Science.gov

Sample records for grashof number

  1. Experimental Investigation of Free-Convection Heat Transfer in Vertical Tube at Large Grashof Numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, E R G; Diaguila, A J

    1955-01-01

    Report presents the results of an investigation conducted to study free-convection heat transfer in a stationary vertical tube closed at the bottom. The walls of the tube were heated, and heated air in the tube was continuously replaced by fresh cool air at the top. The tube was designed to provide a gravitational field with Grashof numbers of a magnitude comparable with those generated by the centrifugal field in rotating-blade coolant passages (10(8) to 10(13)). Local heat-transfer coefficients in the turbulent-flow range and the temperature field within the fluid were obtained.

  2. Large Eddy Simulation study of the development of finite-channel lock-release currents at high Grashof numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooi, Seng-Keat

    2005-11-01

    Lock-exchange gravity current flows produced by the instantaneous release of a heavy fluid are investigated using 3-D well resolved Large Eddy Simulation simulations at Grashof numbers up to 8*10^9. It is found the 3-D simulations correctly predict a constant front velocity over the initial slumping phase and a front speed decrease proportional to t-1/3 (the time t is measured from the release) over the inviscid phase, in agreement with theory. The evolution of the current in the simulations is found to be similar to that observed experimentally by Hacker et al. (1996). The effect of the dynamic LES model on the solutions is discussed. The energy budget of the current is discussed and the contribution of the turbulent dissipation to the total dissipation is analyzed. The limitations of less expensive 2D simulations are discussed; in particular their failure to correctly predict the spatio-temporal distributions of the bed shear stresses which is important in determining the amount of sediment the gravity current can entrain in the case in advances of a loose bed.

  3. Experimental investigation of free-convection heat transfer in vertical tube at large Grashof numbers / E. R. G. Eckert, A. J. Diaguila

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, E R G; Diaguila, A J

    1952-01-01

    Local free-convection heat-transfer coefficients and temperature fields in the turbulent flow range were obtained within a vertical, stationary tube closed at the boom, heated along its walls, and having a length-to-diameter ratio of 5. Convective heat-transfer coefficients were correlated by the general relations for free-convection heat transfer. These coefficients, converted to dimensionless Nusselt numbers were 35 percent below known relations for vertical flat plates. Air temperature measurements within the tube indicated a thin boundary layer along the heated wall surface and unstable conditions in the air flow.

  4. Enhanced enstrophy generation for turbulent convection in low-Prandtl-number fluids.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Jörg; Götzfried, Paul; Scheel, Janet D

    2015-08-01

    Turbulent convection is often present in liquids with a kinematic viscosity much smaller than the diffusivity of the temperature. Here we reveal why these convection flows obey a much stronger level of fluid turbulence than those in which kinematic viscosity and thermal diffusivity are the same; i.e., the Prandtl number Pr is unity. We compare turbulent convection in air at Pr=0.7 and in liquid mercury at Pr=0.021. In this comparison the Prandtl number at constant Grashof number Gr is varied, rather than at constant Rayleigh number Ra as usually done. Our simulations demonstrate that the turbulent Kolmogorov-like cascade is extended both at the large- and small-scale ends with decreasing Pr. The kinetic energy injection into the flow takes place over the whole cascade range. In contrast to convection in air, the kinetic energy injection rate is particularly enhanced for liquid mercury for all scales larger than the characteristic width of thermal plumes. As a consequence, mean values and fluctuations of the local strain rates are increased, which in turn results in significantly enhanced enstrophy production by vortex stretching. The normalized distributions of enstrophy production in the bulk and the ratio of the principal strain rates are found to agree for both Prs. Despite the different energy injection mechanisms, the principal strain rates also agree with those in homogeneous isotropic turbulence conducted at the same Reynolds numbers as for the convection flows. Our results have thus interesting implications for small-scale turbulence modeling of liquid metal convection in astrophysical and technological applications. PMID:26195793

  5. Numbers Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kathotia, Vinay

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on work undertaken by schools as part of Qualifications and Curriculum Authority's (QCA's) "Engaging mathematics for all learners" project. The goal was to use in the classroom, materials and approaches from a Royal Institution (Ri) Year 10 master-class, "Number Sense", which was inspired by examples from Michael Blastland and…

  6. Numbers, Please!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelin, John R.

    2013-01-01

    What topic would you choose if you had the luxury of writing forever? In this article, John Thelin provides his response: He would opt to write about the history of higher education in a way that relies on quantitative data. "Numbers, please!" is his research request in taking on a longitudinal study of colleges and universities over…

  7. Enclosed Gas and Liquid with Nonuniform Heating from Above

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, S. K.; Iyengar, J.; Sirignano, W. A.

    1986-01-01

    Buoyancy-driven flows of gases above liquids in a common enclosure with nonuniform heating from above are studied via finite-difference solutions of the governing equations. Unsteady solutions are calculated, and steady-state solutions are sought as asymptotes. Grashof numbers between 10 to the 3rd and 10 to the 8th are examined, and multicellular circulatory flow structure is found at the higher Grashof numbers. Convective transport dominates for higher Grashof numbers, while conductive transport is the primary mechanism at the lower Grashof numbers. Surface tension has a major effect upon the gas flow field only at lower Grashof numbers but, since conduction dominates there, it does not significantly affect transport.

  8. Number 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    29 January 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a spotted, high latitude plain, south of the Argyre basin. When the image was received from Mars by the MOC operations team, they noticed -- with a sense of humor -- the number '8' on this martian surface. The '8' is located at the center-right and is formed by the rims of two old impact craters that have been eroded and partly-filled and partly-buried beneath the surface.

    Location near: 68.6oS, 38.4oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  9. Soc. Sec. Number (voluntary)* Student Number

    E-print Network

    of 1974 (P.L. 93-579). Social Security Number (SSN) information is collected for the purpose of positivelySoc. Sec. Number (voluntary)* Major Name Student Number (Last) (First) (Middle) UoW 1833 (Rev. 2 Undergraduate Non-Matriculated Loan repayment source: State Marital StatusDriver's License Number or State ID

  10. Subrecipient Prime Award Number Subaward Number

    E-print Network

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    expenditures (b) travel expenditures? PROPERTY MANAGEMENT 13. Are detailed records of individual capital assets;Subrecipient Prime Award Number Subaward Number Page 2 of 4 CASH MANAGEMENT 6. Are U.S. Federal Government funds deposited in a separate bank account, or accounted for through grant-loan fund control accounts? 7

  11. Numbers Defy the Law of Large Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Ruma; Lann, Avital Lavie

    2015-01-01

    As the number of independent tosses of a fair coin grows, the rates of heads and tails tend to equality. This is misinterpreted by many students as being true also for the absolute numbers of the two outcomes, which, conversely, depart unboundedly from each other in the process. Eradicating that misconception, as by coin-tossing experiments,…

  12. The Number 2 Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alterman, Alan E.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the "number 2 arithmetic challenge," an activity in which students score points by creating examples using the number 2 that satisfy an unknown rule. Computers are utilized to verify and record examples. Conflicts with computer responses create situations to explore negative numbers, fractions, mixed numbers, the order of operations, and…

  13. Are Numbers Gendered?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkie, James E. B.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the possibility that nonsocial, highly generic concepts are gendered. Specifically, we investigated the gender connotations of Arabic numerals. Across several experiments, we show that the number 1 and other odd numbers are associated with masculinity, whereas the number 2 and other even numbers are associated with femininity, in ways…

  14. Enriching Number Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Nancy K.

    2011-01-01

    Exploring number systems of other cultures can be an enjoyable learning experience that enriches students' knowledge of numbers and number systems in important ways. It helps students deepen mental computation fluency, knowledge of place value, and equivalent representations for numbers. This article describes how the author designed her…

  15. Hyper Space Complex Number

    E-print Network

    Shanguang Tan

    2007-04-23

    A new kind of numbers called Hyper Space Complex Numbers and its algebras are defined and proved. It is with good properties as the classic Complex Numbers, such as expressed in coordinates, triangular and exponent forms and following the associative and commutative laws of addition and multiplication. So the classic Complex Number is developed from in complex plane with two dimensions to in complex space with N dimensions and the number system is enlarged also.

  16. Elements of number theory

    E-print Network

    Harbour, Daniel, 1975-

    2003-01-01

    The dissertation argues for the necessity of a morphosemantic theory of number, that is, a theory of number serviceable both to semantics and morphology. The basis for this position, and the empirical core of the dissertation, ...

  17. Document Number Change Level

    E-print Network

    , 2002 SECURITY LEVEL: None SUPERSESSION DATA: CR-1357, 2 #12;Document Number CR-1357 Change Level 2Document Number CR-1357 Change Level 2 Security Level None Page Number TITLE: Luna® XPplus and Luna® XL/XLR and XL/XLR Premium Security Policies ABSTRACT: This document describes the security policies

  18. Number Relationships in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Myoungwhon

    2011-01-01

    When a child understands number relationships, he or she comprehends the meaning of numbers by developing multiple, flexible ways of representing them. The importance of developing number relationships in the early years has been highlighted because it helps children build a good foundation for developing a more sophisticated understanding of…

  19. The Remarkable Number "1"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, G. Donald

    2014-01-01

    In human history, the origin of the numbers came from definite practical needs. Indeed, there is strong evidence that numbers were created before writing. The number "1", dating back at least 20,000 years, was found as a counting symbol on a bone. The famous statement by the German mathematician Leopold Kronecker (1823-1891), "God…

  20. Discovery: Prime Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Mestre, Neville

    2008-01-01

    Prime numbers are important as the building blocks for the set of all natural numbers, because prime factorisation is an important and useful property of all natural numbers. Students can discover them by using the method known as the Sieve of Eratosthenes, named after the Greek geographer and astronomer who lived from c. 276-194 BC. Eratosthenes…

  1. Reform by the Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanford, Terry; White, Kathleen

    1991-01-01

    Although numbers such as average test scores or dropout rates can capture part of a school system's success or failure, school statistics seldom tell the whole story. School board members should realize that numbers might measure compliance or process, rather than improvement. Also, improvements in numbers might reflect changes in assessment…

  2. Estimating Large Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landy, David; Silbert, Noah; Goldin, Aleah

    2013-01-01

    Despite their importance in public discourse, numbers in the range of 1 million to 1 trillion are notoriously difficult to understand. We examine magnitude estimation by adult Americans when placing large numbers on a number line and when qualitatively evaluating descriptions of imaginary geopolitical scenarios. Prior theoretical conceptions…

  3. Estimating large numbers.

    PubMed

    Landy, David; Silbert, Noah; Goldin, Aleah

    2013-07-01

    Despite their importance in public discourse, numbers in the range of 1 million to 1 trillion are notoriously difficult to understand. We examine magnitude estimation by adult Americans when placing large numbers on a number line and when qualitatively evaluating descriptions of imaginary geopolitical scenarios. Prior theoretical conceptions predict a log-to-linear shift: People will either place numbers linearly or will place numbers according to a compressive logarithmic or power-shaped function (Barth & Paladino, ; Siegler & Opfer, ). While about half of people did estimate numbers linearly over this range, nearly all the remaining participants placed 1 million approximately halfway between 1 thousand and 1 billion, but placed numbers linearly across each half, as though they believed that the number words "thousand, million, billion, trillion" constitute a uniformly spaced count list. Participants in this group also tended to be optimistic in evaluations of largely ineffective political strategies, relative to linear number-line placers. The results indicate that the surface structure of number words can heavily influence processes for dealing with numbers in this range, and it can amplify the possibility that analogous surface regularities are partially responsible for parallel phenomena in children. In addition, these results have direct implications for lawmakers and scientists hoping to communicate effectively with the public. PMID:23819823

  4. Curvature and Tachibana numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanov, Sergey E

    2011-07-31

    The aim of this paper is to define the rth Tachibana number t{sub r} of an n-dimensional compact oriented Riemannian manifold as the dimension of the space of conformally Killing r-forms, for r=1,2,...,n-1. We also describe properties of these numbers, by analogy with properties of the Betti numbers b{sub r} of a compact oriented Riemannian manifold. Bibliography: 25 titles.

  5. Date: _____________________ ______________________________________________ Student ID Number

    E-print Network

    Lathrop, Daniel P.

    Date: _____________________ ______________________________________________ Student ID Number Project Date Completed Comprehensive Examinations passed: Yes No Date Passed _____________ Provisions have No ________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________ Advisor (Print Name then Sign) Date Telephone extension and Email Address

  6. High Reynolds Number Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baals, D. D. (editor)

    1977-01-01

    Fundamental aerodynamic questions for which high Reynolds number experimental capability is required are discussed. The operational characteristics and design features of the National Transonic Facility are reviewed.

  7. Document Number Change Level

    E-print Network

    , 2000 CHANGE LEVEL: 12 CHANGE DATE: October 1, 2001 SECURITY LEVEL: None SUPERSESSION DATA: CR-0540, 11Document Number CR-0540 Change Level 12 Security Level None Page Number Page 1 of 19 TITLE: Luna® XPplus Security Policies ABSTRACT: This document describes the security policies implemented by the Luna

  8. Templates, Numbers & Watercolors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemesha, David J.

    1990-01-01

    Describes how a second-grade class used large templates to draw and paint five-digit numbers. The lesson integrated artistic knowledge and vocabulary with their mathematics lesson in place value. Students learned how draftspeople use templates, and they studied number paintings by Charles Demuth and Jasper Johns. (KM)

  9. Avogadro's Number Ferromagnetically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houari, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Avogadro's number, usually denoted by N[subscript A], plays a fundamental role in both physics and chemistry. It defines the extremely useful concept of the mole, which is the base unit of the amount of matter in the international system of units. The fundamental character of this number can also be illustrated by its appearance in the definitions…

  10. Unrecognizable Sets of Numbers

    E-print Network

    Minsky, Marvin

    1964-11-01

    When is a set A of positive integers, represented as binary numbers, "regular" in the sense that it is a set of sequences that can be recognized by a finite-state machine? Let pie A(n) be the number of members of A less ...

  11. Genetics by the Numbers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Life Science > Genetics by the Numbers Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Genetics by the Numbers By Chelsea ... Genetics NIH's National DNA Day This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...

  12. The Fibonacci Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onstad, Torgeir

    1991-01-01

    After a brief historical account of Leonardo Pisano Fibonacci, some basic results concerning the Fibonacci numbers are developed and proved, and entertaining examples are described. Connections are made between the Fibonacci numbers and the Golden Ratio, biological nature, and other combinatorics examples. (MDH)

  13. Numbers Are Not Everything

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Milton W.

    2009-01-01

    Numbers--of publications, grant money, PhD students, and invited talks, for example--play too large a role in assessments of faculty. The author's thirty-five years of experience in higher education have convinced him that overreliance on such numbers is a big problem, especially, but not exclusively, in the sciences. Every scientist recognizes…

  14. Buoyancy-aided convection flow in a heated straight pipe: comparing different asymptotic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arfaoui, Walid; Safi, Mohamed Jomaa; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves

    2015-09-01

    A vertical straight circular adiabatic vertical long tube, open at its lower and upper ends, is heated at its base on a short portion. The flow is studied with the hypothesis of no pressure drop between the entrance and the exit. Direct resolution of Navier Stokes equations is done by finite volumes. The numerical solutions are then compared to a one dimensional model and to two asymptotic models. The first asymptotic model is inspired from boundary layer approximations whereas the second one is more a linear perturbation of the Navier Stokes Boussinesq equations. For moderate values of the Grashof number, pressure, starting from zero decreases over the heated part to a minimum and increases on the adiabatic tube to zero. For larger values of Grashof, a local maximum in pressure appears, this pressure hump may even be positive. The four model agree, for moderate Grashof. When increasing the Grashof, only the two asymptotic models recover the behavior obtained from the numerical simulations.

  15. Date: _____________________ ______________________________________________ Student ID Number

    E-print Network

    Lathrop, Daniel P.

    Date: _____________________ __ __ ______________________________________________ Student ID Number ________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________ Director of Graduate Program (Print Name then Sign) Date Telephone extension and Email Address ________________________________________________________ Granted Denied Graduate School Representative Date Please return this form to: The Graduate School 2123

  16. Logo and Negative Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strawn, Candace A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes LOGO's turtle graphics capabilities based on a sixth-grade classroom's activities with negative numbers and Logo programming. A sidebar explains LOGO and offers suggestions to teachers for using LOGO effectively. (LRW)

  17. Core systems of number.

    PubMed

    Feigenson, Lisa; Dehaene, Stanislas; Spelke, Elizabeth

    2004-07-01

    What representations underlie the ability to think and reason about number? Whereas certain numerical concepts, such as the real numbers, are only ever represented by a subset of human adults, other numerical abilities are widespread and can be observed in adults, infants and other animal species. We review recent behavioral and neuropsychological evidence that these ontogenetically and phylogenetically shared abilities rest on two core systems for representing number. Performance signatures common across development and across species implicate one system for representing large, approximate numerical magnitudes, and a second system for the precise representation of small numbers of individual objects. These systems account for our basic numerical intuitions, and serve as the foundation for the more sophisticated numerical concepts that are uniquely human. PMID:15242690

  18. Discovering Avogadro's Number.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieck, William A.

    1997-01-01

    Illustrates the use of an inductive approach that leads students to the discovery of Avogadro's number while integrating thinking, mathematical, and calculator skills in the process. An understanding of scientific notation and a calculator are required. (DDR)

  19. Computer Corner: Growing Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumway, Richard J.

    1983-01-01

    Exponential growth provides an interesting setting for exploration. A sequence of activities and questions which will help students become better acquainted with large numbers and scientific notation, as well as computer notions, is given. (MNS)

  20. The Numbers Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustick, David

    1997-01-01

    Describes a simple activity that explores and reveals the principles of significant figures and scientific notation using a 500 gram bag of unpopped popcorn. Students must devise a method for determining the number of kernels in the bag. (DDR)

  1. Fibonacci's Forgotten Number

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ezra; Brunson, Cornelius

    2008-01-01

    Fibonacci's forgotten number is the sexagesimal number 1;22,7,42,33,4,40, which he described in 1225 as an approximation to the real root of x[superscript 3] + 2x[superscript 2] + 10x - 20. In decimal notation, this is 1.36880810785...and it is correct to nine decimal digits. Fibonacci did not reveal his method. How did he do it? There is also a…

  2. Report number codes

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.N.

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

  3. Neutral pion number fluctuations

    E-print Network

    Elena Kokoulina

    2011-10-13

    Neutral pion number fluctuations have been measured in proton interactions at U-70 accelerator (IHEP, Protvino). The experiment is carried out on the SVD-2 setup. Charged and neutral particles are registered simultaneously. The reconstruction of $\\pi ^0$-mesons is fulfilled by means of observed gamma quanta at the electromagnetic calorimeter. The corrections on the setup acceptance, triggering, efficiencies of detectors and the reconstruction algorithm are included. The multiplicity distributions of the neutral pions have permitted to define the scaled variance, $\\omega $, for $\\pi ^0$-mesons. The revealed sharp growth of fluctuations of the neutral pion number at total meson multiplicities more than 22 can indicate the Bose-Einstein condensate formation.

  4. A number of organizations,

    E-print Network

    34 A number of organizations, including municipalities, state and federal agencies, businesses, buying pools have more pur- chasing leverage with suppliers competing for their business. This purchasing power can be used to negotiate cost savings, a dif- ferent combination of services or more favorable

  5. Paint by Numbers Revived!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Nic

    2012-01-01

    Remember paint by numbers? This revived trend was a perfect solution to teaching geometric shapes to the author's first-grade students. Geometric shapes are identified and used in early elementary art classrooms, but this lesson gives students a deeper understanding of shape, encourages problem-solving, and makes a strong correlation between math…

  6. ALARA notes, Number 8

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.; Beckman, M.C.

    1993-10-01

    This document contains information dealing with the lessons learned from the experience of nuclear plants. In this issue the authors tried to avoid the `tyranny` of numbers and concentrated on the main lessons learned. Topics include: filtration devices for air pollution abatement, crack repair and inspection, and remote handling equipment.

  7. Playing the Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Some say that the educators now have a gender-stratified system of higher education, with nearly 60 percent of all undergraduates being women and fewer men attending each year. The battle for gender equity for women in higher education has been a long and contentious one. In the decades since, increasing numbers of women have gone to college, to…

  8. Analogies for Avogadro's Number.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poskozim, Paul S.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews analogies used to try to capture the concept of the magnitude of Avogadro's number, including analogies related to small/tiny objects, counting, people, water, and money. Also presents several new ones which are based on modern computers and printers. (JN)

  9. Student Code Number: Thermodynamics

    E-print Network

    Feeny, Brian

    Student Code Number: Thermodynamics Ph.D. Qualifying Exam Department of Mechanical Engineering;Thermodynamics Qualifier January 2013 Problem 1 Air is compressed in an axial-flow compressor operating at steady of exergy destruction within the compressor, in kJ per kg of air flowing. #12;Thermodynamics Qualifier

  10. UCGE Reports Number 20380

    E-print Network

    Calgary, University of

    UCGE Reports Number 20380 Department of Geomatics Engineering Floor Plan Based Indoor Vision #12;UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY Floor Plan Based Indoor Vision Navigation Using Smart Device by Bei Huang vision, a geo-reference database is needed. Floor plan is a ubiquitous geo-reference database that every

  11. Number in Classifier Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nomoto, Hiroki

    2013-01-01

    Classifier languages are often described as lacking genuine number morphology and treating all common nouns, including those conceptually count, as an unindividuated mass. This study argues that neither of these popular assumptions is true, and presents new generalizations and analyses gained by abandoning them. I claim that no difference exists…

  12. UCGE Reports Number 20176

    E-print Network

    Calgary, University of

    UCGE Reports Number 20176 Department of Geomatics Engineering High Sensitivity GPS Performance://www.geomatics.ucalgary.ca/links/GradTheses.html) by Glenn D. MacGougan June 2003 #12;THE UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY High Sensitivity GPS Performance Analysis environments and quantifies measurement availability, signal fading, pseudorange errors, positioning accuracy

  13. Elliptic Pseudoprimes Elliptic Carmichael Numbers

    E-print Network

    Silverman, Joseph H.

    Elliptic Carmichael Numbers A natural number n is an elliptic Carmichael number for E if n is an elliptic Carmichael numbers 15, 77, 203, 245, 725, 875, . . . . Example. The curve E : y2 = x3 + x + 3 has no elliptic Korselt­Carmichael numbers smaller than 25000. The first such number for E is 27563. #12;Elliptic

  14. Quantum random number generation

    E-print Network

    Xiongfeng Ma; Xiao Yuan; Zhu Cao; Bing Qi; Zhen Zhang

    2015-10-30

    Quantum physics can be exploited to generate true random numbers, which play important roles in many applications, especially in cryptography. Such genuine randomness from the measurement of a quantum system reveals the inherent nature of quantumness --- coherence, an important feature that differentiates quantum mechanics from classical physics. Genuine randomness generation is generally considered impossible with only classical mechanics procedures. Based on the degree of trustworthiness on a device, quantum random number generators (QRNGs) can be grouped into three categories. The first category, practical QRNG, is built on fully trusted and calibrated devices and generates randomness at a high speed by properly modeling the devices. The second category is self-testing QRNG, which produces randomness without depending on the realisation devices. The third category, semi-self-testing QRNG, is an intermediate category in which parts of the system are self-testing, and the high performance of practical QRNGs is also maintained.

  15. The Remarkable Number "1"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, G. Donald

    2014-09-01

    In human history, the origin of the numbers came from definite practical needs. Indeed, there is strong evidence that numbers were created before writing. The number "1", dating back at least 20,000 years, was found as a counting symbol on a bone. The famous statement by the German mathematician Leopold Kronecker (1823-1891), "God made the integers; all else is the work of man," has spawned a lively modern philosophical discussion, and this discussion begins by trying to get a philosophical handle on "1." This approach remains under heavy discussion, and is more-or-less unresolved (Frege in Die Grundlagen der Arithmetik (English: The foundations of arithmetic). Polhman, 1884). In this note, we consider the many facets of "one" in it many guises and applications. Nonetheless, "one" has multiple meanings, from the very practical to the abstract, from mathematics to science to basically everything. We examine here a mere slice of mathematical history with a focus on the most basic and applicable concept therein. It troubles many, particularly students, even today.

  16. Beyond Natural Numbers: Negative Number Representation in Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Kristen P.; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Tsang, Jessica M.; Schwartz, Daniel L.; Menon, Vinod

    2012-01-01

    Unlike natural numbers, negative numbers do not have natural physical referents. How does the brain represent such abstract mathematical concepts? Two competing hypotheses regarding representational systems for negative numbers are a rule-based model, in which symbolic rules are applied to negative numbers to translate them into positive numbers when assessing magnitudes, and an expanded magnitude model, in which negative numbers have a distinct magnitude representation. Using an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging design, we examined brain responses in 22 adults while they performed magnitude comparisons of negative and positive numbers that were quantitatively near (difference <4) or far apart (difference >6). Reaction times (RTs) for negative numbers were slower than positive numbers, and both showed a distance effect whereby near pairs took longer to compare. A network of parietal, frontal, and occipital regions were differentially engaged by negative numbers. Specifically, compared to positive numbers, negative number processing resulted in greater activation bilaterally in intraparietal sulcus (IPS), middle frontal gyrus, and inferior lateral occipital cortex. Representational similarity analysis revealed that neural responses in the IPS were more differentiated among positive numbers than among negative numbers, and greater differentiation among negative numbers was associated with faster RTs. Our findings indicate that despite negative numbers engaging the IPS more strongly, the underlying neural representation are less distinct than that of positive numbers. We discuss our findings in the context of the two theoretical models of negative number processing and demonstrate how multivariate approaches can provide novel insights into abstract number representation. PMID:22363276

  17. numbers and SAT Oliver Kullmann

    E-print Network

    Kullmann, Oliver

    Green-Tao numbers and SAT Oliver Kullmann Introduction Green-Tao numbers Transversal extensions The generic boolean translation Green-Tao numbers and SAT Oliver Kullmann Computer Science Department Swansea, 2010 #12;Green-Tao numbers and SAT Oliver Kullmann Introduction Green-Tao numbers Transversal

  18. Neither Name, Nor Number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holik, Federico

    2014-03-01

    Since its origins, quantum mechanics has presented problems with the concept of individuality. It is argued that quantum particles do not have individuality, and so, one can speak about "entities without identity". On the contrary, we claim that the problem of quantum non individuality goes deeper, and that one of its most important features is the fact that there are quantum systems for which particle number is not well defined. In this work, we continue this discussion in relation to the problem about the one and the many.

