. We illustrate the benefits of the proposed approach for data manifolds composed of shapes, images, and image patches on two very different tasks of image retrieval and image segmentation. With learned affinities, we achieve the bull's eye retrieval score of 99.99 percent on the MPEG-7 shape dataset, which is much higher than the state-of-the-art algorithms. When the data- points are image patches, the NCut with the learned affinities not only significantly outperforms the NCut with the original affinities, but it also outperforms state-of-the-art image segmentation methods. PMID:22392704

Yang, Xingwei; Prasad, Lakshman; Latecki, Longin Jan



Approximate analysis of fuzzy node fuzzy graph and its application  

Microsoft Academic Search

By applying the fuzzy graph theory, we could analyze the inexact information efficiently and investigate the fuzzy relation by fuzzy graph. We extend the fuzzy graph theory, and propose a fuzzy node fuzzy graph. We transform it to a crisp node fuzzy graph by using T-norm family. In this paper, we explain a fuzzy node fuzzy graph, and propose a

Hiroaki Uesu; Hajime Yamashita; Hiroshi Suda; Kimiaki Shinkai



On realizing zero-divisor graphs of po-semirings  

E-print Network

In this paper, we determine bipartite graphs and complete graphs with horns, which are realizable as zero-divisor graphs of po-semirings. As applications, we classify commutative rings $R$ whose annihilating-ideal graph $\\mathbb {AG}(R)$ are either bipartite graphs or complete graphs with horns.

Yu, Houyi



On defensive alliances and line graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let $\\\\Gamma$ be a simple graph of size $m$ and degree sequence $\\\\delta_1\\\\ge \\\\delta_2\\\\ge ... \\\\ge \\\\delta_n$. Let ${\\\\cal L}(\\\\Gamma)$ denotes the line graph of $\\\\Gamma$. The aim of this paper is to study mathematical properties of the alliance number, ${a}({\\\\cal L}(\\\\Gamma)$, and the global alliance number, $\\\\gamma_{a}({\\\\cal L}(\\\\Gamma))$, of the line graph of a simple graph. We show that

J. M. Sigarreta; J. A. Rodriguez



Planar and Grid Graph Reachability Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the complexity of restricted versions ofs-t-connectivity, which is the standard complete problem forNL. In particular, we focus on different classes ofplanar graphs, of which grid graphs are an important special case. Our main results are: • Reachability in graphs of genus one is logspace-equivalent to reachability in grid graphs (and in particular it is logspace-equivalent to both reachability

Eric Allender; David A. Mix Barrington; Tanmoy Chakraborty; Samir Datta; Sambuddha Roy



Pawlak Collaboration Graph and Its Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Nowadays, special kind of information gaining popularity is the one coming from social networks. In the paper we study basic\\u000a statistical and graph-theoretical properties of the collaboration graph, which is an example of a large social network. To\\u000a build such graph we use the data collected in the Rough Set Database System [9]. The collaboration graph contains data, among\\u000a others,

Zbigniew Suraj; Piotr Grochowalski; ?ukasz Lew


On graphs with cyclic defect or excess  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Moore bound constitutes both an upper bound on the order of a graph of maximum degree $d$ and diameter $D=k$ and a lower bound on the order of a graph of minimum degree $d$ and odd girth $g=2k+1$. Graphs missing or exceeding the Moore bound by $\\\\epsilon$ are called {\\\\it graphs with defect or excess $\\\\epsilon$}, respectively. While {\\\\it

