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Sample records for graphene quantum dots

  1. Chiral Graphene Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Nozomu; Wang, Yichun; Elvati, Paolo; Qu, Zhi-Bei; Kim, Kyoungwon; Jiang, Shuang; Baumeister, Elizabeth; Lee, Jaewook; Yeom, Bongjun; Bahng, Joong Hwan; Lee, Jaebeom; Violi, Angela; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2016-02-23

    Chiral nanostructures from metals and semiconductors attract wide interest as components for polarization-enabled optoelectronic devices. Similarly to other fields of nanotechnology, graphene-based materials can greatly enrich physical and chemical phenomena associated with optical and electronic properties of chiral nanostructures and facilitate their applications in biology as well as other areas. Here, we report that covalent attachment of l/d-cysteine moieties to the edges of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) leads to their helical buckling due to chiral interactions at the "crowded" edges. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the GQDs revealed bands at ca. 210-220 and 250-265 nm that changed their signs for different chirality of the cysteine edge ligands. The high-energy chiroptical peaks at 210-220 nm correspond to the hybridized molecular orbitals involving the chiral center of amino acids and atoms of graphene edges. Diverse experimental and modeling data, including density functional theory calculations of CD spectra with probabilistic distribution of GQD isomers, indicate that the band at 250-265 nm originates from the three-dimensional twisting of the graphene sheet and can be attributed to the chiral excitonic transitions. The positive and negative low-energy CD bands correspond to the left and right helicity of GQDs, respectively. Exposure of liver HepG2 cells to L/D-GQDs reveals their general biocompatibility and a noticeable difference in the toxicity of the stereoisomers. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrated that d-GQDs have a stronger tendency to accumulate within the cellular membrane than L-GQDs. Emergence of nanoscale chirality in GQDs decorated with biomolecules is expected to be a general stereochemical phenomenon for flexible sheets of nanomaterials. PMID:26743467

  2. Transport through graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güttinger, J.; Molitor, F.; Stampfer, C.; Schnez, S.; Jacobsen, A.; Dröscher, S.; Ihn, T.; Ensslin, K.

    2012-12-01

    We review transport experiments on graphene quantum dots and narrow graphene constrictions. In a quantum dot, electrons are confined in all lateral dimensions, offering the possibility for detailed investigation and controlled manipulation of individual quantum systems. The recently isolated two-dimensional carbon allotrope graphene is an interesting host to study quantum phenomena, due to its novel electronic properties and the expected weak interaction of the electron spin with the material. Graphene quantum dots are fabricated by etching mono-layer flakes into small islands (diameter 60-350 nm) with narrow connections to contacts (width 20-75 nm), serving as tunneling barriers for transport spectroscopy. Electron confinement in graphene quantum dots is observed by measuring Coulomb blockade and transport through excited states, a manifestation of quantum confinement. Measurements in a magnetic field perpendicular to the sample plane allowed to identify the regime with only a few charge carriers in the dot (electron-hole transition), and the crossover to the formation of the graphene specific zero-energy Landau level at high fields. After rotation of the sample into parallel magnetic field orientation, Zeeman spin splitting with a g-factor of g ≈ 2 is measured. The filling sequence of subsequent spin states is similar to what was found in GaAs and related to the non-negligible influence of exchange interactions among the electrons.

  3. Bilayer graphene quantum dot defined by topgates

    SciTech Connect

    Müller, André; Kaestner, Bernd; Hohls, Frank; Weimann, Thomas; Pierz, Klaus; Schumacher, Hans W.

    2014-06-21

    We investigate the application of nanoscale topgates on exfoliated bilayer graphene to define quantum dot devices. At temperatures below 500 mK, the conductance underneath the grounded gates is suppressed, which we attribute to nearest neighbour hopping and strain-induced piezoelectric fields. The gate-layout can thus be used to define resistive regions by tuning into the corresponding temperature range. We use this method to define a quantum dot structure in bilayer graphene showing Coulomb blockade oscillations consistent with the gate layout.

  4. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Graphene based quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H. G.; Hu, H.; Pan, Y.; Mao, J. H.; Gao, M.; Guo, H. M.; Du, S. X.; Greber, T.; Gao, H.-J.

    2010-08-01

    Laterally localized electronic states are identified on a single layer of graphene on ruthenium by low temperature scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). The individual states are separated by 3 nm and comprise regions of about 90 carbon atoms. This constitutes a highly regular quantum dot-array with molecular precision. It is evidenced by quantum well resonances (QWRs) with energies that relate to the corrugation of the graphene layer. The dI/dV conductance spectra are modeled by a layer height dependent potential-well with a delta-function potential that describes the barrier for electron penetration into graphene. The resulting QWRs are strongest and lowest in energy on the isolated 'hill' regions with a diameter of 2 nm, where the graphene is decoupled from the surface.

  5. Ultra-bright alkylated graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lan; Tang, Xing-Yan; Zhong, Yun-Xin; Liu, Yue-Wen; Song, Xue-Huan; Deng, Shun-Liu; Xie, Su-Yuan; Yan, Jia-Wei; Zheng, Lan-Sun

    2014-10-01

    Highly efficient and stable photoluminescence (PL) are urgently desired for graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to facilitate their prospective applications as optical materials. Here, we report the facile and straightforward synthesis of alkylated graphene quantum dots (AGQDs) via the solvothermal reaction of propagatively alkylated graphene sheets (PAGenes). In contrast to most GQDs reported so far, the synthesized AGQDs process pH-independent and ultra-bright PL with a relative quantum yield of up to 65%. Structural and chemical composition characterization demonstrated that the synthesized AGQDs are nearly oxygen-defect-free with alkyl groups decorated on edges and basal plane, which may contribute to their greatly improved pH tolerance and high quantum efficiency. The photocatalytic performance of AGQDs-P25 nanocomposites was evaluated by the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible light. The photocatalytic rate is ca. 5.9 times higher than that of pure P25, indicating that AGQDs could harness the visible spectrum of sunlight for energy conversion or environmental therapy.Highly efficient and stable photoluminescence (PL) are urgently desired for graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to facilitate their prospective applications as optical materials. Here, we report the facile and straightforward synthesis of alkylated graphene quantum dots (AGQDs) via the solvothermal reaction of propagatively alkylated graphene sheets (PAGenes). In contrast to most GQDs reported so far, the synthesized AGQDs process pH-independent and ultra-bright PL with a relative quantum yield of up to 65%. Structural and chemical composition characterization demonstrated that the synthesized AGQDs are nearly oxygen-defect-free with alkyl groups decorated on edges and basal plane, which may contribute to their greatly improved pH tolerance and high quantum efficiency. The photocatalytic performance of AGQDs-P25 nanocomposites was evaluated by the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible light. The

  6. Fabrication of a graphene quantum dot device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeong Il; Kim, Eunseong

    2014-03-01

    Graphene, which exhibits a massless Dirac-like spectrum for its electrons, has shown impressive properties for nano-electronics applications including a high mobility and a width dependent bandgap. We will report the preliminary report on the transport property of the suspended graphene nano-ribbon(GNR) quantum dot device down to dilution refrigerator temperature. This GNR QD device was fabricated to realize an ideal probe to investigate Kondo physics--a characteristic phenomenon in the physics of strongly correlated electrons. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support by the National Research Foundation of Korea through the Creative Research Initiatives.

  7. Ultra-bright alkylated graphene quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lan; Tang, Xing-Yan; Zhong, Yun-Xin; Liu, Yue-Wen; Song, Xue-Huan; Deng, Shun-Liu; Xie, Su-Yuan; Yan, Jia-Wei; Zheng, Lan-Sun

    2014-11-01

    Highly efficient and stable photoluminescence (PL) are urgently desired for graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to facilitate their prospective applications as optical materials. Here, we report the facile and straightforward synthesis of alkylated graphene quantum dots (AGQDs) via the solvothermal reaction of propagatively alkylated graphene sheets (PAGenes). In contrast to most GQDs reported so far, the synthesized AGQDs process pH-independent and ultra-bright PL with a relative quantum yield of up to 65%. Structural and chemical composition characterization demonstrated that the synthesized AGQDs are nearly oxygen-defect-free with alkyl groups decorated on edges and basal plane, which may contribute to their greatly improved pH tolerance and high quantum efficiency. The photocatalytic performance of AGQDs-P25 nanocomposites was evaluated by the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible light. The photocatalytic rate is ca. 5.9 times higher than that of pure P25, indicating that AGQDs could harness the visible spectrum of sunlight for energy conversion or environmental therapy. PMID:25192187

  8. Energy levels of hybrid monolayer-bilayer graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzakhani, M.; Zarenia, M.; Ketabi, S. A.; da Costa, D. R.; Peeters, F. M.

    2016-04-01

    Often real samples of graphene consist of islands of both monolayer and bilayer graphene. Bound states in such hybrid quantum dots are investigated for (i) a circular single-layer graphene quantum dot surrounded by an infinite bilayer graphene sheet and (ii) a circular bilayer graphene quantum dot surrounded by an infinite single-layer graphene. Using the continuum model and applying zigzag boundary conditions at the single-layer-bilayer graphene interface, we obtain analytical results for the energy levels and the corresponding wave spinors. Their dependence on perpendicular magnetic and electric fields are studied for both types of quantum dots. The energy levels exhibit characteristics of interface states, and we find anticrossings and closing of the energy gap in the presence of a bias potential.

  9. Luminescent graphene quantum dots fabricated by pulsed laser synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Habiba, Khaled; Makarov, Vladimir I.; Avalos, Javier; Guinel, Maxime J.F.; Weiner, Brad R.; Morell, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Graphene has been the subject of intense research in recent years due to its unique electrical, optical and mechanical properties. Furthermore, it is expected that quantum dots of graphene would make their way into devices due to their structure and composition which unify graphene and quantum dots properties. Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are planar nano flakes with a few atomic layers thick and with a higher surface-to-volume ratio than spherical carbon dots (CDs) of the same size. We have developed a pulsed laser synthesis (PLS) method for the synthesis of GQDs that are soluble in water, measure 2–6 nm across, and are about 1–3 layers thick. They show strong intrinsic fluorescence in the visible region. The source of fluorescence can be attributed to various factors, such as: quantum confinement, zigzag edge structure, and surface defects. Confocal microscopy images of bacteria exposed to GQDs show their suitability as biomarkers and nano-probes in high contrast bioimaging.

  10. The transfer matrix approach to circular graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau Nguyen, H.; Nguyen, Nhung T. T.; Nguyen, V. Lien

    2016-07-01

    We adapt the transfer matrix (T-matrix) method originally designed for one-dimensional quantum mechanical problems to solve the circularly symmetric two-dimensional problem of graphene quantum dots. Similar to one-dimensional problems, we show that the generalized T-matrix contains rich information about the physical properties of these quantum dots. In particular, it is shown that the spectral equations for bound states as well as quasi-bound states of a circular graphene quantum dot and related quantities such as the local density of states and the scattering coefficients are all expressed exactly in terms of the T-matrix for the radial confinement potential. As an example, we use the developed formalism to analyse physical aspects of a graphene quantum dot induced by a trapezoidal radial potential. Among the obtained results, it is in particular suggested that the thermal fluctuations and electrostatic disorders may appear as an obstacle to controlling the valley polarization of Dirac electrons.

  11. Electro-absorption of silicene and bilayer graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelsalam, Hazem; Talaat, Mohamed H.; Lukyanchuk, Igor; Portnoi, M. E.; Saroka, V. A.

    2016-07-01

    We study numerically the optical properties of low-buckled silicene and AB-stacked bilayer graphene quantum dots subjected to an external electric field, which is normal to their surface. Within the tight-binding model, the optical absorption is calculated for quantum dots, of triangular and hexagonal shapes, with zigzag and armchair edge terminations. We show that in triangular silicene clusters with zigzag edges a rich and widely tunable infrared absorption peak structure originates from transitions involving zero energy states. The edge of absorption in silicene quantum dots undergoes red shift in the external electric field for triangular clusters, whereas blue shift takes place for hexagonal ones. In small clusters of bilayer graphene with zigzag edges the edge of absorption undergoes blue/red shift for triangular/hexagonal geometry. In armchair clusters of silicene blue shift of the absorption edge takes place for both cluster shapes, while red shift is inherent for both shapes of the bilayer graphene quantum dots.

  12. Photodynamic antibacterial effect of graphene quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Ristic, Biljana Z; Milenkovic, Marina M; Dakic, Ivana R; Todorovic-Markovic, Biljana M; Milosavljevic, Momir S; Budimir, Milica D; Paunovic, Verica G; Dramicanin, Miroslav D; Markovic, Zoran M; Trajkovic, Vladimir S

    2014-05-01

    Synthesis of new antibacterial agents is becoming increasingly important in light of the emerging antibiotic resistance. In the present study we report that electrochemically produced graphene quantum dots (GQD), a new class of carbon nanoparticles, generate reactive oxygen species when photoexcited (470 nm, 1 W), and kill two strains of pathogenic bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Bacterial killing was demonstrated by the reduction in number of bacterial colonies in a standard plate count method, the increase in propidium iodide uptake confirming the cell membrane damage, as well as by morphological defects visualized by atomic force microscopy. The induction of oxidative stress in bacteria exposed to photoexcited GQD was confirmed by staining with a redox-sensitive fluorochrome dihydrorhodamine 123. Neither GQD nor light exposure alone were able to cause oxidative stress and reduce the viability of bacteria. Importantly, mouse spleen cells were markedly less sensitive in the same experimental conditions, thus indicating a fairly selective antibacterial photodynamic action of GQD. PMID:24612819

  13. Tailoring 10 nm scale suspended graphene junctions and quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Tayari, Vahid; McRae, Andrew C; Yiğen, Serap; Island, Joshua O; Porter, James M; Champagne, Alexandre R

    2015-01-14

    The possibility to make 10 nm scale, and low-disorder, suspended graphene devices would open up many possibilities to study and make use of strongly coupled quantum electronics, quantum mechanics, and optics. We present a versatile method, based on the electromigration of gold-on-graphene bow-tie bridges, to fabricate low-disorder suspended graphene junctions and quantum dots with lengths ranging from 6 nm up to 55 nm. We control the length of the junctions, and shape of their gold contacts by adjusting the power at which the electromigration process is allowed to avalanche. Using carefully engineered gold contacts and a nonuniform downward electrostatic force, we can controllably tear the width of suspended graphene channels from over 100 nm down to 27 nm. We demonstrate that this lateral confinement creates high-quality suspended quantum dots. This fabrication method could be extended to other two-dimensional materials. PMID:25490053

  14. Fluorinated graphene films with graphene quantum dots for electronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonova, I. V.; Nebogatikova, N. A.; Prinz, V. Ya.

    2016-06-01

    This work analyzes carrier transport, the relaxation of non-equilibrium charge, and the electronic structure of fluorinated graphene (FG) films with graphene quantum dots (GQDs). The FG films with GQDs were fabricated by means of chemical functionalization in an aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid. High fluctuations of potential relief inside the FG barriers have been detected in the range of up to 200 mV. A phenomenological expression that describes the dependence of the time of non-equilibrium charge emission from GQDs on quantum confinement levels and film thickness (potential barrier parameters between GQDs) is suggested. An increase in the degree of functionalization leads to a decrease in GQD size, the removal of the GQD effect on carrier transport, and the relaxation of non-equilibrium charge. The study of the electronic properties of FG films with GQDs has revealed a unipolar resistive switching effect in the films with a relatively high degree of fluorination and a high current modulation (up to ON/OFF ˜ 104-105) in transistor-like structures with a lower degree of fluorination. 2D films with GQDs are believed to have considerable potential for various electronic applications (nonvolatile memory, 2D connections with optical control and logic elements).

  15. Confinement of Dirac electrons in graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolie, Wouter; Craes, Fabian; Petrović, Marin; Atodiresei, Nicolae; Caciuc, Vasile; Blügel, Stefan; Kralj, Marko; Michely, Thomas; Busse, Carsten

    2014-04-01

    We observe spatial confinement of Dirac states on epitaxial graphene quantum dots with low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy after using oxygen as an intercalant to suppress the surface state of Ir(111) and to effectively decouple graphene from its metal substrate. We analyze the confined electronic states with a relativistic particle-in-a-box model and find a linear dispersion relation. The oxygen-intercalated graphene is p doped [ED=0.64±0.07 eV] and has a Fermi velocity close to the one of free-standing graphene [vF=0.96±0.07×106 m/s].

  16. Theoretical studies of graphene nanoribbon quantum dot qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chih-Chieh; Chang, Yia-Chung

    Graphene nanoribbon quantum dot qubits have been proposed as promising candidates for quantum computing applications to overcome the spin-decoherence problems associated with typical semiconductor (e.g., GaAs) quantum dot qubits. We perform theoretical studies of the electronic structures of graphene nanoribbon quantum dots by solving the Dirac equation with appropriate boundary conditions. We then evaluate the exchange splitting based on an unrestricted Hartree-Fock method for the Dirac particles. The electronic wave function and long-range exchange coupling due to the Klein tunneling and the Coulomb interaction are calculated for various gate configurations. It is found that the exchange coupling between qubits can be significantly enhanced by the Klein tunneling effect. The implications of our results for practical qubit construction and operation are discussed. This work was supported in part by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan, under Contract No. MOST 104-2112-M-001-009-MY2.

  17. Intrinsic Photoluminescence Emission from Subdomained Graphene Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyewon; Chang, Yun Hee; Song, Sung Ho; Lee, Eui-Sup; Jin, Sung Hwan; Park, Chanae; Lee, Jinsup; Kim, Bo Hyun; Kang, Hee Jae; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Jeon, Seokwoo

    2016-07-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) origin of bright blue emission arising from intrinsic states in graphene quantum dots (GQDs) is investigated. The bright PL of intercalatively acquired GQDs is attributed to favorably formed subdomains composed of four to seven carbon hexagons. Random and harsh oxidation which hinders the energetically favorable formation of subdomains causes weak and redshifted PL. PMID:27153519

  18. Graphene quantum dots: localized states, edges and bilayer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ensslin, Klaus

    2014-03-01

    Graphene quantum dots show Coulomb blockade, excited states and their orbital and spin properties have been investigated in high magnetic fields. Most quantum dots fabricated to date are fabricated with electron beam lithography and dry etching which generally leads to uncontrolled and probably rough edges. We demonstrate that devices with reduced bulk disorder fabricated on BN substrates display similar localized states as those fabricated on the more standard SiO2 substrates. For a highly symmetric quantum dot with short tunnel barriers the experimentally detected transport features can be explained by three localized states, 1 in the dot and 2 in the constrictions. A way to overcome edge roughness and the localized states related to this are bilayer devices where a band gap can be induced by suitable top and back gate voltages. By placing bilayer graphene between two BN layers high electronic quality can be achieved as documented by the observation of broken symmetry states in the quantum Hall regime. We discuss how this method can be exploited to achieve smoother and better tunable graphene quantum devices. This work was done in collaboration with D. Bischoff, P. Simonet, A. Varlet, Y. Tian, and T. Ihn.

  19. Graphene Quantum Dots: Molecularly Designed, Nitrogen-Functionalized Graphene Quantum Dots for Optoelectronic Devices (Adv. Mater. 23/2016).

    PubMed

    Tetsuka, Hiroyuki; Nagoya, Akihiro; Fukusumi, Takanori; Matsui, Takayuki

    2016-06-01

    H. Tetsuka and co-workers develop a versatile technique to tune the energy levels and energy gaps of nitrogen-functionalized graphene quantum dots (NGQDs) continuously through molecular structure design, as described on page 4632. The incorporation of layers of NGQDs into the structures markedly improves the performance of optoelectronic devices. PMID:27281048

  20. Theoretical Investigations of Optical Origins of Fluorescent Graphene Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingang; Cao, Shuo; Ding, Yong; Ma, Fengcai; Lu, Wengang; Sun, Mengtao

    2016-01-01

    The optical properties of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) were investigated theoretically. We focused on the photoinduced charge transfer and electron-hole coherence of single-layer graphene in the electronic transitions in the visible regions. Surface functionalization with donor or acceptor groups produced a red shift in the absorption spectrum, and electrons and holes were highly delocalized. The recombination of excited, well-separated electron-hole (e–h) pairs can result in enhanced fluorescence. This fluorescence enhancement by surface functionalization occurs because of the decreased symmetry of the graphene resulting from the roughened structure of the surface-functionalized GQDs. PMID:27094439

  1. Theoretical Investigations of Optical Origins of Fluorescent Graphene Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingang; Cao, Shuo; Ding, Yong; Ma, Fengcai; Lu, Wengang; Sun, Mengtao

    2016-04-01

    The optical properties of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) were investigated theoretically. We focused on the photoinduced charge transfer and electron-hole coherence of single-layer graphene in the electronic transitions in the visible regions. Surface functionalization with donor or acceptor groups produced a red shift in the absorption spectrum, and electrons and holes were highly delocalized. The recombination of excited, well-separated electron-hole (e–h) pairs can result in enhanced fluorescence. This fluorescence enhancement by surface functionalization occurs because of the decreased symmetry of the graphene resulting from the roughened structure of the surface-functionalized GQDs.

  2. Fluorescence quenching of CdSe quantum dots on graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Xi Tao; Hua Ni, Zhen Yan Nan, Hai; Hui Wang, Wen; Yan Liao, Chun; Zhang, Yan; Wei Zhao, Wei

    2013-11-11

    We studied systematically the fluorescence quenching of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) on graphene and its multilayers, as well as graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO). Raman intensity of QDs was used as a quantitatively measurement of its concentration in order to achieve a reliable quenching factor (QF). It was found that the QF of graphene (∼13.1) and its multilayers is much larger than rGO (∼4.4), while GO (∼1.5) has the lowest quenching efficiency, which suggests that the graphitic structure is an important factor for quenching the fluorescence of QDs. It was also revealed that the QF of graphene is not strongly dependent on its thicknesses.

  3. Signatures of single quantum dots in graphene nanoribbons within the quantum Hall regime.

    PubMed

    Tóvári, Endre; Makk, Péter; Rickhaus, Peter; Schönenberger, Christian; Csonka, Szabolcs

    2016-06-01

    We report on the observation of periodic conductance oscillations near quantum Hall plateaus in suspended graphene nanoribbons. They are attributed to single quantum dots that are formed in the narrowest part of the ribbon, in the valleys and hills of a disorder potential. In a wide flake with two gates, a double-dot system's signature has been observed. Electrostatic confinement is enabled in single-layer graphene due to the gaps that are formed between the Landau levels, suggesting a way to create gate-defined quantum dots that can be accessed with quantum Hall edge states. PMID:27198562

  4. Facile synthesis and photoluminescence mechanism of graphene quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ping; Zhou, Ligang; Zhang, Shenli; Pan, Wei Shen, Wenzhong; Wan, Neng

    2014-12-28

    We report a facile hydrothermal synthesis of intrinsic fluorescent graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with two-dimensional morphology. This synthesis uses glucose, concentrate sulfuric acid, and deionized water as reagents. Concentrated sulfuric acid is found to play a key role in controlling the transformation of as-prepared hydrothermal products from amorphous carbon nanodots to well-crystallized GQDs. These GQDs show typical absorption characteristic for graphene, and have nearly excitation-independent ultraviolet and blue intrinsic emissions. Temperature-dependent PL measurements have demonstrated strong electron-electron scattering and electron-phonon interactions, suggesting a similar temperature behavior of GQDs to inorganic semiconductor quantum dots. According to optical studies, the ultraviolet emission is found to originate from the recombination of electron-hole pairs localized in the C=C bonds, while the blue emission is from the electron transition of sp{sup 2} domains.

  5. Epitaxial graphene quantum dots for high-performance terahertz bolometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Fatimy, Abdel; Myers-Ward, Rachael L.; Boyd, Anthony K.; Daniels, Kevin M.; Gaskill, D. Kurt; Barbara, Paola

    2016-04-01

    Light absorption in graphene causes a large change in electron temperature due to the low electronic heat capacity and weak electron–phonon coupling. This property makes graphene a very attractive material for hot-electron bolometers in the terahertz frequency range. Unfortunately, the weak variation of electrical resistance with temperature results in limited responsivity for absorbed power. Here, we show that, due to quantum confinement, quantum dots of epitaxial graphene on SiC exhibit an extraordinarily high variation of resistance with temperature (higher than 430 MΩ K‑1 below 6 K), leading to responsivities of 1 × 1010 V W‑1, a figure that is five orders of magnitude higher than other types of graphene hot-electron bolometer. The high responsivity, combined with an extremely low electrical noise-equivalent power (∼2 × 10‑16 W Hz‑1/2 at 2.5 K), already places our bolometers well above commercial cooled bolometers. Additionally, we show that these quantum dot bolometers demonstrate good performance at temperature as high as 77 K.

  6. Epitaxial graphene quantum dots for high-performance terahertz bolometers.

    PubMed

    El Fatimy, Abdel; Myers-Ward, Rachael L; Boyd, Anthony K; Daniels, Kevin M; Gaskill, D Kurt; Barbara, Paola

    2016-04-01

    Light absorption in graphene causes a large change in electron temperature due to the low electronic heat capacity and weak electron-phonon coupling. This property makes graphene a very attractive material for hot-electron bolometers in the terahertz frequency range. Unfortunately, the weak variation of electrical resistance with temperature results in limited responsivity for absorbed power. Here, we show that, due to quantum confinement, quantum dots of epitaxial graphene on SiC exhibit an extraordinarily high variation of resistance with temperature (higher than 430 MΩ K(-1) below 6 K), leading to responsivities of 1 × 10(10) V W(-1), a figure that is five orders of magnitude higher than other types of graphene hot-electron bolometer. The high responsivity, combined with an extremely low electrical noise-equivalent power (∼2 × 10(-16) W Hz(-1/2) at 2.5 K), already places our bolometers well above commercial cooled bolometers. Additionally, we show that these quantum dot bolometers demonstrate good performance at temperature as high as 77 K. PMID:26727199

  7. The emission wavelength dependent photoluminescence lifetime of the N-doped graphene quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Xingxia; Sun, Jing; Yang, Siwei; Ding, Guqiao; Shen, Hao; Zhou, Wei; Lu, Jian; Wang, Zhongyang

    2015-12-14

    Aromatic nitrogen doped graphene quantum dots were investigated by steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) techniques. The PL lifetime was found to be dependent on the emission wavelength and coincident with the PL spectrum, which is different from most semiconductor quantum dots and fluorescent dyes. This result shows the synergy and competition between the quantum confinement effect and edge functional groups, which may have the potential to guide the synthesis and expand the applications of graphene quantum dots.

  8. Signatures of single quantum dots in graphene nanoribbons within the quantum Hall regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóvári, Endre; Makk, Péter; Rickhaus, Peter; Schönenberger, Christian; Csonka, Szabolcs

    2016-06-01

    We report on the observation of periodic conductance oscillations near quantum Hall plateaus in suspended graphene nanoribbons. They are attributed to single quantum dots that are formed in the narrowest part of the ribbon, in the valleys and hills of a disorder potential. In a wide flake with two gates, a double-dot system's signature has been observed. Electrostatic confinement is enabled in single-layer graphene due to the gaps that are formed between the Landau levels, suggesting a way to create gate-defined quantum dots that can be accessed with quantum Hall edge states.We report on the observation of periodic conductance oscillations near quantum Hall plateaus in suspended graphene nanoribbons. They are attributed to single quantum dots that are formed in the narrowest part of the ribbon, in the valleys and hills of a disorder potential. In a wide flake with two gates, a double-dot system's signature has been observed. Electrostatic confinement is enabled in single-layer graphene due to the gaps that are formed between the Landau levels, suggesting a way to create gate-defined quantum dots that can be accessed with quantum Hall edge states. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/C6NR00187D

  9. Quantum dot resonant tunneling FET on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadpour, Hakimeh

    2016-07-01

    At this paper a field effect transistor based on graphene nanoribbon (GNR) is modeled. Like in most GNR-FETs the GNR is chosen to be semiconductor with a gap, through which the current passes at on state of the device. The regions at the two ends of GNR are highly n-type doped and play the role of metallic reservoirs so called source and drain contacts. Two dielectric layers are placed on top and bottom of the GNR and a metallic gate is located on its top above the channel region. At this paper it is assumed that the gate length is less than the channel length so that the two ends of the channel region are un-gated. As a result of this geometry, the two un-gated regions of channel act as quantum barriers between channel and the contacts. By applying gate voltage, discrete energy levels are generated in channel and resonant tunneling transport occurs via these levels. By solving the NEGF and 3D Poisson equations self consistently, we have obtained electron density, potential profile and current. The current variations with the gate voltage give rise to negative transconductance.

  10. Low-energy trions in graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, H.-C.; Lue, N.-Y.; Chen, Y.-C.; Wu, G. Y.

    2014-06-01

    We investigate, within the envelope function approximation, the low-energy states of trions in graphene quantum dots (QDs). The presence of valley pseudospin in graphene as an electron degree of freedom apart from spin adds convolution to the interplay between exchange symmetry and the electron-electron interaction in the trion, leading to new states of trions as well as a low-energy trion spectrum different from those in semiconductors. Due to the involvement of valley pseudospin, it is found that the low-energy spectrum is nearly degenerate and consists of states all characterized by having an antisymmetric (pseudospin) ⊗ (spin) component in the wave function, with the spin (pseudospin) part being either singlet (triplet) or triplet (singlet), as opposed to the spectrum in a semiconductor whose ground state is known to be nondegenerate and always a spin singlet in the case of X- trions. We investigate trions in the various regimes determined by the competition between quantum confinement and electron-electron interaction, both analytically and numerically. The numerical work is performed within a variational method accounting for electron mass discontinuity across the QD edge. The result for electron-hole correlation in the trion is presented. Effects of varying quantum dot size and confinement potential strength on the trion binding energy are discussed. The "relativistic effect" on the trion due to the unique relativistic type electron energy dispersion in graphene is also examined.

  11. Interaction of graphene quantum dots with bulk semiconductor surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, P. K.; Kushavah, Dushyant; Mohapatra, J.; Singh, B. P.

    2015-05-01

    Highly luminescent graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are synthesized through thermolysis of glucose. The average lateral size of the synthesized GQDs is found to be ˜5 nm. The occurrence of D and G band at 1345 and 1580 cm-1 in Raman spectrum confirms the presence of graphene layers. GQDs are mostly consisting of 3 to 4 graphene layers as confirmed from the AFM measurements. Photoluminescence (PL) measurement shows a distinct broadening of the spectrum when GQDs are on the semiconducting bulk surface compared to GQDs in water. The time resolved PL measurement shows a significant shortening in PL lifetime due to the substrate interaction on GQDs compared to the GQDs in solution phase.

  12. Etched graphene quantum dots on hexagonal boron nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engels, S.; Epping, A.; Volk, C.; Korte, S.; Voigtländer, B.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Trellenkamp, S.; Stampfer, C.

    2013-08-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of etched graphene quantum dots (QDs) on hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and SiO2 with different island diameters. We perform a statistical analysis of Coulomb peak spacings over a wide energy range. For graphene QDs on hBN, the standard deviation of the normalized peak spacing distribution decreases with increasing QD diameter, whereas for QDs on SiO2 no diameter dependency is observed. In addition, QDs on hBN are more stable under the influence of perpendicular magnetic fields up to 9 T. Both results indicate a substantially reduced substrate induced disorder potential in graphene QDs on hBN.

  13. Interaction of graphene quantum dots with bulk semiconductor surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Mohapatra, P. K.; Singh, B. P.; Kushavah, Dushyant; Mohapatra, J.

    2015-05-15

    Highly luminescent graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are synthesized through thermolysis of glucose. The average lateral size of the synthesized GQDs is found to be ∼5 nm. The occurrence of D and G band at 1345 and 1580 cm{sup −1} in Raman spectrum confirms the presence of graphene layers. GQDs are mostly consisting of 3 to 4 graphene layers as confirmed from the AFM measurements. Photoluminescence (PL) measurement shows a distinct broadening of the spectrum when GQDs are on the semiconducting bulk surface compared to GQDs in water. The time resolved PL measurement shows a significant shortening in PL lifetime due to the substrate interaction on GQDs compared to the GQDs in solution phase.

  14. Conductance fluctuations in chaotic bilayer graphene quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Bao, Rui; Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies of quantum chaotic scattering established a connection between classical dynamics and quantum transport properties: Integrable or mixed classical dynamics can lead to sharp conductance fluctuations but chaos is capable of smoothing out the conductance variations. Relativistic quantum transport through single-layer graphene systems, for which the quasiparticles are massless Dirac fermions, exhibits, due to scarring, this classical-quantum correspondence, but sharp conductance fluctuations persist to a certain extent even when the classical system is fully chaotic. There is an open issue regarding the effect of finite mass on relativistic quantum transport. To address this issue, we study quantum transport in chaotic bilayer graphene quantum dots for which the quasiparticles have a finite mass. An interesting phenomenon is that, when traveling along the classical ballistic orbit, the quasiparticle tends to hop back and forth between the two layers, exhibiting a Zitterbewegung-like effect. We find signatures of abrupt conductance variations, indicating that the mass has little effect on relativistic quantum transport. In solid-state electronic devices based on Dirac materials, sharp conductance fluctuations are thus expected, regardless of whether the quasiparticle is massless or massive and whether there is chaos in the classical limit. PMID:26274258

  15. Conductance fluctuations in chaotic bilayer graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Rui; Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies of quantum chaotic scattering established a connection between classical dynamics and quantum transport properties: Integrable or mixed classical dynamics can lead to sharp conductance fluctuations but chaos is capable of smoothing out the conductance variations. Relativistic quantum transport through single-layer graphene systems, for which the quasiparticles are massless Dirac fermions, exhibits, due to scarring, this classical-quantum correspondence, but sharp conductance fluctuations persist to a certain extent even when the classical system is fully chaotic. There is an open issue regarding the effect of finite mass on relativistic quantum transport. To address this issue, we study quantum transport in chaotic bilayer graphene quantum dots for which the quasiparticles have a finite mass. An interesting phenomenon is that, when traveling along the classical ballistic orbit, the quasiparticle tends to hop back and forth between the two layers, exhibiting a Zitterbewegung-like effect. We find signatures of abrupt conductance variations, indicating that the mass has little effect on relativistic quantum transport. In solid-state electronic devices based on Dirac materials, sharp conductance fluctuations are thus expected, regardless of whether the quasiparticle is massless or massive and whether there is chaos in the classical limit.