  19. Feynman's sunshine numbers

    E-print Network

    Broadhurst, David

    2010-01-01

    This is an expansion of a talk for mathematics and physics students of the Manchester Grammar and Manchester High Schools. It deals with numbers such as the Riemann zeta value zeta(3)=sum_{n>0}1/n^3. Zeta values appear in the description of sunshine and of relics from the Big Bang. They also result from Feynman diagrams, which occur in the quantum field theory of fundamental particles such as photons, electrons and positrons. My talk included 7 reasonably simple problems, for which I here add solutions, with further details of their context.

  20. Feynman's sunshine numbers

    E-print Network

    David Broadhurst

    2010-04-23

    This is an expansion of a talk for mathematics and physics students of the Manchester Grammar and Manchester High Schools. It deals with numbers such as the Riemann zeta value zeta(3)=sum_{n>0}1/n^3. Zeta values appear in the description of sunshine and of relics from the Big Bang. They also result from Feynman diagrams, which occur in the quantum field theory of fundamental particles such as photons, electrons and positrons. My talk included 7 reasonably simple problems, for which I here add solutions, with further details of their context.

  1. Quantum random number generator

    E-print Network

    M. Stipcevic; B. Medved Rogina

    2007-01-01

    We report upon a novel principle for realization of a fast nondeterministic random number generator whose randomness relies on intrinsic randomness of the quantum physical processes of photonic emission in semiconductors and subsequent detection by the photoelectric effect. Timing information of detected photons is used to generate binary random digits-bits. The bit extraction method based on restartable clock theoretically eliminates both bias and autocorrelation while reaching efficiency of almost 0.5 bits per random event. A prototype has been built and statistically tested.

  2. Series of Reciprocal Triangular Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruckman, Paul; Dence, Joseph B.; Dence, Thomas P.; Young, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Reciprocal triangular numbers have appeared in series since the very first infinite series were summed. Here we attack a number of subseries of the reciprocal triangular numbers by methodically expressing them as integrals.

  3. Generalized Maxwell Love numbers

    E-print Network

    Giorgio Spada

    2009-11-04

    By elementary methods, I study the Love numbers of a homogeneous, incompressible, self-gravitating sphere characterized by a generalized Maxwell rheology, whose mechanical analogue is represented by a finite or infinite system of classical Maxwell elements disposed in parallel. Analytical, previously unknown forms of the complex shear modulus for the generalized Maxwell body are found by algebraic manipulation, and studied in the particular case of systems of springs and dashpots whose strength follows a power-law distribution. We show that the sphere is asymptotically stable for any choice of the mechanical parameters that define the generalized Maxwell body and analytical forms of the Love numbers are always available for generalized bodies composed by less than five classical Maxwell bodies. For the homogeneous sphere, real Laplace inversion methods based on the Post-Widder formula can be applied without performing a numerical discretization of the n-th derivative, which can be computed in a "closed-form" with the aid of the Faa di Bruno formula.

  4. Rare Copy Number Variants

    PubMed Central

    Grozeva, Detelina; Kirov, George; Ivanov, Dobril; Jones, Ian R.; Jones, Lisa; Green, Elaine K.; St Clair, David M.; Young, Allan H.; Ferrier, Nicol; Farmer, Anne E.; McGuffin, Peter; Holmans, Peter A.; Owen, Michael J.; O’Donovan, Michael C.; Craddock, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Context Recent studies suggest that copy number variation in the human genome is extensive and may play an important role in susceptibility to disease, including neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. The possible involvement of copy number variants (CNVs) in bipolar disorder has received little attention to date. Objectives To determine whether large (>100 000 base pairs) and rare (found in <1% of the population) CNVs are associated with susceptibility to bipolar disorder and to compare with findings in schizophrenia. Design A genome-wide survey of large, rare CNVs in a case-control sample using a high-density microarray. Setting The Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. Participants There were 1697 cases of bipolar disorder and 2806 nonpsychiatric controls. All participants were white UK residents. Main Outcome Measures Overall load of CNVs and presence of rare CNVs. Results The burden of CNVs in bipolar disorder was not increased compared with controls and was significantly less than in schizophrenia cases. The CNVs previously implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia were not more common in cases with bipolar disorder. Conclusions Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder differ with respect to CNV burden in general and association with specific CNVs in particular. Our data are consistent with the possibility that possession of large, rare deletions may modify the phenotype in those at risk of psychosis: those possessing such events are more likely to be diagnosed as having schizophrenia, and those without them are more likely to be diagnosed as having bipolar disorder. PMID:20368508

  5. Transient natural convection heat and mass transfer in crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Samuel S.

    1988-01-01

    A numerical analysis of transient combined heat and mass transfer across a rectangular cavity is performed by a numerical method based on the SIMPLE algorithm. The physical parameters are selected to represent a range of possible crystal growth in solutions. Numerical results are compared with available experimental data to confirm the accuracy of the results. Good qualitative agreements are obtained for the average mass transfer rate across the cavity. Also, qualitative agreements are observed for the global development of thermal and solute fields. It is found that the thermal and solute fields become highly oscillatory when the thermal and solute Grashof numbers are large. Oscillations are probably caused by a number of different instability mechanisms. By reducing the gravity some of these instabilities were made to disappear at the lower Grashof numbers. Transient temperature and solute distribution near the crystal growing surface are highly non-uniform at the higher Grashof numbers. These non-uniformities are less severe in the reduced gravity environments but still exist. The effects of convection on the rate of average mass transfer are more than one order of magnitude higher than those of conduction in the range of Grashof numbers studied. Dependency of mass transfer rate on the Grashof number indicates that the convection effects many not be negligible even in the microgravity environments for the range of parameters investigated.

  6. Number Games, Magnitude Representation, and Basic Number Skills in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyte, Jemma Catherine; Bull, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    The effect of 3 intervention board games (linear number, linear color, and nonlinear number) on young children's (mean age = 3.8 years) counting abilities, number naming, magnitude comprehension, accuracy in number-to-position estimation tasks, and best-fit numerical magnitude representations was examined. Pre- and posttest performance was…

  7. On normal numbers Veronica Becher

    E-print Network

    Becher, Verónica

    Logique Math´ematique, Universit´e Paris Diderot F´evrier 2, 2015 #12;Normal numbers Normality is a basicOn normal numbers Ver´onica Becher Universidad de Buenos Aires & CONICET Seminaire de l'Equipe de form of randomness for real numbers. It asks that the expansions of real numbers obey the Law of Large

  8. numbers and SAT Oliver Kullmann

    E-print Network

    Kullmann, Oliver

    Green-Tao numbers and SAT Oliver Kullmann Introduction Green-Tao numbers Transversal extensions The generic boolean translation Green-Tao numbers and SAT Oliver Kullmann Computer Science Department Swansea University SAT 2010 Edinburgh, July 12, 2010 #12;Green-Tao numbers and SAT Oliver Kullmann Introduction Green

  9. Bondage number of grid graphs

    E-print Network

    Dettlaff, Magda; Yero, Ismael G

    2012-01-01

    The bondage number $b(G)$ of a nonempty graph $G$ is the cardinality of a smallest set of edges whose removal from $G$ results in a graph with domination number greater than the domination number of $G$. Here we study the bondage number of some grid-like graphs. In this sense, we obtain some bounds or exact values of the bondage number of some Cartesian product, strong product or direct product of two paths.

  10. CHANGE OF NAME TIAA Annuity Number CREF Annuity Number TIAA Policy Number

    E-print Network

    Snider, Barry B.

    CHANGE OF NAME TIAA Annuity Number CREF Annuity Number TIAA Policy Number Social Security Number Former Name Title First Name Middle Name Last Name Former Signature New Name My Name has been changed to that given below and I authorize you to use the new name hereafter: Title First Name Middle Name Last Name

  11. The concrete theory of numbers: initial numbers and wonderful properties of numbers repunit

    E-print Network

    Boris V. Tarasov

    2007-04-07

    In this work initial numbers and repunit numbers have been studied. All numbers have been considered in a decimal notation. The problem of simplicity of initial numbers has been studied. Interesting properties of numbers repunit are proved: $gcd(R_a, R_b) = R_{gcd(a,b)}$; $R_{ab}/(R_aR_b)$ is an integer only if $gcd(a,b) = 1$, where $a\\geq1$, $b\\geq1$ are integers. Dividers of numbers repunit, are researched by a degree of prime number.

  12. 15. Stress Sheet, Truss number 2, span number 6, Superior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Stress Sheet, Truss number 2, span number 6, Superior Avenue viaduct. Drawing courtesy Engineering Dept., City of Cleveland. - Superior Avenue Viaduct, Cleveland East & West side, Cuyahoga Valley Vicinity, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  13. Natural Number Bias in Operations with Missing Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christou, Konstantinos P.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the hypothesis that there is a natural number bias that influences how students understand the effects of arithmetical operations involving both Arabic numerals and numbers that are represented by symbols for missing numbers. It also investigates whether this bias correlates with other aspects of students' understanding of…

  14. Relating Mason number to Bingham number in magnetorheological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Stephen G.; Becnel, Andrew C.; Wereley, Norman M.

    2015-04-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) fluids are described using two nondimensional numbers, the Bingham and Mason numbers. The Mason number is the ratio of particle magnetic forces to viscous forces and describes the behavior of MR fluids at the microscopic, particle level scale. At the macroscopic, continuum scale, Bingham number is the ratio of yield stress to viscous stress, and describes the bulk motion of the fluid. If these two nondimensional numbers can be related, then microscopic models can be directly compared to macroscopic results. We show that if microscopic and macroscopic forces are linearly related, then Bingham and Mason number are inversely related, or, alternatively, that the product of the Bingham number and the Mason number is a constant. This relationship is experimentally validated based on measurements of apparent viscosity on a high shear rate, ? ? ? 10 000s-1, Searle cell rheometer. This relationship between Mason number and Bingham number is then used to analyze a Mason number based result, and is also used to inform the MR fluid device design process.

  15. Physica D 220 (2006) 6978 www.elsevier.com/locate/physd

    E-print Network

    Gibbon, J. D.

    2006-01-01

    - equations in terms of the Reynolds number J.D. Gibbon, D.D. Holm Department of Mathematics, Imperial College by two dimensionless numbers. These are Corresponding author. Tel.: +44 207 594 8504. E-mail address: j.d.gibbon@ic.ac.uk (J.D. Gibbon). the Grashof number Gr, which measures forcing, and the Reynolds number Re which

  16. PLURIDICTA, Numbers 28-35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Johannes, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The eight titles in this document include the following: "Comprehension and Input Processing as Useful Terms in the Field of SLA" (number 28) (Teresa Cadierno); "On the Role of Instruction in SLA: Research Results and Theoretical Explanations" (number 29) (Teresa Cadierno); "Can Writing Be Taught" (number 30) (Stuart Greene); "Academic Listening"…

  17. Tracking Number: University of Chicago

    E-print Network

    Butler, Laurie J.

    Tracking Number: University of Chicago Enterprise Application Systems Request for Business Objects Request Date Requestor Phone Number Requestor Email Requestor Division Name & No. Requestor Dept Name & No. Requester Title Supervisor Name Supervisor Title Supervisor Phone Number Instructions 1. Complete this cover

  18. Chromatic number of Euclidean plane

    E-print Network

    Kai-Rui Wang

    2015-07-01

    If the chromatic number of Euclidean plane is larger than four, but it is known that the chromatic number of planar graphs is equal to four, then how does one explain it? In my opinion, they are contradictory to each other. This idea leads to confirm the chromatic number of the plane about its exact value.

  19. On normal numbers Veronica Becher

    E-print Network

    Becher, Verónica

    On normal numbers 8 / 33 #12;Normal to all bases Bulletin de la Soci´et´e Math´ematique de France (On normal numbers Ver´onica Becher Universidad de Buenos Aires & CONICET Coloquio del Departamento de Matem´atica, FCEN, UBA, 2 octubre 2014 #12;Normal numbers Normality is a basic form of randomness

  20. Random Numbers and Quantum Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartney, Mark; Glass, David

    2002-01-01

    The topic of random numbers is investigated in such a way as to illustrate links between mathematics, physics and computer science. First, the generation of random numbers by a classical computer using the linear congruential generator and logistic map is considered. It is noted that these procedures yield only pseudo-random numbers since…

  1. A Lesson in Number Pattern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Rodney

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a guided investigation into the spacial relationships between the centres of the squares in a Fibonacci tiling. It is essentially a lesson in number pattern, but includes work with surds, coordinate geometry, and some elementary use of complex numbers. The investigation could be presented to students in a number of ways…

  2. REQUEST FOR TEMPORARY ID NUMBER

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    of Citizenship: Has SSN Been applied for? *Assigned Number: *The UGACard Office will assign special identification numbers to foreign visitors who do not apply for a SSN Dates Affiliate will be on campusREQUEST FOR TEMPORARY ID NUMBER AFFILIATE RETURN TO: UGACard Office 309 Tate Student Center Phone

  3. Approximate Number Sense, Symbolic Number Processing, or Number-Space Mappings: What Underlies Mathematics Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasanguie, Delphine; Gobel, Silke M.; Moll, Kristina; Smets, Karolien; Reynvoet, Bert

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the performance of typically developing 6- to 8-year-old children on an approximate number discrimination task, a symbolic comparison task, and a symbolic and nonsymbolic number line estimation task was examined. For the first time, children's performances on these basic cognitive number processing tasks were explicitly contrasted…

  4. Chaotic Nonlinear Prime Number Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateos, Luis A.

    2011-06-01

    Dynamical systems in nature, such as heartbeat patterns, DNA sequence pattern, prime number distribution, etc., exhibit nonlinear (chaotic) space-time fluctuations and exact quantification of the fluctuation pattern for predictability purposes has not yet been achieved [1]. In this paper a chaotic-nonlinear prime number function P(s) is developed, from which prime numbers are generated and decoded while composite numbers are encoded over time following the Euler product methodology, which works on sequences progressively culled from multiples of the preceding primes. By relating this P(s) to a virtually closed 2D number line manifold, it is possible to represent the evolving in time of nonlinear (chaotic) systems to a final value where the system becomes stable, becomes linear. This nonlinear prime number function is proposed as a chaotic model system able to describe chaotic systems.

  5. Reprint Series: Prime Numbers and Perfect Numbers. RS-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaaf, William L., Ed.

    This is one in a series of SMSG supplementary and enrichment pamphlets for high school students. This series makes available expository articles which appeared in a variety of mathematical periodicals. Topics covered include: (1) the prime numbers; (2) mathematical sieves; (3) the factorgram; and (4) perfect numbers. (MP)

  6. Familial Sinistrals Avoid Exact Numbers

    PubMed Central

    Sauerland, Uli; Gotzner, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    We report data from an internet questionnaire of sixty number trivia. Participants were asked for the number of cups in their house, the number of cities they know and 58 other quantities. We compare the answers of familial sinistrals – individuals who are left-handed themselves or have a left-handed close blood-relative – with those of pure familial dextrals – right-handed individuals who reported only having right-handed close blood-relatives. We show that familial sinistrals use rounder numbers than pure familial dextrals in the survey responses. Round numbers in the decimal system are those that are multiples of powers of 10 or of half or a quarter of a power of 10. Roundness is a gradient concept, e.g. 100 is rounder than 50 or 200. We show that very round number like 100 and 1000 are used with 25% greater likelihood by familial sinistrals than by pure familial dextrals, while pure familial dextrals are more likely to use less round numbers such as 25, 60, and 200. We then use Sigurd’s (1988, Language in Society) index of the roundness of a number and report that familial sinistrals’ responses are significantly rounder on average than those of pure familial dextrals. To explain the difference, we propose that the cognitive effort of using exact numbers is greater for the familial sinistral group because their language and number systems tend to be more distributed over both hemispheres of the brain. Our data support the view that exact and approximate quantities are processed by two separate cognitive systems. Specifically, our behavioral data corroborates the view that the evolutionarily older, approximate number system is present in both hemispheres of the brain, while the exact number system tends to be localized in only one hemisphere. PMID:23544052

  7. Expected gaps between prime numbers

    E-print Network

    Holt, Fred B

    2007-01-01

    We study the gaps between consecutive prime numbers directly through Eratosthenes sieve. Using elementary methods, we identify a recursive relation for these gaps and for specific sequences of consecutive gaps, known as constellations. Using this recursion we can estimate the numbers of a gap or of a constellation that occur between a prime and its square. This recursion also has explicit implications for open questions about gaps between prime numbers, including three questions posed by Erd\\"os and Tur\\'an.

  8. Familial sinistrals avoid exact numbers.

    PubMed

    Sauerland, Uli; Gotzner, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    We report data from an internet questionnaire of sixty number trivia. Participants were asked for the number of cups in their house, the number of cities they know and 58 other quantities. We compare the answers of familial sinistrals--individuals who are left-handed themselves or have a left-handed close blood-relative--with those of pure familial dextrals--right-handed individuals who reported only having right-handed close blood-relatives. We show that familial sinistrals use rounder numbers than pure familial dextrals in the survey responses. Round numbers in the decimal system are those that are multiples of powers of 10 or of half or a quarter of a power of 10. Roundness is a gradient concept, e.g. 100 is rounder than 50 or 200. We show that very round number like 100 and 1000 are used with 25% greater likelihood by familial sinistrals than by pure familial dextrals, while pure familial dextrals are more likely to use less round numbers such as 25, 60, and 200. We then use Sigurd's (1988, Language in Society) index of the roundness of a number and report that familial sinistrals' responses are significantly rounder on average than those of pure familial dextrals. To explain the difference, we propose that the cognitive effort of using exact numbers is greater for the familial sinistral group because their language and number systems tend to be more distributed over both hemispheres of the brain. Our data support the view that exact and approximate quantities are processed by two separate cognitive systems. Specifically, our behavioral data corroborates the view that the evolutionarily older, approximate number system is present in both hemispheres of the brain, while the exact number system tends to be localized in only one hemisphere. PMID:23544052

  9. Compendium of Experimental Cetane Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Yanowitz, J.; Ratcliff, M. A.; McCormick, R. L.; Taylor, J. D.; Murphy, M. J.

    2014-08-01

    This report is an updated version of the 2004 Compendium of Experimental Cetane Number Data and presents a compilation of measured cetane numbers for pure chemical compounds. It includes all available single compound cetane number data found in the scientific literature up until March 2014 as well as a number of unpublished values, most measured over the past decade at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This Compendium contains cetane values for 389 pure compounds, including 189 hydrocarbons and 201 oxygenates. More than 250 individual measurements are new to this version of the Compendium. For many compounds, numerous measurements are included, often collected by different researchers using different methods. Cetane number is a relative ranking of a fuel's autoignition characteristics for use in compression ignition engines; it is based on the amount of time between fuel injection and ignition, also known as ignition delay. The cetane number is typically measured either in a single-cylinder engine or a constant volume combustion chamber. Values in the previous Compendium derived from octane numbers have been removed, and replaced with a brief analysis of the correlation between cetane numbers and octane numbers. The discussion on the accuracy and precision of the most commonly used methods for measuring cetane has been expanded and the data has been annotated extensively to provide additional information that will help the reader judge the relative reliability of individual results.

  10. Power Series of Fuzzy Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadak, U?ur; Ba?ar, Feyzi

    2010-11-01

    Following Talo and Ba?ar [Determination of the duals of classical sets of sequences of fuzzy numbers and related matrix transformations, Comput. Math. Appl. 58(2009), 717-733], we essentially deal with the power series of fuzzy numbers with real or fuzzy coefficients. We consider the different cases of power series of fuzzy numbers to be convergent and give the theorem on the term by term differentiation of power series of fuzzy numbers. Finally, we present a result on the Taylor expansion of a fuzzy valued function.

  11. Counting copy number and calories.

    PubMed

    White, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    Copy number variation (CNV) at several genomic loci has been associated with different human traits and diseases, but in many cases the findings could not be replicated. A new study provides insights into the degree of variation present at the amylase locus and calls into question a previous association between amylase copy number and body mass index. PMID:26220133

  12. Investigating the Randomness of Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendleton, Kenn L.

    2009-01-01

    The use of random numbers is pervasive in today's world. Random numbers have practical applications in such far-flung arenas as computer simulations, cryptography, gambling, the legal system, statistical sampling, and even the war on terrorism. Evaluating the randomness of extremely large samples is a complex, intricate process. However, the…

  13. Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers

    MedlinePLUS

    Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers If you have diabetes, keeping your blood sugar (glucose) numbers in your target range can help you ... and Prevention There are two ways to measure blood sugar. 1 The A1C is a lab test that ...

  14. Reservation Phone Number/website

    E-print Network

    Rental Car Vendor Account Number Reservation Phone Number/website Contact Name Coverage Enterprise Rent-A-Car NSHE XZ54080 PIN # NSH 1-800-499-8370 Rose Marie Cramer (702) 597-4554 Statewide and Nationwide Enterprise Rent-A-Car State of Nevada XZ54WNV PIN # STA Nat'l One Way XZ54097 1-800-499-8370 Rose

  15. On Counting the Rational Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almada, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…

  16. Building Buildings with Triangular Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagni, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Triangular numbers are used to unravel a new sequence of natural numbers here-to-fore not appearing on the Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences website. Insight is provided on the construction of the sequence using "buildings" as a viewable model of the sequence entries. A step-by-step analysis of the sequence pattern reveals a method for generating…

  17. Applicant Name Student ID Number

    E-print Network

    at a school in a rural area of New Zealand. or B. Have resided in a rural area of New Zealand for a minimum a combination of pre-tertiary education at a school in a rural area of New Zealand and residence in a rural area/City* Town/City* RD Number* RD Number* Rural Address Property Rural Address Property Identification (RAPID

  18. Account Number Citation Reappeal Form

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    150106 Account Number Citation Reappeal Form Parking Services, University of Massachusetts, Amherst://parking.umass.edu Email: parking@umass.edu Appeals must be received within 14 days of citation issuance and may be filed. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Citation #:___________________________ Date Issued: _____ / _____ / ____________ State/Plate Number

  19. Number Talks Build Numerical Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrish, Sherry D.

    2011-01-01

    "Classroom number talks," five- to fifteen-minute conversations around purposefully crafted computation problems, are a productive tool that can be incorporated into classroom instruction to combine the essential processes and habits of mind of doing math. During number talks, students are asked to communicate their thinking when presenting and…

  20. Spontaneous Number Representation in Mosquitofish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadda, Marco; Piffer, Laura; Agrillo, Christian; Bisazza, Angelo

    2009-01-01

    While there is convincing evidence that preverbal human infants and non-human primates can spontaneously represent number, considerable debate surrounds the possibility that such capacity is also present in other animals. Fish show a remarkable ability to discriminate between different numbers of social companions. Previous work has demonstrated…

  1. Automated serial number recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Bao, Xudong; Luo, Limin; Lv, Guoqiang

    2003-05-01

    Serial number plays an important role in the manufacturing and managing processes to identify the industry products, and automatic recognition of the serial number has become an essential step in modern industries. The limits of manufacture condition in factories and the requirement of real-time operation, however, make the design of a practical automatic serial number recognition system a difficult task. We developed a novel automatic serial number recognition system for railway wheel products, which has been successfully used in real production lines. This system uses visual inspection approaches to automatically recognize the serial numbers in real-time. The flexibility and low cost of the system make it very suitable for the applications described in this paper.

  2. Old and New Magic Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Talmi, Igal

    2008-11-11

    The discovery of magic numbers led to the shell model. They indicated closure of major shells and are robust: proton magic numbers are rather independent of the occupation of neutron orbits and vice versa. Recently the magic property became less stringent and we hear a lot about the discovery of new magic numbers. These, however, indicate sub-shell closures and strongly depend on occupation numbers and hence, may be called quasi-magic numbers. Some of these have been known for many years and the mechanism for their appearance as well as disappearance, was well understood within the simple shell model. The situation will be illustrated by a few examples which demonstrate the simple features of the shell model. Will this simplicity emerge from the complex computations of nuclear many-body theory?.

  3. RNG: A Practitioner's Overview Random Number Generation

    E-print Network

    Mascagni, Michael

    RNG: A Practitioner's Overview Random Number Generation A Practitioner's Overview Prof. Michael and Monte Carlo Methods Pseudorandom number generation Types of pseudorandom numbers Properties of these pseudorandom numbers Parallelization of pseudorandom number generators New directions for SPRNG Quasirandom

  4. Position Number: 0000XXXX Current Position Information

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    Page 1 Position Number: 0000XXXX Current Position Information Budget Center Name: Department Number: Supervisor's Name: Supervisor's Position Number: Supervisor's State Position Number: Supervisor's State Title: Supervisor's Job Code: Supervisor's Slot: Employee Name: Employee ID: Business Title: State Position Number

  5. Reynolds number influences in aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.; Yip, Long P.; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Lin, John C.; Lawing, Pierce L.; Batina, John T.; Hardin, Jay C.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Fenbert, James W.; Domack, Christopher S.

