Note: This page contains sample records for the topic graphical big picture from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Science's Big Picture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The state of science is a moving target, and its ever-shifting horizons can best be gleaned by the contents of scientific journals. However, the bigger picture of the scientific enterprise, which also encompasses its past, its future, and its overarching philosophies, can often be better represented through the more reflective pace of popular…

Sapp, Gregg

2007-01-01

2

Statistical Inference: The Big Picture  

PubMed Central

Statistics has moved beyond the frequentist-Bayesian controversies of the past. Where does this leave our ability to interpret results? I suggest that a philosophy compatible with statistical practice, labelled here statistical pragmatism, serves as a foundation for inference. Statistical pragmatism is inclusive and emphasizes the assumptions that connect statistical models with observed data. I argue that introductory courses often mis-characterize the process of statistical inference and I propose an alternative “big picture” depiction.

Kass, Robert E.

2011-01-01

3

Picture/graphics classification system and method  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method and system for image processing, in conjunction with classification of images between natural pictures and synthetic graphics, using SGLD texture (e.g., variance, bias, skewness, and fitness), color discreteness (e.g., R.sub.--L, R.sub.--U, and R.sub.--V normalized histograms), or edge features (e.g., pixels per detected edge, horizontal edges, and vertical edges) is provided. In another embodiment, a picture/graphics classifier using combinations of SGLD texture, color discreteness, and edge features is provided. In still another embodiment, a "soft" image classifier using combinations of two (2) or more SGLD texture, color discreteness, and edge features is provided. The "soft" classifier uses image features to classify areas of an input image in picture, graphics, or fuzzy classes.

2006-01-03

4

The Big Picture Book of Viruses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The Big Picture Book of Viruses is intended to serve as both a catalog of virus pictures on the Internet and as an educational resource to those users seeking more information about viruses," claims the site's founder, Dr. Robert F. Garry of Tulane University School of Medicine. From the left-hand column of Big Picture Book's homepage, you can access color images of viruses by name, structure/genome, host, or associated disease (the images are held on external Websites from a variety of research institutions). Many of the images are from electron microscopes or x-ray diffractors, and others are computer-generated simulations or prepared specimen slides. Along with mug shots of Nucleopolyhedrovirus, Lipothrixvirus and Chlamydiamicrovirus, to name just a few, comes a wealth of text and links. Links take users to sites on virus structure, viral taxonomy, Web courses, tutorials, and much more. Besides The Big Picture Book of Viruses, Dr. Garry maintains a Website entitled All the Virology on the Web, that Scout Project editors discovered and reviewed in its infancy in the November 17, 1995 _Scout Report.

1995-01-01

5

Next Generation HTML: The Big Picture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This recent addition to the Web Developer's Virtual Library is designed to help developers understand how new specifications fit into the Big Picture--the efforts of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). These new specifications, which the site's author Ken Sall denotes as Next Generation HTML, include "Cascading Style Sheets, HTML 4.0, the Document Object Model, Dynamic HTML, the XML family of specifications, and the many specifications based on XML, such as RDF, SMIL, and MathML." To help users get started, the site offers a color-coded imagemap (the Big Picture) with links to pages containing details of W3C specification documents, as well as an acronym expansion chart to sort out all the buzzwords. Other sections include: The W3C Process, Markup Languages, Scripting Efforts, StyleSheets, and XML Applications (Vocabularies).

Sall, Ken.

1999-01-01

6

Science is Part of the Big Picture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By becoming active learners themselves, teachers recognize that science is part of the "big picture," and they are able to link newly constructed ideas about active learning to other pedagogical initiatives. It is important not to neglect theory if teachers are to develop a model that assists them in modifying their instructional approaches and that makes sense of professional development activities. This free chapter includes a Table of Contents and Introduction.

Greenwood, Anita

2002-01-01

7

The Big Picture; A Classroom Activity for Organic Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the article "The Big Picture: A Classroom Activity for Organic Chemistry", Thomas Poon makes interesting use of the device exploited by Istvan Banyai in his Zoom books to help students of organic chemistry make connections between the molecular world and ways in which those molecules are important in daily life. The paper should have appeal at all levels of science education from the time the idea of molecules is first introduced through college-level courses. Along the way, students will encounter important biological molecules (such as chlorophyll), inks (such as pen ink), CFCs, hydrocarbon fuels, plastics (such as Lexan polycarbonate), and molecules with medical applications (such as aspirin and novocaine).

8

The big picture? Video and the representation of interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers who use video to record interactions usually need to translate the video data into another medium at some stage in order to facilitate its analysis and dissemination. This article considers some methodological issues that arise in this process by examining transcripts, diagrams and pictures as examples of different techniques for representing interaction. These examples are used to identify some

Lydia Plowman; Christine Stephen

2008-01-01

9

Size It Up: Can You See the "Big Picture"?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this artistic activity, learners blow up a smaller picture into a larger one, by using a grid. The activity prompts students to think about how their eyes and brain work together to make sense of the world. This is a great activity that focuses on perception and sight, and can also be combined with lessons about various famous artists.

Wgbh

2006-01-01

10

The Big Bang Picture: a Remarkable Success of Modern Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the XXth century a scientific picture of the universe and its history has emerged on the basis of the ``Primeval Atom'', the original proposition of Georges Lemaî tre. Indeed, I will show during this review that modern cosmology is a scientific theory, and as such does not pretend to provide the ``Truth'', but a framework in which predictions are possible and can be confronted to observations for possible falsification in Poper sense. The last forty years have offered a remarkable list of observational verifications of the predictions of the standard picture, on the basis of well established physics. During the last twenty five years a more revolutionizing picture has emerged: essential pieces of information for fundamental physics are obtainable from cosmology: this picture specifies the existence of non-baryonic matter, of dark energy and the physics relevant at energies well above what is accessible to terrestrial laboratories. Although definitive conclusions are obviously more uncertain, this approach is still a fully scientific path which successes have been remarkable and allow to consider cosmology as a new and rich branch of modern physics.

Blanchard, Alain

2006-03-01

11

The Big Bang Picture: a Remarkable Success of Modern Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the XXth century a scientific picture of the universe and its history has emerged on the basis of the ``Primeval Atom'', the original proposition of Georges Lemaî tre. Indeed, I will show during this review that modern cosmology is a scientific theory, and as such does not pretend to provide the ``Truth'', but a framework in which predictions are

Alain Blanchard

2006-01-01

12

Snapshots Form a Big Picture of Guanine Nucleotide Exchange  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) regulate a vast array of cellular functions. Their highly controlled activation, which is catalyzed by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), links input signals emanating from various events such as stimulation of cell surface receptors to a similarly diverse range of downstream responses. Due to the central role of GEFs in the regulation of GTPase-mediated signaling processes, their mode of action has been intensively investigated. A new structural study on the DOCK family of Rho family–specific GEFs now uncovers an unusual variation in the way in which GEFs can regulate the nucleotide status of GTPases and provides the most complete picture of a GDP-GTP exchange cycle to date.

Katrin Rittinger (London;MRC-National Institute for Medical Research REV)

2009-10-06

13

Meaning in life and seeing the big picture: Positive affect and global focus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has demonstrated that there is a strong relationship between positive affect (PA) and meaning in life. It has been suggested that this relationship may exist, in part, because PA facilitates a global cognitive focus, allowing a person to see “the big picture” of his or her life. Although it is possible global focus mediates the relationship between PA and

Joshua A. Hicks; Laura A. King

2007-01-01

14

Graphical password: User’s affinity of choice — an analysis of picture attributes selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will provide an analysis of a survey on picture attributes based on userpsilas affinity of choice. There are four picture attributes evaluated, which are picture size, picture presentation, picture colour and picture category. The objective of this survey is to collect and analyze the affinity of choice as selected by the users. There are 63 respondents involved in

M. D. H. Abdullah; A. H. B. Abdullah; N. Ithnin; H. K. Mammi

2008-01-01

15

Maintaining a consistent big picture: Meaningful use of a web-based POC EHR system  

PubMed Central

Objective To test the hypothesis that HANDS “big picture summary” can be implemented uniformly across diverse settings and result in positive RN and plan of care (POC) data outcomes across time. Design In a longitudinal, multi-site, full test design, a representative convenience sample of 8 medical-surgical units from 4 hospitals (1 university, 2 large community, and 1 small community) in one Midwestern state implemented the HANDS intervention for 24 (4 units) or 12 (4 units) months. Measurements 1) RN outcomes - percentage completing training, satisfaction with standardized terminologies, perception of HANDS usefulness, POC submission compliance rate. 2) POC data outcomes – validity (rate of optional changes/episode); reliability of terms and ratings; and volume of standardized data generated. Results 100% of the RNs who worked on the 8 study units successfully completed the required standardized training; all units selected participated for the entire 12- or 24-month designated period; compliance rates for POC entry at every patient handoff were 78% to 92%; reliability coefficients for use of the standardized terms and ratings were moderately strong; the pattern of optional POC change per episode declined but remained reasonable across time; the nurses generated a database of 40,747 episodes of care. Limitations Only RNs and medical-surgical units participated. Conclusion It is possible to effectively standardize the capture and visualization of useful “big picture” healthcare information across diverse settings. Findings offer a viable alternative to the current practice of introducing new health information layers that ultimately increase the complexity and inconsistency of information for front line users.

Keenan, Gail M.; Yakel, Elizabeth; Yao, Yingwei; Xu, Dianhui; Szalacha, Laura; Tschannen, Dana; Ford, Yvonne; Chen, Yu-Chung; Johnson, Andrew; Lopez, Karen Dunn; Wilkie, Diana J.

2013-01-01

16

The Big Picture of Lives Saved by Abortion on Demand: User Pays Applied to Pro-Life Advocates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pro-life advocates focus on a single entity, the foetus. Pro-choice advocates focus on another single entity, the pregnant mother. There should also be a third focus, on all people already born – on how a new entrant on average damages (or enhances) the whole community. Communal accounts are needed on births, not only on wars. This third big picture communal

Robin Pope

2009-01-01

17

Stepping back to see the big picture: when obstacles elicit global processing.  

PubMed

Can obstacles prompt people to look at the "big picture" and open up their minds? Do the cognitive effects of obstacles extend beyond the tasks with which they interfere? These questions were addressed in 6 studies involving both physical and nonphysical obstacles and different measures of global versus local processing styles. Perceptual scope increased after participants solved anagrams in the presence, rather than the absence, of an auditory obstacle (random words played in the background; Study 1), particularly among individuals low in volatility (i.e., those who are inclined to stay engaged and finish what they do; Study 4). It also increased immediately after participants encountered a physical obstacle while navigating a maze (Study 3A) and when compared with doing nothing (Study 3B). Conceptual scope increased after participants solved anagrams while hearing random numbers framed as an "obstacle to overcome" rather than a "distraction to ignore" (Study 2) and after participants navigated a maze with a physical obstacle, compared with a maze without a physical obstacle, but only when trait (Study 5) or state (Study 6) volatility was low. Results suggest that obstacles trigger an "if obstacle, then start global processing" response, primarily when people are inclined to stay engaged and finish ongoing activities. Implications for dealing with life's obstacles and related research are discussed. PMID:21875228

Marguc, Janina; Förster, Jens; Van Kleef, Gerben A

2011-11-01

18

PictureThis: The Pacific Nortwest National Laboratory image and graphics gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

PictureThis contains hundreds of photos of innovative technologies developed and research performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Photos can be downloaded as TIFF files. High-resolution photos are available where possible.The Gallery contains plant, animal, and landscape images relevant to the work that Ecology Group staff members perform in Washington State and around the world. Some of the images show species that are classified as rare, threatened, or endangered in State and/or Federal listings. Other species are prevalent, but their names and life histories are not commonly known.

Laboratory, Pacific N.

2010-02-16

19

Proceedings of the Second All-USGS Modeling Conference, February 11-14, 2008: Painting the Big Picture  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Second USGS Modeling Conference was held February 11-14, 2008, in Orange Beach, Ala. Participants at the conference came from all U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) regions and represented all four science discipline - Biology, Geography, Geology, and Water. Representatives from other Department of the Interior (DOI) agencies and partners from the academic community also participated. The conference, which was focused on 'painting the big picture', emphasized the following themes: Integrated Landscape Monitoring, Global Climate Change, Ecosystem Modeling, and Hazards and Risks. The conference centered on providing a forum for modelers to meet, exchange information on current approaches, identify specific opportunities to share existing models and develop more linked and integrated models to address complex science questions, and increase collaboration across disciplines and with other organizations. Abstracts for the 31 oral presentations and more than 60 posters presented at the conference are included here. The conference also featured a field trip to review scientific modeling issues along the Gulf of Mexico. The field trip included visits to Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge, Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, the 5 Rivers Delta Resource Center, and Bon Secour National Wildlife Refuge. On behalf of all the participants of the Second All-USGS Modeling Conference, the conference organizing committee expresses our sincere appreciation for the support of field trip oganizers and leaders, including the managers from the various Reserves and Refuges. The organizing committee for the conference included Jenifer Bracewell, Sally Brady, Jacoby Carter, Thomas Casadevall, Linda Gundersen, Tom Gunther, Heather Henkel, Lauren Hay, Pat Jellison, K. Bruce Jones, Kenneth Odom, and Mark Wildhaber.

Edited by Brady, Shailaja R.

2009-01-01

20

Picture It!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Picture It! reading strategy uses the elements of story grammar and visualization in a mnemonic format to enhance comprehension, aid vocabulary development, visually establish story sequence, and stimulate discussion of both the big picture of the story's meaning and the details which support the author's message. It is a strategy that can be…

Naughton, Victoria M.

2008-01-01

21

Getting the Big Picture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduces the article for this issue's special focus on the life cycle of a music teacher. Focuses on major areas of concern for music educators, such as student teaching, mentoring, lifelong learning, burnout, self-reflection, and self-analysis. (CMK)|

Hamann, Donald L.

2000-01-01

22

Big Picture Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some experts suggest that people who are underrepresented in science often have difficulty expressing their ideas and participating in classrooms where traditional methods of instruction are used because they may feel uncomfortable with the limited roles

Behm, Charlotte

2001-03-01

23

The Big Picture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how sustainable educational facility design, resulting from a holistic approach to architectural design, engineering, and construction, can generate capital, operational, and maintenance savings. Offers examples related to roofing, air quality, and lighting. (EV)

DeVolder, Chris

2002-01-01

24

Nanobubbles: the big picture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanobubbles, whose existence on hydrophobic surfaces immersed in water has previously been inferred from measurements of long-ranged attractions between such surfaces, are directly imaged by tapping mode atomic force microscopy. It is found that the nanobubbles cover the surfaces in an irregular, interconnected or close-packed network whose morphology is dependent on pH and whose lifetimes are at least of the order of hours. Their height is of the order of 30nm and their radius of curvature is of the order of 100-300nm. It appears that the nanobubbles form from a solution supersaturated with air. A thermodynamic and statistical mechanical analysis of the homogeneous nucleation of liquid droplets from a supersaturated vapour shows that although a single droplet can be in equilibrium with a finite volume of gas, for a gas reservoir the equilibrium state is represented by a single macroscopic droplet, which grows by collisions and by Ostwald ripening. It is concluded that the electric double-layer repulsion between neighbouring nanobubbles on the hydrophobic surface plays a role in their stabilisation.

Attard, Phil; Moody, Michael P.; Tyrrell, James W. G.

2002-11-01

25

Assessing coastal waters of American Samoa: territory-wide water quality data provide a critical "big-picture" view for this tropical archipelago.  

PubMed

The coastal waters of American Samoa's five high islands (Tutuila, Aunu'u, Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u) were surveyed in 2004 using a probabilistic design. Water quality data were collected from the near-shore coastal habitat, defined as all near-shore coastal waters including embayments, extending out to 1/4 mile off-shore. Hydrography and water column samples were collected, and water quality data were compared to the Territorial water quality standards for pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), Enterococcus, chlorophyll a, water clarity, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. All station measurements for pH, DO, and Enterococcus satisfied the local water quality standards, although some fraction of the Territory could not be assessed for either DO or Enterococcus. With respect to chlorophyll a, 66 +/- 18% of Territory coastal waters complied with the standard, while 34 +/- 18% failed to comply with the standard. For water clarity, 54 +/- 18% of the Territorial waters complied with the standard while 42 +/- 7% failed to comply. Territorial waters satisfied the standards for total nitrogen and phosphorus 72 +/- 17% and 92 +/- 10%, respectively. These data provide the first "big-picture" view of water quality in the near shore region around the high islands of American Samoa. While the picture is encouraging, these data suggest emerging water quality concerns. PMID:19082748

DiDonato, Guy T; DiDonato, Eva M; Smith, Lisa M; Harwell, Linda C; Summers, J Kevin

2008-12-11

26

Chemistry--The Big Picture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Chemistry produces materials and releases energy by ionic or electronic rearrangements. Three structure types affect the ease with which a reaction occurs. In the Earth's crust, "solid crystals" change chemically only with extreme heat and pressure, unless their fixed ions touch moving fluids. On the other hand, in living things, "liquid…

Cassell, Anne

2011-01-01

27

Visualising Astronomy: "The Big Picture"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

News flash! Planetariums have changed. With fulldome video technology in nearly 700 planetariums worldwide, these "theatres of time and space" have evolved into learning environments that truly deserve that moniker. How do we teach with these new tools, these new images? And what potential do planetariums now offer for changing the way people think about humanity and its place in the Universe? A few personal observations and speculations follow...

Wyatt, R.

2010-12-01

28

Focusing on the big picture.  

PubMed

As a postdoc in cognitive neuroscience who's also a neurology fellow, Adam Gazzaley is a meld of basic science expertise and clinical experience: He studies brain aging in people by using functional magnetic resonance imaging at the University of California (UC), Berkeley, and he also sees patients at UC San Francisco's Memory and Aging Center. The 34-year-old native New Yorker dives with equal fervor into scientific research and nature photography, two lenses for viewing a single world of discovery. Growing up in Queens, Gazzaley knew from age 7 that he wanted to become a scientist, and as a teenager, he commuted long hours to attend the Bronx High School of Science. He earned an M.D.-Ph.D. from the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York City. Gazzaley's hobby as a shutterbug periodically takes him on backpacking trips to document the beauty of the great outdoors. He sells fine-art prints of his photographs to individuals, hospitals, and clinics through his company, Wanderings Inc. PMID:12968055

Chen, Ingfei

2003-09-10

29

Chemistry--The Big Picture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chemistry produces materials and releases energy by ionic or electronic rearrangements. Three structure types affect the ease with which a reaction occurs. In the Earth's crust, "solid crystals" change chemically only with extreme heat and pressure, unless their fixed ions touch moving fluids. On the other hand, in living things, "liquid crystals"…

Cassell, Anne

2011-01-01

30

Geometric Processing and Its Relational Graphics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of a study using graphics for aiding vulnerability/lethality assessment are presented. Methods of target description and picture processing are also discussed. The need for a modern graphics system is shown and several graphics systems are bri...

M. A. Hirschberg

1976-01-01

31

Usability of Graphical Passwords  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human users are not good at remembering alpha-numeric passwords, if the passwords are complicated enough to be secure. Graphical passwords may be easier to remember and use over the long run because they are based on recognition of locations in a picture rather than un-cued recall. In a graphical password system, an image is displayed and the user chooses several

Susan Wiedenbeck; Jim Waters; Nasir Memon; Alex Brodskiy; Jean-Camille Birget

32

How Computer Graphics Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document presents the principles behind modern computer graphics without straying into the arcane languages of mathematics and computer science. Illustrations accompany the clear, step-by-step explanations that describe how computers draw pictures. The 22 chapters of the book are organized into 5 sections. "Part 1: Computer Graphics in…

Prosise, Jeff

33

Nature Picture Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While a commercial enterprise, the Nature Picture Library offers viewers free online access to thousands of high-resolution photographs in its database. Containing fantastic shots of flora and fauna in settings of every variety, the Nature Picture Library is a great graphic resource for those in search of images of the natural world. Images can be purchased for direct downloads or can be stored online for free by registered users in lightboxes of their own design. The picture library allows registrants to create and store as many as fifty lightboxes for online consultation. A great way to see the world and all its creatures, the Nature Picture Library is sure to provoke awe, admiration, and devotion from users of every age.

2002-01-01

34

Graphic Novels for Multiple Literacies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes how the term "graphic novel" includes fiction as well as non-fiction text with pictures--"comics" in book format. Discusses how in any subject area, studying a graphic novel can bring media literacy into the curriculum as students examine the medium itself. (SG)|

Schwarz, Gretchen E.

2002-01-01

35

The Big Picture: Education is Everyone's Business  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While there are lots of books about education that propose to change what is done in classrooms and schools, here's one that promises to transform how educators think. Drawing from 35 years of taking on tough schools with disadvantaged kids and achieving the kind of progress that many thought "couldn't be done", Dennis Littky explains the…

Littky, Dennis; Grabelle, Samantha

2004-01-01

36

Introducing Students to "The Big Picture."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Business students view commercial films depicting management issues such as hostile takeover, organizational culture, and international business competition. Lectures, readings, and interviews give students background information with which to assess the films. The technique enables students to observe and understand stakeholder interactions in…

Roth, Lawrence

2001-01-01

37

The big picture - energy issues in Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article discusses the factors that have caused a renewed interest in energy policies in the USA, since the 2005 Energy Policy Act. Apart from the November 2008 elections issues of climate change, energy demand, and energy security have all contributed. The US has just begun to feel the effects of energy competition from other countries such as China and

2007-01-01

38

Multimedia systems overview: the big picture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The golden opportunities represented by multimedia systems have been recognized by many. The risk and cost involved in developing the products and the markets has led to a bonanza of unlikely consortia of strange bedfellows. The premier promoter of personal computing systems, Apple Computer, has joined forces with the dominant supplier of corporate computing, IBM, to form a multimedia technology joint venture called Kaleida. The consumer electronics world's leading promoter of free trade, Sony, has joined forces with the leader of Europe's protectionist companies, Philips, to create a consumer multimedia standard called CD-I. While still paying lip service to CD-I, Sony and Philips now appear to be going their separate ways. The software world's most profitable/fastest growing firm, Microsoft, has entered into alliances with each and every multimedia competitor to create a mish mash of product classes and defacto standards. The battle for Multimedia Standards is being fought on all fronts: on standards committees, in corporate strategic marketing meetings, within industry associations, in computer retail stores, and on the streets. Early attempts to set proprietary defacto standards were fought back, but the proprietary efforts continue with renewed vigor. Standards committees were, as always, slow to define specifications, but the official standards are now known nd being implemented; ... but the proprietary efforts continue with renewed vigor. Ultimately, the buyers will decide -- like it or not. Success by the efforts to establish proprietary defacto standards could prove to be a boon to the highly creative and inventive U.S. firms, but at the cost of higher prices for consumers and slower market growth. Success by the official standards could bring lower prices for consumers and fast market growth, but force the higher-wage/higher-overhead U.S. firms to compete on a level playing field. As is always the case, you can't have your cake and eat it too.

Riccomi, Alfred

1993-01-01

39

The Big Picture. Spotlight: Gender Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the influence of prenatal sex hormones on later behavior and social learning that results from differential treatment of boys and girls by parents and peers. Also explores differences in academic achievement between boys and girls. Concludes that, contrary to the views of some parents and teachers in the 1970s and 1980s, inborn gender…

Turner, Joy

1995-01-01

40

Big Society, Big Deal?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Political leaders like to put forward guiding ideas or themes which pull their individual decisions into a broader narrative. For John Major it was Back to Basics, for Tony Blair it was the Third Way and for David Cameron it is the Big Society. While Mr. Blair relied on Lord Giddens to add intellectual weight to his idea, Mr. Cameron's legacy…

Thomson, Alastair

2011-01-01

41

Big Society, Big Deal?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Political leaders like to put forward guiding ideas or themes which pull their individual decisions into a broader narrative. For John Major it was Back to Basics, for Tony Blair it was the Third Way and for David Cameron it is the Big Society. While Mr. Blair relied on Lord Giddens to add intellectual weight to his idea, Mr. Cameron's legacy idea…

Thomson, Alastair

2011-01-01

42

The Big Bang Theory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These activities demonstrate that taking a given mass of material and applying a force to it can produce a pattern that replicates the material patterns noted when applying the Big Bang Theory. Students will be able to explain how the Big Bang Theory can explain the origin of the universe, demonstrate (using graphical analysis) how different masses react to the same force, describe patterns observed when force is applied to different masses, identify what material types could represent bodies of the universe, and equate material colors of the visible spectrum as they relate to the elements found in celestial bodies.

43

Picture naming.  

PubMed

Picture naming has become an important experimental paradigm in cognitive psychology. To name a picture can be considered an elementary process in the use of language. Thus, its chronometric analysis elucidates cognitive structures and processes that underlie speaking. Essentially, these analyses compare picture naming with reading, picture categorizing, and word categorizing. Furthermore, techniques of double stimulation such as the paradigms of priming and of Stroop-like interference are used. In this article, recent results obtained with these methods are reviewed and discussed with regard to five hypotheses about the cognitive structures that are involved in picture naming. Beside the older hypotheses of internal coding systems with only verbal or only pictorial format, the hypotheses of an internal dual code with a pictorial and a verbal component, of a common abstract code with logogen and pictogen subsystems, and the so-called lexical hypothesis are discussed. The latter postulates two main components: an abstract semantic memory which, nevertheless, also subserves picture processing, and a lexicon that carries out the huge amount of word processing without semantic interpretation that is necessary in hearing, reading, speaking and writing. PMID:1582161

Glaser, W R

1992-03-01

44

Declarative Graphics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A standard approach to describe pictures is the use of formal grammars. This, and the strong link between definite clause grammars and logic programming, motivates the design of the declarative picture specification language presented here. The language is relational and rule based. A specification is akin to a definite clause grammar and may be executed bottom-up for picture recognition or

Richard Helm; Kim Marriott

1986-01-01

45

Picture Australia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Picture Australia is a cross-collection search tool for finding images from the National Library of Australia and half a dozen other institutions: the National Archives; Australian War Memorial; State Libraries of Victoria, New South Wales, and Tasmania; and the University of Queensland. Librarians and database designers will be interested to know that the cross-collection searching is achieved by using harvested Dublin Core metadata stored in a central index at the National Library, while the digital images remain at their home institutions. Other users will simply be happy to find so many images of Australia, covering a diversity of topics, so easily. There are three ways to approach Picture Australia: picture search, a simple keyword search, or advanced search, which allows users to select and combine Dublin Core elements. In addition, users can follow "trails" to view images culled from all contributing collections, organized around themes, such as Australians and the Olympics (449 images of Olympic history since 1956), Australian Artists (230 portraits of Australian artists), Realia (all kinds of objects from Australian museums, from scrimshaw to costume), or Australian Wildflowers (botanical drawings, photographs, and a few botanists). Images1, the online pictorial collections of the National Library of Australia (reviewed in the October 15, 1999 Scout Report_), is one of the collections that is searched via Picture Australia.

46

Films as Graphical Comments in the Source Code of Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We suggest to use animated pictures (films) as graphical comments in the source code of programs. Such pictures can be played forwards and backwards in steps under the control of the user. They can have multiple branches, which lead to different pictures. Animation effects can be applied to show how a picture changes over time. This can be useful for

Hanspeter Mössenböck

1997-01-01

47

Computer Graphics & Digital Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Computer graphics is a term that encompasses a wide range of sciences and techniques. To understand some of the processes involved in generating computer graphics, Cornell University offers this detailed introduction to the subject (1). The site contains explanations and a series of pictures that illustrate object rendering, shading, ray tracing, and more. Computer graphics has seen rapid advancements in the past few years, partly because of the development of dedicated graphics processing units (GPUs). The performance of GPUs has outpaced that of general purpose processors, and this has sparked interest in using GPUs for applications other than graphics. General Purpose Computation Using Graphics Hardware (2) is a site that examines this trend. It is regularly updated with news, links to conferences and research papers, and related projects. The Center for Human Modeling and Simulation (3) is a research effort at the University of Pennsylvania. Many of the center's projects can be browsed on its website, including animation of physical gestures and the development of virtual humans. As a testament to the intricacy involved in modern computer graphics, this paper (4) describes a new technique for modeling the shine of light off human hair. The authors compare the results of their work to current shading practices and show notable improvements in the realism of the model. Three dimensional photography, a recent extension of computer graphics, has received significant attention from its use in movies. This paper (5) proposes a number of strategies for improving the accuracy and flexibility of current approaches to 3D photography. The 30th annual SIGGRAPH conference, held in July 2003 and sponsored by the Association for Computing Machinery, is one of the most well known conferences related to computer graphics. The SIGGRAPH Web Expo (6) showcases some of the most outstanding web-graphics work of the year. Visitors can choose between seven different categories and view many interactive and visually stunning creations. Some of the works have strict hardware and software requirements that are required in order to view them, however. This online review of the SIGGRAPH conference (7) provides an interesting view into the events and presentations. Scattered throughout the text are examples of computer generated images, as well as links to some of the papers and projects that were featured. Lastly, this news article (8) introduces machinima, a term used to describe special effects in movies that are created with technologies originally developed for computer games. The Machinima Film Festival 2003 is the basis of the article.

2003-01-01

48

Motion Pictures  

Microsoft Academic Search

George Rehrauer, THE MACMILLAN BIBLIOGRAPHY: A CRITICAL GUIDE TO THE LITERATURE OF THE MOTION PICTURE (New York: Macmillan, 1982 2 vol. —the first volume is the bibliography itself, $90.00; the second is the index, $50.00).Paula Rohrlick, EXPLORING THE ARTS: FILM AND VIDEO PROGRAMS FOR YOUNG VIEWERS (New York: R. R. Bowker, 1982—$24.95, paper, plus shipping and handling).Jason E. Squire, THE

George Rehrauer; Paula Rohrlick; Jason E. Squire; Gregory Goodell; James Curtis; William Schelly; Bruce Cook; Marsha McCreadle; William Luhr; Allen L. Woll; Norma Kagan; David Wilson; Nicholas Pronay; D. W. Spring; Ina Bertrand; Diane Collins; John Tulloch; Roy Armes; Bruce F. Kawin; Peter Rollins; Susan Myrick; Frank Beaver

1983-01-01

49

Measure Picture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity helps student practice reading a measurement ruler. The step-by-step handout allows the learner to practice drawing and identifying measurements by inch, quarter, and half of an inch. Each completed tasks will be indicated by the check placed in the boxes by the learners. In this activity, there are 21 tasks to check off and 1 question to answer: what picture is generated by following all the tasks?

2003-01-01

50

Cover Picture.  

PubMed

The cover picture shows the experimental principles of femtochemistry, the field concerned with the real-time observation of physical, chemical, and biological changes on the femtosecond time scale. The clocking of the femtosecond events is made using laser pulses, one to initiate the change and others to take snapshots. Studies of the motion at atomic-scale resolution provide a telescopic view of the molecular world. More information about this fascinating topic is described by A. H. Zewail in his Nobel Lecture on page 2586 ff. It is quite fitting that at the back of this issue is the inaugural issue of ChemPhysChem, announced in earlier editorials. PMID:10934389

Zewail

2000-08-01

51

15. UPSTREAM VIEW (PHOTOGRAPHER UNKNOWN) SHOWING BIG DALTON DAM NEAR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. UPSTREAM VIEW (PHOTOGRAPHER UNKNOWN) SHOWING BIG DALTON DAM NEAR FULL CAPACITY AFTER CONSTRUCTION. PICTURE WAS DEVELOPED FROM COPY NEGATIVES WHICH WERE TAKEN ON 2-15-1973 BY PHOTOGRAPHER D. MEIER OF L.A. COUNTY PUBLIC WORKS. - Big Dalton Dam, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

52

13. VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM ELEVATION OF BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. VIEW OF DOWNSTREAM ELEVATION OF BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING CONSTRUCTION OF THE ARCHES AND ARCH WALLS TAKEN IN 1928-1929 (PHOTOGRAPHER UNKNOWN). PICTURE WAS DEVELOPED FROM COPY NEGATIVES WHICH WERE TAKEN ON 2-15-1973 BY PHOTOGRAPHER D. MEIER OF L.A. COUNTY PUBLIC WORKS. - Big Dalton Dam, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

53

Cover Picture.  