Charles Delorme; Guillermo Pineda-Villavicencio



Assessing Writing Skills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is an encore presentation of what was presented at the 2012 AGU International Conference. It was entitled: 'ASSESSING CORE COMPETENCIES.' The poster presentation, however, has been redesigned and reorganized with new, revised perspectives. The importance of ASSESSMENT principles has been emphasized. Catherine Palomba and Trudy Banta offer the following definition of assessment, adapted from one provided by Marchese in 1987. Assessment is the systematic collection, review, and use of information about educational programs undertaken for the purpose of improving student learning and development. (Palomba and Banta 1999). Educational institutions are committing substantial resources to the establishment of dedicated technology-based laboratories, so that they will be able to accommodate and fulfill students' desire to master certain of these specific skills. This type of technology-based instruction may raise some fundamental questions about the core competencies of the student learner. Some of the most important questions are : 1. Is the utilization of these fast high-powered computers and user-friendly software programs creating a totally non-challenging instructional environment for the student learner ? 2. Can technology itself all too easily overshadow the learning outcomes intended ? 3. Are the educational institutions simply training students how to use technology rather than educating them in the appropriate field ? 4. Are we still teaching content-driven courses and analysis oriented subject matter ? 5. Are these sophisticated modern era technologies contributing to a decline in the Critical Thinking Capabilities of the 21st century technology-savvy students ? The author tries to focus on technology as a tool and not on the technology itself. He further argues that students must demonstrate that they have the have the ability to think critically before they make an attempt to use technology in a chosen application-specific environment. The author further argues that training-based instruction has a very narrow focus that puts modern technology at the forefront of the learning enterprise system. The author promotes education-oriented strategies to provide the students with a broader perspective of the subject matter. The author is also of the opinion that students entering the workplace should clearly understand the context in which modern technologies are influencing the productive outcomes of the industrialized world. References : Marchese, T. J. (1987). Third Down, Ten Years to go. AAHE Bulletin, Vol. 40, pages 3-8. Marchese, T. J. (1994). Assessment, Quality and Undergraduate Improvement. Assessment Update, Vol. 6, No. 3. pages 1-14. Montagu, A. S. (2001). High-technology instruction: A framework for teaching computer-based technologies. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 12 (1), 109-128. Palomba, Catherine A. and Banta, Trudy W.(1999). Assessment Essentials :Planning, Implementing and Improving Assessment in Higher Education. San Francisco : Jossey Bass Publishers.

Narayanan, M.



Consistent Graph Layout for Weighted Graphs Dana Vrajitoru  

E-print Network

layout and improve it by iteratively repositioning the vertices to reduce the current error. The first when the graphs to be drawn are large (Gajer and Kobourov [9], Brandes and Wagner [3]). Another. [11]), design- ing web sites and visualizing the content of the World Wide Web (Brandes et al. [2

Vrajitoru, Dana


Levenshtein Distance for Graph Spectral Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graph structures play a critical role in computer vision, but they are inconvenient to use in pattern recognition tasks because of their combinatorial nature and the consequent difficulty in constructing feature vectors. Spectral representations have been used for this task which are based on the eigensystem of the graph Laplacian matrix. However, graphs of different sizes produce eigensystems of different

Richard C. Wilson; Edwin R. Hancock



The competition numbers of complete tripartite graphs  

E-print Network

The competition numbers of complete tripartite graphs SUH-RYUNG KIM Department of Mathematics For a graph G, it is known to be a hard problem to compute the competition number k(G) of the graph G in general. In this paper, we give an explicit formula for the competition numbers of complete tripartite


Minimally (k, k )-Edge-Connected Graphs  

E-print Network

.10132 Abstract: For an integer l > 1, the l-edge-connectivity of a connected graph with at least l graph G is (k; l )- edge-connected if the l-edge-connectivity of G is at least k. In this paper, we 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Graph Theory 44: 116­131, 2003 Keywords: edge-connectivity; l-edge

Lai, Hong-jian


Volume Scene Graphs David R. Nadeau  

E-print Network

Volume Scene Graphs David R. Nadeau San Diego Supercomputer Center University of California, San Diego Abstract This paper discusses volume scene graphs ­ a flexible hierarchical structure for composing scenes containing volume data sets and space-filling functions. Scene graph nodes are functions

Nadeau, David R.


A Riemannian approach to graph embedding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we make use of the relationship between the Laplace-Beltrami operator and the graph Laplacian, for the purposes of embedding a graph onto a Riemannian manifold. To embark on this study, we review some of the basics of Riemannian geometry and explain the relationship between the Laplace-Beltrami operator and the graph Laplacian. Using the properties of Jacobi fields,

Antonio Robles-Kelly; Edwin R. Hancock


A heuristic algorithm for graph isomorphism  

E-print Network

that determines if two graphs are or are not isomorphic that runs in polynomial time, i.e., it is not known if graph isomorphism is in P. On the other hand, graph isomorphism [] NP but no one has shown that it is NP-complete. In this thesis we will give a...