    1993-01-01

    Reynolds number, a measure of the ratio of inertia to viscous forces, is a fundamental similarity parameter for fluid flows and therefore, would be expected to have a major influence in aerodynamics and aeronautics. Reynolds number influences are generally large, but monatomic, for attached laminar (continuum) flow; however, laminar flows are easily separated, inducing even stronger, non-monatomic, Reynolds number sensitivities. Probably the strongest Reynolds number influences occur in connection with transitional flow behavior. Transition can take place over a tremendous Reynolds number range, from the order of 20 x 10(exp 3) for 2-D free shear layers up to the order of 100 x 10(exp 6) for hypersonic boundary layers. This variability in transition behavior is especially important for complex configurations where various vehicle and flow field elements can undergo transition at various Reynolds numbers, causing often surprising changes in aerodynamics characteristics over wide ranges in Reynolds number. This is further compounded by the vast parameterization associated with transition, in that any parameter which influences mean viscous flow development (e.g., pressure gradient, flow curvature, wall temperature, Mach number, sweep, roughness, flow chemistry, shock interactions, etc.), and incident disturbance fields (acoustics, vorticity, particulates, temperature spottiness, even electro static discharges) can alter transition locations to first order. The usual method of dealing with the transition problem is to trip the flow in the generally lower Reynolds number wind tunnel to simulate the flight turbulent behavior. However, this is not wholly satisfactory as it results in incorrectly scaled viscous region thicknesses and cannot be utilized at all for applications such as turbine blades and helicopter rotors, nacelles, leading edge and nose regions, and High Altitude Long Endurance and hypersonic airbreathers where the transitional flow is an innately critical portion of the problem.

  6. Numbered nasal discs for waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartonek, J.C.; Dane, C.W.

    1964-01-01

    Numbered nasal discs were successfully used in studies requiring large numbers of individually marked waterfowl. The procedure for constructing these discs is outlined. Blue-winged teal (Anas discors) with 5/8-inch discs, and canvasback (Aythya valisineria) and redhead (A. americana) with 3/4-inch discs can be individually identified up to 50 and 80 yards, respectively, with a gunstock-mounted, 20-power spotting scope. The particular value of these markers is their durability, the number of combinations possible, and the apparent absence of behavioral or mortality influence among such species as the blue-winged teal.

  7. Number fields without small generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaaler, Jeffrey D.; Widmer, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Let $D>1$ be an integer, and let $b=b(D)>1$ be its smallest divisor. We show that there are infinitely many number fields of degree $D$ whose primitive elements all have relatively large height in terms of $b$, $D$ and the discriminant of the number field. This provides a negative answer to a questions of W. Ruppert from 1998 in the case when $D$ is composite. Conditional on a very weak form of a folk conjecture about the distribution of number fields, we negatively answer Ruppert's question for all $D>3$.

  8. Pinning of Fermionic Occupation Numbers

    E-print Network

    Christian Schilling; David Gross; Matthias Christandl

    2012-10-19

    The Pauli exclusion principle is a constraint on the natural occupation numbers of fermionic states. It has been suspected since at least the 1970's, and only proved very recently, that there is a multitude of further constraints on these numbers, generalizing the Pauli principle. Here, we provide the first analytic analysis of the physical relevance of these constraints. We compute the natural occupation numbers for the ground states of a family of interacting fermions in a harmonic potential. Intriguingly, we find that the occupation numbers are almost, but not exactly, pinned to the boundary of the allowed region (quasi-pinned). The result suggests that the physics behind the phenomenon is richer than previously appreciated. In particular, it shows that for some models, the generalized Pauli constraints play a role for the ground state, even though they do not limit the ground-state energy. Our findings suggest a generalization of the Hartree-Fock approximation.

  9. Avogadro's Number and Avogadro's Constant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, R. O.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses three possible methods of thinking about the implications of the definitions of the Avogadro constant and number. Indicates that there is only one way to arrive at a simple and standard conclusion. (CC)

  10. BIOINFORMATICS VOLUME 31, NUMBER 12

    E-print Network

    Brendel, Volker

    BIOINFORMATICS VOLUME 31, NUMBER 12 JUNE 15, 2015 Contents ORIGINAL PAPERS Genome analysis Geno.Bahar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1929 Structural bioinformatics mFASD: a structure-based algorithm for discriminating different types

  11. Integral Presentations of Catalan Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dana-Picard, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    We compute in three different ways the same definite parametric integral. By-products are the derivation of a combinatorial identity and two integral presentations of Catalan numbers. One of them leads to a presentation using the [gamma] function.

  12. Fibonacci Numbers and the Spreadsheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verderber, Nadine L.

    1991-01-01

    Described is a classroom activity incorporating a computer spreadsheet to study number patterns generated by the Fibonacci sequence. Included are examples and suggestions for the use of the spreadsheet in other recursive relationships. (JJK)

  13. Special Characteristics of Rational Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skypek, Dora Helen B.

    1984-01-01

    Interpretation of rational numbers as fractions, ratios, percentages, and quotients of integers are discussed. Then coding conventions are noted, and equivalence classes are described. Finally, density and order are discussed. (MNS)

  14. Poison control center - emergency number

    MedlinePLUS

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

  15. Motion at low Reynolds number

    E-print Network

    Tam, Daniel See Wai, 1980-

    2008-01-01

    The work described in this thesis centers on inertialess motion at low Reynolds numbers at the crossroad between biofluids and microfluids. Here we address questions regarding locomotion of micro-swimmers, transport of ...

  16. Collegiate Student Number Student Name

    E-print Network

    Martin, Jeff

    Collegiate Student Number Student Name Date of Application Application for Admission for Canadian Student's Full Legal Name Permanent (Home) Address of ancestry Month Day Year Family Name First Name Middle Name(s) Section A: Personal Information Postal Code

  17. Euclid's Number-Theoretical Work

    E-print Network

    Shaohua Zhang

    2010-02-21

    When people mention the mathematical achievements of Euclid, his geometrical achievements always spring to mind. But, his Number-Theoretical achievements (See Books 7, 8 and 9 in his magnum opus \\emph{Elements} [1]) are rarely spoken. The object of this paper is to affirm the number-theoretical role of Euclid and the historical significance of Euclid's algorithm. It is known that almost all elementary number-theoretical texts begin with Division algorithm. However, Euclid did not do like this. He began his number-theoretical work by introducing his algorithm. We were quite surprised when we began to read the \\emph{Elements} for the first time. Nevertheless, one can prove that Euclid's algorithm is essentially equivalent with the Bezout's equation and Division algorithm. Therefore, Euclid has preliminarily established Theory of Divisibility and the greatest common divisor. This is the foundation of Number Theory. After more than 2000 years, by creatively introducing the notion of congruence, Gauss published his \\emph{Disquisitiones Arithmeticae} in 1801 and developed Number Theory as a systematic science. Note also that Euclid's algorithm implies Euclid's first theorem (which is the heart of `the uniqueness part' of the fundamental theorem of arithmetic) and Euclid's second theorem (which states that there are infinitely many primes). Thus, in the nature of things, Euclid's algorithm is the most important number-theoretical work of Euclid. For this reason, we further summarize briefly the influence of Euclid's algorithm. Knuth said `we might call Euclid's method the granddaddy of all algorithms'. Based on our discussion and analysis, it leads to the conclusion Euclid's algorithm is the greatest number-theoretical achievement of the Euclidean age.

  18. Searching for the highest number.

    PubMed

    Howe, Piers D L; Little, Daniel R

    2015-02-01

    When viewing a collection of products how does a consumer decide which one to buy? To do this task, the consumer not only needs to evaluate the desirability of the products, taking into account factors such as quality and price, but also needs to search through the products to find the most desirable one. We studied the search process using an abstraction of a common consumer choice task. In our task, observers searched an array of numbers for the highest. Crucially, the observers did not know in advance what this number would be, which made it difficult to know when the search should be terminated. In this way, our search task mimicked a problem often faced by consumers in a supermarket setting where they also may not know in advance what the most desirable product will be. We compared several computational models. We found that our data was best described by a process that assumes that observers terminate their search when they find a number that exceeds an internal threshold. Depending on the observer and the circumstances, this threshold appeared either to be fixed or to decrease over the course of the trial. This threshold can explain why in some situations the observers terminate the search without inspecting all the numbers in the display, whereas in other situations observers act in a seemingly irrational manner, continuing the search even after inspecting all the numbers. PMID:25427843

  19. Number Meaning and Number Grammar in English and Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bock, Kathryn; Carreiras, Manuel; Meseguer, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Grammatical agreement makes different demands on speakers of different languages. Being widespread in the languages of the world, the features of agreement systems offer valuable tests of how language affects deep-seated domains of human cognition and categorization. Number agreement is one such domain, with intriguing evidence that typological…

  20. Experimental determination of Ramsey numbers

    E-print Network

    Zhengbing Bian; Fabian Chudak; William G. Macready; Lane Clark; Frank Gaitan

    2013-08-14

    Ramsey theory is a highly active research area in mathematics that studies the emergence of order in large disordered structures. Ramsey numbers mark the threshold at which order first appears and are extremely difficult to calculate due to their explosive rate of growth. Recently, an algorithm that can be implemented using adiabatic quantum evolution has been proposed that calculates the two-color Ramsey numbers $R(m,n)$. Here we present results of an experimental implementation of this algorithm and show that it correctly determines the Ramsey numbers R(3,3) and $R(m,2)$ for $4\\leq m\\leq 8$. The R(8,2) computation used 84 qubits of which 28 were computational qubits. This computation is the largest experimental implementation of a scientifically meaningful adiabatic evolution algorithm that has been done to date.

  1. Negative Numbers and Antimatter Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsan, Ung Chan

    Dirac's equation states that an electron implies the existence of an antielectron with the same mass (more generally same arithmetic properties) and opposite charge (more generally opposite algebraic properties). Subsequent observation of antielectron validated this concept. This statement can be extended to all matter particles; observation of antiproton, antineutron, antideuton … is in complete agreement with this view. Recently antihypertriton was observed and 38 atoms of antihydrogen were trapped. This opens the path for use in precise testing of nature's fundamental symmetries. The symmetric properties of a matter particle and its mirror antimatter particle seem to be well established. Interactions operate on matter particles and antimatter particles as well. Conservation of matter parallels addition operating on positive and negative numbers. Without antimatter particles, interactions of the Standard Model (electromagnetism, strong interaction and weak interaction) cannot have the structure of group. Antimatter particles are characterized by negative baryonic number A or/and negative leptonic number L. Materialization and annihilation obey conservation of A and L (associated to all known interactions), explaining why from pure energy (A = 0, L = 0) one can only obtain a pair of matter particle antimatter particle — electron antielectron, proton and antiproton — via materialization where the mass of a pair of particle antiparticle gives back to pure energy with annihilation. These two mechanisms cannot change the difference in the number of matter particles and antimatter particles. Thus from pure energy only a perfectly symmetric (in number) universe could be generated as proposed by Dirac but observation showed that our universe is not symmetric, it is a matter universe which is nevertheless neutral. Fall of reflection symmetries shattered the prejudice that there is no way to define in an absolute way right and left or matter and antimatter. Experimental observation of CP violation aroused a great hope for explaining why our universe is not exactly matter antimatter symmetric. Sakharov stated that without the violation of baryonic number, it is not possible to obtain from pure energy a universe made of only matter. The fact that our universe is asymmetric (in number) but perfectly neutral, points toward the existence of a hypothetic interaction violating A and L but conserving all charges. This Matter Creation (MC) interaction creating either a pair of matter particles or antimatter particles (instead of a pair of particle antiparticle) would have a charge BAL = (A-L) and a neutral messenger Z*. Even if CP is conserved, MC would allow the creation of a number of matter particles not exactly equal to the number of antimatter particles. Our universe would then correspond to the remaining excess when all matter antimatter pairs have disappeared. Observation of matter nonconservation processes would be of great interest to falsify this speculation. In a plan with A and L as axes, pure energy is represented by the origin (A = 0, L = 0). A symmetric universe is also represented by (A = 0, L = 0) meaning that there are exactly the same number of baryons and antibaryons, and the same number of leptons and antileptons. Our present matter universe is instead represented by a point of the diagonal with A = L = present A value. This value is tiny relative to the number of gammas resulting from the annihilation of matter-antimatter particles.

  2. On the three primordial numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobbetti, Roberto; Pajer, Enrico; Roest, Diederik

    2015-09-01

    Cosmological observations have provided us with the measurement of just three numbers that characterize the very early universe: 1?ns , N and ln ?R2. Although each of the three numbers individually carries limited information about the physics of inflation, one may hope to extract non-trivial information from relations among them. Invoking minimality, namely the absence of ad hoc large numbers, we find two viable and mutually exclusive inflationary scenarios. The first is the well-known inverse relation between 1? ns and N. The second implies a new relation between 1?ns and ln ?R2, which might provide us with a handle on the beginning of inflation and predicts the intriguing lower bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r > 0.006 (95% CL).

  3. Bayesian DNA copy number analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rancoita, Paola MV; Hutter, Marcus; Bertoni, Francesco; Kwee, Ivo

    2009-01-01

    Background Some diseases, like tumors, can be related to chromosomal aberrations, leading to changes of DNA copy number. The copy number of an aberrant genome can be represented as a piecewise constant function, since it can exhibit regions of deletions or gains. Instead, in a healthy cell the copy number is two because we inherit one copy of each chromosome from each our parents. Bayesian Piecewise Constant Regression (BPCR) is a Bayesian regression method for data that are noisy observations of a piecewise constant function. The method estimates the unknown segment number, the endpoints of the segments and the value of the segment levels of the underlying piecewise constant function. The Bayesian Regression Curve (BRC) estimates the same data with a smoothing curve. However, in the original formulation, some estimators failed to properly determine the corresponding parameters. For example, the boundary estimator did not take into account the dependency among the boundaries and succeeded in estimating more than one breakpoint at the same position, losing segments. Results We derived an improved version of the BPCR (called mBPCR) and BRC, changing the segment number estimator and the boundary estimator to enhance the fitting procedure. We also proposed an alternative estimator of the variance of the segment levels, which is useful in case of data with high noise. Using artificial data, we compared the original and the modified version of BPCR and BRC with other regression methods, showing that our improved version of BPCR generally outperformed all the others. Similar results were also observed on real data. Conclusion We propose an improved method for DNA copy number estimation, mBPCR, which performed very well compared to previously published algorithms. In particular, mBPCR was more powerful in the detection of the true position of the breakpoints and of small aberrations in very noisy data. Hence, from a biological point of view, our method can be very useful, for example, to find targets of genomic aberrations in clinical cancer samples. PMID:19133123

  4. Lorentz invariant photon number density

    E-print Network

    Margaret Hawton

    2008-08-07

    A Lorentz invariant positive definite expression for photon number density is derived as the absolute square of the invariant scalar product of a polarization sensitive position eigenvector and the photon wave function. It is found that this scalar product is independent of the form chosen for the wave function and that the normalized positive frequency vector potential-electric field pair is a convenient choice of wave function in the presence of matter. The number amplitude describing a localized state is a delta-function at the instant at which localization and detection are seen as simultaneous.

  5. Biotechnology at low Reynolds numbers.

    PubMed Central

    Brody, J P; Yager, P; Goldstein, R E; Austin, R H

    1996-01-01

    The shrinking of liquid handling systems to the micron and submicron size range entails moving into the area of small Reynolds numbers. The fluid dynamics in this regime are very different from the macroscale. We present an intuitive explanation of how the different physics of small Reynolds numbers flow, along with microscopic sizes, can influence device design, and give examples from our own work using fluid flow in microfabricated devices designed for biological processing. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 PMID:8968612

  6. Magic Numbers and Pascal's Triangle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Cruz, Elías

    2002-03-01

    Papers concerning the so called "magic numbers"^1-3 span different areas of Solid State Physics. Treatment of the growth of metal clusters and its stability conditions from the theoretical point of view in Ref. 1 leads to the conclusion that the clusters can take place in two or three dimensions. The clusters are triangular or tetrahedral and are obtained only for certain "magic numbers". Experimental work concerning the growth of metal clusters in two dimensions^2 have confirmed the growth only for certain magic numbers and these are the same as the calculated ones in Ref. 1. The present work shows that these "magic numbers" can be deduced from the numeric arrangement called Pascal's Triangle as two of the many numeric sequences contained in the triangle. Some other sequences will be discussed. 1. S.M. Reimann, M. Kuskinen, H. Häkkinen, P.E. Lindelof, and M. Manninen, Phys. Rev. B 56, 12147 (1997-I) 2. M.Y. Lai and Y.L. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 164 (1998) 3. T.E.M. Staab, M. Haugk, Th. Frauenheim, and H.S. Leipner, Phys. REv. Lett. 83, 5519 (1999)

  7. Materiales. Numbers 17-20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Materiales, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Four booklets present articles on Spanish language and culture aimed at teachers of Spanish in the United States for student use in their classes. Number 17, "Los Jovenes Espanoles" (Spanish Youth), includes articles on Spanish youth sports, music, gangs, thoughts, and t-shirt slogans: (1) "Young Spanish Athletes"; (2) "Youth Music"; (3) "Urban…

  8. The elephant brain in numbers.

    PubMed

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Avelino-de-Souza, Kamilla; Neves, Kleber; Porfírio, Jairo; Messeder, Débora; Mattos Feijó, Larissa; Maldonado, José; Manger, Paul R

    2014-01-01

    What explains the superior cognitive abilities of the human brain compared to other, larger brains? Here we investigate the possibility that the human brain has a larger number of neurons than even larger brains by determining the cellular composition of the brain of the African elephant. We find that the African elephant brain, which is about three times larger than the human brain, contains 257 billion (10(9)) neurons, three times more than the average human brain; however, 97.5% of the neurons in the elephant brain (251 billion) are found in the cerebellum. This makes the elephant an outlier in regard to the number of cerebellar neurons compared to other mammals, which might be related to sensorimotor specializations. In contrast, the elephant cerebral cortex, which has twice the mass of the human cerebral cortex, holds only 5.6 billion neurons, about one third of the number of neurons found in the human cerebral cortex. This finding supports the hypothesis that the larger absolute number of neurons in the human cerebral cortex (but not in the whole brain) is correlated with the superior cognitive abilities of humans compared to elephants and other large-brained mammals. PMID:24971054

  9. Life at High Pclet Numbers

    E-print Network

    Goldstein, Raymond E.

    Life at High Péclet Numbers R E Goldstein DAMTP #12;III Microfluidics of Cytoplasmic Streaming of Jeanmarie Verchot-Lubicz #12;Myosin Translocation on Actin Matthew L. Walker, Stan A. Burgess, James R. Sellers, Fei Wang, John A. Hammer III, John Trinick & Peter J. Knight. Two-headed Binding of a Processive

  10. Workshop on Algebraic, Number Theoretic

    E-print Network

    Balasuriya, Sanjeeva

    , Sydney, Australia 2-6 February, 2015 Room M-032, Mezzanine Level Red Centre Building (East Wing) Program breaks will be in the Red Centre, 3rd Floor, Staff Common Room #12;Wednesday 4 Feb 09:30­10:30 Nick (in the number field case and the graph case) 18:00­20:00 Reception (Red Centre, 3rd Floor, Staff

  11. An Estimate of Avogadro's Number.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stauffer, Frederic R.

    1991-01-01

    Calculates an approximation to Avagadro's number for one mole of water by assuming the mole to be in cubical form and then halving the cube three times, thereby doubling the surface area of the original cube. The calculations are derived from the work necessary to perform these divisions. Presents calculated values for several liquids. (MDH)

  12. Mathematics 6310 The ordinal numbers

    E-print Network

    Brown, Ken

    we could add that isn't already there.) Finally, recall that the ordering on N is a well-ordering, soMathematics 6310 The ordinal numbers Ken Brown, Cornell University, September 2010 1. Natural relation: Given x, y , we have x finite ordinals (i.e., the ordinals that are finite sets

  13. The elephant brain in numbers

    PubMed Central

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Avelino-de-Souza, Kamilla; Neves, Kleber; Porfírio, Jairo; Messeder, Débora; Mattos Feijó, Larissa; Maldonado, José; Manger, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    What explains the superior cognitive abilities of the human brain compared to other, larger brains? Here we investigate the possibility that the human brain has a larger number of neurons than even larger brains by determining the cellular composition of the brain of the African elephant. We find that the African elephant brain, which is about three times larger than the human brain, contains 257 billion (109) neurons, three times more than the average human brain; however, 97.5% of the neurons in the elephant brain (251 billion) are found in the cerebellum. This makes the elephant an outlier in regard to the number of cerebellar neurons compared to other mammals, which might be related to sensorimotor specializations. In contrast, the elephant cerebral cortex, which has twice the mass of the human cerebral cortex, holds only 5.6 billion neurons, about one third of the number of neurons found in the human cerebral cortex. This finding supports the hypothesis that the larger absolute number of neurons in the human cerebral cortex (but not in the whole brain) is correlated with the superior cognitive abilities of humans compared to elephants and other large-brained mammals. PMID:24971054

  14. Adjuncts Build Strength in Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    June, Audrey Williams

    2012-01-01

    When professors in positions that offer no chance of earning tenure begin to stack the faculty, campus dynamics start to change. Growing numbers of adjuncts make themselves more visible. They push for roles in governance, better pay and working conditions, and recognition for work well done. And they do so at institutions where tenured faculty,…

  15. High Reynolds number research - 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinney, L. W. (editor); Baals, D. D. (editor)

    1981-01-01

    The fundamental aerodynamic questions for which high Reynolds number experimental capability is required were examined. Potential experiments which maximize the research returns from the use of the National Transonic Facility (NTF) were outlined. Calibration plans were reviewed and the following topics were discussed: fluid dynamics; high lit; configuration aerodynamics; aeroelasticity and unsteady aerodynamics; wind tunnel/flight correlation; space vehicles; and theoretical aerodynamics

  16. Oxidation Numbers and Their Limitations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolf, A. A.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews a method for determining oxidation numbers in covalent compounds and balancing mixed organic-inorganic or purely organic systems. Points out ambiguities presented when adjacent atoms have small or zero electronegativity differences. Presents other limitations that arise when using electronegativity values. (CW)

  17. Finite temperature induced fermion number

    E-print Network

    Gerald V. Dunne

    2001-12-04

    The induced fractional fermion number at zero temperature is topological (in the sense that it is only sensitive to global asymptotic properties of the background field), and is a sharp observable (in the sense that it has vanishing rms fluctuations). In contrast, at finite temperature, it is shown to be generically nontopological, and not a sharp observable.

  18. Number Crunching: A Sheep's Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sam, Chris Lam

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about an allegorical tale which he has written as a message for teachers of mathematics. The story is about Gordon, who led a flock of small sheep. Gordon was a mathematics genius; however, his flock criticized his teaching of numbers and his boring lectures. His furry-god-farmer advised him to share his…

  19. Materiales. Numbers 21-23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Materiales, 1997

    1997-01-01

    These three journals of contemporary cultural, historical, and social interest contain activities designed to enhance the awareness of students of Spanish as a foreign language regarding the entire panorama of daily life in Spain. Number 21 focuses on the role of modern Spanish women; their career status; female authors; and the changing place of…

  20. Residual number processing in dyscalculia?

    PubMed Central

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia. PMID:24266008

  1. OFFICE USE ONLY Reference number

    E-print Network

    Oakley, Jeremy

    -exempt 501(c)(3) organization and your donation is tax deductible to the extent allowed by law. Thank youAlumni Fund Donation Form. OFFICE USE ONLY Reference number: Thank you for supporting Sheffield Will Donating stocks or shares Volunteering with the University of Sheffield (eg. write a career profile; mentor

  2. OFFICE USE ONLY Reference number

    E-print Network

    -exempt 501(c)(3) organization and your donation is tax deductible to the extent allowed by law. Thank youAlumni Fund Donation Form. OFFICE USE ONLY Reference number: Thank you for supporting Sheffield Will Donating stocks or shares Volunteering for the University of Sheffield (eg. write a career profile; mentor

  3. Squirming At Finite Reynolds Number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisholm, Nicholas; Zhu, Ziyi; Khair, Aditya

    2013-11-01

    The dynamics of swimming microorganisms at zero Reynolds number (Re = 0) has been the subject of extensive theoretical and experimental investigation over the past decade, and the study of locomotion at high Reynolds number (Re >> 1), where inertial forces are dominant, has a venerable history. In this talk, we consider swimming between these limits, i.e. at finite Reynolds numbers, using the popular ``squirmer'' model of self-propulsion, wherein locomotion is achieved through surface distortions. We first utilize matched asymptotic expansions to derive an analytical expression for the swimming velocity of a squirmer through O (Re2) , which highlights that inertia affects so-called ``pusher'' and ``puller'' swimmers in fundamentally different manners. (The equivalent of Whitehead's paradox for a self-propelled object is elucidated in the process.) Next, we employ numerical methods to compute the swimming velocity of pushers and pullers for higher Reynolds numbers. Finally, we demonstrate that inertia causes squirmers (which are non-chiral) to drift across the streamlines of an imposed shear flow.