PubMed

The cover picture shows the process of hydrogen and helium insertion/expulsion which has been achieved for the first time with an open fullerene derivative (outlined in the background). The experimental activation barrier for helium decomplexation could be obtained and fully agrees with the calculated value (density functional theory). The barrier for H(2) complexation/decomplexation is interestingly almost double that of helium, as illustrated by the energy diagram shown in the foreground. This difference arises from the larger, elongated surface of H(2) undergoing greater van der Waals interaction at the transition state relative to that of helium, even though both atoms have the same radii. More about this process can be found in the article by Rubin, Houk, Saunders, Cross et al. on p. 1543 ff. PMID:11317285

Rubin, Yves; Jarrosson, Thibaut; Wang, Guan-Wu; Bartberger, Michael D.; Houk, K. N.; Schick, Georg; Saunders, Martin; Cross, R. James

2001-04-17

54

Picture Chicago  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the decades, Chicago has been documented in countless books created for events like the World's Columbian Exposition and elaborate guides to local institutions such as the University of Chicago and the Rush Medical College. This digital collection from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) Library brings together 617 images that tell the story of the Second City in pictures, plans, and drawings. Visitors can browse by subject, creator, subject name, place name, item type, or they can just type in their own keywords (try "parks" or "Loop" to get started). Some of the fine items included here include photographs of Chicago gangsters, the city's first taxicab, the early pneumatic tube system designed for the Chicago Post Office, and the reference room of the Chicago Public Library in 1911. Engineers and others will be delighted to learn that the site also contains the draft plans created in order to straighten the Chicago River.

2012-03-30

55

“How Big is Big Enough?”  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the representation of masculinity in Sex and the City through an analysis of the characters Big and Steve. Although the show is unique in that it presents female characters as the primary subjects of identification and presumes a female audience, it participates in the patriarchal project of measuring men, especially Big and Steve, against each other. At

Laura A. K. Brunner

2010-01-01

56

Computer Graphics Support Service.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Computer graphics can be an integral part of a graphics support service. This presentation will discuss several types of computer graphics software and hardware and how computer graphics are integrated into a graphics support service. Various computer gra...

D. O. Dickman

1984-01-01

57

Portable Graphics System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

LASL implemented a graphics system designed to support all graphics devices in all operating environments at LASL. This system, Common Graphics System (CGS), supports level one of the graphics standard proposed by the ACM/SIGGRAPH Graphics Standards Plann...

R. G. Kellner T. N. Reed A. V. Solem

1978-01-01

58

Big Heads  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If somebody is really smart, other people might say: "She's got a really big brain." But when it comes to brains, does size really matter? In this Science Update, you'll hear the complicated answer to that simple question.

Science Update;

2003-04-07

59

Graphics Hardware  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graphics hardware is far faster, smaller, cheaper, and more capable than 20 years ago, and it will obviously continue on that path. Memory and processor advances have let us move texture mapping and surface occlusion from software to hardware. We'll no doubt move more sophisticated modeling, lighting and imaging operations into future hardware. Chip I\\/O rates will continue to advance

Nick England

2000-01-01

60

M theory model of a big crunch\\/big bang transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a picture in which the transition from a big crunch to a big bang corresponds to the collision of two empty orbifold planes approaching each other at a constant nonrelativistic speed in a locally flat background space-time, a situation relevant to recently proposed cosmological models. We show that p-brane states which wind around the extra dimension propagate smoothly

Neil Turok; Malcolm Perry; Paul J. Steinhardt

2004-01-01

61

The Oxford Picture Dictionary. Beginning Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The beginning workbook of the Oxford Picture Dictionary is in full color and offers vocabulary reinforcement activities that correspond page for page with the dictionary. Clear and simple instructions with examples make it suitable for independent use in the classroom or at home. The workbook has up-to-date art and graphics, explaining over 3700…

Fuchs, Marjorie

62

Graphic Groundwater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Graphic Groundwater (GGW) is a graphical user-interface for the USGS ground water modeling code MODFLOW. It allows the user to start with a topographic map, build a model grid directly on the map, enter hydraulic properties into grid cells as one would into a spreadsheet, click on the grid to enter the positions of water wells, and (among other things) track imaginary "particles" that would flow into the well from the surrounding area. GGW was created by Steve Esling at Southern Illinois University/Carbondale. Students delineate the area from which a well will draw recharge during a five-year period. It's a practical problem and one that allows them to put together geologic skills (reading maps, drawing cross sections) with hydrogeologic concepts (recharge area, ground water flow, hydraulic properties of earth materials) to produce something that would be meaningful to a community zoning or planning board. The students control the whole look and shape of the visualization and can alter variables at will to experiment with how each change affects ground water flow.

Sanders, Laura

63

Big Bubbles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do you measure a bubble when it's floating? You can't really, but in this activity, learners can measure the diameter of the ring of suds a bubble leaves on a flat surface. The fun is blowing up the bubbles as big as possible with a straw. Then comes the measuring. This activity can be used to connect science and math, and makes a great rainy day or indoor lunch activity.

Science, Lawrence H.

2010-01-01

64

Classic Classroom Activities: The Oxford Picture Dictionary Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher resource book offers over 100 reproducible communicative practice activities and 768 picture cards based on the vocabulary of the Oxford Picture Dictionary. Teacher's notes and instructions, including adaptations for multilevel classes, are provided. The activities book has up-to-date art and graphics, explaining over 3700 words. The…

Weiss, Renee; Adelson-Goldstein, Jayme; Shapiro, Norma

65

Pictures and adult learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instructional pictures may be classified on the basis of how they convey meaning including classification as representational, analogical, or arbitrary (Gropper, 1963; Knowlton, 1966). Some previous reviews of picture effects have dealt with only the first category of pictures-that is, pictures that are isomorphic with the objects or concepts that they represent (Alesandrini, 1982; Levin and Lesgold, 1978). Other reviews

K. L. Alesandrini

1984-01-01

66

Summarizing Information Graphics Textually  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information graphics (such as bar charts and line graphs) play a vital role in many multimodal documents. The majority of information graphics that appear in popular media are intended to convey a message and the graphic designer uses deliberate communicative signals, such as highlighting certain aspects of the graphic, in order to bring that message out. The graphic, whose communicative

Seniz Demir; Sandra Carberry; Kathleen F. McCoy

2012-01-01

67

Effective use of color in computer graphics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color is a significant component of computer aided visualization of information, concepts and ideas. The use of color in all applications of computer graphics enhances the image, clarifies the information presented, and helps distinguish features that are obscure in black and white pictures. Color is used to differentiate elements in the diagrams so that the comparative information is read and

Joan R. Truckenbrod

1981-01-01

68

Physically Based Deformable Models in Computer Graphics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physically based deformable models have been widely embraced by the Computer Graphics community. Many problems outlined in a previous survey by Gibson and Mirtich (GM97) have been addressed, thereby making these models interesting and useful for both offline and real-time applications, such as motion pictures and video games. In this paper, we present the most significant contributions of the past

Andrew Nealen; Matthias Müller; Richard Keiser; Eddy Boxerman; Mark Carlson

2006-01-01

69

A study on an image synthesis method for graphical passwords  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an image synthesis method for graphical passwords. Graphical passwords are an authentication method that uses pictures as passwords instead of using alphanumeric characters. However, they are usually easy to memorize for not only users but also observers or attackers who stand behind the users. In our method, we combine low frequency components of a decoy

Madoka Hasegawa; Yuichi Tanaka; Shigeo Kato

2009-01-01

70

A Graphical Password Based System for Small Mobile Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passwords provide security mechanism for authentication and protection services against unwanted access to resources. A graphical based password is one promising alternatives of textual passwords. According to human psychology, humans are able to remember pictures easily. In this paper, we have proposed a new hybrid graphical password based system, which is a combination of recognition and recall based techniques that

Wazir Zada Khan; Mohammed Y. Aalsalem; Yang Xiang

2011-01-01

71

Researching with Pictures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a class activity in which students gathered pictures and wrote and recorded narration relating to the first successful flight by the Wright brothers at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. Notes that, in the process of gathering pictures, the students were motivated to read the information accompanying the pictures. (RS)|

Wildman, Diane

1990-01-01

72

Associations From Pictures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A picture can be interpreted in different ways by various persons. There is often a difference between a picture's denotation (literal meaning), connotation (associative meaning), and private associations. Two studies were conducted in order to observe the private associations that pictures awaken in people. One study deals with associations made…

Pettersson, Rune

73

Big Crunch\\/big Bang String Cosmologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study Big Crunch\\/Big Bang cosmologies that correspond to exact worldsheet superconformal field theories of type II strings. Generically, the Big Crunch fluctuation spectrum is altered when passing through the bounce singularity. The change in the spectrum is characterized by a function which is momentum and time-dependent. We compute this function explicitly and show that it indicates \\

Ben Craps; Burt Ovrut

2004-01-01

74

GraphicConverter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

GraphicConverter goes beyond the ability to convert a large number of graphic file formats. It provides tools for the creation and/or editing of graphics, animations, movies, and slide presentations; it also supports Adobe Photoshop compatible plug-ins. Currently, GraphicConverter can import 96 different graphic file formats and export 38. Conversion of several files (graphic or text) at a time is also possible through the "convert more..." feature. The tools offered for graphic editing are Photoshop-like. Detailed documentation is provided. This Macintosh shareware is provided by Lemke Software.

75

The Power of Pictures: Vertical Picture Angles in Power Pictures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional wisdom suggests that variations in vertical picture angle cause the subject to appear more powerful when depicted from below and less powerful when depicted from above. However, do the media actually use such associations to represent individual differences in power? We argue that the diverse perspectives of evolutionary, social learning, and embodiment theories all suggest that the association between

Steffen R. Giessner; Michelle K. Ryan; Thomas W. Schubert; Niels van Quaquebeke

2011-01-01

76

The Big Picture of Advocacy: Counselor, Heal Society and Thyself  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article, motivational in purpose, encourages counselors to be engaged in the growing movement for social justice advocacy in counseling. Analyses of a macrolevel framework of advocacy extend to microlevel operations of recruitment, sociopolitical education, diversity management, and self-care of counselor-advocates. Case studies and exemplars…

Roysircar, Gargi

2009-01-01

77

Looking at the Big Picture: School Administrators and Violence Reduction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated district and site administrators' perceptions of school violence and violence-prevention programs in 15 school districts in 12 states. Unanimously agreed-upon causes were lack of family involvement or supervision, lack of family structure, and parental use of violence. Describes a prevention model stressing family inclusion, values…

Petersen, George J.

1997-01-01

78

The Big Picture: How Social Work Can Effectively Utilize Photographs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Social work has struggled with image problems and misperceptions of the profession and the types of services it provides. Photography is a medium that has been used effectively by other professions to change attitudes and perceptions. The present study examined the potential of photographs to change the image of available social services--namely,…

Marshall, Heather L.; Craun, Sarah W.; Theriot, Matthew T.

2009-01-01

79

The big picture: Masculinities in recent world history  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the question of how we should study men in gender relations, and what view of modern world history an understanding of masculinity might give us. I start with the reasons why \\

R. W. Connell

1993-01-01

80

A stratified traffic sampling methodology for seeing the big picture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work explores the use of statistical techniques, namely stratified sampling and cluster analysis, as powerful tools for deriving traffic properties at the flow level. Our results show that the adequate selection of samples leads to significant improvements allowing further important statistical analysis. Although stratified sampling is a well-known technique, the way we classify the data prior to sampling is

Stenio F. F. Fernandes; Carlos Alberto Kamienski; Judith Kelner; Dênio Mariz; Djamel Sadok

2008-01-01

81

Macroevolutionary Theory and Archaeology: Is There a Big Picture?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to evolutionary ecology and evolutionary archaeology, macroevolutionary archaeology argues that human evolution\\u000a is the result of more than just natural selection and selection-shaped decision making acting on individuals and that its\\u000a broader trajectory is not random but structured. The rugged fitness landscape featured in Sewall Wright’s (1931; 1932) shifting\\u000a balance theory provides a strong warrant for these arguments;

Robert L. Bettinger

82

Vessel traffic services - New York harbor big picture'  

SciTech Connect

Support for vessel traffic services (VTS) in US ports increased dramatically in the wake of the Exxon Valdez oil tanker accident. It is estimated that 90% of all marine accidents are caused by human failure and most of these occur in harbors or their approaches from sea. The first US Coast Guard VTS established in the post-Valdez era, VTS New York, now enjoys broad based support from its users and local congressional sponsors.It is the most technologically advanced system in North America, with additional upgrades planned. Prior to the Valdez accident, New York VTS struggled through disagreements with contractors, legal disputes with local residents fearing electromagnetic radiation, and lackluster user support. When recommissioned in 1990, remote equipment included 3 radars bundled together into a network, 2 communication sites, and 9 CCTV cameras at 4 sites located strategically throughout the port to provide nearly complete surveillance. Recent expansion into the seaward approaches to New York effectively doubled the VTS area of operation.

Schneeweis, W.G.

1993-03-01

83

Common Core State Standards for Mathematics: The Big Picture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) were "designed to be robust and relevant to the real world, reflecting the knowledge and skills that young people need for success in college and careers" (CCSSI 2010). For the first time in U.S. history, a set of standards is established that will be taught in nearly every state. Forty-four…

Dacey, Linda; Polly, Drew

2012-01-01

84

Considering the Big Picture: How Significant Are Policy Initiatives?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academic and journalistic comment is prioritised by the endless flood of policy initiatives. Yet these can be seen to be determined by long term intellectual frameworks which define why some issues remain constant and others remain marginal. Thus the dominance of academic provision and neglect of the vocational dates back to the nineteenth…

Fisher, Trevor

2011-01-01

85

Losing the Big Picture: How Religion May Control Visual Attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the abundance of evidence that human perception is penetrated by beliefs and expectations, scientific research so far has entirely neglected the possible impact of religious background on attention. Here we show that Dutch Calvinists and atheists, brought up in the same country and culture and controlled for race, intelligence, sex, and age, differ with respect to the way they

Lorenza S. Colzato; Wery P. M. van den Wildenberg; Bernhard Hommel; Antonio Verdejo García

2008-01-01

86

Losing the Big Picture: How Religion May Control Visual Attention  

PubMed Central

Despite the abundance of evidence that human perception is penetrated by beliefs and expectations, scientific research so far has entirely neglected the possible impact of religious background on attention. Here we show that Dutch Calvinists and atheists, brought up in the same country and culture and controlled for race, intelligence, sex, and age, differ with respect to the way they attend to and process the global and local features of complex visual stimuli: Calvinists attend less to global aspects of perceived events, which fits with the idea that people's attentional processing style reflects possible biases rewarded by their religious belief system.

Colzato, Lorenza S.; van den Wildenberg, Wery P. M.; Hommel, Bernhard

2008-01-01

87

Childhood obesity: are we missing the big picture?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Childhood obesity is increasing worldwide, raising alarm about future trends of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. This article discusses what may under- lie our failure to respond effectively to the obesity epidemic, and presents a wider perspective for future research and public health agendas. So far targeting indi- vidual-level determinants and clinical aspects of childhood obesity has produced limited

W. Maziak; K. D. Ward; M. B. Stockton

2007-01-01

88

Childhood obesity: are we missing the big picture?  

PubMed

Childhood obesity is increasing worldwide, raising alarm about future trends of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. This article discusses what may underlie our failure to respond effectively to the obesity epidemic, and presents a wider perspective for future research and public health agendas. So far targeting individual-level determinants and clinical aspects of childhood obesity has produced limited success. There is growing interest in understanding the wider determinants of obesity such as the built environment (e.g. walkability), social interactions, food marketing and prices, but much needs to be learned. Particularly, we need to identify distal modifiable factors with multiple potential that would make them attractive for people and policymakers alike. For example, walking-biking-friendly cities can reduce obesity as well as energy consumption, air pollution and traffic delays. Such agenda needs to be driven by strong evidence from research involving multi-level influences on behaviour, as well as the study of wider politico-economic trends affecting people's choices. This article highlights available evidence and arguments for research and policy needed to curb the obesity epidemic. The upstream approach underlying these arguments aims to make healthy choices not only the most rational, but also the most feasible and affordable. PMID:18154601

Maziak, W; Ward, K D; Stockton, M B

2008-01-01

89

Detailed close-ups and the big picture of spliceosomes  

PubMed Central

Summary The spliceosome is the huge macromolecular assembly responsible for the removal of introns from pre-mRNA transcripts. The size and complexity of this dynamic cellular machine dictates that structural analysis of the spliceosome is best served by a combination of techniques. Electron microscopy is providing a more global, albeit less detailed, view of spliceosome assemblies. X-ray crystallographers and NMR spectroscopists are steadily reporting more atomic resolution structures of individual spliceosome components and fragments. Increasingly, structures of these individual pieces in complex with binding partners are yielding insights into the interfaces that hold the entire spliceosome assembly together. Although the information arising from the various structural studies of splicing machinery has not yet fully converged into a complete model, we can expect that a detailed understanding of spliceosome structure will arise at the juncture of structural and computational modeling methods.

Jurica, Melissa S.

2008-01-01

90

HIPAA: the Big Picture for Home Care and Hospice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Administrative Simplification provisions of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) are a new regulatory challenge faced by home care and hospice agencies. Compliance with these regulations will have a significant impact on daily operations and requires the implementation of new systems and processes. This article provides an overview of the three major components of administrative simplification: the

Heather P. Wilson

2004-01-01

91

Confinement in Yang Mills: Elements of a Big Picture  

SciTech Connect

We present a nontechnical review of the current understanding of the phenomenon of color confinement. The emphasis is put on recent advances. This is a combined and slightly expanded version of talks delivered at 14th International QCD Conference 'QCD 08,' 7-12th July 2008, Montpellier, France, the International Conference 'Quark Confinement and the Hadron Spectrum,' Mainz, Germany, September 1-6, 2008 (Confinement 08), and the International Conference 'Approaches to Quantum Chromodynamics,' Oberwoelz, Austria, September 7-13, 2008.

Shifman, M.; /Minnesota U., Theor. Phys. Inst. /Saclay, SPhT; Unsal, Mithat; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

2008-10-22

92

Confinement in Yang-Mills: Elements of a Big Picture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a combined and slightly expanded version of talks delivered at 14th International QCD Conference “QCD 08,” 7-12th July 2008, Montpellier, France, the International Conference “Quark Confinement and the Hadron Spectrum,” Mainz, Germany, September 1-6, 2008 (Confinement 08), and the International Conference “Approaches to Quantum Chromodynamics,” Oberwölz, Austria, September 7-13, 2008.

Shifman, M.; Ünsal, Mithat

2009-01-01

93

Considering the Big Picture: How Significant Are Policy Initiatives?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Academic and journalistic comment is prioritised by the endless flood of policy initiatives. Yet these can be seen to be determined by long term intellectual frameworks which define why some issues remain constant and others remain marginal. Thus the dominance of academic provision and neglect of the vocational dates back to the nineteenth…

Fisher, Trevor

2011-01-01

94

PhotoGraphic Libraries: Education Resource  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

PhotoGraphicLibraries.com is an educational resource site that provides links to other sites related to the field of photographic images. Links are arranged in categories that include stock and moving images, media services, photo and ad agencies, graphics, and clip art. The site also contains a library and archive collection that consists of national and private photographic collections. Ultimately, this site is an excellent resource for television producers, advertising agencies, libraries, education centers, picture researchers, and media services researching visual communications.

2002-01-01

95

Graphic artist in computerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of computer graphics is rapidly opening up to the graphic artist. It is not necessary to be a programming expert to enter this fascinating world. The capabilities of the medium are astounding: neon and metallic effects, translucent plastic and clear glass effects, sensitive 3-D shadings, limitless textures, and above all color. As with any medium, computer graphics has

Dolberg

1983-01-01

96

Graphics Turing Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We define a Graphics Turing Test to measure graphics performance in a similar manner,to the definition of the traditional Turing Test. To pass the test one needs to reach a computational scale, the Graphics Turing Scale, for which Computer Generated Imagery becomes comparatively indistinguishable from real images while also being interactive. We derive an estimate for this computational scale

Michael D. Mcguigan

2006-01-01

97

Elliptical graphical modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose elliptical graphical models based on conditional uncorrelatedness as a robust generalization of Gaussian graphical models. Letting the population distribution be elliptical instead of normal allows the fitting of data with arbitrarily heavy tails. We study the class of proportionally affine equivariant scatter estimators and show how they can be used to perform elliptical graphical modelling. This leads to

D. Vogel; R. Fried

2011-01-01

98

From big crunch to big bang  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider conditions under which a universe contracting towards a big crunch can make a transition to an expanding big bang universe. A promising example is 11-dimensional M theory in which the eleventh dimension collapses, bounces, and reexpands. At the bounce, the model can reduce to a weakly coupled heterotic string theory and, we conjecture, it may be possible to

Justin Khoury; Burt A. Ovrut; Nathan Seiberg; Paul J. Steinhardt; Neil Turok

2002-01-01

99

Five Big Ideas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designing quality continuing professional development (CPD) for those teaching mathematics in primary schools is a challenge. If the CPD is to be built on the scaffold of five big ideas in mathematics, what might be these five big ideas? Might it just be a case of, if you tell me your five big ideas, then I'll tell you mine? Here, there is…

Morgan, Debbie

2012-01-01

100

Big Boss Interval Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper big boss interval games are introduced and various characterizations are given. The structure of the core of a big boss interval game is explicitly described and plays an important role rela- tive to interval-type bi-monotonic allocation schemes for such games. Specifically, each element of the interval core of a big boss interval game is extendable to a

S. Z. Alparslan Gök; Rodica Branzei; Stef Tijs

2011-01-01

101

Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and Relic Neutrinos  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The concerns of cosmology include the birth of the Universe, its evolution, its structure, and its ultimate fate. At present\\u000a the most convincing theoretical paradigm in cosmology is the so-called Big Bang model, which attributes the origin of the\\u000a Universe to an extremely hot and dense plasma that was highly isotropic and homogeneous. In this intriguing picture the evolution\\u000a of

Zhi-Zhong Xing; Shun Zhou

102

Vision and Motion Pictures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents activities on persistence of vision that involve students in a hands-on approach to the study of early methods of creating motion pictures. Students construct flip books, a Zoetrope, and an early movie machine. (DDR)

Grambo, Gregory

1998-01-01

103

A study on memorability and shoulder-surfing robustness of graphical password using DWT-based image blending  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graphical passwords are an authentication method that uses pictures as passwords instead of using alphanumeric characters. We propose a graphical password method which is difficult to steal original pass-image by using characteristics of human vision system. In our method, we combine low frequency components of a decoy picture with high frequency components of a pass-image. It is easy for legitimate

Takao Miyachi; Keita Takahashi; Madoka Hasegawa; Yuichi Tanaka; Shigeo Kato

2010-01-01

104

Picturing Sex Education: Notes on the politics of visual stratification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the scarcity of research on depictions and layout in sex education materials. It is argued that pictures and layout can inform an analysis of social stratification based on visual access. This process of social organization is located using four theoretical models. However these models do not lend themselves to a close reading of graphical strategies. To illustrate

Diederik F. Janssen

2006-01-01

105

Pictures in the Sky  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors teach an astronomy unit in their seventh-grade course that they find never fails to motivate and stretch the imagination. The questions students ask are wonder-full: "What was here before the universe?" "If there was nothing before the Big Bang, where did energy and matter come from?" "Does the universe have a boundary, and if it…

Brako, Elisa; Fout, James; Peltz, William H.

2005-01-01

106

Iconographic dental typography. A dental character font for computer graphics.  

PubMed

The recent massive increase in available memory for microcomputers now allows multiple font faces to be stored in computer RAM memory for instant access to the screen and for printed output. Fonts can be constructed in which the characters are not just letters or numbers, but are miniature graphic icons--in this instance pictures of teeth. When printed on an appropriate laser printer, this produces printed graphics of publishing quality. PMID:2059532

McCormack, J

1991-06-01

107

Visual to tactile conversion of vector graphics.  

PubMed

Methods to automatically convert graphics into raised-line images have been recently investigated. In this paper, concepts from previous research are extended to the vector graphics case, producing tactile pictures in which important features are emphasized. The proposed algorithm extracts object boundaries and employs a classification process, based on a graphic's hierarchical structure, to determine critical outlines. A single parameter is introduced into the classification process, enabling users to tailor graphics to their own preferences. The resulting outlines are printed using a Braille printer to produce tactile output. Critical outlines are embossed with raised dots of highest height while other lines and details are embossed with a lower height. Psychophysical experiments including discrimination, identification, and comprehension are utilized to evaluate and compare the proposed algorithm. Results indicate that the proposed method outperforms other methods in all three considered tasks. The results also show that emphasizing important features significantly increases comprehension of tactile graphics, validating the proposed method's effectiveness in conveying visual information. PMID:17601201

Krufka, Stephen E; Barner, Kenneth E; Aysal, Tuncer Can

2007-06-01

108

American History Picture Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In class we read Katie's Picture Show, a book about a girl who discovers art first-hand one day at an art museum in London. She realizes she can climb into the paintings, explore her surroundings, and even solve problems for the subjects of the paintings. As part of our unit on American history, we are going to use art to further learn about some of the important events we have been discussing. Each of these works of art depicts an important event in American History. When you click on a picture, you will be able to see the name of the event as well as the artist who created it. You will be using all three pictures for this assignment.Use the websites ...

Bennion, Ms.

2009-11-23

109

Visibility in computer graphics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visibility computation was crucial for computer graphics from its very beginning. The first visibility algorithms in computer graphics aimed to determine visible surfaces in a synthesized image of a three-dimensional scene. Nowadays there are many different visibility algorithms for various visibility problems. We propose a new taxonomy of visibility problems that is based on a classification according to the problem

Jir ´ i Bittner; Peter Wonka

2003-01-01

110

Argument Graphic Organizer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This graphic organizer (pdf document) provides an avenue to evaluate an authorâs argument within a text by determining the relevance and validity of each claim and the overall sufficiency of the evidence presented. A brief introduction to the graphic organizer explains how teachers can use it in the classroom.

2012-01-01

111

Novel Approach to Graphics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We propose a new, memory-based approach to graphic animation of 2D and 3D objects. Instead of the standard paradigm in computer graphics of 3D modeling, physical simulation and rendering we propose to use a set of 2D views to synthesize a network that gen...

T. Poggio R. Brunelli

1992-01-01

112

Children's Picture Book Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located at Miami University, the Children's Picture Book Database indexes abstracts of over 4,000 picture books for children. Designed as tool for teachers creating literature-based thematic units for all disciplines, the database is searchable by a set of topical keywords (over 900) organized by discipline or alphabetically, or by a boolean combination search. Entries include title and author, an abstract, and a list of related keywords. Many of the topic listings also provide related links. A well-organized and useful site for preschool to third grade teachers, parents, and librarians.

113

Graphic artist in computerland  

SciTech Connect

The field of computer graphics is rapidly opening up to the graphic artist. It is not necessary to be a programming expert to enter this fascinating world. The capabilities of the medium are astounding: neon and metallic effects, translucent plastic and clear glass effects, sensitive 3-D shadings, limitless textures, and above all color. As with any medium, computer graphics has its advantages, such as speed, ease of form manipulation, and a variety of type fonts and alphabets. It also has its limitations, such as data input time, final output turnaround time, and not necessarily being the right medium for the job at hand. And finally, it is the time- and cost-saving characteristics of computer-generated visuals, opposed to original artwork, that make computer graphics a viable alternative. This paper focuses on parts of the computer graphics system in use at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to provide specific examples.

Dolberg, K.M.

1983-01-01

114

BigDog  

Microsoft Academic Search

BigDog's goal is to be the world's most advanced quadruped robot for outdoor applications. BigDog is aimed at the mission of a mechanical mule - a category with few competitors to date: power autonomous quadrupeds capable of carrying significant payloads, operating outdoors, with static and dynamic mobility, and fully integrated sensing. BigDog is about 1 m tall, 1 m long

R. Playter; M. Buehler; M. Raibert

2006-01-01

115

Picture Books for Teens.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses picture books that are suitable for teens, particularly middle school readers, and provides detailed reviews for five titles that have appealing story themes and illustrations including: Tony Millionaires' Sock Monkey: A Children's Book; Mick Foley's Christmas Chaos; Mick Foley's Halloween Hijinx; The Book of Jack; and Moby Dick. (LRW)

Kan, Kat

2002-01-01

116

Picture Books for Teens.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses picture books that are suitable for teens, particularly middle school readers, and provides detailed reviews for five titles that have appealing story themes and illustrations including: Tony Millionaires' Sock Monkey: A Children's Book; Mick Foley's Christmas Chaos; Mick Foley's Halloween Hijinx; The Book of Jack; and Moby Dick. (LRW)|

Kan, Kat

2002-01-01

117

The Magazine Picture Collage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magazine picture collage, an occupational therapy evaluation technique, was chosen for use in a pre-placement teaching clinic with second year occupational therapy students. The collage technique was selected because it was suitable for administrating in a group setting; because it was especially congruent with the developmental and educational needs of the students at that precise stage; and because it

Jennifer Sturgess

1983-01-01

118

Adding Emotions to Pictures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of out-of-copyright children books are available online, but are not very attractive to children due to a lack of illustrations. Automatic text illustration may enhance the reading experience of these books, but inappropriate picture coloring may convey inappropriate emotions. Since already at a very early age, children can map colors to certain emotions, we propose an approach

Claudia Hauff; Dolf Trieschnigg; Giambattista Amati; Fabio Crestani

2011-01-01

119

Facsimile Picture Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

A facsimile picture transmitting system is described. The chief object of the design of this system was to produce a simple, rugged apparatus for practical usage, which would not require the attention of a skilled operator. The system does not require a special preparation of the original, and the receiver records the copy directly on the photographic paper. The usually

V. Zworykin

1929-01-01

120

More Picture-Perfect Science Book Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Would you like to use the award-winning Picture-Perfect Science series but don't want the hassle of tracking down the trade books that accompany each lesson? At teachers' requests, NSTA is now offering a collection of 23 hardcover and softcover picture books used as part of the popular More Picture Perfect Science Lessons. All the books fit inside a zippered canvas tote bag with a screened image of the book cover on it. This bundled set is a great value over the retail cost of more than $350. Titles included in the set are � Pop! A Book About Bubbles� How Big Is a Foot?� How Tall How Short� Hear Your Heart� The Busy Body Book� Lucas and His Loco Beans� Diary of a Worm� Wiggling Worms at Work� Over in the Ocean� Coral Reef Animals� Our Tree Named Steve� Be a Friend to Trees� Magnetic and Nonmagnetic� Roller Coaster� I Fall Down� I See Myself� If You Find a Rock� Rocks: Hard, Soft, Smooth�� Sunshine on My Shoulders� When I Heard the Learn'd Astronomer� Spots of Light� Imaginative Inventions� The Important Book

1900-01-01

121

25. Paper ready for the calender presses. This picture shows ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. Paper ready for the calender presses. This picture shows the paper after it has been coated and dried, as shown on page 238, and it being rolled at the end of the coating-machine. It is now ready to be sent to the big presses which calender it (or iron it, as popular pariance would have it). The pictures on pages 238 and 239 show a continuous process over a single machine; but on account of the length of teh machine, the process is illustrated in sections. (p.239.) - Champion-International Paper Company, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

122

Dual of big bang and big crunch  

SciTech Connect

Starting from the Janus solution and its gauge theory dual, we obtain the dual gauge theory description of the cosmological solution by the procedure of double analytic continuation. The coupling is driven either to zero or to infinity at the big-bang and big-crunch singularities, which are shown to be related by the S-duality symmetry. In the dual Yang-Mills theory description, these are nonsingular as the coupling goes to zero in the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. The cosmological singularities simply signal the failure of the supergravity description of the full type IIB superstring theory.

Bak, Dongsu [Physics Department, University of Seoul, Seoul 130-743 (Korea, Republic of)

2007-01-15

123

Graphical Models for Industrial Planning on Complex Domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

In real world applications planners are frequently faced with complex variable dependencies in high dimensional domains. In addition to that, they typi- cally have to start from a very incomplete picture that is expanded only gradually as new information becomes available. In this contribution we deal with proba- bilistic graphical models, which have successfully been used for handling complex dependency

Jorg Gebhardt; Aljoscha Klose; Heinz Detmer; Frank Rugheimer; Rudolf Kruse

124

Was Cosmic Inflation the 'Bang' of the Big Bang?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site discusses cosmologists current understanding of the inflationary universe theory. It poses the question: "Was cosmic inflation the "bang" of the big bang?" Chapters include 1. Introduction; 2. A very special bang; 3. The inflationary universe; 4. Inflation and the very special bang, and 5. The current picture.

Guth, A.