  16. Graphene/Si-quantum-dot heterojunction diodes showing high photosensitivity compatible with quantum confinement effect.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Hee; Kim, Sung; Kim, Jong Min; Jang, Chan Wook; Kim, Ju Hwan; Lee, Kyeong Won; Kim, Jungkil; Oh, Si Duck; Lee, Dae Hun; Kang, Soo Seok; Kim, Chang Oh; Choi, Suk-Ho; Kim, Kyung Joong

    2015-04-24

    Graphene/Si quantum dot (QD) heterojunction diodes are reported for the first time. The photoresponse, very sensitive to variations in the size of the QDs as well as in the doping concentration of graphene and consistent with the quantum-confinement effect, is remarkably enhanced in the near-ultraviolet range compared to commercially available bulk-Si photodetectors. The photoresponse proves to be dominated by the carriertunneling mechanism. PMID:25776865

  17. Photoresponse of polyaniline-functionalized graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Sin Ki; Luk, Chi Man; Tang, Libin; Teng, Kar Seng; Lau, Shu Ping

    2015-03-01

    Polyaniline-functionalized graphene quantum dots (PANI-GQD) and pristine graphene quantum dots (GQDs) were utilized for optoelectronic devices. The PANI-GQD based photodetector exhibited higher responsivity which is about an order of magnitude at 405 nm and 7 folds at 532 nm as compared to GQD-based photodetectors. The improved photoresponse is attributed to the enhanced interconnection of GQD by island-like polymer matrices, which facilitate carrier transport within the polymer matrices. The optically tunable current-voltage (I-V) hysteresis of PANI-GQD was also demonstrated. The hysteresis magnifies progressively with light intensity at a scan range of +/-1 V. Both GQD and PANI-GQD devices change from positive to negative photocurrent when the bias reaches 4 V. Photogenerated carriers are excited to the trapping states in GQDs with increased bias. The trapped charges interact with charges injected from the electrodes which results in a net decrease of free charge carriers and a negative photocurrent. The photocurrent switching phenomenon in GQD and PANI-GQD devices may open up novel applications in optoelectronics.Polyaniline-functionalized graphene quantum dots (PANI-GQD) and pristine graphene quantum dots (GQDs) were utilized for optoelectronic devices. The PANI-GQD based photodetector exhibited higher responsivity which is about an order of magnitude at 405 nm and 7 folds at 532 nm as compared to GQD-based photodetectors. The improved photoresponse is attributed to the enhanced interconnection of GQD by island-like polymer matrices, which facilitate carrier transport within the polymer matrices. The optically tunable current-voltage (I-V) hysteresis of PANI-GQD was also demonstrated. The hysteresis magnifies progressively with light intensity at a scan range of +/-1 V. Both GQD and PANI-GQD devices change from positive to negative photocurrent when the bias reaches 4 V. Photogenerated carriers are excited to the trapping states in GQDs with increased bias. The

  18. Graphene quantum dots as the electrolyte for solid state supercapacitors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Su; Li, Yutong; Song, Huaihe; Chen, Xiaohong; Zhou, Jisheng; Hong, Song; Huang, Minglu

    2016-01-01

    We propose that graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with a sufficient number of acidic oxygen-bearing functional groups such as -COOH and -OH can serve as solution- and solid- type electrolytes for supercapacitors. Moreover, we found that the ionic conductivity and ion-donating ability of the GQDs could be markedly improved by simply neutralizing their acidic functional groups by using KOH. These neutralized GQDs as the solution- or solid-type electrolytes greatly enhanced the capacitive performance and rate capability of the supercapacitors. The reason for the enhancement can be ascribed to the fully ionization of the weak acidic oxygen-bearing functional groups after neutralization. PMID:26763275

  19. Gate-tunable graphene quantum dot and Dirac oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belouad, Abdelhadi; Jellal, Ahmed; Zahidi, Youness

    2016-02-01

    We obtain the solution of the Dirac equation in (2 + 1) dimensions in the presence of a constant magnetic field normal to the plane together with a two-dimensional Dirac-oscillator potential coupling. We study the energy spectrum of graphene quantum dot (QD) defined by electrostatic gates. We give discussions of our results based on different physical settings, whether the cyclotron frequency is similar or larger/smaller compared to the oscillator frequency. This defines an effective magnetic field that produces the effective quantized Landau levels. We study analytically such field in gate-tunable graphene QD and show that our structure allows us to control the valley degeneracy. Finally, we compare our results with already published work and also discuss the possible applications of such QD.

  20. High Performance PbS Quantum Dot/Graphene Hybrid Solar Cell with Efficient Charge Extraction

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells are fabricated from multilayer stacks of lead sulfide (PbS) CQD and single layer graphene (SG). The inclusion of graphene interlayers is shown to increase power conversion efficiency by 9.18%. It is shown that the inclusion of conductive graphene enhances charge extraction in devices. Photoluminescence shows that graphene quenches emission from the quantum dot suggesting spontaneous charge transfer to graphene. CQD photodetectors exhibit increased photoresponse and improved transport properties. We propose that the CQD/SG hybrid structure is a route to make CQD thin films with improved charge extraction, therefore resulting in improved solar cell efficiency. PMID:27213219

  1. High Performance PbS Quantum Dot/Graphene Hybrid Solar Cell with Efficient Charge Extraction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Sung; Neo, Darren C J; Hou, Bo; Park, Jong Bae; Cho, Yuljae; Zhang, Nanlin; Hong, John; Pak, Sangyeon; Lee, Sanghyo; Sohn, Jung Inn; Assender, Hazel E; Watt, Andrew A R; Cha, SeungNam; Kim, Jong Min

    2016-06-01

    Hybrid colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells are fabricated from multilayer stacks of lead sulfide (PbS) CQD and single layer graphene (SG). The inclusion of graphene interlayers is shown to increase power conversion efficiency by 9.18%. It is shown that the inclusion of conductive graphene enhances charge extraction in devices. Photoluminescence shows that graphene quenches emission from the quantum dot suggesting spontaneous charge transfer to graphene. CQD photodetectors exhibit increased photoresponse and improved transport properties. We propose that the CQD/SG hybrid structure is a route to make CQD thin films with improved charge extraction, therefore resulting in improved solar cell efficiency. PMID:27213219

  2. Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartakovskii, Alexander

    2012-07-01

    Lithographic Techniques: III-V Semiconductors and Carbon: 15. Electrically controlling single spin coherence in semiconductor nanostructures Y. Dovzhenko, K. Wang, M. D. Schroer and J. R. Petta; 16. Theory of electron and nuclear spins in III-V semiconductor and carbon-based dots H. Ribeiro and G. Burkard; 17. Graphene quantum dots: transport experiments and local imaging S. Schnez, J. Guettinger, F. Molitor, C. Stampfer, M. Huefner, T. Ihn and K. Ensslin; Part VI. Single Dots for Future Telecommunications Applications: 18. Electrically operated entangled light sources based on quantum dots R. M. Stevenson, A. J. Bennett and A. J. Shields; 19. Deterministic single quantum dot cavities at telecommunication wavelengths D. Dalacu, K. Mnaymneh, J. Lapointe, G. C. Aers, P. J. Poole, R. L. Williams and S. Hughes; Index.

  3. Ultrafast spontaneous emission modulation of graphene quantum dots interacting with Ag nanoparticles in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jianwei; Lu, Jian; Wang, Liang; Tian, Linfan; Deng, Xingxia; Tian, Lijun; Pan, Dengyu; Wang, Zhongyang

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the strong interaction between graphene quantum dots and silver nanoparticles in solution using time-resolved photoluminescence techniques. In solution, the silver nanoparticles are surrounded by graphene quantum dots and interacted with graphene quantum dots through exciton-plasmon coupling. An ultrafast spontaneous emission process (lifetime 27 ps) was observed in such a mixed solution. This ultrafast lifetime corresponds to the emission rate exceeding 35 GHz, with the purcell enhancement by a factor of ˜12. These experiment results pave the way for the realization of future high speed light sources applications.

  4. Graphene quantum dots: Highly active bifunctional nanoprobes for nonenzymatic photoluminescence detection of hydroquinone.

    PubMed

    He, Yuezhen; Sun, Jian; Feng, Dexiang; Chen, Hongqi; Gao, Feng; Wang, Lun

    2015-12-15

    In this paper, a simple and sensitive photoluminescence method is developed for the hydroquinone quantitation by using graphene quantum dots which simultaneously serve as a peroxidase-mimicking catalyst and a photoluminescence indicator. In the presence of dissolved oxygen, graphene quantum dots with intrinsic peroxidase-mimicking catalytic activity can catalyze the oxidation of hydroquinone to produce p-benzoquinone, an intermediate, which can efficiently quench graphene quantum dots' photoluminescence. Based on this effect, a novel fluorescent platform is proposed for the sensing of hydroquinone, and the detection limit of 5 nM is found. PMID:26164014

  5. Au nanoparticles and graphene quantum dots co-modified glassy carbon electrode for catechol sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuan; He, Dawei; Wang, Yongsheng; Hu, Yin; Fu, Chen

    2016-03-01

    In this letter, the gold nanoparticles and graphene quantum dots were applied to the modification of glassy carbon electrode for the detection of catechol. The synergist cooperation between gold nanoparticles and graphene quantum dots can increase specific surface area and enhance electronic and catalytic properties of glassy carbon electrode. The detection limit of catechol is 0.869 μmol/L, demonstrating the superior detection efficiency of the gold nanoparticles and graphene quantum dots co-modified glassy carbon electrode as a new sensing platform.

  6. AA-stacked bilayer graphene quantum dots in magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belouad, Abdelhadi; Zahidi, Youness; Jellal, Ahmed

    2016-05-01

    By applying the infinite-mass boundary condition, we analytically calculate the confined states and the corresponding wave functions of AA-stacked bilayer graphene (BLG) quantum dots (QDs) in the presence of an uniform magnetic field B. It is found that the energy spectrum shows two set of levels, which are the double copies of the energy spectrum for single layer graphene, shifted up–down by +γ and -γ , respectively. However, the obtained spectrum exhibits different symmetries between the electron and hole states as well as the intervalley symmetries. It is noticed that, the applied magnetic field breaks all symmetries, except one related to the intervalley electron–hole symmetry, i.e. {E}{{e}}(τ ,m)=-{E}{{h}}(τ ,m). Two different regimes of confinement are found: the first one is due to the infinite-mass barrier at weak B and the second is dominated by the magnetic field as long as B is large. We numerically investigated the basics features of the energy spectrum to show the main similarities and differences with respect to monolayer graphene, AB-stacked BLG and semiconductor QDs. Dedicated to Professor Dr Hachim A Yamani on the occasion of his 70th birthday.

  7. Transport through a strongly coupled graphene quantum dot in perpendicular magnetic field

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We present transport measurements on a strongly coupled graphene quantum dot in a perpendicular magnetic field. The device consists of an etched single-layer graphene flake with two narrow constrictions separating a 140 nm diameter island from source and drain graphene contacts. Lateral graphene gates are used to electrostatically tune the device. Measurements of Coulomb resonances, including constriction resonances and Coulomb diamonds prove the functionality of the graphene quantum dot with a charging energy of approximately 4.5 meV. We show the evolution of Coulomb resonances as a function of perpendicular magnetic field, which provides indications of the formation of the graphene specific 0th Landau level. Finally, we demonstrate that the complex pattern superimposing the quantum dot energy spectra is due to the formation of additional localized states with increasing magnetic field. PMID:21711781

  8. Selective oxidation of veratryl alcohol with composites of Au nanoparticles and graphene quantum dots as catalysts.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaochen; Guo, Shouwu; Zhang, Jingyan

    2015-04-14

    Veratryl alcohol can be oxidized to veratryl aldehyde or veratric acid with excellent selectivity and efficient conversion under acidic and alkaline conditions using Au nanoparticles and graphene quantum dot composites (Au/GQDs) as catalysts. PMID:25760658

  9. Graphene quantum dots/Au hybrid nanoparticles as electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Peihui; Jiang, Linqin; Zhang, Weilong; Guan, Xiangfeng

    2015-11-01

    Graphene quantum dots/Au hybrid nanoparticles (denoted as GQDs-Au) were prepared by heating HAuCl4 with GQDs, and they showed higher electrocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution reaction than that of pure Au nanoparticles.

  10. Potassium doping: Tuning the optical properties of graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Fuli; Li, Xueming; Tang, Libin; Lai, Sin Ki; Lu, Chaoyu; Lau, Shu Ping

    2016-07-01

    Doping with hetero-atoms is an effective way to tune the properties of graphene quantum dots (GQDs). Here, potassium-doped GQDs (K-GQDs) are synthesized by a one-pot hydrothermal treatment of sucrose and potassium hydroxide solution. Optical properties of the GQDs are altered as a result of K-doping. The absorption peaks exhibit a blue shift. Multiple photoluminescence (PL) peaks are observed as the excitation wavelength is varied from 380 nm to 620 nm. New energy levels are introduced into the K-GQDs and provide alternative electron transition pathways. The maximum PL intensity of the K-GQDs is obtained at an excitation wavelength of 480 nm which is distinct from the undoped GQDs (375 nm). The strong PL of the K-GQDs at the longer emission wavelengths is expected to make K-GQDs more suitable for bioimaging and optoelectronic applications.

  11. Mapping Image Potential States on Graphene Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craes, Fabian; Runte, Sven; Klinkhammer, Jürgen; Kralj, Marko; Michely, Thomas; Busse, Carsten

    2013-08-01

    Free-electron-like image potential states are observed in scanning tunneling spectroscopy on graphene quantum dots on Ir(111) acting as potential wells. The spectrum strongly depends on the size of the nanostructure as well as on the spatial position on top, indicating lateral confinement. Analysis of the substructure of the first state by the spatial mapping of the constant energy local density of states reveals characteristic patterns of confined states. The most pronounced state is not the ground state, but an excited state with a favorable combination of the local density of states and parallel momentum transfer in the tunneling process. Chemical gating tunes the confining potential by changing the local work function. Our experimental determination of this work function allows us to deduce the associated shift of the Dirac point.

  12. Single-particle spectroscopic measurements of fluorescent graphene quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qinfeng; Zhou, Qi; Hua, Zheng; Xue, Qi; Zhang, Chunfeng; Wang, Xiaoyong; Pan, Dengyu; Xiao, Min

    2013-12-23

    We have performed the first single-particle spectroscopic measurements on individual graphene quantum dots (GQDs) and revealed several intriguing fluorescent phenomena that are otherwise hidden in the optical studies of ensemble GQDs. First, despite noticeable differences in the size and the number of layers from particle to particle, all of the GQDs studied possess almost the same spectral lineshapes and peak positions. Second, GQDs with more layers are normally brighter emitters but are associated with shorter fluorescent lifetimes. Third, the fluorescent spectrum of GQDs was red-shifted upon being aged in air, possibly due to the water desorption effect. Finally, the missing emission of single photons and stable fluorescence without any intermittent behavior were observed from individual GQDs. PMID:24251867

  13. Mapping image potential states on graphene quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Craes, Fabian; Runte, Sven; Klinkhammer, Jürgen; Kralj, Marko; Michely, Thomas; Busse, Carsten

    2013-08-01

    Free-electron-like image potential states are observed in scanning tunneling spectroscopy on graphene quantum dots on Ir(111) acting as potential wells. The spectrum strongly depends on the size of the nanostructure as well as on the spatial position on top, indicating lateral confinement. Analysis of the substructure of the first state by the spatial mapping of the constant energy local density of states reveals characteristic patterns of confined states. The most pronounced state is not the ground state, but an excited state with a favorable combination of the local density of states and parallel momentum transfer in the tunneling process. Chemical gating tunes the confining potential by changing the local work function. Our experimental determination of this work function allows us to deduce the associated shift of the Dirac point. PMID:23952430

  14. One-qubit quantum gates in a circular graphene quantum dot: genetic algorithm approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amparán, Gibrán; Rojas, Fernando; Pérez-Garrido, Antonio

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work was to design and control, using genetic algorithm (GA) for parameter optimization, one-charge-qubit quantum logic gates σ x, σ y, and σ z, using two bound states as a qubit space, of circular graphene quantum dots in a homogeneous magnetic field. The method employed for the proposed gate implementation is through the quantum dynamic control of the qubit subspace with an oscillating electric field and an onsite (inside the quantum dot) gate voltage pulse with amplitude and time width modulation which introduce relative phases and transitions between states. Our results show that we can obtain values of fitness or gate fidelity close to 1, avoiding the leakage probability to higher states. The system evolution, for the gate operation, is presented with the dynamics of the probability density, as well as a visualization of the current of the pseudospin, characteristic of a graphene structure. Therefore, we conclude that is possible to use the states of the graphene quantum dot (selecting the dot size and magnetic field) to design and control the qubit subspace, with these two time-dependent interactions, to obtain the optimal parameters for a good gate fidelity using GA.

  15. Can graphene quantum dots cause DNA damage in cells?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dan; Zhu, Lin; Chen, Jian-Feng; Dai, Liming

    2015-05-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have attracted tremendous attention for biological applications. We report the first study on cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of GQDs to fibroblast cell lines (NIH-3T3 cells). The NIH-3T3 cells treated with GQDs at dosages over 50 μg mL-1 showed no significant cytotoxicity. However, the GQD-treated NIH-3T3 cells exhibited an increased expression of proteins (p53, Rad 51, and OGG1) related to DNA damage compared with untreated cells, indicating the DNA damage caused by GQDs. The GQD-induced release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was demonstrated to be responsible for the observed DNA damage. These findings should have important implications for future applications of GQDs in biological systems.Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have attracted tremendous attention for biological applications. We report the first study on cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of GQDs to fibroblast cell lines (NIH-3T3 cells). The NIH-3T3 cells treated with GQDs at dosages over 50 μg mL-1 showed no significant cytotoxicity. However, the GQD-treated NIH-3T3 cells exhibited an increased expression of proteins (p53, Rad 51, and OGG1) related to DNA damage compared with untreated cells, indicating the DNA damage caused by GQDs. The GQD-induced release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was demonstrated to be responsible for the observed DNA damage. These findings should have important implications for future applications of GQDs in biological systems. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01734c

  16. Graphene quantum dots for the inhibition of β amyloid aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yibiao; Xu, Li-Ping; Dai, Wenhao; Dong, Haifeng; Wen, Yongqiang; Zhang, Xueji

    2015-11-01

    The aggregation of Aβ peptides is a crucial factor leading to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Inhibiting the Aβ peptide aggregation has become one of the most essential strategies to treat AD. In this work, efficient and low-cytotoxicity inhibitors, graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are reported for their application in inhibiting the aggregation of Aβ peptides. Compared to other carbon materials, the low cytotoxicity and great biocompatibility of GQDs give an advantage to the clinical research for AD. In addition, the GQDs may cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) because of the small size. It is believed that GQDs may be therapeutic agents against AD. This work provides a novel insight into the development of Alzheimer's drugs.The aggregation of Aβ peptides is a crucial factor leading to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Inhibiting the Aβ peptide aggregation has become one of the most essential strategies to treat AD. In this work, efficient and low-cytotoxicity inhibitors, graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are reported for their application in inhibiting the aggregation of Aβ peptides. Compared to other carbon materials, the low cytotoxicity and great biocompatibility of GQDs give an advantage to the clinical research for AD. In addition, the GQDs may cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) because of the small size. It is believed that GQDs may be therapeutic agents against AD. This work provides a novel insight into the development of Alzheimer's drugs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Dose-dependent inhibition of Aβ1-42 fibrillization by GQDs; the photoluminescence spectra of all five GQDs with different charges in water/ethanol; TEM images of other four GQDs with different charges. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06282a

  17. Tuning inter-dot tunnel coupling of an etched graphene double quantum dot by adjacent metal gates

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Da; Li, Hai-Ou; Cao, Gang; Luo, Gang; Zheng, Zhi-Xiong; Tu, Tao; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Jiang, Hong-Wen; Guo, Guo-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Graphene double quantum dots (DQDs) open to use charge or spin degrees of freedom for storing and manipulating quantum information in this new electronic material. However, impurities and edge disorders in etched graphene nano-structures hinder the ability to control the inter-dot tunnel coupling, tC, the most important property of the artificial molecule. Here we report measurements of tC in an all-metal-side-gated graphene DQD. We find that tC can be controlled continuously about a factor of four by employing a single gate. Furthermore, tC, can be changed monotonically about another factor of four as electrons are gate-pumped into the dot one by one. The results suggest that the strength of tunnel coupling in etched graphene DQDs can be varied in a rather broad range and in a controllable manner, which improves the outlook to use graphene as a base material for qubit applications. PMID:24213723

  18. Transport spectroscopy of a graphene quantum dot fabricated by atomic force microscope nanolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puddy, R. K.; Chua, C. J.; Buitelaar, M. R.

    2013-10-01

    We report low-temperature transport spectroscopy of a graphene quantum dot fabricated by atomic force microscope nanolithography. The excellent spatial resolution of the atomic force microscope allows us to reliably fabricate quantum dots with short constrictions of less than 15 nm in length. Transport measurements demonstrate that the device is dominated by a single quantum dot over a wide gate range. The electron spin system of the quantum dot is investigated by applying an in-plane magnetic field. The results are consistent with a Landé g-factor ˜2 but no regular spin filling sequence is observed, most likely due to disorder.

  19. Photoluminescence Properties Research on Graphene Quantum Dots/Silver Composites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Li, Yan; Zhang, Bo-Ping; Xie, Dan-Dan; Ge, Juan; Liu, Hui

    2016-04-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) possess unique properties of graphene and exhibit a series of new phenomena of 0 dimension (D) carbon materials. Thus, GQDs have attracted much attention from researchers and have shown great promise for many applications. Recently, many works focus on GQDs-metal ions and metal nanoparticles (NPs). Although, many researches point out that metal ions and metal NPs have significant effect on photoluminescence (PL) feature of GQDs, mainly focus on PL intensity. Here, for the first time, we reported that metal NPs also affected PL peak position which was dependent on the mix mechanism of metal and GQDs. When GQDs-silver (Ag) composite mixed by physical method and excited at a wavelength of 320 nm, PL peak position of composites first showed blue-shifted then red-shifted with increasing of Ag content. However, if GQDs-Ag composite prepared by chemical method, PL peak position of the composites blue-shifted. Furthermore, the shift of PL peak position of GQDs-Ag prepared both for physical and chemical method displayed excitation-dependent feature. When the excitation wavelength approached to Ag SPR peaks, no obvious PL shift was observed. The mechanism for different PL shifts and the phenomenon of excitation-dependent PL shift as well as the formation mechanism of GQDs-Ag composite by chemical method are discussed in detail in this paper. PMID:27451653

  20. High-performance graphene-quantum-dot photodetectors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang Oh; Hwang, Sung Won; Kim, Sung; Shin, Dong Hee; Kang, Soo Seok; Kim, Jong Min; Jang, Chan Wook; Kim, Ju Hwan; Lee, Kyeong Won; Choi, Suk-Ho; Hwang, Euyheon

    2014-01-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have received much attention due to their novel phenomena of charge transport and light absorption/emission. The optical transitions are known to be available up to ~6 eV in GQDs, especially useful for ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors (PDs). Thus, the demonstration of photodetection gain with GQDs would be the basis for a plenty of applications not only as a single-function device in detecting optical signals but also a key component in the optoelectronic integrated circuits. Here, we firstly report high-efficient photocurrent (PC) behaviors of PDs consisting of multiple-layer GQDs sandwiched between graphene sheets. High detectivity (>1011 cm Hz1/2/W) and responsivity (0.2 ~ 0.5 A/W) are achieved in the broad spectral range from UV to near infrared. The observed unique PD characteristics prove to be dominated by the tunneling of charge carriers through the energy states in GQDs, based on bias-dependent variations of the band profiles, resulting in novel dark current and PC behaviors. PMID:24998800

  1. Chlorine doped graphene quantum dots: Preparation, properties, and photovoltaic detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Jianhong; Xiang, Jinzhong; Tang, Libin Ji, Rongbin Yuan, Jun; Zhao, Jun; Yu, Ruiyun; Tai, Yunjian; Song, Liyuan

    2014-09-15

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are becoming one of the hottest advanced functional materials because of the opening of the bandgap due to quantum confinement effect, which shows unique optical and electrical properties. The chlorine doped GQDs (Cl-GQDs) have been fabricated by chemical exfoliation of HCl treated carbon fibers (CFs), which were prepared from degreasing cotton through an annealing process at 1000 °C for 30 min. Raman study shows that both G and 2D peaks of GQDs may be redshifted (softened) by chlorine doping, leading to an n-type doping. The first vertical (Cl)-GQDs based photovoltaic detectors have been demonstrated, both the light absorbing and electron-accepting roles for (Cl)-GQDs in photodetection have been found, resulting in an exceptionally big ratio of photocurrent to dark current as high as ∼10{sup 5} at room temperature using a 405 nm laser irradiation under the reverse bias voltage. The study expands the application of (Cl)-GQDs to the important optoelectronic detection devices.

  2. Label-free Electrochemiluminescent Immunosensor for Detection of Prostate Specific Antigen based on Aminated Graphene Quantum Dots and Carboxyl Graphene Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dan; Liu, Yixin; Wang, Yaoguang; Hu, Lihua; Ma, Hongmin; Wang, Guoqin; Wei, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was used as the model, an ultrasensitive label-free electrochemiluminescent immunosensor was developed based on graphene quantum dots. Au/Ag-rGO was sythsized and used as electrode material to load a great deal of graphene quantum dots due to the large surface area and excellent electron conductivity. After aminated graphene quantum dots and acarboxyl graphene quantum dots were modified onto the electrode, the ECL intensity was much high using K2S2O8 as coreactant. Then, antibody of PSA was immobilized on the surface of modified electrode surface through the adsorption of Au/Ag toward proteins, leading to the decrease of the ECL intensity. As proven by ECL spectra test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis, the fabrication process of the immunosensor is successful. Under the optimal conditions, the ECL intensity decreased linearly with the logarithm of PSA concentration in the range of 1 pg/mL ~ 10 ng/mL. The detection limit achieved is 0.29 pg/mL. The immunosensor results were validated through the detection of PSA in serum samples with satisfactory results. Due to excellent stability, high sensitivity, acceptable repeatability and selectivity, the immunosensor has promising applications in disease and drug analysis. PMID:26842737

  3. Lead-position dependent regular oscillations and random fluctuations of conductance in graphene quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liang; Yang, Rui; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Ferry, David K

    2013-02-27

    Quantum interference causes a wavefunction to have sensitive spatial dependence, and this has a significant effect on quantum transport. For example, in a quantum-dot system, the conductance can depend on the lead positions. We investigate, for graphene quantum dots, the conductance variations with the lead positions. Since for graphene the types of boundaries, e.g., zigzag and armchair, can fundamentally affect the quantum transport characteristics, we focus on rectangular graphene quantum dots, for which the effects of boundaries can be systematically studied. For both zigzag and armchair horizontal boundaries, we find that changing the positions of the leads can induce significant conductance variations. Depending on the Fermi energy, the variations can be either regular oscillations or random conductance fluctuations. We develop a physical theory to elucidate the origin of the conductance oscillation/fluctuation patterns. In particular, quantum interference leads to standing-wave-like-patterns in the quantum dot which, in the absence of leads, are regulated by the energy-band structure of the corresponding vertical graphene ribbon. The observed 'coexistence' of regular oscillations and random fluctuations in the conductance can be exploited for the development of graphene-based nanodevices. PMID:23343960

  4. Dirac electrons in graphene-based quantum wires and quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peres, N. M. R.; Rodrigues, J. N. B.; Stauber, T.; Lopes dos Santos, J. M. B.

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we analyse the electronic properties of Dirac electrons in finite-size ribbons and in circular and hexagonal quantum dots. We show that due to the formation of sub-bands in the ribbons it is possible to spatially localize some of the electronic modes using a p-n-p junction. We also show that scattering of confined Dirac electrons in a narrow channel by an infinitely massive wall induces mode mixing, giving a qualitative reason for the fact that an analytical solution to the spectrum of Dirac electrons confined in a square box has not yet been found. A first attempt to solve this problem is presented. We find that only the trivial case k = 0 has a solution that does not require the existence of evanescent modes. We also study the spectrum of quantum dots of graphene in a perpendicular magnetic field. This problem is studied in the Dirac approximation, and its solution requires a numerical method whose details are given. The formation of Landau levels in the dot is discussed. The inclusion of the Coulomb interaction among the electrons is considered at the self-consistent Hartree level, taking into account the interaction with an image charge density necessary to keep the back-gate electrode at zero potential. The effect of a radial confining potential is discussed. The density of states of circular and hexagonal quantum dots, described by the full tight-binding model, is studied using the Lanczos algorithm. This is necessary to access the detailed shape of the density of states close to the Dirac point when one studies large systems. Our study reveals that zero-energy edge states are also present in graphene quantum dots. Our results are relevant for experimental research in graphene nanostructures. The style of writing is pedagogical, in the hope that newcomers to the subject will find this paper a good starting point for their research.

  5. Effect of graphene on photoluminescence properties of graphene/GeSi quantum dot hybrid structures

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y. L.; Ma, Y. J.; Wang, W. Q.; Ding, K.; Wu, Q.; Fan, Y. L.; Yang, X. J.; Zhong, Z. Y.; Jiang, Z. M.; Chen, D. D.; Xu, F.

    2014-07-14

    Graphene has been discovered to have two effects on the photoluminescence (PL) properties of graphene/GeSi quantum dot (QD) hybrid structures, which were formed by covering monolayer graphene sheet on the multilayer ordered GeSi QDs sample surfaces. At the excitation of 488 nm laser line, the hybrid structure had a reduced PL intensity, while at the excitation of 325 nm, it had an enhanced PL intensity. The attenuation in PL intensity can be attributed to the transferring of electrons from the conducting band of GeSi QDs to the graphene sheet. The electron transfer mechanism was confirmed by the time resolved PL measurements. For the PL enhancement, a mechanism called surface-plasmon-polariton (SPP) enhanced absorption mechanism is proposed, in which the excitation of SPP in the graphene is suggested. Due to the resonant excitation of SPP by incident light, the absorption of incident light is much enhanced at the surface region, thus leading to more exciton generation and a PL enhancement in the region. The results may be helpful to provide us a way to improve optical properties of low dimensional surface structures.

  6. Chemical Functionalisation and Photoluminescence of Graphene Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Sekiya, Ryo; Uemura, Yuichiro; Naito, Hiroyoshi; Naka, Kensuke; Haino, Takeharu

    2016-06-01

    Chemical modification of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) can influence their physical and chemical properties; hence, the investigation of the effect of organic functional groups on GQDs is of importance for developing GQD-organic hybrid materials. Three peripherally functionalised GQDs having a third-generation dendritic wedge (GQD-2), long alkyl chains (GQD-3) and a polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane group (GQD-4) were prepared by the Cu(I) -catalysed Huisgen cycloaddition reaction of GQD-1 with organic azides. Cyclic voltammetry indicated that reduction occurred on the surfaces of GQD-1-4 and on the five-membered imide rings at the periphery, and this suggested that the functional groups distort the periphery by steric interactions between neighbouring functional groups. The HOMO-LUMO bandgaps of GQD-1-4 were estimated to be approximately 2 eV, and their low-lying LUMO levels (<-3.9 eV) were lower than that of phenyl-C61 -butyric acid methyl ester, an n-type organic semiconductor. The solubility of GQD-1-4 in organic solvents depends on the functional groups present. The functional groups likely cover the surfaces and periphery of the GQDs, and thus increase their affinity for solvent and avoid precipitation. Similar to GQD-2, both GQD-3 and GQD-4 emitted white light upon excitation at 360 nm. Size-exclusion chromatography demonstrated that white-light emission originates from the coexistence of differently sized GQDs that have different photoluminescence emission wavelengths. PMID:27115715

  7. Energy levels of double triangular graphene quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, F. X.; Jiang, Z. T. Zhang, H. Y.; Li, S.; Lv, Z. T.

    2014-09-28

    We investigate theoretically the energy levels of the coupled double triangular graphene quantum dots (GQDs) based on the tight-binding Hamiltonian model. The double GQDs including the ZZ-type, ZA-type, and AA-type GQDs with the two GQDs having the zigzag or armchair boundaries can be coupled together via different interdot connections, such as the direct coupling, the chains of benzene rings, and those of carbon atoms. It is shown that the energy spectrum of the coupled double GQDs is the amalgamation of those spectra of the corresponding two isolated GQDs with the modification triggered by the interdot connections. The interdot connection is inclined to lift up the degeneracies of the energy levels in different degree, and as the connection changes from the direct coupling to the long chains, the removal of energy degeneracies is suppressed in ZZ-type and AA-type double GQDs, which indicates that the two coupled GQDs are inclined to become decoupled. Then we consider the influences on the spectra of the coupled double GQDs induced by the electric fields applied on the GQDs or the connection, which manifests as the global spectrum redistribution or the local energy level shift. Finally, we study the symmetrical and asymmetrical energy spectra of the double GQDs caused by the substrates supporting the two GQDs, clearly demonstrating how the substrates affect the double GQDs' spectrum. This research elucidates the energy spectra of the coupled double GQDs, as well as the mechanics of manipulating them by the electric field and the substrates, which would be a significant reference for designing GQD-based devices.

  8. Carbon Dioxide Gas Sensing Application of GRAPHENE/Y2O3 Quantum Dots Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemade, K. R.; Waghuley, S. A.

    Graphene/Y2O3 quantum dots (QDs) composite was investigated towards the carbon dioxide (CO2) gas at room temperature. Graphene synthesized by electrochemical exfoliation of graphite. The composite prepared by mixing 20-wt% graphene into the 1 g Y2O3 in organic medium (acetone). The chemiresistor of composite prepared by screen-printing on glass substrate. The optimum value of sensing response (1.08) was showed by 20-wt% graphene/Y2O3 QDs composite. The excellent stability with optimum sensing response evidenced for the composite. The gas sensing mechanism discussed on the basis of electron transfer reaction.

  9. Graphene quantum dots for high-performance THz hot electron bolometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Fatimy, A.; Han, P.; Myers-Ward, R. L.; Boyd, A. K.; Daniels, K. M.; Sushkov, A. B.; Drew, D.; Gaskill, D. K.; Barbara, P.

    We study graphene quantum dots patterned from epitaxial graphene on SiC with a resistance strongly dependent on temperature. The combination of weak electron-phonon coupling and small electronic heat capacity in graphene makes these quantum dots ideal hot-electron bolometers. We characterize their response to THz radiation as a function of dot size, with sizes ranging from 30 to 700 nm and temperature, from 2.4K to 80K. We show that quantum dots exhibit a variation of resistance with temperature higher than 430 M Ω/K below 6K, leading to electrical responsivities for an absorbed THz power above 1×1010 V/W. The high responsivity, the potential for operation above 80 K and the process scalability show great promise towards practical applications of graphene quantum dot THz detectors. 1A. El Fatimy, R.L.Myers-Ward, A.K. Boyd, K.M. Daniels, D. K. Gaskill, and P. Barbara, Nature Nanotechnology, Accepted (2015). This work was sponsored by the U.S. Office of Naval Research (Award Number N000141310865).

  10. Electrostatically transparent graphene quantum-dot trap layers for efficient nonvolatile memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young Rae; Jo, Yong Eun; Shin, Yong Seon; Kang, Won Tae; Sung, Yeo Hyun; Won, Ui Yeon; Lee, Young Hee; Yu, Woo Jong

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we have demonstrated nonvolatile memory devices using graphene quantum-dots (GQDs) trap layers with indium zinc oxide (IZO) semiconductor channel. The Fermi-level of GQD was effectively modulated by tunneling electrons near the Dirac point because of limited density of states and weak electrostatic screening in monolayer graphene. As a result, large gate modulation was driven in IZO channel to achieve a subthreshold swing of 5.21 V/dec (300 nm SiO2 gate insulator), while Au quantum-dots memory shows 15.52 V/dec because of strong electrostatic screening in metal quantum-dots. Together, discrete charge traps of GQDs enable stable performance in the endurance test beyond 800 cycles of programming and erasing. Our study suggests the exciting potential of GQD trap layers to be used for a highly promising material in non-volatile memory devices.

  11. Electrostatically transparent graphene quantum-dot trap layers for efficient nonvolatile memory

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young Rae; Jo, Yong Eun; Sung, Yeo Hyun; Won, Ui Yeon; Shin, Yong Seon; Kang, Won Tae; Yu, Woo Jong E-mail: micco21@skku.edu; Lee, Young Hee E-mail: micco21@skku.edu

    2015-03-09

    In this study, we have demonstrated nonvolatile memory devices using graphene quantum-dots (GQDs) trap layers with indium zinc oxide (IZO) semiconductor channel. The Fermi-level of GQD was effectively modulated by tunneling electrons near the Dirac point because of limited density of states and weak electrostatic screening in monolayer graphene. As a result, large gate modulation was driven in IZO channel to achieve a subthreshold swing of 5.21 V/dec (300 nm SiO{sub 2} gate insulator), while Au quantum-dots memory shows 15.52 V/dec because of strong electrostatic screening in metal quantum-dots. Together, discrete charge traps of GQDs enable stable performance in the endurance test beyond 800 cycles of programming and erasing. Our study suggests the exciting potential of GQD trap layers to be used for a highly promising material in non-volatile memory devices.