  4. Time to Make the Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surrena, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    In order to inspire her students to work in mixed media, the author chose to highlight the art of Jasper Johns and Robert Indiana, both of whom used numbers and letters as a main focus in their art. In this article, the author describes a mixed-media printmaking project. (Contains 2 online resources.)

  5. NOTES ON COMPLEX NUMBERS DAVID M. MCCLENDON

    E-print Network

    McClendon, David M.

    is that we can't always talk about subtracting two natural numbers, e.g. there is no natural number which drawback of complex numbers is that they are not ordered (i.e. you can't say one complex number is lessNOTES ON COMPLEX NUMBERS DAVID M. MCCLENDON Abstract. Some notes on complex numbers for Math 53

  6. Linear stability of cylindrical Couette flow in the convection regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Mohamed E.; McFadden, G. B.

    2005-05-01

    The instability of steady circular Couette flow with radial heating across a vertically oriented annulus with a rotating inner cylinder and a stationary outer cylinder is investigated using a linear stability analysis. The convection regime base flow is developed for an infinite aspect ratio geometry and constant fluid properties with buoyancy included through the Boussinesq approximation. The base flow is characterized by a dimensionless stratification parameter ? that is proportional to the vertical temperature gradient. Critical stability boundaries are calculated for this assumed base flow with respect to both toroidal and helical disturbances. The numerical investigation is primarily restricted to a radius ratio of 0.6 at a Prandtl number of 100. Critical stability boundaries in Taylor-Grashof number space are presented for two values of the stratification parameter ? (4 and 13). The results follow the development of critical stability from Taylor cells at small Grashof numbers up to a maximum Grashof number used in this calculation of 20 000 and 80 000 for ? =4 and 13, respectively. Results show that increasing the stratification parameter stabilizes the isothermal Taylor vortices, followed by a destabilization at higher azimuthal mode numbers (n>0). The results also show that for ? =4 (close to the conduction regime), two modes are obtained: one is axisymmetric and the other is nonaxisymmetric. However, for the convection regime (large ?) six asymmetric modes are obtained. Finally, the disturbance wavelength, phase speed, and spiral inclination angle are presented as a function of the critical Grashof number for the stratification parameters considered in this work.

  7. In Defense of Quantum Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Robert M.

    1998-05-01

    A recent paper has argued that the derivation of the periodic table using quantum numbers is a topic that should be eliminated from introductory chemistry courses because it is too abstract, mysterious, and esoteric. A rebuttal is offered based on the claim that it would be wrong to omit discussions of the inductive approach of Mendeleev and the deductive approach initiated by Schroedinger, because they compose the consummate example of that interaction of empirical and rational epistemologies that defines how chemists think.

  8. Lozenge Tilings and Hurwitz Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Jonathan

    2015-10-01

    We give a new proof of the fact that, near a turning point of the frozen boundary, the vertical tiles in a uniformly random lozenge tiling of a large sawtooth domain are distributed like the eigenvalues of a GUE random matrix. Our argument uses none of the standard tools of integrable probability. In their place, it uses a combinatorial interpretation of the Harish-Chandra/Itzykson-Zuber integral as a generating function for desymmetrized Hurwitz numbers.

  9. Quasiperpendicular High Mach Number Shocks.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, A H; Masters, A; Dougherty, M K; Burgess, D; Fujimoto, M; Hospodarsky, G B

    2015-09-18

    Shock waves exist throughout the Universe and are fundamental to understanding the nature of collisionless plasmas. Reformation is a process, driven by microphysics, which typically occurs at high Mach number supercritical shocks. While ongoing studies have investigated this process extensively both theoretically and via simulations, their observations remain few and far between. In this Letter we present a study of very high Mach number shocks in a parameter space that has been poorly explored and we identify reformation using in situ magnetic field observations from the Cassini spacecraft at 10 AU. This has given us an insight into quasiperpendicular shocks across 2 orders of magnitude in Alfvén Mach number (M_{A}) which could potentially bridge the gap between modest terrestrial shocks and more exotic astrophysical shocks. For the first time, we show evidence for cyclic reformation controlled by specular ion reflection occurring at the predicted time scale of ~0.3?_{c}, where ?_{c} is the ion gyroperiod. In addition, we experimentally reveal the relationship between reformation and M_{A} and focus on the magnetic structure of such shocks to further show that for the same M_{A}, a reforming shock exhibits stronger magnetic field amplification than a shock that is not reforming. PMID:26430997

  10. Recalibration of Zurich Sunspot Number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svalgaard, Leif; Bertello, L.

    2009-05-01

    Three independent datasets support the finding that a discontinuous change of 20% was introduced in the Zurich Sunspot Number, Rz, when Max Waldmeier took over the production of Rz in 1946. The range of the diurnal variation of the geomagnetic field (the East-component) is controlled by the EUV-induced conductivity of the day-side ionosphere and indicates a 23% increase of Rz from 1946 on. The Greenwich Sunspot Areas (and the Group Sunspot Number derived from the Greenwich data since 1874) indicate a 17.5% increase of Rz. A CaII K-line index derived from recently digitized Mount Wilson Observatory spectroheliograms (since 1915) indicates a 21% increase in Rz. Friedli [2005] notes that "The new observer-team in Zurich was thus relatively inexperienced and Waldmeier himself feared that his scale factor could vary". We suggest that his fear was not unfounded and that the Zurich Sunspot Number be increased by 20% before 1946 to match the modern record.

  11. Quasiperpendicular High Mach Number Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaiman, A. H.; Masters, A.; Dougherty, M. K.; Burgess, D.; Fujimoto, M.; Hospodarsky, G. B.

    2015-09-01

    Shock waves exist throughout the Universe and are fundamental to understanding the nature of collisionless plasmas. Reformation is a process, driven by microphysics, which typically occurs at high Mach number supercritical shocks. While ongoing studies have investigated this process extensively both theoretically and via simulations, their observations remain few and far between. In this Letter we present a study of very high Mach number shocks in a parameter space that has been poorly explored and we identify reformation using in situ magnetic field observations from the Cassini spacecraft at 10 AU. This has given us an insight into quasiperpendicular shocks across 2 orders of magnitude in Alfvén Mach number (MA ) which could potentially bridge the gap between modest terrestrial shocks and more exotic astrophysical shocks. For the first time, we show evidence for cyclic reformation controlled by specular ion reflection occurring at the predicted time scale of ˜0.3 ?c , where ?c is the ion gyroperiod. In addition, we experimentally reveal the relationship between reformation and MA and focus on the magnetic structure of such shocks to further show that for the same MA , a reforming shock exhibits stronger magnetic field amplification than a shock that is not reforming.

  12. A Pseudo-Random Number Generator Based on Normal Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.

    2004-12-31

    In a recent paper, Richard Crandall and the present author established that each of a certain class of explicitly given real constants, uncountably infinite in number, is b-normal, for an integer that appears in the formula defining the constant. A b-normal constant is one where every string of m digits appears in the base-b expansion of the constant with limiting frequency b{sup -m}. This paper shows how this result can be used to fashion an efficient and effective pseudo-random number generator, which generates successive strings of binary digits from one of the constants in this class. The resulting generator, which tests slightly faster than a conventional linear congruential generator, avoids difficulties with large power-of-two data access strides that may occur when using conventional generators. It is also well suited for parallel processing--each processor can quickly and independently compute its starting value, with the collective sequence generated by all processors being the same as that generated by a single processor.

  13. 20 CFR 404.1220 - Identification numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... will assign a special identification number to each political subdivision included in that modification. SSA will send the State a Form SSA-214-CD, “Notice of Identifying Number,” to inform the State of the special identification number(s). The special number will be used for reporting the pre-1987 wages to...

  14. 20 CFR 404.1220 - Identification numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... will assign a special identification number to each political subdivision included in that modification. SSA will send the State a Form SSA-214-CD, “Notice of Identifying Number,” to inform the State of the special identification number(s). The special number will be used for reporting the pre-1987 wages to...

  15. 20 CFR 404.1220 - Identification numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... will assign a special identification number to each political subdivision included in that modification. SSA will send the State a Form SSA-214-CD, “Notice of Identifying Number,” to inform the State of the special identification number(s). The special number will be used for reporting the pre-1987 wages to...

  16. 20 CFR 404.1220 - Identification numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... will assign a special identification number to each political subdivision included in that modification. SSA will send the State a Form SSA-214-CD, “Notice of Identifying Number,” to inform the State of the special identification number(s). The special number will be used for reporting the pre-1987 wages to...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1220 - Identification numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... will assign a special identification number to each political subdivision included in that modification. SSA will send the State a Form SSA-214-CD, “Notice of Identifying Number,” to inform the State of the special identification number(s). The special number will be used for reporting the pre-1987 wages to...

  18. Computational Modeling and Experiments of Natural Convection for a Titan Montgolfiere

    E-print Network

    Colonius, Tim

    of gravity Gr = Grashof number g = gravity vector g = gravity h = heat transfer coefficient k = conductivity performance results are compared with existing heat transfer coefficient correlations. The laminar results are developed to predict the natural convection heat transfer and buoyancy for a Montgolfiere under conditions

  19. Long-Wave Instability of Advective Flows in Inclined Layer with Solid Heat Conductive Boundaries

    E-print Network

    R. V. Sagitov; A. N. Sharifulin

    2011-01-07

    We investigate the stability of the steady convective flow in a plane tilted layer with ideal thermal conductivity of solid boundaries in the presence of uniform longitudinal temperature gradient. Analytically found the stability boundary with respect to the long-wave perturbations, find the critical Grashof number for the most dangerous among them of even spiral perturbation.

  20. Parallel Finite Element Simulations of Czochralski Melt Flows

    E-print Network

    Adjerid, Slimane

    Parallel Finite Element Simulations of Czochralski Melt Flows S. Adjerid, J.E. Flaherty, K. Jansen through the temperature. We study melt ows associated with a Czochralski crystal growth process crystal with increasing Grashof number. The popular Czochralski CZ process 2 of bulk crystal growth fea

  1. Transient natural convection heat and mass transfer in crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Samuel S.

    1990-01-01

    A numerical analysis of transient combined heat and mass transfer across a rectangular cavity is performed. The physical parameters are selected to represent a range of possible crystal growth in solutions. Good agreements with measurement data are observed. It is found that the thermal and solute fields become highly oscillatory when the thermal and solute Grashof numbers are large.

  2. Number of cosmic string loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Olum, Ken D.; Shlaer, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Using recent simulation results, we provide the mass and speed spectrum of cosmic string loops. This is the quantity of primary interest for many phenomenological signatures of cosmic strings, and it can be accurately predicted using recently acquired detailed knowledge of the loop production function. We emphasize that gravitational smoothing of long strings plays a negligible role in determining the total number of existing loops. We derive a bound on the string tension imposed by recent constraints on the stochastic gravitational wave background from pulsar timing arrays, finding G? ?2.8×10-9. We also provide a derivation of the Boltzmann equation for cosmic string loops in the language of differential forms.

  3. Maneuverability at low Reynolds number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Lisa; Hatton, Ross; Choset, Howie; Hosoi, A. E.

    2011-11-01

    Speed and efficiency are common and often adequate measures to compare swimming systems. However, these metrics do not take into account how well a system can reconfigure, change direction, or move in a confined environment. Inspired by manipulability, a concept used to analyze robotic arms, we propose new metrics to consistently quantify the maneuverability of a system. We discuss a general definition of maneuverability and apply it to low Reynolds number swimming. Additionally, we identify the library of motions to maximize an artificial swimmer's maneuverability and explore the effect of morphology and kinematics on maneuverability. Battelle Memorial Institute.

  4. Expansion of algebraic numbers Complexity of words

    E-print Network

    Waldschmidt, Michel

    Expansion of algebraic numbers Complexity of words Words and transcendence Continued fractions Survey of some recent results on the complexity of expansions of algebraic numbers Michel Waldschmidt Expansion of algebraic numbers Complexity of words Words and transcendence Continued fractions Diophantine

  5. The Numbers Game: A Values Clarification Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ognibene, Richard; Winter, Cynthia

    1976-01-01

    After completing personal identification forms consisting only of numbers (phone number, Social Security number, etc.), students discuss the need for more personal means of identification within society in order for people to feel a useful sense of identity. (AV)

  6. Numbers, proof and 'all that jazz'.

    E-print Network

    2007-01-08

    by experimental evidence. Newtonian physics was accepted as valid ... real numbers, which are the numbers used in calculus. Thus, we are stating “up ... describe those properties of numbers that do not relate to inequalities. In principle, every ...

  7. REGULAR ARTICLE Reproductive Numbers for Nonautonomous Spatially

    E-print Network

    Bravo de la Parra, Rafael

    , aggregated, system. We derive global reproduction numbers governing the general spatially distributed through the reproduction numbers of the corresponding averaged systems (the autonomous systems obtainedREGULAR ARTICLE Reproductive Numbers for Nonautonomous Spatially Distributed Periodic SIS Models

  8. Semantic priming in number naming.

    PubMed

    Reynvoet, Bert; Brysbaert, Marc; Fias, Wim

    2002-10-01

    The issue of semantic and non-semantic conversion routes for numerals is still debated in numerical cognition. We report two number-naming experiments in which the target numerals were preceded by another numeral (prime). The primes and targets could be presented either in arabic (digit) notation or in verbal (alphabetical) notation. The results reveal a semantically related distance effect: Latencies are fastest when the prime has the same value as the target and increase when the distance between prime and target increases. We argue that the present results are congruent with the idea that the numerals make access to an ordered semantic number line common to all notations, as the results are the same for within-notation priming (arabic-arabic or verbal-verbal) and between-notations priming (arabic-verbal or verbal-arabic). The present results also point to a rapid involvement of semantics in the naming of numerals, also when the numerals are words. As such, they are in line with recent claims of rapid semantic mediation in word naming. PMID:12420988

  9. Device Independent Random Number Generation

    E-print Network

    Mataj Pivoluska; Martin Plesch

    2015-02-23

    Randomness is an invaluable resource in today's life with a broad use reaching from numerical simulations through randomized algorithms to cryptography. However, on the classical level no true randomness is available and even the use of simple quantum devices in a prepare-measure setting suffers from lack of stability and controllability. This gave rise to a group of quantum protocols that provide randomness certified by classical statistical tests -- Device Independent Quantum Random Number Generators. In this paper we review the most relevant results in this field, which allow the production of almost perfect randomness with help of quantum devices, supplemented with an arbitrary weak source of additional randomness. This is in fact the best one could hope for to achieve, as with no starting randomness (corresponding to no free will in a different concept) even a quantum world would have a fully deterministic description.

  10. CONSTRUCTING ALGEBRAIC LINKS FOR LOW EDGE NUMBERS

    E-print Network

    McCabe, Cynthia

    CONSTRUCTING ALGEBRAIC LINKS FOR LOW EDGE NUMBERS CYNTHIA L. MCCABE Dept. of Mathematics@uwsp.edu ABSTRACT A method is given for economically constructing any algebraic knot or link K. This construction: knot, link, edge number, stick number, algebraic link, arborescent link 1. Introduction The edge number

  11. 14 CFR 47.15 - Identification number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification number. 47.15 Section 47.15... REGISTRATION General § 47.15 Identification number. (a) Number required. An applicant for Aircraft Registration must place a U.S. identification number (registration mark) on his Aircraft Registration...

  12. 14 CFR 47.15 - Registration number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Registration number. 47.15 Section 47.15... REGISTRATION General § 47.15 Registration number. (a) Number required. An applicant for aircraft registration must place a U.S. registration number (registration mark) on the Aircraft Registration Application,...

  13. 14 CFR 47.15 - Registration number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Registration number. 47.15 Section 47.15... REGISTRATION General § 47.15 Registration number. (a) Number required. An applicant for aircraft registration must place a U.S. registration number (registration mark) on the Aircraft Registration Application,...

  14. 14 CFR 47.15 - Registration number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Registration number. 47.15 Section 47.15... REGISTRATION General § 47.15 Registration number. (a) Number required. An applicant for aircraft registration must place a U.S. registration number (registration mark) on the Aircraft Registration Application,...

  15. 14 CFR 47.15 - Registration number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Registration number. 47.15 Section 47.15... REGISTRATION General § 47.15 Registration number. (a) Number required. An applicant for aircraft registration must place a U.S. registration number (registration mark) on the Aircraft Registration Application,...

  16. Semiperfect and Integer-Perfect Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Patrick

    1991-01-01

    The number theory concepts of perfect, deficient, and abundant numbers are subdivided and then utilized to discuss propositions concerning semiperfect, weird, and integer-perfect numbers. Conjectures about relationships among these latter numbers are suggested as avenues for further investigation. (JJK)

  17. Contextual Effects on Number-Time Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Aitao; Hodges, Bert; Zhang, Jijia; Zhang, John X.

    2009-01-01

    Time perception has long been known to be affected by numerical representations. Recent studies further demonstrate that when participants estimate the duration of Arabic numbers, number magnitude, though task-irrelevant, biases duration judgment to produce underestimation for smaller numbers and overestimation for larger numbers. Such effects…

  18. Avogadro Number and Mole: A Royal Confusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emiliani, Cesare

    1991-01-01

    There is a great deal of confusion in physics and chemistry textbooks, dictionaries, manuals, and handbooks about the definition of Avogadro's number and the term "mole." Avogadro's number is defined simply as the number of atomic mass units in one gram. Mole is defined as the mass of one Avogadro number of identical items. (Author/PR)

  19. Fascinating Fibonaccis: Mystery and Magic in Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Trudi Hammel

    This document presents activities and information related to Fibonacci numbers, which are based upon the Golden Ratio, in areas of the arts, sciences, and mathematics. The work is organized into eight chapters: (1) "Origins and Definitions"; (2) "Fibonacci Numbers in Nature"; (3) "Fibonacci Numbers in Art and Architecture"; (4) "Fibonacci Numbers

  20. The Decimal Number System and Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, John

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author believes that a visual image of the number system is helpful to everyone, especially children, in understanding what is, after all, an abstract idea. The simplest model is the number line, a row of equally spaced numbers, starting at zero. This illustrates the continuous progression of the natural numbers, moving to the…

  1. Social Security Numbers Fermilab's International Services Office

    E-print Network

    Quigg, Chris

    and other organizations have come to use a "Social Security Number" (SSN) as the i l t f ti l id tifi ti if it is not requiredrequired. Social Security2 #12;What is a Social Security Number? · The SSN is the tracking number assigned by theThe SSN is the tracking number assigned by the Social Security Administration (a federal government

  2. 14 CFR 47.15 - Registration number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Registration number. 47.15 Section 47.15 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION General § 47.15 Registration number. (a) Number required. An applicant for aircraft registration must place a U.S. registration number...

  3. Mental number space in three dimensions.

    PubMed

    Winter, Bodo; Matlock, Teenie; Shaki, Samuel; Fischer, Martin H

    2015-10-01

    A large number of experimental findings from neuroscience and experimental psychology demonstrated interactions between spatial cognition and numerical cognition. In particular, many researchers posited a horizontal mental number line, where small numbers are thought of as being to the left of larger numbers. This review synthesizes work on the mental association between space and number, indicating the existence of multiple spatial mappings: recent research has found associations between number and vertical space, as well as associations between number and near/far space. We discuss number space in three dimensions with an eye on potential origins of the different number mappings, and how these number mappings fit in with our current knowledge of brain organization and brain-culture interactions. We derive novel predictions and show how this research fits into a general view of cognition as embodied, grounded and situated. PMID:26365108

  4. h-analogue of Fibonacci Numbers

    E-print Network

    H. B. Benaoum

    2009-09-30

    In this paper, we introduce the h-analogue of Fibonacci numbers for non-commutative h-plane. For h h'= 1 and h = 0, these are just the usual Fibonacci numbers as it should be. We also derive a collection of identities for these numbers. Furthermore, h-Binet's formula for the h-Fibonacci numbers is found and the generating function that generates these numbers is obtained.

  5. Integrated-Circuit Pseudorandom-Number Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steelman, James E.; Beasley, Jeff; Aragon, Michael; Ramirez, Francisco; Summers, Kenneth L.; Knoebel, Arthur

    1992-01-01

    Integrated circuit produces 8-bit pseudorandom numbers from specified probability distribution, at rate of 10 MHz. Use of Boolean logic, circuit implements pseudorandom-number-generating algorithm. Circuit includes eight 12-bit pseudorandom-number generators, outputs are uniformly distributed. 8-bit pseudorandom numbers satisfying specified nonuniform probability distribution are generated by processing uniformly distributed outputs of eight 12-bit pseudorandom-number generators through "pipeline" of D flip-flops, comparators, and memories implementing conditional probabilities on zeros and ones.

  6. Copy number variations among silkworms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Copy number variations (CNVs), which are important source for genetic and phenotypic variation, have been shown to be associated with disease as well as important QTLs, especially in domesticated animals. However, little is known about the CNVs in silkworm. Results In this study, we have constructed the first CNVs map based on genome-wide analysis of CNVs in domesticated silkworm. Using next-generation sequencing as well as quantitative PCR (qPCR), we identified ~319 CNVs in total and almost half of them (~ 49%) were distributed on uncharacterized chromosome. The CNVs covered 10.8 Mb, which is about 2.3% of the entire silkworm genome. Furthermore, approximately 61% of CNVs directly overlapped with SDs in silkworm. The genes in CNVs are mainly related to reproduction, immunity, detoxification and signal recognition, which is consistent with the observations in mammals. Conclusions An initial CNVs map for silkworm has been described in this study. And this map provides new information for genetic variations in silkworm. Furthermore, the silkworm CNVs may play important roles in reproduction, immunity, detoxification and signal recognition. This study provided insight into the evolution of the silkworm genome and an invaluable resource for insect genomics research. PMID:24684762

  7. Verification Challenges at Low Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Benz, Jacob M.; Booker, Paul M.; McDonald, Benjamin S.

    2013-06-01

    Many papers have dealt with the political difficulties and ramifications of deep nuclear arms reductions, and the issues of “Going to Zero”. Political issues include extended deterrence, conventional weapons, ballistic missile defense, and regional and geo-political security issues. At each step on the road to low numbers, the verification required to ensure compliance of all parties will increase significantly. Looking post New START, the next step will likely include warhead limits in the neighborhood of 1000 . Further reductions will include stepping stones at1000 warheads, 100’s of warheads, and then 10’s of warheads before final elimination could be considered of the last few remaining warheads and weapons. This paper will focus on these three threshold reduction levels, 1000, 100’s, 10’s. For each, the issues and challenges will be discussed, potential solutions will be identified, and the verification technologies and chain of custody measures that address these solutions will be surveyed. It is important to note that many of the issues that need to be addressed have no current solution. In these cases, the paper will explore new or novel technologies that could be applied. These technologies will draw from the research and development that is ongoing throughout the national laboratory complex, and will look at technologies utilized in other areas of industry for their application to arms control verification.

  8. Number systems, ?-splines and refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zube, Severinas

    2004-12-01

    This paper is concerned with the smooth refinable function on a plane relative with complex scaling factor . Characteristic functions of certain self-affine tiles related to a given scaling factor are the simplest examples of such refinable function. We study the smooth refinable functions obtained by a convolution power of such charactericstic functions. Dahlke, Dahmen, and Latour obtained some explicit estimates for the smoothness of the resulting convolution products. In the case ?=1+i, we prove better results. We introduce ?-splines in two variables which are the linear combination of shifted basic functions. We derive basic properties of ?-splines and proceed with a detailed presentation of refinement methods. We illustrate the application of ?-splines to subdivision with several examples. It turns out that ?-splines produce well-known subdivision algorithms which are based on box splines: Doo-Sabin, Catmull-Clark, Loop, Midedge and some -subdivision schemes with good continuity. The main geometric ingredient in the definition of ?-splines is the fundamental domain (a fractal set or a self-affine tile). The properties of the fractal obtained in number theory are important and necessary in order to determine two basic properties of ?-splines: partition of unity and the refinement equation.

  9. 2. Probabilities, Distributions and Random 2.1 From Numbers to Random Numbers

    E-print Network

    Heermann, Dieter W.

    . A random number generator should produce numbers that appear ran- dom, i.e., passes the common statistical2. Probabilities, Distributions and Random Numbers 2.1 From Numbers to Random Numbers A sequence of numbers that is random plays a very important role for the stochastic simulation methods

  10. Access to emergency number services.

    PubMed

    Harkins, Judith E; Strauss, Karen Peltz

    2008-01-01

    Access to emergency services is mandated by Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The Department of Justice oversees the accessibility of public safety answering points (PSAPs), popularly called 9-1-1 centers. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has at least two roles in emergency number access: (1) as regulator of the ADA's Title IV on telecommunications access, and (2) as regulator of communications companies with regard to support of and interconnection with PSAPs. The rules of both agencies contributed significantly to the improvement during the 1990s of access to 9-1-1 for people who are deaf, hard of hearing, or speech disabled. However, as new technologies for text wireless communications and relay services have moved quickly to Internet protocol (IP)-based technologies over the past 5-8 years, the use of traditional wireline telephones and text telephones among deaf, hard of hearing, and speech-disabled people has declined. PSAPs cannot be contacted via the newer forms of telecommunications, such as e-mail, instant messaging, and IP-based forms of relay services, including video relay services. The gap between the technology supported by policy and the technologies currently being used by deaf and hard of hearing people has become a serious problem that is difficult to solve because of the separate jurisdictions of the two agencies, the need for coordination within the FCC, technological challenges, and funding issues. In this article, the key policy and technology challenges will be analyzed and recommendations made for short-and long-term solutions to this dilemma. PMID:18751576

  11. 48 CFR 304.7001 - Numbering acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Officer shall also assign the letter contract number to the superseding definitized contract.) (2) Basic ordering agreements (BOAs) and BPAs. (3) Requests for proposals and invitations for bids. (4) Requests for quotations. (b) Numbering...