Torres Navarro, Luz




E-print Network

HARMONIC FUNCTIONS ON HYPERBOLIC GRAPHS CAMILLE PETIT Abstract. We consider admissible random walks on hyperbolic graphs. For a given harmonic function on such a graph, we prove that asymptotic proper- ties and infinite trees. It involves geometric and probabilitistic methods. Contents 1. Introduction 1 2. Harmonic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Drawing graphs nicely using simulated annealing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paradigm of simulated annealing is applied to the problem of drawing graphs “nicely.” Our algorithm deals with general undirected graphs with straight-line edges, and employs several simple criteria for the aesthetic quality of the result. The algorithm is flexible, in that the relative weights of the criteria can be changed. For graphs of modest size it produces good results,

Ron Davidson; David Harel



Face Recognition by Elastic Bunch Graph Matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a system for recognizing human faces fromsingle images out of a large database containing one imageper person. Faces are represented by labeled graphs, basedon a Gabor wavelet transform. Image graphs of new facesare extracted by an elastic graph matching process andcan be compared by a simple similarity function. Thesystem differs from the preceding one [1] in three respects.Phase

Laurenz Wiskott; Jean-marc Fellous; Norbert Krüger; Christoph Von Der Malsburg



Face recognition by elastic bunch graph matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a system for recognizing human faces from single images out of a large database containing one image per person. Faces are represented by labeled graphs, based on a Gabor wavelet transform. Image graphs of new faces are extracted by an elastic graph matching process and can be compared by a simple similarity function. The system differs from Lades

L. Wiskott; Jean-Marc Fellous; N. Kruger; C. von der Malsburg



Weighted fusion graphs: merging properties and watersheds  

E-print Network

Weighted fusion graphs: merging properties and watersheds Jean Cousty, Michel Couprie, Laurent This paper deals with mathematical properties of watersheds in weighted graphs linked to region merging methods, as used in image analysis. In a graph, a cleft (or a binary watershed) is a set of vertices

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Semantics and Constraint Parsing of Word Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a constraint-based parser capable ofprocessing a word graph containing multiple sentencehypotheses. When syntactic constraints are applied toa word graph, our parser is able to prune the graphof many ungrammatical sentence hypotheses and limitthe possible parses of the remaining sentences. However,in many cases syntactic information alone is insufficientfor selecting a single sentence hypothesis froma word graph. Hence, we

Mary P. Harper; Leah H. Jamieson; Carla B. Zoltowski; Randall A. Helzerman



Turán Graphs, Stability Number, and Fibonacci Index  

E-print Network

Feb 22, 2008 ... The Fibonacci index of a graph is the number of its stable sets. This parameter ... theory [12,13,21,23–25] and in extremal graph theory [9,11,17–19]. In this literature ...... [10] Joret, G. Entropy and Stability in Graphs. PhD thesis ...



Avalanche polynomials of some families of graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the abelian sandpile model on different families of graphs. We introduced the avalanche polynomial which enumerates the size of the avalanches triggered by the addition of a particle on a recurrent configuration. This polynomial is calculated for several families of graphs. In the case of the complete graph, the result involves some known result on Parking functions (12,

R. Cori; A. Dartois; D. Rossin


Small world graphs: characterization and alternative constructions  

E-print Network

Small world graphs: characterization and alternative constructions Rama CONT1 and Emily TANIMURA2 Sociales. Advances in Applied Probability, Volume 40, no 4 (December 2008). Abstract Small world graphs- trinsic definition of small world graphs, based on a probabilistic for- mulation of scaling properties

Cont, Rama


Graph Cuts and Efficient ND Image Segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combinatorial graph cut algorithms have been successfully applied to a wide range of problems in vision and graphics. This paper focusses on possibly the simplest application of graph-cuts: segmentation of objects in image data. Despite its simplicity, this application epitomizes the best features of combinatorial graph cuts methods in vision: global optima, practical efficiency, numerical robustness, ability to fuse a

Yuri Boykov; Gareth Funka-lea



Exploring Systems of Equations using Graphing Calculators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan introduces the concept of graphing a system of linear equations. Students will use graphing technology to explore the meaning of the solution of a linear system including solutions that correspond to intersecting lines, parallel lines, and coinciding lines. Students will also do graph linear systems by hand.