2010-06-30

125

The Big Loser.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity in which the subject is the identity of the team in the greatest jeopardy of becoming the big loser in a basketball tournament. Explores several facts about the big loser, offering them in a hierarchy appropriate for creating various short- and long-term projects for a high school mathematics class. (ASK)

Marks, Daniel

1999-01-01

126

Implementing Big History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that world history should be taught as "Big History," a view that includes all space and time beginning with the Big Bang. Discusses five "Cardinal Questions" that serve as a course structure and address the following concepts: perspectives, diversity, change and continuity, interdependence, and causes. (CMK)

Welter, Mark

2000-01-01

127

Big Ball of Mud  

Microsoft Academic Search

While much attention has been focused on high-level software architectural patterns, what is, in effect, the de-facto standard software architecture is seldom discussed. This paper examines the most frequently deployed architecture: the BIG BALL OF MUD. A BIG BALL OF MUD is a casually, even haphazardly, structured system. Its organization, if one can call it that, is dictated more by

Brian Foote; Joseph Yoder

1999-01-01

128

Implementing Big History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Contends that world history should be taught as "Big History," a view that includes all space and time beginning with the Big Bang. Discusses five "Cardinal Questions" that serve as a course structure and address the following concepts: perspectives, diversity, change and continuity, interdependence, and causes. (CMK)|

Welter, Mark

2000-01-01

129

The big bang  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our universe was born billions of years ago in a hot, violent explosion of elementary particles and radiation - the big bang. What do we know about this ultimate moment of creation, and how do we know it? Drawing upon the latest theories and technology, this new edition of The big bang, is a sweeping, lucid account of the event

Joseph Silk

2001-01-01

130

Hierarchical Big Bang Cosmology  

Microsoft Academic Search

McCREA1 has correctly stated that one of us (G. de V.) had criticized2 ``current big bang cosmology'' in reviewing the overwhelming evidence for hierarchical clustering in the galaxy distribution; it is incorrect, however, to assume that such criticism was directed only or even chiefly at big bang models. The principal intention was to point out the need to study the

G. de Vaucouleurs

1971-01-01

131

Katrina Graphics Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from the National Hurricane Center hosts a variety of still graphics that can be looped into animations of the storm's progress. Images include 3- and 5-day Watches and Warnings, Wind Swaths and Strike Probabilities.

Center, National H.; Noaa

132

IPCC Vital Climate Graphics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compiled from the second IPCC assessment report, these graphics include causes of climate change and projected impacts such as temperature changes and sea level rise. The figures are browseable by title.

Ipcc; United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP); Grid-Arendal

133

Benchmarking: Graphics Workstations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper reports on work being performed to benchmark a new breed of machines, the graphics workstations for scientific and engineering applications. We begin with the history of workstations and how they developed. Many different forces created the gra...

B. E. Brown R. L. Judd

1985-01-01

134

Pictures of Famous Physicists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, created by the University of Frankfurt, contains a collection of pictures of famous physicists. The collection includes pre-20th century physicists, pioneers of quantum theory, theoreticians, experimentalists, Nobel Prize winners from 1971-1980, Nobel Prize winners from 1981-1990, and Nobel Prize winners from 1991 onward, also it features a gallery of photos from Albert Einstein and group photographs. This is a nice collection of resources for those interested in the history of physics.

Reinhardt, Joachim

2009-05-04

135

Time Life Pictures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although this is a commercial site with pictures and images for sale, users can nonetheless view and appreciate one of "the most extraordinary collections of pictures in the world" at The Picture Collection from Time, Inc. An initial free registration is required, and after that users need only log on to gain access to over 22 million images, including illustrations, prints, and photographs. Archival materials from many popular magazines are available here, including images from Time, Life, Sports Illustrated, People, and Entertainment Weekly, as well as material from the recently acquired Mansell Collection. "Mansell photographs date from the beginnings of the medium in the 1840s through World War II [and] depict a vast range of scenics, important news events, and historical personalities, with a special emphasis on art and architecture. In addition, the new Mansell Collection includes extraordinary holdings of engraved illustrations, lithographs, and drawings predating the advent of photographic imaging." In addition to a key word search function, The Picture Collection offers a special searching and licensing program that lets you search for and store materials in "Lightboxes" of your own creation for later use; these are similar to folders that one might use in a conventional software setting. The program also calculates licensing fees for images based on what type of usage is intended (newspaper, magazine, Website, etc.). Research help is available for those users who would like someone else to do the searching, with one half-hour of free research offered initially. After that, a fee of 85 dollars an hour is charged; some or all of this fee may be waived if one or more images are licensed. An excellent help section rounds out this site and makes perusing this amazing (if somewhat overwhelming) collection even more pleasurable.

136

Multiplatform 3-D Graphics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of our research is enabling the users to interact with three-dimensional (3-D) graphics and interactive applications with the same content, appearance, and interaction paradigm on different platforms [Internet, television (TV), and mobile devices]. The main contribution of this article is the design and implementation of a platform-dependent architecture for 3-D graphics and content, validated in the entertainment and

Maria del Puy Carretero; Amalia Ortiz; David Oyarzun; Isabel Torre; Maria Linaza; Alejandro Garcia-Alonso

2010-01-01

137

Computer Graphics: Preferences by Gender in Grades 2, 4, and 6  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined preferences for computer graphics among 316 students in Grades 2, 4, and 6. Based on 10 guidelines developed after examining the literature, we constructed three groups of pictures: high female interest (FI); high male interest (MI); and equal interest (EI), with mixed elements of high female and male interest. Students rated the pictures that were created with Storybook

Sólveig Jakobsdóttir; Cynthia L. Krey; Gregory C. Sales

1994-01-01

138

BigDog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BigDog's goal is to be the world's most advanced quadruped robot for outdoor applications. BigDog is aimed at the mission of a mechanical mule - a category with few competitors to date: power autonomous quadrupeds capable of carrying significant payloads, operating outdoors, with static and dynamic mobility, and fully integrated sensing. BigDog is about 1 m tall, 1 m long and 0.3 m wide, and weighs about 90 kg. BigDog has demonstrated walking and trotting gaits, as well as standing up and sitting down. Since its creation in the fall of 2004, BigDog has logged tens of hours of walking, climbing and running time. It has walked up and down 25 & 35 degree inclines and trotted at speeds up to 1.8 m/s. BigDog has walked at 0.7 m/s over loose rock beds and carried over 50 kg of payload. We are currently working to expand BigDog's rough terrain mobility through the creation of robust locomotion strategies and terrain sensing capabilities.

Playter, R.; Buehler, M.; Raibert, M.

2006-06-01

139

Automatic design of graphical presentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the graphical presentation of relational information is described. Theoretical results about graphical languages and a program that incorporates these results are presented. According to the theory, a graphical language is a set of graphical sentences (such as bar charts, scatter plots, or connected graphs, each of which is a two-dimensional arrangement of pixel objects. These languages are evaluated

1987-01-01

140

Uniform Big Bang–Chaotic Big Crunch optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study proposes methods to improve the convergence of the novel optimization method, Big Bang–Big Crunch (BB–BC). Uniform population method has been used to generate uniformly distributed random points in the Big Bang phase. Chaos has been utilized to rapidly shrink those points to a single representative point via a center of mass in the Big Crunch phase. The proposed

Bilal Alatas

2011-01-01

141

Publication-quality computer graphics  

SciTech Connect

A user-friendly graphic software package is being used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to produce publication-quality computer graphics. Close interaction between the graphic designer and computer programmer have helped to create a highly flexible computer graphics system. The programmer-oriented environment of computer graphics has been modified to allow the graphic designer freedom to exercise his expertise with lines, form, typography, and color. The resultant product rivals or surpasses that work previously done by hand. This presentation of computer-generated graphs, charts, diagrams, and line drawings clearly demonstrates the latitude and versatility of the software when directed by a graphic designer.

Slabbekorn, M.H.; Johnston, R.B. Jr.

1981-01-01

142

Pictures of the Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the oldest and most prestigious photojournalism competitions, Pictures of the Year was established 58 years ago by a University of Missouri-Columbia photojournalism professor. This year's overall winners will be announced on April 19, but in the meantime, readers can view the winning photos and those that received the Award of Excellence in the three major categories: Newspaper, Magazine, and General. These images were selected from over 32,000 entries, and they run the full gamut of subject matter and emotion. Visitors will find images that are amusing, inspiring, beautiful, and heartbreaking. Highly recommended and well worth a visit.

143

Communicating with Pictures and Precision  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|From the earliest civilizations, humans have used drawings and pictures as a form of communication and to convey information--whether it was the seasons or location of good hunting grounds. In this month's column, simple alphabet picture books show students how pictures can be used to communicate information about a topic. In the first activity,…

Royce, Christine Anne

2009-01-01

144

Build the Big Dipper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners use simple materials to construct a model the Big Dipper. Learners hang the model from a doorway or ceiling and look up at it to see the constellation as seen from Earth. They can also look at it from the side to see what the constellation would look like from space. This activity will familiarize learners with the stars that make up the Big Dipper and how far the stars are from Earth (in light years).

History, American M.

2012-06-26

145

Big Ball of Mud  

Microsoft Academic Search

While much attention has been focused on high-level software architectural patterns, what is, in effect, thede-facto standard software architecture is seldom discussed. This paper examines the most frequentlydeployed architecture: the BIG BALL OF MUD. A BIG BALL OF MUD is a casually, even haphazardly,structured system. Its organization, if one can call it that, is dictated more by expediency than design.

Brian Foote Joseph Yoder

1997-01-01

146

How Big Are "Martin's Big Words"? Thinking Big about the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Martin's Big Words: The Life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr." tells of King's childhood determination to use "big words" through biographical information and quotations. In this lesson, students in grades 3 to 5 explore information on Dr. King to think about his "big" words, then they write about their own "big" words and dreams. During the one…

Gardner, Traci

147

How Big Are "Martin's Big Words"? Thinking Big about the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Martin's Big Words: The Life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr." tells of King's childhood determination to use "big words" through biographical information and quotations. In this lesson, students in grades 3 to 5 explore information on Dr. King to think about his "big" words, then they write about their own "big" words and dreams. During the one…

Gardner, Traci

148

NPR: The Picture Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

National Public Radio's "The Picture Show" photo blog is a great way to avoid culling through the thousands of less interesting and engaging photographs on the web. With a dedicated team of professionals, this blog brings together different posts that profile various sets of photographs that cover 19th century war in Afghanistan, visual memories of WWII, unpublished photographs of JFK's presidential campaign, and abandoned buildings on the islands in Boston Harbor. Visitors can search through previous posts, use social media features to share the photo features with friends, and also sign up to receive new materials via their RSS feed. There's quite a nice mix of material here, and visitors can also comment on the photos and recommend the collection to friends and others.

149

PictureCenter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Be sure you have some extra time when visiting this fun site from Kodak. While aimed at younger users, almost anyone can enjoy manipulating photos with the eleven different filters provided. Users can upload their own digital photos from their computer, images from elsewhere on the Web, or use some of the samples provided. Photos can be transformed into sketches or antiqued prints, made psychedelic, or turned into oil paintings or neon images. Users can also transform photos of people into cartoons, flowers, or animals. Once finished, the new images can be saved or sent as a free multimedia electronic postcard. Most file formats are accepted for upload, and directions for preparing your pictures are provided. Special sections on digital photography techniques and equipment (with some commercial content) round out the site.

1994-01-01

150

Accessibility and Graphical Passwords  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this brief paper, we explore the issue of accessible au- thentication with respect to click-based graphical passwords. These schemes normally rely on complex visual presenta- tion and ne motor control for pointing. We take the ap- proach of identifying the semantic structure, and show how the same kind of scheme could work with alternative inter- action modalities. In particular,

Sonia Chiasson; Alain Forget; Robert Biddle

151

Unique architecture for graphics  

SciTech Connect

The fundamental problems faced by designers of microcomputer-based graphic systems fall into the following general categories: (1) memory bandwidth, (2) CRT monitor limitations, (3) drawing rate requirements and (4) software availability. The rapid growth of VLSI technology has had an impact on all of these areas.

Henderson, D.

1983-01-01

152

Simulation, manufacturing and graphics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simulation of material movement, equipment location, operating and scheduling rules is a powerful tool for the design of state of the art automated manufacturing facilities. This paper describes a software system (AutoGram) that allows the designer of an automated manufacturing facility to easily construct a simulation model by graphically describing the system to be modeled. The designer selects from

Van B. Norman

1983-01-01

153

Graphic Correlation Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a graphic correlation lab exercise. It uses real data from a peer-reviewed journal publication by Lucy Edwards (1989). (I have manipulated the data set a little bit.) Students can finish the activity in two hours or less.

Stephen, Dan

154

Benchmarking: graphics workstations  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on work being performed to benchmark a new breed of machines, the graphics workstations for scientific and engineering applications. We begin with the history of workstations and how they developed. Many different forces created the graphics workstation. Scientific and engineering calculations are traditionally performed by super computers in a computing center. The graphic workstation was introduced, and this technology was added to the computing environment. The answers we need are ... what can the workstations do and when do we remove the programs or parts of programs from supercomputers and place them on worstations. Benchmarks and what they can and cannot measure are discussed in this light. The particulars about graphics benchmarks and the operating system, including windows, are reviewed, then the benchmarks we are using are described and the results are presented. Since this work is never finished, future plans are also discussed. The emphasis of our work is toward scientific and engineering workstations connected with existing mainframe computers. In the industry today we hear the term JAWS (Just Another WorkStation) when a new workstation is introduced. What does the new product do beyond those on the market. In this paper we present ways to measure and tell the difference between workstations.

Brown, B.E.; Judd, R.L.

1985-09-11

155

General Purpose Graphical Language.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper describes a high-level extensible language for graphical applications. The language allows the user to define new data types and new operations with these data types to suit his needs and to simplify subsequent programming. Data types and operat...

R. Williams

1972-01-01

156

Technical Intelligence Graphics for FTD.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the Technical Intelligence Graphics for FTD project was to develop an interactive graphics support capability using a mini-computer/CRT display terminal interfaced to a large scale central processor. Software development efforts included ...

G. J. Graklanoff P. D. Bell R. L. Jones

1972-01-01

157

TEK11 Graphics User's Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The TEK11 graphics library was written for use on PDP-11 minicomputers running the RT-11 operating system to drive Tektronix 4010 graphics display terminals. Library subroutines are coded in FORTRAN and assembly language. The library includes routines to ...

C. R. Stewart W. D. Joubert D. R. Overbey K. A. Stewart

1978-01-01

158

Big6 and Dewey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In class we have been discussing the problem-solving model Big6. We have covered the first and second stages of the Big6 model. The first being Task Definition and the second Information Seeking Strategies. Using this Instructional Architect we will be learning about the third stage Location and Access. You will follow the instructions on the module below to become an expert at locating resources in the library using the Dewey Decimal System. CLASS OBJECTIVES By learning about the Dewey Decimal System and how to use it you will be able to locate resources in the library. This will help you access information. We will use the Utah core curriculum standard 3 and the Big6 stage 3 to learn about the Dewey ...

C, Mrs.

2013-04-19

159

Graphical environment for DAQ simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) a tool called DAQSIM has been developed to study the behavior of data acquisition (DAQ) systems. This paper reports and discusses the graphics use in DAQSIM. DAQSIM graphics includes graphical user interface (GUI), animation debugging, and control facilities. DAQSIM graphics not only provides a convenient DAQ simulation environment, it also serves as an efficient manager in simulation development and verification.

Wang, Chung-Ching; Booth, Alexander W.; Chen, Yen-Min; Botlo, Michael

1994-02-01

160

PICTURE Perfect: In Depth Look at the PICTURE Format.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

SAS PICTURE format is a very powerful tool. The different options allow the display of data in a more picturesque manner adding symbols, qualifiers, and comments to the data points without modifying the data. With a PICTURE format one can create a series ...

C. W. Croghan

2004-01-01

161

BigChalk.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BigChalk.com's goal "is to be the single education destination that's trusted by teachers, used by students, and relied on by parents." This education mega-site contains excellent resources ranging from lesson plans and homework help to in-depth articles. For example, the physical science subject page contains over twenty subjects that lead to well written explanations and visually pleasing illustrations, along with links to pages with further information. Containing far too much to mention, BigChalk.com gives educators and students an online source of information and activities to help make teaching and learning easier and more fun.

2000-01-01

162

Graphics programming for the web  

Microsoft Academic Search

With HTML5 and ever-improving browser performance, the web has emerged as an ideal platform for showcasing graphics applications. Several graphics applications that were once too slow to be written in anything but native code may now be fast enough to run as web apps. This course for developers who want to develop graphics applications for the web introduces the concepts

Pushkar Joshi; Mikaël Bourges-Sévenier; Kenneth Russell; Zhenyao Mo

2012-01-01

163

Virtual Graphics for Broadcast Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter looks at the technology involved in the mixing of 3D graphics with broadcast video in real time. This is essentially the application of augmented reality techniques in the context of TV production. Examples of the use of this technology include virtual graphics used for presenting election results, and graphics overlaid on a sports pitch to indicate distances. Whilst

Graham A. Thomas

2011-01-01

164

Exploring Graphic Design in Paintings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed project explores ways to integrate elements in graphic design and digital media into the creative process of painting. Graphic design studies visual communications. It provides a linkage between arts and design in digital media. The elements in and principles of graphic design are the logical entry point in the attempt to bring together painting and digital media. I

Shanshan Cui

2006-01-01

165

Graphic Novels and School Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|School libraries serving children and teenagers today should be committed to collecting graphic novels to the extent that their budgets allow. However, the term "graphic novel" is enough to make some librarians--not to mention administrators and parents--pause. Graphic novels are simply book-length comics. They can be works of fiction or…

Rudiger, Hollis Margaret; Schliesman, Megan

2007-01-01

166

Efficiency of graphical perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

The termgraphical perception refers to the part played by visual perception in analyzing graphs. Computer graphics have stimulated interest in the perceptual\\u000a pros and cons of different formats for displaying data. One way of evaluating the effectiveness of a display is to measure\\u000a theefficiency (as defined by signal-detection theory) with which an observer extracts information from the graph. We measured

Gordon E. Legge; Yuanchao Gu; Andrew Luebker

1989-01-01

167

Graphic Grown Up  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It's no secret that children and YAs are clued in to graphic novels (GNs) and that comics-loving adults are positively giddy that this format is getting the recognition it deserves. Still, there is a whole swath of library card-carrying grown-up readers out there with no idea where to start. Splashy movies such as "300" and "Spider-Man" and their…

Kim, Ann

2009-01-01

168

Ubiquitous Interactive Graphics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a device that creates ubiquitous interactive graphics in a real world environment without the need for pre-wiring surfaces or requiring users to carry or wear any special devices. Called the Everywhere Displays projector, or ED-projector, this device employs steerability as the key principle to achieve the promise of ubiquitous computing and augmented reality. The ED-projector uses an

Claudio Pinhanez; Rick Kjeldsen; Gopal Pingali; Anthony Levas; Mark Podlaseck; Paul Chou

169

Graphic Grown Up  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It's no secret that children and YAs are clued in to graphic novels (GNs) and that comics-loving adults are positively giddy that this format is getting the recognition it deserves. Still, there is a whole swath of library card-carrying grown-up readers out there with no idea where to start. Splashy movies such as "300" and "Spider-Man" and their…

Kim, Ann

2009-01-01

170

Teachers’ Graphical Competence  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Statistical graphs have an important role in our society because they are present in many fields of life. Competence in understanding\\u000a and working with graphs is therefore a key feature of statistical literacy. In this chapter, what is meant by graphical competence is analysed, based on discussion of the findings of a range of research projects. Then research on teachers’

M. Teresa González; M. Candelaria Espinel; Janet Ainley

171

Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Graphics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Researchers and educators with an interest in climate change, and in particular in the recent 4th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change meetings in Buenos Aires, may find this collection of graphics and tables useful. Posted at the United Nations Environment Programme UNEP/GRID Arendal website (described in the June 24, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering), the data sources and summary procedures are described in the section entitled "Introduction and Explanation of Greenhouse Gas Graphics and Data." Graphs and tables show "the actual emissions of Carbon dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4) and Nitrous oxide (N2O), and in some cases also emissions of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), hydrofluorocarbons (HFC's) and perfluorocarbons (PFC's) until 1995." Countries highlighted fall within Eastern Europe, Western Europe, the Baltic States, North America, Asia-Pacific, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. Also provided are several graphics of global climate predictions, potential sea level rise impacts, impacts on crop production, and trends in ice break-up dates.

Change., United N.

1998-01-01

172

Digital graphic network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The graphic arts industry is increasingly reliant on telecommunications for the transfer of digital data for media production. There are, however, many other aspects of the business process between customers and suppliers that are suited to network-based interaction. The transaction between customer and producer can be separated into four data streams: briefing, content creation and production, and approval. Each of these data streams has specific requirements which lead to a matrix of needs for the different parties in the transaction. These needs are reviewed and proposals made for meeting them through a network service dedicated to the graphic arts. British Telecom, MCI and Scitex are currently beta-testing a service based on these proposals, known as the Digital Graphic Network. Once a managed network service is in place, it is possible to extend it to include a range of other services and third-party interactions, such as automated transfer of media production objects such as high-resolution images, fonts, color profiles, etc. from third-party content providers. The opportunities for users and third-party developers to develop a custom interface between the network and internal production processes and monitoring systems using open systems based on the Java language is described.

Green, Phil

1998-09-01

173

Big bang and big crunch in matrix string theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the holographic description of linear dilaton null cosmologies with a big bang in terms of matrix string theory put forward by Craps, Sethi, and Verlinde, we propose an extended background describing a universe including both big bang and big crunch singularities. This belongs to a class of exact string backgrounds and is perturbative in the string coupling far away

J. Bedford; C. Papageorgakis; D. Rodríguez-Gómez; J. Ward

2007-01-01

174

Communicating with Pictures (Nepal Study).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the course of the study, over 20 pictures intended to convey ideas (rather than just to represent objects) were shown to villagers. But the ideas behind the pictures were almost never conveyed to the villagers. Villagers who are not used to looking at ...

1978-01-01

175

Surveillance Picture Visualisation and Display.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of this paper is to outline some of the work carried out at DERA Malvern about visualisation and display issues associated with the surveillance picture. It will describe some of the current surveillance pictures in use in NATO, outline the applic...

J. Tait

2002-01-01

176

Multicolor well-composed pictures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As was noted early in the history of computer vision, using the same adjacency relation for the entire digital picture leads to so-called `paradoxes' related to the Jordan Curve Theorem. The most popular idea to avoid these paradoxes in binary images was using different adjacency relations for the foreground and the background: 8-adjacency for black points and 4-adjacency for white points, or vice versa. This idea cannot be extended in a straightforward way to multicolor pictures. In this paper a solution is presented which guarantees avoidance of the connectivity paradoxes related to the Jordan Curve Theorem for all multicolor pictures. Only one connectedness relation is used for the entire digital picture, i.e., for every component of every color. The idea is not to allow a certain `critical configuration' which can be detected locally to occur in digital pictures; such pictures are called `well-composed.' Well-composed pictures have very nice topological properties. For example, the Jordan Curve Theorem holds and the Euler characteristic is locally computable. This implies that properties of algorithms used in computer vision can be stated and proved in a clear way, and that the algorithms themselves become simpler and faster. Moreover, if a digitization process is guaranteed to preserve topology, then the obtained digital pictures must be well-composed.

Latecki, Longin

1995-01-01

177

A Sobering Big Idea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since Susan Adler, Alberta Dougan, and Jesus Garcia like "big ideas," the author offers one to ponder: young people in this country can not read with comprehension. The saddest thing about this crisis is that it is no secret. The 2001 results of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) for reading, published in every major…

Wineburg, Sam

2006-01-01

178

The Big Fish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Killer Whale, Shamu jumps through hoops and splashes tourists in hopes for the big fish, not because of passion, desire or simply the enjoyment of doing so. What would happen if those fish were obsolete? Would this killer whale be able to find the passion to continue to entertain people? Or would Shamu find other exciting activities to do…

DeLisle, Rebecca; Hargis, Jace

2005-01-01

179

The Big Sky inside  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The University of Montana (UM)-Missoula has implemented a problem-based program in which students perform scientific research focused on indoor air pollution. The Air Toxics Under the Big Sky program (Jones et al. 2007; Adams et al. 2008; Ward et al. 2008) provides a community-based framework for understanding the complex relationship between…

Adams, Earle; Ward, Tony J.; Vanek, Diana; Marra, Nancy; Hester, Carolyn; Knuth, Randy; Spangler, Todd; Jones, David; Henthorn, Melissa; Hammill, Brock; Smith, Paul; Salisbury, Rob; Reckin, Gene; Boulafentis, Johna

2009-01-01

180

Build a Big Wheel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how engineers have developed big wheels or Ferris wheels. Learners explore the history of wheels, their design, and develop their own wheel using pasta, glue, and optionally, teabags. Teams design their own wheels on paper, execute their plan, and evaluate the strategies employed.

Ieee

2013-07-08

181

A Big Bang Lab  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The February 2005 issue of The Science Teacher (TST) reminded everyone that by learning how scientists study stars, students gain an understanding of how science measures things that can not be set up in lab, either because they are too big, too far away, or happened in a very distant past. The authors of "How Far are the Stars?" show how the…

Scheider, Walter

2005-01-01

182

Nonstandard big bang models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The usual FRW hot big-bang cosmologies have been generalized by considering the equation of state (rho) = Anm +((gamma)-1)(sup -1)p, where m is the rest mass of the fluid particles and A is a dimensionless constant. Explicit analytic solutions are given f...

M. O. Calvao J. A. S. Lima

1989-01-01

183

A Big Bang Lab  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The February 2005 issue of The Science Teacher (TST) reminded everyone that by learning how scientists study stars, students gain an understanding of how science measures things that can not be set up in lab, either because they are too big, too far away, or happened in a very distant past. The authors of "How Far are the Stars?" show how the…

Scheider, Walter

2005-01-01

184

Thinking Big, Aiming High  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|What do teachers, providers and policymakers need to do in order to support disabled learners to "think big and aim high"? That was the question put to delegates at NIACE's annual disability conference. Some clear themes emerged, with delegates raising concerns about funding, teacher training, partnership-working and employment for disabled…

Berkeley, Viv

2010-01-01

185

The Big Sky inside  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The University of Montana (UM)-Missoula has implemented a problem-based program in which students perform scientific research focused on indoor air pollution. The Air Toxics Under the Big Sky program (Jones et al. 2007; Adams et al. 2008; Ward et al. 2008) provides a community-based framework for understanding the complex relationship between poor…

Adams, Earle; Ward, Tony J.; Vanek, Diana; Marra, Nancy; Hester, Carolyn; Knuth, Randy; Spangler, Todd; Jones, David; Henthorn, Melissa; Hammill, Brock; Smith, Paul; Salisbury, Rob; Reckin, Gene; Boulafentis, Johna

2009-01-01

186

Big Bang Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory which asserts that the universe originated a finite time ago by expanding from an infinitely compressed state. According to this model, space, time and matter originated together, and the universe has been expanding ever since. Key stages in the history of the Big Bang universe are summarized below....

P. Murdin

2000-01-01

187

The big bang  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since Hubble's observation in 1929 that the galaxies are moving away from each other at a constant rate which increases uniformly with distance, the concept of a time when all the material of the universe was contained in a single cosmic 'egg' has held sway, i.e., the big bang. The amount of time which has passed since the primeval explosion

J. Schmid-Burgk; M. Scholz

1978-01-01

188

Animated Computer Graphics of Rolling Bearing Dynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An animated graphics model has been developed to display the motion and interactions in rolling bearings. Graphics primitives in the standard PHIGS (Programmers Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System) libraries are used to develop graphic structures of ...

P. K. Gupta

1996-01-01

189

Relaxing the big-bang bound to the baryon density  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the standard picture of big-bang nucleosynthesis the yields of D, 3He, 4He, and 7Li only agree with their inferred primordial abundances if the fraction of critical density contributed by baryons is between 0.01h^{-2} and 0.02h^{-2} (h is the present value of the Hubble constant in units of 100 kms\\/Mpc). This is the basis of the very convincing and important

Geza Gyuk; Michael S. Turner

1994-01-01

190

Graphical Locater Home Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Daniel Goodman of the Montana State University Environmental Statistics Group designed the Graphical Locator Home Web site as an aid for acquiring and refining location data and related measures. Visitors will find several helpful geographical resources including a township-range-section converter, UTM converter, and a degrees-minutes-seconds converter. Although the tools do not necessarily cover all of the world or even the US, those able to utilize these easy-to-use devices should find them helpful. The site also offers several online interactive US and state maps, links, and much more.

Goodman, Daniel

191

Drafting and Graphics Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment, adapted from ATETV, explores Engineering Technology by providing an overview of what skills students will need to learn in order to succeed after graduation. This specific video takes a look at an adult non-traditional student returning to school, and how the community college she attends works with her to accommodate her busy life. This segment showcases the diversity of this particular engineering technology program, drafting and graphics engineering, and career options available to students after completion. Educators will also find a background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment for the material. Running time for the video is 2:44.

2010-10-08

192

Wolfram Graphics Gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wolfram Research, creators of Mathematica software (see also NSDL Report for Math, Engineering, and Technology, July 16, 2004), have posted this gallery of images that demonstrate how "Mathematica has opened the door to a new kind of imagery that melds art and science." The colorful images in the gallery, created by Mathematica users around the world, are grouped by type: 2D Graphics, Polyhedra, Surfaces, and Animations. High resolutions images are available upon request, and in some cases there is an option to order a poster.

193

Vehicle routing and production planning decision support systems: Designing graphical user interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the inherent complexity of vehicle routing and production planning decision support systems, designing user interfaces for them is challenging and can make a big difference in the usability of these systems. Many heuristic and optimization-oriented systems that have been implemented for this type of problem have failed in part due to a poor graphical user interface. This work proposes

Sergio Maturana; Yadran Eterovic

1995-01-01

194

Modular interactive graphics programming environment  

SciTech Connect

The currently popular device independent graphics packages, such as the SIGGRAPH core System or the Graphical Kernel system, do not support a number of capabilities routinely available in general purpose programming languages. As a result, high performance interactive hardware is not well served, and sophisticated applications are more difficult to reliably program than they should be. In general purpose programming languages, the absence of data types, modularity and parameters would not be tolerated. Yet in preparing tools for programming interactive graphics systems, such capabilities are routinely omitted. This research explores the potential for a modular graphics environment (MGE), proposes one such structure, and demonstrates the feasibility of the MGE. The MGE is a device independent set of structures which is coupled with the capability of a graphics package like the SIGGRAPH Core System would provide the graphics programmer a more complete set of programming tools than currently exists. The added capabilities include: graphical data types, graphics procedures, parameters to graphics procedures, and an interactive librarian. The research is primarily concerned with the potential for such an approach on interactive graphics programming involving dynamic manipulation of images.

Dellenback, S.W.

1985-01-01

195

Digital graphic networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The graphic arts industry is increasingly reliant on telecommunications for the transfer of digital data for media production. There are, however, many other aspects of the business process between customers and supplies that are suited to network-based interaction. The transaction between customer and producer can be separated into four data streams; briefing, content creation and production, and approval. Each of these data streams has specific requirements which lead to a matrix of needs for the different parties in the transaction. Proposals were made for meeting these needs through a network service dedicated to the graphic arts. British Telecom and Scitex are currently offering a service based on these proposals, known as Vio. A network service of this kind can be extended to include a range of other services and third-party interactions, such as automated transfer of media production objects from third-party content providers. The opportunities for users and third-party developers to develop a custom network applications and interfaces between the network and internal production processes and monitoring systems using open IP-based methods are described.

Green, Phil

1998-12-01

196

The Big Bang  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Microwaves, cosmology, and the Big Bang are just some of the topics covered by this well-thought out set of educational materials created by the dedicated staff at the Open University's OpenLearn program. This particular educational unit includes eight primary sections, including "Distances of galaxies", "Introducing cosmology", and "The primordial nuclear abundances". Visitors can log in to keep track of their progress within each unit, and they can also offer their own review of the materials offered on the site. Each section comes complete with graphs, photographs, artistic renderings, and illustrations that complement the written text quite nicely. Interested parties can also choose to view the materials in different formats, including as an RSS feed, print-ready documents, and so on. Overall, the site offers great insight into the world of the Big Bang for a more casual audience.