  12. 48 CFR 304.7001 - Numbering acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Officer shall also assign the letter contract number to the superseding definitized contract.) (2) Basic ordering agreements (BOAs) and BPAs. (3) Requests for proposals and invitations for bids. (4) Requests for quotations. (b) Numbering...

  13. 48 CFR 304.7001 - Numbering acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Officer shall also assign the letter contract number to the superseding definitized contract.) (2) Basic ordering agreements (BOAs) and BPAs. (3) Requests for proposals and invitations for bids. (4) Requests for quotations. (b) Numbering...

  14. 48 CFR 304.7001 - Numbering acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Officer shall also assign the letter contract number to the superseding definitized contract.) (2) Basic ordering agreements (BOAs) and BPAs. (3) Requests for proposals and invitations for bids. (4) Requests for quotations. (b) Numbering...

  15. 48 CFR 304.7001 - Numbering acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Officer shall also assign the letter contract number to the superseding definitized contract.) (2) Basic ordering agreements (BOAs) and BPAs. (3) Requests for proposals and invitations for bids. (4) Requests for quotations. (b) Numbering...

  16. Measurement Corner Mass, Moles and Avogadro's Number

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Robert M.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses and clarifies the confusion arising from the use of the terms "mass,""volume,""matter,""mole," and "Avogadro's number." Suggests three laboratory activities concerning mass, volume, and number of particles in a given volume. (CS)

  17. 49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boiler number. 230.47 Section 230.47...LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The...

  18. 49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Boiler number. 230.47 Section 230.47...LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The...

  19. 49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Boiler number. 230.47 Section 230.47...LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The...

  20. 49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Boiler number. 230.47 Section 230.47...LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The...

  1. 49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Boiler number. 230.47 Section 230.47...LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The...

  2. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Job order numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Job order numbering. Sec. 7 Section 7 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 7 Job order numbering. (a) The NSA-LUMPSUMREP...

  3. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Voyage numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Voyage numbers. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 2 Voyage numbers. (a) The voyages of...

  4. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Voyage numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Voyage numbers. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 2 Voyage numbers. (a) The voyages of...

  5. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Job order numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Job order numbering. Sec. 7 Section 7 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 7 Job order numbering. (a) The NSA-LUMPSUMREP...

  6. Number Theory in the High School Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dence, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Demonstrates some of the usefulness of number theory to students on the high school setting in four areas: Fibonacci numbers, Diophantine equations, continued fractions, and algorithms for computing pi. (ASK)

  7. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Job order numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 7 Job order numbering. (a) The NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract number shall be inserted in every job order and supplemental...

  8. 27 CFR 20.179 - Package identification number or serial number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... number or serial number. 20.179 Section 20.179 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... Package identification number or serial number. (a) Requirement. A dealer who fills packages with specially denatured spirits shall mark each package with a package identification number, in accordance...

  9. 27 CFR 20.179 - Package identification number or serial number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... number or serial number. 20.179 Section 20.179 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... Package identification number or serial number. (a) Requirement. A dealer who fills packages with specially denatured spirits shall mark each package with a package identification number, in accordance...

  10. 27 CFR 20.179 - Package identification number or serial number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... number or serial number. 20.179 Section 20.179 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... Package identification number or serial number. (a) Requirement. A dealer who fills packages with specially denatured spirits shall mark each package with a package identification number, in accordance...

  11. 27 CFR 20.179 - Package identification number or serial number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... number or serial number. 20.179 Section 20.179 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... Package identification number or serial number. (a) Requirement. A dealer who fills packages with specially denatured spirits shall mark each package with a package identification number, in accordance...

  12. 27 CFR 20.179 - Package identification number or serial number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... number or serial number. 20.179 Section 20.179 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... Package identification number or serial number. (a) Requirement. A dealer who fills packages with specially denatured spirits shall mark each package with a package identification number, in accordance...

  13. Department for Analysis and Computational Number Theory Non-normal numbers

    E-print Network

    Liège, Université de

    of length k, i.e. k(x, n) = ((x, b, n))bDk . M.G. Madritsch Non-normal numbers CANT, 21 may 2012 8 / 29 #12Department for Analysis and Computational Number Theory Non-normal numbers The interplay Number Theory Graz University of Technology madritsch@math.tugraz.at Combinatorics, Automata and Number

  14. 2 CFR 25.315 - Data Universal Numbering System (DUNS) Number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Data Universal Numbering System (DUNS...-award responsibilities UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER AND CENTRAL CONTRACTOR REGISTRATION Definitions §?25.315 Data Universal Numbering System (DUNS) Number. Data Universal Numbering System (DUNS) Number has...

  15. The Bondage Number of Graphs with Crossing Number Less than Four

    E-print Network

    Xu, Jun-Ming

    The Bondage Number of Graphs with Crossing Number Less than Four Yong-Chang Cao Jia Huang Jun, China Abstract The bondage number b(G) of a graph G is the smallest number of edges whose removal [Bondage number of planar graphs. Discrete Math. 222 (2000), 191- 198] proved b(G) min{8, + 2} for every

  16. RANDOM NUMBERS Simulation using an electronic device requires algorithms that produce streams of numbers

    E-print Network

    Phillips, David

    2-1 Chapter 2 RANDOM NUMBERS Simulation using an electronic device requires algorithms that produce streams of numbers that a user cannot distinguish from a similar string of numbers generated randomly. This is normally done using algorithms that generate numbers between 0 and 1, called a random number generator

  17. Clar number of catacondensed benzenoid hydrocarbons

    E-print Network

    Klavzar, Sandi

    Clar number of catacondensed benzenoid hydrocarbons Sandi KlavŸzar a,# , Petra Ÿ Zigert a , Ivan hydrocarbon: CL is equal to the minimum number of straight lines required to intersect all hexagons theory; Clar formula; Clar number; Resonance graph; Benzenoid hydrocarbons 1. Introduction Within

  18. Multipartite Ramsey Numbers David Day, Technikon Natal

    E-print Network

    Goddard, Wayne

    number rc k(G) as the minimum value m such that, given any colouring using c colours of the edges Ramsey numbers, one colours the edges of a complete graph us- ing two or more colours and asks about the concept of bipartite Ramsey numbers. We con- sider the problem of colouring the edges of a complete k

  19. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Job order numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Job order numbering. Sec. 7 Section 7 Shipping MARITIME... REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 7 Job order numbering. (a) The NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract number shall be inserted in every job order and supplemental...

  20. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Job order numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Job order numbering. Sec. 7 Section 7 Shipping MARITIME... REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 7 Job order numbering. (a) The NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract number shall be inserted in every job order and supplemental...

  1. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Job order numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Job order numbering. Sec. 7 Section 7 Shipping MARITIME... REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 7 Job order numbering. (a) The NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract number shall be inserted in every job order and supplemental...

  2. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Job order numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Job order numbering. Sec. 7 Section 7 Shipping MARITIME... REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 7 Job order numbering. (a) The NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract number shall be inserted in every job order and supplemental...

  3. The competition numbers of complete tripartite graphs

    E-print Network

    The competition numbers of complete tripartite graphs SUH-RYUNG KIM Department of Mathematics For a graph G, it is known to be a hard problem to compute the competition number k(G) of the graph G in general. In this paper, we give an explicit formula for the competition numbers of complete tripartite

  4. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Voyage numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... voyage No. 1 having the prefixed designation NSA and followed by the General Agents' abbreviated designation and voyage number, as NSA-1/ABC-1. (b) The continuity of NSA voyage numbers shall not change with... General Agent shall affix his abbreviated designation and initial voyage numbers, as NSA-13/XYZ-1....

  5. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Voyage numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... voyage No. 1 having the prefixed designation NSA and followed by the General Agents' abbreviated designation and voyage number, as NSA-1/ABC-1. (b) The continuity of NSA voyage numbers shall not change with... General Agent shall affix his abbreviated designation and initial voyage numbers, as NSA-13/XYZ-1....

  6. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Voyage numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... voyage No. 1 having the prefixed designation NSA and followed by the General Agents' abbreviated designation and voyage number, as NSA-1/ABC-1. (b) The continuity of NSA voyage numbers shall not change with... General Agent shall affix his abbreviated designation and initial voyage numbers, as NSA-13/XYZ-1....

  7. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Voyage numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... voyage No. 1 having the prefixed designation NSA and followed by the General Agents' abbreviated designation and voyage number, as NSA-1/ABC-1. (b) The continuity of NSA voyage numbers shall not change with... General Agent shall affix his abbreviated designation and initial voyage numbers, as NSA-13/XYZ-1....

  8. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Job order numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Job order numbering. Sec. 7 Section 7...REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 7 Job order numbering. (a) The NSA-LUMPSUMREP...Contract number shall be inserted in every job order and supplemental job order...

  9. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Job order numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Job order numbering. Sec. 7 Section 7...REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 7 Job order numbering. (a) The NSA-LUMPSUMREP...Contract number shall be inserted in every job order and supplemental job order...

  10. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Job order numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Job order numbering. Sec. 7 Section 7...REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 7 Job order numbering. (a) The NSA-LUMPSUMREP...Contract number shall be inserted in every job order and supplemental job order...

  11. 47 CFR 1.1405 - File numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false File numbers. 1.1405 Section 1.1405... Attachment Complaint Procedures § 1.1405 File numbers. Each complaint which appears to be essentially complete under § 1.1404 will be accepted and assigned a file number. Such assignment is for...

  12. 47 CFR 1.1405 - File numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false File numbers. 1.1405 Section 1.1405... Attachment Complaint Procedures § 1.1405 File numbers. Each complaint which appears to be essentially complete under § 1.1404 will be accepted and assigned a file number. Such assignment is for...

  13. 47 CFR 1.1405 - File numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false File numbers. 1.1405 Section 1.1405... Procedures § 1.1405 File numbers. Each complaint which appears to be essentially complete under § 1.1404 will be accepted and assigned a file number. Such assignment is for administrative purposes only and...

  14. 47 CFR 1.1405 - File numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false File numbers. 1.1405 Section 1.1405... Attachment Complaint Procedures § 1.1405 File numbers. Each complaint which appears to be essentially complete under § 1.1404 will be accepted and assigned a file number. Such assignment is for...

  15. 47 CFR 1.1405 - File numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false File numbers. 1.1405 Section 1.1405... Procedures § 1.1405 File numbers. Each complaint which appears to be essentially complete under § 1.1404 will be accepted and assigned a file number. Such assignment is for administrative purposes only and...

  16. PHYSICAL CONSTRAINTS OF NUMBERS W. Mueckenheim

    E-print Network

    Wildberger, Norman

    numbers are defined by a set of axioms as given by G. Peano or by E. Schmidt, the most important established by labels like "2" or "". "Number" is a patent of nobility, not issued unless its value, i.e., itsPHYSICAL CONSTRAINTS OF NUMBERS W. Mueckenheim University of Applied Sciences Augsburg All sciences

  17. Real numbers. Constants, variables, and mathematical modeling.

    E-print Network

    Alekseenko, Alexander

    . The examples of irrational numbers are , 2, e. Unfortunately, in the frames of this course we can not discussLecture 1. Real numbers. Constants, variables, and mathematical modeling. In this lecture we briefly sketch the structure of Real numbers and recall properties of addition and subtraction. Then we

  18. The Decimal Representation of Real Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalapodi, A.

    2010-01-01

    The representation of natural numbers in decimal form is an unequivocal procedure while for the representation of real numbers some ambiguities concerning the existence of infinitely many digits equal to 9 still emerge. One of the most frequently confronted misunderstandings is whether 0.999...equals 1 or not, and if not what number does this…

  19. 47 CFR 32.20 - Numbering convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Numbering convention. 32.20 Section 32.20 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES General Instructions § 32.20 Numbering convention. (a) The number...

  20. 47 CFR 32.20 - Numbering convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Numbering convention. 32.20 Section 32.20 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES General Instructions § 32.20 Numbering convention. (a) The number...

  1. A note on Quarks and numbers theory

    E-print Network

    Mehdi Hage-Hassan

    2013-02-26

    We express the basis vectors of Cartan fundamental representations of unitary groups by binary numbers. We determine the expression of Gel'fand basis of SU (3) based on the usual subatomic quarks notations and we represent it by binary numbers. By analogy with the mesons and quarks we find a new property of prime numbers.

  2. Reading the World through Very Large Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Brian; Mukhopadhyay, Swapna

    2010-01-01

    One original, and continuing, source of interest in large numbers is observation of the natural world, such as trying to count the stars on a clear night or contemplation of the number of grains of sand on the seashore. Indeed, a search of the internet quickly reveals many discussions of the relative numbers of stars and grains of sand. Big…

  3. Company number 5857955 Wellcome Trust Finance plc

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Company number 5857955 Wellcome Trust Finance plc Annual Report and Financial Statements Year ended 30 September 2014 #12;Company number 5857955 Wellcome Trust Finance plc Contents Page Strategic number 58579551 Wellcome Trust Finance plc Strategic Report For the year ended 30 September 2014

  4. Evaluating Number Sense in Workforce Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinke, Dorothea A.

    2015-01-01

    Earlier institution-sponsored research revealed that about 20% of students in community college basic math and pre-algebra programs lacked a sense of part-whole relationships with whole numbers. Using the same tool with a group of 86 workforce students, about 75% placed five whole numbers on an empty number line in a way that indicated lack of…

  5. 48 CFR 304.7001 - Numbering acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Numbering acquisitions. 304.7001 Section 304.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Acquisition Instrument Identification Numbering System 304.7001 Numbering acquisitions. (a) Acquisitions which require...

  6. Implementing the Standards. Number Representations and Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathmell, Edward C.; Leutzinger, Larry P.

    1991-01-01

    The idea that studying part-whole number relationships can foster a better understanding of number concepts, addition, subtraction, fractions, decimals, ratios, and percentages depending on the age of the student is discussed. Activities that incorporate number relationships and representations are presented. (KR)

  7. 49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The builder's number of the boiler, if known, shall be stamped on the steam dome or manhole flange. If the builder's number cannot be obtained,...

  8. 49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The builder's number of the boiler, if known, shall be stamped on the steam dome or manhole flange. If the builder's number cannot be obtained,...

  9. 49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The builder's number of the boiler, if known, shall be stamped on the steam dome or manhole flange. If the builder's number cannot be obtained,...

  10. 49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The builder's number of the boiler, if known, shall be stamped on the steam dome or manhole flange. If the builder's number cannot be obtained,...

  11. 49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The builder's number of the boiler, if known, shall be stamped on the steam dome or manhole flange. If the builder's number cannot be obtained,...

  12. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Voyage numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... voyage No. 1 having the prefixed designation NSA and followed by the General Agents' abbreviated designation and voyage number, as NSA-1/ABC-1. (b) The continuity of NSA voyage numbers shall not change with... General Agent shall affix his abbreviated designation and initial voyage numbers, as NSA-13/XYZ-1....

  13. Random Numbers a quick and dirty guide

    E-print Network

    Random Numbers a quick and dirty guide Bartosz Kostrzewa Institute of Physics Humboldt image is more random? Figure: http://arachnoid.com/randomness/index.html #12;Overview Introduction A simple PRNG Measuring random number quality Random number generators as dynamical systems RANLUX "Bad

  14. The total bondage number of grid graphs

    E-print Network

    Hu, Fu-Tao; Xu, Jun-Ming

    2011-01-01

    The total domination number of a graph $G$ without isolated vertices is the minimum number of vertices that dominate all vertices in $G$. The total bondage number $b_t(G)$ of $G$ is the minimum number of edges whose removal enlarges the total domination number. This paper considers grid graphs. An $(n,m)$-grid graph $G_{n,m}$ is defined as the cartesian product of two paths $P_n$ and $P_m$. This paper determines the exact values of $b_t(G_{n,2})$ and $b_t(G_{n,3})$, and establishes some upper bounds of $b_t(G_{n,4})$.

  15. 17 CFR 232.309 - Paper size; binding; sequential numbering; number of copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Paper size; binding; sequential numbering...Electronic Submissions § 232.309 Paper size; binding; sequential numbering; number of copies. (a) Requirements as to paper size, binding, and sequential page...

  16. 17 CFR 232.309 - Paper size; binding; sequential numbering; number of copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Paper size; binding; sequential numbering...Electronic Submissions § 232.309 Paper size; binding; sequential numbering; number of copies. (a) Requirements as to paper size, binding, and sequential page...

  17. 17 CFR 232.309 - Paper size; binding; sequential numbering; number of copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Paper size; binding; sequential numbering...Electronic Submissions § 232.309 Paper size; binding; sequential numbering; number of copies. (a) Requirements as to paper size, binding, and sequential page...

  18. On the binary expansions of algebraic numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Crandall, Richard E.; Pomerance, Carl

    2003-07-01

    Employing concepts from additive number theory, together with results on binary evaluations and partial series, we establish bounds on the density of 1's in the binary expansions of real algebraic numbers. A central result is that if a real y has algebraic degree D > 1, then the number {number_sign}(|y|, N) of 1-bits in the expansion of |y| through bit position N satisfies {number_sign}(|y|, N) > CN{sup 1/D} for a positive number C (depending on y) and sufficiently large N. This in itself establishes the transcendency of a class of reals {summation}{sub n{ge}0} 1/2{sup f(n)} where the integer-valued function f grows sufficiently fast; say, faster than any fixed power of n. By these methods we re-establish the transcendency of the Kempner--Mahler number {summation}{sub n{ge}0}1/2{sup 2{sup n}}, yet we can also handle numbers with a substantially denser occurrence of 1's. Though the number z = {summation}{sub n{ge}0}1/2{sup n{sup 2}} has too high a 1's density for application of our central result, we are able to invoke some rather intricate number-theoretical analysis and extended computations to reveal aspects of the binary structure of z{sup 2}.

  19. Deafness for the meanings of number words

    PubMed Central

    Caño, Agnès; Rapp, Brenda; Costa, Albert; Juncadella, Montserrat

    2008-01-01

    We describe the performance of an aphasic individual who showed a selective impairment affecting his comprehension of auditorily presented number words and not other word categories. His difficulty in number word comprehension was restricted to the auditory modality, given that with visual stimuli (written words, Arabic numerals and pictures) his comprehension of number and non-number words was intact. While there have been previous reports of selective difficulty or sparing of number words at the semantic and post-semantic levels, this is the first reported case of a pre-semantic deficit that is specific to the category of number words. This constitutes evidence that lexical semantic distinctions are respected by modality-specific neural mechanisms responsible for providing access to the meanings of words. PMID:17915265

  20. Relativistic theory of tidal Love numbers

    E-print Network

    Taylor Binnington; Eric Poisson

    2009-09-16

    In Newtonian gravitational theory, a tidal Love number relates the mass multipole moment created by tidal forces on a spherical body to the applied tidal field. The Love number is dimensionless, and it encodes information about the body's internal structure. We present a relativistic theory of Love numbers, which applies to compact bodies with strong internal gravities; the theory extends and completes a recent work by Flanagan and Hinderer, which revealed that the tidal Love number of a neutron star can be measured by Earth-based gravitational-wave detectors. We consider a spherical body deformed by an external tidal field, and provide precise and meaningful definitions for electric-type and magnetic-type Love numbers; and these are computed for polytropic equations of state. The theory applies to black holes as well, and we find that the relativistic Love numbers of a nonrotating black hole are all zero.

  1. Relativistic theory of tidal Love numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Binnington, Taylor; Poisson, Eric

    2009-10-15

    In Newtonian gravitational theory, a tidal Love number relates the mass multipole moment created by tidal forces on a spherical body to the applied tidal field. The Love number is dimensionless, and it encodes information about the body's internal structure. We present a relativistic theory of Love numbers, which applies to compact bodies with strong internal gravities; the theory extends and completes a recent work by Flanagan and Hinderer, which revealed that the tidal Love number of a neutron star can be measured by Earth-based gravitational-wave detectors. We consider a spherical body deformed by an external tidal field, and provide precise and meaningful definitions for electric-type and magnetic-type Love numbers; and these are computed for polytropic equations of state. The theory applies to black holes as well, and we find that the relativistic Love numbers of a nonrotating black hole are all zero.

  2. Riemann equation for prime number diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen; Liang, Yingjie

    2015-05-01

    This study makes the first attempt to propose the Riemann diffusion equation to describe in a manner of partial differential equation and interpret in physics of diffusion the classical Riemann method for prime number distribution. The analytical solution of this equation is the well-known Riemann representation. The diffusion coefficient is dependent on natural number, a kind of position-dependent diffusivity diffusion. We find that the diffusion coefficient of the Riemann diffusion equation is nearly a straight line having a slope 0.99734 in the double-logarithmic axis. Consequently, an approximate solution of the Riemann diffusion equation is obtained, which agrees well with the Riemann representation in predicting the prime number distribution. Moreover, we interpret the scale-free property of prime number distribution via a power law function with 1.0169 the scale-free exponent in respect to logarithmic transform of the natural number, and then the fractal characteristic of prime number distribution is disclosed.

  3. Complex architecture of primes and natural numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Pérez, Guillermo; Serrano, M. Ángeles; Boguñá, Marián

    2014-08-01

    Natural numbers can be divided in two nonoverlapping infinite sets, primes and composites, with composites factorizing into primes. Despite their apparent simplicity, the elucidation of the architecture of natural numbers with primes as building blocks remains elusive. Here, we propose a new approach to decoding the architecture of natural numbers based on complex networks and stochastic processes theory. We introduce a parameter-free non-Markovian dynamical model that naturally generates random primes and their relation with composite numbers with remarkable accuracy. Our model satisfies the prime number theorem as an emerging property and a refined version of Cramér's conjecture about the statistics of gaps between consecutive primes that seems closer to reality than the original Cramér's version. Regarding composites, the model helps us to derive the prime factors counting function, giving the probability of distinct prime factors for any integer. Probabilistic models like ours can help to get deeper insights about primes and the complex architecture of natural numbers.

  4. Demonstrations of the Enormity of Avogadro's Number.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diemente, Damon

    1998-01-01

    Describes three calculations used to make students aware of the size of Avogadro's number: (1) the new size of a 6-inch diameter ball with volume increased by a factor of Avogadro's number; (2) the number of moles of sand grains in the Sahara Desert; and (3) the dimensions and length of a mole of hydrogen atoms shaped into a cube, a square, and a…

  5. Particle-number-projected thermal pairing

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen Dinh Dang

    2007-12-15

    Particle-number projection is applied to the modified BCS (MBCS) theory. The resulting particle-number-projected MBCS theory, taking into account the effects due to fluctuations of particle and quasiparticle numbers at finite temperature, is tested within the exactly solvable multilevel model for pairing as well as the realistic {sup 120}Sn nucleus. The signature of the pseudogap in the crossover region above the critical temperature of superfluid-normal phase transition is discussed in terms of the pairing spectral function.

  6. Factoring numbers with a single interferogram

    E-print Network

    Vincenzo Tamma; Heyi Zhang; Xuehua He; Augusto Garuccio; Wolfgang P. Schleich; Yanhua Shih

    2015-06-09

    We construct an analog computer based on light interference to encode the hyperbolic function f({\\zeta}) = 1/{\\zeta} into a sequence of skewed curlicue functions. The resulting interferogram when scaled appropriately allows us to find the prime number decompositions of integers. We implement this idea exploiting polychromatic optical interference in a multipath interferometer and factor seven-digit numbers. We give an estimate for the largest number that can be factored by this scheme.

  7. Zooming in and out from the Mental Number Line: Evidence for a Number Range Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinhas, Michal; Pothos, Emmanuel M.; Tzelgov, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The representation of numbers is commonly viewed as an ordered continuum of magnitudes, referred to as the "mental number line." Previous work has repeatedly shown that number representations evoked by a given task can be easily altered, yielding an ongoing discussion about the basic properties of the mental number line and how malleable…

  8. Predicting landfalling hurricane numbers from basin hurricane numbers: basic statistical analysis

    E-print Network

    Laepple, T; Penzer, J; Bellone, E; Nzerem, K; Laepple, Thomas; Jewson, Stephen; Penzer, Jeremy; Bellone, Enrica; Nzerem, Kechi

    2007-01-01

    One possible method for predicting landfalling hurricane numbers is to first predict the number of hurricanes in the basin and then convert that prediction to a prediction of landfalling hurricane numbers using an estimated proportion. Should this work better than just predicting landfalling hurricane numbers directly? We perform a basic statistical analysis of this question in the context of a simple abstract model.

  9. ON THE CLASS NUMBERS OF CERTAIN NUMBER FIELDS OBTAINED FROM POINTS ON ELLIPTIC CURVES III*

    E-print Network

    Sato, Atsushi

    divis* *ible by l. Let k be a number field of finite degree, and let E be an elliptic curve def ON THE CLASS NUMBERS OF CERTAIN NUMBER FIELDS OBTAINED FROM POINTS ON ELLIPTIC Abstract We study the ramifications in the extensions of number fields arising f* *rom

  10. Young Children's Number-Word Knowledge Predicts Their Performance on a Nonlinguistic Number Task

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Kent

    Young Children's Number-Word Knowledge Predicts Their Performance on a Nonlinguistic Number Task-word learning and changes in the child's attention and memory for implicit number information. 71 children (ages 2-2 to 4-9) were asked, without number words, to replicate sets of 1 to 4 objects. Children

  11. Number Theory in Cryptography ! and its Application"

    E-print Network

    Waldschmidt, Michel

    with low cost.! · Electronic money, RFID labels (Radio Frequency IDentification)! · Braid theory (knot Identification Number) secret code. ! http://www.math.jussieu.fr/~miw/! Data transmission, Cryptography

  12. 47 CFR 32.20 - Numbering convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 32.20 Section 32.20 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES General Instructions § 32.20 Numbering...