  12. Molecularly Designed, Nitrogen-Functionalized Graphene Quantum Dots for Optoelectronic Devices.

    PubMed

    Tetsuka, Hiroyuki; Nagoya, Akihiro; Fukusumi, Takanori; Matsui, Takayuki

    2016-06-01

    Nitrogen-functionalized graphene quantum dots (NGQDs) with tailorable optical properties are prepared by a versatile technique, which allows the highest occupied molecular orbital/lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy levels and energy gaps to be continuously varied. The integration of NGQD layers into the structures significantly improves the performance of optoelectronic devices. PMID:27042953

  13. Nanopatterned graphene quantum dots as building blocks for quantum cellular automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. F.; Liu, Feng

    2011-10-01

    Quantum cellular automata (QCA) is an innovative approach that incorporates quantum entities in classical computation processes. Binary information is encoded in different charge states of the QCA cells and transmitted by the inter-cell Coulomb interaction. Despite the promise of QCA, however, it remains a challenge to identify suitable building blocks for the construction of QCA. Graphene has recently attracted considerable attention owing to its remarkable electronic properties. The planar structure makes it feasible to pattern the whole device architecture in one sheet, compatible with the existing electronics technology. Here, we demonstrate theoretically a new QCA architecture built upon nanopatterned graphene quantum dots (GQDs). Using the tight-binding model, we determine the phenomenological cell parameters and cell-cell response functions of the GQD-QCA to characterize its performance. Furthermore, a GQD-QCA architecture is designed to demonstrate the functionalities of a fundamental majority gate. Our results show great potential in manufacturing high-density ultrafast QCA devices from a single nanopatterned graphene sheet.

  14. Glutathione-functionalized graphene quantum dots as selective fluorescent probes for phosphate-containing metabolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Xiao-Long; Cong, Zhong-Xiao; Chen, Zhi-Tao; Yang, Huang-Hao; Chen, Guo-Nan

    2013-02-01

    Bright blue fluorescent glutathione-functionalized graphene quantum dots (GQDs@GSH) were prepared by a one-step pyrolysis method with a fluorescence quantum yield as high as 33.6%. Futhermore, the obtained GQDs@GSH can be used as a probe to estimate the ATP level in cell lysates and human blood serum.Bright blue fluorescent glutathione-functionalized graphene quantum dots (GQDs@GSH) were prepared by a one-step pyrolysis method with a fluorescence quantum yield as high as 33.6%. Futhermore, the obtained GQDs@GSH can be used as a probe to estimate the ATP level in cell lysates and human blood serum. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr33794d

  15. Fabrication of nanoscale heterostructures comprised of graphene-encapsulated gold nanoparticles and semiconducting quantum dots for photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Chopra, Nitin

    2015-05-21

    Patterned growth of multilayer graphene shell encapsulated gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and their covalent linking with inorganic quantum dots are demonstrated. GNPs were grown using a xylene chemical vapor deposition process, where the surface oxidized gold nanoparticles catalyze the multilayer graphene shell growth in a single step process. The graphene shell encapsulating gold nanoparticles could be further functionalized with carboxylic groups, which were covalently linked to amine-terminated quantum dots resulting in GNP-quantum dot heterostructures. The compositions, morphologies, crystallinity, and surface functionalization of GNPs and their heterostructures with quantum dots were evaluated using microscopic, spectroscopic, and analytical methods. Furthermore, optical properties of the derived architectures were studied using both experimental methods and simulations. Finally, GNP-quantum dot heterostructures were studied for photocatalytic degradation of phenol. PMID:25907300

  16. Hybrid zinc oxide/graphene electrodes for depleted heterojunction colloidal quantum-dot solar cells.

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi; Aashuri, Hossein; Simchi, Abdolreza; Fan, Zhiyong

    2015-10-01

    Recently, hybrid nanocomposites consisting of graphene/nanomaterial heterostructures have emerged as promising candidates for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices. In this work, we have employed a facile and in situ solution-based process to prepare zinc oxide/graphene quantum dots (ZnO/G QDs) in a hybrid structure. The prepared hybrid dots are composed of a ZnO core, with an average size of 5 nm, warped with graphene nanosheets. Spectroscopic studies show that the graphene shell quenches the photoluminescence intensity of the ZnO nanocrystals by about 72%, primarily due to charge transfer reactions and static quenching. A red shift in the absorption peak is also observed. Raman spectroscopy determines G-band splitting of the graphene shell into two separated sub-bands (G(+), G(-)) caused by the strain induced symmetry breaking. It is shown that the hybrid ZnO/G QDs can be used as a counter-electrode for heterojunction colloidal quantum-dot solar cells for efficient charge-carrier collection, as evidenced by the external quantum efficiency measurement. Under the solar simulated spectrum (AM 1.5G), we report enhanced power conversion efficiency (35%) with higher short current circuit (80%) for lead sulfide-based solar cells as compared to devices prepared by pristine ZnO nanocrystals. PMID:26339693

  17. Synthesis of Luminescent Graphene Quantum Dots with High Quantum Yield and Their Toxicity Study

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Dan; Chen, Yunping; Li, Na; Li, Wen; Wang, Zhenguo; Zhu, Jingli; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Bin; Xu, Shan

    2015-01-01

    High fluorescence quantum yield graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have showed up as a new generation for bioimaging. In this work, luminescent GQDs were prepared by an ameliorative photo-Fenton reaction and a subsequent hydrothermal process using graphene oxide sheets as the precursor. The as-prepared GQDs were nanomaterials with size ranging from 2.3 to 6.4 nm and emitted intense green luminescence in water. The fluorescence quantum yield was as high as 24.6% (excited at 340 nm) and the fluorescence was strongest at pH 7. Moreover, the influences of low-concentration (12.5, 25 μg/mL) GQDs on the morphology, viability, membrane integrity, internal cellular reactive oxygen species level and mortality of HeLa cells were relatively weak, and the in vitro imaging demonstrated GQDs were mainly in the cytoplasm region. More strikingly, zebrafish embryos were co-cultured with GQDs for in vivo imaging, and the results of heart rate test showed the intake of small amounts of GQDs brought little harm to the cardiovascular of zebrafish. GQDs with high quantum yield and strong photoluminescence show good biocompatibility, thus they show good promising for cell imaging, biolabeling and other biomedical applications. PMID:26709828

  18. Using charged defects in BN to create rewritable graphene quantum dots and visualize quantum interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, Jairo, Jr.

    Heterostructures of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (BN) are highly tunable platforms that enable the study of novel physical phenomena and technologically promising nanoelectronic devices. Common control schemes employed in these studies are electrostatic gating and chemical doping. However, these methods have significant drawbacks, such as complicated fabrication processes that introduce contamination and irreversible changes to material properties, as well as a lack of flexible control. To address these problems we have developed a new method that employs light and/or electric field excitation to control defect charge (from the single impurity level to ensembles) in the underlying BN. We have used optoelectronic and scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements to characterize these BN defects. We find that by manipulating defect charge in BN it is possible to create rewritable tip-induced doping patterns such as gate-tunable graphene pn junctions and quantum dots. This creates new opportunities for mapping the electronic states of confined electrons in graphene and to visualize their quantum interference behavior.

  19. Elucidating Quantum Confinement in Graphene Oxide Dots Based On Excitation-Wavelength-Independent Photoluminescence.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Te-Fu; Huang, Wei-Lun; Chung, Chung-Jen; Chiang, I-Ting; Chen, Liang-Che; Chang, Hsin-Yu; Su, Wu-Chou; Cheng, Ching; Chen, Shean-Jen; Teng, Hsisheng

    2016-06-01

    Investigating quantum confinement in graphene under ambient conditions remains a challenge. In this study, we present graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) that show excitation-wavelength-independent photoluminescence. The luminescence color varies from orange-red to blue as the GOQD size is reduced from 8 to 1 nm. The photoluminescence of each GOQD specimen is associated with electron transitions from the antibonding π (π*) to oxygen nonbonding (n-state) orbitals. The observed quantum confinement is ascribed to a size change in the sp(2) domains, which leads to a change in the π*-π gap; the n-state levels remain unaffected by the size change. The electronic properties and mechanisms involved in quantum-confined photoluminescence can serve as the foundation for the application of oxygenated graphene in electronics, photonics, and biology. PMID:27192445

  20. Measuring the complex admittance of a nearly isolated graphene quantum dot

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Miao-Lei; Wei, Da; Deng, Guang-Wei; Li, Shu-Xiao; Li, Hai-Ou; Cao, Gang; Tu, Tao; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Guo, Guo-Ping; Jiang, Hong-Wen

    2014-08-18

    We measured the radio-frequency reflection spectrum of an on-chip reflection line resonator coupled to a graphene double quantum dot (DQD), which was etched almost isolated from the reservoir and reached the low tunnel rate region. The charge stability diagram of DQD was investigated via dispersive phase and magnitude shift of the resonator with a high quality factor. Its complex admittance and low tunnel rate to the reservoir was also determined from the reflected signal of the on-chip resonator. Our method may provide a non-invasive and sensitive way of charge state readout in isolated quantum dots.

  1. Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystals and graphene quantum dots for photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Xin, Xukai; Lin, Zhiqun

    2011-08-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots exhibit great potential for applications in next generation high efficiency, low cost solar cells because of their unique optoelectronic properties. Cu(2)ZnSnS(4) (CZTS) nanocrystals and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have recently received much attention as building blocks for use in solar energy conversion due to their outstanding properties and advantageous characteristics, including high optical absorptivity, tunable bandgap, and earth abundant chemical composition. In this Feature Article, recent advances in the synthesis and utilization of CZTS nanocrystals and colloidal GQDs for photovoltaics are highlighted, followed by an outlook on the future research efforts in these areas. PMID:21713274

  2. Light-assisted recharging of graphene quantum dots in fluorographene matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Antonova, I. V.; Nebogatikova, N. A.; Prinz, V. Ya.; Popov, V. I.; Smagulova, S. A.

    2014-10-07

    In the present study, the charge transient spectroscopy was used to analyze the transient relaxation of charges in graphene and bilayer-graphene quantum dot (QD) systems formed by chemical functionalization of graphene and few-layer graphene layers. A set of activation energies (one to three different values) for the emission of charges from QDs sized 50 to 70 nm, most likely proceeding via the thermal activation of charge carriers from QD quantum confinement levels, were deduced from measurements performed in the dark. Daylight illumination of samples during measurements was found to result in a strong decrease of the activation energies and in an involvement of an athermal process in the charge relaxation phenomenon. The time of the light-assisted emission of charge carriers from QDs proved to be two to four orders of magnitude shorter than the time of their emission from QDs under no-illumination conditions.

  3. Single-step synthesis of graphene quantum dots by femtosecond laser ablation of graphene oxide dispersions.

    PubMed

    Russo, Paola; Liang, Robert; Jabari, Elahe; Marzbanrad, Ehsan; Toyserkani, Ehsan; Zhou, Y Norman

    2016-04-21

    In the last few years, graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have attracted the attention of many research groups for their outstanding properties, which include low toxicity, chemical stability and photoluminescence. One of the challenges of GQD synthesis is finding a single-step, cheap and sustainable approach for synthesizing these promising nanomaterials. In this study, we demonstrate that femtosecond laser ablation of graphene oxide (GO) dispersions could be employed as a facile and environmentally friendly synthesis method for GQDs. With the proper control of laser ablation parameters, such as ablation time and laser power, it is possible to produce GQDs with average sizes of 2-5 nm, emitting a blue luminescence at 410 nm. We tested the feasibility of the synthesized GQDs as materials for electronic devices by aerosol-jet printing of an ink that is a mixture of water dispersion of laser synthesized GQDs and silver nanoparticle dispersion, which resulted in lower resistivity of the final printed patterns. Preliminary results showed that femtosecond laser synthesized GQDs can be mixed with silver nanoparticle dispersion to fabricate a hybrid material, which can be employed in printing electronic devices by either printing patterns that are more conductive and/or reducing costs of the ink by decreasing the concentration of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in the ink. PMID:27071944

  4. Improvement of the quality of graphene-capped InAs/GaAs quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Othmen, Riadh Rezgui, Kamel; Ajlani, Hosni; Oueslati, Meherzi; Cavanna, Antonella; Madouri, Ali

    2014-06-07

    In this paper, we study the transfer of graphene onto InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs). The graphene is first grown on Cu foils by chemical vapor deposition and then polymer Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA) is deposited on the top of graphene/Cu. High quality graphene sheet has been obtained by lowering the dissolving rate of PMMA using vapor processing. Uncapped as well as capped graphene InAs/GaAs QDs have been studied using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. We gather from this that the average shifts Δω of QDs Raman peaks are reduced compared to those previously observed in graphene and GaAs capped QDs. The encapsulation by graphene makes the indium atomic concentration intact in the QDs by the reduction of the strain effect of graphene on QDs and the migration of In atoms towards the surface. This gives us a new hetero-structure graphene–InAs/GaAs QDs wherein the graphene plays a key role as a cap layer.

  5. Interaction of Dirac Fermion excitons and biexciton-exciton cascade in graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozfidan, Isil; Korkusinski, Marek; Hawrylak, Pawel

    2015-03-01

    We present a microscopic theory of interacting Dirac quasi-electrons and quasi-holes confined in graphene quantum dots. The single particle states of quantum dots are described using a tight binding model and screened direct, exchange, and scattering Coulomb matrix elements are computed using Slater pz orbitals. The many-body ground and excited states are expanded in a finite number of electron-hole pair excitations from the Hartree-Fock ground state and computed using exact diagonalization techniques. The resulting exciton and bi-exciton spectrum reflects the degeneracy of the top of the valence and bottom of the conduction band characteristic of graphene quantum dots with C3 symmetry. We study the interaction of multi-electron and hole complexes as a function of quantum dot size, shape and strength of Coulomb interactions. We identify two degenerate bright exciton (X) states and a corresponding biexciton (XX) state as XX-X cascade candidates, a source of entangled photon pairs. We next calculate the exciton to bi-exciton transitions detected in transient absorption experiments to extract the strength of exciton-exciton interactions and biexciton binding energies. We further explore the possibility of excitonic instability.

  6. Multiphoton luminescent graphene quantum dots for in vivo tracking of human adipose-derived stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin; Song, Sung Ho; Jin, Yoonhee; Park, Hyun-Ji; Yoon, Hyewon; Jeon, Seokwoo; Cho, Seung-Woo

    2016-04-01

    The applicability of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) for the in vitro and in vivo live imaging and tracking of different types of human stem cells is investigated. GQDs synthesized by the modified graphite intercalated compound method show efficient cellular uptake with improved biocompatibility and highly sensitive optical properties, indicating their feasibility as a bio-imaging probe for stem cell therapy.The applicability of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) for the in vitro and in vivo live imaging and tracking of different types of human stem cells is investigated. GQDs synthesized by the modified graphite intercalated compound method show efficient cellular uptake with improved biocompatibility and highly sensitive optical properties, indicating their feasibility as a bio-imaging probe for stem cell therapy. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional results. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02143c

  7. Wave packet revivals in a graphene quantum dot in a perpendicular magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, J. J.

    2010-10-15

    We study the time evolution of localized wave packets in graphene quantum dots in a perpendicular magnetic field, focusing on the quasiclassical and revival periodicities, for different values of the magnetic field intensities in a theoretical framework. We have considered contributions of the two inequivalent points in the Brillouin zone. The revival time has been found as an observable that shows the break valley degeneracy.

  8. Tuning photoluminescence of reduced graphene oxide quantum dots from blue to purple

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Fuchi; Tang, Tao; Feng, Qian; Li, Ming; Liu, Yuan; Tang, Nujiang Zhong, Wei; Du, Youwei

    2014-04-28

    Reduced graphene oxide quantum dots (rGOQDs) were synthesized by annealing GOQDs in H{sub 2} atmosphere. The photoluminescence (PL) properties of GOQDs and the rGOQDs samples were investigated. The results showed that compared to GOQDs, a blue to purple tunable PL of rGOQDs can be obtained by regulating the annealing temperature. The increase fraction of the newly formed isolated sp{sup 2} clusters may be responsible for the observed tunable PL.

  9. Integrating an electrically active colloidal quantum dot photodiode with a graphene phototransistor.

    PubMed

    Nikitskiy, Ivan; Goossens, Stijn; Kufer, Dominik; Lasanta, Tania; Navickaite, Gabriele; Koppens, Frank H L; Konstantatos, Gerasimos

    2016-01-01

    The realization of low-cost photodetectors with high sensitivity, high quantum efficiency, high gain and fast photoresponse in the visible and short-wave infrared remains one of the challenges in optoelectronics. Two classes of photodetectors that have been developed are photodiodes and phototransistors, each of them with specific drawbacks. Here we merge both types into a hybrid photodetector device by integrating a colloidal quantum dot photodiode atop a graphene phototransistor. Our hybrid detector overcomes the limitations of a phototransistor in terms of speed, quantum efficiency and linear dynamic range. We report quantum efficiencies in excess of 70%, gain of 10(5) and linear dynamic range of 110 dB and 3 dB bandwidth of 1.5 kHz. This constitutes a demonstration of an optoelectronically active device integrated directly atop graphene and paves the way towards a generation of flexible highly performing hybrid two-dimensional (2D)/0D optoelectronics. PMID:27311710

  10. Integrating an electrically active colloidal quantum dot photodiode with a graphene phototransistor

    PubMed Central

    Nikitskiy, Ivan; Goossens, Stijn; Kufer, Dominik; Lasanta, Tania; Navickaite, Gabriele; Koppens, Frank H. L.; Konstantatos, Gerasimos

    2016-01-01

    The realization of low-cost photodetectors with high sensitivity, high quantum efficiency, high gain and fast photoresponse in the visible and short-wave infrared remains one of the challenges in optoelectronics. Two classes of photodetectors that have been developed are photodiodes and phototransistors, each of them with specific drawbacks. Here we merge both types into a hybrid photodetector device by integrating a colloidal quantum dot photodiode atop a graphene phototransistor. Our hybrid detector overcomes the limitations of a phototransistor in terms of speed, quantum efficiency and linear dynamic range. We report quantum efficiencies in excess of 70%, gain of 105 and linear dynamic range of 110 dB and 3 dB bandwidth of 1.5 kHz. This constitutes a demonstration of an optoelectronically active device integrated directly atop graphene and paves the way towards a generation of flexible highly performing hybrid two-dimensional (2D)/0D optoelectronics. PMID:27311710

  11. Complex transport behaviors of rectangular graphene quantum dots subject to mechanical vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mengke; Wang, Yisen; Bao, Rui; Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2016-05-01

    Graphene-based mechanical resonators have attracted much attention due to their superior elastic properties and extremely low mass density. We investigate the effects of mechanical vibrations on electronic transport through graphene quantum dots, under the physically reasonable assumption that the time scale associated with electronic transport is much shorter than that with mechanical vibration so that, at any given time, an electron “sees” a static but deformed graphene sheet. We find that, besides periodic oscillation in the quantum transmission at the same frequency as that of mechanical vibrations, structures at finer scales can emerge as an intermediate state, which may lead to spurious higher-frequency components in the current through the device.

  12. Single-step synthesis of graphene quantum dots by femtosecond laser ablation of graphene oxide dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Paola; Liang, Robert; Jabari, Elahe; Marzbanrad, Ehsan; Toyserkani, Ehsan; Zhou, Y. Norman

    2016-04-01

    In the last few years, graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have attracted the attention of many research groups for their outstanding properties, which include low toxicity, chemical stability and photoluminescence. One of the challenges of GQD synthesis is finding a single-step, cheap and sustainable approach for synthesizing these promising nanomaterials. In this study, we demonstrate that femtosecond laser ablation of graphene oxide (GO) dispersions could be employed as a facile and environmentally friendly synthesis method for GQDs. With the proper control of laser ablation parameters, such as ablation time and laser power, it is possible to produce GQDs with average sizes of 2-5 nm, emitting a blue luminescence at 410 nm. We tested the feasibility of the synthesized GQDs as materials for electronic devices by aerosol-jet printing of an ink that is a mixture of water dispersion of laser synthesized GQDs and silver nanoparticle dispersion, which resulted in lower resistivity of the final printed patterns. Preliminary results showed that femtosecond laser synthesized GQDs can be mixed with silver nanoparticle dispersion to fabricate a hybrid material, which can be employed in printing electronic devices by either printing patterns that are more conductive and/or reducing costs of the ink by decreasing the concentration of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in the ink.In the last few years, graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have attracted the attention of many research groups for their outstanding properties, which include low toxicity, chemical stability and photoluminescence. One of the challenges of GQD synthesis is finding a single-step, cheap and sustainable approach for synthesizing these promising nanomaterials. In this study, we demonstrate that femtosecond laser ablation of graphene oxide (GO) dispersions could be employed as a facile and environmentally friendly synthesis method for GQDs. With the proper control of laser ablation parameters, such as ablation time and

  13. Fully transparent quantum dot light-emitting diode integrated with graphene anode and cathode.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jung-Tak; Han, Junebeom; Lim, Taekyung; Lee, Ki-Heon; Hwang, Jungseek; Yang, Heesun; Ju, Sanghyun

    2014-12-23

    A fully transparent quantum dot light-emitting diode (QD-LED) was fabricated by incorporating two types (anode and cathode) of graphene-based electrodes, which were controlled in their work functions and sheet resistances. Either gold nanoparticles or silver nanowires were inserted between layers of graphene to control the work function, whereas the sheet resistance was determined by the number of graphene layers. The inserted gold nanoparticles or silver nanowires in graphene films caused a charge transfer and changed the work function to 4.9 and 4.3 eV, respectively, from the original work function (4.5 eV) of pristine graphene. Moreover the sheet resistance values for the anode and cathode electrodes were improved from ∼63,000 to ∼110 Ω/sq and from ∼100,000 to ∼741 Ω/sq as the number of graphene layers increased from 1 to 12 and from 1 to 8, respectively. The main peak wavelength, luminance, current efficiency, and optical transmittance of the fully transparent QD-LED integrated with graphene anode and cathode were 535 nm, ∼358 cd/m2, ∼0.45 cd/A, and 70-80%, respectively. The findings of the study are expected to lay a foundation for the production of high-efficiency, fully transparent, and flexible displays using graphene-based electrodes. PMID:25426762

  14. Anomalous Light Emission and Wide Photoluminescence Spectra in Graphene Quantum Dot: Quantum Confinement from Edge Microstructure.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pu; Shi, Jun-Jie; Zhang, Min; Jiang, Xin-He; Zhong, Hong-Xia; Ding, Yi-Min; Cao, Xiong; Wu, Meng; Lu, Jing

    2016-08-01

    The physical origin of the observed anomalous photoluminescence (PL) behavior, that is, the large-size graphene quantum dots (GQDs) exhibiting higher PL energy than the small ones and the broadening PL spectra from deep ultraviolet to near-infrared, has been debated for many years. Obviously, it is in conflict with the well-accepted quantum confinement. Here we shed new light on these two notable debates by state-of-the-art first-principles calculations based on many-body perturbation theory. We find that quantum confinement is significant in GQDs with remarkable size-dependent exciton absorption/emission. The edge environment from alkaline to acidic conditions causes a blue shift of the PL peak. Furthermore, carbon vacancies are inclined to assemble at the GQD edge and form the tiny edge microstructures. The bound excitons, localized inside these edge microstructures, determine the anomalous PL behavior (blue and UV emission) of large-size GQDs. The bound excitons confined in the whole GQD lead to the low-energy transition. PMID:27409980

  15. Graphene Quantum Dots Interfaced with Single Bacterial Spore for Bio-Electromechanical Devices: A Graphene Cytobot

    PubMed Central

    Sreeprasad, T. S.; Nguyen, Phong; Alshogeathri, Ahmed; Hibbeler, Luke; Martinez, Fabian; McNeil, Nolan; Berry, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    The nanoarchitecture and micromachinery of a cell can be leveraged to fabricate sophisticated cell-driven devices. This requires a coherent strategy to derive cell's mechanistic abilities, microconstruct, and chemical-texture towards such microtechnologies. For example, a microorganism's hydrophobic membrane encapsulating hygroscopic constituents allows it to sustainably withhold a high aquatic pressure. Further, it provides a rich surface chemistry available for nano-interfacing and a strong mechanical response to humidity. Here we demonstrate a route to incorporate a complex cellular structure into microelectromechanics by interfacing compatible graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with a highly responsive single spore microstructure. A sensitive and reproducible electron-tunneling width modulation of 1.63 nm within a network of GQDs chemically-secured on a spore was achieved via sporal hydraulics with a driving force of 299.75 Torrs (21.7% water at GQD junctions). The electron-transport activation energy and the Coulomb blockade threshold for the GQD network were 35 meV and 31 meV, respectively; while the inter-GQD capacitance increased by 1.12 folds at maximum hydraulic force. This is the first example of nano/bio interfacing with spores and will lead to the evolution of next-generation bio-derived microarchitectures, probes for cellular/biochemical processes, biomicrorobotic-mechanisms, and membranes for micromechanical actuation. PMID:25774962

  16. Graphene Quantum Dots Interfaced with Single Bacterial Spore for Bio-Electromechanical Devices: A Graphene Cytobot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreeprasad, T. S.; Nguyen, Phong; Alshogeathri, Ahmed; Hibbeler, Luke; Martinez, Fabian; McNeil, Nolan; Berry, Vikas

    2015-03-01

    The nanoarchitecture and micromachinery of a cell can be leveraged to fabricate sophisticated cell-driven devices. This requires a coherent strategy to derive cell's mechanistic abilities, microconstruct, and chemical-texture towards such microtechnologies. For example, a microorganism's hydrophobic membrane encapsulating hygroscopic constituents allows it to sustainably withhold a high aquatic pressure. Further, it provides a rich surface chemistry available for nano-interfacing and a strong mechanical response to humidity. Here we demonstrate a route to incorporate a complex cellular structure into microelectromechanics by interfacing compatible graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with a highly responsive single spore microstructure. A sensitive and reproducible electron-tunneling width modulation of 1.63 nm within a network of GQDs chemically-secured on a spore was achieved via sporal hydraulics with a driving force of 299.75 Torrs (21.7% water at GQD junctions). The electron-transport activation energy and the Coulomb blockade threshold for the GQD network were 35 meV and 31 meV, respectively; while the inter-GQD capacitance increased by 1.12 folds at maximum hydraulic force. This is the first example of nano/bio interfacing with spores and will lead to the evolution of next-generation bio-derived microarchitectures, probes for cellular/biochemical processes, biomicrorobotic-mechanisms, and membranes for micromechanical actuation.

  17. Analytical Calculation of Energy levels of mono- and bilayer Graphene Quantum Dots Used as Light Absorber in Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamandani, Shahryar; Darvish, Ghafar; Faez, Rahim

    2016-01-01

    In this paper by solving Dirac equation, we present an analytical solution to calculate energy levels and wave functions of mono- and bilayer graphene quantum dots. By supposing circular quantum dots, we solve Dirac equation and obtain energy levels and band gap with relations in a new closed and practical form. The energy levels are correlated with a radial quantum number and radius of quantum dots. In addition to monolayer quantum dots, AA- and AB-stacked bilayer quantum dots are investigated and their energy levels and band gap are calculated as well. Also, we analyze the influence of the quantum dots size on their energy spectrum. It can be observed that the band gap decreases as quantum dots' radius increases. On the other hand, increase in the band gap is more in AB-stacked bilayer quantum dots. Using the obtained relations, the band gap is obtained in each state. Comparing the energy spectra obtained from the tight-binding approximation with those of our obtained relations shows that the behavior of the energies as function of the dot size is qualitatively similar, but in some cases, quantitative differences can be seen. As quantum dots radius increases, the analytical results approach to the tight-binding method results.

  18. Exploring the charge/energy transfer process at the graphene/giant nanocrystal quantum dots interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yongqian; Dervishi, Enkeleda; Karan, Niladri; Ghosh, Yagnaseni; Hollingsworth, Jennifer; Doorn, Stevphen; Htoon, Han

    2014-03-01

    Due to its transparency in wide spectral range and high charge mobilities, graphene has been considered to utilize as transparent electrode for nanocrystal based photo-voltaic and light emitting diodes. A detail understanding on charge/energy transfer (CT/ET) processes between zero dimensional quantum dots and 2D graphene layer hold the key in optimizing the performance of these devices. To attain this understanding, we conduct a systematic study on CT and ET processes between a graphene layer and CdSe/CdS giant nanocrystal quantum dots (g-NQD) as the function of CdS shell thickness. In addition to analyzing PL quenching and change of PL decay dynamic, we also perform 2nd order photon correlation spectroscopy studies to investigate the effect of graphene layer on dynamic and emission efficiency of g-NQDs' multi-exciton states. In case of g-NQDs over coated with a thick 16 ML CdS shell, we observed a surprising increase of multi-exciton emission efficiency.

  19. Ultrafast adsorption and selective desorption of aqueous aromatic dyes by graphene sheets modified by graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Yulong; He, Peng; Ding, Guqiao; Peng, Xinsheng

    2016-06-01

    Graphene modified by graphene quantum dots (GQDs) has been employed to remove toxic organic dyes. An excellent removal capacity (497 mg g‑1) and record-breaking adsorption rate (475 mg g‑1 min‑1 at 20 °C) were demonstrated for Rhodamine B. The enhancement in performance by nearly a factor of three compared to that of graphene was ascribed to the greatly increased accessible surface area of graphene in aqueous solution as well as the increase in surface charges with the modification with GQDs. Besides, this unique adsorption behavior of the modified graphene was expanded to other typical toxic aqueous aromatic dyes such as Evans Blue, Methyl Orange, Malachite Green and Rose Bengal. What is more, a unique desorption behavior of dyes was first observed when employing different solvents, which enabled the GQD-modified graphene to be exploited for selective extraction of dyes and recycling of the adsorbent. The adsorption and desorption mechanism were further investigated. Combining high removal capacity, rapid adsorption kinetics, good recyclability and unique selective desorption, GQD-modified graphene has potential applications in both water purification and separation of aromatic dyes.

  20. Ultrafast adsorption and selective desorption of aqueous aromatic dyes by graphene sheets modified by graphene quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Ying, Yulong; He, Peng; Ding, Guqiao; Peng, Xinsheng

    2016-06-17

    Graphene modified by graphene quantum dots (GQDs) has been employed to remove toxic organic dyes. An excellent removal capacity (497 mg g(-1)) and record-breaking adsorption rate (475 mg g(-1) min(-1) at 20 °C) were demonstrated for Rhodamine B. The enhancement in performance by nearly a factor of three compared to that of graphene was ascribed to the greatly increased accessible surface area of graphene in aqueous solution as well as the increase in surface charges with the modification with GQDs. Besides, this unique adsorption behavior of the modified graphene was expanded to other typical toxic aqueous aromatic dyes such as Evans Blue, Methyl Orange, Malachite Green and Rose Bengal. What is more, a unique desorption behavior of dyes was first observed when employing different solvents, which enabled the GQD-modified graphene to be exploited for selective extraction of dyes and recycling of the adsorbent. The adsorption and desorption mechanism were further investigated. Combining high removal capacity, rapid adsorption kinetics, good recyclability and unique selective desorption, GQD-modified graphene has potential applications in both water purification and separation of aromatic dyes. PMID:27158875

  1. The dual roles of functional groups in the photoluminescence of graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shujun; Cole, Ivan S.; Zhao, Dongyuan; Li, Qin

    2016-03-01

    The photoluminescent properties of graphene nanoparticle (named graphene quantum dots) have attracted significant research attention in recent years owing to their profound application potential. However, the photoluminescence (PL) origin of this class of nanocarbons is still unclear. In this paper, combining direct experimental evidence enabled by a facile size-tunable oxygenated graphene quantum dots (GQDs) synthesis method and theoretical calculations, the roles of the aromatic core, functional groups and disordered structures (i.e. defects and sp3 carbon) in the PL of oxygenated GQDs are elucidated in detail. In particular, we found that the functional groups on GQDs play dual roles in the overall emission: (1) they enable π* --> n and σ* --> n transitions, resulting in a molecular type of PL, spectrally invariable with change of particle size or excitation energy; (2) similar to defects and sp3 carbon, functional groups also induce structural deformation to the aromatic core, leading to mid-gap states or, in other words, energy traps, causing π* --> mid-gap states --> π transitions. Therefore, functional groups contribute to both the blue edge and the red shoulder of GQDs' PL spectra. The new insights on the role of functional groups in PL of fluorescent nanocarbons will enable better designs of this new class of materials.The photoluminescent properties of graphene nanoparticle (named graphene quantum dots) have attracted significant research attention in recent years owing to their profound application potential. However, the photoluminescence (PL) origin of this class of nanocarbons is still unclear. In this paper, combining direct experimental evidence enabled by a facile size-tunable oxygenated graphene quantum dots (GQDs) synthesis method and theoretical calculations, the roles of the aromatic core, functional groups and disordered structures (i.e. defects and sp3 carbon) in the PL of oxygenated GQDs are elucidated in detail. In particular, we found

  2. High quantum yield graphene quantum dots decorated TiO2 nanotubes for enhancing photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Ailan; Xie, Haolong; Xu, Xinmei; Zhang, Yangyu; Wen, Shengwu; Cui, Yifan

    2016-07-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with high quantum yield (about 23.6% at an excitation wavelength of 320 nm) and GQDs/TiO2 nanotubes (GQDs/TiO2 NTs) composites were achieved by a simple hydrothermal method at low temperature. Photoluminescence characterization showed that the GQDs exhibited the down-conversion PL features at excitation from 300 to 420 nm and up-conversion photoluminescence in the range of 600-800 nm. The photocatalytic activity of prepared GQDs/TiO2 NTs composites on the degradation of methyl orange (MO) was significantly enhanced compared with that of pure TiO2 nanotubes (TiO2 NTs). For the composites coupling with 1.5%, 2.5% and 3.5% GQDs, the degradation of MO after 20 min irradiation under UV-vis light irradiation (λ = 380-780 nm) were 80.52%, 94.64% and 51.91%, respectively, which are much higher than that of pure TiO2 NTs (35.41%). It was inferred from the results of characterization that the improved photocatalytic activity of the GQDs/TiO2 NTs composites was attributed to the synergetic effect of up-conversion properties of the GQDs, enhanced visible light absorption and efficient separation of photogenerated electron-holes of the GQDs/TiO2 composite.

  3. Synergistically enhanced activity of graphene quantum dots/graphene hydrogel composites: a novel all-carbon hybrid electrocatalyst for metal/air batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengran; Fang, Zhao; Zhang, Kai; Fang, Jing; Qin, Furong; Zhang, Zhian; Li, Jie; Liu, Yexiang; Lai, Yanqing

    2016-06-01

    Primary zinc/air batteries could be the next generation of energy storage devices because of their high power density and high safety. Graphene quantum dots nested in the graphene hydrogel have been proposed as excellent all-carbon hybrid oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts, indicative of their great potential in primary zinc/air batteries. PMID:27217121

  4. Large Scale Synthesis and Light Emitting Fibers of Tailor-Made Graphene Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hun; Hyun Noh, Sung; Hye Lee, Ji; Jun Lee, Won; Yun Jaung, Jae; Geol Lee, Seung; Hee Han, Tae

    2015-09-01

    Graphene oxide (GO), which is an oxidized form of graphene, has a mixed structure consisting of graphitic crystallites of sp2 hybridized carbon and amorphous regions. In this work, we present a straightforward route for preparing graphene-based quantum dots (GQDs) by extraction of the crystallites from the amorphous matrix of the GO sheets. GQDs with controlled functionality are readily prepared by varying the reaction temperature, which results in precise tunability of their optical properties. Here, it was concluded that the tunable optical properties of GQDs are a result of the different fraction of chemical functionalities present. The synthesis approach presented in this paper provides an efficient strategy for achieving large-scale production and long-time optical stability of the GQDs, and the hybrid assembly of GQD and polymer has potential applications as photoluminescent fibers or films.

  5. Large Scale Synthesis and Light Emitting Fibers of Tailor-Made Graphene Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hun; Hyun Noh, Sung; Hye Lee, Ji; Jun Lee, Won; Yun Jaung, Jae; Geol Lee, Seung; Hee Han, Tae

    2015-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO), which is an oxidized form of graphene, has a mixed structure consisting of graphitic crystallites of sp2 hybridized carbon and amorphous regions. In this work, we present a straightforward route for preparing graphene-based quantum dots (GQDs) by extraction of the crystallites from the amorphous matrix of the GO sheets. GQDs with controlled functionality are readily prepared by varying the reaction temperature, which results in precise tunability of their optical properties. Here, it was concluded that the tunable optical properties of GQDs are a result of the different fraction of chemical functionalities present. The synthesis approach presented in this paper provides an efficient strategy for achieving large-scale production and long-time optical stability of the GQDs, and the hybrid assembly of GQD and polymer has potential applications as photoluminescent fibers or films. PMID:26383257

  6. Electronic states in an atomistic carbon quantum dot patterned in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craco, L.; Carara, S. S.; da Silva Pereira, T. A.; Milošević, M. V.