197

Big toy models  

Microsoft Academic Search

We pursue a model-oriented rather than axiomatic approach to the foundations of Quantum Mechanics, with the idea that new\\u000a models can often suggest new axioms. This approach has often been fruitful in Logic and Theoretical Computer Science. Rather\\u000a than seeking to construct a simplified toy model, we aim for a ‘big toy model’, in which both quantum and classical systems

Samson Abramsky

198

Big Bang Circus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Big Bang Circus is an opera I composed in 2001 and which was premiered at the Venice Biennale Contemporary Music Festival in 2002. A chamber group, four singers and a ringmaster stage the story of the Universe confronting and interweaving two threads: how early man imagined it and how scientists described it. Surprisingly enough fancy, myths and scientific explanations often end up using the same images, metaphors and sometimes even words: a strong tension, a drumskin starting to vibrate, a shout…

Ambrosini, C.

2011-06-01

199

Edge Following in Noisy Pictures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Existing approaches to sequential detection of edges and curves in a noisy picture are reviewed, including methods involving state-space search and dynamic programming. Possible extensions and modifications to these methods are discussed. A procedural app...

G. J. VanderBurg

1973-01-01

200

A Holographic Motion Picture Camera.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A holographic motion picture camera for producing three dimensional images was disclosed. The camera employs an elliptical optical system and a motion compensator is present in one of the beam paths; the compensator allows the camera to photograph fast mo...

R. L. Kurtz

1974-01-01

201

Pictures, images, and recollective experience.  

PubMed

Five experiments investigated the influence of picture processing on recollective experience in recognition memory. Subjects studied items that differed in visual or imaginal detail, such as pictures versus words and high-imageability versus low-imageability words, and performed orienting tasks that directed processing either toward a stimulus as a word or toward a stimulus as a picture or image. Standard effects of imageability (e.g., the picture superiority effect and memory advantages following imagery) were obtained only in recognition judgments that featured recollective experience and were eliminated or reversed when recognition was not accompanied by recollective experience. It is proposed that conscious recollective experience in recognition memory is cued by attributes of retrieved memories such as sensory-perceptual attributes and records of cognitive operations performed at encoding. PMID:7931096

Dewhurst, S A; Conway, M A

1994-09-01

202

Astronomy Picture of the Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each day a different image or photograph of a celestial object is featured. Pictures are selected for their particular beauty or astronomical interest, and each one is accompanied by a brief caption written by a professional astronomer. Links to additional information are embedded in the text of the caption. Previous pictures of the day are archived in reverse chronological order dating back to June 1995.

2007-02-17

203

Pictures of the Hydrogen Atom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site offers a multimedia presentation on the properties of the hydrogen atom and the ways in which these properties are commonly visualized. Pictures and animations of states of the atom are presented with descriptions of both the physics and the visualization. Properties of the atom illustrated by the pictures include its size, its angular momentum, currents, and magnetic moment. Animations of superpositions of atomic states illustrate the properties of radiative transitions, including the strength of the radiation and its polarization.

Herrmann, Friedrich

2008-05-02

204

Graphical Locator Home Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This graphical locator makes it possible to find location data about places in the northwest quarter of the Earth. Most of the locations in this database are in the United States, but a limited number exist for Canada and Mexico. Users may choose maps by state, click directly on U.S. and hydrologic (HUC) maps, or enter latitude and longitude, township range and section, or a UTM. Data includes latitude, longitude, gradient, elevation, UTM (Universal Time) zone, legal name, state and county, topographic map names of the area and nearby named locations. Custom maps may be created by using coordinates and choosing features to display, such as roads or streams. Zooming brings the view to within two kilometers of the site entered.

Gustafson, Daniel

1995-10-30

205

Compilation and R-matrix analysis of Big Bang nuclear reaction rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use the R-matrix theory to fit low-energy data on nuclear reactions involved in Big Bang nucleosynthesis. Special attention is paid to the rate uncertainties which are evaluated on statistical grounds. We provide S factors and reaction rates in tabular and graphical formats.

Pierre Descouvemont; Abderrahim Adahchour; Carmen Angulo; Alain Coc; Elisabeth Vangioni-Flam

2004-01-01

206

Effects of inconsistent pictures on remembering text.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to examine whether a consistent or an inconsistent picture would facilitate recall of text when recall was tested under two conditions involving a consistent or an inconsistent picture. Analyses indicated that recall in the inconsistent-picture condition was better than that in the consistent-picture condition for missing sentences but not for complete sentences of text. This result suggests that an inconsistent picture may facilitate processing of textual information more elaborately than do consistent pictures. PMID:7624193

Kikuno, H

1995-02-01

207

Telidon Videotex presentation level protocol: Augmented picture description instructions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Telidon Videotex system is a method by which graphic and textual information and transactional services can be accessed from information sources by the general public. In order to transmit information to a Telidon terminal at a minimum bandwidth, and in a manner independent of the type of communications channel, a coding scheme was devised which permits the encoding of a picture into the geometric drawing elements which compose it. These picture description instructions are an alpha geometric coding model and are based on the primitives of POINT, LINE, ARC, RECTANGLE, POLYGON, and INCREMENT. Text is encoded as (ASCII) characters along with a supplementary table of accents and special characters. A mosaic shape table is included for compatibility. A detailed specification of the coding scheme and a description of the principles which make it independent of communications channel and display hardware are provided.

Obrien, C. D.; Brown, H. G.; Smirle, J. C.; Lum, Y. F.; Kukulka, J. Z.; Kwan, A.

1982-02-01

208

Graphical user interface for wireless sensor networks simulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are currently very popular area of development. It can be suited in many applications form military through environment monitoring, healthcare, home automation and others. Those networks, when working in dynamic, ad-hoc model, need effective protocols which must differ from common computer networks algorithms. Research on those protocols would be difficult without simulation tool, because real applications often use many nodes and tests on such a big networks take much effort and costs. The paper presents Graphical User Interface (GUI) for simulator which is dedicated for WSN studies, especially in routing and data link protocols evaluation.

Paczesny, Tomasz; Paczesny, Daniel; Weremczuk, Jerzy

2008-01-01

209

Rise of the Graphics Processor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modern graphics processing unit (GPU) is the result of 40 years of evolution of hardware to accelerate graphics processing operations. It represents the convergence of support for multiple market segments: computer-aided design, medical imaging, digital content creation, document and presentation applications, and entertainment applications. The exceptional performance characteristics of the GPU make it an attractive target for other application

David Blythe

2008-01-01

210

Graphical Multiprocessing Analysis Tool (GMAT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and debugging of parallel programs is a difficult task due to the complex synchronization and data scoping issues involed. to aid the programmer in paralle code dvelopment we have developed two methodologies for the graphical display of execution of parallel codes. The Graphical Multiprocessing Analysis Tools (GMAT) consist of stategraph, which represents an inheritance tree of task states,

M. K. Seager; S. Campbell; S. Sikora; R. Strout; M. Zosel

1988-01-01

211

Graphic Interfaces and Online Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the growing importance of the use of Graphic User Interfaces (GUIs) with microcomputers and online services. Highlights include the development of graphics interfacing with microcomputers; CD-ROM databases; an evaluation of HyperCard as a potential interface to electronic mail and online commercial databases; and future possibilities.…

Percival, J. Mark

1990-01-01

212

The Systems Biology Graphical Notation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circuit diagrams and Unified Modeling Language diagrams are just two examples of standard visual languages that help accelerate work by promoting regularity, removing ambiguity and enabling software tool support for communication of complex information. Ironically, despite having one of the highest ratios of graphical to textual information, biology still lacks standard graphical notations. The recent deluge of biological knowledge makes

Michael Hucka; Huaiyu Mi; Stuart Moodie; Falk Schreiber; Anatoly Sorokin; Emek Demir; Katja Wegner; Mirit I Aladjem; Sarala M Wimalaratne; Frank T Bergman; Ralph Gauges; Peter Ghazal; Hideya Kawaji; Lu Li; Yukiko Matsuoka; Alice Villéger; Sarah E Boyd; Laurence Calzone; Melanie Courtot; Ugur Dogrusoz; Tom C Freeman; Akira Funahashi; Samik Ghosh; Akiya Jouraku; Sohyoung Kim; Fedor Kolpakov; Augustin Luna; Sven Sahle; Esther Schmidt; Steven Watterson; Guanming Wu; Igor Goryanin; Douglas B Kell; Chris Sander; Herbert Sauro; Jacky L Snoep; Kurt Kohn; Hiroaki Kitano; Nicolas Le Novère

2009-01-01

213

Graphical animation of behavior models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graphical animation is a way of visualizing the behavior of design models. This visualization is of use in validating a design model against informally specified requirements and in interpreting the meaning and significance of analysis results in relation to the problem domain. In this paper we describe how behavior models specified by Labeled Transition Systems (LTS) can drive graphical animations.

Jeff Magee; Nat Pryce; Dimitra Giannakopoulou; Jeff Kramer

2000-01-01

214

An introduction to graphical models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graphical models are a marriage between probability theory and graph theory. They provide a natural tool for dealing with two problems that occur throughout applied mathematics and engineering { uncertainty and complexity { and in particular they are playing an increasingly important role in the design and analysis of machine learning algorithms. Fundamental to the idea of a graphical model

Kevin P. Murphy

2001-01-01

215

The GPU and Graphic Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the begging, graphic hardware was utilized only to convert binary information to display device. Through its evolution, it gained capabilities and last improvement enhanced it so far that it can be considered as a next processing unit. Thus, this document concerns with graphic hardware, its applications and proposed improvements. It is an overview with selected samples that shall introduce

Ivo Hanák

216

CMYKIR security graphics separation in the infrared area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphic printing inks respond in different ways when they are in the wavelengths of a near infrared (IR) area. It is not possible to measure such response in the IR and describe it with parameters from the CIELab, sRGB or HSB color systems that are the base for color theory in the visible spectrum area. Additive RGB colors that we use to describe the image in our eye correspond with subtractive C0M0Y0 printing inks used for nearly overall printing reproduction in the overall color visual spectrum. Adding of black color ink that has a good response in the infrared area, and subtracting CMY inks makes it possible to carry out each color tone in an endless number of ways. CMYK printing ink characteristics are the basis for setting the algorithm for double appearance of independent graphics: the first graphic in daylight and the second “IR graphic” in infrared light. Proposed algorithm creates a print X on the base of two pictures: the original one X0 and mask F. The aim is documents’ ultimate security which is detected in IR area. Graphic element visibility with the help of instruments in the wavelength area from 700 to 1000 nm allows programming the selection of image information by using process inks only. The individual characteristics of those printing inks are used for introducing a new criteria in the RGB/CMYK separation process with the goal to create IR graphics. We call this separation CMYKIR and use it for planning the dosing of inks in the creation of good quality reproductions with incorporated IR characteristics: either for causing or prohibiting the IR effect. The goal of CMYKIR reproduction is to incorporate the set “IR graphic” that is not meant to be detected in the visible spectrum part.

Žiljak, V.; Pap, K.; Žiljak, I.

2009-03-01

217

Research with the Big 6  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Big 6 is simply a name given to the process of research! 6 easy steps! You will need to turn in a paper when you finish this assignment. Start by putting your name and hour on the top of your paper. Now look at the following web site. Then on your paper, give your own definition for The Big 6. What is Big 6 Now take a closer look ...

Griffiths, Mrs.

2009-03-24

218

The Big Wet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on a particular climate found in Northern Australia, known as the tropical wet and dry. This lesson goes over the 12 categories of climates, and looks at the specifics of the 'big wet', or tropical wet and dry climate. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, performing extensions, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, audio vocabulary, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

219

Big and Little Cups  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this indoor or outdoor water activity, learners pour water from small cups to large cups and containers. In doing so, they discover water takes the shape of its container. They also learn that the same amount of water will always fill the same container to the same height, and the same amount of water will fill containers of different sizes and shapes to different heights. This activity is part of the curriculum Explore Water, related to Peep and the Big Wide World, a preschool science series on public television. The activity starts on page 40 of the PDF.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2005-01-01

220

Big Time Tour  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (on pages 16-21), learners get a sense of geological time by understanding how big a million is. Part One of the activity is the "Million Appreciation Lesson," which puts a million seconds, names in a phone book, and hiked steps into more familiar units. Part Two is "Investigating All Time," where learners make a time line for the history of the Earth using the length of their own arm to represent the total 4.5 billion year long scale. They mark major time zones, such as the age of the dinosaurs, at appropriate lengths along the time line.

Museum, University O.; Nebraska Cooperative Extension 4-H Youth Development

2002-01-01

221

The Big Mo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Momentum is not only a physical principle; it is a psychological phenomenon. Students learn how the "Big Mo" of the bandwagon effect contributes to the development of fads and manias, and how modern technology and mass media accelerate and intensify the effect. Students develop media literacy and critical thinking skills to analyze trends and determine the extent to which their decisions may be influenced by those who manipulate a few opinion leaders. Note: The literacy activities for the Mechanics unit are based on physical themes that have broad application to our experience in the world â concepts of rhythm, balance, spin, gravity, levity, inertia, momentum, friction, stress and tension.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

222

The hot big bang and beyond  

SciTech Connect

The hot big-bang cosmology provides a reliable accounting of the Universe from about 10{sup {minus}2} sec after the bang until the present, as well as a robust framework for speculating back to times as early as 10{sup {minus}43} sec. Cosmology faces a number of important challenges; foremost among them are determining the quantity and composition of matter in the Universe and developing a detailed and coherent picture of how structure (galaxies, clusters of galaxies, superclusters, voids, great walls, and so on) developed. At present there is a working hypothesis{emdash}cold dark matter{emdash}which is based upon inflation and which, if correct, would extend the big bang model back to 10{sup {minus}32} sec and cast important light on the unification of the forces. Many experiments and observations, from CBR anisotropy experiments to Hubble Space Telescope observations to experiments at Fermilab and CERN, are now putting the cold dark matter theory to the test. At present it appears that the theory is viable only if the Hubble constant is smaller than current measurements indicate (around 30 km s{sup {minus}1} Mpc{sup {minus}1}), or if the theory is modified slightly, e.g., by the addition of a cosmological constant, a small admixture of hot dark matter (5 eV {open_quote}{open_quote}worth of neutrinos{close_quote}{close_quote}), more relativistic particle or a tilted spectrum of density perturbations.

Turner, M.S. [Departments of Physics and of Astronomy & Astrophysics, Enrico Fermi Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637-1433 (United States)]|[NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510-0500 (United States)

1995-08-01

223

Arousal-Enhanced Location Memory for Pictures  

PubMed Central

Four experiments revealed arousal-enhanced location memory for pictures. After an incidental encoding task, participants were more likely to remember the locations of positive and negative arousing pictures than the locations of non-arousing pictures, indicating better binding of location to picture. This arousal-enhanced binding effect did not have a cost for the binding of nearby pictures to their locations. Thus, arousal can enhance binding of an arousing picture’s content to its location without interfering with picture-location binding for nearby pictures. In addition, arousal-enhanced picture-location memory binding is not just a side effect of enhanced memory for the picture itself, as it occurs both when recognition memory is good and when it is poor.

Mather, Mara; Nesmith, Kathryn

2008-01-01

224

Pictures as Teaching Aids: Using the Pictures in History Textbooks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains how the pictures in history textbooks are potentially useful as teaching aids in social studies courses. Illustrations (reproductions of paintings, historical photographs, woodcuts, lithographs, and engravings, etc.) are important because they may be the only primary source materials to which students will be exposed. (Author/DB)|

Downey, Matthew T.

1980-01-01

225

Look Again: Picture Books Are More than Pictures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three teachers discuss using picture books to cure reading problems, boost sagging self-concepts, and tutor handicapped children. Techniques for using books are described, as are follow-up activities. Examples of specific books and their uses with hearing and visually impaired children are given. (MT)

Giff, Patricia Reilly; And Others

1985-01-01

226

From big bang to big crunch and beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study a quotient Conformal Field Theory, which describes a 3+1 dimensional cosmological spacetime. Part of this spacetime is the Nappi-Witten (NW) universe, which starts at a ``big bang'' singularity, expands and then contracts to a ``big crunch'' singularity at a finite time. The gauged WZW model contains a number of copies of the NW spacetime, with each copy connected

Shmuel Elitzur; Amit Giveon; David Kutasov; Eliezer Rabinovici

2002-01-01

227

Quantum fields in a big-crunch-big-bang spacetime  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider quantum field theory on a spacetime representing the big-crunch-big-bang transition postulated in ekpyrotic or cyclic cosmologies. We show via several independent methods that an essentially unique matching rule holds connecting the incoming state, in which a single extra dimension shrinks to zero, to the outgoing state in which it reexpands at the same rate. For free fields in

Andrew J. Tolley; Neil Turok

2002-01-01

228

CARMA Correlator Graphical Setup  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CARMA Correlator Graphical Setup (CGS) is a Java tool to help users of the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) plan observations. It allows users to visualize the correlator bands overlaid on frequency space and view spectral lines within each band. Bands can be click-dragged to anywhere in frequency and can have their properties (e.g., bandwidth, quantization level, rest frequency) changed interactively. Spectral lines can be filtered from the view by expected line strength to reduce visual clutter. Once the user is happy with the setup, a button click generates the Python commands needed to configure the correlator within the observing script. CGS can also read Python configurations from an observing script and reproduce the correlator setup that was used. Because the correlator hardware description is defined in an XML file, the tool can be rapidly reconfigured for changing hardware. This has been quite useful as CARMA has recently commissioned a new correlator. The tool was written in Java by high school summer interns working in UMD's Laboratory for Millimeter Astronomy and has become an essential planning tool for CARMA PIs.

Wu, D.; Shaya, B.; Pound, M. W.

2011-07-01

229

Historical Graphics Gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created and maintained by historian Jim Zwick, this Website features extensive collections of US political cartoons, photographs, and advertising from the 19th and early decades of the 20th century. The site includes a thorough discussion, augmented by full-scale images of illustrations, of the origins of political cartooning in the early nineteenth century from its genesis to a force in the eventual defeat of the Boss Tweed machine to editorial illustrations commenting on Theodore Roosevelt, Uncle Sam, and the Women's suffrage movement. There are also sections here on the political art of Dan Beard -- a nineteenth-century illustrator and founder of the Boy Scouts, advertisements from the Spanish-American & Philippine-American Wars, and collections of photographs from these two wars as well as images of atrocities in the Congo, publicized by the Congo Reform Association in their campaign against King Leopold's rule of the Congo Free State. Most images can be examined in medium or large sizes, with options for zooming in and scanning the images. The accompanying written history of these images is also considerable and well-informed. Zwick has written extensively about the age of imperialism in America in both scholarly and popular venues. Note: Because of the number of graphic files on this site, many Mac users may need to make more memory available for their browser when visiting it.

230

Computer Graphics Using Raytracing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the field of computer graphics, almost any technique for generating an output image can be viewed as a data transformation. The output image is a function of some input data set and the rendering algorithms used to generate that image are mapping functions. The source of the data set may be explicit, such as models and structures produced by an artist or designer, or be implicit, such as the result of a physical simulation or the surface of a fractal. There are many methods for transforming the input visual scene description into the target image. Rasterization, the process of converting an image described in vector for into a raster image [Foley 90] is a popular technique, particularly useful in modern, hardware accelerated systems. However, it tends to break down, losing its efficiency and attractiveness when scene complexity increases and geometric primitives shrink in size. Furthermore, since rasterization methods are often tuned to render simple geometry such as triangles, direct rasterization of implicit surfaces such as quadrics is not straight forward. In offline systems, a commonly used algorithm for the rendering of very fine geometry and implicit surfaces is the Reyes algorithm [Cook 87]. The Reyes algorithm, developed in the mid 1980s by a group that was to become Pixar, renders implicit geometry and smooth surfaces by recursively subdividing it into polygons until each facet becomes smaller than a single pixel. Each polygon is then rendered as a flat, single colored primitive.

Sellers, Graham; Lukac, Rastislav

231

Graphic Information Presentation System (GIPSY) Users Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Graphic Information Presentation System (GIPSY) is a general purpose graphics and information display capability. It combines the tools of data retrieval, information processing, formatted reports, tabular, graphic, and geographic display into a singl...

J. L. Muenzen

1991-01-01

232

Gist: A scientific graphics package for Python.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gist is a scientific graphics library written by David H. Munro of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). It features support for three common graphics output devices: X Windows, (Color) PostScript, and ANSI/ISO Standard Computer Graphics Metafile...

L. E. Busby

1996-01-01

233

A framework of motivations for industry-big science collaboration: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epistemic (knowledge creation) benefits of big science centres are obvious to everyone. During an era of tight budgetary constraints, however, it is difficult to justify the existence of these centres on the basis of their epistemic contributions alone. Although it is recognized that the contributions are not limited to epistemic types only, the picture of other types of contribution

Erkko Autio; Ari-Pekka Hameri; Markus Nordberg

1996-01-01

234

Painting a Picture with Air  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Create a painting by blowing air out of a straw. Push liquid acrylic paint around on some watercolor paper by aiming short bursts of air onto the paint puddle. See what happens when you use different colors, and add thicker or more watery paint. Then, scan or take a digital picture of your artwork and post it to the Air Blown Gallery.

Minnesota, Science M.

1995-01-01

235

Interframe coding of videotelephone pictures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Television signals contain a great deal of frame-to-frame redundancy because picture areas are scanned in every frame whether they have changed or not. That portion of the signal describing stationary images need not be retransmitted in every frame if adequate memory is provided at the receiver. The signal describing moving images must be transmitted, of course, but it requires progressively

BARRY G. HASKELL; F. W. Mounts; J. C. Candy

1972-01-01

236

Dynamic run-time graphics  

SciTech Connect

The major components of the Instant Graphics Package (IGP) have been integrated with the Dynamic Debugging Tool (DDT). IGP and DDT can produce 1D, 2D, and 3D plots; 2D contour plots; and array-versus-array plots at run time for a CTSS controllee memory image. These plots can be used to graphically inspect any array and to satisfy many of the user community's routine graphics requirements. A brief overview of the USERPORT feature, which can dynamically interface to any fragment of a CTSS controllee, will be presented. 7 refs., 17 figs.

Tabor, J.

1987-01-01

237

On Big Bang Singularity Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that Stephen Hawking and Roger Penrose have shown through their big bang singularity theorems that big bang singularity did exist. This singularity was an invisible tiny dot. The present contents of our Universe were suppressed into this glow dot singularity. It has been computed that nearly 13.5 billion years ago this tiny dot singularity exploded and

K. Raghul Kumar

238

'Mr Big' comes to Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extract: 'Mr Big' is the name of an undercover police operation created by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) in Canada. It is named after the character, Mr Big, who was a shadowy villain in the 1960s cartoon series Rocky and Bullwinkle.

Lee Stuesser

2008-01-01

239

The BigBOSS Instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will give an overview of the proposed BigBOSS instrument, to be installed at the Mayall 4m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. The BigBOSS instrument includes an optical corrector to provide a 3 degree diameter field of view, a focal plane with 5000 robotically actuated fibers, and 10 identical moderate resolution 3-arm spectrographs.

Roe, Natalie

2012-01-01

240

Whole Language Using Big Books.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed as thematic units around Wright Company Big Books, the lessons in this guide demonstrate ways that Big Books can be used in a whole language first grade program. Each lesson indicates skill focus, needed materials, procedures, and additional thoughts or suggestions about the lesson. Units consist of: "Bedtime" (five lessons); "Monsters…

Whyte, Sarah

241

The International Big History Association  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|IBHA, the International Big History Association, was organized in 2010 and "promotes the unified, interdisciplinary study and teaching of history of the Cosmos, Earth, Life, and Humanity." This is the vision that Montessori embraced long before the discoveries of modern science fleshed out the story of the evolving universe. "Big History" is a…

Duffy, Michael; Duffy, D'Neil

2013-01-01

242

Towards Identifying Usability and Security Features of Graphical Password in Knowledge Based Authentication Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text-based passwords are ubiquitous authentication system. This traditional authentication system is well- known for its flaws in the aspects of usability and security issues that bring problems to users. Hence, there is a need for alternative mechanism to overcome these problems. Graphical passwords, which consist of clicking or dragging activities on the pictures rather than typing textual characters, might be

Muhammad Daniel Hafiz Abdullah; Abdul Hanan Abdullah; Norafida Ithnin; Hazinah Kutty Mammi

2008-01-01

243

Big6 Winter Production  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Goals: a. Students will be able to identify the four seasons. b. Students will be able to identify three animals (bear, goose, moose) and know their lifestyle patterns in congruence with the four seasons, especially Winter months. c. Students will develop an understanding of their environment. 2nd Grade Standard III: Students will develop an understanding of their environment Objective 2: Observe and describe weather Goal C: Describe how weather affects people and weather Lesson Objectives: a. Identify the seasons and represent each with pictures and songs. b. Observe and describe typical weather for each of ...

Cook, Mrs.

2010-11-05

244

Graphical debugging of combinational geometry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A graphical debugger for combinatorial geometry being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is described. The prototype debugger consists of two parts: a FORTRAN-based ''view'' generator and a Microsoft Windows application for displaying the geometry...

T. J. Burns M. S. Smith

1992-01-01

245

Big bang and big crunch in matrix string theory  

SciTech Connect

Following the holographic description of linear dilaton null cosmologies with a big bang in terms of matrix string theory put forward by Craps, Sethi, and Verlinde, we propose an extended background describing a universe including both big bang and big crunch singularities. This belongs to a class of exact string backgrounds and is perturbative in the string coupling far away from the singularities, both of which can be resolved using matrix string theory. We provide a simple theory capable of describing the complete evolution of this closed universe.

Bedford, J.; Ward, J. [Centre for Research in String Theory, Department of Physics, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, CERN-Theory Division, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Papageorgakis, C. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Rodriguez-Gomez, D. [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

2007-04-15

246

Scene extraction in motion pictures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—This paper addresses the challenge of bridging the semantic gap between the rich meaning,users desire when they query to locate and browse media and the shallowness of media,descriptions that can be computed,in today’s content management,systems. To facilitate high-level semantics-based content annotation and interpretation, we tackle the problem of automatic decomposition of motion pictures into meaningful story units, namely scenes. Since

Ba Tu Truong; Svetha Venkatesh; Chitra Dorai

2003-01-01

247

A distributable, display-device-independent vector graphics system for command and control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report documents a distributable, device-independent vector graphics system developed by ISI for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. It describes the system architecture, communications elements, and a phased implementation strategy. The system supports graphics-based command and control applications in distributed computational environments such as the ARPANET. The system has been in use at ISI and at the Naval Ocean Systems Center (NOSC) in the Advanced Command and Control Architectural Testbed (ACCAT) since January 1977. The principal aim of the development effort is the device-independence of the vector graphics. 'Device-independence' means that graphic application programs can be written without regard to the particular display-device on which the output will ultimately be displayed. This system achieves display-device independence by providing the application program with a set of generic, two dimensional vector graphic primitives by which pictures can be described and interacted with at the application level. The particular graphics model used structures pictures as sets of subpictures that are absolute-transformed-segments, as defined by Newman and Sproull.

Bisbey, R., II; Hollingworth, D.

1980-07-01

248

Rate Change Big Bang Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rate Change Big Bang Theory redefines the birth of the universe with a dramatic shift in energy direction and a new vision of the first moments. With rate change graph technology (RCGT) we can look back 13.7 billion years and experience every step of the big bang through geometrical intersection technology. The analysis of the Big Bang includes a visualization of the first objects, their properties, the astounding event that created space and time as well as a solution to the mystery of anti-matter.

Strickland, Ken

2013-04-01

249

Homogeneous and isotropic big rips?  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the way big rips are approached in a fully inhomogeneous description of the space-time geometry. If the pressure and energy densities are connected by a (supernegative) barotropic index, the spatial gradients and the anisotropic expansion decay as the big rip is approached. This behavior is contrasted with the usual big-bang singularities. A similar analysis is performed in the case of sudden (quiescent) singularities and it is argued that the spatial gradients may well be non-negligible in the vicinity of pressure singularities.

Giovannini, Massimo [Centro 'Enrico Fermi', Compendio del Viminale, Via Panisperna 89/A, 00184 Rome (Italy); Department of Physics, Theory Division, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

2005-10-15

250

Big Bang Big Crunch Optimization Method Based Fuzzy Model Inversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inverse fuzzy model can be used as a controller in an open loop fashion to produce perfect control if there does not exist\\u000a any disturbance or parameter variation in the system. In this paper, a new fuzzy model inversion technique that is based on\\u000a an evolutionary search algorithm called Big Bang Big Crunch (BB-BC) optimization is introduced. Even though

Tufan Kumbasar; Ibrahim Eksin; Müjde Güzelkaya; Engin Yesil

2008-01-01

251

Solution of a braneworld big crunch\\/big bang cosmology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We solve for the cosmological perturbations in a five-dimensional background consisting of two separating or colliding boundary branes, as an expansion in the collision speed V divided by the speed of light c. Our solution permits a detailed check of the validity of four-dimensional effective theory in the vicinity of the event corresponding to the big crunch\\/big bang singularity. We

Paul L. McFadden; Neil Turok; Paul J. Steinhardt

2007-01-01

252

Solution of a Braneworld Big Crunch\\/Big Bang Cosmology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We solve for the cosmological perturbations in a five-dimensional background\\u000aconsisting of two separating or colliding boundary branes, as an expansion in\\u000athe collision speed V divided by the speed of light c. Our solution permits a\\u000adetailed check of the validity of four-dimensional effective theory in the\\u000avicinity of the event corresponding to the big crunch\\/big bang singularity. We

Paul McFadden; Neil Turok; Paul J. Steinhardt

2007-01-01

253

The Security Analysis of Graphical Passwords  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, graphical password has not been widely used in practical. Most of the graphical password authentication schemes are only discussed in laboratory. In this paper, some typical graphical password authentication schemes are introduced, and the security of them are analyzed according to its estimate criterions. One conclusion is drawn that the memorability and security of graphical password are better than

Wei Hu; Xiaoping Wu; Guoheng Wei

2010-01-01

254

Rendering + modeling + animation + postprocessing = computer graphics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, students coming into a computer graphics course have seen movies that have fantastic graphics effects (e.g., Toy Story, A Bug's Life and the Star War series). These students have also acquired a certain level of graphics knowledge by playing games and reading popular magazines. Their expectations are certainly high for their first graphics course. Moreover, many deep and powerful

Rosalee Wolfe; John L. Lowther; Ching-Kuang Shene

2000-01-01

255

Computer graphics in the undergraduate biology laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer graphics use by biology undergraduate students is now a mainstay in the microanatomy course taught at Trinity University. By using desktop computer graphics, these students are able to take ownership of histological images in ways not possible just five years ago. Digital frame grabs of microscope slides serve as the basis of student produced graphics. These graphics allow the

Robert V. Blystone

1994-01-01

256

Computer Graphics. Curriculum Guide for Technology Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide for a 1-quarter or 1-semester course in computer graphics is designed to be used with Apple II computers. Some of the topics covered include the following: computer graphics terminology and applications, operating Apple computers, graphics programming in BASIC using various programs and commands, computer graphics painting,…

Craft, Clyde O.

257

A digital rights enabled graphics processing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the emergence of 3D graphics\\/arts assets commerce on the Internet, to protect their intellectual property and to restrict their usage have become a new design challenge. This paper presents a novel protection model for commercial graphics data by integrating digital rights management into the graphics processing unit and creating a digital rights enabled graphics processing system to defend against

Weidong Shi; Hsien-Hsin S. Lee; Richard M. Yoo; Alexandra Boldyreva

2006-01-01

258

Graphics performance analysis using Amdahl's law  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance analysis of graphics processors is important for designing future graphics processors. The analysis can help graphics hardware vendors to compare and analyze performance on different benchmarks, as well as help fine tune current architectures to achieve higher performance. In this paper, we discuss a performance analysis model for graphics processors using Amdahl's law regression method. We present a

Joseph Issa; Silvia Figueira

2010-01-01

259

Cartooning History: Canada's Stories in Graphic Novels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In recent years, historical events, issues, and characters have been portrayed in an increasing number of non-fiction graphic texts. Similar to comics and graphic novels, graphic texts are defined as fully developed, non-fiction narratives told through panels of sequential art. Such non-fiction graphic texts are being used to teach history in…

King, Alyson E.