  13. 47 CFR 32.20 - Numbering convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 32.20 Section 32.20 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES General Instructions § 32.20 Numbering...

  14. CRC octane number requirement survey for 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    An annual statistical survey of octane number requirements of current model vehicles is conducted by the Coordinating Research Council, Inc. Test data have been obtained by eighteen companies on 391 1989 vehicles including passenger cars and light-duty trucks and vans, of which 179 were equipped with knock sensors. Maximum octane number requirements were determined by testing at maximum-throttle conditions, as well as at part-throttle, with three unleaded fuel series of varying sensitivities. Requirements are expressed as the (R+M)/2 octane number, Research octane number, and Motor octane number of the reference fuel producing knock which was recurrent and repeatable at the lowest audible level. Estimated octane number requirements for the total vehicles are weighted in proportion to the 1989 vehicle model production and/or sales figures. The maximum octane number requirements of 1989 models with average sensitivity unleaded fuels were 85.1 (R+M)/2 octane numbers at the 50 percent satisfaction level, and 89.2 (R+M)/2 octane numbers at the 90 percent satisfaction level. Comparison with previous Surveys are made in this report.

  15. CRC octane number requirement survey 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    An annual statistical survey of octane number requirements of current model vehicles is conducted by the Coordinating Research Council, Inc. Test data have been obtained by ten companies on 184 1992 vehicles including passenger cars and light-duty trucks and vans, of which 88 were equipped with knock sensors. Octane number requirements were determined by testing at maximum-throttle conditions, as well as at part-throttle, with four unleaded fuel series of varying sensitivities, one containing 15 percent methyl tertiary butyl ether. Requirements are expressed as the (R+M)/2 octane number, Research octane number, and Motor octane number of the reference fuel producing knock which was recurrent and repeatable at the lowest audible level. Estimated octane number requirements for the total vehicles are weighted in proportion to the 1992 vehicle model production and/or sales figures. The octane number requirements of 1992 models with average sensitivity unleaded fuels were 85.1 (R+M)/2 octane numbers at the 50 percent satisfaction level, and 92.0 (R+M)/2 octane numbers at the 90 percent satisfaction level. In order to make a more powerful test of statistical significance of the FBRUM fuel series, the 1991 ONRS was pooled with the 1992 ONRS and compared with the pooled data for the FBRU fuel series. There was no significant difference between the two fuel series up to about 90 percent satisfaction. Beyond 90 percent satisfaction, the variability in the data is high.

  16. CRC octane-number-requirement survey, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    An annual statistical survey of octane number requirements of current model vehicles is conducted by the Coordinating Research Council, Inc. Test data have been obtained by seventeen companies on 356 1990 vehicles including passenger cars and light-duty trucks and vans, of which 169 were equipped with knock sensors. Octane number requirements were determined by testing at maximum-throttle conditions, as well as at part-throttle, with three unleaded fuel series of varying sensitivities. Requirements are expressed as the (R+M)/2 octane number, Research octane number, and Motor octane number of the reference fuel producing knock which was recurrent and repeatable at the lowest audible level. Estimated octane number requirements for the total vehicles are weighted in proportion to the 1990 vehicle model production and/or sales figures. The octane number requirements of 1990 models with average sensitivity unleaded fuels were 85.4 (R+M)/2 octane numbers at the 50 percent satisfaction level, and 89.2 (R+M)/2 octane numbers at the 90 percent satisfaction level.

  17. Calculating Atomic Number Densities for Uranium

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1993-01-01

    Provides method to calculate atomic number densities of selected uranium compounds and hydrogenous moderators for use in nuclear criticality safety analyses at gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment facilities.

  18. THE DISCOUNTED REPRODUCTIVE NUMBER FOR EPIDEMIOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Reluga, Timothy C.; Medlock, Jan; Galvani, Alison

    2013-01-01

    The basic reproductive number, , and the effective reproductive number, , are commonly used in mathematical epidemiology as summary statistics for the size and controllability of epidemics. However, these commonly used reproductive numbers can be misleading when applied to predict pathogen evolution because they do not incorporate the impact of the timing of events in the life-history cycle of the pathogen. To study evolution problems where the host population size is changing, measures like the ultimate proliferation rate must be used. A third measure of reproductive success, which combines properties of both the basic reproductive number and the ultimate proliferation rate, is the discounted reproductive number . The discounted reproductive number is a measure of reproductive success that is an individual’s expected lifetime offspring production discounted by the background population growth rate. Here, we draw attention to the discounted reproductive number by providing an explicit definition and a systematic application framework. We describe how the discounted reproductive number overcomes the limitations of both the standard reproductive numbers and proliferation rates, and show that is closely connected to Fisher’s reproductive values for different life-history stages PMID:19364158

  19. 29 CFR 783.41 - “Numbered” vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...)). The requirements and procedures of this Act are explained in detail in 46 CFR part 170. ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false âNumberedâ vessel. 783.41 Section 783.41 Labor Regulations... EMPLOYED AS SEAMEN What Is An âamerican Vesselâ § 783.41 “Numbered” vessel. A vessel “numbered under...

  20. 29 CFR 783.41 - “Numbered” vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...)). The requirements and procedures of this Act are explained in detail in 46 CFR part 170. ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false âNumberedâ vessel. 783.41 Section 783.41 Labor Regulations... EMPLOYED AS SEAMEN What Is An âamerican Vesselâ § 783.41 “Numbered” vessel. A vessel “numbered under...

  1. 29 CFR 783.41 - “Numbered” vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...)). The requirements and procedures of this Act are explained in detail in 46 CFR part 170. ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âNumberedâ vessel. 783.41 Section 783.41 Labor Regulations... EMPLOYED AS SEAMEN What Is An âamerican Vesselâ § 783.41 “Numbered” vessel. A vessel “numbered under...

  2. 29 CFR 783.41 - “Numbered” vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...)). The requirements and procedures of this Act are explained in detail in 46 CFR part 170. ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âNumberedâ vessel. 783.41 Section 783.41 Labor Regulations... EMPLOYED AS SEAMEN What Is An âamerican Vesselâ § 783.41 “Numbered” vessel. A vessel “numbered under...

  3. 29 CFR 783.41 - “Numbered” vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...)). The requirements and procedures of this Act are explained in detail in 46 CFR part 170. ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false âNumberedâ vessel. 783.41 Section 783.41 Labor Regulations... EMPLOYED AS SEAMEN What Is An âamerican Vesselâ § 783.41 “Numbered” vessel. A vessel “numbered under...

  4. The Second Strong Law of Small Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Richard K.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are 44 examples in which students are invited to guess what pattern of numbers is emerging and to decide whether the pattern will persist. Topics of examples include Pascal's triangle, integers, vertices, Fibonacci numbers, power series, partition functions, and Euler's theorem. The answers to all problems are included. (KR)

  5. Neural correlates of merging number words.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yi-Hui; Pallier, Christophe; Dehaene, Stanislas; Lin, Yi-Chen; Chang, Acer; Tzeng, Ovid J-L; Wu, Denise H

    2015-11-15

    Complex number words (e.g., "twenty two") are formed by merging together several simple number words (e.g., "twenty" and "two"). In the present study, we explored the neural correlates of this operation and investigated to what extent it engages brain areas involved processing numerical quantity and linguistic syntactic structure. Participants speaking two typologically distinct languages, French and Chinese, were required to read aloud sequences of simple number words while their cerebral activity was recorded by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Each number word could either be merged with the previous ones (e.g., 'twenty three') or not (e.g., 'three twenty'), thus forming four levels ranging from lists of number words to complex numerals. When a number word could be merged with the preceding ones, it was named faster than when it could not. Neuroimaging results showed that the number of merges correlated with activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus and in the left inferior parietal lobule. Consistent findings across Chinese and French participants suggest that these regions serve as the neural bases for forming complex number words in different languages. PMID:26226086

  6. On the Concept Image of Complex Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordlander, Maria Cortas; Nordlander, Edvard

    2012-01-01

    A study of how Swedish students understand the concept of complex numbers was performed. A questionnaire was issued reflecting the student view of own perception. Obtained answers show a variety of concept images describing how students adopt the concept of complex numbers. These concept images are classified into four categories in order to…

  7. When Symbolic Spatial Cues Go before Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Amparo; Macizo, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    This work explores the effect of spatial cueing on number processing. Participants performed a parity judgment task. However, shortly before the target number, a cue (arrow pointing to left, arrow pointing to right or a cross) was centrally presented. In Experiment 1, in which responses were lateralized, the cue direction modulated the interaction…

  8. Queneau Numbers --Recent Results and a Bibliography

    E-print Network

    Theune, Mariët

    Queneau Numbers -- Recent Results and a Bibliography Peter R.J. Asveld Department of Computer Science, Twente University of Technology P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, the Netherlands e-mail: p.r.j.asveld@misc.utwente.nl, P.R.J.Asveld@xs4all.nl Abstract -- Publications dealing with Queneau numbers can be divided roughly

  9. Dept.: Physics PHYS Course number: 103

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Dept.: Physics PHYS Course number: 103 Course title: Physics of the Environment Number of Credits Proposed Cat Copy: PHYS-103Q. Physics of the Environment. Either semester. Three credits. Recommended physics". Not open for credit to students who have passed PHYS- 104Q Concepts of physics applied

  10. Brandeis University Chemistry current number of majors

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Timothy J.

    Brandeis University Chemistry fast facts current number of majors and minors: 93 Number of faculty, physics Website: www.chem.brandeis.edu aBOUt the prOgram Chemistry strives to understand natural phenomena and medicine. the chemistry department at Brandeis has a tradition of innovation and excellence in teaching

  11. Estimating Avogadro's number from skylight and airlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesic, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Naked-eye determinations of the visual range yield order-of-magnitude estimates of Avogadro's number, using an argument of Rayleigh. Alternatively, by looking through a cardboard tube, we can compare airlight and skylight and give another estimate of this number using the law of atmospheres.

  12. 40 CFR 86.1204 - Section numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Evaporative Emission Test Procedures for New Gasoline-Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1204 Section numbering. The section numbering system set forth in § 86.104...

  13. A Generalization of the Prime Number Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruckman, Paul S.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author begins with the prime number theorem (PNT), and then develops this into a more general theorem, of which many well-known number theoretic results are special cases, including PNT. He arrives at an asymptotic relation that allows the replacement of certain discrete sums involving primes into corresponding differentiable…

  14. Families of Linear Recurrences for Catalan Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, N.

    2011-01-01

    Four different families of linear recurrences are derived for Catalan numbers. The derivations rest on John Riordan's 1973 generalization of Catalan numbers to a set of polynomials. Elementary differential and integral calculus techniques are used and the results should be of interest to teachers and students of introductory courses in calculus…

  15. Nonclassicality in phase-number uncertainty relations

    SciTech Connect

    Matia-Hernando, Paloma; Luis, Alfredo

    2011-12-15

    We show that there are nonclassical states with lesser joint fluctuations of phase and number than any classical state. This is rather paradoxical since one would expect classical coherent states to be always of minimum uncertainty. The same result is obtained when we replace phase by a phase-dependent field quadrature. Number and phase uncertainties are assessed using variance and Holevo relation.

  16. 2001 TRAFFIC ZONE BOUNDARIES Zone Numbers

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    2001 TRAFFIC ZONE BOUNDARIES Zone Numbers & Detailed Definitions #12;2001 TRAFFIC ZONE BOUNDARIES zone boundary definitions. The report is divided into two parts. The first part presents the traffic zone numbers by local municipalities in the 2001 TTS survey area. The second part presents detailed

  17. Brandeis University Mathematics current number of majors

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Timothy J.

    Brandeis University Mathematics fast facts current number of majors and minors: 88 Number sciences, ecology, economics, and our commercial and technical life. Mathematics is, at the same time parties and other social events. each December, our mathematics majors also participate in the famed

  18. Company number 5857955 Wellcome Trust Finance plc

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Company number 5857955 Wellcome Trust Finance plc Annual Report and Financial Statements Year ended 30 September 2012 #12;Company number 5857955 Wellcome Trust Finance plc Contents Page Directors Trust Finance plc Directors' Report for the year ended 30 September 2012 Report of the Directors

  19. Company number 5857955 Wellcome Trust Finance plc

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Company number 5857955 Wellcome Trust Finance plc Annual Report and Financial Statements Year ended 30 September 2013 #12;Company number 5857955 Wellcome Trust Finance plc Contents Page Directors Trust Finance plc Directors' Report For the year ended 30 September 2013 Report of the Directors

  20. Keypad Geometry and Divisibility of Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dyke, Frances; Keynes, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors show how students can form familiar geometric figures on the calculator keypad and generate numbers that are all divisible by a common number. Students are intrigued by the results and want to know "why it works". The activities can be presented and students given an extended amount of time to think about them. As…

  1. Infinite Sums of M-Bonacci Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    A-iru, Muniru A.

    2009-01-01

    In this note, we construct infinite series using M-bonacci numbers in a manner similar to that used in previous studies and investigate the convergence of the series to an integer. Our results generalize the ones obtained for Fibonacci numbers.

  2. Brandeis University Philosophy current number of majors

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Timothy J.

    Brandeis University Philosophy fast facts current number of majors and minors: 84 Number of faculty of philosophy, logic, metaphysics, philosophy of mind and language, political philosophy Popular second majors.edu/departments/ philosophy aBoUt thE Program Why be good? What is thinking? What is knowledge, and do we have any? Is free

  3. Good Morning, Numbers Day: Motivating for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramentol, Salvador Vidal

    2011-01-01

    The aversion that many girls and boys experience towards mathematics has been one of the author's major concerns since he started teaching. In this article, he describes a project called "Numbers Day" that was designed to improve students' attitudes toward mathematics. There are many features of Numbers Day that teachers might incorporate into…

  4. Brandeis University Politics current number of majors

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Timothy J.

    Brandeis University Politics fast facts current number of majors and minors: 176 Number of faculty analytical case study, including comparative case study, of the politics of democratic and democratizing regimes Popular second majors: history, international and global studies Website: brandeis.edu/departments/politics

  5. National Resources [and] National Toll Free Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This resource list provides names, addresses, and telephone numbers of 13 information clearinghouses and 42 organizations providing information on children and youth with disabilities. Telephone numbers are designated as either voice or text telephone. Spanish-language resources are also indicated. A list of organizations that have national…

  6. hp calculators HP 50g Complex numbers

    E-print Network

    Vetter, Frederick J.

    to the hyperbolic trigonometric functions. The fifth selection provides a list of many functions that can be applied the complex function menu, press 9`. The screen displays the some of the built-in complex number functions function of the Pkey by pressing !´. When pressed, a CHOOSE box is displayed with a number of choices

  7. Historical Objections against the Number Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heeffer, Albrecht

    2011-01-01

    Historical studies on the development of mathematical concepts will help mathematics teachers to relate their students' difficulties in understanding to conceptual problems in the history of mathematics. We argue that one popular tool for teaching about numbers, the number line, may not be fit for early teaching of operations involving negative…

  8. Appendix 36 Number of KEFs by Biome

    E-print Network

    Appendix 36 Number of KEFs by Biome Table 1. The number of Key Ecological Functions performed by the biomes pertinent to Sub basin planning Select Key Ecological Functions Eastside (Interior) Grasslands.1.2.1.3) freshwater or marine zooplankton 2 2 3 3 2 2 14 #12;Select Key Ecological Functions Eastside (Interior

  9. 7 CFR 46.20 - Lot numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...sold. A lot number shall be assigned to each purchased shipment which is reconditioned if the seller is to be charged with the shrinkage or loss. The lot number shall be entered on the receiving record in connection with each shipment and entered on all...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1220 - Identification numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Identification numbers. 404.1220 Section 404.1220 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Coverage of Employees of State and Local Governments How to Identify Covered Employees § 404.1220 Identification numbers. (a)...

  11. Language Influence on Children's Cognitive Number Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsawaie, Othman N.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effect of language on children's cognitive representation of number. The sample for the study consisted of 90 Arabic speaking children with a mean age of 80 months. Children were interviewed individually and asked to represent written two-digit numbers using base-10 blocks. A new approach for testing the linguistic…

  12. Seedbed, Numbers 29-31, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldenhersh, Barbara, Ed.

    This document consists of three issues of the journal "Seedbed," an outcome of the Teachers' Center Project at Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville (SIUE). Issue Number 29 contains 67 articles on teachers' ideas that they thought worth sharing with other teachers. Issue Number 30 consists of a single paper, "Children and Mathematics in the…

  13. Brandeis University Psychology current number of majors

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Timothy J.

    Brandeis University Psychology fast facts current number of majors and minors: 282 NumberBoUt the Program the Department of Psychology helps students establish a strong scientific and research foundation in psychology. this curriculum not only makes students competitive for graduate programs, it also prepares them

  14. Inhibition, Conflict Detection, and Number Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubin, Amélie; Simon, Grégory; Houdé, Olivier; De Neys, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The acquisition of number conservation is a critical step in children's numerical and mathematical development. Classic developmental studies have established that children's number conservation is often biased by misleading intuitions. However, the precise nature of these conservation errors is not clear. A key question is whether conservation…

  15. Predicting the required number of training samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalayeh, H. M.; Landgrebe, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    A criterion which measures the quality of the estimate of the covariance matrix of a multivariate normal distribution is developed. Based on this criterion, the necessary number of training samples is predicted. Experimental results which are used as a guide for determining the number of training samples are included.

  16. Name Personal identity number Street address Telephone

    E-print Network

    your application for learning support for students with disabilities, we need to handle personal information about you (name, personal identity number, disability). By filling in and signing the applicationName Personal identity number Street address Telephone Postcode and city Email I agree to my

  17. Roman Bondage Numbers of Some Graphs

    E-print Network

    Hu, Fu-Tao

    2011-01-01

    A Roman dominating function on a graph $G=(V,E)$ is a function $f: V\\to \\{0,1,2\\}$ satisfying the condition that every vertex $u$ with $f(u)=0$ is adjacent to at least one vertex $v$ with $f(v)=2$. The weight of a Roman dominating function is the value $f(G)=\\sum_{u\\in V} f(u)$. The Roman domination number of $G$ is the minimum weight of a Roman dominating function on $G$. The Roman bondage number of a nonempty graph $G$ is the minimum number of edges whose removal results in a graph with the Roman domination number larger than that of $G$. This paper determines the exact value of the Roman bondage numbers of two classes of graphs, complete $t$-partite graphs and $(n-3)$-regular graphs with order $n$ for any $n\\ge 5$.

  18. Compendium of Experimental Cetane Number Data

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, M. J.; Taylor, J. D.; McCormick, R. L.

    2004-09-01

    In this report, we present a compilation of reported cetane numbers for pure chemical compounds. The compiled database contains cetane values for 299 pure compounds, including 156 hydrocarbons and 143 oxygenates. Cetane number is a relative ranking of fuels based on the amount of time between fuel injection and ignition. The cetane number is typically measured either in a combustion bomb or in a single-cylinder research engine. This report includes cetane values from several different measurement techniques - each of which has associated uncertainties. Additionally, many of the reported values are determined by measuring blending cetane numbers, which introduces significant error. In many cases, the measurement technique is not reported nor is there any discussion about the purity of the compounds. Nonetheless, the data in this report represent the best pure compound cetane number values available from the literature as of August 2004.

  19. Relativistic theory of surficial Love numbers

    E-print Network

    Philippe Landry; Eric Poisson

    2014-04-27

    A relativistic theory of surficial Love numbers, which characterize the surface deformation of a body subjected to tidal forces, was initiated by Damour and Nagar. We revisit this effort in order to extend it, clarify some of its aspects, and simplify its computational implementation. First, we refine the definition of surficial Love numbers proposed by Damour and Nagar, and formulate it directly in terms of the deformed curvature of the body's surface, a meaningful geometrical quantity. Second, we develop a unified theory of surficial Love numbers that applies equally well to material bodies and black holes. Third, we derive a compactness-dependent relation between the surficial and (electric-type) gravitational Love numbers of a perfect-fluid body, and show that it reduces to the familiar Newtonian relation when the compactness is small. And fourth, we simplify the tasks associated with the practical computation of the surficial and gravitational Love numbers for a material body.

  20. Random numbers spring from alpha decay

    SciTech Connect

    Frigerio, N.A.; Sanathanan, L.P.; Morley, M.; Clark, N.A.; Tyler, S.A.

    1980-05-01

    Congruential random number generators, which are widely used in Monte Carlo simulations, are deficient in that the number they generate are concentrated in a relatively small number of hyperplanes. While this deficiency may not be a limitation in small Monte Carlo studies involving a few variables, it introduces a significant bias in large simulations requiring high resolution. This bias was recognized and assessed during preparations for an accident analysis study of nuclear power plants. This report describes a random number device based on the radioactive decay of alpha particles from a /sup 235/U source in a high-resolution gas proportional counter. The signals were fed to a 4096-channel analyzer and for each channel the frequency of signals registered in a 20,000-microsecond interval was recorded. The parity bits of these frequency counts (0 for an even count and 1 for an odd count) were then assembled in sequence to form 31-bit binary random numbers and transcribed to a magnetic tape. This cycle was repeated as many times as were necessary to create 3 million random numbers. The frequency distribution of counts from the present device conforms to the Brockwell-Moyal distribution, which takes into account the dead time of the counter (both the dead time and decay constant of the underlying Poisson process were estimated). Analysis of the count data and tests of randomness on a sample set of the 31-bit binary numbers indicate that this random number device is a highly reliable source of truly random numbers. Its use is, therefore, recommended in Monte Carlo simulations for which the congruential pseudorandom number generators are found to be inadequate. 6 figures, 5 tables.

  1. 47 CFR 52.111 - Toll free number assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Toll free number assignment. 52.111 Section 52.111...CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) NUMBERING Toll Free Numbers § 52.111 Toll free number assignment. Toll free numbers...

  2. Estimating shorebird numbers at migration stopover sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farmer, A.; Durbian, F.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a method for estimating the total number of shorebirds that use a migration stopover site during spring and fall migration. We combined weekly shorebird counts with parameter estimates for detection probability, sampled proportion, and length of stay on the Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge. Double sampling was used to determine detection probability and estimated values varied among wetland units from a low of 0.07 to a high of 0.82. The sampled proportion of most wetland units was 100% but was lower in some of the larger units. Length of stay (measured for Pectoral [Calidris melanotos] and Least Sandpipers [C. minutilla] combined) averaged 10.0 days in spring and 3.7 days in fall. Spring shorebird numbers were approximately five times greater than fall numbers on the Refuge. Annual shorebird numbers varied among years from an estimated low in 2003 of 15 734 to a high in 2002 of 69 570. Peak daily counts during study years averaged only 12% of estimated spring totals and 4% of fall totals. An estimate of shorebird numbers based on summing weekly counts, not corrected for detection probability or sampled proportion, would have been only 21% (spring) to 31% (fall) of the total number of birds. These results reveal that peak counts and nonadjusted counts can significantly underestimate the number of shorebirds that use migration stopover sites in the midcontinent of North America. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2006.

  3. Generating functions for weighted Hurwitz numbers

    E-print Network

    Mathieu Guay-Paquet; J. Harnad

    2015-04-16

    Double Hurwitz numbers enumerating weighted $n$-sheeted branched coverings of the Riemann sphere or, equivalently, weighted paths in the Cayley graph of $S_n$ generated by transpositions are determined by an associated weight generating function. A uniquely determined $1$-parameter family of 2D Toda $\\tau$-functions of hypergeometric type is shown to consist of generating functions for such weighted Hurwitz numbers. Four classical cases are detailed, in which the weighting is uniform: Okounkov's double Hurwitz numbers, for which the ramification is simple at all but two specified branch points; the case of Belyi curves, with three branch points, two with specified profiles; the general case, with a specified number of branch points, two with fixed profiles, the rest constrained only by the genus; and the signed enumeration case, with sign determined by the parity of the number of branch points. Using the exponentiated quantum dilogarithm function as weight generator, three new types of weighted enumerations are introduced. These determine {\\em quantum} Hurwitz numbers depending on a deformation parameter $q$. By suitable interpretation of $q$, the statistical mechanics of quantum weighted branched covers may be related to that of Bosonic gases. The standard double Hurwitz numbers are recovered in the classical limit.

  4. Theory of analogous force on number sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canessa, Enrique

    2003-10-01

    A general statistical thermodynamic theory that considers given sequences of x-integers to play the role of particles of known type in an isolated elastic system is proposed. By also considering some explicit discrete probability distributions px for natural numbers, we claim that they lead to a better understanding of probabilistic laws associated with number theory. Sequences of numbers are treated as the size measure of finite sets. By considering px to describe complex phenomena, the theory leads to derive a distinct analogous force fx on number sets proportional to (? px/? x) T at an analogous system temperature T. In particular, this leads to an understanding of the uneven distribution of integers of random sets in terms of analogous scale invariance and a screened inverse square force acting on the significant digits. The theory also allows to establish recursion relations to predict sequences of Fibonacci numbers and to give an answer to the interesting theoretical question of the appearance of the Benford's law in Fibonacci numbers. A possible relevance to prime numbers is also analyzed.