    2016-04-01

    We reveal the emergence of metallic Kondo clouds in an atomistic carbon quantum dot, realized as a single-atom junction in a suitably patterned graphene nanoflake. Using density functional dynamical mean-field theory (DFDMFT) we show how correlation effects lead to striking features in the electronic structure of our device, and how those are enhanced by the electron-electron interactions when graphene is patterned at the atomistic scale. Our setup provides a well-controlled environment to understand the principles behind the orbital-selective Kondo physics and the interplay between orbital and spin degrees of freedom in carbon-based nanomaterials, which indicate new pathways for spintronics in atomically patterned graphene.

  7. All Carbon-Based Photodetectors: An eminent integration of graphite quantum dots and two dimensional graphene

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shih-Hao; Weng, Tong-Min; Lu, Meng-Lin; Tan, Wei-Chun; Chen, Ju-Ying; Chen, Yang-Fang

    2013-01-01

    Photodetectors with ultrahigh sensitivity based on the composite made with all carbon-based materials consisting of graphite quantum dots (QDs), and two dimensional graphene crystal have been demonstrated. Under light illumination, remarkably, a photocurrent responsivity up to 4 × 107 AW−1 can be obtained. The underlying mechanism is attributed to the spatial separation of photogenerated electrons and holes due to the charge transfer caused by the appropriate band alignment across the interface between graphite QDs and graphene. Besides, the large absorptivity of graphite QDs and the excellent conductivity of the graphene sheet also play significant roles. Our result therefore demonstrates an outstanding illustration for the integration of the distinct properties of nanostructured carbon materials with different dimensionalities to achieve highly efficient devices. Together with the associated mechanism, it paves a valuable step for the further development of all carbon-based, cheap, and non-toxic optoelectronics devices with excellent performance. PMID:24045846

  8. Transport through Andreev Bound States in a Graphene-base Quantum Dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanjing; Mason, Nadya

    2012-02-01

    We perform tunneling spectroscopy on a graphene-quantum dot (QD)-superconductor junction, a system in which sharp, gate-tunable Andreev bound states (ABS) in the spectra have been observed [1]. Here we extend previous results, particularly regarding the origins of the QD. In particular, we discuss how a discontinuous layer of AlOx between the superconductor and the graphene plays a role in the formation of the QD. We also discuss additional spectroscopic features that may be due to multiple QDs and energy levels. Finally, we show that a robust superconducting tunneling junction can be created in a lead-graphene structure, without the explicit deposition of a tunneling barrier. [4pt] [1] Dirks, T., Nature Physics 7, 386--390 (2011)

  9. Energy transfer between quantum dots and 2D materials: graphene versus MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, Archana; Zultak, Johanna; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Montoya-Castillo, Andres; Ye, Ziliang; Roquelet, Cyrielle; van der Zande, Arend; Chenet, Daniel; Brus, Louis; Heinz, Tony

    2015-03-01

    Understanding charge and energy transfer processes at the interface of nanostructures is an important area of research, both from the fundamental and application points of view. Interactions between 0D semiconductor quantum dots and 2D van der Waals materials have been a subject of recent investigations. Here, we report highly efficient near-field energy transfer from core-shell quantum dots to monolayer and few layer graphene, a semi-metal and MoS2, a semiconductor. We observe both quenching of single quantum dot photoluminescence (PL) and decreasing lifetime in time resolved PL. Our measurements show that increasing the number of layers in the acceptor van der Waals material results in contrasting trends in the rate of non-radiative energy transfer. The energy-transfer rate increases significantly with increasing layer thickness for graphene, but decreases with increasing thickness for MoS2 layers. Energy transfer rates on the order of 1-10ns-1 are determined. We interpret the results in terms of differences in the interplay between dielectric loss and screening.

  10. Origin of White Electroluminescence in Graphene Quantum Dots Embedded Host/Guest Polymer Light Emitting Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyu Kim, Jung; Bae, Sukang; Yi, Yeonjin; Jin Park, Myung; Jin Kim, Sang; Myoung, Nosoung; Lee, Chang-Lyoul; Hee Hong, Byung; Hyeok Park, Jong

    2015-06-01

    Polymer light emitting diodes (PLEDs) using quantum dots (QDs) as emissive materials have received much attention as promising components for next-generation displays. Despite their outstanding properties, toxic and hazardous nature of QDs is a serious impediment to their use in future eco-friendly opto-electronic device applications. Owing to the desires to develop new types of nano-material without health and environmental effects but with strong opto-electrical properties similar to QDs, graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have attracted great interest as promising luminophores. However, the origin of electroluminescence from GQDs incorporated PLEDs is unclear. Herein, we synthesized graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) using a modified hydrothermal deoxidization method and characterized the PLED performance using GOQDs blended poly(N-vinyl carbazole) (PVK) as emissive layer. Simple device structure was used to reveal the origin of EL by excluding the contribution of and contamination from other layers. The energy transfer and interaction between the PVK host and GOQDs guest were investigated using steady-state PL, time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Experiments revealed that white EL emission from the PLED originated from the hybridized GOQD-PVK complex emission with the contributions from the individual GOQDs and PVK emissions.

  11. Origin of White Electroluminescence in Graphene Quantum Dots Embedded Host/Guest Polymer Light Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Kyu Kim, Jung; Bae, Sukang; Yi, Yeonjin; Jin Park, Myung; Jin Kim, Sang; Myoung, NoSoung; Lee, Chang-Lyoul; Hee Hong, Byung; Hyeok Park, Jong

    2015-01-01

    Polymer light emitting diodes (PLEDs) using quantum dots (QDs) as emissive materials have received much attention as promising components for next-generation displays. Despite their outstanding properties, toxic and hazardous nature of QDs is a serious impediment to their use in future eco-friendly opto-electronic device applications. Owing to the desires to develop new types of nano-material without health and environmental effects but with strong opto-electrical properties similar to QDs, graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have attracted great interest as promising luminophores. However, the origin of electroluminescence from GQDs incorporated PLEDs is unclear. Herein, we synthesized graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) using a modified hydrothermal deoxidization method and characterized the PLED performance using GOQDs blended poly(N-vinyl carbazole) (PVK) as emissive layer. Simple device structure was used to reveal the origin of EL by excluding the contribution of and contamination from other layers. The energy transfer and interaction between the PVK host and GOQDs guest were investigated using steady-state PL, time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Experiments revealed that white EL emission from the PLED originated from the hybridized GOQD-PVK complex emission with the contributions from the individual GOQDs and PVK emissions. PMID:26067060

  12. Origin of White Electroluminescence in Graphene Quantum Dots Embedded Host/Guest Polymer Light Emitting Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Kyu Kim, Jung; Bae, Sukang; Yi, Yeonjin; Jin Park, Myung; Jin Kim, Sang; Myoung, NoSoung; Lee, Chang-Lyoul; Hee Hong, Byung; Hyeok Park, Jong

    2015-01-01

    Polymer light emitting diodes (PLEDs) using quantum dots (QDs) as emissive materials have received much attention as promising components for next-generation displays. Despite their outstanding properties, toxic and hazardous nature of QDs is a serious impediment to their use in future eco-friendly opto-electronic device applications. Owing to the desires to develop new types of nano-material without health and environmental effects but with strong opto-electrical properties similar to QDs, graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have attracted great interest as promising luminophores. However, the origin of electroluminescence from GQDs incorporated PLEDs is unclear. Herein, we synthesized graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) using a modified hydrothermal deoxidization method and characterized the PLED performance using GOQDs blended poly(N-vinyl carbazole) (PVK) as emissive layer. Simple device structure was used to reveal the origin of EL by excluding the contribution of and contamination from other layers. The energy transfer and interaction between the PVK host and GOQDs guest were investigated using steady-state PL, time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Experiments revealed that white EL emission from the PLED originated from the hybridized GOQD-PVK complex emission with the contributions from the individual GOQDs and PVK emissions. PMID:26067060

  13. Electrochemiluminescence resonance energy transfer between graphene quantum dots and graphene oxide for sensitive protein kinase activity and inhibitor sensing.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ru-Ping; Qiu, Wei-Bin; Zhao, Hui-Fang; Xiang, Cai-Yun; Qiu, Jian-Ding

    2016-01-21

    Herein, a novel electrochemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (ECL-RET) biosensor using graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as donor and graphene oxide (GO) as acceptor for monitoring the activity of protein kinase was presented for the first time. Anti-phosphoserine antibody conjugated graphene oxide (Ab-GO) nonocomposite could be captured onto the phosphorylated peptide/GQDs modified electrode surface through antibody-antigen interaction in the presence of casein kinase II (CK2) and adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), resulting in ECL from the GQDs quenching by closely contacting GO. This ECL quenching degree was positively correlated with CK2 activity. Therefore, on the basis of ECL-RET between GQDs and GO, the activity of protein kinase can be detected sensitively. This biosensor can also be used for quantitative analysis CK2 activity in serum samples and qualitative screening kinase inhibition, indicating the potential application of the developed method in biochemical fundamental research and clinical diagnosis. PMID:26724763

  14. Tunable emission from InAs quantum dots gated with graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinnischtzke, Laura; Goodfellow, Kenneth; Chakraborty, Chitraleema; Lai, Yiming; Badolato, Antonio; Vamivakas, Nick

    We demonstrate Stark shifted photo-luminescence from InAs quantum dots (QD) using an n-i-Schottky diode where graphene has been used as the Schottky barrier material. This hybrid photonic device is motivated by the need for tunable single photon sources with high flux and storage capabilities. Photonic crystal nanocavities decorated with a single QD provide a rich environment for coupling spins and photons, in addition to accessing cavity quantum electrodynamic physics. Methods currently used for electrically tuning the QD inside the cavity suffer from a loss of the cavity quality factor, or high leakage currents in the diode which impacts the spin-photon coupling of the device. Our measurements are a first step towards using a graphene flake to electrically tune the emission of a strongly coupled QD-cavity system. NSF Grant No. DMR-1309734.

  15. Optical properties of fluorescent zigzag graphene quantum dots derived from multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei; Li, Fushan Wu, Chaoxing; Guo, Tailiang

    2014-02-10

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs), which are edge-bound nanometer-size graphene pieces, have fascinating electronic and optical properties due to their quantum confinement and edge effect. In this paper, GQDs were synthesized by using acid treatment and chemical exfoliation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The structure of the GQDs was investigated by transmission electron microscope. The GQDs have a uniform size distribution, zigzag edge structure and two-dimensional morphology. The results indicated that the GQDs have bright blue emission upon UV excitation. The highly fluorescent GQDs exhibited high water solubility and good stability. It is shown that the acid treatment of MWCNTs leads to the formation of the functional group in zigzag sites, which results in the pH-dependent fluorescence of the GQDs.

  16. Sandwiched confinement of quantum dots in graphene matrix for efficient electron transfer and photocurrent production

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Nan; Zheng, Kaibo; Karki, Khadga J.; Abdellah, Mohamed; Zhu, Qiushi; Carlson, Stefan; Haase, Dörthe; Žídek, Karel; Ulstrup, Jens; Canton, Sophie E.; Pullerits, Tõnu; Chi, Qijin

    2015-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) and graphene are both promising materials for the development of new-generation optoelectronic devices. Towards this end, synergic assembly of these two building blocks is a key step but remains a challenge. Here, we show a one-step strategy for organizing QDs in a graphene matrix via interfacial self-assembly, leading to the formation of sandwiched hybrid QD-graphene nanofilms. We have explored structural features, electron transfer kinetics and photocurrent generation capacity of such hybrid nanofilms using a wide variety of advanced techniques. Graphene nanosheets interlink QDs and significantly improve electronic coupling, resulting in fast electron transfer from photoexcited QDs to graphene with a rate constant of 1.3 × 109 s−1. Efficient electron transfer dramatically enhances photocurrent generation in a liquid-junction QD-sensitized solar cell where the hybrid nanofilm acts as a photoanode. We thereby demonstrate a cost-effective method to construct large-area QD-graphene hybrid nanofilms with straightforward scale-up potential for optoelectronic applications. PMID:25996307

  17. Theory of biexcitons and biexciton-exciton cascade in graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozfidan, Isil; Korkusinski, Marek; Hawrylak, Pawel

    2015-03-01

    We present a microscopic theory of biexcitons in colloidal graphene quantum dots, and we discuss the possibility of a biexciton-exciton cascade generation. Assuming a pz orbital on each carbon atom, the single-particle properties are described in the tight-binding model. The screened direct, exchange, and scattering matrix elements of the Coulomb matrix are calculated using Slater pz orbitals. The many-body ground and excited states are constructed as a linear combination of a finite number of electron-hole pair excitations from the Hartree-Fock ground state by exact diagonalization techniques. The exciton and biexciton states are constructed exploiting the degeneracy of the valence- and conduction-band edges. The two degenerate exciton (X ) states and a corresponding biexciton (X X ) state are identified for generation of the X X -X cascade in threefold-symmetric quantum dots. Finally, the Auger coupling of the X X state with the excited X states is predicted.

  18. Graphene encapsulated gold nanoparticle-quantum dot heterostructures and their electrochemical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuan; Chopra, Nitin

    2015-07-01

    A simple technique for patterning multilayer graphene shell encapsulated gold nanoparticles (GNPs) on the silicon substrate and their further surface decoration with semiconducting quantum dots (QDs) is reported. This leads to the fabrication of a novel silicon electrode decorated with GNP-QD hybrids or heterostructures. The morphology, structure, and composition of the GNPs and GNP-QD heterostructures were evaluated using microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. The heterostructures decorated silicon electrode was also evaluated for the electronic and electrochemical properties. The results showed that the electrical characteristics of the silicon substrate were significantly improved by decorating with GNPs and quantum dots. Furthermore, GNP-QD heterostructure electrode was observed to show significantly increased electrochemical charge transfer activity.

  19. A graphene quantum dot photodynamic therapy agent with high singlet oxygen generation

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jiechao; Lan, Minhuan; Zhou, Bingjiang; Liu, Weimin; Guo, Liang; Wang, Hui; Jia, Qingyan; Niu, Guangle; Huang, Xing; Zhou, Hangyue; Meng, Xiangmin; Wang, Pengfei; Lee, Chun-Sing; Zhang, Wenjun; Han, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    Clinical applications of current photodynamic therapy (PDT) agents are often limited by their low singlet oxygen (1O2) quantum yields, as well as by photobleaching and poor biocompatibility. Here we present a new PDT agent based on graphene quantum dots (GQDs) that can produce 1O2 via a multistate sensitization process, resulting in a quantum yield of ~1.3, the highest reported for PDT agents. The GQDs also exhibit a broad absorption band spanning the UV region and the entire visible region and a strong deep-red emission. Through in vitro and in vivo studies, we demonstrate that GQDs can be used as PDT agents, simultaneously allowing imaging and providing a highly efficient cancer therapy. The present work may lead to a new generation of carbon-based nanomaterial PDT agents with overall performance superior to conventional agents in terms of 1O2 quantum yield, water dispersibility, photo- and pH-stability, and biocompatibility. PMID:25105845

  20. A graphene quantum dot photodynamic therapy agent with high singlet oxygen generation.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jiechao; Lan, Minhuan; Zhou, Bingjiang; Liu, Weimin; Guo, Liang; Wang, Hui; Jia, Qingyan; Niu, Guangle; Huang, Xing; Zhou, Hangyue; Meng, Xiangmin; Wang, Pengfei; Lee, Chun-Sing; Zhang, Wenjun; Han, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    Clinical applications of current photodynamic therapy (PDT) agents are often limited by their low singlet oxygen ((1)O2) quantum yields, as well as by photobleaching and poor biocompatibility. Here we present a new PDT agent based on graphene quantum dots (GQDs) that can produce (1)O2 via a multistate sensitization process, resulting in a quantum yield of ~1.3, the highest reported for PDT agents. The GQDs also exhibit a broad absorption band spanning the UV region and the entire visible region and a strong deep-red emission. Through in vitro and in vivo studies, we demonstrate that GQDs can be used as PDT agents, simultaneously allowing imaging and providing a highly efficient cancer therapy. The present work may lead to a new generation of carbon-based nanomaterial PDT agents with overall performance superior to conventional agents in terms of (1)O2 quantum yield, water dispersibility, photo- and pH-stability, and biocompatibility. PMID:25105845

  1. A graphene quantum dot photodynamic therapy agent with high singlet oxygen generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jiechao; Lan, Minhuan; Zhou, Bingjiang; Liu, Weimin; Guo, Liang; Wang, Hui; Jia, Qingyan; Niu, Guangle; Huang, Xing; Zhou, Hangyue; Meng, Xiangmin; Wang, Pengfei; Lee, Chun-Sing; Zhang, Wenjun; Han, Xiaodong

    2014-08-01

    Clinical applications of current photodynamic therapy (PDT) agents are often limited by their low singlet oxygen (1O2) quantum yields, as well as by photobleaching and poor biocompatibility. Here we present a new PDT agent based on graphene quantum dots (GQDs) that can produce 1O2 via a multistate sensitization process, resulting in a quantum yield of ~1.3, the highest reported for PDT agents. The GQDs also exhibit a broad absorption band spanning the UV region and the entire visible region and a strong deep-red emission. Through in vitro and in vivo studies, we demonstrate that GQDs can be used as PDT agents, simultaneously allowing imaging and providing a highly efficient cancer therapy. The present work may lead to a new generation of carbon-based nanomaterial PDT agents with overall performance superior to conventional agents in terms of 1O2 quantum yield, water dispersibility, photo- and pH-stability, and biocompatibility.

  2. The dual roles of functional groups in the photoluminescence of graphene quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shujun; Cole, Ivan S; Zhao, Dongyuan; Li, Qin

    2016-04-14

    The photoluminescent properties of graphene nanoparticle (named graphene quantum dots) have attracted significant research attention in recent years owing to their profound application potential. However, the photoluminescence (PL) origin of this class of nanocarbons is still unclear. In this paper, combining direct experimental evidence enabled by a facile size-tunable oxygenated graphene quantum dots (GQDs) synthesis method and theoretical calculations, the roles of the aromatic core, functional groups and disordered structures (i.e. defects and sp(3) carbon) in the PL of oxygenated GQDs are elucidated in detail. In particular, we found that the functional groups on GQDs play dual roles in the overall emission: (1) they enable π* → n and σ* → n transitions, resulting in a molecular type of PL, spectrally invariable with change of particle size or excitation energy; (2) similar to defects and sp(3) carbon, functional groups also induce structural deformation to the aromatic core, leading to mid-gap states or, in other words, energy traps, causing π* → mid-gap states → π transitions. Therefore, functional groups contribute to both the blue edge and the red shoulder of GQDs' PL spectra. The new insights on the role of functional groups in PL of fluorescent nanocarbons will enable better designs of this new class of materials. PMID:26731007

  3. Self-assembled graphene quantum dots induced by cytochrome c: a novel biosensor for trypsin with remarkable fluorescence enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xing; Zhu, Shoujun; Xu, Bin; Ma, Ke; Zhang, Junhu; Yang, Bai; Tian, Wenjing

    2013-08-01

    On the basis of cytochrome c-induced self-assembled graphene quantum dots, we demonstrate a novel fluorescent biosensor for trypsin with remarkable fluorescence enhancement, as well as high selectivity and sensitivity.On the basis of cytochrome c-induced self-assembled graphene quantum dots, we demonstrate a novel fluorescent biosensor for trypsin with remarkable fluorescence enhancement, as well as high selectivity and sensitivity. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00006k

  4. Charge Number Dependence of the Dephasing Rates of a Graphene Double Quantum Dot in a Circuit QED Architecture.

    PubMed

    Deng, Guang-Wei; Wei, Da; Johansson, J R; Zhang, Miao-Lei; Li, Shu-Xiao; Li, Hai-Ou; Cao, Gang; Xiao, Ming; Tu, Tao; Guo, Guang-Can; Jiang, Hong-Wen; Nori, Franco; Guo, Guo-Ping

    2015-09-18

    We use an on-chip superconducting resonator as a sensitive meter to probe the properties of graphene double quantum dots at microwave frequencies. Specifically, we investigate the charge dephasing rates in a circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture. The dephasing rates strongly depend on the number of charges in the dots, and the variation has a period of four charges, over an extended range of charge numbers. Although the exact mechanism of this fourfold periodicity in dephasing rates is an open problem, our observations hint at the fourfold degeneracy expected in graphene from its spin and valley degrees of freedom. PMID:26431005

  5. Synthesis of reduced graphene oxide intercalated ZnO quantum dots nanoballs for selective biosensing detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing; Zhao, Minggang; Li, Yingchun; Fan, Sisi; Ding, Longjiang; Liang, Jingjing; Chen, Shougang

    2016-07-01

    ZnO quantum dots (QDs), reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are always used in sensors due to their excellent electrochemical characteristics. In this work, ZnO QDs were intercalated by rGO sheets with cross-linked MWCNTs to construct intercalation nanoballs. A MWCNTs/rGO/ZnO QDs 3D hierarchical architecture was fabricated on supporting Ni foam, which exhibited excellent mechanical, kinetic and electrochemical properties. The intercalation construction can introduce strong interfacial effects to improve the surface electronic state. The selectively determinate of uric acid, dopamine, and ascorbic acid by an electrode material using distinct applied potentials was realized.

  6. Silica-covered Au nanoresonators for fluorescence modulating of a graphene quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Su-Feng; He, Da-Wei; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Hu, Yin; Duan, Jia-Hua; Fu, Ming; Wang, Wen-Shuo

    2014-09-01

    We synthesize Au@SiO2 composite particles with a core-shell structure, and utilize the Au@SiO2 nanoparticles to modulate the fluorescence emission of the graphene quantum dot (GQD) through varying the silica shell thickness. The silica shell thickness can be easily controlled by varying the coating time. After silica coating, we investigate the influence of the silica thickness on the fluorescence emission of the GQD and find that the fluorescence property of the GQD can be changed as expected by varying the thickness of the silica shell. We propose an optimized coating time for the silica shell under the interaction of fluorescence quenching and enhancement.

  7. Electron injection from graphene quantum dots to poly(amido amine) dendrimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, T. N.; Inciong, M. R.; Santiago, S. R.; Kao, C. W.; Shu, G. W.; Yuan, C. T.; Shen, J. L.; Yeh, J. M.; Chen-Yang, Y. W.

    2016-04-01

    The steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) are used to study the electron injection from graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers. The PL is enhanced by depositing GQDs on the surfaces of the PAMAM dendrimers. The maximum enhancement of PL with a factor of 10.9 is achieved at a GQD concentration of 0.9 mg/ml. The dynamics of PL in the GQD/PAMAM composite are analyzed, evidencing the existence of electron injection. On the basis of Kelvin probe measurements, the electron injection from the GQDs to the PAMAM dendrimers is accounted for by the work function difference between them.

  8. Charge transport and memristive properties of graphene quantum dots embedded in poly(3-hexylthiophene) matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Cosmin Obreja, Alexandru; Cristea, Dana; Radoi, Antonio; Gavrila, Raluca; Comanescu, Florin; Kusko, Cristian; Mihalache, Iuliana

    2014-08-25

    We show that graphene quantum dots (GQD) embedded in a semiconducting poly(3-hexylthiophene) polymeric matrix act as charge trapping nanomaterials. In plane current-voltage (I-V) measurements of thin films realized from this nanocomposite deposited on gold interdigitated electrodes revealed that the GQD enhanced dramatically the hole transport. I-V characteristics exhibited a strong nonlinear behavior and a pinched hysteresis loop, a signature of a memristive response. The transport properties of this nanocomposite were explained in terms of a trap controlled space charge limited current mechanism.

  9. Hot electron injection from graphene quantum dots to TiO₂.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kenrick J; Nelson, Cory A; Yan, Xin; Li, Liang-Shi; Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2013-02-26

    The Shockley-Queisser limit is the maximum power conversion efficiency of a conventional solar cell based on a single semiconductor junction. One approach to exceed this limit is to harvest hot electrons/holes that have achieved quasi-equilibrium in the light absorbing material with electronic temperatures higher than the phonon temperature. We argue that graphene based materials are viable candidates for hot carrier chromophores. Here we probe hot electron injection and charge recombination dynamics for graphene quantum dots (QDs, each containing 48 fused benzene rings) anchored to the TiO₂(110) surface via carboxyl linkers. We find ultrafast electron injection from photoexcited graphene QDs to the TiO₂ conduction band with time constant τ(i) < 15 fs and charge recombination dynamics characterized by a fast channel (τ(r1) = 80-130 fs) and a slow one (τ(r2) = 0.5-2 ps). The fast decay channel is attributed to the prompt recombination of the bound electron-hole pair across the interface. The slow channel depends strongly on excitation photon energy or sample temperature and can be explained by a "boomerang" mechanism, in which hot electrons are injected into bulk TiO₂, cooled down due to electron-phonon scattering, drifted back to the interface under the transient electric field, and recombine with the hole on graphene QDs. We discuss feasibilities of implementing the hot carrier solar cell using graphene nanomaterials. PMID:23347000

  10. Enhancement of squeezing in resonance fluorescence of a driven quantum dot close to a graphene sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Wei; Wu, Qing-lin; Wu, Shao-ping; Li, Gao-xiang

    2016-05-01

    We investigate squeezing of the resonance fluorescence of a laser-driven quantum dot (QD) close to a graphene sheet. The coupling between the QD and the surface plasmon around the graphene sheet is frequency dependent in the terahertz region, which can be adjusted by the laser intensity. Distinct decay rates in different transition channels of dressed QDs can be achieved due to the tailored photon reservoir, which can be used to improve the squeezing. It is found that increases in both the dephasing rate and the environmental temperature are harmful to the squeezing. Meanwhile, an enhancement in the QD-plasmon coupling strength may reduce the fragility of squeezing against the decoherence process. Additionally, in the strong light-matter coupling region, squeezing can be largely enhanced by tuning the strength of the pump field and its detuning from the QD.

  11. Facile synthesis of soluble graphene quantum dots and its improved property in detecting heavy metal ions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chengfeng; Jiang, Wei; Via, Brian K

    2014-06-01

    An effective approach to produce graphene quantum dots (GQDs) has been developed, which based on the cutting of graphene oxide (GO) powder into smaller pieces and being reduced by a green approach, using sodium polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) as a dispersant and l-ascorbic acid (l-AA) as the reducing agent, which is environmentally friendly. Then the as-prepared GQDs were further used for the detection of heavy metal ions Pb(2+). This kind of GQDs has greater solubility in water and is more biocompatible than GO that has been reduced by hydrazine hydrate. The few-layers of GQDs with defects and residual OH groups were shown to be particularly well suited for the determination of metal ions in the liquid phase using an electrochemical method, in which a remarkably low detection limit of 7×10(-9)M for Pb(2+) was achieved. PMID:24732395

  12. Surface-Engineered Graphene Quantum Dots Incorporated into Polymer Layers for High Performance Organic Photovoltaics

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Kyu; Kim, Sang Jin; Park, Myung Jin; Bae, Sukang; Cho, Sung-Pyo; Du, Qing Guo; Wang, Dong Hwan; Park, Jong Hyeok; Hong, Byung Hee

    2015-01-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs), a newly emerging 0-dimensional graphene based material, have been widely exploited in optoelectronic devices due to their tunable optical and electronic properties depending on their functional groups. Moreover, the dispersibility of GQDs in common solvents depending on hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity can be controlled by chemical functionalization, which is particularly important for homogeneous incorporation into various polymer layers. Here we report that a surface-engineered GQD-incorporated polymer photovoltaic device shows enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE), where the oxygen-related functionalization of GQDs enabled good dispersity in a PEDOT:PSS hole extraction layer, leading to significantly improved short circuit current density (Jsc) value. To maximize the PCE of the device, hydrophobic GQDs that are hydrothermally reduced (rGQD) were additionally incorporated in a bulk-heterojunction layer, which is found to promote a synergistic effect with the GQD-incorporated hole extraction layer. PMID:26392211

  13. Graphene Quantum Dots-based Photoluminescent Sensor: A Multifunctional Composite for Pesticide Detection.

    PubMed

    Zor, Erhan; Morales-Narváez, Eden; Zamora-Gálvez, Alejandro; Bingol, Haluk; Ersoz, Mustafa; Merkoçi, Arben

    2015-09-16

    Due to their size and difficulty to obtain, cost/effective biological or synthetic receptors (e.g., antibodies or aptamers, respectively), organic toxic compounds (e.g., less than 1 kDa) are generally challenging to detect using simple platforms such as biosensors. This study reports on the synthesis and characterization of a novel multifunctional composite material, magnetic silica beads/graphene quantum dots/molecularly imprinted polypyrrole (mSGP). mSGP is engineered to specifically and effectively capture and signal small molecules due to the synergy among chemical, magnetic, and optical properties combined with molecular imprinting of tributyltin (291 Da), a hazardous compound, selected as a model analyte. Magnetic and selective properties of the mSGP composite can be exploited to capture and preconcentrate the analyte onto its surface, and its photoluminescent graphene quantum dots, which are quenched upon analyte recognition, are used to interrogate the presence of the contaminant. This multifunctional material enables a rapid, simple and sensitive platform for small molecule detection, even in complex mediums such as seawater, without any sample treatment. PMID:26313947

  14. One-pot liquid-phase exfoliation from graphite to graphene with carbon quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Minghan; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Zhi; Yu, Fan; Ma, Yujie; Hu, Nantao; He, Dannong; Liang, Qi; Su, Yanjie; Zhang, Yafei

    2015-06-01

    Carbon quantum dots (CQDs) are novel carbon nanomaterials and are attracting increasing interest due to their good characteristics such as hydrophilicity, chemical stability, quantum yield, small particle sizes, and low cytotoxicity. Herein, we used CQDs as stabilizers and exfoliation agents to exfoliate graphite to graphene in an aqueous medium for the first time. The functions of CQDs are to reduce the surface tension of water to match that of graphite and to make weak interactions (π-π conjugation, hydrophobic force, and the Coulomb attraction) with the graphite surface. Different characterization methods were used to evaluate the presence of layers (<5 layers) of graphene sheets with fewer defects and low oxidation. In the future, CQDs can also be good candidates to exfoliate other two-dimensional materials, such as WS2, BN, MoS2, and g-C3N4, to form two-dimensional heterostructures for a range of possible applications.Carbon quantum dots (CQDs) are novel carbon nanomaterials and are attracting increasing interest due to their good characteristics such as hydrophilicity, chemical stability, quantum yield, small particle sizes, and low cytotoxicity. Herein, we used CQDs as stabilizers and exfoliation agents to exfoliate graphite to graphene in an aqueous medium for the first time. The functions of CQDs are to reduce the surface tension of water to match that of graphite and to make weak interactions (π-π conjugation, hydrophobic force, and the Coulomb attraction) with the graphite surface. Different characterization methods were used to evaluate the presence of layers (<5 layers) of graphene sheets with fewer defects and low oxidation. In the future, CQDs can also be good candidates to exfoliate other two-dimensional materials, such as WS2, BN, MoS2, and g-C3N4, to form two-dimensional heterostructures for a range of possible applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Particle size distribution, UV-vis spectrum, and XRD pattern of

  15. Light-induced negative differential resistance in graphene/Si-quantum-dot tunneling diodes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyeong Won; Jang, Chan Wook; Shin, Dong Hee; Kim, Jong Min; Kang, Soo Seok; Lee, Dae Hun; Kim, Sung; Choi, Suk-Ho; Hwang, Euyheon

    2016-01-01

    One of the interesing tunneling phenomena is negative differential resistance (NDR), the basic principle of resonant-tunneling diodes. NDR has been utilized in various semiconductor devices such as frequency multipliers, oscillators, relfection amplifiers, logic switches, and memories. The NDR in graphene has been also reported theoretically as well as experimentally, but should be further studied to fully understand its mechanism, useful for practical device applications. Especially, there has been no observation about light-induced NDR (LNDR) in graphene-related structures despite very few reports on the LNDR in GaAs-based heterostructures. Here, we report first observation of LNDR in graphene/Si quantum dots-embedded SiO2 (SQDs:SiO2) multilayers (MLs) tunneling diodes. The LNDR strongly depends on temperature (T) as well as on SQD size, and the T dependence is consistent with photocurrent (PC)-decay behaviors. With increasing light power, the PC-voltage curves are more structured with peak-to-valley ratios over 2 at room temperature. The physical mechanism of the LNDR, governed by resonant tunneling of charge carriers through the minibands formed across the graphene/SQDs:SiO2 MLs and by their nonresonant phonon-assisted tunneling, is discussed based on theoretical considerations. PMID:27465107

  16. Plasmon-gating photoluminescence in graphene/GeSi quantum dots hybrid structures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yulu; Wu, Qiong; Ma, Yingjie; Liu, Tao; Fan, Yongliang; Yang, Xinju; Zhong, Zhenyang; Xu, Fei; Lu, Jianping; Jiang, Zuimin

    2015-01-01

    The ability to control light-matter interaction is central to several potential applications in lasing, sensing, and communication. Graphene plasmons provide a way of strongly enhancing the interaction and realizing ultrathin optoelectronic devices. Here, we find that photoluminescence (PL) intensities of the graphene/GeSi quantum dots hybrid structures are saturated and quenched under positive and negative voltages at the excitation of 325 nm, respectively. A mechanism called plasmon-gating effect is proposed to reveal the PL dependence of the hybrid structures on the external electric field. On the contrary, the PL intensities at the excitation of 405 and 795 nm of the hybrid structures are quenched due to the charge transfer by tuning the Fermi level of graphene or the blocking of the excitons recombination by excitons separation effect. The results also provide an evidence for the charge transfer mechanism. The plasmon gating effect on the PL provides a new way to control the optical properties of graphene/QD hybrid structures. PMID:26631498

  17. Plasmon-gating photoluminescence in graphene/GeSi quantum dots hybrid structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yulu; Wu, Qiong; Ma, Yingjie; Liu, Tao; Fan, Yongliang; Yang, Xinju; Zhong, Zhenyang; Xu, Fei; Lu, Jianping; Jiang, Zuimin

    2015-12-01

    The ability to control light-matter interaction is central to several potential applications in lasing, sensing, and communication. Graphene plasmons provide a way of strongly enhancing the interaction and realizing ultrathin optoelectronic devices. Here, we find that photoluminescence (PL) intensities of the graphene/GeSi quantum dots hybrid structures are saturated and quenched under positive and negative voltages at the excitation of 325 nm, respectively. A mechanism called plasmon-gating effect is proposed to reveal the PL dependence of the hybrid structures on the external electric field. On the contrary, the PL intensities at the excitation of 405 and 795 nm of the hybrid structures are quenched due to the charge transfer by tuning the Fermi level of graphene or the blocking of the excitons recombination by excitons separation effect. The results also provide an evidence for the charge transfer mechanism. The plasmon gating effect on the PL provides a new way to control the optical properties of graphene/QD hybrid structures.