Graph Partitioning Models for Parallel Computing  

SciTech Connect

Calculations can naturally be described as graphs in which vertices represent computation and edges reflect data dependencies. By partitioning the vertices of a graph, the calculation can be divided among processors of a parallel computer. However, the standard methodology for graph partitioning minimizes the wrong metric and lacks expressibility. We survey several recently proposed alternatives and discuss their relative merits.

Hendrickson, B.; Kolda, T.G.



Teaching and Assessing Graphing Using Active Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a college biology instructor, I often see graphs in lab reports that do not meet my expectations. I also observe that many college students do not always adequately differentiate between good and poor (or misleading) graphs. The activity described in this paper is the result of my work with students to improve their graphing literacy. The…

McFarland, Jenny



Generic interpreters and microprocessor verification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following topics are covered in viewgraph form: (1) generic interpreters; (2) Viper microprocessors; (3) microprocessor verification; (4) determining correctness; (5) hierarchical decomposition; (6) interpreter theory; (7) AVM-1; (8) phase-level specification; and future work.

Windley, Phillip J.



Loneliness and social skill deficits.  


The relationship between social skill deficits and the psychological state of loneliness was examined in two studies. Study 1 compared conversational behaviors of high-lonely and low-lonely college students during brief heterosexual interactions. Results indicated that the two loneliness groups differed significantly in their use of a specific class of conversational behaviors termed partner attention, with high-lonely as compared to low-lonely subjects giving less attention to their partners. Study 2 examined the casual relationship between social skill and loneliness by directly manipulating the use of partner attention in a group of high-lonely males. For that group, increased use of partner attention during dyadic interactions resulted in significantly greater change in loneliness and related variables relative to interaction only and no-contact control groups. The utility of conceptualizing loneliness as a social skills problem is discussed. PMID:7077525

Jones, W H; Hobbs, S A; Hockenbury, D



Graph theory and molecular orbitals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sachs theorem [1] is discussed, and Kekulé and Sachs graphs are defined. The simple consequences of Sachs theorem which are of interest in chemistry are presented. Thus, it is shown that the pairing theorem, Hückel (4m+2) rule, and Longuet-Higgins and Dewar rule [2] can be obtained easily with the use of Sachs theorem. The dependence of the number of

A. Graovac; I. Gutman; N. Trinajsti?; T. Živkovi?



Graph theory and molecular orbitals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple algorithm for the determination of the number of zeros in the molecular graphs of alternant cata-condensed conjugated hydrocarbons is derived. For non-branched hydrocarbons it is shown that, from the topological point of view, only four types of ring systems exist. The given algorithm enables the derivation of a number of general regularities relating the structural features of the

Dragoš Cvetkovi?; Ivan Gutman; Nenad Trinajsti?



Fibonacci Identities, Matrices, and Graphs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

General strategies used to help discover, prove, and generalize identities for Fibonacci numbers are described along with some properties about the determinants of square matrices. A matrix proof for identity (2) that has received immense attention from many branches of mathematics, like linear algebra, dynamical systems, graph theory and others…

Huang, Danrun



Ancestral Genres of Mathematical Graphs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing from sources in gesture studies, cognitive science, the anthropology of religion and art/architecture history, this article explores cultural, bodily and cosmological resonances carried (unintentionally) by mathematical graphs on Cartesian coordinates. Concepts of asymmetric bodily spaces, grids, orthogonality, mapping and sacred spaces…

Gerofsky, Susan



Graphs with maximum connectivity index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let G be a graph and dv the degree (=number of first neighbors) of its vertex v. The connectivity index of G is ?=?(dudv)?1\\/2, with the summation ranging over all pairs of adjacent vertices of G. In a previous paper (Comput. Chem. 23 (1999) 469), by applying a heuristic combinatorial optimization algorithm, the structure of chemical trees possessing extremal (maximum

Gilles Caporossi; Ivan Gutman; Pierre Hansen; Ljiljana Pavlovic



Graph kernels for chemical informatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased availability of large repositories of chemical compounds is creating new challenges and opportunities for the application of machine learning methods to problems in computational chemistry and chemical informatics. Because chemical compounds are often represented by the graph of their covalent bonds, machine learning methods in this domain must be capable of processing graphical structures with variable size. Here we

Liva Ralaivola; Sanjay Joshua Swamidass; Hiroto Saigo; Pierre Baldi



Introduction to Charts and Graphs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is designed to teach students how to use charts and graphs to present data effectively. It features an introduction to the many different types of charts that are available and shows the types of data for which they are appropriate. Students will also learn to recognize misleading and inappropriate charts.