  5. Language and number: a bilingual training study.

    PubMed

    Spelke, E S; Tsivkin, S

    2001-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the role of a specific language in human representations of number. Russian-English bilingual college students were taught new numerical operations (Experiment 1), new arithmetic equations (Experiments 1 and 2), or new geographical or historical facts involving numerical or non-numerical information (Experiment 3). After learning a set of items in each of their two languages, subjects were tested for knowledge of those items, and new items, in both languages. In all the studies, subjects retrieved information about exact numbers more effectively in the language of training, and they solved trained problems more effectively than untrained problems. In contrast, subjects retrieved information about approximate numbers and non-numerical facts with equal efficiency in their two languages, and their training on approximate number facts generalized to new facts of the same type. These findings suggest that a specific, natural language contributes to the representation of large, exact numbers but not to the approximate number representations that humans share with other mammals. Language appears to play a role in learning about exact numbers in a variety of contexts, a finding with implications for practice in bilingual education. The findings prompt more general speculations about the role of language in the development of specifically human cognitive abilities. PMID:11062322

  6. Low Nephron Number and Its Clinical Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Luyckx, Valerie A.; Shukha, Khuloud; Brenner, Barry M.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies now strongly support the hypothesis, proposed over two decades ago, that developmental programming of the kidney impacts an individual’s risk for hypertension and renal disease in later life. Low birth weight is the strongest current clinical surrogate marker for an adverse intrauterine environment and, based on animal and human studies, is associated with a low nephron number. Other clinical correlates of low nephron number include female gender, short adult stature, small kidney size, and prematurity. Low nephron number in Caucasian and Australian Aboriginal subjects has been shown to be associated with higher blood pressures, and, conversely, hypertension is less prevalent in individuals with higher nephron numbers. In addition to nephron number, other programmed factors associated with the increased risk of hypertension include salt sensitivity, altered expression of renal sodium transporters, altered vascular reactivity, and sympathetic nervous system overactivity. Glomerular volume is universally found to vary inversely with nephron number, suggesting a degree of compensatory hypertrophy and hyperfunction in the setting of a low nephron number. This adaptation may become overwhelmed in the setting of superimposed renal insults, e.g. diabetes mellitus or rapid catch-up growth, leading to the vicious cycle of on-going hyperfiltration, proteinuria, nephron loss and progressive renal functional decline. Many millions of babies are born with low birth weight every year, and hypertension and renal disease prevalences are increasing around the globe. At present, little can be done clinically to augment nephron number; therefore adequate prenatal care and careful postnatal nutrition are crucial to optimize an individual’s nephron number during development and potentially to stem the tide of the growing cardiovascular and renal disease epidemics worldwide. PMID:23908819

  7. Intestinal flow of a couple stress nanofluid in arteries.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Noreen Sher; Nadeem, S

    2013-12-01

    The current article discusses the influence of nanofluid on the peristaltic flow of an incompressible couple stress fluid in a two-dimensional uniform tube. The problem formulation is accessible in an upsurge structure of orientation for equations of momentum, energy, and concentrations. The continuity, linear momentum, energy, and nanoparticle equations lead to the mathematical development. HPM is used to get the solutions for velocity, temperature, nanoparticle, and pressure gradient. The solutions contain the Brownian motion number N(b), thermophoresis number N(t), local temperature Grashof number B(r), and local nanoparticle Grashof number G(r). The physical features of different embedded parameters are analyzed and discussed physically in detail. PMID:23974660

  8. Blood flow of nanofluid through an artery with composite stenosis and permeable walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellahi, R.; Rahman, S. U.; Nadeem, S.; Akbar, N. S.

    2013-11-01

    This problem deals with the theoretical study of blood flow of nanofluid through composite stenosed arteries with permeable walls. The highly nonlinear momentum equations of nanofluid model are simplified by considering the mild stenosis case. Temperature and nanoparticle equations are coupled; so, we use homotopy perturbation method to calculate the solution of temperature and nanoparticle equations, while the exact solution has been calculated for velocity profile. Also, the expressions for flow impedance, pressure gradient and stream function are computed. These solutions depend on Brownian motion number N b, thermophoresis number N t, local temperature Grashof number G r and local nanoparticle Grashof number B r. The effects of various emerging parameters are discussed through graphs for different values of interest.

  9. Peristaltic flow of a micropolar fluid with nano particles in small intestine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar, Noreen Sher; Nadeem, S.

    2013-12-01

    The present article analyzed the peristaltic flow of a nanofluid in a uniform tube for micropolar fluid. The governing equations for proposed model are developed in cylindrical coordinates system. The flow is discussed in a wave frame of reference moving with velocity of the wave c. Under the assumptions of longwave length the reduced coupled nonlinear differential equations of momentum, energy, and concentrations are solved by Homotopy perturbation method is used to get the solutions for velocity, temperature, nano particle, microrotation component. The solutions consists Brownian motion number N b, thermophoresis number N t, local temperature Grashof number B r and local nano particle Grashof number G r . The effects of various parameters involved in the problem are investigated for pressure rise, pressure gradient, temperature and concentration profile. Five different waves are taken into account for analysis. Streamlines have been plotted at the end of the article.

  10. Number of spin I states for bosons

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L. H.; Zhao, Y. M.; Jia, L. Y.; Arima, A.

    2008-01-15

    We study number of spin I states for bosons in this article. We extend Talmi's recursion formulas for number of states with given spin I to boson systems, and we prove empirical formulas for five bosons by using these recursions. We obtain number of states with given spin I and F spin for three and four bosons by using sum rules of six-j and nine-j symbols. We also present empirical formulas of states for d bosons with given spin I and F=F{sub max}-1 and F{sub max}-2.0.

  11. Froissart bound and gluon number fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang Wenchang

    2010-05-01

    We study the effect of gluon number fluctuations (Pomeron loops) on the impact parameter behavior of the scattering amplitude in the fixed coupling case. We demonstrate that the dipole-hadron cross section computed from gluon number fluctuations saturates the Froissart bound and the growth of the radius of the black disk with rapidity is enhanced by an additional term as compared to the single event case. We find that the physical amplitude has a Gaussian impact parameter dependence once the gluon number fluctuations are included. This indicates that the fluctuations may be the microscopic origin for the Gaussian impact parameter dependence of the scattering amplitude.

  12. Historical development of the number concept

    E-print Network

    Marm, Anna

    1918-01-01

    by an infinite number of elements he called it irrational. His theory was made public in 1872 through E. Kossak who had followed his course of lectures at the University of Berlin, G. Cantor introduced the irrational number through a fundamental series. He... of the NUMBER CONCEPT. by Anna Marm. Submitted to the Department of Mathematics and the faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Kansas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master _ Department of Date:Ay ill' IC R0Q1...

  13. Critical points and number of master integrals

    E-print Network

    Roman N. Lee; Andrei A. Pomeransky

    2013-09-06

    We consider the question about the number of master integrals for a multiloop Feynman diagram. We show that, for a given set of denominators, this number is totally determined by the critical points of the polynomials entering either of the two representations: the parametric representation and the Baikov representation. In particular, for the parametric representation the corresponding polynomial is just the sum of Symanzik polynomials. The relevant topological invariant is the sum of the Milnor numbers of the proper critical points. We present a Mathematica package Mint to automatize the counting of the master integrals.

  14. MSSM with gauged baryon and lepton numbers

    E-print Network

    Bartosz Fornal

    2015-07-07

    A simple extension of the minimal supersymmetric standard model in which baryon and lepton numbers are local gauge symmetries spontaneously broken at the supersymmetry scale is reported. This theory provides a natural explanation for proton stability. Despite violating R-parity, it contains a dark matter candidate carrying baryon number that can be searched for in direct detection experiments. The model accommodates a light active neutrino spectrum and predicts one heavy and two light sterile neutrinos. It also allows for lepton number violating processes testable at the Large Hadron Collider.

  15. The Bondage Number of Mesh Networks

    E-print Network

    Hu, Fu-Tao; Xu, Jun-Ming

    2011-01-01

    The bondage number $b(G)$ of a nonempty graph $G$ is the smallest number of edges whose removal from $G$ results in a graph with domination number greater than that of $G$. Denote $P_n\\times P_m$ be the Cartesian product of two paths $P_n$ and $P_m$. This paper determines that the exact value of $b(P_n\\times P_2)$, $b(P_n\\times P_3)$ and $b(P_n\\times P_4)$ for $n\\ge 2$.

  16. Skyrmions up to Baryon Number 108

    E-print Network

    D. T. J. Feist; P. H. C. Lau; N. S. Manton

    2012-10-05

    The Skyrme crystal is built up of repeating units similar to the cubic Skyrmion of baryon number 4. Using this as guide, we construct new Skyrmion solutions in the massive pion case, with various baryon numbers up to 108. Most of our solutions resemble chunks of the Skyrme crystal. They are constructed using a multi-layer version of the rational map ansatz to create initial configurations, which are then relaxed numerically to find the energy minima. The coefficients of the rational maps are found by a geometrical construction related to the Skyrme crystal structure. We find some further solutions by numerical relaxation of clusters composed of baryon number 4 Skyrmions.

  17. Critical points and number of master integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Roman N.; Pomeransky, Andrei A.

    2013-11-01

    We consider the question about the number of master integrals for a multiloop Feynman diagram. We show that, for a given set of denominators, this number is totally determined by the critical points of the polynomials entering either of the two representations: the parametric representation and the Baikov representation. In particular, for the parametric representation the corresponding polynomial is just the sum of Symanzik polynomials. The relevant topological invariant is the sum of the Milnor numbers of the proper critical points. We present a Mathematica package Mint to automatize the counting of the master integrals for the typical case, when all critical points are isolated.

  18. Lorenz number in low-dimensional structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, M. N.; Bhandari, C. M.; Singh, M. P.

    2010-12-01

    Folded sheets appear to behave as a quasi one or two-dimensional system depending on temperature and radius of the tubes. The Lorenz number for such a system is obtained and it is concluded that for unfolded sheets, which show 2-D behavior, the Lorenz number may fall sharply at very low temperature. On relatively high temperature side, the Lorenz number acquires a constant value, close to the usual metallic behavior, whereas in 1-D systems the Lorenz value is smaller than usual, but is not expected to fall with the lowering of temperature.

  19. Spatio-temporal optical random number generator.

    PubMed

    Stip?evi?, M; Bowers, J E

    2015-05-01

    We present a first random number generator (RNG) which simultaneously uses independent spatial and temporal quantum randomness contained in an optical system. Availability of the two independent sources of entropy makes the RNG resilient to hardware failure and signal injection attacks. We show that the deviation from randomness of the generated numbers can be estimated quickly from simple measurements thus eliminating the need for usual time-consuming statistical testing of the output data. As a confirmation it is demonstrated that generated numbers pass NIST Statistical test suite. PMID:25969254

  20. Texas Rice, Volume II, Number

    E-print Network

    2002-01-01

    Texas A&M University System Agricultural Research and Extension Center Beaumont, Texas May 2002 Volume II Number 3 Texas Rice In many Asian lan- guages the term for ‘rice’ is synonymous with ‘food’ or ‘life’, which indicates the importance... of this ancient grain. Worldwide, 23% of all calories consumed come from rice. In some countries such as Cambo- dia, that number may be as high as 80%. In the U.S. only 8% of our total calories come from rice, but that number is increasing every year as Ameri...

  1. Predicted Variations in Flow Patterns in a Horizontal CVD Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuczmarski, Maria A.

    1999-01-01

    Expressions in terms of common reactor operating parameters were derived for the ratio of the Grashof number to the Reynolds number, Gr/Re, the ratio of the Grashof to the square of 2 the Reynolds number, Gr/Re(exp 2), and the Rayleigh number, Ra. Values for these numbers were computed for an example horizontal CVD reactor and compared to numerical simulations to gauge their effectiveness as predictors of the presence or absence of transverse and longitudinal rolls in the reactor. Comparisons were made for both argon and hydrogen carrier gases over the pressure range 2- 101 kPa. Reasonable agreement was achieved in most cases when using Gr/Re to predict the presence of transverse rolls and Ra to predict the presence of longitudinal rolls. The ratio Gr/Re(exp 2) did not yield useful predictions regarding the presence of transverse rolls. This comparison showed that the ratio of the Grashof number to the Reynolds number, as well as the Rayleigh number, can be used to predict the presence or absence of transverse and longitudinal rolls in a horizontal CVD reactor for a given set of reactor conditions. These predictions are approximate, and care must be exercised when making predictions near transition regions.

  2. 21 CFR 207.35 - Notification of registrant; drug establishment registration number and drug listing number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification of registrant; drug establishment registration number and drug listing number. 207.35 Section 207.35 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION,...

  3. 21 CFR 207.35 - Notification of registrant; drug establishment registration number and drug listing number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Notification of registrant; drug establishment registration number and drug listing number. 207.35 Section 207.35 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION,...

  4. 21 CFR 207.35 - Notification of registrant; drug establishment registration number and drug listing number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notification of registrant; drug establishment registration number and drug listing number. 207.35 Section 207.35 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION,...

  5. 21 CFR 207.35 - Notification of registrant; drug establishment registration number and drug listing number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notification of registrant; drug establishment registration number and drug listing number. 207.35 Section 207.35 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION,...

  6. 21 CFR 207.35 - Notification of registrant; drug establishment registration number and drug listing number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notification of registrant; drug establishment registration number and drug listing number. 207.35 Section 207.35 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION,...

  7. Children's Number-Line Estimation Shows Development of Measurement Skills (Not Number Representations)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Dale J.; Sarnecka, Barbara W.

    2014-01-01

    Children's understanding of numbers is often assessed using a number-line task, where the child is shown a line labeled with 0 at one end and a higher number (e.g., 100) at the other end. The child is then asked where on the line some intermediate number (e.g., 70) should go. Performance on this task changes predictably during childhood, and…

  8. EXERCISES NUMBER THEORY 74.a) Which numbers are algebraic of degree 1?

    E-print Network

    Evertse, Jan-Hendrik

    number is called an algebraic integer if it is a zero of a monic polynomial with integer coefficients, i.e-Weierstrass Theorem, stating that if 1, . . . , n and 1, . . . , n are algebraic numbers, then 1e1 + · · · + nen are algebraic numbers different from 0, 1 and 1, . . . , n are algebraic numbers then e0 1 1 · · · n n

  9. VESSEL SAFETY CHECKLIST Vessel Name: ___________________________________ Vessel Number: _________________________________

    E-print Network

    Chen, Shu-Ching

    VESSEL SAFETY CHECKLIST Vessel Name: ___________________________________ Vessel Number Checklist- Required Float plan submitted Boater education card Boat registration Compass and GPS Up to date means of boarding) Vessel System Checklist Drain plug installed Fuel tank full Bilge free of water

  10. Department: HDFS Course number : HDFS 4181W

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    consent. Supervised teaching experience within the Child Development Labs or approved early educationDepartment: HDFS Course number : HDFS 4181W Course title : Early Childhood Development center. Development of advanced written and oral communication skills required for early childhood

  11. OHIO BIOLOGICAL SURVEY Volume 5 Number 1

    E-print Network

    Miller, Scott

    BULLETIN of the OHIO BIOLOGICAL SURVEY NEW SERIES Volume 5 Number 1 TIlE STINK BUGS OF OHIO of this study is to provide a current checklist of the 53 taxa species and varieties of Pentatomidae stink bugs

  12. 46 CFR 169.515 - Number required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...169.515 Section 169.515 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Primary Lifesaving Equipment § 169.515 Number...

  13. 46 CFR 169.541 - Number required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...169.541 Section 169.541 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Personal Flotation Devices § 169.541 Number required....

  14. 46 CFR 169.541 - Number required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...169.541 Section 169.541 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Personal Flotation Devices § 169.541 Number required....

  15. 46 CFR 169.515 - Number required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...169.515 Section 169.515 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Primary Lifesaving Equipment § 169.515 Number...

  16. 46 CFR 169.515 - Number required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...169.515 Section 169.515 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Primary Lifesaving Equipment § 169.515 Number...

  17. Predicting unknown species numbers using discovery curves

    PubMed Central

    Bebber, Daniel P; Marriott, Francis H.C; Gaston, Kevin J; Harris, Stephen A; Scotland, Robert W

    2007-01-01

    A common approach to estimating the total number of extant species in a taxonomic group is to extrapolate from the temporal pattern of known species descriptions. A formal statistical approach to this problem is provided. The approach is applied to a number of global datasets for birds, ants, mosses, lycophytes, monilophytes (ferns and horsetails), gymnosperms and also to New World grasses and UK flowering plants. Overall, our results suggest that unless the inventory of a group is nearly complete, estimating the total number of species is associated with very large margins of error. The strong influence of unpredictable variations in the discovery process on species accumulation curves makes these data unreliable in estimating total species numbers. PMID:17456460

  18. Department of Defense Worldwide Numbers for TBI

    MedlinePLUS

    ... number of active-duty service members — anywhere U.S. forces are located — with a first-time TBI diagnosis ... injuries sustained by members of the U.S. Armed Forces are classified as mild TBI, also known as ...

  19. An Application of Number Theory to Cryptology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Joanne R.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is an application of number theory to cryptology that can be used with secondary school students. Background on the topics is given first, followed by an explanation for use of the topic. (MNS)

  20. Ideal photon number amplifier and duplicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dariano, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    The photon number-amplification and number-duplication mechanism are analyzed in the ideal case. The search for unitary evolutions leads to consider also a number-deamplification mechanism, the symmetry between amplification and deamplification being broken by the integer-value nature of the number operator. Both transformations, amplification and duplication, need an auxiliary field which, in the case of amplification, turns out to be amplified in the inverse way. Input-output energy conservation is accounted for using a classical pump or through frequency-conversion of the fields. Ignoring one of the fields is equivalent to considering the amplifier as an open system involving entropy production. The Hamiltonians of the ideal devices are given and compared with those of realistic systems.

  1. A Fast Coulometric Estimation of Avogadro's Number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Nicholas C.

    2007-10-01

    Using simple materials found in any high school or college laboratory, an electrochemical method of determining Avogadro's number is presented. Once set up, the measurement can be completed in about 5 minutes.

  2. Generation of pseudo-random numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, L. W.; Rheinfurth, M. H.

    1982-01-01

    Practical methods for generating acceptable random numbers from a variety of probability distributions which are frequently encountered in engineering applications are described. The speed, accuracy, and guarantee of statistical randomness of the various methods are discussed.

  3. New technique for number-plate recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jie; Shi, Peng-Fei

    2001-09-01

    This paper presents an alternative algorithm for number plate recognition. The algorithm consists of three modules. Respectively, they are number plate location module, character segmentation module and character recognition module. Number plate location module extracts the number plate from the detected car image by analyzing the color and the texture properties. Different from most license plate location methods, the algorithm has fewer limits to the car size, the car position in the image and the image background. Character segmentation module applies connected region algorithm both to eliminate noise points and to segment characters. Touching characters and broken characters can be processed correctly. Character recognition module recognizes characters with HHIC (Hierarchical Hybrid Integrated Classifier). The system has been tested with 100 images obtained from crossroad and parking lot, etc, where the cars have different size, position, background and illumination. Successful recognition rate is about 92%. The average processing time is 1.2 second.

  4. The high Reynolds number cryogenic wind tunnel.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodyer, M. J.; Kilgore, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Theoretical considerations indicate that cooling the wind-tunnel test gas to cryogenic temperatures will provide a large increase in test Reynolds number with no increase in dynamic pressure while reducing the tunnel drive-power requirements. Studies have been made to determine the expected variations of Reynolds number and other parameters over wide ranges of Mach number, pressure, and temperature with due regard to avoiding liquefaction and adverse real-gas effects. Practical operational procedures have been developed in a low-speed prototype cryogenic wind tunnel. Aerodynamic experiments in the facility have demonstrated the theoretically predicted variations in Reynolds number and drive power. Force and moment measurements on a wing model mounted on a water-jacketed strain-gage sting balance have demonstrated the feasibility of operation of such balances in a cryogenic environment.

  5. Paper Preview Paper Number 63180-MS

    E-print Network

    Abu-Khamsin, Sidqi

    Paper Preview Paper Number 63180-MS Title Improving Sandstone Matrix Acidizing for Oil Wells by Gas that otherwise would be contacted. This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on the effect

  6. Department.: Psychology Course Number: PSYC 210W

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Department.: Psychology Course Number: PSYC 210W Course Title: Lab in Cognition Credits: 3 Contact in these experiments, the writing assignments provide a richer and fuller of the nature of psychological inquiry

  7. Department.: Psychology Course Number: PSYC 244W

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Department.: Psychology Course Number: PSYC 244W Course Title: Laboratory in Personality Credits: 3 Psychological Association. The total report is at least 15 pages in length. The final report is the primary

  8. Unpredictability and the transmission of numbers

    E-print Network

    Myers, John M

    2015-01-01

    Curiously overlooked in physics is its dependence on the transmission of numbers. For example the transmission of numerical clock readings is implicit in the concept of a coordinate system. The transmission of numbers and other logical distinctions is often achieved over a computer-mediated communications network in the face of an unpredictable environment. By unpredictable we mean something stronger than the spread of probabilities over given possible outcomes, namely an opening to unforeseeable possibilities. Unpredictability, until now overlooked in theoretical physics, makes the transmission of numbers interesting. Based on recent proofs within quantum theory that provide a theoretical foundation to unpredictability, here we show how regularities in physics rest on a background of channels over which numbers are transmitted. As is known to engineers of digital communications, numerical transmissions depend on coordination reminiscent of the cycle of throwing and catching by players tossing a ball back and...

  9. Minor Change Procedure 9501 Number: Revision 09

    E-print Network

    Nair, Sankar

    /29/10 Date: / / Page 2 of 12 CONTROL AND ACCOUNTABILITY OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALSMinor Change Procedure 9501 Number: Revision 09 By: Approved 04/29/10 Date: / / Page 1 of 12 CONTROL AND ACCOUNTABILITY OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS

  10. Volume 60, Numbers 3&4 (Complete) 

    E-print Network

    Dickson, Donald

    2002-01-01

    Scientific discovery is at the heart of solving many of the problems facing contemporary society. Scientists are retiring at rates that exceed the numbers of new scientists. Unfortunately, scientific careers still appear ...

  11. Clinching First Place: Calculating the Magic Number.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a lesson plan in which students apply their mathematical intuition to determine win-loss possibilities of teams in a sports league and develop a formula for calculating the magic number for clinching first place. (YDS)

  12. Department .: Sociology Course number : Soci 282W

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Department .: Sociology Course number : Soci 282W Title : Urbanization Credits : 3 Contact Person : Brad Wright Catalog Copy : Soci 282. Urbanization. Either Semester. Three credits . The rapid urbanization of the world's population; its causes; characteristics; and consequences. Soci 282W. Urbanization

  13. The Gauss-Dirichlet Orbit Number

    E-print Network

    Pierre-Yves Gaillard

    2008-09-20

    Dirichlet computed in some particular cases the number of equivalence classes of representations of a nonzero integer by a representative system for the integral binary quadratic forms of a given discriminant. We complete this computation.

  14. MARINE RESEARCH Volume 62, Number 1

    E-print Network

    Griffa, Annalisa

    Journal of MARINE RESEARCH Volume 62, Number 1 Predictability of Lagrangian particle trajectories, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, 90089, U.S.A. Journal of Marine Research, 62, 1

  15. MARINE RESEARCH Volume 61, Number 5

    E-print Network

    Bourgault, Daniel

    Journal of MARINE RESEARCH Volume 61, Number 5 Wave-induced boundary mixing in a partially mixed@physics.mun.ca Journal of Marine Research, 61, 553­576, 2003 553 #12;wave breaking on shoaling boundaries has also been

  16. MARINE RESEARCH Volume 63, Number 6

    E-print Network

    Bourgault, Daniel

    Journal of MARINE RESEARCH Volume 63, Number 6 Interfacial solitary wave run-up in the St. Lawrence Institute, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Mont- Joli, QC, Canada, G5H 3ZA. Journal of Marine Research

  17. MARINE RESEARCH Volume 57, Number 3

    E-print Network

    Huck, Thierry

    Journal of MARINE RESEARCH Volume 57, Number 3 On the in uence of the parameterization of lateral. Journal of Marine Research, 57, 387­426, 1999 387 #12;produces large diapycnal uxes once the isopycnals

  18. MARINE RESEARCH Volume 61, Number 1

    E-print Network

    Journal of MARINE RESEARCH Volume 61, Number 1 On the thermohaline circulation in flat bottom Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachu- setts, 02543, U.S.A. e-mail: mspall@whoi.edu Journal of Marine

  19. Chaotic behaviour of high Mach number flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varvoglis, H.; Ghosh, S.

    1985-01-01

    The stability of the super-Alfvenic flow of a two-fluid plasma model with respect to the Mach number and the angle between the flow direction and the magnetic field is investigated. It is found that, in general, a large scale chaotic region develops around the initial equilibrium of the laminar flow when the Mach number exceeds a certain threshold value. After reaching a maximum the size of this region begins shrinking and goes to zero as the Mach number tends to infinity. As a result high Mach number flows in time independent astrophysical plasmas may lead to the formation of 'quasi-shocks' in the presence of little or no dissipation.

  20. Elastic tail propulsion at low Reynolds number

    E-print Network

    Yu, Tony S. (Tony Sheung)

    2007-01-01

    A simple way to generate propulsion at low Reynolds number is to periodically oscillate a passive flexible filament. Here we present a macroscopic experimental investigation of such a propulsive mechanism. A robotic swimmer ...

  1. 47 CFR 1.1405 - File numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...1405 Section 1.1405 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Pole Attachment Complaint Procedures § 1.1405 File numbers. Each complaint which appears to...