  18. Light-induced negative differential resistance in graphene/Si-quantum-dot tunneling diodes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyeong Won; Jang, Chan Wook; Shin, Dong Hee; Kim, Jong Min; Kang, Soo Seok; Lee, Dae Hun; Kim, Sung; Choi, Suk-Ho; Hwang, Euyheon

    2016-01-01

    One of the interesing tunneling phenomena is negative differential resistance (NDR), the basic principle of resonant-tunneling diodes. NDR has been utilized in various semiconductor devices such as frequency multipliers, oscillators, relfection amplifiers, logic switches, and memories. The NDR in graphene has been also reported theoretically as well as experimentally, but should be further studied to fully understand its mechanism, useful for practical device applications. Especially, there has been no observation about light-induced NDR (LNDR) in graphene-related structures despite very few reports on the LNDR in GaAs-based heterostructures. Here, we report first observation of LNDR in graphene/Si quantum dots-embedded SiO2 (SQDs:SiO2) multilayers (MLs) tunneling diodes. The LNDR strongly depends on temperature (T) as well as on SQD size, and the T dependence is consistent with photocurrent (PC)-decay behaviors. With increasing light power, the PC-voltage curves are more structured with peak-to-valley ratios over 2 at room temperature. The physical mechanism of the LNDR, governed by resonant tunneling of charge carriers through the minibands formed across the graphene/SQDs:SiO2 MLs and by their nonresonant phonon-assisted tunneling, is discussed based on theoretical considerations. PMID:27465107

  19. Plasmon-gating photoluminescence in graphene/GeSi quantum dots hybrid structures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yulu; Wu, Qiong; Ma, Yingjie; Liu, Tao; Fan, Yongliang; Yang, Xinju; Zhong, Zhenyang; Xu, Fei; Lu, Jianping; Jiang, Zuimin

    2015-01-01

    The ability to control light-matter interaction is central to several potential applications in lasing, sensing, and communication. Graphene plasmons provide a way of strongly enhancing the interaction and realizing ultrathin optoelectronic devices. Here, we find that photoluminescence (PL) intensities of the graphene/GeSi quantum dots hybrid structures are saturated and quenched under positive and negative voltages at the excitation of 325 nm, respectively. A mechanism called plasmon-gating effect is proposed to reveal the PL dependence of the hybrid structures on the external electric field. On the contrary, the PL intensities at the excitation of 405 and 795 nm of the hybrid structures are quenched due to the charge transfer by tuning the Fermi level of graphene or the blocking of the excitons recombination by excitons separation effect. The results also provide an evidence for the charge transfer mechanism. The plasmon gating effect on the PL provides a new way to control the optical properties of graphene/QD hybrid structures. PMID:26631498

  20. Light-induced negative differential resistance in graphene/Si-quantum-dot tunneling diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyeong Won; Jang, Chan Wook; Shin, Dong Hee; Kim, Jong Min; Kang, Soo Seok; Lee, Dae Hun; Kim, Sung; Choi, Suk-Ho; Hwang, Euyheon

    2016-07-01

    One of the interesing tunneling phenomena is negative differential resistance (NDR), the basic principle of resonant-tunneling diodes. NDR has been utilized in various semiconductor devices such as frequency multipliers, oscillators, relfection amplifiers, logic switches, and memories. The NDR in graphene has been also reported theoretically as well as experimentally, but should be further studied to fully understand its mechanism, useful for practical device applications. Especially, there has been no observation about light-induced NDR (LNDR) in graphene-related structures despite very few reports on the LNDR in GaAs-based heterostructures. Here, we report first observation of LNDR in graphene/Si quantum dots-embedded SiO2 (SQDs:SiO2) multilayers (MLs) tunneling diodes. The LNDR strongly depends on temperature (T) as well as on SQD size, and the T dependence is consistent with photocurrent (PC)-decay behaviors. With increasing light power, the PC-voltage curves are more structured with peak-to-valley ratios over 2 at room temperature. The physical mechanism of the LNDR, governed by resonant tunneling of charge carriers through the minibands formed across the graphene/SQDs:SiO2 MLs and by their nonresonant phonon-assisted tunneling, is discussed based on theoretical considerations.

  1. Chemical processing of three-dimensional graphene networks on transparent conducting electrodes for depleted-heterojunction quantum dot solar cells.

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi; Simchi, Abdolreza; Fan, Zhiyong; Aashuri, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel chemical procedure to prepare three-dimensional graphene networks (3DGNs) as a transparent conductive film to enhance the photovoltaic performance of PbS quantum-dot (QD) solar cells. It is shown that 3DGN electrodes enhance electron extraction, yielding a 30% improvement in performance compared with the conventional device. PMID:26514615

  2. Synthesis of a CdSe-graphene hybrid composed of CdSe quantum dot arrays directly grown on CVD-graphene and its ultrafast carrier dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Tae; Shin, Hee-Won; Ko, Young-Seon; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Kwon, Young-Uk

    2013-02-21

    We report the original fabrication and performance of a photocurrent device that uses directly grown CdSe quantum dots (QDs) on a graphene basal plane. The direct junction between the QDs and graphene and the high quality of the graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition enables highly efficient electron transfer from the QDs to the graphene. Therefore, the hybrids show large photocurrent effects with a fast response time and shortened photoluminescence (PL) lifetime. The PL lifetime quenching can be explained as being due to the efficient electron transfer as evidenced by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. These hybrids are expected to find applications in flexible electronics and optoelectronic devices. PMID:23334263

  3. Photo-Fenton reaction of graphene oxide: a new strategy to prepare graphene quantum dots for DNA cleavage.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuejiao; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Chong; Wu, Xiaochen; Yang, Yongqiang; Zheng, Bin; Wu, Haixia; Guo, Shouwu; Zhang, Jingyan

    2012-08-28

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are great promising in various applications owing to the quantum confinement and edge effects in addition to their intrinsic properties of graphene, but the preparation of the GQDs in bulk scale is challenging. We demonstrated in this work that the micrometer sized graphene oxide (GO) sheets could react with Fenton reagent (Fe(2+)/Fe(3+)/H(2)O(2)) efficiently under an UV irradiation, and, as a result, the GQDs with periphery carboxylic groups could be generated with mass scale production. Through a variety of techniques including atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, gas chromatography, ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and total organic carbon measurement, the mechanism of the photo-Fenton reaction of GO was elucidated. The photo-Fenton reaction of GO was initiated at the carbon atoms connected with the oxygen containing groups, and C-C bonds were broken subsequently, therefore, the reaction rate depends strongly on the oxidization extent of the GO. Given the simple and efficient nature of the photo-Fenton reaction of GO, this method should provide a new strategy to prepare GQDs in mass scale. As a proof-of-concept experiment, the novel DNA cleavage system using as-generated GQDs was constructed. PMID:22813062

  4. Finite-size version of the excitonic instability in graphene quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Paananen, Tomi; Egger, Reinhold

    2011-10-15

    By a combination of Hartree-Fock simulations, exact diagonalization, and perturbative calculations, we investigate the ground-state properties of disorder-free circular quantum dots formed in a graphene monolayer. Taking the reference chemical potential at the Dirac point, we study N{<=}15 interacting particles, where the fine structure constant {alpha} parametrizes the Coulomb interaction. We explore three different models: (i) Sucher's positive projection (''no-pair'') approach, (ii) a more general Hamiltonian conserving both N and the number of additional electron-hole pairs, and (iii) the full quantum electrodynamics problem, where only N is conserved. We find that electron-hole pair production is important for {alpha} > or approx. 1. This corresponds to a reconstruction of the filled Dirac sea and is a finite-size version of the bulk excitonic instability. We also address the effects of an orbital magnetic field.

  5. Magnetic field dependence of energy levels in biased bilayer graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, D. R.; Zarenia, M.; Chaves, Andrey; Farias, G. A.; Peeters, F. M.

    2016-02-01

    Using the tight-binding approach, we study the influence of a perpendicular magnetic field on the energy levels of hexagonal, triangular, and circular bilayer graphene (BLG) quantum dots (QDs) with zigzag and armchair edges. We obtain the energy levels for AB (Bernal)-stacked BLG QDs in both the absence and the presence of a perpendicular electric field (i.e., biased BLG QDs). We find different regions in the spectrum of biased QDs with respect to the crossing point between the lowest-electron and -hole Landau levels of a biased BLG sheet. Those different regions correspond to electron states that are localized at the center, edge, or corner of the BLG QD. Quantum Hall corner states are found to be absent in circular BLG QDs. The spatial symmetry of the carrier density distribution is related to the symmetry of the confinement potential, the position of zigzag edges, and the presence or absence of interlayer inversion symmetry.

  6. Chemically doped fluorescent carbon and graphene quantum dots for bioimaging, sensor, catalytic and photoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yan; Guo, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    Doping fluorescent carbon dots (DFCDs) with heteroatoms have recently become of great interest compared to traditional fluorescent materials because it provides a feasible and new way to tune the intrinsic properties of carbon quantum dots (CQDs) and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to achieve new applications for them in different fields. Since the first report on nitrogen (N) doped GQDs in 2012, more effort is being focused on exploring different procedures for making new types of DFCDs with different heteroatoms. This mini review will summarize recent research progress on DFCDs. It first reviews various doping categories achieved up to now, looking back on the synthesis method and comparing the differences in synthesis approaches between the DFCDs and the undoped ones. Then it focuses on the advances on how the doping affects the optical properties, especially DFCDs doped with N, which have been investigated the most. Finally, different applications of DFCDs involving bio-imaging, sensing, catalysis and photoelectronic devices will be discussed. This review will give new insights into how to use different synthetic methods for tuning the structure of DFCDs, understanding the correlation between the doping and properties, and achieving new applications.

  7. Chemically doped fluorescent carbon and graphene quantum dots for bioimaging, sensor, catalytic and photoelectronic applications.

    PubMed

    Du, Yan; Guo, Shaojun

    2016-02-01

    Doping fluorescent carbon dots (DFCDs) with heteroatoms have recently become of great interest compared to traditional fluorescent materials because it provides a feasible and new way to tune the intrinsic properties of carbon quantum dots (CQDs) and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to achieve new applications for them in different fields. Since the first report on nitrogen (N) doped GQDs in 2012, more effort is being focused on exploring different procedures for making new types of DFCDs with different heteroatoms. This mini review will summarize recent research progress on DFCDs. It first reviews various doping categories achieved up to now, looking back on the synthesis method and comparing the differences in synthesis approaches between the DFCDs and the undoped ones. Then it focuses on the advances on how the doping affects the optical properties, especially DFCDs doped with N, which have been investigated the most. Finally, different applications of DFCDs involving bio-imaging, sensing, catalysis and photoelectronic devices will be discussed. This review will give new insights into how to use different synthetic methods for tuning the structure of DFCDs, understanding the correlation between the doping and properties, and achieving new applications. PMID:26757977

  8. Quantum-confined bandgap narrowing of TiO2 nanoparticles by graphene quantum dots for visible-light-driven applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shujun; Cole, Ivan S; Li, Qin

    2016-07-28

    We for the first time report a quantum-confined bandgap narrowing mechanism through which the absorption of two UV absorbers, namely the graphene quantum dots (GQDs) and TiO2 nanoparticles, can be easily extended into the visible light range in a controllable manner. Such a mechanism may be of great importance for light harvesting, photocatalysis and optoelectronics. PMID:27297746

  9. Synthesis of N, F and S co-doped graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Sumana; Yadav, Ram Manohar; Narayanan, T. N.; Shelke, Manjusha V.; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, P. M.; Pillai, Vijayamohanan K.

    2015-07-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are a promising category of materials with remarkable size dependent properties like tunable bandgap and photoluminescence along with the possibility of effective chemical functionalization. Doping of GQDs with heteroatoms is an interesting way of regulating their properties. Herein, we report a facile and scalable one-step synthesis of luminescent GQDs, substitutionally co-doped with N, F and S, of ~2 nm average size by a microwave treatment of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in a customized ionic liquid medium. The use of an ionic liquid coupled with the use of a microwave technique enables not only an ultrafast process for the synthesis of co-doped GQDs, but also provides excellent photoluminescence quantum yield (70%), perhaps due to the interaction of defect clusters and dopants.Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are a promising category of materials with remarkable size dependent properties like tunable bandgap and photoluminescence along with the possibility of effective chemical functionalization. Doping of GQDs with heteroatoms is an interesting way of regulating their properties. Herein, we report a facile and scalable one-step synthesis of luminescent GQDs, substitutionally co-doped with N, F and S, of ~2 nm average size by a microwave treatment of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in a customized ionic liquid medium. The use of an ionic liquid coupled with the use of a microwave technique enables not only an ultrafast process for the synthesis of co-doped GQDs, but also provides excellent photoluminescence quantum yield (70%), perhaps due to the interaction of defect clusters and dopants. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: PLQY calculation, MWCNT synthetic details, TGA analysis and tabular format of GQD synthesis processes. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02427g

  10. Synergistically enhanced activity of graphene quantum dots/graphene hydrogel composites: a novel all-carbon hybrid electrocatalyst for metal/air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mengran; Fang, Zhao; Zhang, Kai; Fang, Jing; Qin, Furong; Zhang, Zhian; Li, Jie; Liu, Yexiang; Lai, Yanqing

    2016-06-01

    Primary zinc/air batteries could be the next generation of energy storage devices because of their high power density and high safety. Graphene quantum dots nested in the graphene hydrogel have been proposed as excellent all-carbon hybrid oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts, indicative of their great potential in primary zinc/air batteries.Primary zinc/air batteries could be the next generation of energy storage devices because of their high power density and high safety. Graphene quantum dots nested in the graphene hydrogel have been proposed as excellent all-carbon hybrid oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts, indicative of their great potential in primary zinc/air batteries. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02622b

  11. Ultrafine nickel oxide quantum dots enbedded with few-layer exfoliative graphene for an asymmetric supercapacitor: Enhanced capacitances by alternating voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Mingjun; Wang, Chiwei; Hou, Hongshuai; Wu, Zhibin; Zhu, Yirong; Yang, Yingchang; Jia, Xinnan; Zhang, Yan; Ji, Xiaobo

    2015-12-01

    A green and one-step method of electrochemical alternating voltage has been utilized to form NiO quantum dots/graphene flakes (NiO-dots/Gh) for supercapacitor applications. NiO quantum dots (∼3 nm) are uniformly deposited on few-layer graphene surfaces by oxygen functional groups on graphene surface that is naturally utilized to bridge NiO and graphene through Ni-O-C bands, which exhibits outstanding specific capacitance 1181.1 F g-1 at a current density of 2.1 A g-1 and rate behavior 66.2% at 42 A g-1 as NiO dots can be fleetly wired up to current collector through the underlying graphene two-dimensional layers. The NiO-dots/Gh composite is further undertaken in asymmetric supercapacitors with high energy density (27.3 Wh kg-1 at 1562.6 W kg-1).

  12. Irradiated Graphene Loaded with SnO₂ Quantum Dots for Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ruting; Wang, Lijun; Zhang, Qian; Chen, Zhiwen; Li, Zhen; Pan, Dengyu; Zhao, Bing; Wu, Minghong; Wu, C M Lawrence; Shek, Chan-Hung

    2015-11-24

    Tin dioxide (SnO2) and graphene are unique strategic functional materials with widespread technological applications, particularly in the areas of solar batteries, optoelectronic devices, and solid-state gas sensors owing to advances in optical and electronic properties. Versatile strategies for microstructural evolution and related performance of SnO2 and graphene composites are of fundamental importance in the development of electrode materials. Here we report that a novel composite, SnO2 quantum dots (QDs) supported by graphene nanosheets (GNSs), has been prepared successfully by a simple hydrothermal method and electron-beam irradiation (EBI) strategies. Microstructure analysis indicates that the EBI technique can induce the exfoliation of GNSs and increase their interlayer spacing, resulting in the increase of GNS amorphization, disorder, and defects and the removal of partial oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface of GNSs. The investigation of SnO2 nanoparticles supported by GNSs (SnO2/GNSs) reveals that the GNSs are loaded with SnO2 QDs, which are dispersed uniformly on both sides of GNSs. Interestingly, the electrochemical performance of SnO2/GNSs indicates that SnO2 QDs supported by a 210 kGy irradiated GNS shows excellent cycle response, high specific capacity, and high reversible capacity. This novel SnO2/GNS composite has potential practical applications in SnO2 electrode materials during Li(+) insertion/extraction. PMID:26434377

  13. Optical signatures of electric-field-driven magnetic phase transitions in graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, Tista; Shukla, Alok

    2016-06-01

    Experimental challenges in identifying various types of magnetic ordering in graphene quantum dots (QDs) pose a major hurdle in the application of these nanostructures for spintronic devices. Based upon phase diagrams obtained by employing the π -electron Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) model Hamiltonian, we demonstrate that the magnetic states undergo phase transition under the influence of an external electric field. Our calculations of the electroabsorption spectra of these QDs indicate that the spectrum in question carries strong signatures of their magnetic state (FM vs AFM), thus suggesting the possibility of an all-optical characterization of their magnetic nature. Further, the gaps for the up and the down spins are the same in the absence of an external electric field, both for the antiferromagnetic (AFM) and the ferromagnetic (FM) states of QDs. But, once the QDs are exposed to a suitably directed external electric field, gaps for different spins split and exhibit distinct variations with respect to the strength of the field. The nature of variation exhibited by the energy gaps corresponding to the up and down spins is different for the AFM and FM configurations of QDs. This selective manipulation of the spin-polarized gap splitting by an electric field in finite graphene nanostructures can open up new frontiers in the design of graphene-based spintronic devices.

  14. Formation mechanism and optimization of highly luminescent N-doped graphene quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Qu, Dan; Zheng, Min; Zhang, Ligong; Zhao, Haifeng; Xie, Zhigang; Jing, Xiabin; Haddad, Raid E; Fan, Hongyou; Sun, Zaicheng

    2014-01-01

    Photoluminescent graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have received enormous attention because of their unique chemical, electronic and optical properties. Here a series of GQDs were synthesized under hydrothermal processes in order to investigate the formation process and optical properties of N-doped GQDs. Citric acid (CA) was used as a carbon precursor and self-assembled into sheet structure in a basic condition and formed N-free GQD graphite framework through intermolecular dehydrolysis reaction. N-doped GQDs were prepared using a series of N-containing bases such as urea. Detailed structural and property studies demonstrated the formation mechanism of N-doped GQDs for tunable optical emissions. Hydrothermal conditions promote formation of amide between -NH₂ and -COOH with the presence of amine in the reaction. The intramoleculur dehydrolysis between neighbour amide and COOH groups led to formation of pyrrolic N in the graphene framework. Further, the pyrrolic N transformed to graphite N under hydrothermal conditions. N-doping results in a great improvement of PL quantum yield (QY) of GQDs. By optimized reaction conditions, the highest PL QY (94%) of N-doped GQDs was obtained using CA as a carbon source and ethylene diamine as a N source. The obtained N-doped GQDs exhibit an excitation-independent blue emission with single exponential lifetime decay. PMID:24938871

  15. Facile synthesis and photoluminescence characteristics of blue-emitting nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jian; Zhang, Xiaoping; Pang, Aimin; Yang, Jun

    2016-04-22

    A one-step hydrothermal method for synthesizing nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) from organic carbon sources is presented in this paper. The high-quality N-GQDs can be obtained via tuning the degree of dehydration/carbonization of citric acid and doping of nitrogen atoms into the graphene lattice. The micromorphology, chemical structure, composition and photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of the N-GQDs were characterized systematically. The size of the obtained N-GQDs is about 5-10 nm with typical topographic heights of 0.8-2.5 nm. There is intense blue emission and excitation-independent PL behavior when the N-GQDs are in aqueous solution. The most remarkable innovation is that the fluorescence quantum yield (FL QY) of our N-GQDs is up to 75.2%, which is much higher than that of most reported GQDs (less than 25%). Thus, it is initially believed that synthesis parameters, hydrothermal process and nitrogen doping may greatly influence the surface state and bandgap of the GQDs, which are important in determining the PL characteristics of the N-GQDs. PMID:26964866

  16. Formation mechanism and optimization of highly luminescent N-doped graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Dan; Zheng, Min; Zhang, Ligong; Zhao, Haifeng; Xie, Zhigang; Jing, Xiabin; Haddad, Raid E.; Fan, Hongyou; Sun, Zaicheng

    2014-06-01

    Photoluminescent graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have received enormous attention because of their unique chemical, electronic and optical properties. Here a series of GQDs were synthesized under hydrothermal processes in order to investigate the formation process and optical properties of N-doped GQDs. Citric acid (CA) was used as a carbon precursor and self-assembled into sheet structure in a basic condition and formed N-free GQD graphite framework through intermolecular dehydrolysis reaction. N-doped GQDs were prepared using a series of N-containing bases such as urea. Detailed structural and property studies demonstrated the formation mechanism of N-doped GQDs for tunable optical emissions. Hydrothermal conditions promote formation of amide between -NH2 and -COOH with the presence of amine in the reaction. The intramoleculur dehydrolysis between neighbour amide and COOH groups led to formation of pyrrolic N in the graphene framework. Further, the pyrrolic N transformed to graphite N under hydrothermal conditions. N-doping results in a great improvement of PL quantum yield (QY) of GQDs. By optimized reaction conditions, the highest PL QY (94%) of N-doped GQDs was obtained using CA as a carbon source and ethylene diamine as a N source. The obtained N-doped GQDs exhibit an excitation-independent blue emission with single exponential lifetime decay.

  17. Graphene kirigami as a platform for stretchable and tunable quantum dot arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahamon, D. A.; Qi, Zenan; Park, Harold S.; Pereira, Vitor M.; Campbell, David K.

    2016-06-01

    The quantum transport properties of a graphene kirigami similar to those studied in recent experiments are calculated in the regime of elastic, reversible deformations. Our results show that, at low electronic densities, the conductance profile of such structures replicates that of a system of coupled quantum dots, characterized by a sequence of minibands and stopgaps. The conductance and I-V curves have different characteristics in the distinct stages of deformation that characterize the elongation of these structures. Notably, the effective coupling between localized states is strongly reduced in the small elongation stage but revived at large elongations that allow the reestablishment of resonant tunneling across the kirigami. This provides an interesting example of interplay between geometry, strain, spatial confinement, and electronic transport. The alternating miniband and stopgap structure in the transmission leads to I-V characteristics with negative differential conductance in well defined energy/doping ranges. These effects should be stable in a realistic scenario that includes edge roughness and Coulomb interactions, as these are expected to further promote localization of states at low energies in narrow segments of graphene nanostructures.

  18. Facile synthesis and photoluminescence characteristics of blue-emitting nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jian; Zhang, Xiaoping; Pang, Aimin; Yang, Jun

    2016-04-01

    A one-step hydrothermal method for synthesizing nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) from organic carbon sources is presented in this paper. The high-quality N-GQDs can be obtained via tuning the degree of dehydration/carbonization of citric acid and doping of nitrogen atoms into the graphene lattice. The micromorphology, chemical structure, composition and photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of the N-GQDs were characterized systematically. The size of the obtained N-GQDs is about 5-10 nm with typical topographic heights of 0.8-2.5 nm. There is intense blue emission and excitation-independent PL behavior when the N-GQDs are in aqueous solution. The most remarkable innovation is that the fluorescence quantum yield (FL QY) of our N-GQDs is up to 75.2%, which is much higher than that of most reported GQDs (less than 25%). Thus, it is initially believed that synthesis parameters, hydrothermal process and nitrogen doping may greatly influence the surface state and bandgap of the GQDs, which are important in determining the PL characteristics of the N-GQDs.

  19. Mechanism for excitation-dependent photoluminescence from graphene quantum dots and other graphene oxide derivates: consensus, debates and challenges.

    PubMed

    Gan, Zhixing; Xu, Hao; Hao, Yanling

    2016-04-21

    Luminescent nanomaterials, with wide applications in biosensing, bioimaging, illumination and display techniques, have been consistently garnering enormous research attention. In particular, those with wavelength-controllable emissions could be highly beneficial. Carbon nanostructures, including graphene quantum dots (GQDs) and other graphene oxide derivates (GODs), with excitation-dependent photoluminescence (PL), which means their fluorescence color could be tuned simply by changing the excitation wavelength, have attracted lots of interest. However the intrinsic mechanism for the excitation-dependent PL is still obscure and fiercely debated presently. In this review, we attempt to summarize the latest efforts to explore the mechanism, including the quantum confinement effect, surface traps model, giant red-edge effect, edge states model and electronegativity of heteroatom model, as well as the newly developed synergistic model, to seek some clues to unravel the mechanism. Meanwhile the controversial difficulties for each model are further discussed. Besides this, the challenges and potential influences of the synthetic methodology and development of the materials are illustrated extensively to elicit more thought and constructive attempts toward their application. PMID:27030656

  20. Mechanism for excitation-dependent photoluminescence from graphene quantum dots and other graphene oxide derivates: consensus, debates and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Zhixing; Xu, Hao; Hao, Yanling

    2016-04-01

    Luminescent nanomaterials, with wide applications in biosensing, bioimaging, illumination and display techniques, have been consistently garnering enormous research attention. In particular, those with wavelength-controllable emissions could be highly beneficial. Carbon nanostructures, including graphene quantum dots (GQDs) and other graphene oxide derivates (GODs), with excitation-dependent photoluminescence (PL), which means their fluorescence color could be tuned simply by changing the excitation wavelength, have attracted lots of interest. However the intrinsic mechanism for the excitation-dependent PL is still obscure and fiercely debated presently. In this review, we attempt to summarize the latest efforts to explore the mechanism, including the quantum confinement effect, surface traps model, giant red-edge effect, edge states model and electronegativity of heteroatom model, as well as the newly developed synergistic model, to seek some clues to unravel the mechanism. Meanwhile the controversial difficulties for each model are further discussed. Besides this, the challenges and potential influences of the synthetic methodology and development of the materials are illustrated extensively to elicit more thought and constructive attempts toward their application.

  1. Direct growth of Ge quantum dots on a graphene/SiO2/Si structure using ion beam sputtering deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Wang, R. F.; Zhang, J.; Li, H. S.; Zhang, J.; Qiu, F.; Yang, J.; Wang, C.; Yang, Y.

    2016-07-01

    The growth of Ge quantum dots (QDs) using the ion beam sputtering deposition technique has been successfully conducted directly on single-layer graphene supported by SiO2/Si substrate. The results show that the morphology and size of Ge QDs on graphene can be modulated by tuning the Ge coverage. Charge transfer behavior, i.e. doping effect in graphene has been demonstrated at the interface of Ge/graphene. Compared with that of traditional Ge dots grown on Si substrate, the positions of both corresponding photoluminescence (PL) peaks of Ge QDs/graphene hybrid structure undergo a large red-shift, which can probably be attributed to the lack of atomic intermixing and the existence of surface states in this hybrid material. According to first-principles calculations, the Ge growth on the graphene should follow the so-called Volmer–Weber mode instead of the Stranski–Krastanow one which is observed generally in the traditional Ge QDs/Si system. The calculations also suggest that the interaction between Ge and graphene layer can be enhanced with the decrease of the Ge coverage. Our results may supply a prototype for fabricating novel optoelectronic devices based on a QDs/graphene hybrid nanostructure.

  2. Direct growth of Ge quantum dots on a graphene/SiO2/Si structure using ion beam sputtering deposition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Wang, R F; Zhang, J; Li, H S; Zhang, J; Qiu, F; Yang, J; Wang, C; Yang, Y

    2016-07-29

    The growth of Ge quantum dots (QDs) using the ion beam sputtering deposition technique has been successfully conducted directly on single-layer graphene supported by SiO2/Si substrate. The results show that the morphology and size of Ge QDs on graphene can be modulated by tuning the Ge coverage. Charge transfer behavior, i.e. doping effect in graphene has been demonstrated at the interface of Ge/graphene. Compared with that of traditional Ge dots grown on Si substrate, the positions of both corresponding photoluminescence (PL) peaks of Ge QDs/graphene hybrid structure undergo a large red-shift, which can probably be attributed to the lack of atomic intermixing and the existence of surface states in this hybrid material. According to first-principles calculations, the Ge growth on the graphene should follow the so-called Volmer-Weber mode instead of the Stranski-Krastanow one which is observed generally in the traditional Ge QDs/Si system. The calculations also suggest that the interaction between Ge and graphene layer can be enhanced with the decrease of the Ge coverage. Our results may supply a prototype for fabricating novel optoelectronic devices based on a QDs/graphene hybrid nanostructure. PMID:27302495

  3. Origin of tunable photoluminescence from graphene quantum dots synthesized via pulsed laser ablation.

    PubMed

    Santiago, S R M; Lin, T N; Yuan, C T; Shen, J L; Huang, H Y; Lin, C A J

    2016-08-10

    A one-step synthesis of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) has been implemented using pulsed laser ablation (PLA) with carboxyl-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The synthesized GQDs with an average size smaller than 3 nm were obtained by the fragmentation of MWCNTs via oxidative cutting. The GQDs can generate tunable photoluminescence (PL) ranging from green to blue by controlling the PLA time. The PL spectrum (decay time) of the green GQDs remains unchanged under different excitation energies (emission energies), while that of the blue GQDs correlates with the excitation energy (emission energy). On the basis of the pH and temperature dependence of PL, we suggest that the localized intrinsic states associated with the sp(2) nanodomains and delocalized extrinsic states embedded on the GQD surface are responsible for blue and green emission in GQDs, respectively. PMID:27476476

  4. Intrinsic ferromagnetic coupling in Co3O4 quantum dots activatedby graphene hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lin; Hu, Fengchun; Duan, Hengli; Liu, Qinghua; Tan, Hao; Yan, Wensheng; Yao, Tao; Jiang, Yong; Sun, Zhihu; Wei, Shiqiang

    2016-06-01

    Activating ferromagnetic couplings of transition-metallic ions in the antiferromagnetic metal oxide semiconductors is desired for creating ferromagnetic semiconductors for spintronics applications. Here, we report intrinsic ferromagnetic coupling in a typical antiferromagnetic metal oxide Co3O4, by virtue of a hybrid structure that modifies the valence state of Co ions. The Co3O4 quantum dots exhibit ferromagnetism of 2.2 emu/g at 2 K after hybridization with reduced graphene oxide (RGO). In this hybrid structure, electron-transfer from RGO to Co3O4 occurs and Co3+ ions occupying the octahedral (Oh) positions are converted into Co2+. Then the super-exchange interactions between Co2+ ions at Td (tetrahedral) and Oh positions switch the magnetic coupling of Co2+(Td)-Co2+(Td) from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic. These results offer promise for tailoring the spin exchange interactions of oxide semiconductors for spintronics applications.

  5. Graphene quantum dots for ultrasensitive detection of acetylcholinesterase and its inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nan; Wang, Xuewan; Chen, Jie; Sun, Lei; Chen, Peng

    2015-09-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are emerging zero-dimensional materials promising a wide spectrum of novel applications including development of optical sensors. Herein, a GQD-based fluorometric sensor is devised to detect acetylcholinesterase (AChE, a critical enzyme in central nervous system and neuromuscular junctions) with an ultralow detection limit (0.58 pM with S/N of 5.0), using a photoluminescence ‘turn-off’ mechanism. This simple ‘mix-and-detect’ platform can also be employed to sense a variety of compounds that can directly or indirectly inhibit the enzymatic activities of AChE, such as nerve gases, pesticides, and therapeutic drugs. As the proof-of-concept demonstrations, we show the sensitive detection of paraoxon (a pesticide), tacrine (a drug to treat Alzheimer’s disease), and dopamine (an important neurotransmitter).

  6. Potential energy surface of excited semiconductors: Graphene quantum dot and BODIPY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colherinhas, Guilherme; Fileti, Eudes Eterno; Chaban, Vitaly V.

    2016-08-01

    Binding energy (BE) is an important descriptor in chemistry, which determines thermodynamics and phase behavior of a given substance. BE between two molecules is not directly accessible from the experiment. It has to be reconstructed from cohesive energies, vaporization heats, etc. We report BE for the excited states of two semiconductor molecules - boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) and graphene quantum dot (GQD) - with water. We show, for the first time, that excitation increases BE twofold at an optimal separation (energy minimum position), whereas higher separations lead to higher differences. Interestingly, the effects of excitation are similar irrespective of the dominant binding interactions (van der Waals or electrostatic) in the complex. This new knowledge is important for simulations of the excited semiconductors by simplified interaction functions.

  7. Enhanced monolayer MoS2/InP heterostructure solar cells by graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Lin, Shisheng; Ding, Guqiao; Li, Xiaoqiang; Wu, Zhiqian; Zhang, Shengjiao; Xu, Zhijuan; Xu, Sen; Lu, Yanghua; Xu, Wenli; Zheng, Zheyang

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate significantly improved photovoltaic response of monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2)/indium phosphide (InP) van der Waals heterostructure induced by graphene quantum dots (GQDs). Raman and photoluminescence measurements indicate that effective charge transfer takes place between GQDs and MoS2, which results in n-type doping of MoS2. The doping effect increases the barrier height at the MoS2/InP heterojunction, thus the averaged power conversion efficiency of MoS2/InP solar cells is improved from 2.1% to 4.1%. The light induced doping by GQD provides a feasible way for developing more efficient MoS2 based heterostructure solar cells.

  8. Photo-induced Doping in GaN Epilayers with Graphene Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Lin, T. N.; Inciong, M. R.; Santiago, S. R. M. S.; Yeh, T. W.; Yang, W. Y.; Yuan, C. T.; Shen, J. L.; Kuo, H. C.; Chiu, C. H.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a new doping scheme where photo-induced carriers from graphene quantum dots (GQDs) can be injected into GaN and greatly enhance photoluminescence (PL) in GaN epilayers. An 8.3-fold enhancement of PL in GaN is observed after the doping. On the basis of time-resolved PL studies, the PL enhancement is attributed to the carrier transfer from GQDs to GaN. Such a carrier transfer process is caused by the work function difference between GQDs and GaN, which is verified by Kelvin probe measurements. We have also observed that photocurrent in GaN can be enhanced by 23-fold due to photo-induced doping with GQDs. The improved optical and transport properties from photo-induced doping are promising for applications in GaN-based optoelectronic devices. PMID:26987403

  9. Magnetic enhancement of photoluminescence from blue-luminescent graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qi; Shi, Chentian; Zhang, Chunfeng; Pu, Songyang; Wang, Rui; Wu, Xuewei; Wang, Xiaoyong; Xue, Fei; Pan, Dengyu; Xiao, Min

    2016-02-01

    Graphene quantum-dots (GQDs) have been predicted and demonstrated with fascinating optical and magnetic properties. However, the magnetic effect on the optical properties remains experimentally unexplored. Here, we conduct a magneto-photoluminescence study on the blue-luminescence GQDs at cryogenic temperatures with magnetic field up to 10 T. When the magnetic field is applied, a remarkable enhancement of photoluminescence emission has been observed together with an insignificant change in circular polarization. The results have been well explained by the scenario of magnetic-field-controlled singlet-triplet mixing in GQDs owing to the Zeeman splitting of triplet states, which is further verified by temperature-dependent experiments. This work uncovers the pivotal role of intersystem crossing in GQDs, which is instrumental for their potential applications such as light-emitting diodes, photodynamic therapy, and spintronic devices.

  10. The Surface Polarized Graphene Oxide Quantum Dot Films for Flexible Nanogenerators

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liangbin; Cheng, Yafei; Zhu, Lili; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Liao, Fan; Shao, Mingwang

    2016-01-01

    Abundant disorderly-distributed surface functional groups, such as hydroxyl, carboxyl, ether and amino groups, endow an isolated graphene oxide quantum dot (GOQD) the polar property due to the symmetry breaking, although the aggregated counterparts present no polarization owing to the random orientation. Here, flexible polarized films were fabricated using aggregated GOQDs with the assistance of external electric fields and their polarization was confirmed with the electrostatic force microscopy and polarization-electric field hysteresis loop. Such polarized GOQD films may induce charges under externally applied deformation. Here, we fabricated nanogenerators based on the films, which gave out an average current value of 0.12 μA and an average voltage value of 12 V under a mechanical force of 60 N. This work has proposed a convenient electric-field-assisted method to give the nanomaterials new functions, which can be generalized to other materials and found applications in various fields. PMID:27596991

  11. Photo-induced Doping in GaN Epilayers with Graphene Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Lin, T N; Inciong, M R; Santiago, S R M S; Yeh, T W; Yang, W Y; Yuan, C T; Shen, J L; Kuo, H C; Chiu, C H

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a new doping scheme where photo-induced carriers from graphene quantum dots (GQDs) can be injected into GaN and greatly enhance photoluminescence (PL) in GaN epilayers. An 8.3-fold enhancement of PL in GaN is observed after the doping. On the basis of time-resolved PL studies, the PL enhancement is attributed to the carrier transfer from GQDs to GaN. Such a carrier transfer process is caused by the work function difference between GQDs and GaN, which is verified by Kelvin probe measurements. We have also observed that photocurrent in GaN can be enhanced by 23-fold due to photo-induced doping with GQDs. The improved optical and transport properties from photo-induced doping are promising for applications in GaN-based optoelectronic devices. PMID:26987403

  12. Photo-induced Doping in GaN Epilayers with Graphene Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, T. N.; Inciong, M. R.; Santiago, S. R. M. S.; Yeh, T. W.; Yang, W. Y.; Yuan, C. T.; Shen, J. L.; Kuo, H. C.; Chiu, C. H.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate a new doping scheme where photo-induced carriers from graphene quantum dots (GQDs) can be injected into GaN and greatly enhance photoluminescence (PL) in GaN epilayers. An 8.3-fold enhancement of PL in GaN is observed after the doping. On the basis of time-resolved PL studies, the PL enhancement is attributed to the carrier transfer from GQDs to GaN. Such a carrier transfer process is caused by the work function difference between GQDs and GaN, which is verified by Kelvin probe measurements. We have also observed that photocurrent in GaN can be enhanced by 23-fold due to photo-induced doping with GQDs. The improved optical and transport properties from photo-induced doping are promising for applications in GaN-based optoelectronic devices.