2012-01-01

260

The Horn Book Graphic Gallery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an annotated bibliography of 14 picture books with copyright dates from 1980 to 1984. David Macauley, Ed Young, and Richard Bartlett based their selections on illustration and design criteria that they most admired. (JK)

Horn Book Magazine, 1986

1986-01-01

261

Generating a hot big bang as a quantum fluctuation  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides an overview of work exploring the hypothesis that the Universe tunneled into being as a quantum fluctuation. The basic picture is formulated within the context of a semiclassical description, in which the tunneling is interpreted as a gravitational instaton interpolating between some Planck-sized, metrically and topologically complicated, pretunneling entity and a rapidly expanding, topologically trivial, post-tunneling Universe. It is argued that the tunneling hypothesis may provide a simple explanation of gross observed features of the current Universe, such as the fact that it is big, nearly homogeneous and nearly flat, and that the massless particles contained therein seem characterized by a near-thermal distribution.

Kandrup, H.E. (Dept. of Astronomy, Univ. of Florida (US)); Mazur, P.O. (Dept. of Physics, UCLA, CA (US))

1991-09-30

262

Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Big Sky Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts during the first performan...

S. M. Capalbo

2003-01-01

263

The BigBOSS Experiment  

SciTech Connect

BigBOSS will obtain observational constraints that will bear on three of the four 'science frontier' questions identified by the Astro2010 Cosmology and Fundamental Phyics Panel of the Decadal Survey: Why is the universe accelerating; what is dark matter and what are the properties of neutrinos? Indeed, the BigBOSS project was recommended for substantial immediate R and D support the PASAG report. The second highest ground-based priority from the Astro2010 Decadal Survey was the creation of a funding line within the NSF to support a 'Mid-Scale Innovations' program, and it used BigBOSS as a 'compelling' example for support. This choice was the result of the Decadal Survey's Program Priorization panels reviewing 29 mid-scale projects and recommending BigBOSS 'very highly'.

Schelgel, D.; Abdalla, F.; Abraham, T.; Ahn, C.; Allende Prieto, C.; Annis, J.; Aubourg, E.; Azzaro, M.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Baugh, C.; /APC, Paris /Brookhaven /IRFU, Saclay /Marseille, CPPM /Marseille, CPT /Durham U. / /IEU, Seoul /Fermilab /IAA, Granada /IAC, La Laguna

2011-01-01

264

Children's Comprehension of Narrative Picture Books.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper explains the creation and validation of the Narrative Comprehension of Picture Books task (NC task), an assessment of young childrens comprehension of wordless picture books. Study 1 explored developmental improvements in the task, as well as r...

A. H. Paris S. G. Paris

2001-01-01

265

A knowledge-based approach for textual information extraction from mixed text\\/graphics complex document images  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new knowledge-based technique for extracting and identifying text-lines from various real-life mixed text\\/graphics complex document images is presented in this paper. The proposed technique first decompose the document image into distinct object planes to separate homogeneous objects including textual regions of interest, non-text objects such as graphics and pictures, and background textures. Then a knowledge-based text extraction and identification

Yen-Lin Chen

2010-01-01

266

Relativistic hydrodynamics on graphic cards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show how to accelerate relativistic hydrodynamics simulations using graphic cards (graphic processing units, GPUs). These improvements are of highest relevance e.g. to the field of high-energetic nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC where (ideal and dissipative) relativistic hydrodynamics is used to calculate the evolution of hot and dense QCD matter. The results reported here are based on the Sharp And Smooth Transport Algorithm (SHASTA), which is employed in many hydrodynamical models and hybrid simulation packages, e.g. the Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics model (UrQMD). We have redesigned the SHASTA using the OpenCL computing framework to work on accelerators like graphic processing units (GPUs) as well as on multi-core processors. With the redesign of the algorithm the hydrodynamic calculations have been accelerated by a factor 160 allowing for event-by-event calculations and better statistics in hybrid calculations.

Gerhard, Jochen; Lindenstruth, Volker; Bleicher, Marcus

2013-02-01

267

Pictures at the ATM: exploring the usability of multiple graphical passwords  

Microsoft Academic Search

Users gain access to cash, confidential information and services at Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) via an authentication process involving a Personal Identification Number (PIN). These users frequently have many different PINs, and fail to remember them without recourse to insecure behaviours. This is not a failing of users. It is a usability failing in the ATM authentication mechanism. This paper

Wendy Moncur; Grégory Leplâtre

2007-01-01

268

32 CFR 705.8 - Motion pictures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motion pictures. 705.8 Section 705.8...AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.8 Motion pictures. (a) The rules and procedures...to cooperation with commercial motion picture producers. (b) The...

2010-07-01

269

32 CFR 705.8 - Motion pictures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Motion pictures. 705.8 Section 705.8...AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.8 Motion pictures. (a) The rules and procedures...to cooperation with commercial motion picture producers. (b) The...

2013-07-01

270

32 CFR 705.8 - Motion pictures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Motion pictures. 705.8 Section 705.8...AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.8 Motion pictures. (a) The rules and procedures...to cooperation with commercial motion picture producers. (b) The...

2009-07-01

271

Eliminating the Flicker from the Moving Picture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motion picture projection rests upon the physiological phenomenon of “persistence of visual impression,” whereby a momentary glimpse of a well-illuminated object prints an image on the retina which remains about one sixteenth of a second. In the ordinary motion picture method a rapidly succeeding series of snapshots are taken. These pictures are made one after another at the rate of

Joseph B. Baker

1914-01-01

272

Picture Books: An Automated Story Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Picture Books generates stories for children age four to six based on a set of picture elements selected by the user, namely background, characters and objects. The system creates an abstract story representation of the theme for the given picture and uses NLG techniques to generate the sentences in the story. Manual evaluations on 15 generated stories were conducted to

Arvin Jasper Hong; Candice Jean Solis; Joan Tiffany Siy; Ethel Ong

273

Graphical Dictionaries and the Memorable Space of Graphical Passwords  

Microsoft Academic Search

In commonplace textual password schemes, users choose passwords that are easy to recall. Since mem- orable passwords typically exhibit patterns, they are exploitable by brute-force password crackers using at- tack dictionaries. This leads us to ask what classes of graphical passwords users flnd memorable. We postu- late one such class supported by a collection of cogni- tive studies on visual

Julie Thorpe; Paul C. Van Oorschot

2004-01-01

274

Industrial Arts 7-9. Graphic Communications. Drafting. Graphic Arts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide for industrial arts grades 7-9 provides teachers with a curriculum for the subject cluster of graphic communications. An "Overview" section presents the rationale, discusses how the content of the program is related to the developmental stages of the adolescent, describes the structure of the industrial arts program, and lists program…

Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

275

MPE graphics -- Scalable X11 graphics in MPI.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As parallel programs enter the mainstream, they need to provide the same facilities and ease-of-use features expected of uniprocessor programs. For many applications, this means that they need to provide graphical output. This talk discusses a library of ...

W. Gropp E. Karrels E. Lusk

1994-01-01

276

Development of an Interactive Computer Graphics System Library and Graphics Tools.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The requirements for a general purpose, interactive graphics software system were investigated and led to the development of a graphics library of subroutines which can be used as a graphics research tool or for applications development. The design object...

K. W. Rose

1982-01-01

277

Graphical Password: Prototype Usability Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Access to computer networks and systems is most often based on the use of conventional passwords nowadays. However, users have difficulty remembering a password that is long and random-appearing. So, they create short, simple, and insecure passwords. Graphical passwords have been designed to try to make passwords more memorable and easier for people to use, to create and, therefore, more

Ali Mohamed Eljetlawi; Norafida Ithnin

2008-01-01

278

Graphical passwords & qualitative spatial relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A potential drawback of graphical password schemes is that they are more vulnerable to shoulder surfing than conventional alphanumeric text passwords. We present a variation of the Draw- a-Secret scheme originally proposed by Jermyn et al (1) that is more resistant to shoulder surfing through the use of a qualitative mapping between user strokes and the password, and the use

Di Lin; Paul Dunphy; Patrick Olivier; Jeff Yan

2007-01-01

279

Graphic Display of Human Motion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Presented is the application of two and three dimensional graphic display models of a human body in studying the motion of a human being as a result of external influences. Included are an occupant during a vehicle crash and a parachutist during the openi...

K. D. Willmert

1979-01-01

280

Digital To Graphic Character Generator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In a device for graphically representing characters encoded in a digital signal, a writing element adapted to sweep across a recording medium at selected intervals is enabled by a timing means to selectively mark the recording medium during a selected ser...

G. R. Cooke K. T. Franklin

1977-01-01

281

Constraints in Interactive Graphical Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constraints provide a declarative means for specifying relationships that we wish to hold true. Interactive graphical applications give rise to varying kinds of constraints, and re- searchers have developed diverse constraint solving techniques. I survey the classes of con- straints used by numerous drawing, graph layout, visualization and animation systems. I describe a taxonomy of the constraint solving methods used

Greg J. Badros

1998-01-01

282

Graphics Design Technology Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Idaho secondary education curriculum guide provides lists of tasks, performance objectives, and enabling objectives for instruction intended to impart entry-level employment skills in graphics design technology. The first list states all tasks for 11 areas; separate lists for each area follow. Each task on the lists is accompanied by a…

Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

283

Wargaming and interactive color graphics  

Microsoft Academic Search

JANUS is a two-sided interactive color graphic simulation in which human commanders can direct their forces, each trying to accomplish their mission. This competitive synthetic battlefield is used to explore the range of human ingenuity under conditions of incomplete information about enemy strength and deployment. Each player can react to new situations by planning new unit movements, using conventional and

S. Bly; C. Buzzell; G. Smith

1980-01-01

284

Graphic Novels in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Today many authors and artists adapt works of classic literature into a medium more "user friendly" to the increasingly visual student population. Stefan Petrucha and Kody Chamberlain's version of "Beowulf" is one example. The graphic novel captures the entire epic in arresting images and contrasts the darkness of the setting and characters with…

Martin, Adam

2009-01-01

285

Graphic Communications. Career Education Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The curriculum guide is designed to provide students with realistic training in graphic communications theory and practice within the secondary educational framework and to prepare them for entry into an occupation or continuing postsecondary education. The program modules outlined in the guide have been grouped into four areas: printing,…

Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC. European Area.

286

NPR: Art Enhancing Computer Graphics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonphotorealistic rendering is a field in computer science in which scientists apply artistic techniques to enhance computer graphics. This paper addresses the interrogatives what, how, and why, about NPR. The discussion expands on what NPR is and what kinds of projects are being done in NPR, specifically it focuses on three issues: two large problems in NPR, simulating pen-and-ink illustration

Laura G. Tateosian; Christopher G. Healey

287

Pipeline design codes compared graphically  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety levels implied by the criteria for the major design codes governing offshore pipeline and riser construction are compared. This article focuses on graphic comparisons to provide insights into the relative safety levels implied by the codes' criteria. These comparisons center on an examination of the theoretical basis for each design code.

D. R. Stephens; D. P. McConnell

1985-01-01

288

The Titan Graphics Supercomputer Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design criteria for the Titan are outlined, and the hardware, architecture, and implementation developed to meet them are examined. The key architectural elements in Titan are described, and the reasoning behind their selection is presented. Titan's processor subsystem is explored, focusing on how it reduces the cost and complexity of graphics-specific hardware. The design constraints and implementation of the

Tom Diede; Carl F. Hagenmaier; Glen S. Miranker; Jonathan J. Rubinstein; William S. Worley Jr.

1988-01-01

289

Graphic Arts/Offset Lithography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This revised curriculum for graphic arts is designed to provide secondary and postsecondary students with entry-level skills and an understanding of current printing technology. It contains lesson plans based on entry-level competencies for offset lithography as identified by educators and industry representatives. The guide is divided into 15…

Hoisington, James; Metcalf, Joseph

290

Graphic Novels in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today many authors and artists adapt works of classic literature into a medium more "user friendly" to the increasingly visual student population. Stefan Petrucha and Kody Chamberlain's version of "Beowulf" is one example. The graphic novel captures the entire epic in arresting images and contrasts the darkness of the setting and characters with…

Martin, Adam

2009-01-01

291

Cascaded Processing in Written Naming: Evidence from the Picture-Picture Interference Paradigm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issue of how information flows within the lexical system in written naming was investigated in five experiments. In Experiment 1, participants named target pictures that were accompanied by context pictures having phonologically and orthographically related or unrelated names (e.g., a picture of a "ball" superimposed on a picture of a "bed").…

Roux, Sebastien; Bonin, Patrick

2012-01-01

292

Big Bang-Big Crunch optimization algorithm to solve the course timetabling problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we present the Big Bang-Big Crunch (BB-BC) method to solve the post-enrolment course timetabling problem. This method is derived from one of the evolution of the universe theories in physics and astronomy. The BB-BC theory involves two phases (Big Bang and Big Crunch). The Big Bang phase feeds the Big Crunch phase with many inputs and the

Ghaith M. Jaradat; Masri Ayob

2010-01-01

293

Effect of pictures on recall of written prose: How durable are picture effects?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is now substantial evidence that pictures can be used to facilitate the recall of information presented in prose passages.\\u000a There is also evidence that the presence of pictures in prose passages does not hinder the recall of information that is not\\u000a pictured. Are the picture effects durable over longer periods (55 days) of time? Do pictures included in prose

Gary J. Anglin

1987-01-01

294

[Clinical picture of Lyme boreliosis].  

PubMed

Prevalence of Lyme borreliosis in Europe has been well esablished during the last decade. The highest morbidity in Poland, exceeding 100 cases (100.000) year, was demonstrated in north-estern part of the country. Additional small endemic areas were also described in south-western and central part of the country. Clinical picture of the disease do not differ significantly from observed in other parts of Europe. Lyme borreliosis is characterized with a wide variety of manifestations recognized as typical: erythema migrans, borrelial lymphocytoma, acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans, arthritis, facial palsy, lymphocytic meningitis and cardiac transduction disturbances. However there are also controversial syndroms, that have confirmed etiology of Borrelia burgdorferi but only in some cases, such as: morphea sclerodermatous lesions, cardiomyopathy and some neurologic disorders. Diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis is still based on typical signs of the disease and laboratory techniques can not solve clinical doubts. PMID:16886455

Flisiak, R; Prokopowicz, D

1999-01-01

295

Graphic representations: keys to disclose the codex of nature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undergraduate and university level students present some difficulties to understand and interpret many of the geosciences concepts, in particular those represented by vector and scalar fields. Our experience reveals that these difficulties are associated with a lack in the development of their abstraction and mental picturing abilities. On the other hand, these students have easy access to communication and information technology software which can be used to built graphic representations of experimental data, time series and vector and scalar fields. This transformation allows an easiest extraction, interpretation and summary of the most important characteristics in the data. There is already commercial and open source software with graphical tools that can be used for this purpose but commercial software packs with user friendly interfaces but their price is not negligible. Open source software can circumvent this difficulty even if, in general, their graphical user interface hasn't reached the desirable level of the commercial ones. We will show a simple procedure to generate an image from the data that characterizes the generation of the suitable images illustrating the key concepts in study, using a freeware code, exactly as it is presented to the students in our open teaching sessions to the general student community. Our experience demonstrated that the students are very enthusiastic using this approach. Furthermore, the use of this software can easily be adopted by teachers and students of secondary schools as part of curricular activities.

Caramelo, Liliana; Gonçalves, Norberto; Pereira, Mário; Soares, Armando; Naia, Marco

2010-05-01

296

Primed for Patron-Driven Acquisition: A Look at the Big Picture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of patron-driven acquisition (PDA) as a viable collections practice is encouraging many academic libraries to be proactive about sharing significant collection development responsibilities with their patrons. The adoption of PDA represents a challenge to some long-held understandings about libraries and collections, however, and…

Dahl, Candice

2012-01-01

297

'Big Picture People Rarely Become Historians': Genre Systems and the Contradictions of General Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study synthesizes Y. Engeström's version of cultural historical activity theory and North American genre systems theory to explore the problem of specialized discourses in activities that involve non-specialists, in this case students in a university 'general education' course in Irish history struggling to write the genres of professional academic history. We trace the textual pathways (genre systems) that mediate

David R. Russell; Arturo Yañez

298

Thinking Big Picture: Meeting the Needs of Researchers in Northern Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Due to the increase in research activity at Charles Darwin University in recent years, the Library created the position of Research Services Coordinator to meet researcher needs. Eighteen months after the new staff member was in place, an online survey was carried out to gauge the success of the new services and resources provided, and thereby…

Mamtora, Jayshree

2011-01-01

299

Endocannabinoids in nervous system health and disease: the big picture in a nutshell  

PubMed Central

The psychoactive component of the cannabis resin and flowers, delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), was first isolated in 1964, and at least 70 other structurally related ‘phytocannabinoid’ compounds have since been identified. The serendipitous identification of a G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptor at which THC is active in the brain heralded an explosion in cannabinoid research. Elements of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) comprise the cannabinoid receptors, a family of nascent lipid ligands, the ‘endocannabinoids’ and the machinery for their biosynthesis and metabolism. The function of the ECS is thus defined by modulation of these receptors, in particular, by two of the best-described ligands, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol and anandamide (arachidonylethanolamide). Research on the ECS has recently aroused enormous interest not only for the physiological functions, but also for the promising therapeutic potentials of drugs interfering with the activity of cannabinoid receptors. Many of the former relate to stress-recovery systems and to the maintenance of homeostatic balance. Among other functions, the ECS is involved in neuroprotection, modulation of nociception, regulation of motor activity, neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity and the control of certain phases of memory processing. In addition, the ECS acts to modulate the immune and inflammatory responses and to maintain a positive energy balance. This theme issue aims to provide the reader with an overview of ECS pharmacology, followed by discussions on the pivotal role of this system in the modulation of neurogenesis in the developing and adult organism, memory processes and synaptic plasticity, as well as in pathological pain and brain ageing. The volume will conclude with discussions that address the proposed therapeutic applications of targeting the ECS for the treatment of neurodegeneration, pain and mental illness.

Skaper, Stephen D.; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

2012-01-01

300

Assessing Risk in Focal Arboviral Infections: Are We Missing the Big or Little Picture?  

PubMed Central

Background Focal arboviral infections affecting a subset of the overall population present an often overlooked set of challenges in the assessment and reporting of risk and the detection of spatial patterns. Our objective was to assess the variation in risk when using different at-risk populations and geographic scales for the calculation of incidence risk and the detection of geographic hot-spots of infection. We explored these variations using a pediatric arbovirus, La Crosse virus (LACV), as our model. Methods and Findings Descriptive and cluster analyses were performed on probable and confirmed cases of LACV infections reported to the Tennessee Department of Health from 1997 to 2006, using three at-risk populations (the total population, the population 18 years and younger, and the population 15 years and younger) and at two geographic levels (county and census tract) to assess the variation in incidence risk and to investigate evidence of clustering using both global and local spatial statistics. We determined that the most appropriate at-risk population to calculate incidence risk and to assess the evidence of clustering was the population 15 years and younger. Based on our findings, the most appropriate geographical level to conduct spatial analyses and report incidence risk is the census tract level. The incidence risk in the population 15 years and younger at the county level ranged from 0 to 226.5 per 100,000 persons (median 41.5) in those counties reporting cases (n?=?14) and at the census tract level it ranged from 50.9 to 673.9 per 100,000 persons (median 126.7) in those census tracts reporting cases (n?=?51). To our knowledge, this is the highest reported incidence risk for this population at the county level for Tennessee and at the census tract level nationally. Conclusion The results of this study indicate the possibility of missing disease clusters resulting from performing incidence risk investigations of focal diseases using inappropriate at-risk populations and/or at large geographic scales. Improved disease surveillance and health planning will result through the use of well defined at-risk populations and the use of appropriate geographic scales for the analysis and reporting of diseases. The finding of a high incidence risk of LACV infections in eastern Tennessee demonstrates that the vast majority of these infections continue to be under-diagnosed and/or underreported in this region. Persistent prevention and surveillance efforts will be required to reduce exposure to infectious vectors and to detect new cases of infection in this region. Application of this study's observations in future investigations will enhance the quantification of incidence risk and the identification of high-risk groups within the population.

Haddow, Andrew D.; Jones, Carl J.; Odoi, Agricola

2009-01-01

301

Dreger on the Bailey Controversy: Lost in the Drama, Missing the Big Picture  

Microsoft Academic Search

others. Bailey’s book has reinforced cultural stereotypes of male-to-female transsexuals, beginning with the demeaning cover. He maintains that transsexuals are motivated by lust, not gender identity issues, that transsexuals lie, and that they are drawn to shoplifting. He asserts that one ‘‘type’’ of transsexualism is in fact a ‘‘paraphilia,’’ linking some MTF transsexuals with ‘‘necrophilia, bestiality, and pedophilia’’ (p. 171)

Margaret Nichols

2008-01-01

302

Obesity, Chronic Disease, and Economic Growth: A Case for "Big Picture" Prevention  

PubMed Central

The discovery of a form of chronic, low-grade systemic inflammation (“metaflammation”) linked with obesity, but also associated with several lifestyle-related behaviours not necessarily causing obesity, suggests a re-consideration of obesity as a direct cause of chronic disease and a search for the main drivers—or cause of causes. Factors contributing to this are considered here within an environmental context, leading to the conclusion that humans have an immune reaction to aspects of the modern techno-industrial environment, to which they have not fully adapted. It is suggested that economic growth—beyond a point—leads to increases in chronic diseases and climate change and that obesity is a signal of these problems. This is supported by data from Sweden over 200 years, as well as “natural” experiments in disrupted economies like Cuba and Nauru, which have shown a positive health effect with economic downturns. The effect is reflected both in human health and environmental problems such as climate change, thus pointing to the need for greater cross-disciplinary communication and a concept shift in thinking on prevention if economic growth is to continue to benefit human health and well-being.

Egger, Garry

2011-01-01

303

Primed for Patron-Driven Acquisition: A Look at the Big Picture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The development of patron-driven acquisition (PDA) as a viable collections practice is encouraging many academic libraries to be proactive about sharing significant collection development responsibilities with their patrons. The adoption of PDA represents a challenge to some long-held understandings about libraries and collections, however, and…

Dahl, Candice

2012-01-01

304

Endocannabinoids in nervous system health and disease: the big picture in a nutshell.  

PubMed

The psychoactive component of the cannabis resin and flowers, delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), was first isolated in 1964, and at least 70 other structurally related 'phytocannabinoid' compounds have since been identified. The serendipitous identification of a G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptor at which THC is active in the brain heralded an explosion in cannabinoid research. Elements of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) comprise the cannabinoid receptors, a family of nascent lipid ligands, the 'endocannabinoids' and the machinery for their biosynthesis and metabolism. The function of the ECS is thus defined by modulation of these receptors, in particular, by two of the best-described ligands, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol and anandamide (arachidonylethanolamide). Research on the ECS has recently aroused enormous interest not only for the physiological functions, but also for the promising therapeutic potentials of drugs interfering with the activity of cannabinoid receptors. Many of the former relate to stress-recovery systems and to the maintenance of homeostatic balance. Among other functions, the ECS is involved in neuroprotection, modulation of nociception, regulation of motor activity, neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity and the control of certain phases of memory processing. In addition, the ECS acts to modulate the immune and inflammatory responses and to maintain a positive energy balance. This theme issue aims to provide the reader with an overview of ECS pharmacology, followed by discussions on the pivotal role of this system in the modulation of neurogenesis in the developing and adult organism, memory processes and synaptic plasticity, as well as in pathological pain and brain ageing. The volume will conclude with discussions that address the proposed therapeutic applications of targeting the ECS for the treatment of neurodegeneration, pain and mental illness. PMID:23108539

Skaper, Stephen D; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

2012-12-01

305

The Big Picture in Bilingual Education: A Meta-Analysis Corrected for Gersten's Coding Error  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In light of a recent revelation that Gersten (1985) included erroneous information on one of two programs for English Language Learners (ELLs), the authors re-calculate results of their earlier meta-analysis of program effectiveness studies for ELLs in which Gersten's studies had behaved as outliers (Rolstad, Mahoney & Glass, 2005). The correction…

Rolstad, Kellie; Mahoney, Kate; Glass, Gene V.

2008-01-01

306

The Big Picture of Individual Differences in Physical Activity Behavior Change: A Transdisciplinary Approach  

PubMed Central

The goal of this research is to utilize a transdisciplinary framework to guide the selection of putative moderators of the effectiveness of an intervention to promote physical activity behavior adoption and maintenance in the context of a randomized controlled intervention trial. Effective interventions to increase physical activity are sorely needed, and one barrier to the identification and development of such interventions is the lack of research targeted at understanding both the mechanisms of intervention efficacy and for whom particular interventions are effective. The purpose of this paper is to outline our transdisciplinary approach to understanding individual differences in the effectiveness of a previously successful exercise promotion intervention. We explain the rationale for and operationalization of our framework, characteristics of the study to which we apply the framework, and planned analyses. By embracing a transdisciplinary orientation for individual differences important in the prediction of physical activity (spanning molecular approaches, animal models, human laboratory models, and social psychological models), we hope to have a better understanding of characteristics of individuals that are important in the adoption and maintenance of physical activity.

Nilsson, Renea; Tompkins, Sara Anne; Magnan, Renee E.; Marcus, Bess H.; Hutchison, Kent E.

2010-01-01

307

Beyond the Big Picture: Characterization of CO2-laden Streams and Implications for Capture Technologies  

SciTech Connect

Comprehensive carbon management will require capture and use or storage of CO2 from a diversity of stack emissions and intermediate chemical process streams. While there has been a lot of attention paid to estimating the total amount of carbon dioxide available for capture, less is known about other constituents in CO2-laden streams that could directly affect the choice and performance of capture technology, and hence cost of capture and separation. The physical characteristics of these CO2-laden streams, such as temperature and pressure, also affect the choice of capture technology. In this paper, detailed compositions of power plant emissions as well as industrial CO2-laden emissions such as from cement plants, iron and steel plants, and refineries, are presented. Industrial emissions may well provide early opportunities for implementation of CO2 capture and separation technologies, due to higher concentrations of CO2 in flue gas and process streams. In addition, industrial emissions may offer lower cost CO2 for storage, uses such as enhanced oil recovery, or as a high-purity chemical feedstock. This paper also discusses some well-known capture technologies available today or under development, and describes their applicability to different CO2-capture opportunities. Limitations of the best available current technologies and implications for research issues associated with various streams are discussed.

Mahasenan, N Maha; Brown, Daryl R.

2005-01-01

308

Primed for Patron-Driven Acquisition: A Look at the Big Picture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of patron-driven acquisition (PDA) as a viable collections practice is encouraging many academic libraries to be proactive about sharing significant collection development responsibilities with their patrons. The adoption of PDA represents a challenge to some long-held understandings about libraries and collections, however, and some libraries are still assessing this option. Further, questions about PDA and its fit with

Candice Dahl

2012-01-01

309

Human macroecology: linking pattern and process in big-picture human ecology.  

PubMed

Humans have a dual nature. We are subject to the same natural laws and forces as other species yet dominate global ecology and exhibit enormous variation in energy use, cultural diversity, and apparent social organization. We suggest scientists tackle these challenges with a macroecological approach-using comparative statistical techniques to identify deep patterns of variation in large datasets and to test for causal mechanisms. We show the power of a metabolic perspective for interpreting these patterns and suggesting possible underlying mechanisms, one that focuses on the exchange of energy and materials within and among human societies and with the biophysical environment. Examples on human foraging ecology, life history, space use, population structure, disease ecology, cultural and linguistic diversity patterns, and industrial and urban systems showcase the power and promise of this approach. PMID:21781233

Burnside, William R; Brown, James H; Burger, Oskar; Hamilton, Marcus J; Moses, Melanie; Bettencourt, Luis M A

2011-07-22

310

Are movie theaters doomed? Do exhibitors see the big picture as theaters lose their competitive advantage?  

Microsoft Academic Search

After three straight years of decline, movie theaters in the US may have recently ended a period of crisis with an increase in annual admissions (+ 3%) in 2006. This article argues, however, that major problems are not over for the industry. Most movie theaters in the multiplex era have adopted a remarkably similar strategy, one which is also very vulnerable

Jon Silver; John McDonnell

2007-01-01

311

Postmarketing safety surveillance : where does signal detection using electronic healthcare records fit into the big picture?  

PubMed

The safety profile of a drug evolves over its lifetime on the market; there are bound to be changes in the circumstances of a drug's clinical use which may give rise to previously unobserved adverse effects, hence necessitating surveillance postmarketing. Postmarketing surveillance has traditionally been carried out by systematic manual review of spontaneous reports of adverse drug reactions. Vast improvements in computing capabilities have provided opportunities to automate signal detection, and several worldwide initiatives are exploring new approaches to facilitate earlier detection, primarily through mining of routinely-collected data from electronic healthcare records (EHR). This paper provides an overview of ongoing initiatives exploring data from EHR for signal detection vis-à-vis established spontaneous reporting systems (SRS). We describe the role SRS has played in regulatory decision making with respect to safety issues, and evaluate the potential added value of EHR-based signal detection systems to the current practice of drug surveillance. Safety signal detection is both an iterative and dynamic process. It is in the best interest of public health to integrate and understand evidence from all possibly relevant information sources on drug safety. Proper evaluation and communication of potential signals identified remains an imperative and should accompany any signal detection activity. PMID:23377696

Coloma, Preciosa M; Trifirò, Gianluca; Patadia, Vaishali; Sturkenboom, Miriam

2013-03-01

312

A design of Digital Learning Product-Service System: The big picture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an archirtectural design of a Digital Learning Product Service System (DL-PSS). Consisting of products and services, the DL-PSS includes (i) ICT infrastructures and their operational services, (ii) software products and their operational services, (iii) education programs and their implementation services, and (iv) an organizational structure to operate it. The user targets of the DL-PSS are teachers and

Yani Widyani; Armein Z. R. Langi; G. A. Putri Saptawati

2011-01-01

313

The Big Picture: A Meta-Analysis of Program Effectiveness Research on English Language Learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a meta-analysis of program effectiveness research on English language learners. The study includes a corpus of 17 studies conducted since Willig's earlier meta-analysis and uses Glass, McGaw, and Smith's strategy of including as many studies as possible in the analysis rather than excluding some on the basis of a priori “study quality” criteria. It is shown that

Kellie Rolstad; Kate Mahoney; Gene V. Glass

2005-01-01

314

IYA2009 Programmes in Canada: The ``Big Picture'' in June 2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Canadian partnership---Royal Astronomical Society of Canada (RASC), Fédération des astronomes amateurs du Québec (FAAQ), and Canadian Astronomical Society (CASCA)---is implementing elements designed to offer an engaging astronomy experience to every Canadian during 2009. Our goals for all themes envision creating long-lasting impacts, especially in the education and inspiration of youth. Wherever possible we seek to leverage and extend existing programmes, and we aim to provide materials in both English and French. To make IYA2009 successful, both the RASC and FAAQ have committed significant funds over and above their extensive in-kind contributions of volunteer time. Through the `Galileo Moment' theme we aim to get more than one million Canadians to look through a telescope, or participate in cultural and outreach events that bring a strong sense of personal astronomical discovery. An Astronomy Kit of physical and/or virtual components is under development. A partnership led by Cape Breton University faculty proposes extensive participation by Canada's Aboriginal Communities, including a series of activities designed to bring elders and youth together. Reinvigoration of the RASC's long-standing efforts to create Dark Sky Preserves is another cross-cutting theme. Outreach programmes of Canada's major planetaria and science centres, a national astronomy lecture series, as well as partnerships with arts and cultural organizations, offer hopes of reaching both traditional and non-traditional audiences in fun, engaging ways. Individual volunteer efforts are emerging to implement in high-traffic locales From the Earth to the Universe astronomical image exhibits from material developed by both IAU and Canadian curatorial teams. Our proposal for commemorative stamps has been accepted, and efforts are underway to secure commemorative coins, as well. The Canadian Space Agency has agreed to launch in 2010 a DVD with names of the Canadians who register their Galileo Moment experience. Fund raising is underway in earnest. See http://www.astronomy2009.ca for current information.

Hesser, J. E.; Lane, D.; Langill, P. P.; Percy, J. R.