Neville Hunt


Interactive Histogram with Error Graph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet allows the user to construct a histogram by clicking on a number line to generate the sample data. The graph of an error function is shown, either mean square error or mean absolute error.

Siegrist, Kyle


Ising models on Feynman graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Ising model on a lattice made of planar Feynman graphs, which was originally introduced by Kazakov, is studied. Its exact correspondence with a matrix model is reconsidered and a new correspondence suggested. The new nonperturbative phase of the model, recently found by one of us, is further analyzed.

Cicuta, G. M.; Molinari, L.; Montaldi, E.



Reading Charts and Graphs. Pipefitter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed by the ABCs of Construction National Workplace Literacy Project, these curriculum materials for the occupational area of pipefitting contain a lesson that deals with reading charts and graphs. The lesson consists of an objective, instruction, and seven exercises. Three types of problems are provided in each exercise: "try it,""apply it,"…

Greater Baton Rouge Chamber of Commerce, LA.


Affect and Graphing Calculator Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a qualitative study of six high school calculus students designed to build an understanding about the affect associated with graphing calculator use in independent situations. DeBellis and Goldin's (2006) framework for affect as a representational system was used as a lens through which to understand the ways in which…

McCulloch, Allison W.



Storing RDF as a Graph  

Microsoft Academic Search

RDF is the first W3C standard for enriching information resources of the Web with detailed meta data. The seman- tics of RDF data is defined using a RDF schema. The most expressive language for querying RDF is RQL, which en- ables querying of semantics. In order to support RQL, a RDF storage system has to map the RDF graph model

Valerie Bönström; Annika Hinze; Heinz Schweppe



Short paths in expander graphs  

SciTech Connect

Graph expansion has proved to be a powerful general tool for analyzing the behavior of routing algorithms and the interconnection networks on which they run. We develop new routing algorithms and structural results for bounded-degree expander graphs. Our results are unified by the fact that they are all based upon, and extend, a body of work asserting that expanders are rich in short, disjoint paths. In particular, our work has consequences for the disjoint paths problem, multicommodify flow, and graph minor containment. We show: (i) A greedy algorithm for approximating the maximum disjoint paths problem achieves a polylogarithmic approximation ratio in bounded-degree expanders. Although our algorithm is both deterministic and on-line, its performance guarantee is an improvement over previous bounds in expanders. (ii) For a multicommodily flow problem with arbitrary demands on a bounded-degree expander, there is a (1 + {epsilon})-optimal solution using only flow paths of polylogarithmic length. It follows that the multicommodity flow algorithm of Awerbuch and Leighton runs in nearly linear time per commodity in expanders. Our analysis is based on establishing the following: given edge weights on an expander G, one can increase some of the weights very slightly so the resulting shortest-path metric is smooth - the min-weight path between any pair of nodes uses a polylogarithmic number of edges. (iii) Every bounded-degree expander on n nodes contains every graph with O(n/log{sup O(1)} n) nodes and edges as a minor.

Kleinberg, J. [MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States); Rubinfeld, R. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)



Kinetic Theory of Random Graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Statistical properties of evolving random graphs are analyzed using kinetic theory. Treating the linking process dynamically, structural characteristics of links, paths, cycles, and components are obtained analytically using the rate equation approach. Scaling laws for finite systems are derived using extreme statistics and scaling arguments.

Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.



Games on graphs Milos Stojakovic  

E-print Network

Games on graphs Milos Stojakovi´c Department of Mathematics and Informatics, University of Novi Sad, Serbia Abstract. Positional Games is a branch of Combinatorics which focuses on a variety of two player games, ranging from well-known games

Stojakovic, Milos


Interpretation of genetic variants.  