  13. The Surface Polarized Graphene Oxide Quantum Dot Films for Flexible Nanogenerators.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liangbin; Cheng, Yafei; Zhu, Lili; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Liao, Fan; Shao, Mingwang

    2016-01-01

    Abundant disorderly-distributed surface functional groups, such as hydroxyl, carboxyl, ether and amino groups, endow an isolated graphene oxide quantum dot (GOQD) the polar property due to the symmetry breaking, although the aggregated counterparts present no polarization owing to the random orientation. Here, flexible polarized films were fabricated using aggregated GOQDs with the assistance of external electric fields and their polarization was confirmed with the electrostatic force microscopy and polarization-electric field hysteresis loop. Such polarized GOQD films may induce charges under externally applied deformation. Here, we fabricated nanogenerators based on the films, which gave out an average current value of 0.12 μA and an average voltage value of 12 V under a mechanical force of 60 N. This work has proposed a convenient electric-field-assisted method to give the nanomaterials new functions, which can be generalized to other materials and found applications in various fields. PMID:27596991

  14. Free-Radical-Assisted Rapid Synthesis of Graphene Quantum Dots and Their Oxidizability Studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Liu, Hui; Liu, Xin-Qian; Li, Sen; Wang, Lifeng; Ma, Ning; Qiu, Dengli

    2016-08-30

    This work reports a modified electrochemical method for rapid and large-scale preparing graphene quantum dots (GQDs) by introduction of active free radicals, which were produced by hydrogen peroxide or ultraviolet radiation. These free radicals can deepen the oxidized or reduced level of working electrode in electrochemical process and thus lead to GQDs with high concentration and small size, but different surface oxidized degree. The improved oxidation and reduction mechanism were analyzed in this work. Meanwhile, the optical properties and oxidizability of GQDs with different surface oxidized degree were investigated. It is found that these GQDs can be used as an oxidizing agent and their oxidizability is related to the degree being oxidized. PMID:27506575

  15. Fluorescent graphene quantum dots as traceable, pH-sensitive drug delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jichuan; Zhang, Ruibin; Li, Jianhua; Sang, Yuanhua; Tang, Wei; Rivera Gil, Pilar; Liu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) were rationally fabricated as a traceable drug delivery system for the targeted, pH-sensitive delivery of a chemotherapeutic drug into cancer cells. The GQDs served as fluorescent carriers for a well-known anticancer drug, doxorubicin (Dox). The whole system has the capacity for simultaneous tracking of the carrier and of drug release. Dox release is triggered upon acidification of the intracellular vesicles, where the carriers are located after their uptake by cancer cells. Further functionalization of the loaded carriers with targeting moieties such as arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides enhanced their uptake by cancer cells. DU-145 and PC-3 human prostate cancer cell lines were used to evaluate the anticancer ability of Dox-loaded RGD-modified GQDs (Dox-RGD-GQDs). The results demonstrated the feasibility of using GQDs as traceable drug delivery systems with the ability for the pH-triggered delivery of drugs into target cells. PMID:26604747

  16. Immobilizing water-soluble graphene quantum dots with gold nanoparticles for a low potential electrochemiluminescence immunosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yongqiang; Wu, Huan; Shang, Pengxiang; Zeng, Xiaoting; Chi, Yuwu

    2015-10-01

    Hydrazide-modified graphene quantum dots (HM-GQDs) obtained by refluxing GQDs with hydrazine hydrate were hybridized with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) through a redox reaction between HM-GQDs and AuCl4-. The obtained nano-hybrids (HM-GQD-AuNPs) possess the unique electrochemiluminescence (ECL) properties of HM-GQDs and the easy self-assembly with some bio-molecules of AuNPs, which have great potential applications in bio-sensors. HM-GQD-AuNPs were modified on a glassy carbon electrode to develop a novel ECL immunosensor of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as a model target analyte. Due to the increment of electron-transfer resistance after immunoreaction, the ECL intensity decreased as the concentration of CEA was increased. The linear response range was between 0.02 and 80 ng mL-1, and the detection limit was 0.01 ng mL-1.Hydrazide-modified graphene quantum dots (HM-GQDs) obtained by refluxing GQDs with hydrazine hydrate were hybridized with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) through a redox reaction between HM-GQDs and AuCl4-. The obtained nano-hybrids (HM-GQD-AuNPs) possess the unique electrochemiluminescence (ECL) properties of HM-GQDs and the easy self-assembly with some bio-molecules of AuNPs, which have great potential applications in bio-sensors. HM-GQD-AuNPs were modified on a glassy carbon electrode to develop a novel ECL immunosensor of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as a model target analyte. Due to the increment of electron-transfer resistance after immunoreaction, the ECL intensity decreased as the concentration of CEA was increased. The linear response range was between 0.02 and 80 ng mL-1, and the detection limit was 0.01 ng mL-1. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04328j

  17. Multicolor fluorescent graphene quantum dots colorimetrically responsive to all-pH and a wide temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Fanglong; Ding, Ling; Li, Yunchao; Li, Xiaohong; Fan, Louzhen; Zhou, Shixin; Fang, Decai; Yang, Shihe

    2015-07-01

    Smart functional nanomaterials colorimetrically responsive to all-pH and a wide temperature range are urgently needed due to their widespread applications in biotechnology, drug delivery, diagnosis and optical sensing. Although graphene quantum dots possess remarkable advantages in biological applications, they are only stable in neutral or weak acidic solutions, and strong acidic or alkaline conditions invariably suppress or diminish the fluorescence intensity. Herein, we report a new type of water-soluble, multicolor fluorescent graphene quantum dot which is responsive to all-pH from 1 to 14 with the naked eye. The synthesis was accomplished by electrolysis of the graphite rod, followed by refluxing in a concentrated nitric and sulfuric acid mixed solution. We demonstrate the novel red fluorescence of quinone structures transformed from the lactone structures under strong alkaline conditions. The fluorescence of the resulting graphene quantum dots was also found to be responsive to the temperature changes, demonstrating their great potential as a dual probe of pH and temperature in complicated environments such as biological media.Smart functional nanomaterials colorimetrically responsive to all-pH and a wide temperature range are urgently needed due to their widespread applications in biotechnology, drug delivery, diagnosis and optical sensing. Although graphene quantum dots possess remarkable advantages in biological applications, they are only stable in neutral or weak acidic solutions, and strong acidic or alkaline conditions invariably suppress or diminish the fluorescence intensity. Herein, we report a new type of water-soluble, multicolor fluorescent graphene quantum dot which is responsive to all-pH from 1 to 14 with the naked eye. The synthesis was accomplished by electrolysis of the graphite rod, followed by refluxing in a concentrated nitric and sulfuric acid mixed solution. We demonstrate the novel red fluorescence of quinone structures transformed

  18. Graphene frameworks promoted electron transport in quantum dot-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanyan; Meng, Xin; Cui, Huijuan; Jia, Suping; Dong, Jianhui; Zheng, Jianfeng; Zhao, Jianghong; Wang, Zhijian; Li, Li; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Zhenping

    2014-08-27

    Graphene frameworks (GFs) were incorporated into TiO2 photoanode as electron transport medium to improve the photovoltaic performance of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) for their excellent conductivity and isotropic framework structure that could permit rapid charge transport. Intensity modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results show that the electron transport time (τ(d)) of 1.5 wt % GFs/TiO2 electrode is one-fifth of that of the TiO2 electrode, and electron lifetime (τ(n)) and diffusion path length (Ln) are thrice those of the TiO2 electrode. Results also revealed that the GFs/TiO2 electrode has a shorter electron transport time (τ(d)), as well as longer electron lifetime (τ(n)) and diffusion path length (Ln), than conventional 2D graphene sheets/TiO2 electrode, thus indicating that GFs could promote rapid electron transfer in TiO2 photoanodes. Photocurrent-voltage curves demonstrated that when incorporating 1.5 wt % GFs into TiO2 photoanode, a maximum power conversion efficiency of 4.2% for QDSSCs could be achieved. This value was higher than that of TiO2 photoanode and 2D graphene sheets/TiO2 electrode. In addition, the reasons behind the sensitivity of photoelectric conversion efficiency to the graphene concentration in the TiO2 were also systematically investigated. Our results provide a basic understanding of how GFs can efficiently promote electron transport in TiO2-based solar cells. PMID:25075630

  19. Photoinduced Electron Transfer from Various Aniline Derivatives to Graphene Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Tufan; Chatterjee, Swarupa; Prasad, Edamana

    2015-12-10

    The present study utilizes the luminescence nature of the graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to analyze the mechanistic aspects of the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) processes between GQDs and aniline derivatives. A systematic investigation of PET from various aniline derivatives to GQDs has been presented. Solution-processable GQDs have been synthesized from graphene oxide (GO) at 200 °C. The as-synthesized GQDs exhibit a strong green luminescence at 510 nm, upon photoexcitation at 440 nm. Various aniline derivatives (aniline, N-methylaniline, N,N'-dimethylaniline, N-ethylaniline, N,N'-diethylaniline, and N,N'-diphenylaniline) have been utilized as electron donors to probe the PET process. Results from UV-visible absorption and steady-state and time-resolve luminescence spectroscopy suggest that the GQDs interact with the aniline derivatives in the excited state, which results in a significant luminescence quenching of the GQDs. The bimolecular rate constants of the dynamic quenching have been deduced for various donor-acceptor systems, and the values are in the range of (1.06-2.68) × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1). The negative values of the free energy change of the electron transfer process suggest that PET from aniline derivatives to GQDs is feasible and could be responsible for the luminescence quenching. The PET has been confirmed by detecting radical cations for certain aniline derivatives, using a nanosecond laser flash photolysis setup. The present study shows that among the various types of graphene systems, GQDs are better candidates for understanding the mechanism of PET in graphene-based donor-acceptor systems. PMID:26580460

  20. A general quantitative pH sensor developed with dicyandiamide N-doped high quantum yield graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhu Lian; Gao, Ming Xuan; Wang, Ting Ting; Wan, Xiao Yan; Zheng, Lin Ling; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2014-03-01

    A general quantitative pH sensor for environmental and intracellular applications was developed by the facile hydrothermal preparation of dicyandiamide (DCD) N-doped high quantum yield (QY) graphene quantum dots (GQDs) using citric acid (CA) as the carbon source. The obtained N-doped GQDs have excellent photoluminesence (PL) properties with a relatively high QY of 36.5%, suggesting that N-doped chemistry could promote the QY of carbon nanomaterials. The possible mechanism for the formation of the GQDs involves the CA self-assembling into a nanosheet structure through intermolecular H-bonding at the initial stage of the reaction, and then the pure graphene core with many function groups formed through the dehydration between the carboxyl and hydroxyl of the intermolecules under hydrothermal conditions. These N-doped GQDs have low toxicity, and are photostable and pH-sensitive between 1.81 to 8.96, giving a general pH sensor with a wide range of applications from real water to intracellular contents.A general quantitative pH sensor for environmental and intracellular applications was developed by the facile hydrothermal preparation of dicyandiamide (DCD) N-doped high quantum yield (QY) graphene quantum dots (GQDs) using citric acid (CA) as the carbon source. The obtained N-doped GQDs have excellent photoluminesence (PL) properties with a relatively high QY of 36.5%, suggesting that N-doped chemistry could promote the QY of carbon nanomaterials. The possible mechanism for the formation of the GQDs involves the CA self-assembling into a nanosheet structure through intermolecular H-bonding at the initial stage of the reaction, and then the pure graphene core with many function groups formed through the dehydration between the carboxyl and hydroxyl of the intermolecules under hydrothermal conditions. These N-doped GQDs have low toxicity, and are photostable and pH-sensitive between 1.81 to 8.96, giving a general pH sensor with a wide range of applications from real water

  1. Functionalization of TiO2 with graphene quantum dots for efficient photocatalytic hydrogen evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Xuqiang; Jin, Zhiliang; Xu, Jing; Min, Shixiong; Lu, Gongxuan

    2016-06-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) serve as a novel solid-state electron transfer reagent anchored on TiO2 by in situ photo-assisted strategy and greatly enhanced photocatalytic H2 evolution activity in methanol aqueous solution without the noble mental cocatalyst. The excellent photocatalytic activities were ascribed to the GQDs which act as an excellent electron transporters and acceptors, as well as photosensitizer. GQDs not only acted as efficient electron reservoirs and a solid-state electron transfer reagent from the conduction band of TiO2 to GQDs, but also acted as an excellent photosensitizer to sensitize TiO2, in which the photoinduced electrons transfer from excited GQDs to TiO2 to produce H2. In addition, GQDs is nanoscale fragments of graphene which can provide a larger active surface and greatly increase the contact area with the TiO2, which is conducive to rapidly transfer photo-generated electrons due to the large specific area and high carrier mobility of GQDs. Thus, GQDs improved the photocatalytic activity for H2 evolution.

  2. Graphene quantum dots FRET based sensor for early detection of heart attack in human.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Deepika; Kumar, Vanish; Kumar, Ashok; Kaur, Inderpreet

    2016-05-15

    Cardiac immunosensor for early detection of heart attack (myocardial infarction) was developed using amine functionalized graphene quantum dots (afGQDs) conjugated with antibody anti-cardiac Troponin I (anti-cTnI) to detect cardiac marker antigen Troponin I (cTnI) in blood based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between conjugate and graphene (quencher) only in 10 min. The anti-cTnI was covalently conjugated to afGQDs through carbodiimide coupling reaction. The conjugate was characterized by zeta potential UV-vis spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The sensing performance of the sensor was studied with respect to changes in the photon count and photoluminescence of GQDs based on interaction of target cTnI with its specific anti-cTnI antibody. The sensor is highly specific and shows negligible response to non-specific antigens. The sensor displayed a linear response to cTnI from 0.001 to 1000 ng mL(-1) with a limit of detection of 0.192 pg mL(-1). PMID:26748366

  3. Effect of Lateral Size of Graphene Quantum Dots on Their Properties and Application.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fangwei; Liu, Fei; Wang, Chong; Xin, Xiaozhen; Liu, Jingyuan; Guo, Shouwu; Zhang, Jingyan

    2016-01-27

    Well-defined graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are crucial for their biological applications and the construction of nanoscaled optoelectronic and electronic devices. However, as-synthesized GQDs reported in many works assume a very wide lateral size distribution; thus, their apparent properties cannot truthfully reflect intrinsic properties of the well-defined GQDs, and more importantly, the applications of GQDs will be affected and limited as well. In this work, we demonstrated that different sized GQDs with a narrow size distribution could be obtained via gel electrophoresis of the crude GQDs prepared through a photo-Fenton reaction of graphene oxide (GO). It is illustrated that the photoluminesce (PL) emissions of the well-defined GQDs originated mainly from the peripheral carboxylic groups and conjugated carbon backbone planes through fluorescence and UV-vis spectroscopies. More importantly, our findings challenge the notion that the excitation wavelength dependent PL property of the as-synthesized GQDs is the intrinsic property of the size-defined GQDs. Preliminary data at the cellular level indicated that the small sized GQDs exhibit weaker quenching DNA dye ability but higher toxicity to the cells compared to that of the as-synthesized GQDs. This discovery is essential to explore applications of the GQDs in pharmaceutics and to understand the origin of the optoelectronic properties of GQDs. PMID:26725374

  4. The in vitro and in vivo toxicity of graphene quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Chong, Yu; Ma, Yufei; Shen, He; Tu, Xiaolong; Zhou, Xuan; Xu, Jiaying; Dai, Jianwu; Fan, Saijun; Zhang, Zhijun

    2014-06-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQD) generate intrinsic fluorescence, and improves aqueous stability of graphene oxide (GO) while maintaining wide chemical adaptability and high adsorption capacity. Despite GO's remarkable advantages in bio-imaging, bio-sensing and other biomedical applications, its biosafety issues are still unclear. Here we report a detailed and systematic study on the in vitro and in vivo toxicity of GQD. The GQD sample was prepared through a facile oxidation approach and fully characterized by means of AFM, TEM, FTIR, XPS and elemental analysis. In vitro experiments showed that GQD exhibits very low cytotoxicity owing to its ultra-small size and high oxygen content. Then, the in vivo biodistribution experiment of GQD revealed no material accumulation in main organs of mice and fast clearance of GQD through kidney. In order to mimic clinic drug administration, mice were injected with GQD and GO (as comparison) multiple times for in vivo toxicity tests. We found that GQD showed no obvious influence on mice owing to its small size, while GO appeared toxic, even caused death to mice due to GO aggregation inside mice. In brief, GQD possesses no obvious in vitro and in vivo toxicity, even under multi-dosing situation. PMID:24685264

  5. Novel cobalt quantum dot/graphene nanocomposites as highly efficient electrocatalysts for water splitting.

    PubMed

    Govindhan, Maduraiveeran; Mao, Brennan; Chen, Aicheng

    2016-01-21

    A cost-effective, non-noble metal based high-performance electrocatalyst for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is critical to energy conversion and storage processes. Here, we report on a facile and effective in situ strategy for the synthesis of an advanced nanocomposite material that is comprised of cobalt quantum dots (Co QDs, ∼3.2 nm), uniformly dispersed on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as a highly efficient OER electrocatalyst platform. This nanocomposite electrocatalyst afforded a mass activity of 1250 A g(-1) at a low overpotential (η) of 0.37 V, a small Tafel slope of ∼37 mV dec(-1) and a turnover frequency (TOF) of 0.188 s(-1) in 0.1 M KOH, comparing favorably with state-of-the-art RuO2, IrO2 and Pt/C catalysts. The synergy between abundant catalytically active sites through the fine dispersion of Co QDs, and enhanced electron transfer generated from the graphene resulted in first-rate electrocatalytic properties toward the OER. These merits coupled with the higher stability of the nanocomposite hold great promise for triggering breakthroughs in electrocatalysis for water splitting. PMID:26677009

  6. A FRET chemsensor based on graphene quantum dots for detecting and intracellular imaging of Hg²⁺.

    PubMed

    Liu, Maoping; Liu, Tao; Li, Yang; Xu, Hui; Zheng, Baozhan; Wang, Dongmei; Du, Juan; Xiao, Dan

    2015-10-01

    The detection of Hg(2+) has attracted considerable attention because of the serious health and environmental problems caused by it. Herein, a novel ratiometric fluorescent chemsensor (GQDs-SR) based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) process for detecting of Hg(2+) was designed and synthesized with rhodamine derivative covalently linked onto graphene quantum dots. In this sensor, the graphene quantum dots (GQDs) served as energy donor and the rhodamine derivative turned into an energy acceptor when encountered Hg(2+). The chemsensor exhibited high selectivity, low cytotoxicity, biocompatibility and good water solubility. The results of intracellular imaging experiment demonstrated that GQDs-SR was cell permeable and could be used for monitoring Hg(2+) in living cells, and it was also successfully applied to the detection of Hg(2+) in practical water samples. PMID:26078182

  7. A srikaya-like light-harvesting antenna based on graphene quantum dots and porphyrin unimolecular micelles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yannan; Li, Shanlong; Li, Ke; Zheng, Yongli; Zhang, Meng; Cai, Caiyun; Yu, Chunyang; Zhou, Yongfeng; Yan, Deyue

    2016-07-19

    A novel hybrid light-harvesting antenna with a srikaya-like structure of multi-graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as donors and one porphyrin unimolecular micelle as the acceptor was constructed through electrostatic self-assembly. The constructed antenna showed a high energy transfer efficiency of up to 93.6% and an antenna effect of 7.3 in an aqueous solution. PMID:27374891

  8. Adsorption of toxic carbamate pesticide oxamyl from liquid phase by newly synthesized and characterized graphene quantum dots nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Shilpi; Sadeghi, Nima; Tyagi, Inderjeet; Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Fakhri, Ali

    2016-09-15

    Graphene quantum dots have been synthesized using the microwave-assisted hydrothermal route. The surface textural and morphological structure of synthesized adsorbent i.e. graphene quantum dots was analyzed using various analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction, Transmission electron Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy and N2 adsorption-desorption instrumental techniques. The application of graphene quantum dots as an adsorbent for the removal of noxious pesticide compound i.e. oxamyl from aqueous solutions was well investigated and elucidated. The impact of several effective parameters such as effect of agitation speed, pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, temperature and initial concentration on sorption efficiency was studied and optimized using batch adsorption experiments. The optimized pH for maximum oxamyl adsorption was found to be 8.0 and for the maximum adsorption rates the adsorbent dose of 0.6g was found to be optimum to carry out the adsorption with in less than 25min of contact time. From the results obtained, it is clear that for all contact times, an increase in oxamyl concentration resulted in increase in the percent oxamyl removal. The adsorption equilibrium and kinetic data were well fitted and found to be in good agreement with the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic model. PMID:27362399

  9. Multicolor fluorescent graphene quantum dots colorimetrically responsive to all-pH and a wide temperature range.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fanglong; Ding, Ling; Li, Yunchao; Li, Xiaohong; Fan, Louzhen; Zhou, Shixin; Fang, Decai; Yang, Shihe

    2015-07-21

    Smart functional nanomaterials colorimetrically responsive to all-pH and a wide temperature range are urgently needed due to their widespread applications in biotechnology, drug delivery, diagnosis and optical sensing. Although graphene quantum dots possess remarkable advantages in biological applications, they are only stable in neutral or weak acidic solutions, and strong acidic or alkaline conditions invariably suppress or diminish the fluorescence intensity. Herein, we report a new type of water-soluble, multicolor fluorescent graphene quantum dot which is responsive to all-pH from 1 to 14 with the naked eye. The synthesis was accomplished by electrolysis of the graphite rod, followed by refluxing in a concentrated nitric and sulfuric acid mixed solution. We demonstrate the novel red fluorescence of quinone structures transformed from the lactone structures under strong alkaline conditions. The fluorescence of the resulting graphene quantum dots was also found to be responsive to the temperature changes, demonstrating their great potential as a dual probe of pH and temperature in complicated environments such as biological media. PMID:26102292

  10. Cellular distribution and cytotoxicity of graphene quantum dots with different functional groups

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have been developed as promising optical probes for bioimaging due to their excellent photoluminescent properties. Additionally, the fluorescence spectrum and quantum yield of GQDs are highly dependent on the surface functional groups on the carbon sheets. However, the distribution and cytotoxicity of GQDs functionalized with different chemical groups have not been specifically investigated. Herein, the cytotoxicity of three kinds of GQDs with different modified groups (NH2, COOH, and CO-N (CH3)2, respectively) in human A549 lung carcinoma cells and human neural glioma C6 cells was investigated using thiazoyl blue colorimetric (MTT) assay and trypan blue assay. The cellular apoptosis or necrosis was then evaluated by flow cytometry analysis. It was demonstrated that the three modified GQDs showed good biocompatibility even when the concentration reached 200 μg/mL. The Raman spectra of cells treated with GQDs with different functional groups also showed no distinct changes, affording molecular level evidence for the biocompatibility of the three kinds of GQDs. The cellular distribution of the three modified GQDs was observed using a fluorescence microscope. The data revealed that GQDs randomly dispersed in the cytoplasm but not diffused into nucleus. Therefore, GQDs with different functional groups have low cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility regardless of chemical modification, offering good prospects for bioimaging and other biomedical applications. PMID:24597852

  11. Highly Sensitive and Selective Detection of Nanomolar Ferric Ions Using Dopamine Functionalized Graphene Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Dutta Chowdhury, Ankan; Doong, Ruey-An

    2016-08-17

    The good stability, low cytotoxicity, and excellent photoluminescence property of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) make them an emerging class of promising materials in various application fields ranging from sensor to drug delivery. In the present work, the dopamine-functionalized GQDs (DA-GQDs) with stably bright blue fluorescence were successfully synthesized for low level Fe(3+) ions detection. The as-synthesized GQDs are uniform in size with narrow-distributed particle size of 4.5 ± 0.6 nm and high quantum yield of 10.2%. The amide linkage of GQDs with dopamine, confirmed by using XPS and FTIR spectra, results in the specific interaction between Fe(3+) and catechol moiety of dopamine at the interfaces for highly sensitive and selective detection of Fe(3+). A linear range of 20 nM to 2 μM with a detection limit of 7.6 nM is obtained for Fe(3+) detection by DA-GQDs. The selectivity of DA-GQDs sensing probe is significantly excellent in the presence of other interfering metal ions. In addition, the reaction mechanism for Fe(3+) detection based on the complexation and oxidation of dopamine has been proposed and validated. Results obtained in this study clearly demonstrate the superiority of surface functionalized GQDs to Fe(3+) detection, which can pave an avenue for the development of high performance and robust sensing probes for detection of metal ions and other organic metabolites in environmental and biomedical applications. PMID:27472083

  12. Highly responsive MoS2 photodetectors enhanced by graphene quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Caiyun; Qiao, Hong; Lin, Shenghuang; Man Luk, Chi; Liu, Yan; Xu, Zaiquan; Song, Jingchao; Xue, Yunzhou; Li, Delong; Yuan, Jian; Yu, Wenzhi; Pan, Chunxu; Ping Lau, Shu; Bao, Qiaoliang

    2015-01-01

    Molybdenum disulphide (MoS2), which is a typical semiconductor from the family of layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), is an attractive material for optoelectronic and photodetection applications because of its tunable bandgap and high quantum luminescence efficiency. Although a high photoresponsivity of 880–2000 AW−1 and photogain up to 5000 have been demonstrated in MoS2-based photodetectors, the light absorption and gain mechanisms are two fundamental issues preventing these materials from further improvement. In addition, it is still debated whether monolayer or multilayer MoS2 could deliver better performance. Here, we demonstrate a photoresponsivity of approximately 104 AW−1 and a photogain of approximately 107 electrons per photon in an n-n heterostructure photodetector that consists of a multilayer MoS2 thin film covered with a thin layer of graphene quantum dots (GQDs). The enhanced light-matter interaction results from effective charge transfer and the re-absorption of photons, leading to enhanced light absorption and the creation of electron-hole pairs. It is feasible to scale up the device and obtain a fast response, thus making it one step closer to practical applications. PMID:26137854

  13. Novel cobalt quantum dot/graphene nanocomposites as highly efficient electrocatalysts for water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindhan, Maduraiveeran; Mao, Brennan; Chen, Aicheng

    2016-01-01

    A cost-effective, non-noble metal based high-performance electrocatalyst for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is critical to energy conversion and storage processes. Here, we report on a facile and effective in situ strategy for the synthesis of an advanced nanocomposite material that is comprised of cobalt quantum dots (Co QDs, ~3.2 nm), uniformly dispersed on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as a highly efficient OER electrocatalyst platform. This nanocomposite electrocatalyst afforded a mass activity of 1250 A g-1 at a low overpotential (η) of 0.37 V, a small Tafel slope of ~37 mV dec-1 and a turnover frequency (TOF) of 0.188 s-1 in 0.1 M KOH, comparing favorably with state-of-the-art RuO2, IrO2 and Pt/C catalysts. The synergy between abundant catalytically active sites through the fine dispersion of Co QDs, and enhanced electron transfer generated from the graphene resulted in first-rate electrocatalytic properties toward the OER. These merits coupled with the higher stability of the nanocomposite hold great promise for triggering breakthroughs in electrocatalysis for water splitting.A cost-effective, non-noble metal based high-performance electrocatalyst for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is critical to energy conversion and storage processes. Here, we report on a facile and effective in situ strategy for the synthesis of an advanced nanocomposite material that is comprised of cobalt quantum dots (Co QDs, ~3.2 nm), uniformly dispersed on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as a highly efficient OER electrocatalyst platform. This nanocomposite electrocatalyst afforded a mass activity of 1250 A g-1 at a low overpotential (η) of 0.37 V, a small Tafel slope of ~37 mV dec-1 and a turnover frequency (TOF) of 0.188 s-1 in 0.1 M KOH, comparing favorably with state-of-the-art RuO2, IrO2 and Pt/C catalysts. The synergy between abundant catalytically active sites through the fine dispersion of Co QDs, and enhanced electron transfer generated from the graphene resulted in

  14. Photoluminescent graphene quantum dots for in vivo imaging of apoptotic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Prathik; Periasamy, Arun Prakash; Lin, Chiu-Ya; Her, Guor-Mour; Chiu, Wei-Jane; Li, Chi-Lin; Shu, Chia-Lun; Huang, Chih-Ching; Liang, Chi-Te; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis (programmed cell death) is linked to many incurable neurodegenerative, cardiovascular and cancer causing diseases. Numerous methods have been developed for imaging apoptotic cells in vitro; however, there are few methods available for imaging apoptotic cells in live animals (in vivo). Here we report a novel method utilizing the unique photoluminescence properties of plant leaf-derived graphene quantum dots (GQDs) modified with annexin V antibody (AbA5) to form (AbA5)-modified GQDs (AbA5-GQDs) enabling us to label apoptotic cells in live zebrafish (Danio rerio). The key is that zebrafish shows bright red photoluminescence in the presence of apoptotic cells. The toxicity of the GQDs has also been investigated with the GQDs exhibiting high biocompatibility as they were excreted from the zebrafish's body without affecting its growth significantly at a concentration lower than 2 mg mL-1 over a period of 4 to 72 hour post fertilization. The GQDs have further been used to image human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7 cells), human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa cells), and normal human mammary epithelial cell line (MCF-10A). These results are indispensable to further the advance of graphene-based nanomaterials for biomedical applications.Apoptosis (programmed cell death) is linked to many incurable neurodegenerative, cardiovascular and cancer causing diseases. Numerous methods have been developed for imaging apoptotic cells in vitro; however, there are few methods available for imaging apoptotic cells in live animals (in vivo). Here we report a novel method utilizing the unique photoluminescence properties of plant leaf-derived graphene quantum dots (GQDs) modified with annexin V antibody (AbA5) to form (AbA5)-modified GQDs (AbA5-GQDs) enabling us to label apoptotic cells in live zebrafish (Danio rerio). The key is that zebrafish shows bright red photoluminescence in the presence of apoptotic cells. The toxicity of the GQDs has also been investigated with

  15. Intrinsic and extrinsic defects in a family of coal-derived graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singamaneni, Srinivasa Rao; van Tol, Johan; Ye, Ruquan; Tour, James M.

    2015-11-01

    In this letter, we report on the high frequency (239.2 and 336 GHz) electron spin resonance (ESR) studies performed on graphene quantum dots (GQDs), prepared through a wet chemistry route from three types of coal: (a) bituminous, (b) anthracite, and (c) coke; and from non-coal derived GQDs. The microwave frequency-, power-, and temperature-dependent ESR spectra coupled with computer-aided simulations reveal four distinct magnetic defect centers. In bituminous- and anthracite-derived GQDs, we have identified two of them as intrinsic carbon-centered magnetic defect centers (a broad signal of peak to peak width = 697 (10-4 T), g = 2.0023; and a narrow signal of peak to peak width = 60 (10-4 T), g = 2.003). The third defect center is Mn2+ (6S5/2, 3d5) (signal width = 61 (10-4 T), g = 2.0023, Aiso = 93(10-4 T)), and the fourth defect is identified as Cu2+ (2D5/2, 3d9) (g⊥ = 2.048 and g‖ = 2.279), previously undetected. Coke-derived and non-coal derived GQDs show Mn2+ and two-carbon related signals, and no Cu2+ signal. The extrinsic impurities most likely originate from the starting coal. Furthermore, Raman, photoluminescence, and ESR measurements detected no noticeable changes in the properties of the bituminous GQDs after one year. This study highlights the importance of employing high frequency ESR spectroscopy in identifying the (magnetic) defects, which are roadblocks for spin relaxation times of graphene-based materials. These defects would not have been possible to probe by other spin transport measurements.

  16. Synthesis of Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Quantum Dots at Low Temperature for Electrochemical Sensing Trinitrotoluene.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhewei; Li, Fumin; Wu, Ping; Ji, Lijuan; Zhang, Hui; Cai, Chenxin; Gervasio, Dominic F

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) are synthesized at low temperature as a new catalyst allowing electrochemical detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). N-GQDs are made by an oxidative ultrasonication of graphene oxide (GO) forming nanometer-sized species, which are then chemically reduced and nitrogen doped by reacting with hydrazine. The as-synthesized N-GQDs have an average diameter of ∼2.5 nm with an N/C atomic ratio of up to ∼6.4%. To detect TNT, TNT is first accumulated on N-GQDs modified glassy carbon (N-GQDs/GC) electrode by holding the electrode at a 0 V versus Ag/AgCl for 150 s in an aqueous TNT solution. Next, the N-GQDs/GC electrode with accumulated TNT is transferred to a fresh PBS solution (0.1 M, pH 7.0, without TNT), where the TNT reduction current at -0.36 V versus Ag/AgCl in a linear scan voltammogram (LSV) shows a linear response to TNT concentration in the aqueous solution from 1 to 400 ppb, with a correlation coefficient of 0.999, a detection limit of 0.2 ppb at a signal/noise (S/N) of 3, and a detection sensitivity of 363 ± 7 mA mM(-1) cm(-2). The detection limit of 0.2 ppb of TNT for this new method is much lower than 2 ppb set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water. Therefore, N-GQDs allow an electrochemical method for assaying TNT in drinking water to determine if levels of TNT are safe or not. PMID:26545150

  17. Synthesis of a CdSe-graphene hybrid composed of CdSe quantum dot arrays directly grown on CVD-graphene and its ultrafast carrier dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong-Tae; Shin, Hee-Won; Ko, Young-Seon; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Kwon, Young-Uk

    2013-01-01

    We report the original fabrication and performance of a photocurrent device that uses directly grown CdSe quantum dots (QDs) on a graphene basal plane. The direct junction between the QDs and graphene and the high quality of the graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition enables highly efficient electron transfer from the QDs to the graphene. Therefore, the hybrids show large photocurrent effects with a fast response time and shortened photoluminescence (PL) lifetime. The PL lifetime quenching can be explained as being due to the efficient electron transfer as evidenced by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. These hybrids are expected to find applications in flexible electronics and optoelectronic devices.We report the original fabrication and performance of a photocurrent device that uses directly grown CdSe quantum dots (QDs) on a graphene basal plane. The direct junction between the QDs and graphene and the high quality of the graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition enables highly efficient electron transfer from the QDs to the graphene. Therefore, the hybrids show large photocurrent effects with a fast response time and shortened photoluminescence (PL) lifetime. The PL lifetime quenching can be explained as being due to the efficient electron transfer as evidenced by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. These hybrids are expected to find applications in flexible electronics and optoelectronic devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: TEM data of MSTF, AFM data of T-QD-G samples, PL decay fitting results to the multiexponential decay equation, photoconductivity data of T-QD-2LG with two different illumination wavelengths, photocurrent efficiencies of QD-G hybrids prepared in various ways, photoconductivity and photoresponse data of T-QD-2LG and T-QD-3LG, and the bending stress on a PET film. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr33294a

  18. Graphene Quantum Dot Layers with Energy-Down-Shift Effect on Crystalline-Silicon Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung D; Park, Myung J; Kim, Do-Yeon; Kim, Soo M; Kang, Byungjun; Kim, Seongtak; Kim, Hyunho; Lee, Hae-Seok; Kang, Yoonmook; Yoon, Sam S; Hong, Byung H; Kim, Donghwan

    2015-09-01

    Graphene quantum dot (GQD) layers were deposited as an energy-down-shift layer on crystalline-silicon solar cell surfaces by kinetic spraying of GQD suspensions. A supersonic air jet was used to accelerate the GQDs onto the surfaces. Here, we report the coating results on a silicon substrate and the GQDs' application as an energy-down-shift layer in crystalline-silicon solar cells, which enhanced the power conversion efficiency (PCE). GQD layers deposited at nozzle scan speeds of 40, 30, 20, and 10 mm/s were evaluated after they were used to fabricate crystalline-silicon solar cells; the results indicate that GQDs play an important role in increasing the optical absorptivity of the cells. The short-circuit current density was enhanced by about 2.94% (0.9 mA/cm(2)) at 30 mm/s. Compared to a reference device without a GQD energy-down-shift layer, the PCE of p-type silicon solar cells was improved by 2.7% (0.4 percentage points). PMID:26264738

  19. Cytotoxicity of quantum dots and graphene oxide to erythroid cells and macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Guangbo; Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Zhe; Liu, Sijin; Jiang, Guibing

    2013-04-01

    Great concerns have been raised about the exposure and possible adverse influence of nanomaterials due to their wide applications in a variety of fields, such as biomedicine and daily lives. The blood circulation system and blood cells form an important barrier against invaders, including nanomaterials. However, studies of the biological effects of nanomaterials on blood cells have been limited and without clear conclusions thus far. In the current study, the biological influence of quantum dots (QDs) with various surface coating on erythroid cells and graphene oxide (GO) on macrophages was closely investigated. We found that QDs posed great damage to macrophages through intracellular accumulation of QDs coupled with reactive oxygen species generation, particularly for QDs coated with PEG-NH2. QD modified with polyethylene glycol-conjugated amine particles exerted robust inhibition on cell proliferation of J744A.1 macrophages, irrespective of apoptosis. Additionally, to the best of our knowledge, our study is the first to have demonstrated that GO could provoke apoptosis of erythroid cells through oxidative stress in E14.5 fetal liver erythroid cells and in vivo administration of GO-diminished erythroid population in spleen, associated with disordered erythropoiesis in mice.