2008-11-01

315

IYA2009 Programs in Canada: The "Big Picture” In June, 2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Canadian partnership--Royal Astronomical Society of Canada (RASC), Fédération des astronomes amateurs du Québec (FAAQ) and Canadian Astronomical Society (CASCA)--is implementing elements designed to offer an engaging astronomy experience to every Canadian during 2009. Our goals for all themes envision creating long-lasting impacts, especially in the education and inspiration of youth. Wherever possible we seek to leverage and extend existing programs, and we aim to provide materials in both English and French. To make IYA2009 successful, both the RASC and FAAQ have committed significant funds over and above their extensive in-kind contributions of volunteer time. Through The Galileo Moment theme we aim to get more than one million Canadians to look through a telescope, or participate in cultural and outreach events that bring a strong sense of personal astronomical discovery. An Astronomy Kit of physical and virtual components is under development. A partnership led by Cape Breton University faculty proposes extensive participation by Canada's Aboriginal Communities, including a series of activities designed to bring elders and youth together. Reinvigoration of the RASC's long-standing efforts to create Dark Sky Preserves is another cross-cutting theme. Outreach programs of Canada's major Planetaria and Science Centres, a National Astronomy Lecture Series, as well as partnerships with Arts and Cultural Organizations, offer hopes of reaching both traditional and non-traditional audiences in fun, engaging ways. Individual volunteer efforts are emerging to implement From the Earth to the Universe astronomical image exhibits from material developed by both IAU and Canadian curatorial teams in high-traffic locales. Efforts are underway to secure commemorative stamps and coins, with recent encouraging news about the former. The Canadian Space Agency has agreed to launch in 2010 a CD/DVD with names of the Canadians who register their Galileo Moment experience. Fund raising is underway in earnest. See www.astronomy2009.ca for current information.

Hesser, James E.; Lane, D.; Langill, P. P. L.; Percy, J. R.; Canada Committee, IYA

2008-05-01

316

Ice Sheets from Space: The Big Picture View (Louis Agassiz Medal Lecture)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Instead of heroic efforts to acquire a few dozen field-based measurements of ice-flow velocity at some of the Earth's most remote locations, computer servers now crunch satellite data to spew out millions of measurements, providing a whole new perspective on how ice sheets function. Prior to such observations, outlet glaciers and ice streams were perceived to respond slowly to climate change, with little change at timescales of months to decades. While some glaciers flow at steady rates, a remarkable number have responded to recent warming with large variations in speed over periods as short as seconds. A wide variety of behavior is observed with some glaciers steadily gaining speed, others accelerating and then leveling off, and a handful varying substantially with no clear trend. While in the minority, a few glaciers have steadily decelerated over the last decade. As examples ofrecent change, two of the most rapidly changing glaciers are examined: Jakobshavn Isbrae in Greenland and Pine Island Glacier in West Antarctica. In addition to documenting the dramatic changes on these glaciers, satellite observations provide important new spatio-temporal data sets with which to understand such change, particularly when used in conjunction with ice sheet models. Although models constrained by these data reveal that ice-shelf buttressing is an important control on ice-sheet flow, the actual speedups are a complex response to the loss of buttressing, involving several other feedbacks that contribute to the acceleration.Although satellite observations have produced tremendous progress in understanding ice sheets, so far these data have raised more questions than they have answered. The contribution that ice dynamics will make to future sea level remains poorly understood and remains a grand challenge for glaciology. The ongoing record of spaceborne measurements is and will remain a key component in addressing this challenge.

Joughin, I. R.

2012-04-01

317

Pictures with a Purpose”: The Birth Control Debate on the Big Screen  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the first half of the twentieth century, birth control advocates used the mass media to reframe contraception from a private, secret matter to an acceptable part of life fit for public discussion. Although their campaign began in print, they quickly embraced the more far-reaching medium of film to deliver their message. This article argues that birth control advocates circumvented

Manon Parry

2011-01-01

318

Pictures with a Purpose”: The Birth Control Debate on the Big Screen  

Microsoft Academic Search

: In the first half of the twentieth century, birth control advocates used the mass media to reframe contraception from a private, secret matter to an acceptable part of life fit for public discussion. Although their campaign began in print, they quickly embraced the more far-reaching medium of film to deliver their message. This article argues that birth control advocates

Manon Parry

2011-01-01

319

WHEN SHAPE DOES NOT INDUCE FUNCTION: WHY DESIGNERS MUST NOT LOSE THE BIG PICTURE (OF USE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shape does not induce function. That is what this paper first tries to demonstrate. Affordances must be perceived to link a structure to a function, to make an object look like what it is designed for. It takes palaeontologists the understanding of a hybrid socio-technical context to interpret the structure of an artefact. A brief backward look at historical simple

N. Veyrat; E. Blanco; P. Trompette

2007-01-01

320

Commutativity analysis for software parallelization: letting program transformations see the big picture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracting performance from many-core architectures requires software engineers to create multi-threaded applications, which significantly complicates the already daunting task of software development. One solution to this problem is automatic compile-time parallelization, which can ease the burden on software developers in many situations. Clearly, automatic parallelization in its present form is not suitable for many application domains and new compiler analyses

Farhana Aleen; Nathan Clark

2009-01-01

321

Commutativity analysis for software parallelization: letting program transformations see the big picture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracting performance from many-core architectures re- quires software engineers to create multi-threaded applica- tions, which significantly complicates the already daunting task of software development. One solution to this prob- lem is automatic compile-time parallelization, which can ease the burden on software developers in many situations. Clearly, automatic parallelization in its present form is not suitable for many application domains and

Farhana Aleen; Nathan Clark

2009-01-01

322

Training Emergency Management and Response: Creating the Big Picture (Skapandet av en Helhetsbild vid Stoerre Raeddningstjaenstoevningar).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After-action analysis and evaluation are vital to improve training efficiency at large-scale rescue exercises. This task, however, is inherently difficult because the participating rescue units operate geographically separated, are assigned individual tas...

M. Morin J. Jenvald A. Worm

1998-01-01

323

A New Direction for Engineering Education Research: Unique Phenomenographic Results that Impact Big Picture Understandings  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the pace of engineering keeps increasing, new innovations foci in engineering education research are needed. This paper presents one such innovation, away from looking at the skills engineers are to develop to focus on their embodied understanding of practice around aspects of professional practice. It does so through the use of a qualitative research approach known as phenomenography. The

Shanna Daly; Llewellyn Mann; Robin Adams

324

Whiteboards: a graphical database tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “Whiteboards” system is intended to be an electronic equivalent of the whiteboards and corkboards that we have in our offices. A Whiteboard database has similar qualities of storing disparate collections of data and saving their spatial location in a window to help with organization. A Whiteboard database can contain references to arbitrary entities: text files, notes, programs, tools, pictures,

James E. Donahue; Jennifer Widom

1986-01-01

325

Application of Interactive Graphics in Citizen Participation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Concepts, approaches, and problems of applying interactive graphics in community participation programs for urban transportation planning; The relationship of simulation, information, and interactive graphics to public participation programs; Co...

D. G. Stuart

1975-01-01

326

Graphic Standards--The Current State.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The volume contains two papers. The first paper, 'Graphics Standards - The Current State', formed the basis for an introductory tutorial on graphics standards. The tutorial covers the GKS standard in some detail, together with descriptions of the other st...

F. R. A. Hopgood D. A. Duce

1986-01-01

327

DATAPLOT - Examples Manual for the Graphics Commands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this manual is to demonstrate by example the use of those DATAPLOT commands in the 'Graphics' category. This category includes: (1) General graphics capabilities: continuous display terminal plots (e.g., Tektronix), discrete (narrow-width o...

J. J. Filliben

1982-01-01

328

Process and Representation in Graphical Displays.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our initial model of graphic comprehension has focused on statistical graphs. Like other models of human-computer interaction, models of graphical comprehension can be used by human-computer interface designers and developers to create interfaces that pre...

D. J. Gillan R. Lewis M. Rudisill

1993-01-01

329

Tutorial: a tool for teaching graphics programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tutorial is an interactive exploratory learning tool designed toaid programmers in learning graphics programming and SiliconGraphics Inc.'s Graphics Library (GL) in particular.Tutorial is driven by four demo programs that presentsimulated source code to the student. Thestudent uses Tutorial by executing each line of code and noticingits effects on the graphics state, representations of the internalhardware, and the final output. We

Michael J. Papper; Michael A. Gigante

1992-01-01

330

Graphical Multiprocessing Analysis Tool (GMAT)  

SciTech Connect

The design and debugging of parallel programs is a difficult task due to the complex synchronization and data scoping issues involed. to aid the programmer in paralle code dvelopment we have developed two methodologies for the graphical display of execution of parallel codes. The Graphical Multiprocessing Analysis Tools (GMAT) consist of stategraph, which represents an inheritance tree of task states, and timeline, which represens task as flowing sequence of events. Information about the code can be displayed as the application runs (dynamic mode) or played back with time under user control (static mode). This document discusses the design and user interface issues involved in developing the parallel application display GMAT family. Also, we present an introductory user's guide for both tools. 4 figs.

Seager, M.K.; Campbell, S.; Sikora, S.; Strout, R.; Zosel, M.

1988-03-01

331

Blasting, graphical interfaces and Unix  

SciTech Connect

A discrete element computer program, DMC (Distinct Motion Code) was developed to simulate blast-induced rock motion. To simplify the complex task of entering material and explosive design parameters as well as bench configuration, a full-featured graphical interface has been developed. DMC is currently executed on both Sun SPARCstation 2 and Sun SPARCstation 10 platforms and routinely used to model bench and crater blasting problems. This paper will document the design and development of the full-featured interface to DMC. The development of the interface will be tracked through the various stages, highlighting the adjustments made to allow the necessary parameters to be entered in terms and units that field blasters understand. The paper also discusses a novel way of entering non-integer numbers and the techniques necessary to display blasting parameters in an understandable visual manner. A video presentation will demonstrate the graphics interface and explains its use.

Knudsen, S. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Preece, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-11-01

332

On User Choice in Graphical Password Schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graphical password schemes have been proposed as an alternative to text passwords in applications that support graphics and mouse or stylus entry. In this paper we detail what is, to our knowledge, the largest published empirical evaluation of the effects of user choice on the security of graphical password schemes. We show that permitting user selection of passwords in two

Darren Davis; Fabian Monrose; Michael K. Reiter

2004-01-01

333

The Design and Analysis of Graphical Passwords  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose and evaluate new graphical password schemes that exploitfeatures of graphical input displays to achieve better security than text-based passwords.Graphical input devices enable the user to decouple the position of inputs from the temporalorder in which those inputs occur, and we show that this decoupling can be used to generatepassword schemes with substantially larger #memorable# password

Ian Jermyn; Alain Mayer; Fabian Monrose; Michael K. Reiter; Avi Rubin

1999-01-01

334

Customizing Graphics Applications: Techniques and Programming Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper identifies opportunities for customising ar- chitectures for graphics applications, such as infrared sim- ulation and geometric visualisation. We have studied methods for exploiting custom data formats and datap- ath widths, and for optimising graphics operations such as texture mapping and hidden-surface removal. Tech- niques for balancing the graphics pipeline and for run- time reconfiguration have been implemented. The

Henry Styles; Wayne Luk

2000-01-01

335

Graphical arithmetic for learners with dyscalculia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a model for arithmetic, based on graphical represent-ations, to complement the symbolic language of mathematics. The focus is conceptual understanding of arithmetic. We argue that the graphical model supports understanding concepts known to be difficult for learners with dyscalculia, such as number-sense and decimal system. The proposed graphical representation share properties of the decimal system, but is closer

Lena Pareto

2005-01-01

336

Ray tracing on programmable graphics hardware  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently a breakthrough has occurred in graphics hardware: fixed function pipelines have been replaced with programmable vertex and fragment processors. In the near future, the graphics pipeline is likely to evolve into a general programmable stream processor capable of more than simply feed-forward triangle rendering.In this paper, we evaluate these trends in programmability of the graphics pipeline and explain how

Timothy J. Purcell; Ian Buck; William R. Mark; Pat Hanrahan

2002-01-01

337

A seven-dimensional approach to graphics  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the media used for delivering documentation and information about computer systems become more diversified and multimodal, a new, broader perspective of the graphics and illustrations used for supporting documentation is needed. Information developers, already challenged with understanding graphic design and illustration fundamentals for hardcopy, now have a plethora of new graphical considerations in a world that encompasses multimedia, 3D

Danny Dowhal

1997-01-01

338

Hierarchical modeling in a graphical simulation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hierarchical performance modeling allows the modeler to create models either in a top-down process or in a bottom-up process. In reality, modelers use a combination of both techniques. To support this hierarchical performance modeling in a graphical system requires the functionality to create, view, edit, and store the graphical networks of individual submodels, to graphically link the submodels to other

Robert F. Gordon; Edward A. MacNair; K. J. Gordon; James F. Kurose

1990-01-01

339

CGEMS: Computer Graphics Educational Materials Server  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer graphics has evolved considerably over the past few decades. As computer science, digital arts, and other areas of study that use computer graphics continue to evolve and gain new substance, educators have come to master new content and achieve deeper understandings of computers and imagery. As the core field becomes more mature, educators in all computer graphics disciplines have

Frederico C. Figueiredo; Dena Elisabeth Eber; Joaquim A. Jorge

2003-01-01

340

Computer graphics in undergraduate computational science education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer graphics is an important part of a working scientist's toolkit. The graphics may be provided by resources with the scientist's group or by capabilities of the toolkits that the scientist uses directly in his or her work. However, in order for the scientist to understand how computer graphics images represent models and what possibilities there are for this representation,

Steve Cunningham; Angela B. Shiflet

2003-01-01

341

GPGPU: general purpose computation on graphics hardware  

Microsoft Academic Search

The graphics processor (GPU) on today's commodity video cards has evolved into an extremely powerful and flexible processor. The latest graphics architectures provide tremendous memory bandwidth and computational horsepower, with fully programmable vertex and pixel processing units that support vector operations up to full IEEE floating point precision. High level languages have emerged for graphics hardware, making this computational power

David Luebke; Mark Harris; Jens Krüger; Tim Purcell; Naga Govindaraju; Ian Buck; Cliff Woolley; Aaron Lefohn

2004-01-01

342

Picture Languages Generated by Assembling Tiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new formalism for generating picture languages based on an assembly mechanism of tiles that uses rules having\\u000a a context and a replacement site. More precisely, a picture language will be generated from a finite set of initial pictures\\u000a by iteratively applying rewriting rules from a given finite set of rules, called a tiling rule system (TRuS system).

Paola Bonizzoni; Claudio Ferretti; Anthonath Roslin Sagaya Mary; Giancarlo Mauri

2009-01-01

343

Phonological priming in children's picture naming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments examined phonological priming in children and adults, using a cross-modal picture-word interference task. Pictures of familiar objects were presented on a computer screen, while interfering words (IWs) were presented over headphones. In terms of their relation to target pictures, IWs were either phonologically related, unrelated, neutral (the word go), or identical. Ninety children (30 aged 4;11 to 5;11,

PATRICIA J. BROOKS; BRIAN MACWHINNEY

2000-01-01

344

Graphical problem solving and visual communication in the beginning computer graphics course  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beginning computer graphics course can teach much more than just computer graphics. It can also provide an excellent introduction to graphical problem solving and visual communication, and in so doing can be an excellent complement to other computer science courses that teach more analytical problem solving. This paper describes the graphical problem-solving and visual communication contexts and discusses how

Steve Cunningham

2002-01-01

345

Community Policing or Big Brother?  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do we keep our communities safe in an era of shrinking resources for police on the beat? The idea of community policing in the age of wirelss internet, closed circuit television and Google earth... sounds a bit like George Orwell's Big Brother. Dr. Katina Michael, from the University of Wollongong, has been investigating what we can expect. She addressed

K. Michael; Kate Russell

2009-01-01

346

BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring,

Susan M. Capalbo

2004-01-01

347

Go Big or Go Home  

Microsoft Academic Search

My work embodies my response to the American Dream. Big houses, flashy cars and glamorous lifestyles are what many of us work for. Coming from a military family, I grew up moving often without an idealized connection to a single structure. In response to this, I use artwork to create translucent, ephemeral sculptures of these items, revealing them as tangible,

Concepcion M Sanford

2011-01-01

348

How Big Is a Foot?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners read the book "How Big Is a Foot?" by Rolf Myller. Then, learners create non-standard units (using their own footprints) and use the footprints to make "beds." As a result, learners explore the need for a standard unit of measure. This lesson guide includes questions for learners, assessment options, extensions, and reflection questions.

Mathematics, National C.

2008-01-01

349

Big Math for Little Kids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Big Math for Little Kids, a comprehensive program for 4- and 5-year-olds, develops and expands on the mathematics that children know and are capable of doing. The program uses activities and stories to develop ideas about number, shape, pattern, logical reasoning, measurement, operations on numbers, and space. The activities introduce the mathematical ideas in a coherent, carefully sequenced fashion, and

Carole Greenes; Herbert P Ginsburg; Robert Balfanz

2004-01-01

350

Big Pharma and American Psychiatry  

Microsoft Academic Search

he pharmaceutical industry is a big business and is primarily governed by the motives of selling products and making money. Psychiatry is a medical profession, which endeavors to provide the highest quality of care to persons who suffer from psychiatric conditions. When the profit motive and quality health care are aligned, it is a \\

Steven S. Sharfstein

2008-01-01

351

Big Business vs. Higher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

College basketball has become a tremendous source of funding for a school's athletic program. With the revenues and visibility created by television, there can be no doubt that college basketball has made a resounding entry into the world of marketing and big business. This paper examines the ethical aspects of sports as a tool for education as well as the

Joseph P. Vaccaro; Paul J Vaccaro

1993-01-01

352

Colorado-Big Thompson Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From planner's dreams to blueprints to everyday operation, notoriety has been the companion of the Colorado-Big Thompson Project at every step. The challenge of harnessing the Western Slope headwaters of the Colorado River to service the state's Eastern S...

R. Autobee

1996-01-01

353

The Game of Big Business.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes how the new computer education simulation game, Big Business, which comprises four separate, related games, tries to overcome some of the limitations of present games. Special attention is given to one of these--Fast Freight--with mention of the basic design elements of a good business game. (EAO)|

Nilson, Jeff

1983-01-01

354

Big bang theory under fire  

Microsoft Academic Search

The very old big bang (BB) problems (of the singularity, smoothness, horizon, and flatness) and the failed solutions of inflation theory; newer BB problems relating to missing mass (as required for a flat inflationary universe), the age of the universe, radiation from the \\

W. C. Mitchell

1997-01-01

355

Rateless Codes and Big Downloads  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel algorithm for download- ing big files from multiple sources in peer-to-peer networks. The algorithm is simple, but offers sev- eral compelling properties. It ensures low hand- shaking overhead between peers that download files (or parts of a files) from each other. It is computa- tionally efficient, with cost linear in the amount of data transfered.

Petar Maymounkov; David Mazières

2003-01-01

356

Perturbative QED; The Schrodinger picture  

SciTech Connect

In this paper a derivation of ordinary QED perturbation theory is given in the Schrodinger picture. The path integral is restricted to fields in a finite time interval, t{sub i} {le} t {le} t{sub f}, with explicit boundary conditions given by vacuum state functionals at the initial and final times. The free photon vacuum functional is uniquely specified by the requirement of stationarity in time. For the free electron vacuum further conditions need to be imposed, e.g., the occupation of all negative energy states. The calculations are carried out using a discretized time interval of finite spacing dt, and exact results (to all orders in dt) are obtained for the free generating functionals in Coulomb gauge. Hence Feynman diagrams may be evaluated before the limits of continuous and infinite time are taken, with 1/dt and 1/(t{sub f} {minus} t{sub i}) providing, respectively, an ultraviolet and an infrared cut-off on the energy integrals. The method may also be used for studying the time evolution of interacting states, in particular of bound states.

Hoyer, P. (Dept. of High Energy Physics, Univ. of Helsinki, Siltavuorenpenger 20C, SF-00170 Helsinki (FI))

1989-01-01

357

The BigBoss Experiment  

SciTech Connect

BigBOSS is a Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment to study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure with a wide-area galaxy and quasar redshift survey over 14,000 square degrees. It has been conditionally accepted by NOAO in response to a call for major new instrumentation and a high-impact science program for the 4-m Mayall telescope at Kitt Peak. The BigBOSS instrument is a robotically-actuated, fiber-fed spectrograph capable of taking 5000 simultaneous spectra over a wavelength range from 340 nm to 1060 nm, with a resolution R = {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} = 3000-4800. Using data from imaging surveys that are already underway, spectroscopic targets are selected that trace the underlying dark matter distribution. In particular, targets include luminous red galaxies (LRGs) up to z = 1.0, extending the BOSS LRG survey in both redshift and survey area. To probe the universe out to even higher redshift, BigBOSS will target bright [OII] emission line galaxies (ELGs) up to z = 1.7. In total, 20 million galaxy redshifts are obtained to measure the BAO feature, trace the matter power spectrum at smaller scales, and detect redshift space distortions. BigBOSS will provide additional constraints on early dark energy and on the curvature of the universe by measuring the Ly-alpha forest in the spectra of over 600,000 2.2 < z < 3.5 quasars. BigBOSS galaxy BAO measurements combined with an analysis of the broadband power, including the Ly-alpha forest in BigBOSS quasar spectra, achieves a FOM of 395 with Planck plus Stage III priors. This FOM is based on conservative assumptions for the analysis of broad band power (k{sub max} = 0.15), and could grow to over 600 if current work allows us to push the analysis to higher wave numbers (k{sub max} = 0.3). BigBOSS will also place constraints on theories of modified gravity and inflation, and will measure the sum of neutrino masses to 0.024 eV accuracy.

Schelgel, D.; Abdalla, F.; Abraham, T.; Ahn, C.; Allende Prieto, C.; Annis, J.; Aubourg, E.; Azzaro, M.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Baugh, C.; Bebek, C.; Becerril, S.; Blanton, M.; Bolton, A.; Bromley, B.; Cahn, R.; Carton, P.-H.; Cervanted-Cota, J.L.; Chu, Y.; Cortes, M.; /APC, Paris /Brookhaven /IRFU, Saclay /Marseille, CPPM /Marseille, CPT /Durham U. / /IEU, Seoul /Fermilab /IAA, Granada /IAC, La Laguna / /IAC, Mexico / / /Madrid, IFT /Marseille, Lab. Astrophys. / / /New York U. /Valencia U.

2012-06-07

358

Emergence of graphic symbol functioning and the question of domain specificity: a longitudinal training study.  

PubMed

The impact of social scaffolding on the emergence of graphic symbol functioning was explored in a longitudinal training study. Links among graphic, language, and play domains in symbolic development were also investigated. The symbolic functioning of 16 children, who were 28 months at the outset of the study, was assessed in comprehension and production tasks across the three domains at monthly intervals from 28 to 36 months, and again at 42 months. Training was delivered in between monthly assessments during weekly visits. Half of the children received training, which consisted of the experimenter drawing common objects and highlighting the relation between pictures and their referents, for 16 consecutive weeks early in the study (early training, ET). The remaining half received a placebo version of training for these 16 weeks, followed by actual training for 4 weeks in the fifth month (late training, LT). After the first 4 months of training the ET group was found to have accelerated comprehension and production of graphic symbols relative to the LT group. After the fifth month, the LT group reached the same level of graphic symbol performance as the ET group. There were strong positive correlations found among graphic symbol functioning and language and play, and between play and language. These findings support the view that graphic symbolic development can be influenced by cultural scaffolding, that more extensive training is needed early rather than later in development, and that interrelationships exist among symbolic domains. PMID:11949897

Callaghan, Tara C; Rankin, Mary P

359

M theory model of a big crunch/big bang transition  

SciTech Connect

We consider a picture in which the transition from a big crunch to a big bang corresponds to the collision of two empty orbifold planes approaching each other at a constant nonrelativistic speed in a locally flat background space-time, a situation relevant to recently proposed cosmological models. We show that p-brane states which wind around the extra dimension propagate smoothly and unambiguously across the orbifold plane collision. In particular we calculate the quantum mechanical production of winding M2-branes extending from one orbifold to the other. We find that the resulting density is finite and that the resulting gravitational backreaction is small. These winding states, which include the string theory graviton, can be propagated smoothly across the transition using a perturbative expansion in the membrane tension, an expansion which from the point of view of string theory is an expansion in inverse powers of {alpha}{sup '}. The conventional description of a crunch based on Einstein general relativity, involving Kasner or mixmaster behavior is misleading, we argue, because general relativity is only the leading order approximation to string theory in an expansion in positive powers of {alpha}{sup '}. In contrast, in the M theory setup we argue that interactions should be well behaved because of the smooth evolution of the fields combined with the fact that the string coupling tends to zero at the crunch. The production of massive Kaluza-Klein states should also be exponentially suppressed for small collision speeds. We contrast this good behavior with that found in previous studies of strings in Lorentzian orbifolds.

Turok, Neil; Perry, Malcolm [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Steinhardt, Paul J. [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Institute for Advanced Studies, Olden Lane, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

2004-11-15

360

Emergence of a Big Bang singularity in an exact string background  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin of Big Bang singularity in 3+1 dimensions can be understood in an exact string theory background obtained by an analytic continuation of a cigar like geometry with a nontrivial dilaton. In a T-dual conformal field theory picture there exists a closed string tachyon potential which excises the singular space-time of a strongly coupled regime to ensure that a

Shinji Hirano; Anupam Mazumdar

2007-01-01

361

Initial conditions and the structure of the singularity in pre-big-bang cosmology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a picture, within the pre-big-bang approach, in which the universe emerges from a bath of plane gravitational and dilatonic waves. The waves interact gravitationally breaking the exact plane symmetry and lead generically to gravitational collapse resulting in a singularity with Kasner-like structure. The analytic relations between the Kasner exponents and the initial data are evaluated explicitly and it

A. Feinstein; K. E. Kunze; M. A. Vazquez-Mozo

2000-01-01

362

Initial Conditions and the Structure of the Singularity in Pre-Big-Bang Cosmology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a picture, within the pre-big-bang approach, in which the universe emerges from a bath of plane gravitational and dilatonic waves. The waves interact gravitationally breaking the exact plane symmetry and lead generically to gravitational collapse resulting in a singularity with the Kasner-like structure. The analytic relations between the Kasner exponents and the initial data are explicitly evaluated and

A. Feinsteina; M. A. Vazquez-Mozoc; Quai Ernest Ansermet; Spinoza Instituut

363

More Picture-Perfect SCIENCE Lessons: Using Children's Books to Guide Inquiry, K-4  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers raved when NSTA Press published Picture-Perfect Science Lessons in 2005.* They loved its lively mix of kid-magnet books, Standards-based science content and ready-to-teach lessons. So what could be more perfect? More Picture-Perfect Science Lessons! This volume offers 15 new lessons that combine picture books and inquiry to develop students' interest in science and reading. The sequel follows the winning formula that made the first book an NSTA best seller. The lessons, following the 5E instructional model developed by the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) cover a variety of science content--physical science, life science, and Earth and Space Science. They include reproducible student pages and assessments. They feature embedded reading-comprehension strategies. And they make students yearn to learn from such engaging fiction and nonfiction books as Diary of a Worm, Sunshine On My Shoulders, How Big is a Foot? and Leo Cockroach, Toy Tester. The authors know how important it is for time-starved teachers to integrate science and reading in a natural way and how students with reading troubles can use an extra nudge to get engaged in science texts. More Picture-Perfect Science Lessons is the perfect supplement to your science program--and the perfect way to help students develop a love of reading and learning about science. *Teachers weren't the only ones raving! Picture-Perfect won the 2005 Distinguished Achievement Award for Teacher Resource Books from the Association of Educational Publishers.

Morgan, Emily; Ansberry, Karen

2007-01-01

364

Big Bang Day : The Great Big Particle Adventure - 3. Origins  

ScienceCinema

In this series, comedian and physicist Ben Miller asks the CERN scientists what they hope to find. If the LHC is successful, it will explain the nature of the Universe around us in terms of a few simple ingredients and a few simple rules. But the Universe now was forged in a Big Bang where conditions were very different, and the rules were very different, and those early moments were crucial to determining how things turned out later. At the LHC they can recreate conditions as they were billionths of a second after the Big Bang, before atoms and nuclei existed. They can find out why matter and antimatter didn't mutually annihilate each other to leave behind a Universe of pure, brilliant light. And they can look into the very structure of space and time - the fabric of the Universe

365

Solution of a braneworld big crunch/big bang cosmology  

SciTech Connect

We solve for the cosmological perturbations in a five-dimensional background consisting of two separating or colliding boundary branes, as an expansion in the collision speed V divided by the speed of light c. Our solution permits a detailed check of the validity of four-dimensional effective theory in the vicinity of the event corresponding to the big crunch/big bang singularity. We show that the four-dimensional description fails at the first nontrivial order in (V/c){sup 2}. At this order, there is nontrivial mixing of the two relevant four-dimensional perturbation modes (the growing and decaying modes) as the boundary branes move from the narrowly separated limit described by Kaluza-Klein theory to the well-separated limit where gravity is confined to the positive-tension brane. We comment on the cosmological significance of the result and compute other quantities of interest in five-dimensional cosmological scenarios.

McFadden, Paul L.; Turok, Neil; Steinhardt, Paul J. [DAMTP, Center for Mathematical Sciences, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

2007-11-15

366

Examining Lateralized Semantic Access Using Pictures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A divided visual field (DVF) experiment examined the semantic processing strategies employed by the cerebral hemispheres to determine if strategies observed with written word stimuli generalize to other media for communicating semantic information. We employed picture stimuli and vary the degree of semantic relatedness between the picture pairs.…

Lovseth, Kyle; Atchley, Ruth Ann

2010-01-01

367

Flicker Correction in Color Motion Pictures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies show that all the published work in flicker correction to date only deals with black and white motion pictures. In this paper, we will look into the problem of flicker correction in color motion pictures and propose a method to address this problem. The method is based on a simplified flicker parameter model developed by us in (5) which

K. K. Wong; M. N. Chong

368

Correcting Flicker in Color Motion Pictures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite active research work in the field of flicker correction, all the published work to date only deals with black and white motion pictures. In this paper, we will take flicker correction into the color space and propose a method to solve the flicker correction problem in color motion pictures. The method is based on a simplified flicker parameter model

K. K. Wong; A. Das; M. N. Chong

2005-01-01

369

Aristotle on Pictures of Ignoble Animals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Noting that the "Poetics" is a widely read, accessible classic, the author points to a minor flaw of some interest. In a well-known passage early in the "Poetics," Aristotle is in error about pictures. The matter is significant to both the theory of pictures and to Aristotle scholarship. The author sets out Aristotle's position as follows: (1) It…

Socher, David

2005-01-01

370

Can automatic picture processing influence word judgments?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluated the influence of automatic semantic processing of pictures on word judgments in 2 experiments with 100 undergraduates. Picture-word analogs of the Stroop task were employed. In Exp I, Ss were required to make a semantic category judgment about the word; in Exp II, they were simply to respond yes or no to whether the word was \\

Stephen J. Lupker; Albert N. Katz

1982-01-01

371

Teaching students with autism to read pictures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the use of teaching three students with autism how to comprehend pictures. Students were elementary-aged, did not speak, and needed communication training. Students were provided systematic visual literacy instruction. Visual literacy instruction consisted of comprehending familiar people, objects, actions, and sequences through motor demonstration. Students successfully acquired how to read pictures and generalize its understanding. Visual literacy

David F. Cihak

2007-01-01

372

Suggestions for Early Motion Picture Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Only by examining the motion picture as a mass medium, shaped and defined within a specific socio-cultural period in history, can we increase our understanding of the function and contribution of this entertainment form. This paper offers several suggestions for further research into early motion picture history. One glaring deficiency among…

Jowett, Garth S.

373

Gender Stereotypes in Children's Picture Books.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has examined how gender stereotypes and sexism in picture books affect the development of gender identity in young children, how children's books in the last decade have portrayed gender, and how researchers evaluate picture books for misrepresentations of gender. A review of the research indicated that gender development is a critical…

Narahara, May M.

374

Mariner 6 and 7 Picture Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Analysis of Mariner 6 and 7 far-encounter (FE) pictures is discussed. The purpose of the studies was to devise ways to combine digital data from the full set of FE pictures so as to improve surface resolution, distinguish clouds and haze patches from perm...