Sequencing of the human genome and introduction of clinical next-generation sequencing enable discovery of all DNA variants carried by an individual. Variants may be solely responsible for disease, may contribute to disease, or may have no influence on the development of disease. Interpreting the effect of these variants upon disease is a major challenge for medicine. Although the process is still evolving, certain methods are useful in discriminating the effect of variants upon phenotype. These methods have been employed to the greatest extent in Mendelian disorders where deleterious changes in one gene can cause disease. Here, we briefly review the relative merits of these methods, with emphasis on using a comprehensive approach modelled after the analysis of variants that causes cystic fibrosis. PMID:24343785

Sosnay, Patrick R; Cutting, Garry R



3-D Seismic Interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard 3-D acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.

Moore, Gregory F.



Interpreting bruises at necropsy  

PubMed Central

The accurate interpretation of bruising at necropsy is essential to understanding how a victim has been injured and assists the pathologist in a reliable reconstruction of the events leading to death. It is essential not only to assess the mechanism of production of a bruise, taking into account the type of impacting surface and the magnitude of force used, but also to estimate when the injury was caused. An account is given of the various methods used in the examination of bruises, particularly with respect to aging, as well as the factors that may affect their appearance. Differentiation from artefacts resulting from postmortem changes is also discussed in some detail. Key Words: bruising • necropsy • time of death • cause of death PMID:11328832

Vanezis, P



Reproducibility and Robustness of Graph Measures of the Associative-Semantic Network  

PubMed Central

Graph analysis is a promising tool to quantify brain connectivity. However, an essential requirement is that the graph measures are reproducible and robust. We have studied the reproducibility and robustness of various graph measures in group based and in individual binary and weighted networks derived from a task fMRI experiment during explicit associative-semantic processing of words and pictures. The nodes of the network were defined using an independent study and the connectivity was based on the partial correlation of the time series between any pair of nodes. The results showed that in case of binary networks, global graph measures exhibit a good reproducibility and robustness for networks which are not too sparse and these figures of merit depend on the graph measure and on the density of the network. Furthermore, group based binary networks should be derived from groups of sufficient size and the lower the density the more subjects are required to obtain robust values. Local graph measures are very variable in terms of reproducibility and should be interpreted with care. For weighted networks, we found good reproducibility (average test-retest variability <5% and ICC values >0.4) when using subject specific networks and this will allow us to relate network properties to individual subject information. PMID:25500823

Wang, Yu; Nelissen, Natalie; Adamczuk, Katarzyna; De Weer, An-Sofie; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Sunaert, Stefan; Vandenberghe, Rik; Dupont, Patrick



Professional practice skills for nurses.  


Nurses work in a healthcare system in which different partners in care have different expectations of them. Demands to provide compassionate care that is patient-centred and responsive while adhering to budget constraints are contributing to 'compassion fatigue' and adversely affecting nurses' mood and effectiveness. This article discusses how an understanding of professional practice skills, communication skills and teamwork can help nurses to cope with these conflicting demands and compassion fatigue while performing their professional roles and responsibilities. This approach is discussed in the context of nursing discourse and related professional and government recommendations. PMID:25182923

Groves, Winnifred



Computerized assessment of verbal skill.  


This paper describes a computerized diagnostic test for the assessment of basic literacy skills in Dutch. Central in this test is a skill labeled word image, referring to the subject's implicit knowledge of orthographic structure. Test norms were obtained in a group of reference subjects. The most notable trend found in the standardization study was that the development of word image performance showed a nonlinear, U-shaped trend. Two case studies are reported. A supplementary validation study, based on test data collected from standard reference groups of normal and poor readers, demonstrated that word image performance is significantly related to between-group differences. PMID:8229899

Assink, E; Kattenberg, G



Discrete Applied Mathematics 113 (2001) 143166 Diameter determination on restricted graph families  

E-print Network

,14], ptolemaic graphs [14], strongly chordal graphs, dually chordal graphs [2], distance­hereditary graphs [11,13] and for graphs of benzenoid systems [4]. It is not yet clear for general graphs whether computing the diameter

Dragan, Feodor F.