  20. Graphene Oxide Quantum Dots Covalently Functionalized PVDF Membrane with Significantly-Enhanced Bactericidal and Antibiofouling Performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Zhiping; Yu, Dingshan; He, Ziming; Liu, Jing; Xiao, Fang-Xing; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Rong; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang

    2016-02-01

    Covalent bonding of graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) onto amino modified polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane has generated a new type of nano-carbon functionalized membrane with significantly enhanced antibacterial and antibiofouling properties. A continuous filtration test using E. coli containing feedwater shows that the relative flux drop over GOQDs modified PVDF is 23%, which is significantly lower than those over pristine PVDF (86%) and GO-sheet modified PVDF (62%) after 10 h of filtration. The presence of GOQD coating layer effectively inactivates E. coli and S. aureus cells, and prevents the biofilm formation on the membrane surface, producing excellent antimicrobial activity and potentially antibiofouling capability, more superior than those of previously reported two-dimensional GO sheets and one-dimensional CNTs modified membranes. The distinctive antimicrobial and antibiofouling performances could be attributed to the unique structure and uniform dispersion of GOQDs, enabling the exposure of a larger fraction of active edges and facilitating the formation of oxidation stress. Furthermore, GOQDs modified membrane possesses satisfying long-term stability and durability due to the strong covalent interaction between PVDF and GOQDs. This study opens up a new synthetic avenue in the fabrication of efficient surface-functionalized polymer membranes for potential waste water treatment and biomolecules separation.

  1. Graphene Oxide Quantum Dots Covalently Functionalized PVDF Membrane with Significantly-Enhanced Bactericidal and Antibiofouling Performances

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Zhiping; Yu, Dingshan; He, Ziming; Liu, Jing; Xiao, Fang-Xing; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Rong; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang

    2016-01-01

    Covalent bonding of graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) onto amino modified polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane has generated a new type of nano-carbon functionalized membrane with significantly enhanced antibacterial and antibiofouling properties. A continuous filtration test using E. coli containing feedwater shows that the relative flux drop over GOQDs modified PVDF is 23%, which is significantly lower than those over pristine PVDF (86%) and GO-sheet modified PVDF (62%) after 10 h of filtration. The presence of GOQD coating layer effectively inactivates E. coli and S. aureus cells, and prevents the biofilm formation on the membrane surface, producing excellent antimicrobial activity and potentially antibiofouling capability, more superior than those of previously reported two-dimensional GO sheets and one-dimensional CNTs modified membranes. The distinctive antimicrobial and antibiofouling performances could be attributed to the unique structure and uniform dispersion of GOQDs, enabling the exposure of a larger fraction of active edges and facilitating the formation of oxidation stress. Furthermore, GOQDs modified membrane possesses satisfying long-term stability and durability due to the strong covalent interaction between PVDF and GOQDs. This study opens up a new synthetic avenue in the fabrication of efficient surface-functionalized polymer membranes for potential waste water treatment and biomolecules separation. PMID:26832603

  2. Graphene Oxide Quantum Dots Covalently Functionalized PVDF Membrane with Significantly-Enhanced Bactericidal and Antibiofouling Performances.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhiping; Yu, Dingshan; He, Ziming; Liu, Jing; Xiao, Fang-Xing; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Rong; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang

    2016-01-01

    Covalent bonding of graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) onto amino modified polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane has generated a new type of nano-carbon functionalized membrane with significantly enhanced antibacterial and antibiofouling properties. A continuous filtration test using E. coli containing feedwater shows that the relative flux drop over GOQDs modified PVDF is 23%, which is significantly lower than those over pristine PVDF (86%) and GO-sheet modified PVDF (62%) after 10 h of filtration. The presence of GOQD coating layer effectively inactivates E. coli and S. aureus cells, and prevents the biofilm formation on the membrane surface, producing excellent antimicrobial activity and potentially antibiofouling capability, more superior than those of previously reported two-dimensional GO sheets and one-dimensional CNTs modified membranes. The distinctive antimicrobial and antibiofouling performances could be attributed to the unique structure and uniform dispersion of GOQDs, enabling the exposure of a larger fraction of active edges and facilitating the formation of oxidation stress. Furthermore, GOQDs modified membrane possesses satisfying long-term stability and durability due to the strong covalent interaction between PVDF and GOQDs. This study opens up a new synthetic avenue in the fabrication of efficient surface-functionalized polymer membranes for potential waste water treatment and biomolecules separation. PMID:26832603

  3. Fluorescent blood glucose monitor by hemin-functionalized graphene quantum dots based sensing system.

    PubMed

    He, Yuezhen; Wang, Xiaoxun; Sun, Jian; Jiao, Shoufeng; Chen, Hongqi; Gao, Feng; Wang, Lun

    2014-01-31

    In the present work, a highly sensitive and specific fluorescent biosensor for blood glucose monitoring is developed based on hemin-functionalized graphene quantum dots (GQDs) and glucose oxidase (GOx) system. The GQDs which are simply prepared by pyrolyzing citric acid exhibit strong fluorescence and good water-solubility. Due to the noncovalent assembly between hemin and GQDs, the addition of hemin can make hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to destroy the passivated surface of GQDs, leading to significant fluorescence quenching of GQDs. Based on this effect, a novel fluorescent platform is proposed for the sensing of glucose. Under the optimized conditions, the linear range of glucose is from 9 to 300μM, and the limit of detection is 0.1μM. As unique properties of GQDs, the proposed biosensor is green, simple, cost-efficient, and it is successfully applied to the determination of glucose in human serum. In addition, the proposed method provides a new pathway to further design the biosensors based on the assembly of GQDs with hemin for detection of biomolecules. PMID:24439507

  4. Surface-Engineered Graphene Quantum Dots for Shape Control of Block Copolymer Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hyunseung; Ku, Kang Hee; Shin, Jae Man; Lee, Junhyuk; Park, Chan Ho; Cho, Han-Hee; Jang, Se Gyu; Kim, Bumjoon; KIST Collaboration

    Surface-engineered, 10 nm-sized graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are shown to be efficient surfactants for producing poly(styrene-b-4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) particles that feature tunable shapes and internal morphologies. The surface properties of GQDs were modified by grafting different alkyl ligands, such as hexylamine and oleylamine, to generate the surfactant behavior of the GQDs. In stark contrast to the behavior of the unmodified GQDs, hexylamine-grafted GQDs and oleylamine-grafted GQD surfactants were selectively positioned on the PS and P4VP domains, respectively, at the surface of the particles. This positioning effectively tuned the interfacial interaction between two different PS/P4VP domains of the particles and the surrounding water during emulsification and induced a dramatic morphological transition to an unconventional convex lens-shaped particles. Precise and systematic control of interfacial activity of GQD surfactants was also demonstrated by varying the density of the alkyl ligands on the GQDs. The excellent surface tunability of 10 nm-sized GQDs combined with their significant optical and electrical properties highlight their importance as surfactants for producing colloidal particles with novel functions.

  5. Effects of Graphene Quantum Dots on the Self-Renewal and Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jichuan; Li, Deshuai; Mou, Xiaoning; Li, Jianhua; Guo, Weibo; Wang, Shu; Yu, Xin; Ma, Baojin; Zhang, Shan; Tang, Wei; Sang, Yuanhua; Gil, Pilar Rivera; Liu, Hong

    2016-03-01

    The influence of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) on key characteristics of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) phenotype (i.e., self-renewal, differentiation potential, and pluripotency) is systematically investigated in this work. First, the viability and impact of GQDs on the self-renewal potential of MSCs is evaluated in order to determine a threshold for the exposing dose. Second, GQDs uptake by MSCs is confirmed due to the excellent fluorescent properties of the particles. They exhibit a homogenous cytoplasmatic distribution that increases with the time and concentration. Third, the impact of GQDs on the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs is deeply characterized. An enhanced activity of alkaline phosphatase promoted by GQDs indicates early activation of osteogenesis. This is also confirmed upon GQD-induced up-regulation of phenotypically related osteogenic genes (Runx2, osteopontin, and osteocalcin) and specific biomarkers expression (osteopontin and osteocalcin). GQDs also effectively enhance the formation of calcium-rich deposits characteristics of osteoblasts. Furthermore, genes microarray results indicate that the enhanced osteogenic differentiation of MSCs by GQDs is in progress through a bone morphogenetic protein and transforming growth factor-β relative signaling pathways. Finally, intracytoplasmatic lipid detection shows that GQDs can also promote the adipogenic differentiation of MSCs, thus confirming the prevalence of their pluripotency potential. PMID:26833812

  6. Interactions between photoexcited NIR emitting CdHgTe quantum dots and graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagtap, Amardeep M.; Varade, Vaibhav; Konkena, Bharathi; Ramesh, K. P.; Chatterjee, Abhijit; Banerjee, Arup; Pendyala, Naresh Babu; Koteswara Rao, K. S. R.

    2016-02-01

    Hydrothermally grown mercury cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdHgTe QDs) are decorated on graphene oxide (GO) sheets through physisorption. The structural change of GO through partial reduction of oxygen functional groups is observed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in GO-QDs composites. Raman spectroscopy provides relatively a small change (˜1.1 times) in D/G ratio of band intensity and red shift in G band from 1606 cm-1 to 1594 cm-1 in GO-CdHgTe QDs (2.6 nm) composites, which indicates structural modification of GO network. Steady state and time resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy shows the electronic interactions between photoexcited near infrared emitting CdHgTe QDs and GO. Another interesting observation is PL quenching in the presence of GO, and it is quite effective in the case of smaller size QDs (2.6 nm) compared to the larger size QDs (4.2 nm). Thus, the observed PL quenching is attributed to the photogenerated electron transfer from QDs to GO. The photoexcited electron transfer rate decreases from 2.2 × 109 to 1.5 × 108 s-1 with increasing particle size from 2.6 to 4.2 nm. Photoconductivity measurements on QDs-GO composite devices show nearly 3 fold increase in the current density under photo-illumination, which is a promising aspect for solar energy conversion and other optoelectronic applications.

  7. Graphene quantum dots conjugated neuroprotective peptide improve learning and memory capability.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Songhua; Zhou, Daoyou; Luan, Ping; Gu, Beibei; Feng, Longbao; Fan, Shengnuo; Liao, Wang; Fang, Wenli; Yang, Lianhong; Tao, Enxiang; Guo, Rui; Liu, Jun

    2016-11-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder and the most common form of dementia. Histopathologically is characterized by the presence extracellular neuritic plaques and with a large number of neurons lost. In this paper, we design a new nanomaterial, graphene quantum dots (GQDs) conjugated neuroprotective peptide glycine-proline-glutamate (GQDG) and administer it to APP/PS1 transgenic mice. The in vitro assays including ThT and CD proved that GQDs and GQDG could inhibit the aggregation of Aβ1-42 fibrils. Morris water maze was performed to exanimate learning and memory capacity of APP/PS1 transgenic mice. The surface area of Aβ plaque deposits reduced in the GQDG group compared to the Tg Ctrl groups. Furthermore, newly generated neuronal precursor cell and neuron were test by immunohistochemical. Besides, neurons were impregnated by DiI using gene gun to show dendritic spine. Results indicated enhancement of learning and memory capacity and increased amounts of dendritic spine were observed. Inflammation factors and amyloid-β (Aβ) were tested with suspension array and ELISA, respectively. Several pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-33, IL-17α, MIP-1β and TNF-α) had decreased in GQDG group compared with Control group. Reversely, anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10) had increased in GQDG group compared with Control group. Thus, we demonstrate that the GQDG is a promising drug in treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as AD. PMID:27552320

  8. Fractional photo-current dependence of graphene quantum dots prepared from carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Sumana; Ghosh, Sujoy; Fralaide, Michael; Narayanan, T N; Pillai, Vijayamohanan K; Talapatra, Saikat

    2015-10-14

    We report on the photo-conductivity studies of chemically synthesized graphene quantum dots (GQDs) of average size 12 nm obtained by the oxidative acid treatment of MWCNTs. The dependence of photocurrent Iph (Iph = Iill - Idark) on the laser intensity P under a wide range of laser intensities (5 mW ≤ P ≤ 60 mW) shows a fractional power dependence of Iph on light intensity. The temperature dependence (300 K < T < 50 K) of Iph observed in thin films of these GQDs indicates that in the higher temperature region (T > ∼100 K), as the temperature increases, the number of thermally generated carriers increase resulting in increased Iph. At sufficiently low temperatures (T ≤ 100 K), a constant Iph is observed, indicating a constant photo-carrier density. Such a behavior is typically observed in many photoactive disordered semiconductors, which are often used in a variety of applications. We believe that the investigations presented here will enhance our understanding of the photocurrent generation phenomenon in chemically obtained GQDs. PMID:26351706

  9. Graphene quantum dot as a green and facile sensor for free chlorine in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yongqiang; Li, Geli; Zhou, Nana; Wang, Ruixue; Chi, Yuwu; Chen, Guonan

    2012-10-01

    Free chlorine was found to be able to destroy the passivated surface of the graphene quantum dots (GQDs) obtained by pyrolyzing citric acid, resulting in significant quenching of their fluorescence (FL) signal. After optimizing some experimental conditions (including response time, concentration of GQDs, and pH value of solution), a green and facile sensing system has been developed for the detection of free residual chlorine in water based on FL quenching of GQDs. The sensing system exhibits many advantages, such as short response time, excellent selectivity, wide linear response range, and high sensitivity. The linear response range of free chlorine (R(2) = 0.992) was from 0.05 to 10 μM. The detection limit (S/N = 3) was as low as 0.05 μM, which is much lower than that of the most widely used N-N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPD) colorimetric method. This sensing system was finally used to detect free residual chlorine in local tap water samples. The result agreed well with that by the DPD colorimetric method, suggesting the potential application of this new, green, sensitive, and facile sensing system in drinking water quality monitoring. PMID:22957474

  10. Molybdenum disulphide and graphene quantum dots as electrode modifiers for laccase biosensor.

    PubMed

    Vasilescu, Ioana; Eremia, Sandra A V; Kusko, Mihaela; Radoi, Antonio; Vasile, Eugeniu; Radu, Gabriel-Lucian

    2016-01-15

    A nanocomposite formed from molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) was proposed as a novel and suitable support for enzyme immobilisation displaying interesting electrochemical properties. The conductivity of the carbon based screen-printed electrodes was highly improved after modification with MoS2 nanoflakes and GQDs, the nanocomposite also providing compatible matrix for laccase immobilisation. The influence of different modification steps on the final electroanalytical performances of the modified electrode were evaluated by UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X ray diffraction, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The developed laccase biosensor has responded efficiently to caffeic acid over a concentration range of 0.38-100µM, had a detection limit of 0.32µM and a sensitivity of 17.92nAµM(-1). The proposed analytical tool was successfully applied for the determination of total polyphenolic content from red wine samples. PMID:26319166

  11. Blinking suppression of CdTe quantum dots on epitaxial graphene and the analysis with Marcus electron transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Hirose, Takuya; Tamai, Naoto; Kutsuma, Yasunori; Kurita, Atsusi; Kaneko, Tadaaki

    2014-08-25

    We have prepared epitaxial graphene by a Si sublimation method from 4H-SiC. Single-particle spectroscopy of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) on epitaxial graphene covered with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or polyethylene glycol (PEG) showed the suppression of luminescence blinking and ∼10 times decreased luminescence intensity as compared with those on a glass. The electronic coupling constant, H{sub 01}, between CdTe QDs and graphene was calculated to be (3.3 ± 0.4) × 10{sup 2 }cm{sup −1} in PVP and (3.7 ± 0.8) × 10{sup 2 }cm{sup −1} in PEG based on Marcus theory of electron transfer and Tang-Marcus model of blinking with statistical distribution.

  12. Nitrogen and phosphorus co-doped graphene quantum dots: synthesis from adenosine triphosphate, optical properties, and cellular imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananthanarayanan, Arundithi; Wang, Yue; Routh, Parimal; Sk, Mahasin Alam; Than, Aung; Lin, Ming; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Jie; Sun, Handong; Chen, Peng

    2015-04-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are emerging zero-dimensional materials promising a wide spectrum of applications, particularly, as superior fluorescent reporters for bio-imaging and optical sensing. Heteroatom doping can endow GQDs with new or improved photoluminescence properties. Here, we demonstrate a simple strategy for the synthesis of nitrogen and phosphorus co-doped GQDs from a single biomolecule precursor (adenosine triphosphate - ATP). Such ATP-GQDs exhibit high fluorescence quantum yield, strong two-photon upconversion, small molecular weight, high photostability, and good biocompatibility. Furthermore, transferrin conjugated ATP-GQDs have been used for imaging and real-time tracking of transferrin receptors in live cells.Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are emerging zero-dimensional materials promising a wide spectrum of applications, particularly, as superior fluorescent reporters for bio-imaging and optical sensing. Heteroatom doping can endow GQDs with new or improved photoluminescence properties. Here, we demonstrate a simple strategy for the synthesis of nitrogen and phosphorus co-doped GQDs from a single biomolecule precursor (adenosine triphosphate - ATP). Such ATP-GQDs exhibit high fluorescence quantum yield, strong two-photon upconversion, small molecular weight, high photostability, and good biocompatibility. Furthermore, transferrin conjugated ATP-GQDs have been used for imaging and real-time tracking of transferrin receptors in live cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Supplementary figures related to characterization, computational studies and protein conjugation. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01519g

  13. Preparation of graphene oxide and polymer-like quantum dots and their one- and two-photon induced fluorescence properties.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jia Jia; Rong, Min Zhi; Zhang, Ming Qiu

    2016-02-14

    A simple, effective and green bottom-up method for the synthesis of highly fluorescent N doped graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) and polymer-like quantum dots (PQDs) was developed on the basis of rapid one-step microwave assisted pyrolysis of citric acid (CA) and diethylenetriamine (DETA) in different reaction solvents. Both one-photon-induced and two-photon-induced photoluminescence (PL) properties of the resultant GOQDs and PQDs were characterized and analyzed. The one-photon-induced PL quantum yields (QY) of GOQDs and PQDs reached 39.8 and 74.0%, respectively, which are high enough to exhibit strong photoluminescence (PL) emission even under daylight excitation. The origin of the PL behavior and PL quenching mechanism was explored in terms of the interaction between the functional groups on the surfaces of GOQDs or PQDs and Hg(2+). Furthermore, due to the excellent selectivity and sensitivity of the GOQDs and PQDs to Hg(2+), the quantum dots might be used for quantitative detection of Hg(2+) in aqueous solution. PMID:26806530

  14. The permeability and transport mechanism of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) across the biological barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin-Yi; Lei, Rong; Huang, Hong-Duang; Wang, Na; Yuan, Lan; Xiao, Ru-Yue; Bai, Li-Dan; Li, Xue; Li, Li-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Da

    2015-01-01

    As an emerging nanomaterial, graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have shown enormous potential in theranostic applications. However, many aspects of the biological properties of GQDs require further clarification. In the present work, we prepared two sizes of GQDs and for the first time investigated their membrane permeabilities, one of the key factors of all biomedical applications, and transport mechanisms on a Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell monolayer. The experimental results revealed that under ~300 mg L-1, GQDs were innoxious to MDCK and did not affect the morphology and integrity of the cell monolayer. The Papp values were determined to be 1-3 × 10-6 cm s-1 for the 12 nm GQDs and 0.5-1.5 × 10-5 cm s-1 for the 3 nm GQDs, indicating that the 3 nm GQDs are well-transported species while the 12 nm GQDs have a moderate membrane permeability. The transport and uptake of GQDs by MDCK cells were both time and concentration-dependent. Moreover, the incubation of cells with GQDs enhanced the formation of lipid rafts, while inhibition of lipid rafts with methyl-β-cyclodextrin almost eliminated the membrane transport of GQDs. Overall, the experimental results suggested that GQDs cross the MDCK cell monolayer mainly through a lipid raft-mediated transcytosis. The present work has indicated that GQDs are a novel, low-toxic, highly-efficient general carrier for drugs and/or diagnostic agents in biomedical applications.As an emerging nanomaterial, graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have shown enormous potential in theranostic applications. However, many aspects of the biological properties of GQDs require further clarification. In the present work, we prepared two sizes of GQDs and for the first time investigated their membrane permeabilities, one of the key factors of all biomedical applications, and transport mechanisms on a Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell monolayer. The experimental results revealed that under ~300 mg L-1, GQDs were innoxious to MDCK and did not affect

  15. A graphene quantum dot-based FRET system for nuclear-targeted and real-time monitoring of drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hui; Wang, Zhuyuan; Zong, Shenfei; Chen, Peng; Zhu, Dan; Wu, Lei; Cui, Yiping

    2015-09-01

    A graphene quantum dot-based FRET system is demonstrated for nuclear-targeted drug delivery, which allows for real-time monitoring of the drug release process through FRET signals. In such a system, graphene quantum dots (GQDs) simultaneously serve as the carriers of drugs and donors of FRET pairs. Additionally, a peptide TAT as the nuclear localization signal is conjugated to GQDs, which facilitates the transportation of the delivery system to the nucleus. We have demonstrated that: (a) both the conjugated TAT and small size of GQDs contribute to targeting the nucleus, which results in a significantly enhanced intranuclear accumulation of drugs; (b) FRET signals being extremely sensitive to the distance between donors and acceptors are capable of real-time monitoring of the separation process of drugs and GQDs, which is more versatile in tracking the drug release dynamics. Our strategy for the assembly of a FRET-based drug delivery system may be unique and universal for monitoring the dynamic release process. This study may give more exciting new opportunities for improving the therapeutic efficacy and tracking precision.A graphene quantum dot-based FRET system is demonstrated for nuclear-targeted drug delivery, which allows for real-time monitoring of the drug release process through FRET signals. In such a system, graphene quantum dots (GQDs) simultaneously serve as the carriers of drugs and donors of FRET pairs. Additionally, a peptide TAT as the nuclear localization signal is conjugated to GQDs, which facilitates the transportation of the delivery system to the nucleus. We have demonstrated that: (a) both the conjugated TAT and small size of GQDs contribute to targeting the nucleus, which results in a significantly enhanced intranuclear accumulation of drugs; (b) FRET signals being extremely sensitive to the distance between donors and acceptors are capable of real-time monitoring of the separation process of drugs and GQDs, which is more versatile in tracking

  16. A microfluidic biosensor using graphene oxide and aptamer-functionalized quantum dots for peanut allergen detection.

    PubMed

    Weng, Xuan; Neethirajan, Suresh

    2016-11-15

    The increasing prevalence of food allergies and the intake of packing foods in the past two decades urge the need for more rapid, accurate, and sensitive assays to detect potential allergens in food in order to control the allergen content. Most of the commercial analytical tools for allergen detection rely on immunoassays such as ELISA. As far as disadvantages, ELISA can be time-consuming and expensive. Biosensors appear as a suitable alternative for the detection of allergens because they are rapid, highly sensitive, selective, less expensive, environmentally friendly, and easy to handle. In this study, we developed a microfluidic system integrated with a quantum dots (Qdots) aptamer functionalized graphene oxide (GO) nano-biosensor for simple, rapid, and sensitive food allergen detection. The biosensor utilized Qdots-aptamer-GO complexes as probes to undergo conformational change upon interaction with the food allergens, resulting in fluorescence changes due to the fluorescence quenching and recovering properties of GO by adsorption and desorption of aptamer-conjugated Qdots. This one-step 'turn on' homogenous assay in a ready-to-use microfluidic chip took ~10min to achieve a quantitative detection of Ara h 1, one of the major allergens appearing in peanuts. The results suggested this system had remarkable sensitivity and selectivity. The integration of a microfluidics platform in a homemade miniaturized optical analyzer provides a promising way for the rapid, cost-effective, and accurate on-site determination of food allergens. This biosensor can also be extended to the detection of other food allergens with a selection of corresponding aptamers. PMID:27240012

  17. Milk-derived multi-fluorescent graphene quantum dot-based cancer theranostic system.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Mukeshchand; Mewada, Ashmi; Pandey, Sunil; Bhori, Mustansir; Singh, Kanchanlata; Sharon, Maheshwar; Sharon, Madhuri

    2016-10-01

    An economical green-chemistry approach was used for the synthesis of aqueous soluble graphene quantum dots (GQDs) from cow milk for simultaneous imaging and drug delivery in cancer. The GQDs synthesized using one-pot microwave-assisted heating were multi-fluorescent, spherical in shape having a lateral size of ca. 5nm. The role of processing parameters such as heating time and ionic strength showed a profound effect on photoluminescence properties of GQDs. The GQDs were N-doped and oxygen-rich as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Cysteamine hydrochloride (Cys) was used to attach an anti-cancer drug berberine hydrochloride (BHC) on GQDs forming GQDs@Cys-BHC complex with c.a. 88% drug loading efficiency. In vitro drug release was studied at the acidic-basic environment and drug kinetics was studied using pharmacokinetic statistical models. The GQDs were biocompatible on L929 cells whereas theranostic GQDs@Cys-BHC complex showed a potent cytotoxic effect on different cancerous cell line models: cervical cancer cell lines such as HeLa cells and breast cancer cells such as MDA-MB-231 confirmed by Trypan blue and MTT-based cytotoxic assays. Furthermore, multi-excitation based cellular bioimaging was demonstrated using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and fluorescence microscopy using GQDs as well as GQDs@Cys-BHC complex. Thus, drug delivery (therapeutic) and bioimaging (diagnostic) properties of GQDs@Cys-BHC complex are thought to have a potential in vitro theranostic application in cancer therapy. PMID:27287144

  18. Trimethylamine sensing properties of graphene quantum Dots/α-Fe2O3 composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Tao; Chu, Xiangfeng; Gao, Feng; Dong, Yongping; Sun, Wenqi; Bai, Linshan

    2016-05-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) were prepared by pyrolysis of citric acid. The sizes of the as-prepared GQDs were in the range of 2-4 nm. The GQDs/α-Fe2O3 composites were prepared by loading GQDs with α-Fe2O3 via a one-step facile hydrothermal method. The GQDs/α-Fe2O3 composites were characterized by XRD, TGA, FTIR, Raman, SEM and TEM, respectively. The sensor devices were fabricated using the GQDs/α-Fe2O3 composites as sensing materials. The effect of the amount of GQDs in the composites on the gas-sensing responses of the materials and the gas-sensing selectivity was investigated. The experimental results revealed that the sensor based on GQDs/α-Fe2O3 (S-15) composite exhibited high sensitivity and good selectivity to TMA vapor. The responses of the sensor based on GQDs/α-Fe2O3 (S-15) composite to 1000 ppm and 0.01 ppm TMA vapor attained 1033.0 and 1.9 at 270 °C, respectively. The response time and recovery time for 0.01 ppm TMA vapor were only 6 s and 4 s, respectively. (2) The responses of the sensor based on GQDs/α-Fe2O3 (S-15) composite to 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 ppm TMA vapor at 270 °C are 1.9, 2.9, 5.5, 15.4, 293.0 and 1033.0, respectively, and the detection limit can reach 0.01 ppm.

  19. Graphene activating room-temperature ferromagnetic exchange in cobalt-doped ZnO dilute magnetic semiconductor quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhihu; Yang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Chao; Yao, Tao; Cai, Liang; Yan, Wensheng; Jiang, Yong; Hu, Fengchun; He, Jingfu; Pan, Zhiyun; Liu, Qinghua; Wei, Shiqiang

    2014-10-28

    Control over the magnetic interactions in dilute magnetic semiconductor quantum dots (DMSQDs) is a key issue to future development of nanometer-sized integrated "spintronic" devices. However, manipulating the magnetic coupling between impurity ions in DMSQDs remains a great challenge because of the intrinsic quantum confinement effects and self-purification of the quantum dots. Here, we propose a hybrid structure to achieve room-temperature ferromagnetic interactions in DMSQDs, via engineering the density and nature of the energy states at the Fermi level. This idea has been applied to Co-doped ZnO DMSQDs where the growth of a reduced graphene oxide shell around the Zn(0.98)Co(0.02)O core turns the magnetic interactions from paramagnetic to ferromagnetic at room temperature, due to the hybridization of 2p(z) orbitals of graphene and 3d obitals of Co(2+)-oxygen-vacancy complexes. This design may open up a kind of possibility for manipulating the magnetism of doped oxide nanostructures. PMID:25222885

  20. Intrinsic and extrinsic defects in a family of coal-derived graphene quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Singamaneni, Srinivasa Rao E-mail: tour@rice.edu; Tol, Johan van; Ye, Ruquan; Tour, James M. E-mail: tour@rice.edu

    2015-11-23

    In this letter, we report on the high frequency (239.2 and 336 GHz) electron spin resonance (ESR) studies performed on graphene quantum dots (GQDs), prepared through a wet chemistry route from three types of coal: (a) bituminous, (b) anthracite, and (c) coke; and from non-coal derived GQDs. The microwave frequency-, power-, and temperature-dependent ESR spectra coupled with computer-aided simulations reveal four distinct magnetic defect centers. In bituminous- and anthracite-derived GQDs, we have identified two of them as intrinsic carbon-centered magnetic defect centers (a broad signal of peak to peak width = 697 (10{sup −4} T), g = 2.0023; and a narrow signal of peak to peak width = 60 (10{sup −4} T), g = 2.003). The third defect center is Mn{sup 2+} ({sup 6}S{sub 5/2}, 3d{sup 5}) (signal width = 61 (10{sup −4} T), g = 2.0023, A{sub iso} = 93(10{sup −4} T)), and the fourth defect is identified as Cu{sup 2+} ({sup 2}D{sub 5/2}, 3d{sup 9}) (g{sub ⊥} = 2.048 and g{sub ‖} = 2.279), previously undetected. Coke-derived and non-coal derived GQDs show Mn{sup 2+} and two-carbon related signals, and no Cu{sup 2+} signal. The extrinsic impurities most likely originate from the starting coal. Furthermore, Raman, photoluminescence, and ESR measurements detected no noticeable changes in the properties of the bituminous GQDs after one year. This study highlights the importance of employing high frequency ESR spectroscopy in identifying the (magnetic) defects, which are roadblocks for spin relaxation times of graphene-based materials. These defects would not have been possible to probe by other spin transport measurements.

  1. Multifunctional graphene incorporated polyacrylamide conducting gel electrolytes for efficient quasi-solid-state quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jialong; Tang, Qunwei; Li, Ru; He, Benlin; Yu, Liangmin; Yang, Peizhi

    2015-06-01

    Pursuit of a high efficiency and stability has been a persistent objective for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). Here we launch a strategy of synthesizing graphene implanted polyacrylamide (PAAm-G) conducting gel electrolytes for quasi-solid-state QDSCs. With an aim of elevating the dosage of S2-/Sx2- redox couples and therefore charge-transfer ability, both osmotic press across the PAAm-G and capillary force within the three-dimensional micropores are utilized as driving forces. A promising power conversion efficiency of 2.34% is recorded for the QDSCs by optimizing graphene dosage in the conducting gel electrolyte. The enhanced conversion efficiency of solar cell is attributed to the expanded catalytic area from counter electrolyte/electrolyte interface to both interface and the conducting gel electrolyte.

  2. A triple-dimensional sensing chip for discrimination of eight antioxidants based on quantum dots and graphene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huilin; Fang, Guozhen; Deng, Qiliang; Wang, Shuo

    2015-12-15

    A triple-dimensional sensing chip is developed based on simultaneous utilization of fluorescence (FL), electrochemical (ECL) and mass-sensitivity (MS) properties of a novel nanocomposites. The sensing nanomaterial is composed of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) and graphene through a one-pot room-temperature reverse microemulsion polymerization. Here, full integration of QDs and graphene on one chip provides triple-dimensional sensing signals. It enables quick and accurate discrimination of eight analytes in a "lab-on-a-nanomaterial" approach and notably improves the overall sensor performance. Unknown samples randomly taken from the training set at concentrations of 0.7 μM are successfully classified by principal component analysis (PCA) with accuracies of 92.5%, compared with the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. We further apply it to discriminate eight antioxidants from real oil samples, and explore the mechanism. PMID:26148676

  3. Enhancing Cell Nucleus Accumulation and DNA Cleavage Activity of Anti-Cancer Drug via Graphene Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chong; Wu, Congyu; Zhou, Xuejiao; Han, Ting; Xin, Xiaozhen; Wu, Jiaying; Zhang, Jingyan; Guo, Shouwu

    2013-10-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) maintain the intrinsic layered structural motif of graphene but with smaller lateral size and abundant periphery carboxylic groups, and are more compatible with biological system, thus are promising nanomaterials for therapeutic applications. Here we show that GQDs have a superb ability in drug delivery and anti-cancer activity boost without any pre-modification due to their unique structural properties. They could efficiently deliver doxorubicin (DOX) to the nucleus through DOX/GQD conjugates, because the conjugates assume different cellular and nuclear internalization pathways comparing to free DOX. Also, the conjugates could enhance DNA cleavage activity of DOX markedly. This enhancement combining with efficient nuclear delivery improved cytotoxicity of DOX dramatically. Furthermore, the DOX/GQD conjugates could also increase the nuclear uptake and cytotoxicity of DOX to drug-resistant cancer cells indicating that the conjugates may be capable to increase chemotherapy efficacy of anti-cancer drugs that are suboptimal due to the drug resistance.