R. B. Leighton

1975-01-01

375

Putting It Together: Making a Picture Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper recounts the personal creative experiences of an author/illustrator of picture books for children. In the paper the author/illustrator tells how he works: he gets the words into a more or less finished form before starting to draw the pictures, and then moves on to a process of elimination and continual return to the text. The paper…

Bishop, Gavin

376

Remembering Pictures: Pleasure and Arousal in Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incidental memory performance for pictures that varied along the affective dimensions of pleasantness and arousal was assessed. For both an immediate and delayed (1 year later) free-recall task, only the arousal dimension had a stable effect on memory performance: Pictures rated as highly arousing were remembered better than low-arousal stimuli. This effect was corroborated in a speeded recognition test, in

Margaret M. Bradley; Mark K. Greenwald; Margaret C. Petry; Peter J. Lang

1992-01-01

377

The Neural Substrate of Picture Naming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A PET study of 10 normal males was carried out using the bolus H215O intravenous injection technique to examine the effects of picture naming and semantic judgment on blood flow. In a series of conditions, subjects (1) passively viewed flashing plus signs, (2) noted the occurrence of patterns, (3) named animal pictures, or (4) carried out a semantic judgment on

Susan Murtha; Howard Chertkow; Mario Beauregard; Alan Evans

1999-01-01

378

BIG CITY, BIG TURNOUT? ELECTORAL PARTICIPATION IN AMERICAN CITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to describe and explain variation in voter turnout in American big city municipal elections using data from 332 mayoral elections in 38 large U.S. cities over 25 years. In my cross-sectional time-series analysis of turnout in mayoral elections, I find that city- level demographic factors are only weakly correlated with turnout. By contrast, institutional and campaign factors

NEAL CAREN

2007-01-01

379

Enriching children's recall of picture-dictionary definitions with interrogation and elaborated pictures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preschool-age children were presented four picture-dictionary definitions to leam. Definitions were accompanied either by\\u000a pictures detailing all the attributes of the definition referent (elaborated pictures) or simpler, less complete illustrations\\u000a (nonelaborated pictures). After one presentation, the definition was repeated either as a series of questions to which the\\u000a child responded, or as simple declarative restatements. Total recall of information stated

Eileen Wood; Michael Pressley; James E. Turnure; Ruth Walton

1987-01-01

380

Optimizing Picture Activities for the Language Classroom: Picture Line-Up Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The use of picture line-up activities, classroom exercises in which students must place a series of pictures in correct order, is discussed. The advantages of use of a picture series instead of simple pairs are examined, a basic activity is described, and ideas for implementation, adaptation, and follow-up are outlined. The basic activity uses…

Schmidt, Ken

1995-01-01

381

Flapjack--graphical genotype visualization  

PubMed Central

Summary: New software tools for graphical genotyping are required that can routinely handle the large data volumes generated by the high-throughput single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) platforms, genotyping-by-sequencing and other comparable genotyping technologies. Flapjack has been developed to facilitate analysis of these data, providing real time rendering with rapid navigation and comparisons between lines, markers and chromosomes, with visualization, sorting and querying based on associated data, such as phenotypes, quantitative trait loci or other mappable features. Availability: Flapjack is freely available for Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, Linux and Solaris, and can be downloaded from http://bioinf.scri.ac.uk/flapjack Contact: flapjack@scri.ac.uk

Milne, Iain; Shaw, Paul; Stephen, Gordon; Bayer, Micha; Cardle, Linda; Thomas, William T. B.; Flavell, Andrew J.; Marshall, David

2010-01-01

382

The BigHub.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site joins an already crowded field of portal/ multiple search engine sites. Like some of its peers, BigHub allows simultaneous searches of numerous engines, in this case nine, and includes several value-added features, such as stock quotes, news, weather reports, and free email. Unlike some of its competitors, BigHub also features a nice collection of specialty search engines in categories such as Arts & Humanities, Education, Government, News, and Science, among others. Search engines in each category are further organized by discipline. Although any such collection is inevitably subjective, users may find the site a useful tool to reduce their search time and gather more relevant results.

383

Big Bang nucleosynthesis in crisis\\\\?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new evaluation of the constraint on the number of light neutrino species (Nnu) from big bang nucleosynthesis suggests a discrepancy between the predicted light element abundances and those inferred from observations, unless the inferred primordial 4He abundance has been underestimated by 0.014+\\/-0.004 (1sigma) or less than 10% (95% C.L.) of 3He survives stellar processing. With the quoted systematic errors

N. Hata; R. J. Scherrer; G. Steigman; D. Thomas; T. P. Walker; S. Bludman; P. Langacker

1995-01-01

384

The BigBOSS Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

BigBOSS is a Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment to study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure with a wide-area galaxy and quasar redshift survey over 14,000 square degrees. It has been conditionally accepted by NOAO in response to a call for major new instrumentation and a high-impact science program for the 4-m Mayall telescope at Kitt

D. Schlegel; F. Abdalla; T. Abraham; C. Ahn; C. Allende Prieto; J. Annis; E. Aubourg; M. Azzaro; S. Bailey. C. Baltay; C. Baltay; C. Bebek; S. Becerril; M. Blanton; A. Bolton; B. Bromley; R. Cahn; P.-H. Carton; J. L. Cervantes-Cota; Y. Chu; M. Cortes; K. Dawson; A. Dey; M. Dickinson; H. T. Diehl; P. Doel; A. Ealet; J. Edelstein; D. Eppelle; S. Escoffier; A. Evrard; L. Faccioli; C. Frenk; M. Geha; D. Gerdes; P. Gondolo; A. Gonzalez-Arroyo; B. Grossan; T. Heckman; H. Heetderks; S. Ho; K. Honscheid; D. Huterer; O. Ilbert; I. Ivans; P. Jelinsky; Y. Jing; D. Joyce; R. Kennedy; S. Kent; D. Kieda; A. Kim; C. Kim; J.-P. Kneib; X. Kong; A. Kosowsky; K. Krishnan; O. Lahav; M. Lampton; S. LeBohec; V. Le Brun; M. Levi; C. Li; M. Liang; H. Lim; W. Lin; E. Linder; W. Lorenzon; A. de la Macorra; Ch. Magneville; R. Malina; C. Marinoni; V. Martinez; S. Majewski; T. Matheson; R. McCloskey; P. McDonald; T. McKay; J. McMahon; B. Menard; J. Miralda-Escude; M. Modjaz; A. Montero-Dorta; I. Morales; N. Mostek; J. Newman; R. Nichol; P. Nugent; K. Olsen; N. Padmanabhan; N. Palanque-Delabrouille; J. Peacock; W. Percival; S. Perlmutter; C. Peroux; P. Petitjean; F. Prada; E. Prieto; J. Prochaska; K. Reil; C. Rockosi; N. Roe; E. Rollinde; A. Roodman; N. Ross; G. Rudnick; V. Ruhlmann-Kleider; J. Sanchez; D. Sawyer; C. Schimd; M. Schubnell; R. Scoccimaro; U. Seljak; H. Seo; E. Sheldon; M. Sholl; R. Shulte-Ladbeck; A. Slosar; D. S. Smith; G. Smoot; W. Springer; A. Stril; A. S. Szalay; C. Tao; G. Tarle; E. Taylor; A. Tilquin; J. Tinker; F. Valdes; J. Wang; T. Wang; B. A. Weaver; D. Weinberg; M. White; M. Wood-Vasey; J. Yang; X. Yang. Ch. Yeche; N. Zakamska; A. Zentner; C. Zhai; P. Zhang

2011-01-01

385

District Bets Big on Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The big clock in Dowan McNair-Lee's 8th grade classroom in the Stuart-Hobson Middle School is silent, but she can hear the minutes ticking away nonetheless. On this day, like any other, the clock is a constant reminder of how little time she has to prepare her students--for spring tests, and for high school and all that lies beyond it. The…

Gewertz, Catherine

2013-01-01

386

Innovating from big science research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing scientific knowledge demands technological breakthroughs beyond industrial innovation activity. Using this as a\\u000a basic motivation for R&D collaboration between industry and big science, the paper reports a systematic approach to exploit\\u000a the technological treasures embedded in experimental basic research. Based on a systematic technology breakdown and mapping\\u000a of each technological trajectory with possible application areas, the method enables one

Ari-Pekka Hameri

1997-01-01

387

Bits on the Big Screen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital cinema is poised to take the movie industry by storm with the introduction of the first specification for digital cinema in July 2005. To create the specification, the digital cinema initiatives was established by seven major studios, Disney, Fox, MGM, Paramount, Sony Pictures Entertainment, Universal, and Warner Brothers studios. The initiative set a quality threshold, specified a video compression

Russell Wintner

2006-01-01

388

USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory: Maps and Graphics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Geological Survey's website for the Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) has a host of graphics and maps for the professional volcano researcher or the amateur volcanologist. The maps and graphics are divided into four broad categories, and within each of those categories are dozens and dozens of maps and graphics. The categories include "Hazards, Features, Topics, and Types: Maps and Graphics", "Monitoring: Maps and Graphics", and "Volcano or Region: Maps and Graphics". Visitors should check out "Bachelor", which is in the "Volcano or Region" category, as there is an "Interactive Imagemap" of the Cascade Range Volcanoes. Clicking on any of the images of the volcanoes will reveal a beautiful, aerial photo of the volcano, along with a brief description of the history of the volcano. Additionally, there is a "Planning Your Visit" section that gives online and offline resources to look at before going to the actual volcano.

389

Little Explorers Picture Dictionary With Links  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This picture dictionary, provided by Enchanted Learning Software, is not only an entertaining children's resource with over 1,000 entries, but also a hidden metasite, allowing children to explore the Internet to learn more about the words they have chosen. Access is via letter of the alphabet. Each entry contains a picture definition and a simple word definition. Many of the entries are also linked to outside sites that further develop the meaning of the word. The dictionary is available with translations into four other languages (although these dictionaries contain only picture definitions and links).

390

Analysis and Design of Graphical Password Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, graphical passwords have become a viable alternative to the traditional text-based passwords due to their\\u000a superior ease of recall and potential large password space. However, there is very limited research in classifying and mathematically\\u000a analyzing the graphical password techniques. In this paper, we conduct a comprehensive study of the existing graphical password\\u000a techniques. We propose the first

Xiaoyuan Suo; Ying Zhu; G. Scott Owen

2006-01-01

391

Quantitative Graphics in Statistics: A Brief History  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative graphics have been central to the development of science, and statistical graphics date from the earliest attempts to analyze data. Many familiar forms, including bivariate plots, statistical maps, bar charts, and coordinate paper, were used in the 18th century. Statistical graphics developed through attention to four problems: spatial organization (17th and 18th centuries), discrete comparison (18th and early 19th

James R. Beniger; Dorothy L. Robyn

1978-01-01

392

A seven-dimensional approach to graphics  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the media usedfor delivering documentation and information about computer systems become more diversi~ed and multinaodaI, a new, broader perspective of the graphics and illustrations usedfor supporting documentation is needed. Information developers, alrea@v challenged with understanding graphic design and illustration funa%mentals for hardcopy, now have a plethora of new graphical considerations in a world that encompasses multimedia, 3D computer animation,

Danny Dowhal

1996-01-01

393

The TAYRA 3-D graphics raster processor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the architecture of a 3-D Graphics Raster Processor called TAYRA. TAYRA consists of a Graphics Raster Pipeline with five major external interfaces: PCI Master\\/Target, Depth, Texture, Colour and Video Interfaces. The Graphics Raster Pipeline performs all the major OpenGL style raster functions: scan conversion of lines, spans, triangles and rectangles, perspective correction of texture co-ordinates, mip-map level

Martin White; Mike Bassett; Dairsie Latimer; Shaun Mccann; Alex Makris; Marcus D. Waller; Graham J. Dunnett; Joachim Binder; Paul F. Lister

1997-01-01

394

Animated transitions in statistical data graphics.  

PubMed

In this paper we investigate the effectiveness of animated transitions between common statistical data graphics such as bar charts, pie charts, and scatter plots. We extend theoretical models of data graphics to include such transitions, introducing a taxonomy of transition types. We then propose design principles for creating effective transitions and illustrate the application of these principles in DynaVis, a visualization system featuring animated data graphics. Two controlled experiments were conducted to assess the efficacy of various transition types, finding that animated transitions can significantly improve graphical perception. PMID:17968070

Heer, Jeffrey; Robertson, George

395

Laserprinter applications in a medical graphics department.  

PubMed

Our experience with the Apple Macintosh and LaserWriter equipment has convinced us that lasergraphics holds much current and future promise in the creation of line graphics and typography for the biomedical community. Although we continue to use other computer graphics equipment to produce color slides and an occasional pen-plotter graphic, the most rapidly growing segment of our graphics workload is in material well-suited to production on the Macintosh/LaserWriter system. At present our goal is to integrate all of our computer graphics production (color slides, video paint graphics and monochrome print graphics) into a single Macintosh-based system within the next two years. The software and hardware currently available are capable of producing a wide range of science graphics very quickly and inexpensively. The cost-effectiveness, versatility and relatively low initial investment required to install this equipment make it an attractive alternative for cost-recovery departments just entering the field of computer graphics. PMID:3429453

Lynch, P J

1987-01-01

396

Big A affair. [Big Ambejackmockamus Falls, Penobscot River, Maine  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the conflict between proponents of a hydroelectric power plant on Maine's Penobscot River and recreation interests. Great Northern Paper Company filed application to build a dam on a wild stretch of the river used by sports fishermen and white-water enthusiasts. Great Northern claimed that it needed to replace 380,000 barrels of oil and to forego the purchase of 36,000 megawatt-hours of electricity annually to improve its competitive edge in the marketplace. The controversy will be a big issue for Maine's Land Use Regulatory Commission. The final decision will hinge on the Commission's perception of the greater public benefit - hydropower or recreation.

Laitin, J.

1985-02-01

397

Turning big bang into big bounce. I. Classical dynamics  

SciTech Connect

The big bounce (BB) transition within a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model is analyzed in the setting of loop geometry underlying the loop cosmology. We solve the constraint of the theory at the classical level to identify physical phase space and find the Lie algebra of the Dirac observables. We express energy density of matter and geometrical functions in terms of the observables. It is the modification of classical theory by the loop geometry that is responsible for BB. The classical energy scale specific to BB depends on a parameter that should be fixed either by cosmological data or determined theoretically at quantum level, otherwise the energy scale stays unknown.

Dzierzak, Piotr; Malkiewicz, Przemyslaw; Piechocki, Wlodzimierz [Theoretical Physics Department, Institute for Nuclear Studies, Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland)

2009-11-15

398

Gabedit--a graphical user interface for computational chemistry softwares.  

PubMed

Gabedit is a freeware graphical user interface, offering preprocessing and postprocessing adapted (to date) to nine computational chemistry software packages. It includes tools for editing, displaying, analyzing, converting, and animating molecular systems. A conformational search tool is implemented using a molecular mechanics or a semiempirical potential. Input files can be generated for the computational chemistry software supported by Gabedit. Some molecular properties of interest are processed directly from the output of the computational chemistry programs; others are calculated by Gabedit before display. Molecular orbitals, electron density, electrostatic potential, nuclear magnetic resonance shielding density, and any other volumetric data properties can be displayed. It can display electronic circular dichroism, UV-visible, infrared, and Raman-computed spectra after a convolution. Gabedit can generate a Povray file for geometry, surfaces, contours, and color-coded planes. Output can be exported to a selection of popular image and vector graphics file formats; the program can also generate a series of pictures for animation. Quantum mechanical electrostatic potentials can be calculated using the partial charges on atoms, or by solving the Poisson equation using the multigrid method. The atoms in molecule charges can also be calculated. Gabedit is platform independent. The code is distributed under free open source X11 style license and is available at http://gabedit.sourceforge.net/. PMID:20607691

Allouche, Abdul-Rahman

2011-01-15

399

A high performance graphics algorithm  

SciTech Connect

Rendering images of complex collections of general objects in multidimensional space is typically very time consuming. The process of displaying such images is often a linear function of the number objects being considered. This behavior can become unacceptable when the number of objects to be considered is large. This paper describes an algorithm to address this problem. The graphics algorithm presented here is composed of a storage algorithm and a selection algorithm. Both of these components are described in relation to a specialized tree data structure. The storage algorithm is proven to exhibit O(n log n) average time behavior and the selection algorithm is proven to exhibit O(log n) average time behavior. This paper focuses on two dimensional images but natural extensions of the basic algorithms to higher dimensional spaces are also considered.

North, M.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Zhao, S. [Governors State Univ., University Park, IL (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

1994-07-01

400

WMAP: "Baby Picture" of the Universe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), launched in 2001, has provided an extremely detailed map of the cosmic microwave background, a remnant from the Big Bang and the oldest light in the universe. This false-color image of the cosmic microwave background gives viewers a detailed snapshot of how the universe looked at a very young age. Colors have been assigned to slight fluctuations in temperature: warmer areas are red, while cooler areas are blue. A timeline shows the progression from the Big Bang to the instant of time depicted in the WMAP image to the present-day universe.

401

Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Yes, the Academy Award nominations were announced this week, and yes, the Web site was overwhelmed starting in the wee hours of the morning on Tuesday. For all the hoopla, see the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences site.

402

BK090054 Letter - Picture-ID  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... document. Picture-ID supports multi-lingual text display and donors' digital signature to enable a paperless process. The ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts

403

High Energy Astrophysics Picture of the Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each week this site provides a new image from X-ray and Gamma ray astronomy. Information is provided about the object and the telescope that took the picture. Previous images are available in an archive.

Corcoran, Michael

2004-07-14

404

Low Resolution Picture Transmission (LRPT) Demonstration System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Low-Resolution Picture Transmission (LRPT) is a proposed standard for direct broadcast transmission of satellite weather images. This standard is a joint effort by the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) and ...

W. Fong P. S. Yeh V. Sank X. Nyugen W. Xia S. Duran

2002-01-01

405

Evaluation of stereoscopic picture quality with CFF.  

PubMed

The method of binocular stereoscopic imaging has attracted attention as a simple and technically feasible means of three-dimensional (3-D) display. It has been said, however, that the binocular picture system is more fatiguing to view than a conventional two-dimensional picture, much as the current television picture. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate quantitatively fatigue caused by binocular stereoscopic picture viewing, to clarify the basic characteristics of this type of picture. Various measurement methods of fatigue have been proposed, and that using the critical flicker frequency (CFF) has found wide use in measurement of mental fatigue and is easy to make. Actual measurement in this study used the CFF value obtained in a descending series of the method of limits, normalized to the value at the start of measurement for each observer, and the CFFs of all observers then averaged. It was found that the measurements produced stable and highly accurate results. CFFs of the observers of a current television picture and a binocular stereoscopic television picture were measured. It was found that the conventional television did not cause a statistically significant decrease in CFF--even over 1 h of viewing--but that the stereoscopic television did cause a significant CFF decrease within 30 min. It was also found that the CFF decreases are related to a subjective feeling of fatigue. From these results, it was concluded that CFF is an effective measure for objectively measuring the fatigue of television observers, including observers of binocular stereoscopic television. Also, the binocular stereoscopic television produced higher fatigue in observers than did the conventional television picture, but it was found that with respect to CFF viewing of around 30 min was allowable. PMID:8974885

Mitsuhashi, T

1996-11-01

406

Envisioning experience: the potential of picture books  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reading of picture books contributes to the development of language skills and literacy. The visual content of the books\\u000a helps to develop these skills but also enhances the effect of the text, develops children's aesthetic understanding, and provokes\\u000a emotional response. By studying children who regularly use picture books in classrooms, Barbara Kiefer develops a framework\\u000a for understanding children's responses

Barbara Kiefer

1991-01-01

407

Can automatic picture processing influence word judgments?  

PubMed

Two experiments were undertaken in order to evaluate the influence of automatic semantic processing of pictures on word judgments. In both studies, picture-word analogs of the Stroop task were employed. In Experiment 1, subjects were required to make a semantic category judgment about the word; in Experiment 2, they were simply to respond yes or no to whether the word was DOG. Taken together, the results of these experiments indicated that (a) perceptual factors such as lateral masking influence responding in these types of tasks and their contributions must be partialed out from the effects of semantic factors, (b) picture processing can facilitate word processing but only in a restricted set of circumstances, and (c) background pictures incompatible with the correct response can interfere with word judgments. The facilitation observed was attributed to the effects automatic picture processing has on an initial input process, while the interference appears to arise at a response selection and execution stage. Further, the results suggest that the semantic nature of automatic picture processing is at least somewhat different from that of automatic word processing. PMID:6215463

Lupker, S J; Katz, A N

1982-09-01

408

Graphical Password: Comprehensive Study of the Usability Features of the Recognition Base Graphical Password Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graphical passwords are an alternative authentication method to alphanumeric passwords in which users click on images to authenticate themselves rather than type alphanumeric strings. This research aims to study the usability features of the recognition base graphical password methods available and extract the usability features of the existing methods. In this paper we study the recognition base graphical password type

Ali Mohamed Eljetlawi; Norafida Ithnin

2008-01-01

409

77 FR 65582 - Quad Graphics, Inc., Including Workers Whose Wages Were Reported Under Quad Graphics Printing...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Quad Graphics Printing Corp. and Quad Logistics Services, Effingham, IL; Amended Certification...Quad Graphics Printing Corp., and Quad Logistics Services. The intent of the Department's...Quad Graphics Printing Corp. and Quad Logistics Services (TA-W-73,441H),...

2012-10-29

410

Autonomous navigation for BigDog  

Microsoft Academic Search

BigDog} is a four legged robot with exceptional rough-terrain mobility. In this paper, we equip {BigDog} with a laser scanner, stereo vision system, and perception and navigation algorithms. Using these sensors and algorithms, {BigDog} performs autonomous navigation to goal positions in unstructured forest environments. The robot perceives obstacles, such as trees, boulders, and ground features, and steers to avoid them

David Wooden; Matthew Malchano; Kevin Blankespoor; Andrew Howardy; Alfred A. Rizzi; Marc Raibert

2010-01-01

411

The Big Bang at Time Zero  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cosmic background radiation left over from the Big Bang approximately 14 billion years ago is the oldest of all fossils.\\u000a The Big Bang at time zero is the most important of all boundary conditions for the very possibility of life in the Universe.\\u000a In the Big Bang singularity, space and time do not exist, so causality cannot be operative.

Peter R. Bahn; Steven H. Pravdo

412

A rigorous periodization of ‘big’ history  

Microsoft Academic Search

Big’ history is the time between the Big Bang and contemporary technological life on Earth. The stretch of big history can be considered as a series of developments in systems that manage ever-greater levels of energy flow, or thermodynamic disequilibrium. Recent theory suggests that step-wise changes in the work accomplished by a system can be explained using steady-state non-equilibrium thermodynamics.

Robert Aunger

2007-01-01

413

Agenda-Building and Big Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends concepts about agenda-building politics within the policy literature by considering the implications of `big science' agenda-building politics for policyrnaking. It argues that agenda-building in the `big science' policy arena is distinct from agenda-building in the general social problem-solving policy arena. The general policy development process and the `big science' policy development process are contrasted conceptually. Two different

John J. Madison

2000-01-01

414

Big bang nucleosynthesis: An update  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An update on the standard model of big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is presented. With the value of the baryon-tophoton ratio determined to high precision by WMAP, standard BBN is a parameter-free theory. In this context, the theoretical prediction for the abundances of D, 4He, and 7Li is discussed and compared to their observational determination. While concordance for D and 4He is satisfactory, the prediction for 7Li exceeds the observational determination by a factor of about four. Possible solutions to this problem are discussed.

Olive, Keith A.

2013-07-01

415

Big Explosions and Strong Gravity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide has been developed to assist people who would like to run the Big Explosions and Strong Gravity event with their local Girl Scout Council. The event is a one-day event in which a group of Girl Scouts spends their time doing a series of hands-on activities on spectroscopy, cosmic abundances, supernovae, and black holes. Professional scientists, engineers, and graduate students assist with these activities, giving the scouts a chance to interact with professionals in science and technology fields.

2011-01-01

416

Big Machines and Big Science: 80 Years of Accelerators at Stanford  

SciTech Connect

Longtime SLAC physicist Greg Loew will present a trip through SLAC's origins, highlighting its scientific achievements, and provide a glimpse of the lab's future in 'Big Machines and Big Science: 80 Years of Accelerators at Stanford.'

Loew, Gregory

2008-12-16

417

Objective measurement scheme for perceived picture quality degradation caused by MPEG encoding without any reference pictures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid progress in digital transmission technology has spurred demand for developing a technology that supports monitoring of video transmissions. Automating the picture quality assessment process is in particular demand because it currently depends on subjective assessments by human operators and places a heavy burden on them. The authors therefore propose an objective picture quality measurement method that works without reference pictures. In this proposed method, invisible markers are embedded into original pictures by use of the spread spectrum data hiding method. Since the markers are widely spread over the frequency domain, the degradation caused by MPEG compression can be estimated by detecting the extent of marker degradation. Our method is usable regardless of the kind of picture, bitrate, and number of stages of tandem codec connections. The degradation in picture quality caused by the embedded markers is quite small and not perceivable by the human eye. The proposed method is therefore applicable to a wide range of visual transmission services.

Sugimoto, Osamu; Kawada, Ryoichi; Wada, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Shuichi

2000-12-01

418

Evidence for Evolution as Support for Big Bang  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the exception of ZERO, the concept of BIG BANG is by far the most bizarre creation of the human mind. Three classical pillars of the Big Bang model of the origin of the universe are generally thought to be: (i) The abundances of the light elements; (ii) the microwave back-ground radiation; and (iii) the change with cosmic epoch in the average properties of galaxies (both active and non-active types). Evidence is also mounting for redshift dependence of the intergalactic medium, as discussed elsewhere in this volume in detail. In this contribution, I endeavour to highlight a selection of recent advances pertaining to the third category. The widely different levels of confidence in the claimed observational constraints in the field of cosmology can be guaged from the following excerpts from two leading astrophysicists: "I would bet odds of 10 to 1 on the validity of the general 'hot Big Bang' concept as a description of how our universe has evolved since it was around 1 sec. old" -M. Rees (1995), in 'Perspectives in Astrophysical Cosmology' CUP. "With the much more sensitive observations available today, no astrophysical property shows evidence of evolution, such as was claimed in the 1950s to disprove the Steady State theory" -F. Hoyle (1987), in 'Fifty years in cosmology', B. M. Birla Memorial Lecture, Hyderabad, India. The burgeoning multi-wavelength culture in astronomy has provided a tremendous boost to observational cosmology in recent years. We now proceed to illustrate this with a sequence of examples which reinforce the picture of an evolving universe. Also provided are some relevant details of the data used in these studies so that their scope can be independently judged by the readers.

Gopal-Krishna

1997-12-01

419

Authentication Using Graphical Passwords: Basic Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Access to computer systems is most often based on the use of alphanumeric passwords. However, users have difficulty remembering a password that is long and random-appearing. Instead, they create short, simple, and insecure passwords. Graphical passwords have been designed to try to make passwords more memorable and easier for people to use and, therefore, more secure. Using a graphical password,

Susan Wiedenbeck; Jim Waters; Jean-Camille Birget; Alex Brodskiy; Nasir Memon

2005-01-01

420

Mental Vision: A Computer Graphics Teaching Platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a learning platform to simplify and improve teach- ing and practice of Computer Graphics for beginners and advanced students. Our goal is to offer a set of tools to help students having a better mental vision of the abstract notions introduced during the course. Our platform is composed by a pedagogical-oriented, intuitive and user-friendly graphic engine, offering

Achille Peternier; Daniel Thalmann; Frédéric Vexo

2006-01-01

421

Getting Graphic at the School Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides information for school libraries interested in acquiring graphic novels. Discusses theft prevention; processing and cataloging; maintaining the collection; what to choose, with two Web sites for more information on graphic novels for libraries; collection development decisions; and Japanese comics called Manga. Includes an annotated list…

Kan, Kat

2003-01-01

422

Graphics Classification for Enterprise Knowledge Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterprise content repositories often consist of business documents comprising not only of traditional text data but also graphics (org charts, graphs, architecture diagrams, etc.) that get reused by people across the enterprise. Despite this diversity of content, most of the research in enterprise search has focused on improving document search. We describe a machine learning approach for graphics classification that

Divna Djordjevic; Rayid Ghani

2010-01-01

423

Paneling "Matters" in Elementary Students' Graphic Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During a 10-week classroom-based study, 20 fourth grade students participated in a number of interdependent activities that focused on developing their visual meaning-making skills and competencies. As well as reading, responding in writing to and discussing a selection of picturebooks, graphic novels, and magazines, the students created graphic

Pantaleo, Sylvia

2013-01-01

424

Accelerating Genetic Programming through Graphics Processing Units  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graphics Processing Units (GPUs)are in the process of becoming a major source of computational power for numerical applications. Originally designed for ap- plication of time-consuming graphics operations, GPUs are stream processors that implement the SIMD paradigm. The true degree of parallelism of GPUs is often hidden from the user, making programming even more flexible and conve- nient. In this chapter

Wolfgang Banzhaf; Simon Harding; William B. Langdon; Garnett Wilson

425

Animated Transitions in Statistical Data Graphics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigate the effectiveness of animated transitions between common statistical data graphics such as bar charts, pie charts, and scatter plots. We extend theoretical models of data graphics to include such transitions, introducing a taxonomy of transition types. We then propose design principles for creating effective transitions and illustrate the application of these principles in DynaVis, a

Jeffrey Heer; George G. Robertson

2007-01-01

426

Teaching Media Literacy with Graphic Novels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: A current problem in media literacy studies is whether or not to categorize graphic novels as media literacy texts. Thus, this article begins with a review of current media literacy research and its emphasis on defining media literacy texts as texts that rely on both print literacies and image literacies. Because graphic novels rely…

Monnin, Katie

2010-01-01

427

Graphical Representations of Electronic Search Patterns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discussion of search behavior in electronic environments focuses on the development of GRIP (Graphic Representor of Interaction Patterns), a graphing tool based on HyperCard that produces graphic representations of search patterns. Search state spaces are explained, and forms of data available from electronic searches are described. (34…

Lin, Xia; And Others

1991-01-01

428

Is There Computer Graphics after Multimedia?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Computer graphics has been driven by the desire to generate real-time imagery subject to constraints imposed by the human visual system. The future of computer graphics, when off-the-shelf systems have full multimedia capability and when standard computing engines render imagery faster than real-time, remains to be seen. A dedicated pipeline for…

Booth, Kellogg S.

429

Media Literacy, Graphic Novels and Social Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Media literacy education, social issues, and graphic novels all have a role to play in educating students for civic education. The graphic novel is especially useful for secondary students because many titles touch on important social-political issues. Moreover, this medium offers excellent opportunities for media literacy education, students learning to ask questions and evaluate information that is communicated through print,

Gretchen Schwarz

2007-01-01

430

Formulating Hypotheses Graphically in Social Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the proposition that the appropriate use of suitable forms of graphic communication can improve the formulation and presentation of hypotheses in quantitative social science research. The creative nature of scientific diagrams is discussed and the technological advances in computer graphic media are seen as part of a ‘visual revolution’ which is markedly changing not only the way

Ricardo F. Bezerra; Sullaiman Jalloh; Janet Stevenson

1998-01-01

431

A Laboratory Application of Microcomputer Graphics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A PASCAL graphics and instrument interface program for a Z80/S-100 based microcomputer was developed. The computer interfaces to a stopped-flow spectrophotometer replacing a storage oscilloscope and polaroid camera. Applications of this system are discussed, indicating that graphics and analog-to-digital boards have transformed the computer into…

Gehring, Kalle B.; Moore, John W.

1983-01-01

432

Graphical expression of the mood of music  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a graphical method to express what a music performance is intended to create in the minds of the audience. Our graphical approach overcomes the problems associated with verbal labeling. Besides playing a melody and harmony, a music player tries to produce certain feelings in the audience by manipulating tempo, rhythm, articulation and dynamic changes. Despite the linear nature

Rumi Hiraga; Noriyuki Matsuda

2004-01-01

433

Printing (Graphic Arts): Scope and Sequence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for use by all printing (graphic arts) instructors in the Metropolitan Nashville Public Schools, this guide provides a sequential listing of course content and scope. A course description provides a brief overview of the content of the courses offered in the printing (graphic arts) program. General course objectives are then listed.…

Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

434

A flexible simulation framework for graphics architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a multipurpose tool for analysis of the performance characteristics of computer graphics hardware and software. We are developing Qsilver, a highly configurable micro-architectural simulator of the GPU that uses the Chromium system's ability to intercept and redirect an OpenGL stream. The simulator produces an annotated trace of graphics commands using Chromium, then runs the trace

Jeremy W. Sheaffer; David P. Luebke; Kevin Skadron

2004-01-01

435

Exploring Concepts in Probability: Using Graphics Calculators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a project in which certain key concepts in probability were explored using graphics calculators with year 10 students. The lessons were conducted in the regular classroom where students were provided with a Casio CFX 9850 GB PLUS graphics calculator with which they were familiar from year 9. The participants in the…

Ghosh, Jonaki

2004-01-01

436

Explorations in designing abstract graphical communication interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have been creating a series of graphical chat programs designed to foster social interaction and expressive communication. We started with a spare, minimalist interface and in subsequent programs have modified its fundamental features: background space, individual representation, movement implementation, communication channels, and history depiction. The resulting family of graphical chat programs share many interface features but differ significantly in

Judith Donath; Fernanda Viégas

437

Deconstruction and Graphic Design: History Meets Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the reception and use of deconstruction in the recent history of graphic design. Considers the place of graphics within the theory of deconstruction in the work of philosopher Jacques Derrida. Argues that deconstruction is not a style but a mode of questioning through and about the technologies, formal devices, social institutions and…

Lupton, Ellen; Miller, J. Abbott

1994-01-01

438

Informal User Interface for Graphical Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores a concept of sketch-based informal user interface for graphic computing, which can be characterized by two properties: stroke- based input and perceptual processing of strokes. A sketch-based graphics input prototype system designed for creative brainstorming in conceptual design is introduced. Two core technologies for implementing such a system, adaptive sketch recognition and dynamic user modeling, are also

Zhengxing Sun; Jing Liu

2005-01-01

439

Fast matrix multiplies using graphics hardware  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a technique for large matrix-matrix multiplies using low cost graphics hardware. The result is computed by literally visualizing the computations of a simple parallel processing algorithm. Current graphics hardware technology has limited precision and thus limits immediate applicability of our algorithm. We include results demonstrating proof of concept, correctness, speedup, and a simple application. This is therefore forward

E. Scott Larsen; David K. McAllister

2001-01-01

440

WMAP: Baby Picture of the Universe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

View the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) image from NASA to see the first detailed map of the oldest light in the universe, from 379,000 years after the Big Bang, over 13 billion years ago. A second image offers a visual timeline to put the WMAP image in perspective.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2005-12-17

441

Size optimization of space trusses using Big Bang–Big Crunch algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Hybrid Big Bang–Big Crunch (HBB–BC) optimization algorithm is employed for optimal design of truss structures. HBB–BC is compared to Big Bang–Big Crunch (BB–BC) method and other optimization methods including Genetic Algorithm, Ant Colony Optimization, Particle Swarm Optimization and Harmony Search. Numerical results demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the HBB–BC method compared to other heuristic algorithms.

A. Kaveh; S. Talatahari

2009-01-01

442

Global fluctuation spectra in big-crunch big-bang string vacua  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study big-crunch big-bang cosmologies that correspond to exact world-sheet superconformal field theories of type II strings. The string theory spacetime contains a big crunch and a big bang cosmology, as well as additional ``whisker'' asymptotic and intermediate regions. Within the context of free string theory, we compute, unambiguously, the scalar fluctuation spectrum in all regions of spacetime. Generically, the

B. E. L. Craps; Burt A. Ovrut

2004-01-01

443

The Big Banks: Background, Deregulation, Financial Innovation and Too Big to Fail  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: The Big Banks: Background, Deregulation, Financial Innovation and Too Big to Fail\\u000aThe U.S. economy is still reeling from the financial crisis that exploded in the fall of 2008. This article asserts that the big banks were major culprits in causing the crisis, by funding the non-bank lenders that created the toxic mortgages which the big banks securitized and

Charles W. Murdock

2012-01-01

444

Processing picture--word stimuli: The contingent nature of picture and of word superiority  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participants named (Experiments 1-2) or categorized (Experiments 3- 4) the picture or the word of picture-word compounds that varied in the relative saliency of the 2 components and in the correlation between them over the experimental trials. Picture-word interference (PWI) was gauged through Stroop and Garner effects. PWI was found to be malleable; its magnitude and very presence depending lawfully

Yoav Arieh; Daniel Algom

2002-01-01

445

Processing Picture–Word Stimuli: The Contingent Nature of Picture and of Word Superiority  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participants named (Experiments 1–2) or categorized (Experiments 3–4) the picture or the word of picture–word compounds that varied in the relative saliency of the 2 components and in the correlation between them over the experimental trials. Picture–word interference (PWI) was gauged through Stroop and Garner effects. PWI was found to be malleable; its magnitude and very presence depending lawfully on

Yoav Arieh; Daniel Algom

2002-01-01

446

21 CFR 892.2050 - Picture archiving and communications system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Diagnostic Devices § 892.2050 Picture archiving and communications system. (a) Identification. A picture archiving and communications...Group (JPEG) Std., Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers...

2013-04-01

447

29 CFR 541.709 - Motion picture producing industry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Motion picture producing industry. 541.709...Miscellaneous Provisions § 541.709 Motion picture producing industry. The requirement...not apply to an employee in the motion picture producing industry...

2013-07-01

448

29 CFR 541.709 - Motion picture producing industry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Motion picture producing industry. 541.709...Miscellaneous Provisions § 541.709 Motion picture producing industry. The requirement...not apply to an employee in the motion picture producing industry...

2009-07-01

449

78 FR 51064 - Safety Zone; Motion Picture Production; Chicago, IL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Motion Picture Production; Chicago, IL AGENCY...waterways due to the filming of a motion picture. These temporary safety zones...hazards involved in the filming of a motion picture. DATES: This rule is...

2013-08-20

450

78 FR 57570 - Safety Zone; Motion Picture Production; Chicago, Illinois  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Motion Picture Production; Chicago, Illinois...the temporary safety zone for motion picture filming in Calumet Harbor, Chicago...during nighttime filming of a motion picture in Calumet Harbor. During...

2013-09-19

451

Brightness differences influence the evaluation of affective pictures.  

PubMed

We explored the possibility of a general brightness bias: brighter pictures are evaluated more positively, while darker pictures are evaluated more negatively. In Study 1 we found that positive pictures are brighter than negative pictures in two affective picture databases (the IAPS and the GAPED). Study 2 revealed that because researchers select affective pictures on the extremity of their affective rating without controlling for brightness differences, pictures used in positive conditions of experiments were on average brighter than those used in negative conditions. Going beyond correlational support for our hypothesis, Studies 3 and 4 showed that brighter versions of neutral pictures were evaluated more positively than darker versions of the same picture. Study 5 revealed that people categorised positive words more quickly than negative words after a bright picture prime, and vice versa for negative pictures. Together, these studies provide strong support for the hypotheses that picture brightness influences evaluations. PMID:23639173

Lakens, Daniël; Fockenberg, Daniel A; Lemmens, Karin P H; Ham, Jaap; Midden, Cees J H

2013-05-03

452

Processing picture-word stimuli: the contingent nature of picture and of word superiority.  

PubMed

Participants named (Experiments 1-2) or categorized (Experiments 3-4) the picture or the word of picture-word compounds that varied in the relative saliency of the 2 components and in the correlation between them over the experimental trials. Picture-word interference (PWI) was gauged through Stroop and Garner effects. PWI was found to be malleable; its magnitude and very presence depending lawfully on the contextual variations introduced. The contingent nature of PWI is a fact to be reckoned with by theorists of picture-word processing. PMID:11827082

Arieh, Yoav; Algom, Daniel

2002-01-01

453

Evaluation of the Eugene, Oregon Big Brother-Big Sister Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document reports on parent and elementary pupil expectations regarding participation in a Big Brother-Big Sister type program. The parents and students included were all new to the program and experiencing the relationship with a Big Brother or Sister for the first time. In the program a community volunteer befriended a youngster at the…

Glass, Diane L.

454

Comparative Validity of Brief to Medium-Length Big Five and Big Six Personality Questionnaires  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A general consensus on the Big Five model of personality attributes has been highly generative for the field of personality psychology. Many important psychological and life outcome correlates with Big Five trait dimensions have been established. But researchers must choose between multiple Big Five inventories when conducting a study and are…

Thalmayer, Amber Gayle; Saucier, Gerard; Eigenhuis, Annemarie

2011-01-01

455

Comparative Validity of Brief to Medium-Length Big Five and Big Six Personality Questionnaires  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general consensus on the Big Five model of personality attributes has been highly generative for the field of personality psychology. Many important psychological and life outcome correlates with Big Five trait dimensions have been established. But researchers must choose between multiple Big Five inventories when conducting a study and are faced with a variety of options as to inventory

Amber Gayle Thalmayer; Gerard Saucier; Annemarie Eigenhuis

2011-01-01

456

Highly automated image recomposition: the picture you wish you had taken  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Have you ever lamented, "I wish I had taken a different picture of that 'Kodak Moment' when everyone was smiling and no one blinked"? With image recomposition, we strive to deliver the "one-click fix" experience to customers so they can easily create the perfect pictures that they never actually took. To accomplish this, a graphic user interface was created that integrates existing and new algorithms, including face detection, facial feature location, face recognition, expression recognition, face appearance and pose matching, and seamless blending. Advanced modes include face relighting. This system is capable of performing image recomposition from a mixture of videos and still photos, with ease of use and a high degree of automation.

Luo, Jiebo; Lei, Phoury

2007-01-01

457

"Big Events" and Networks1  

PubMed Central

Some, but not all, “big events” such as wars, revolutions, socioeconomic transitions, economic collapses, and ecological disasters in recent years seem to lead to large-scale HIV outbreaks (Friedman et al, in press; Hankins et al 2002). This was true of transitions in the USSR, South Africa and Indonesia, for example, but not those in the Philippines or (so far) in Argentina. It has been hypothesized that whether or not HIV outbreaks occur is shaped in part by the nature and extent of changes in the numbers of voluntary or involuntary risk-takers, which itself may be related to the growth of roles such as sex-sellers or drug sellers; the riskiness of the behaviors engaged in by risk-takers; and changes in sexual and injection networks and other “mixing patterns” variables. Each of these potential causal processes, in turn, is shaped by the nature of pre-existing social networks and the patterns and content of normative regulation and communication that happen within these social networks-and on how these social networks and their characteristics are changed by the “big event” in question. We will present ideas about what research is needed to help understand these events and to help guide both indigenous community-based efforts to prevent HIV outbreaks and also to guide those who organize external intervention efforts and aid.

Friedman, Samuel; Rossi, Diana; Flom, Peter L.

2011-01-01

458

The BigBOSS spectrograph  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BigBOSS is a proposed ground-based dark energy experiment to study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure with a 14,000 square degree galaxy and quasi-stellar object redshift survey. It consists of a 5,000- fiber-positioner focal plane feeding the spectrographs. The optical fibers are separated into ten 500 fiber slit heads at the entrance of ten identical spectrographs in a thermally insulated room. Each of the ten spectrographs has a spectral resolution (?/??) between 1500 and 4000 over a wavelength range from 360 - 980 nm. Each spectrograph uses two dichroic beam splitters to separate the spectrograph into three arms. It uses volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings for high efficiency and compactness. Each arm uses a 4096x4096 15 ?m pixel charge coupled device (CCD) for the detector. We describe the requirements and current design of the BigBOSS spectrograph. Design trades (e.g. refractive versus reflective) and manufacturability are also discussed.

Jelinsky, Patrick; Bebek, Chris; Besuner, Robert; Carton, Pierre-Henri; Edelstein, Jerry; Lampton, Michael; Levi, Michael E.; Poppett, Claire; Prieto, Eric; Schlegel, David; Sholl, Michael

2012-09-01

459

Touching Text Character Localization in Graphical Documents Using SIFT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interpretation of graphical document images is a challenging task as it requires proper understanding of text/graphics symbols present in such documents. Difficulties arise in graphical document recognition when text and symbol overlapped/touched. Intersection of text and symbols with graphical lines and curves occur frequently in graphical documents and hence separation of such symbols is very difficult.

Roy, Partha Pratim; Pal, Umapada; Lladós, Josep

460

A framework for mathematics graphical tasks: the influence of the graphic element on student sense making  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphical tasks have become a prominent aspect of mathematics assessment. From a conceptual stance, the purpose of this study was to better understand the composition of graphical tasks commonly used to assess students' mathematics understandings. Through an iterative design, the investigation described the sense making of 11-12-year-olds as they decoded mathematics tasks which contained a graphic. An ongoing analysis of two phases of data collection was undertaken as we analysed the extent to which various elements of text, graphics, and symbols influenced student sense making. Specifically, the study outlined the changed behaviour (and performance) of the participants as they solved graphical tasks that had been modified with respect to these elements. We propose a theoretical framework for understanding the composition of a graphical task and identify three specific elements which are dependently and independently related to each other, namely: the graphic; the text; and the symbols. Results indicated that although changes to the graphical tasks were minimal, a change in student success and understanding was most evident when the graphic element was modified. Implications include the need for test designers to carefully consider the graphics embedded within mathematics tasks since the elements within graphical tasks greatly influence student understanding.

Lowrie, Tom; Diezmann, Carmel M.; Logan, Tracy

2012-06-01

461

Graphical User Interface in Art  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This essay discusses the use of the Graphical User Interface (GUI) as a site of creative practice. By creatively repositioning the GUI as a work of art it is possible to challenge our understanding and expectations of the conventional computer interface wherein the icons and navigational architecture of the GUI no longer function as a technological tool. These artistic recontextualizations are often used to question our engagement with technology and to highlight the pivotal place that the domestic computer has taken in our everyday social, cultural and (increasingly), creative domains. Through these works the media specificity of the screen-based GUI can broken by dramatic changes in scale, form and configuration. This can be seen through the work of new media artists who have re-imagined the GUI in a number of creative forms both, within the digital, as image, animation, net and interactive art, and in the analogue, as print, painting, sculpture, installation and performative event. Furthermore as a creative work, the GUI can also be utilized as a visual way-finder to explore the relationship between the dynamic potentials of the digital and the concretized qualities of the material artifact.

Gwilt, Ian

462

Polygon Pictures in QuarkXPress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an activity where students draw and fill simple and complex shapes by utilizing the polygon tool in QuarkXPress to create graphics. Explains that this activity enables students to learn how to use a variety of functions in the QuarkXPress program. (CMK)|

Osterer, Irv

1999-01-01

463

What happened before the Big Bang?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Was the Universe before the Big Bang of classical nature, described well by a smooth space-time? Or was it in a highly fluctuating quantum state? This is one of the most basic questions that we may ask once it is accepted that there was something before the Big Bang. Loop quantum gravity applied to isotropic models has shown that the

Martin Bojowald

2007-01-01

464

Big Bang riddles and their revelations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe how cosmology has converged towards a beautiful model of the Universe: the Big Bang Universe. We praise this model, but show there is a dark side to it. This dark side is usually called ``the cosmological problems'': a set of coincidences and fine tuning features required for the Big Bang Universe to be possible. After reviewing these ``riddles''

Joao Magueijo; Kim Baskerville

1999-01-01

465

The Big bang and the Quantum  

Microsoft Academic Search

General relativity predicts that space-time comes to an end and physics comes to a halt at the big-bang. Recent developments in loop quantum cosmology have shown that these predictions cannot be trusted. Quantum geometry effects can resolve singularities, thereby opening new vistas. Examples are: The big bang is replaced by a quantum bounce; the `horizon problem' disappears; immediately after the

Abhay Ashtekar

2010-01-01

466

Is 'big biology' a commercial enterprise?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Big projects in biology - such as the human genome project and a number of related and ensuing enterprises - require big funding. A new tradition is growing in which some types of basic research take place within commercial organizations. This article reviews some of the reasons for this and some of the key players, in the USA, Europe and

Mark Swindells

2002-01-01

467

Climate change science is now big science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is now a big issue, “perhaps the most pressing and urgent environmental issue on the world's agenda,” according to the United Kingdom's National Environment Research Council (NERC) [1998], and so not surprisingly climate change science (CCS) is now Big Science involving Big Money How this situation came about, how big is Big, and whether Big is too big are three of the questions concerning the future of CCS addressed in the following discussion.The growth of the scientific literature on climate change shown in Figure 1 indicates that the transition of CCS from a Little to a Big science began in 1950. Up until that time CCS was conducted by a few self-motivated individuals using simple observational techniques to study past changes occurring over geological eras. Since then CCS has grown into a major and highly organized activity carried out by large national and international groups using state-of-the-art and very expensive remote sensing and computing facilities. It is now almost exclusively concerned with current and near-future changes.

Stanhill, Gerald

468

Quantum Nature of the Big Bang  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some long-standing issues concerning the quantum nature of the big bang are resolved in the context of homogeneous isotropic models with a scalar field. Specifically, the known results on the resolution of the big-bang singularity in loop quantum cosmology are significantly extended as follows: (i) the scalar field is shown to serve as an internal clock, thereby providing a detailed

Abhay Ashtekar; Tomasz Pawlowski; Parampreet Singh

2006-01-01

469

The resilience of big river basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Big river basins are complex systems of people and nature. This article explores the resilience of nine case studies of big river basins. A system description and generic conceptual model suggests that resilience to changes in water quantity is critical. When water becomes limiting, the social-ecological system must adapt rapidly if key elements (for example, communities, biodiversity) are to be

Graeme S. Cumming

2011-01-01

470

On the problem of big bang nucleosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supporters of the standard Big Bang theory point to the abundances of light elements, predicted by Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) as one of the main observational supports of the theory. However, current data no longer confirm BBN. Instead, measurements of the abundances of He3, He4, and D clearly contradict BBN at more than a 3s level, eliminating a key support

Eric J. Lerner

1995-01-01

471

On the Problem of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supporters of the standard Big Bang theory point to the abundances of light elements, predicted by Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) as one of the main observational supports of the theory. However, current data no longer confirm BBN. Instead, measurements of the abundances of He3, He4, and D clearly contradict BBN at more than a 3sigma level, eliminating a key support

Eric J. Lerner

1995-01-01

472

In Search of the Big Bubble  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Freely rising air bubbles in water sometimes assume the shape of a spherical cap, a shape also known as the "big bubble". Is it possible to find some objective function involving a combination of a bubble's attributes for which the big bubble is the optimal shape? Following the basic idea of the definite integral, we define a bubble's surface as…

Simoson, Andrew; Wentzky, Bethany

2011-01-01

473

[Counselling with modern expressions of mystic pictures].  

PubMed

The picture-worlds of children in the 21th century are not only evoked anymore by fairytales of the Brothers Grimm, but also by modern audio-visual stories (in books, comics, mangas, swap cards, films, videos and computer games). In psychological counselling and psychotherapy of children and adolescents we like to use such picture-worlds, modern myths and metaphors, to tie up with the experiences of the children and to kick start corresponding processes of maturation. Consultants can not only use their own treasures of myths remembering their own childhood (reading), but should also be familiar with the modern picture-worlds common to children in order to develop images which are shared by both counsellor and child, and should be capable of understanding the meaning of the characters and their actions. Some narratives and forms will be presented here in relation to developmental psychology. PMID:15543710

Bögle, Robert Michael

2004-10-01

474

4. UPSTREAM ELEVATION VIEW OF BIG TUJUNGA DAM SHOWING THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. UPSTREAM ELEVATION VIEW OF BIG TUJUNGA DAM SHOWING THE CONTROL HOUSE AND THE SPILLWAY BRIDGE AT THE ENDS OF THE DAM FACING WEST. - Big Tujunga Dam, 809 West Big Tujunga Road, Sunland, Los Angeles County, CA

475

2. NORTHERLY VIEW OF THE DOWNSTREAM ELEVATION OF BIG DALTON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. NORTHERLY VIEW OF THE DOWNSTREAM ELEVATION OF BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING THE NORTHWEST END OF THE DAM, THE CONTROL HOUSE, AND SPILLWAY CHUTE. - Big Dalton Dam, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

476

3. EASTERLY VIEW OF THE DOWNSTREAM ELEVATION OF BIG DALTON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. EASTERLY VIEW OF THE DOWNSTREAM ELEVATION OF BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING THE SOUTHEAST END OF THE DAM, AND THE HOLLOW BAYS. - Big Dalton Dam, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

477

6. EASTERLY VIEW OF BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING THE SHELTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. EASTERLY VIEW OF BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING THE SHELTER HOUSE IN THE BACKGROUND. PHOTO TAKEN FROM THE ACCESS ROAD LEADING TO THE CONTROL HOUSE. - Big Dalton Dam, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

478

2. SOUTHEAST VIEW OF BIG TUJUNGA DAM SHOWING THE LEFT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. SOUTHEAST VIEW OF BIG TUJUNGA DAM SHOWING THE LEFT ABUTMENT WITH THE CONTROL HOUSE IN THE BACKGROUND. PHOTO TAKEN FROM THE ACCESS ROAD. - Big Tujunga Dam, 809 West Big Tujunga Road, Sunland, Los Angeles County, CA

479

The Role of Pictures in Picture Books on Children's Cognitive Engagement with Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examines the cognitive activity that is evoked in young children when they are read a picture book that is written for the purpose of teaching mathematics. The focus of this study is to explore the effects of pictures on children's spontaneous mathematical cognitive engagement. The study is based on the assumption that the…

Elia, Iliada; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; Georgiou, Alexia

2010-01-01

480

The Word Frequency Effect in Picture Naming: Contrasting Two Hypotheses Using Homonym Pictures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Models of speech production disagree on whether or not homonyms have a shared word-form representation. To investigate this issue, a picture-naming experiment was carried out using Dutch homonyms of which both meanings could be presented as a picture. Naming latencies for the low-frequency meanings of homonyms were slower than for those of the…

Shatzman, Keren B.; Schiller, Niels O.

2004-01-01

481

Picture recognition vs. picture discrimination learning in monkeys with medial temporal removals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three monkeys with complete ablations of temporal-lobe limbic structures and three unoperated controls were compared in an automated testing apparatus for their ability to remember pictures presented between 1 and 180 seconds previously, as well as to learn picture discriminations in which successive trials with a given pair were separated by either 20 seconds or 24 hours. The operated animals

W. H. Overman; G. Ormsby; M. Mishkin

1990-01-01

482

Understanding human functioning using graphical models  

PubMed Central

Background Functioning and disability are universal human experiences. However, our current understanding of functioning from a comprehensive perspective is limited. The development of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) on the one hand and recent developments in graphical modeling on the other hand might be combined and open the door to a more comprehensive understanding of human functioning. The objective of our paper therefore is to explore how graphical models can be used in the study of ICF data for a range of applications. Methods We show the applicability of graphical models on ICF data for different tasks: Visualization of the dependence structure of the data set, dimension reduction and comparison of subpopulations. Moreover, we further developed and applied recent findings in causal inference using graphical models to estimate bounds on intervention effects in an observational study with many variables and without knowing the underlying causal structure. Results In each field, graphical models could be applied giving results of high face-validity. In particular, graphical models could be used for visualization of functioning in patients with spinal cord injury. The resulting graph consisted of several connected components which can be used for dimension reduction. Moreover, we found that the differences in the dependence structures between subpopulations were relevant and could be systematically analyzed using graphical models. Finally, when estimating bounds on causal effects of ICF categories on general health perceptions among patients with chronic health conditions, we found that the five ICF categories that showed the strongest effect were plausible. Conclusions Graphical Models are a flexible tool and lend themselves for a wide range of applications. In particular, studies involving ICF data seem to be suited for analysis using graphical models.

2010-01-01

483

What happened before the Big Bang?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Was the Universe before the Big Bang of classical nature, described well by a smooth space-time? Or was it in a highly fluctuating quantum state? This is one of the most basic questions that we may ask once it is accepted that there was something before the Big Bang. Loop quantum gravity applied to isotropic models has shown that the quantum evolution of a wavefunction extends through the Big Bang. Although a general demonstration is still lacking, this may suggest that calculations, and possibly future indirect observations, may allow us to see the Universe as it was before the Big Bang. Here, we analyse an explicit model with a pre-Big Bang era, indicating limitations that would imply that it is practically impossible to answer some of our questions. Assumptions (or prejudice) will remain necessary for knowing the precise state of the Universe, which cannot be fully justified within science itself.

Bojowald, Martin

2007-08-01

484

Computer Graphics: Programmers's Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System (PHIGS). Language Bindings (Part 3. Ada). Category: Software Standard. Subcategory: Graphics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication announces the adoption of the American National Standard Programmer's Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System, ANSI X3.144-1988, as a Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS). The standard specifies the control and data interchange ...

D. R. Benigni

1990-01-01

485

Nesting in graphical representations in physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We develop a theoretical model for understanding one way, ânesting,â that space is used in graphics from within and outside physics. Nesting can be used to increase a graphicâs capacity for displaying several dimensions of information, beyond the two dimensions afforded by a flat page. We use the model of nesting to analyze previously observed student difficulties with electromagnetic waves, to predict how physics students would interact with certain graphics, and to generate new multivariate graphics in physics for instruction and for research on student thinking. Finally we apply the nesting model to explain the multidimensionality of certain kinds of gestures in physics education.

Close, Hunter G.; Close, Eleanor W.; Donnelly, Dave

2013-07-16

486

The big war over brackets.  

PubMed

The Third Preparatory Committee Meeting for the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), PrepCom III, was held at UN headquarters in New York on April 4-22, 1994. It was the last big preparatory meeting leading to the ICPD to be held in Cairo, Egypt, in September 1994. The author attended the second week of meetings as the official delegate of the Institute for Social Studies and Action. Debates mostly focused upon reproductive health and rights, sexual health and rights, family planning, contraception, condom use, fertility regulation, pregnancy termination, and safe motherhood. The Vatican and its allies' preoccupation with discussing language which may imply abortion caused sustainable development, population, consumption patterns, internal and international migration, economic strategies, and budgetary allocations to be discussed less extensively than they should have been. The author describes points of controversy, the power of women at the meetings, and afterthoughts on the meetings. PMID:12319850

Alvarez, R O

487

Helium and Big Bang nucleosynthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existence of a universal primordial helium abundance is a significant piece of evidence in support of there having been a phase of high temperature and density in the early universe, when light elements were created at a temperature of the order of 109K. While primordial deuterium and 7Li are sensitive to ??nB/n? which fixes the cosmic baryon density at the present time, the primordial helium abundance is a test of consistency, assuming that the equivalent number N? of relativistic neutrino families is 3 and that the weak-interaction coupling constants deduced from the experimentally determined neutron half-life are known. Recent estimates of primordial abundances of all three species are converging to give good agreement with standard (homogeneous) Big Bang nucleosynthesis theory with a cosmic baryon density 0.03<=?Bh702<=0.04.

Pagel, B. E. J.

2000-08-01

488

Notes on Big Ray Tracing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that eikonal solvers provide a fast and accurate way to compute traveltimes in complex media. However, they only give solutions corresponding to first arrivals. In (J. Comput. Phys.128, 463 (1996)), J. D. Benamou presents an algorithm which gives a multivalued traveltime solution on the whole domain considered, by defining subdomains in this domain in such a way that within these subdomains the traveltime is single-valued and can be found by an eikonal solver restricted to the subdomain. The subdomains may overlap, but together they constitute the whole domain. The solution on the whole domain is then given by the combination of the solutions on the subdomains. An approximate realisation of these subdomains, called big rays, is given. In the present paper we describe some problems the algorithm shows and give an explanation of their origin. We conclude that the method cannot be used in the presence of caustics.

Rietdijk, R. H.

1999-01-01

489

Translational bioinformatics embraces big data.  

PubMed

We review the latest trends and major developments in translational bioinformatics in the year 2011-2012. Our emphasis is on highlighting the key events in the field and pointing at promising research areas for the future. The key take-home points are: • Translational informatics is ready to revolutionize human health and healthcare using large-scale measurements on individuals. • Data-centric approaches that compute on massive amounts of data (often called "Big Data") to discover patterns and to make clinically relevant predictions will gain adoption. • Research that bridges the latest multimodal measurement technologies with large amounts of electronic healthcare data is increasing; and is where new breakthroughs will occur. PMID:22890354

Shah, N H

2012-01-01

490

Microsystems - The next big thing  

SciTech Connect

Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is a big name for tiny devices that will soon make big changes in everyday life and the workplace. These and other types of Microsystems range in size from a few millimeters to a few microns, much smaller than a human hair. These Microsystems have the capability to enable new ways to solve problems in commercial applications ranging from automotive, aerospace, telecommunications, manufacturing equipment, medical diagnostics to robotics, and in national security applications such as nuclear weapons safety and security, battlefield intelligence, and protection against chemical and biological weapons. This broad range of applications of Microsystems reflects the broad capabilities of future Microsystems to provide the ability to sense, think, act, and communicate, all in a single integrated package. Microsystems have been called the next silicon revolution, but like many revolutions, they incorporate more elements than their predecessors. Microsystems do include MEMS components fabricated from polycrystalline silicon processed using techniques similar to those used in the manufacture of integrated electrical circuits. They also include optoelectronic components made from gallium arsenide and other semiconducting compounds from the III-V groups of the periodic table. Microsystems components are also being made from pure metals and metal alloys using the LIGA process, which utilizes lithography, etching, and casting at the micron scale. Generically, Microsystems are micron scale, integrated systems that have the potential to combine the ability to sense light, heat, pressure, acceleration, vibration, and chemicals with the ability to process the collected data using CMOS circuitry, execute an electrical, mechanical, or photonic response, and communicate either optically or with microwaves.

STINNETT,REGAN W.

2000-05-11

491

False recollection of emotional pictures in Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alzheimer's Disease (AD) can reduce the effects of emotional content on memory for studied pictures, but less is known about false memory. In healthy adults, emotionally arousing pictures can be more susceptible to false memory effects than neutral pictures, potentially because emotional pictures share conceptual similarities that cause memory confusions. We investigated these effects in AD patients and healthy controls.

David A. Gallo; Katherine T. Foster; Jessica T. Wong; David A. Bennett

2010-01-01

492

Space Station Maintenance Studies Using Plaid Graphics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Graphics Analysis Facility (GRAF) has been used frequently to study extravehicular activity (EVA) maintenance scenarios on Space Station Freedom. The ability to use 3-dimensional visualization gives one a more accurate estimate of the Space Station en...

M. E. Helm

1993-01-01

493

Graphic - A Drug Supply Chain Example  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Resolved Drug Shortages; Drugs to be Discontinued; How to Report a Shortage or Supply Issue; ... Graphic - A Drug Supply Chain Example. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/drugshortages

494

Interactive Graphical Queries for Bibliographic Search.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents "Islands," an interactive graphical interface for construction, modification, and management of queries during a search session on a bibliographic database. Discusses motivation and bibliographic search semantics and compares the Islands interface to the Dialog interface. (Author/LRW)|

Brooks, Martin; Campbell, Jennifer

1999-01-01

495

Graphic Witness: Visual Arts and Social Commentary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Graphic Witness is "a site dedicated to social commentary through graphic imagery by artists working from the turn of the 20th Century to the present, with related bibliographic/ biographic data." The site divides artists into those who have been actively creating work before 1950 or since -- each of these two areas of the site lists links to artists's work, sometimes on the Graphic Witness site and sometimes off-site. A separate set of pages titled Tusche, Tone and Stone explores the evolution of news story illustrations. The easy-to-use bibliography pages list applicable reference books -- with anthologies listed by author and also a list of books arranged by artist. A set of links to related sites helps point users to resources of a political and social nature as well as to sites about graphic illustrations.

496

Some Recent Advances in Computer Graphics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

General principles of computer graphics are reviewed, including discussions of display hardware, geometric modeling, algorithms, and applications in science, computer-aided design, flight training, communications, business, art, and entertainment. (JN)

Whitted, Turner

1982-01-01

497

Computation and graphics in mathematical research  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses: The description of the GANG Project and results for prior research; the center for geometry, analysis, numerics and graphics; description of GANG Laboratory; software development at GANG; and mathematical and scientific research activities.

Hoffman, D.A.; Spruck, J.

1992-08-13

498

Astronomy Picture of the Day: Boomerang Nebula  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) webpage presents an image of the Boomerang Nebula cloud captured by the Hubble Telescope in polarized light. The webpage provides a description of the nebula, including its formation, its low temperature, and how it is becoming a planetary nebula. Links are provided for additional information.

2008-10-10

499

Compression of integral 3D TV pictures  

Microsoft Academic Search

: The development of a compressionalgorithm for reduction of the transmission bit rate of 3Dintegral TV pictures is discussed. The proposed full parallax3D image compression algorithm takes advantage of thecross correlation between the multiple images recorded ona CCD placed behind a directionally selective microlensarray as well as the correlation inherent within each image.Tests carried out show that by using a

M. Forman; A. Aggoun; M. Mccormick De Montfort

1995-01-01

500

Author! Author! Picture Artist: Stephen Gammell  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This column presents a brief biography of illustrator Stephen Gammell, well-known for both his black-and-white and his brightly colored children's picture book art. Stephen Gammell has made a long career illustrating children's stories and poems. The first book he illustrated, "A Nutty Business" (written by Ida Chittum), was published in 1973 and…

Brodie, Carolyn S.

2005-01-01