  4. Fabrication of graphene oxide decorated with nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots and its enhanced electrochemiluminescence for ultrasensitive detection of pentachlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaojiao; Jiang, Ding; Liu, Qian; Zhu, Gangbing; Mao, Hanping; Wang, Kun

    2015-02-21

    Nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (NGQDs), as a new class of quantum dots, have potential applications in fuel cells and optoelectronics fields due to their electrocatalytic activity, tunable luminescence and biocompatibility. Herein, a facile hydrothermal approach for cutting nitrogen-doped graphene into NGQDs has been proposed for the first time. The resulting NGQDs were homogeneously modified onto the surface of graphene oxide (GO) to form NGQDs-GO nanocomposites. Compared with NGQDs, the as-prepared NGQDs-GO nanocomposites exhibited excellent electrochemiluminescence (ECL) performances including 3.8-fold enhancement of ECL intensity and a decrease by 200 mV of the ECL onset potential, which are ascribed to the introduction of GO. Based on the selective inhibitory effect of pentachlorophenol (PCP) on the ECL intensity of the NGQDs-GO system, a novel ECL sensor for PCP concentration determination was constructed, with a wide linear response ranging from 0.1 to 10 pg mL(-1) and a detection limit of 0.03 pg mL(-1). The practicability of the sensing platform in real water samples showed satisfactory results, which could open the possibility of using NGQDs-based nanocomposites in the electroanalytical field. PMID:25554750

  5. Femtosecond laser ablation of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite: a green route for large-scale production of porous graphene and graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Paola; Hu, Anming; Compagnini, Giuseppe; Duley, Walter W.; Zhou, Norman Y.

    2014-01-01

    Porous graphene (PG) and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are attracting attention due to their potential applications in photovoltaics, catalysis, and bio-related fields. We present a novel way for mass production of these promising materials. The femtosecond laser ablation of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) is employed for their synthesis. Porous graphene (PG) layers were found to float at the water-air interface, while graphene quantum dots (GQDs) were dispersed in the solution. The sheets consist of one to six stacked layers of spongy graphene, which form an irregular 3D porous structure that displays pores with an average size of 15-20 nm. Several characterization techniques have confirmed the porous nature of the collected layers. The analyses of the aqueous solution confirmed the presence of GQDs with dimensions of about 2-5 nm. It is found that the formation of both PG and GQDs depends on the fs-laser ablation energy. At laser fluences less than 12 J cm-2, no evidence of either PG or GQDs is detected. However, polyynes with six and eight carbon atoms per chain are found in the solution. For laser energies in the 20-30 J cm-2 range, these polyynes disappeared, while PG and GQDs were found at the water-air interface and in the solution, respectively. The origin of these materials can be explained based on the mechanisms for water breakdown and coal gasification. The absence of PG and GQDs, after the laser ablation of HOPG in liquid nitrogen, confirms the proposed mechanisms.Porous graphene (PG) and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are attracting attention due to their potential applications in photovoltaics, catalysis, and bio-related fields. We present a novel way for mass production of these promising materials. The femtosecond laser ablation of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) is employed for their synthesis. Porous graphene (PG) layers were found to float at the water-air interface, while graphene quantum dots (GQDs) were dispersed in the

  6. Role of C–N Configurations in the Photoluminescence of Graphene Quantum Dots Synthesized by a Hydrothermal Route

    PubMed Central

    Permatasari, Fitri Aulia; Aimon, Akfiny Hasdi; Iskandar, Ferry; Ogi, Takashi; Okuyama, Kikuo

    2016-01-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) containing N atoms were successfully synthesized using a facile, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly hydrothermal reaction of urea and citric acid, and the effect of the GQDs’ C–N configurations on their photoluminescence (PL) properties were investigated. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) images confirmed that the dots were spherical, with an average diameter of 2.17 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicated that the C–N configurations of the GQDs substantially affected their PL intensity. Increased PL intensity was obtained in areas with greater percentages of pyridinic-N and lower percentages of pyrrolic-N. This enhanced PL was attributed to delocalized π electrons from pyridinic-N contributing to the C system of the GQDs. On the basis of energy electron loss spectroscopy (EELS) and UV-Vis spectroscopy analyses, we propose a PL mechanism for hydrothermally synthesized GQDs. PMID:26876153

  7. Role of C-N Configurations in the Photoluminescence of Graphene Quantum Dots Synthesized by a Hydrothermal Route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Permatasari, Fitri Aulia; Aimon, Akfiny Hasdi; Iskandar, Ferry; Ogi, Takashi; Okuyama, Kikuo

    2016-02-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) containing N atoms were successfully synthesized using a facile, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly hydrothermal reaction of urea and citric acid, and the effect of the GQDs’ C-N configurations on their photoluminescence (PL) properties were investigated. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) images confirmed that the dots were spherical, with an average diameter of 2.17 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicated that the C-N configurations of the GQDs substantially affected their PL intensity. Increased PL intensity was obtained in areas with greater percentages of pyridinic-N and lower percentages of pyrrolic-N. This enhanced PL was attributed to delocalized π electrons from pyridinic-N contributing to the C system of the GQDs. On the basis of energy electron loss spectroscopy (EELS) and UV-Vis spectroscopy analyses, we propose a PL mechanism for hydrothermally synthesized GQDs.

  8. SnO2 Quantum Dots@Graphene Oxide as a High-Rate and Long-Life Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kangning; Zhang, Lei; Xia, Rui; Dong, Yifan; Xu, Wangwang; Niu, Chaojiang; He, Liang; Yan, Mengyu; Qu, Longbin; Mai, Liqiang

    2016-02-01

    Tin-based electrode s offer high theoretical capacities in lithium ion batteries, but further commercialization is strongly hindered by the poor cycling stability. An in situ reduction method is developed to synthesize SnO2 quantum dots@graphene oxide. This approach is achieved by the oxidation of Sn(2+) and the reduction of the graphene oxide. At 2 A g(-1), a capacity retention of 86% is obtained even after 2000 cycles. PMID:26680110

  9. Organosilane-functionalized graphene quantum dots and their encapsulation into bi-layer hollow silica spheres for bioimaging applications.

    PubMed

    Wen, Ting; Yang, Baocheng; Guo, Yanzhen; Sun, Jing; Zhao, Chunmei; Zhang, Shouren; Zhang, Miao; Wang, Yonggang

    2014-11-14

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) represent an important class of luminescent quantum dots owing to their low toxicity and superior biocompatibility. Chemical functionalization of GQDs and subsequent combination with other materials further provide attractive techniques for advanced bioapplications. Herein, we report the facile fabrication of fluorescent organosilane-functionalized graphene quantum dots (Si-GQDs) and their embedding into mesoporous hollow silica spheres as a biolabel for the first time. Well-proportioned Si-GQDs with bright and excitation dependent tunable emissions in the visible region were obtained via a simple and economical solvothermal route adopting graphite oxide as a carbon source and 3-(2-aminoethylamino)-propyltrimethoxysilane as a surface modifier. The as-synthesized Si-GQDs can be well dispersed and stored in organic solvents, easily manufactured into transparent film and bulk form, and particularly provide great potential to be combined with other materials. As a proof-of-principle experiment, we demonstrate the successful incorporation of Si-GQDs into hollow mesoporous silica spheres and conduct preliminary cellular imaging experiments. Interestingly, the Si-GQDs not only serve as fluorescent chromophores in the composite material, but also play a crucial role in the formation of mesoporous hollow silica spheres with a distinctive bi-layer architecture. The layer thickness and optical properties can be precisely controlled by simply adjusting the silane coupling agent addition procedure in the preparation process. Our demonstration of low-cost Si-GQDs and their encapsulation into multifunctional composites may expand the applications of carbon-based nanomaterials for future biomedical imaging and other optoelectronic applications. PMID:25255171

  10. Gate Tuning of Förster Resonance Energy Transfer in a Graphene - Quantum Dot FET Photo-Detector

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ruifeng; Schneider, Lorenz Maximilian; Heimbrodt, Wolfram; Wu, Huizhen; Koch, Martin; Rahimi-Iman, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Graphene photo-detectors functionalized by colloidal quantum dots (cQDs) have been demonstrated to show effective photo-detection. Although the transfer of charge carriers or energy from the cQDs to graphene is not sufficiently understood, it is clear that the mechanism and efficiency of the transfer depends on the morphology of the interface between cQDs and graphene, which is determined by the shell of the cQDs in combination with its ligands. Here, we present a study of a graphene field-effect transistor (FET), which is functionalized by long-ligand CdSe/ZnS core/shell cQDs. Time-resolved photo-luminescence from the cQDs as a function of the applied gate voltage has been investigated in order to probe transfer dynamics in this system. Thereby, a clear modification of the photo-luminescence lifetime has been observed, indicating a change of the decay channels. Furthermore, we provide responsivities under a Förster-like energy transfer model as a function of the gate voltage in support of our findings. The model shows that by applying a back-gate voltage to the photo-detector, the absorption can be tuned with respect to the photo-luminescence of the cQDs. This leads to a tunable energy transfer rate across the interface of the photo-detector, which offers an opportunity to optimize the photo-detection. PMID:27320182

  11. Functionalized graphene oxide quantum dot-PVA hydrogel: a colorimetric sensor for Fe2+, Co2+ and Cu2+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruah, Upama; Chowdhury, Devasish

    2016-04-01

    Functionalized graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs)-poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hybrid hydrogels were prepared using a simple, facile and cost-effective strategy. GOQDs bearing different surface functional groups were introduced as the cross-linking agent into the PVA matrix thereby resulting in gelation. The four different types of hybrid hydrogels were prepared using graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, ester functionalized graphene oxide and amine functionalized GOQDs as cross-linking agents. It was observed that the hybrid hydrogel prepared with amine functionalized GOQDs was the most stable. The potential applicability of using this solid sensing platform has been subsequently explored in an easy, simple, effective and sensitive method for optical detection of M2+ (Fe2+, Co2+ and Cu2+) in aqueous media involving colorimetric detection. Amine functionalized GOQDs-PVA hybrid hydrogel when put into the corresponding solution of Fe2+, Co2+ and Cu2+ renders brown, orange and blue coloration respectively of the solution detecting the presence of Fe2+, Co2+ and Cu2+ ions in the solution. The minimum detection limit observed was 1 × 10-7 M using UV-visible spectroscopy. Further, the applicability of the sensing material was also tested for a mixture of co-existing ions in solution to demonstrate the practical applicability of the system. Insight into the probable mechanistic pathway involved in the detection process is also being discussed.

  12. Gate Tuning of Förster Resonance Energy Transfer in a Graphene - Quantum Dot FET Photo-Detector.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruifeng; Schneider, Lorenz Maximilian; Heimbrodt, Wolfram; Wu, Huizhen; Koch, Martin; Rahimi-Iman, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Graphene photo-detectors functionalized by colloidal quantum dots (cQDs) have been demonstrated to show effective photo-detection. Although the transfer of charge carriers or energy from the cQDs to graphene is not sufficiently understood, it is clear that the mechanism and efficiency of the transfer depends on the morphology of the interface between cQDs and graphene, which is determined by the shell of the cQDs in combination with its ligands. Here, we present a study of a graphene field-effect transistor (FET), which is functionalized by long-ligand CdSe/ZnS core/shell cQDs. Time-resolved photo-luminescence from the cQDs as a function of the applied gate voltage has been investigated in order to probe transfer dynamics in this system. Thereby, a clear modification of the photo-luminescence lifetime has been observed, indicating a change of the decay channels. Furthermore, we provide responsivities under a Förster-like energy transfer model as a function of the gate voltage in support of our findings. The model shows that by applying a back-gate voltage to the photo-detector, the absorption can be tuned with respect to the photo-luminescence of the cQDs. This leads to a tunable energy transfer rate across the interface of the photo-detector, which offers an opportunity to optimize the photo-detection. PMID:27320182

  13. PREFACE: Quantum Dot 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Robert A.

    2010-09-01

    These conference proceedings contain the written papers of the contributions presented at Quantum Dot 2010 (QD2010). The conference was held in Nottingham, UK, on 26-30 April 2010. The conference addressed topics in research on: 1. Epitaxial quantum dots (including self-assembled and interface structures, dots defined by electrostatic gates etc): optical properties and electron transport quantum coherence effects spin phenomena optics of dots in cavities interaction with surface plasmons in metal/semiconductor structures opto-electronics applications 2. Novel QD structures: fabrication and physics of graphene dots, dots in nano-wires etc 3. Colloidal quantum dots: growth (shape control and hybrid nanocrystals such as metal/semiconductor, magnetic/semiconductor) assembly and surface functionalisation optical properties and spin dynamics electrical and magnetic properties applications (light emitting devices and solar cells, biological and medical applications, data storage, assemblers) The Editors Acknowledgements Conference Organising Committee: Maurice Skolnick (Chair) Alexander Tartakovskii (Programme Chair) Pavlos Lagoudakis (Programme Chair) Max Migliorato (Conference Secretary) Paola Borri (Publicity) Robert Taylor (Proceedings) Manus Hayne (Treasurer) Ray Murray (Sponsorship) Mohamed Henini (Local Organiser) International Advisory Committee: Yasuhiko Arakawa (Tokyo University, Japan) Manfred Bayer (Dortmund University, Germany) Sergey Gaponenko (Stepanov Institute of Physics, Minsk, Belarus) Pawel Hawrylak (NRC, Ottawa, Canada) Fritz Henneberger (Institute for Physics, Berlin, Germany) Atac Imamoglu (ETH, Zurich, Switzerland) Paul Koenraad (TU Eindhoven, Nethehrlands) Guglielmo Lanzani (Politecnico di Milano, Italy) Jungil Lee (Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Korea) Henri Mariette (CNRS-CEA, Grenoble, France) Lu Jeu Sham (San Diego, USA) Andrew Shields (Toshiba Research Europe, Cambridge, UK) Yoshihisa Yamamoto (Stanford University, USA) Artur

  14. Electrochemiluminescent Graphene Quantum Dots as a Sensing Platform: A Dual Amplification for MicroRNA Assay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pu; Zhuo, Ying; Chang, Yuanyuan; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin

    2015-10-20

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with an average diameter as small as 2.3 nm were synthesized to fabricate an electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor based on T7 exonuclease-assisted cyclic amplification and three-dimensional (3D) DNA-mediated silver enhancement for microRNA (miRNA) analysis. Herein, to overcome the barrier in immobilizing GQDs, aminated 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic acid (PTCA-NH2) was introduced to load GQDs through π-π stacking (GQDs/PTCA-NH2), realizing the solid-state GQDs application. Furthermore, Fe3O4-Au core-shell nanocomposite (Au@Fe3O4) was adopted as a probe anchor to form a novel electrochemiluminescent signal tag of GQDs/PTCA-NH2/Au@Fe3O4. The prepared ECL signal tag was decorated on the electrode surface, exhibiting excellent film-forming performance, good electronic conductivity, and favorable stability, all of which overcame the obstacle for applying GQDs in ECL biosensing and showed a satisfactory ECL response under the coreactant of S2O8(2-) (peroxydisulfate). Afterward, hairpin probe modified on the electrode was opened by helper DNA, followed by assembling target to hybridize with the exposed stem of the helper DNA. Significantly, T7 exonuclease was employed to digest the DNA/RNA duplex and trigger the target recycling without asking for a specific recognition site in the target sequence, realizing a series of RNA/DNA detections by changing the sequence of the complementary DNA. At last, the ECL signal was further enhanced by silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)-based 3D DNA networks. After the two amplifications, the ECL signal of GQDs was extraordinarily increased and the prepared biosensor achieved a high sensitivity with the detection limit of 0.83 fM. The biosensor was also explored in real samples, and the result was in good accordance with the performance of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Considering the excellent sensitivity and applicability, we believe that the proposed biosensor is a potential

  15. Sulphur doping: a facile approach to tune the electronic structure and optical properties of graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xueming; Lau, Shu Ping; Tang, Libin; Ji, Rongbin; Yang, Peizhi

    2014-04-01

    Sulphur-doped carbon-based materials have attracted a great deal of interest because of their important applications in the fields of oxygen reduction reactions, hydrogen storage, supercapacitors, photocatalysts and lithium ion batteries. Here, we report a new member of sulphur-doped carbon-based materials, i.e. sulphur doped graphene quantum dots (S-GQDs). The S-GQDs were prepared by a hydrothermal method using fructose and sulphuric acid as source materials. Absorption and photoluminescence investigations show that inter-band crossings are responsible for the observed multiple emission peaks. The incorporation of ~1 at% of S into the quantum dots can effectively modify the electronic structure of the S-GQDs by introducing S-related energy levels between π and π* of C. The additional energy levels in the S-GQDs lead to efficient and multiple emission peaks.Sulphur-doped carbon-based materials have attracted a great deal of interest because of their important applications in the fields of oxygen reduction reactions, hydrogen storage, supercapacitors, photocatalysts and lithium ion batteries. Here, we report a new member of sulphur-doped carbon-based materials, i.e. sulphur doped graphene quantum dots (S-GQDs). The S-GQDs were prepared by a hydrothermal method using fructose and sulphuric acid as source materials. Absorption and photoluminescence investigations show that inter-band crossings are responsible for the observed multiple emission peaks. The incorporation of ~1 at% of S into the quantum dots can effectively modify the electronic structure of the S-GQDs by introducing S-related energy levels between π and π* of C. The additional energy levels in the S-GQDs lead to efficient and multiple emission peaks. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The detailed information of chemicals, the FTIR, Raman, the STEM image and the C, O and S mapping of S-GQDs, the PLE spectra of S-GQDs, and the fitting parameters of PL decay curves of S-GQDs. See DOI

  16. Colossal magnetoresistance in amino-functionalized graphene quantum dots at room temperature: manifestation of weak anti-localization and doorway to spintronics.

    PubMed

    Roy, Rajarshi; Thapa, Ranjit; Kumar, Gundam Sandeep; Mazumder, Nilesh; Sen, Dipayan; Sinthika, S; Das, Nirmalya S; Chattopadhyay, Kalyan K

    2016-04-14

    In this work, we have demonstrated the signatures of localized surface distortions and disorders in functionalized graphene quantum dots (fGQD) and consequences in magneto-transport under weak field regime (∼1 Tesla) at room temperature. Observed positive colossal magnetoresistance (MR) and its suppression is primarily explained by weak anti-localization phenomenon where competitive valley (inter and intra) dependent scattering takes place at room temperature under low magnetic field; analogous to low mobility disordered graphene samples. Furthermore, using ab-initio analysis we show that sub-lattice sensitive spin-polarized ground state exists in the GQD as a result of pz orbital asymmetry in GQD carbon atoms with amino functional groups. This spin polarized ground state is believed to help the weak anti-localization dependent magneto transport by generating more disorder and strain in a GQD lattice under applied magnetic field and lays the premise for future graphene quantum dot based spintronic applications. PMID:27031679

  17. A facile solvothermal method to produce ZnS quantum dots-decorated graphene nanosheets with superior photoactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Linhui; Ruan, Hong; Zheng, Yi; Li, Danzhen

    2013-09-01

    Zinc sulfide-graphene (ZnS-GR) nanocomposites with a high degree of dispersion and high coverage of ZnS quantum dots (QDs) have been synthesized by a facile solvothermal method without any dispersant, during which the formation of ZnS nanoparticles and the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) occur simultaneously. ZnS-GR nanocomposites exhibit much higher photoactivity than nanoparticle crystal ZnS (NPC-ZnS) prepared in the absence of graphene (GR), as evaluated by degradation of methylene blue (MB) in the liquid phase under ultraviolet (UV) light. Among them, the ZnS-GR nanocomposite with a 5% mass fraction of GR prepared at 120 ° C has the highest photocatalytic activity. The conversion and mineralization over MB are 96.7% and 57.1% respectively, which is much higher than that of NPC-ZnS. The high photoactivity of ZnS-GR nanocomposites can be ascribed to the integrated effect of an extremely high specific surface area and the excellent electron conductivity of GR and its significant influence on the morphology and structure of the samples. Moreover, it is found that the oxidation of MB is driven mainly by the participation of ṡOH radicals. Accordingly, a potential photocatalytic mechanism of ZnS-GR nanocomposites in the photocatalytic process has been proposed in this work. It is expected that our work could provide valuable information on the design of metal sulfide decorated GR with excellent properties.

  18. A facile solvothermal method to produce ZnS quantum dots-decorated graphene nanosheets with superior photoactivity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Linhui; Ruan, Hong; Zheng, Yi; Li, Danzhen

    2013-09-20

    Zinc sulfide-graphene (ZnS-GR) nanocomposites with a high degree of dispersion and high coverage of ZnS quantum dots (QDs) have been synthesized by a facile solvothermal method without any dispersant, during which the formation of ZnS nanoparticles and the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) occur simultaneously. ZnS-GR nanocomposites exhibit much higher photoactivity than nanoparticle crystal ZnS (NPC-ZnS) prepared in the absence of graphene (GR), as evaluated by degradation of methylene blue (MB) in the liquid phase under ultraviolet (UV) light. Among them, the ZnS-GR nanocomposite with a 5% mass fraction of GR prepared at 120 ° C has the highest photocatalytic activity. The conversion and mineralization over MB are 96.7% and 57.1% respectively, which is much higher than that of NPC-ZnS. The high photoactivity of ZnS-GR nanocomposites can be ascribed to the integrated effect of an extremely high specific surface area and the excellent electron conductivity of GR and its significant influence on the morphology and structure of the samples. Moreover, it is found that the oxidation of MB is driven mainly by the participation of .OH radicals. Accordingly, a potential photocatalytic mechanism of ZnS-GR nanocomposites in the photocatalytic process has been proposed in this work. It is expected that our work could provide valuable information on the design of metal sulfide decorated GR with excellent properties. PMID:23965531

  19. Electrochemiluminescent quenching of quantum dots for ultrasensitive immunoassay through oxygen reduction catalyzed by nitrogen-doped graphene-supported hemin.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shengyuan; Lei, Jianping; Huang, Yin; Cheng, Yan; Ju, Huangxian

    2013-06-01

    A hemin functionalized graphene sheet was prepared via the noncovalent assembly of hemin on nitrogen-doped graphene. The graphene sheet could act as an oxygen reduction catalyst to produce sensitive electrochemiluminescent (ECL) quenching of quantum dots (QDs) due to the annihilation of dissolved oxygen, the ECL coreactant, by its electrocatalytic reduction. With the use of the catalyst with high loading of hemin as a signal tag of the secondary antibody, a novel ultrasensitive immunoassay method for biomarker detection was proposed. In an air-saturated pH 8.0 buffer, the immunosensor constructed by a stepwise immobilization of bidentate-chelated CdTe QDs and capture antibody showed an intensive cathodic ECL irradiation, which could be scavenged upon the formation of the catalyst-bound sandwich immunocomplex. With the use of the carcinoembryonic antigen as a model analyte, the immunoassay method showed a linear range from 0.1 pg mL(-1) to 10 ng mL(-1) and a detection limit of 24 fg mL(-1). The immunosensor exhibited good stability, acceptable fabrication reproducibility, and practicability. The electrocatalytic reduction-based ECL quenching strategy provided a powerful avenue for the design of the ultrasensitive detection method, showing great promise for clinical application. PMID:23659573

  20. Designing field-controllable graphene-dot-graphene single molecule switches: A quantum-theoretical proof-of-concept under realistic operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pejov, Ljupčo; Petreska, Irina; Kocarev, Ljupčo

    2015-12-01

    A theoretical proof of the concept that a particularly designed graphene-based moletronics device, constituted by two semi-infinite graphene subunits, acting as source and drain electrodes, and a central benzenoid ring rotator (a "quantum dot"), could act as a field-controllable molecular switch is outlined and analyzed with the density functional theory approach. Besides the ideal (0 K) case, we also consider the operation of such a device under realistic operating (i.e., finite-temperature) conditions. An in-depth insight into the physics behind device controllability by an external field was gained by thorough analyses of the torsional potential of the dot under various conditions (absence or presence of an external gating field with varying strength), computing the torsional correlation time and transition probabilities within the Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound formalism. Both classical and quantum mechanical tunneling contributions to the intramolecular rotation were considered in the model. The main idea that we put forward in the present study is that intramolecular rotors can be controlled by the gating field even in cases when these groups do not possess a permanent dipole moment (as in cases considered previously by us [I. Petreska et al., J. Chem. Phys. 134, 014708-1-014708-12 (2011)] and also by other groups [P. E. Kornilovitch et al., Phys. Rev. B 66, 245413-1-245413-7 (2002)]). Consequently, one can control the molecular switching properties by an external electrostatic field utilizing even nonpolar intramolecular rotors (i.e., in a more general case than those considered so far). Molecular admittance of the currently considered graphene-based molecular switch under various conditions is analyzed employing non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, as well as by analysis of frontier molecular orbitals' behavior.

  1. Designing field-controllable graphene-dot-graphene single molecule switches: A quantum-theoretical proof-of-concept under realistic operating conditions.

    PubMed

    Pejov, Ljupčo; Petreska, Irina; Kocarev, Ljupčo

    2015-12-28

    A theoretical proof of the concept that a particularly designed graphene-based moletronics device, constituted by two semi-infinite graphene subunits, acting as source and drain electrodes, and a central benzenoid ring rotator (a "quantum dot"), could act as a field-controllable molecular switch is outlined and analyzed with the density functional theory approach. Besides the ideal (0 K) case, we also consider the operation of such a device under realistic operating (i.e., finite-temperature) conditions. An in-depth insight into the physics behind device controllability by an external field was gained by thorough analyses of the torsional potential of the dot under various conditions (absence or presence of an external gating field with varying strength), computing the torsional correlation time and transition probabilities within the Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound formalism. Both classical and quantum mechanical tunneling contributions to the intramolecular rotation were considered in the model. The main idea that we put forward in the present study is that intramolecular rotors can be controlled by the gating field even in cases when these groups do not possess a permanent dipole moment (as in cases considered previously by us [I. Petreska et al., J. Chem. Phys. 134, 014708-1-014708-12 (2011)] and also by other groups [P. E. Kornilovitch et al., Phys. Rev. B 66, 245413-1-245413-7 (2002)]). Consequently, one can control the molecular switching properties by an external electrostatic field utilizing even nonpolar intramolecular rotors (i.e., in a more general case than those considered so far). Molecular admittance of the currently considered graphene-based molecular switch under various conditions is analyzed employing non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, as well as by analysis of frontier molecular orbitals' behavior. PMID:26723699

  2. Large-Scale and Controllable Synthesis of Graphene Quantum Dots from Rice Husk Biomass: A Comprehensive Utilization Strategy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaofeng; Yu, Jingfang; Zhang, Xin; Li, Na; Liu, Bin; Li, Yanyan; Wang, Yuhua; Wang, Weixing; Li, Yezhou; Zhang, Lichun; Dissanayake, Shanka; Suib, Steven L; Sun, Luyi

    2016-01-20

    In this work, rice husk biomass was utilized as an abundant source to controllably prepare high-quality graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with a yield of ca. 15 wt %. The size, morphology, and structure of the rice-husk-derived GQDs were determined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The as-fabricated GQDs can be stably dispersed in water, exhibiting bright and tunable photoluminescence. A cell viability test further confirmed that the GQDs possess excellent biocompatibility, and they can be easily adopted for cell imaging via a facile translocation into the cytoplasm. It is worth noting that mesoporous silica nanoparticles were also synthesized as a byproduct during the fabrication of GQDs. As such, our strategy achieves a comprehensive utilization of rice husks, exhibiting tremendous benefits on both the economy and environment. PMID:26710249

  3. Comparative electron paramagnetic resonance investigation of reduced graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes with different chemical functionalities for quantum dot attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Chuyen V.; Krueger, Michael; Eck, Michael; Weber, Stefan; Erdem, Emre

    2014-03-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has been applied to different chemically treated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A narrow EPR signal is visible at g = 2.0029 in both GO and CNT-Oxide from carbon-related dangling bonds. EPR signals became broader and of lower intensity after oxygen-containing functionalities were reduced and partially transformed into thiol groups to obtain thiol-functionalized reduced GO (TrGO) and thiol-functionalized CNT (CNT-SH), respectively. Additionally, EPR investigation of CdSe quantum dot-TrGO hybrid material reveals complete quenching of the TrGO EPR signal due to direct chemical attachment and electronic coupling. Our work confirms that EPR is a suitable tool to detect spin density changes in different functionalized nanocarbon materials and can contribute to improved understanding of electronic coupling effects in nanocarbon-nanoparticle hybrid nano-composites promising for various electronic and optoelectronic applications.

  4. Enhanced electrochemiluminescence of CdSe quantum dots composited with graphene oxide and chitosan for sensitive sensor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Teng; Zhang, Shengyi; Mao, Changjie; Song, Jiming; Niu, Helin; Jin, Baokang; Tian, Yupeng

    2012-01-15

    A novel strategy for the enhancement of electrochemiluminescence (ECL) was developed by combining CdSe quantum dots (QDs) with graphene oxide-chitosan (GO-CHIT). The ECL sensor fabricated with CdSe QDs/GO-CHIT composite exhibited high ECL intensity, good biocompatibility and long-term stability, and was used to detect of cytochrome C (Cyt C). The results show that the ECL sensor has high sensitivity for Cyt C with the linear range from 4.0 to 324 μM and the detection limit of 1.5 μM. Furthermore, the ECL sensor can selectively sense Cyt C from glucose and bovine serum albumin (BSA). PMID:22099955

  5. Dual-Mode SERS-Fluorescence Immunoassay Using Graphene Quantum Dot Labeling on One-Dimensional Aligned Magnetoplasmonic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zou, Fengming; Zhou, Hongjian; Tan, Tran Van; Kim, Jeonghyo; Koh, Kwangnak; Lee, Jaebeom

    2015-06-10

    A novel dual-mode immunoassay based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and fluorescence was designed using graphene quantum dot (GQD) labels to detect a tuberculosis (TB) antigen, CFP-10, via a newly developed sensing platform of linearly aligned magnetoplasmonic (MagPlas) nanoparticles (NPs). The GQDs were excellent bilabeling materials for simultaneous Raman scattering and photoluminescence (PL). The one-dimensional (1D) alignment of MagPlas NPs simplified the immunoassay process and enabled fast, enhanced signal transduction. With a sandwich-type immunoassay using dual-mode nanoprobes, both SERS signals and fluorescence images were recognized in a highly sensitive and selective manner with a detection limit of 0.0511 pg mL(-1). PMID:26006156

  6. A new turn-off fluorescence probe based on graphene quantum dots for detection of Au(III) ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amjadi, Mohammad; Shokri, Roghayeh; Hallaj, Tooba

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a new turn-off fluorescence probe based on the graphene quantum dots (GQDs) was designed for detection and quantification of Au(III) ion. GQDs were prepared by two simple carbonization methods using glucose (g-GQDs) and citric acid (c-GQDs) as carbon sources. The effect of some metal ions on the fluorescence intensity of the prepared GQDs was studied. It was found that the fluorescence of both GQDs is significantly quenched by Au(III) ions but the sensitivity and analytical performances are different for two prepared GQDs. Using g-GQDs, a new analytical method was developed for the determination of Au(III) in the concentration range of 1.0-80 μM, with a detection limit of 0.5 μM. The developed method was applied to the determination of Au(III) in water and plasma samples with satisfactory results.

  7. Energy transfer from an individual silica nanoparticle to graphene quantum dots and resulting enhancement of photodetector responsivity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung; Shin, Dong Hee; Kim, Jungkil; Jang, Chan Wook; Kang, Soo Seok; Kim, Jong Min; Kim, Ju Hwan; Lee, Dae Hun; Kim, Jung Hyun; Choi, Suk-Ho; Hwang, Sung Won

    2016-01-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), referred to as the transfer of the photon energy absorbed in donor to acceptor, has received much attention as an important physical phenomenon for its potential applications in optoelectronic devices as well as for the understanding of some biological systems. If one-atom-thick graphene is used for donor or acceptor, it can minimize the separation between donor and acceptor, thereby maximizing the FRET efficiency (EFRET). Here, we report first fabrication of a FRET system composed of silica nanoparticles (SNPs) and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as donors and acceptors, respectively. The FRET from SNPs to GQDs with an EFRET of ∼78% is demonstrated from excitation-dependent photoluminescence spectra and decay curves. The photodetector (PD) responsivity (R) of the FRET system at 532 nm is enhanced by 100∼101/102∼103 times under forward/reverse biases, respectively, compared to the PD containing solely GQDs. This remarkable enhancement is understood by network-like current paths formed by the GQDs on the SNPs and easy transfer of the carriers generated from the SNPs into the GQDs due to their close attachment. The R is 2∼3 times further enhanced at 325 nm by the FRET effect. PMID:27250343

  8. Energy transfer from an individual silica nanoparticle to graphene quantum dots and resulting enhancement of photodetector responsivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung; Shin, Dong Hee; Kim, Jungkil; Jang, Chan Wook; Kang, Soo Seok; Kim, Jong Min; Kim, Ju Hwan; Lee, Dae Hun; Kim, Jung Hyun; Choi, Suk-Ho; Hwang, Sung Won

    2016-06-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), referred to as the transfer of the photon energy absorbed in donor to acceptor, has received much attention as an important physical phenomenon for its potential applications in optoelectronic devices as well as for the understanding of some biological systems. If one-atom-thick graphene is used for donor or acceptor, it can minimize the separation between donor and acceptor, thereby maximizing the FRET efficiency (EFRET). Here, we report first fabrication of a FRET system composed of silica nanoparticles (SNPs) and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as donors and acceptors, respectively. The FRET from SNPs to GQDs with an EFRET of ∼78% is demonstrated from excitation-dependent photoluminescence spectra and decay curves. The photodetector (PD) responsivity (R) of the FRET system at 532 nm is enhanced by 100∼101/102∼103 times under forward/reverse biases, respectively, compared to the PD containing solely GQDs. This remarkable enhancement is understood by network-like current paths formed by the GQDs on the SNPs and easy transfer of the carriers generated from the SNPs into the GQDs due to their close attachment. The R is 2∼3 times further enhanced at 325 nm by the FRET effect.

  9. Energy transfer from an individual silica nanoparticle to graphene quantum dots and resulting enhancement of photodetector responsivity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung; Shin, Dong Hee; Kim, Jungkil; Jang, Chan Wook; Kang, Soo Seok; Kim, Jong Min; Kim, Ju Hwan; Lee, Dae Hun; Kim, Jung Hyun; Choi, Suk-Ho; Hwang, Sung Won

    2016-01-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), referred to as the transfer of the photon energy absorbed in donor to acceptor, has received much attention as an important physical phenomenon for its potential applications in optoelectronic devices as well as for the understanding of some biological systems. If one-atom-thick graphene is used for donor or acceptor, it can minimize the separation between donor and acceptor, thereby maximizing the FRET efficiency (EFRET). Here, we report first fabrication of a FRET system composed of silica nanoparticles (SNPs) and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as donors and acceptors, respectively. The FRET from SNPs to GQDs with an EFRET of ∼78% is demonstrated from excitation-dependent photoluminescence spectra and decay curves. The photodetector (PD) responsivity (R) of the FRET system at 532 nm is enhanced by 10(0)∼10(1)/10(2)∼10(3) times under forward/reverse biases, respectively, compared to the PD containing solely GQDs. This remarkable enhancement is understood by network-like current paths formed by the GQDs on the SNPs and easy transfer of the carriers generated from the SNPs into the GQDs due to their close attachment. The R is 2∼3 times further enhanced at 325 nm by the FRET effect. PMID:27250343

  10. Multiplex electrochemiluminescence immunoassay of two tumor markers using multicolor quantum dots as labels and graphene as conducting bridge.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhiyong; Hao, Tingting; Du, Shuping; Chen, Beibei; Wang, Zebo; Li, Xing; Wang, Sui

    2013-06-15

    A multiplex electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunoassay for simultaneous determination of two different tumor markers, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), using multicolor quantum dots as labels and graphene as conducting bridge was developed. Herein, a typical sandwich immune complex was constructed on the glass carbon electrode, with QDs525 and QDs625 labeled on secondary anti-AFP and anti-CEA antibodies, respectively, thus to obtain distinguishable ECL signals. Because most of those QDs labeled on secondary antibodies were beyond the space domain of the ECL reaction, graphene was used as a conducting bridge to promote the electron transfer between QDs and the electrode, leading to about 30-fold enhancement of the ECL intensity. Experimental results revealed that the multiplex electrochemiluminescence immunoassay enabled the simultaneous monitoring of AFP and CEA in a single run with a working range of 0.001-0.1 pg/mL. The detection limit (LOD) for both analytes at 0.4 fg/mL was very low. No obvious cross-reactivity was found. Precision, recovery and stability were satisfactory. This novel multiplex ECL immunoassay provided a simple, sensitive, specific and reliable alternative for the simultaneous detection of tumor markers in clinical laboratory. PMID:23399472