  2. The number of degree sequences of graphs

    E-print Network

    Burns, Jason Matthew

    2007-01-01

    We give nontrivial upper and lower bounds for the total number of distinct degree sequences among all simple, unlabeled graphs on n vertices (graphical partitions on n vertices). Our upper bound is ... for some constant ...

  3. SESAME equation of state number 7740: Polycarbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Boettger, J.C.

    1991-06-01

    An equation of state (EOS) for polycarbonate (a widely used polymer) has been generated with the computer code GRIZZLY and will be added to the SESAME library as material number 7740. Although a number of the input parameter used in the calculations are based on rough estimates. 7740 provides a good match to experimental Hugoniot data and should be reliable on or near the principal Hugoniot. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Predicting apparent Sherwood numbers for fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect

    Groenewold, H.; Tsotsas, E.

    1999-09-01

    Mass transfer data of bubbling fluidized beds have been reevaluated with a new model which is completely predictive. The model is based on a two-phase approach with active bypass, formally plug flow for the suspension gas and a consideration of backmixing in the main kinetic coefficient, i.e. in the apparent particle-to-fluid Sherwood number. A good agreement with experimental results of various authors with a broad range of Reynolds numbers and particle diameters is demonstrated.

  5. Dynamical real numbers and living systems

    E-print Network

    Datta, Dhurjati Prasad

    2010-01-01

    Recently uncovered second derivative discontinuous solutions of the simplest linear ordinary differential equation define not only an nonstandard extension of the framework of the ordinary calculus, but also provide a dynamical representation of the ordinary real number system. Every real number can be visualized as a living cell -like structure, endowed with a definite evolutionary arrow. We discuss the relevance of this extended calculus in the study of living systems. We also present an intelligent version of the Newton's first law of motion.

  6. Dynamical real numbers and living systems

    E-print Network

    Dhurjati Prasad Datta

    2010-01-11

    Recently uncovered second derivative discontinuous solutions of the simplest linear ordinary differential equation define not only an nonstandard extension of the framework of the ordinary calculus, but also provide a dynamical representation of the ordinary real number system. Every real number can be visualized as a living cell -like structure, endowed with a definite evolutionary arrow. We discuss the relevance of this extended calculus in the study of living systems. We also present an intelligent version of the Newton's first law of motion.

  7. All-optical fast random number generator.

    PubMed

    Li, Pu; Wang, Yun-Cai; Zhang, Jian-Zhong

    2010-09-13

    We propose a scheme of all-optical random number generator (RNG), which consists of an ultra-wide bandwidth (UWB) chaotic laser, an all-optical sampler and an all-optical comparator. Free from the electric-device bandwidth, it can generate 10Gbit/s random numbers in our simulation. The high-speed bit sequences can pass standard statistical tests for randomness after all-optical exclusive-or (XOR) operation. PMID:20940928

  8. 78 FR 36725 - Numbering Policies for Modern Communications; IP-Enabled Services; Telephone Number Requirements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... Filing System (ECFS). See Electronic Filing of Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121 (1998... multiple devices. See Nathan Ingram, iOS 6 unifies your Apple ID and phone number for improved iMessage and...-unified-apple-id-phone-number (``Now, if someone calls your phone number for Facetime, you'll be able...

  9. THE LIMIT OF A SEQUENCE OF NUMBERS DEFINITION OF THE NUMBER e.

    E-print Network

    Baggett, Lawrence W.

    CHAPTER II THE LIMIT OF A SEQUENCE OF NUMBERS DEFINITION OF THE NUMBER e. This chapter contains of the limit of a sequence, (2) The definition of the real number e (Theorem 2.3), (3) The Squeeze Theorem the beginnings of the most important, and probably the most subtle, notion in mathematical analysis, i.e

  10. Conjugates of Parry numbers near the unit circle Conjugates of Parry Numbers near the unit

    E-print Network

    : given a sequence of Salem numbers (i ) which converges to x (1, +), what is x ? (i.e. Pisot or Salem : given a sequence of Salem numbers (i ) which converges to x (1, +), what is x ? (i.e. Pisot or Salem : given a sequence of Salem numbers (i ) which converges to x (1, +), what is x ? (i.e. Pisot or Salem

  11. An Exploratory Study of a Number Sense Program to Develop Kindergarten Students' Number Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sood, Sheetal; Jitendra, Asha K.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a number sense program on kindergarten students' number proficiency and responsiveness to treatment as a function of students' risk for mathematics difficulties. The program targeted development of relationships among numbers (e.g., spatial, more and less). A total of 101 kindergarten students (not at risk:…

  12. 78 FR 36725 - Numbering Policies for Modern Communications; IP-Enabled Services; Telephone Number Requirements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ...6/11/3078598/ios-6-unified-apple-id-phone-number (``Now, if someone...to your cell phone number and not your Apple ID email.''). 25. In light of these...direct access to numbers if they are ``red-lighted'' by the Commission for...

  13. Teaching and Learning Fraction and Rational Numbers: The Origins and Implications of Whole Number Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ni, Yujing; Zhou, Yong-Di

    2005-01-01

    Many researchers agree that children's difficulty with fraction and rational numbers is associated with their whole number knowledge, but they disagree on the origin of the whole number bias. This article reviews three explanations of the nature of the bias. These accounts diverge on the questions of whether or not early quantitative…

  14. On Liouville Numbers Yet Another Application of Functional Analysis to Number Theory

    E-print Network

    of Transcendental Numbers On Liouville Numbers ­ p.4/42 #12;Transcendental Numbers Gottfried Leibniz Leonhard Euler´eor`eme de ce genre, ´enonc´e dans une lettre de Goldbach `a Euler; mais je ne sache pas que la d

  15. The concrete theory of numbers : Problem of simplicity of Fermat number-twins

    E-print Network

    Boris V. Tarasov

    2007-07-06

    The problem of simplicity of Fermat number-twins $f_{n}^{\\pm}=2^{2^n}\\pm3$ is studied. The question for what $n$ numbers $f_{n}^{\\pm}$ are composite is investigated. The factor-identities for numbers of a kind $x^2 \\pm k $ are found.

  16. Random Numbers This chapter describes algorithms for the generation of pseudorandom numbers with

    E-print Network

    Palmeri, Thomas

    Chapter 9 Random Numbers This chapter describes algorithms for the generation of pseudorandom: 0.95012928514718 This is the first number produced by the Matlab random number generator with its, is it really "random"? No, it isn't. Computers are (in principle) deterministic machines and should not exhibit

  17. A feeling for the numbers in biology

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Rob; Milo, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Although the quantitative description of biological systems has been going on for centuries, recent advances in the measurement of phenomena ranging from metabolism to gene expression to signal transduction have resulted in a new emphasis on biological numeracy. This article describes the confluence of two different approaches to biological numbers. First, an impressive array of quantitative measurements make it possible to develop intuition about biological numbers ranging from how many gigatons of atmospheric carbon are fixed every year in the process of photosynthesis to the number of membrane transporters needed to provide sugars to rapidly dividing Escherichia coli cells. As a result of the vast array of such quantitative data, the BioNumbers web site has recently been developed as a repository for biology by the numbers. Second, a complementary and powerful tradition of numerical estimates familiar from the physical sciences and canonized in the so-called “Fermi problems” calls for efforts to estimate key biological quantities on the basis of a few foundational facts and simple ideas from physics and chemistry. In this article, we describe these two approaches and illustrate their synergism in several particularly appealing case studies. These case studies reveal the impact that an emphasis on numbers can have on important biological questions. PMID:20018695

  18. Riemann equation for prime number diffusion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen; Liang, Yingjie

    2015-05-01

    This study makes the first attempt to propose the Riemann diffusion equation to describe in a manner of partial differential equation and interpret in physics of diffusion the classical Riemann method for prime number distribution. The analytical solution of this equation is the well-known Riemann representation. The diffusion coefficient is dependent on natural number, a kind of position-dependent diffusivity diffusion. We find that the diffusion coefficient of the Riemann diffusion equation is nearly a straight line having a slope 0.99734 in the double-logarithmic axis. Consequently, an approximate solution of the Riemann diffusion equation is obtained, which agrees well with the Riemann representation in predicting the prime number distribution. Moreover, we interpret the scale-free property of prime number distribution via a power law function with 1.0169 the scale-free exponent in respect to logarithmic transform of the natural number, and then the fractal characteristic of prime number distribution is disclosed. PMID:26026319

  19. The dynamics of thermal regime changes of a local working zone in conditions of its heating by gas infrared radiators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nee, A.

    2015-10-01

    Mathematical modeling of unsteady heat transfer in a closed rectangular area with a local heat supply object in a conjugate formulation in working conditions of radiation source of energy is passed. Fields of temperatures and stream functions, illustrating the influence of a local typical object on thermal regime are received. The effect of Grashof number on dimensionless heat transfer coefficient - Nusselt number is investigated. The influence of nonconducted heat supply object on heat transfer rate in solution domain is showed.

  20. Development of thermal stratification and destratification scaling concepts. Volume 2: Stratification. [tanks (containers)/tables (data)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovrich, T. N.; Schwartz, S. H.

    1975-01-01

    Temperature and pressure data obtained from the saturated Freon 113 PCA closed-tank stratification tests are presented. The data presented in tabular form are the test conditions, sensible heat values, and Freon 113 PCA liquid and ullage (vapor) properties. Also included, are graphical representations of the liquid bulk temperature and pressure histories, and dimensionless liquid-ullage delta-temperature profiles. Modified Grashof numbers and Fourier number-history data are also presented graphically.

  1. 48 CFR 204.7004 - Supplementary PII numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... position numeric serial number added to the basic PII number and beginning with 0001, e.g., N00062-91-R... Identification Numbers 204.7004 Supplementary PII numbers. (a) Uses of the supplementary number. Use supplementary numbers with the basic PII number, to identify— (1) Amendments to solicitations; (2)...

  2. 48 CFR 204.7004 - Supplementary PII numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... position numeric serial number added to the basic PII number and beginning with 0001, e.g., N00062-91-R... Identification Numbers 204.7004 Supplementary PII numbers. (a) Uses of the supplementary number. Use supplementary numbers with the basic PII number, to identify— (1) Amendments to solicitations; (2)...

  3. 48 CFR 204.7004 - Supplementary PII numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... position numeric serial number added to the basic PII number and beginning with 0001, e.g., N00062-91-R... Identification Numbers 204.7004 Supplementary PII numbers. (a) Uses of the supplementary number. Use supplementary numbers with the basic PII number, to identify— (1) Amendments to solicitations; (2)...

  4. 48 CFR 204.7004 - Supplementary PII numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... position numeric serial number added to the basic PII number and beginning with 0001, e.g., N00062-91-R... Identification Numbers 204.7004 Supplementary PII numbers. (a) Uses of the supplementary number. Use supplementary numbers with the basic PII number, to identify— (1) Amendments to solicitations; (2)...

  5. Courant number and unsteady flow computation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lai, Chintu

    1993-01-01

    The Courant number C, the key to unsteady flow computation, is a ratio of physical wave velocity, ??, to computational signal-transmission velocity, ??, i.e., C = ??/??. In this way, it uniquely relates a physical quantity to a mathematical quantity. Because most unsteady open-channel flows are describable by a set of n characteristic equations along n characteristic paths, each represented by velocity ??i, i = 1,2,....,n, there exist as many as n components for the numerator of C. To develop a numerical model, a numerical integration must be made on each characteristic curve from an earlier point to a later point on the curve. Different numerical methods are available in unsteady flow computation due to the different paths along which the numerical integration is actually performed. For the denominator of C, the ?? defined as ?? = ?? 0 = ??x/??t has been customarily used; thus, the Courant number has the familiar form of C?? = ??/??0. This form will be referred to as ???common Courant number??? in this paper. The commonly used numerical criteria C?? for stability, neutral stability and instability, are imprecise or not universal in the sense that r0 does not always reflect the true maximum computational data-transmission speed of the scheme at hand, i.e., Ctau is no indication for the Courant constraint. In view of this , a new Courant number, called the ???natural Courant number???, Cn, that truly reflects the Courant constraint, has been defined. However, considering the numerous advantages inherent in the traditional C??, a useful and meaningful composite Courant number, denoted by C??* has been formulated from C??. It is hoped that the new aspects of the Courant number discussed herein afford the hydraulician a broader perspective, consistent criteria, and unified guidelines, with which to model various unsteady flows.

  6. Number Word Use in Toddlerhood Is Associated with Number Recall Performance at Seven Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Libertus, Melissa E.; Marschik, Peter B.; Einspieler, Christa

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that verbal working memory and vocabulary acquisition are linked in early childhood. However, it is unclear whether acquisition of a narrow range of words during toddlerhood may be particularly related to recall of the same words later in life. Here we asked whether vocabulary acquisition of number words, location and quantifier terms over the first three years of life are associated with verbal and visuospatial working memory at seven years. Our results demonstrate that children who produced more number words between 20–26 months and started to produce the number words 1–10 earlier showed greater number recall at 7 years of age. This link was specific to numbers and neither extended to quantifier and location terms nor verbal and visuospatial working memory performance with other stimuli. These findings suggest a category-specific link between the mental lexicon of number words and working memory for numbers at an early age. PMID:24892835

  7. Washington University Dependent Social Security Number (SSN) Healthcare Form

    E-print Network

    Subramanian, Venkat

    Washington University Dependent Social Security Number (SSN) Healthcare Form Per the mandatory/or children) social security number (SSN) ______________________ ______________ _________________ Employee: _______________________ ________________ _______________________ Dependent's Name Relationship Social Security Number (SSN

  8. Number Concepts without Number Lines in an Indigenous Group of Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Núñez, Rafael; Cooperrider, Kensy; Wassmann, Jürg

    2012-01-01

    Background The generic concept of number line, which maps numbers to unidimensional space, is a fundamental concept in mathematics, but its cognitive origins are uncertain. Two defining criteria of the number line are that (i) there is a mapping of each individual number (or numerosity) under consideration onto a specific location on the line, and (ii) that the mapping defines a unidimensional space representing numbers with a metric — a distance function. It has been proposed that the number line is based on a spontaneous universal human intuition, rooted directly in brain evolution, that maps number magnitude to linear space with a metric. To date, no culture lacking this intuition has been documented. Methodology/Principal Findings By means of a number line task, we investigated the universality proposal with the Yupno of Papua New Guinea. Unschooled adults did exhibit a number-to-space mapping (criterion i) but, strikingly, despite having precise cardinal number concepts, they located numbers only on the endpoints, thus failing to use the extent of the line. The produced mapping was bi-categorical and metric-free, in violation of criterion ii. In contrast, Yupnos with scholastic experience used the extent of the segment according to known standards, but they did so not as evenly as western controls, exhibiting a bias towards the endpoints. Conclusions/Significance Results suggest that cardinal number concepts can exist independently from number line representations. They also suggest that the number line mapping, although ubiquitous in the modern world, is not universally spontaneous, but rather seems to be learned through — and continually reinforced by — specific cultural practices. PMID:22558193

  9. Analysis of turbulent free-convection boundary layer on flat plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, E R G; Jackson, Thomas W

    1951-01-01

    With the use of Karman's integrated momentum equation for the boundary layer and data on the wall-shearing stress and heat transfer in forced-convection flow, a calculation was carried out for the flow and heat transfer in the turbulent free-convection boundary layer on a vertical flat plate. The calculation is for a fluid with a Prandtl number that is close to 1. A formula was derived for the heat-transfer coefficient that was in good agreement with experimental data in the range of Grashof numbers from 10sup10 to 10sup12. Because of the good agreement between the theoretical formula and the experimental data, the formula may be used to obtain data for high Grashof numbers. The calculation also yielded formulas for the maximum velocity in the boundary layer and for boundary-layer thickness.

  10. Large scale three-dimensional topology optimisation of heat sinks cooled by natural convection

    E-print Network

    Alexandersen, Joe; Aage, Niels

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the application of density-based topology optimisation to the design of three-dimensional heat sinks cooled by natural convection. The governing equations are the steady-state incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled to the thermal convection-diffusion equation through the Bousinessq approximation. The fully coupled non-linear multiphysics system is solved using stabilised trilinear equal-order finite elements in a parallel framework allowing for the optimisation of large scale problems with order of 40-330 million state degrees of freedom. The flow is assumed to be laminar and several optimised designs are presented for Grashof numbers between $10^3$ and $10^6$. Interestingly, it is observed that the number of branches in the optimised design increases with increasing Grashof numbers, which is opposite to two-dimensional optimised designs.

  11. True random numbers from amplified quantum vacuum

    E-print Network

    M. Jofre; M. Curty; F. Steinlechner; G. Anzolin; J. P. Torres; M. W. Mitchell; V. Pruneri

    2011-10-17

    Random numbers are essential for applications ranging from secure communications to numerical simulation and quantitative finance. Algorithms can rapidly produce pseudo-random outcomes, series of numbers that mimic most properties of true random numbers while quantum random number generators (QRNGs) exploit intrinsic quantum randomness to produce true random numbers. Single-photon QRNGs are conceptually simple but produce few random bits per detection. In contrast, vacuum fluctuations are a vast resource for QRNGs: they are broad-band and thus can encode many random bits per second. Direct recording of vacuum fluctuations is possible, but requires shot-noise-limited detectors, at the cost of bandwidth. We demonstrate efficient conversion of vacuum fluctuations to true random bits using optical amplification of vacuum and interferometry. Using commercially-available optical components we demonstrate a QRNG at a bit rate of 1.11 Gbps. The proposed scheme has the potential to be extended to 10 Gbps and even up to 100 Gbps by taking advantage of high speed modulation sources and detectors for optical fiber telecommunication devices.

  12. Unpredictability and the transmission of numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, John M.; Madjid, F. Hadi

    2015-08-01

    Curiously overlooked in physics is its dependence on the transmission of numbers. For example, the transmission of numerical clock readings is implicit in the concept of a coordinate system. The transmission of numbers and other logical distinctions is often achieved over a computer-mediated communications network in the face of an unpredictable environment. By unpredictable we mean something stronger than the spread of probabilities over given possible outcomes, namely an opening to unforeseeable possibilities. Unpredictability, until now overlooked in theoretical physics, makes the transmission of numbers interesting. Based on recent proofs within quantum theory that provide a theoretical foundation to unpredictability, here we show how regularities in physics rest on a background of channels over which numbers are transmitted. As is known to engineers of digital communications, numerical transmissions depend on coordination reminiscent of the cycle of throwing and catching by players tossing a ball back and forth. In digital communications, the players are computers, and the required coordination involves unpredictably adjusting "live clocks" that step these computers through phases of a cycle. We show how this phasing, which we call logical synchronization, constrains number-carrying networks, and, if a spacetime manifold in invoked, put "stripes" on spacetime. Via its logically synchronized channels, a network of live clocks serves as a reference against which to locate events. Such a network in any case underpins a coordinate frame, and in some cases the direct use of a network can be tailored to investigate an unpredictable environment. Examples include explorations of gravitational variations near Earth.

  13. Unpredictability and the transmission of numbers

    E-print Network

    John M. Myers; F. Hadi Madjid

    2015-08-05

    Curiously overlooked in physics is its dependence on the transmission of numbers. For example the transmission of numerical clock readings is implicit in the concept of a coordinate system. The transmission of numbers and other logical distinctions is often achieved over a computer-mediated communications network in the face of an unpredictable environment. By unpredictable we mean something stronger than the spread of probabilities over given possible outcomes, namely an opening to unforeseeable possibilities. Unpredictability, until now overlooked in theoretical physics, makes the transmission of numbers interesting. Based on recent proofs within quantum theory that provide a theoretical foundation to unpredictability, here we show how regularities in physics rest on a background of channels over which numbers are transmitted. As is known to engineers of digital communications, numerical transmissions depend on coordination reminiscent of the cycle of throwing and catching by players tossing a ball back and forth. In digital communications, the players are computers, and the required coordination involves unpredictably adjusting "live clocks" that step these computers through phases of a cycle. We show how this phasing, which we call `logical synchronization,' constrains number-carrying networks, and, if a spacetime manifold in invoked, put "stripes" on spacetime. Via its logically synchronized channels, a network of live clocks serves as a reference against which to locate events. Such a network in any case underpins a coordinate frame, and in some cases the direct use of a network can be tailored to investigate an unpredictable environment. Examples include explorations of gravitational variations near Earth.

  14. True random numbers from amplified quantum vacuum.

    PubMed

    Jofre, M; Curty, M; Steinlechner, F; Anzolin, G; Torres, J P; Mitchell, M W; Pruneri, V

    2011-10-10

    Random numbers are essential for applications ranging from secure communications to numerical simulation and quantitative finance. Algorithms can rapidly produce pseudo-random outcomes, series of numbers that mimic most properties of true random numbers while quantum random number generators (QRNGs) exploit intrinsic quantum randomness to produce true random numbers. Single-photon QRNGs are conceptually simple but produce few random bits per detection. In contrast, vacuum fluctuations are a vast resource for QRNGs: they are broad-band and thus can encode many random bits per second. Direct recording of vacuum fluctuations is possible, but requires shot-noise-limited detectors, at the cost of bandwidth. We demonstrate efficient conversion of vacuum fluctuations to true random bits using optical amplification of vacuum and interferometry. Using commercially-available optical components we demonstrate a QRNG at a bit rate of 1.11 Gbps. The proposed scheme has the potential to be extended to 10 Gbps and even up to 100 Gbps by taking advantage of high speed modulation sources and detectors for optical fiber telecommunication devices. PMID:21997077

  15. Mixed convection from a cylinder oscillating vertically in a quiescent fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahfouz, F. M.; Badr, H. M.

    The problem of heat convection from a vertically oscillating cylinder in a quiescent fluid is investigated. The governing equations of motion and energy are solved numerically in a non-inertial frame of references to determine the flow field and heat transfer characteristics under different conditions. The main dominating parameters are Keulegan-Carpenter number, KC, frequency parameter, ?, Grashof number, Gr and Prandtl number, Pr. The ranges considered for these parameters are KC <= 10, ?<=40 and Gr <= 105 while Prandtl number is kept constant. The study revealed that the effect of amplitude and frequency of oscillation on heat transfer is strongly influenced by the Grashof number range. In the forced convection regime (Gr = 0), the increase of KC creates extensive vortex motion at all cylinder positions that leads to a significant increase in heat transfer. A similar trend, but with a lesser extent, is also observed for the increase of ?. However, at high Grashof numbers, the effect of oscillation on heat convection is only significant at large values of KC.

  16. A bias free true random number generator

    E-print Network

    Wei Wei; Hong Guo

    2009-05-15

    We propose a new approach to nondeterministic random number generation. In theory, the randomness originated from the uncorrelated nature of consecutive laser pulses with Poissonian photon number distribution and that of the consecutive single photon detections is used to generate random bit. In experiment, von Neumann correction method is applied to extract the final random bit. This method is proved to be bias free in randomness generation, provided that the single photon detections are mutually independent, and further, it has the advantage in generation efficiency of random bits since no postprocessing is needed. A true random number generator based on this new method is realized and its randomness is guaranteed using three batteries of statistical tests.

  17. High Reynolds Number Thermal Stability Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emens, Jessica M.; Brown, Sarah P.; Frederick Robert A., Jr.; Wood, A. John

    2004-01-01

    This work represents preliminary thermal stability results for liquid hydrocarbon fuels. High Reynolds Number Thermal Stability experiments with Jet A and RP-1 resulted in a quantitative measurement of the thermal stability. Each fuel flowed through a heated capillary tube that held the outlet temperature at 290 C. An optical pyrometer measured the surface temperature of the tube at 12 locations as a function of time. The High Reynolds Number Thermal Stability number was then determined using standards published by the American Society for Testing and Materials. The results for Jet A showed lower thermal stability than similar tests conducted at another facility. The RP-1 results are the first reported using this technique. Because the temperature rise on the capillary tube during testing for the RP-1 fuels was not significant, a new standard for the testing conditions should be developed for these types of fuels.

  18. Large numbers hypothesis. II - Electromagnetic radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper develops the theory of electromagnetic radiation in the units covariant formalism incorporating Dirac's large numbers hypothesis (LNH). A direct field-to-particle technique is used to obtain the photon propagation equation which explicitly involves the photon replication rate. This replication rate is fixed uniquely by requiring that the form of a free-photon distribution function be preserved, as required by the 2.7 K cosmic radiation. One finds that with this particular photon replication rate the units covariant formalism developed in Paper I actually predicts that the ratio of photon number to proton number in the universe varies as t to the 1/4, precisely in accord with LNH. The cosmological red-shift law is also derived and it is shown to differ considerably from the standard form of (nu)(R) - const.

  19. Two results on the digraph chromatic number

    E-print Network

    Harutyunyan, Ararat

    2011-01-01

    It is known (Bollob\\'{a}s (1978); Kostochka and Mazurova (1977)) that there exist graphs of maximum degree $\\Delta$ and of arbitrarily large girth whose chromatic number is at least $c \\Delta / \\log \\Delta$. We show an analogous result for digraphs where the chromatic number of a digraph $D$ is defined as the minimum integer $k$ so that $V(D)$ can be partitioned into $k$ acyclic sets, and the girth is the length of the shortest cycle in the corresponding undirected graph. It is also shown, in the same vein as an old result of Erdos (1962), that there are digraphs with arbitrarily large chromatic number where every large subset of vertices is 2-colorable.

  20. Electron heating in superhigh Mach number shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadopoulos, K.

    1988-01-01

    Fluid and MHD models, as well as direct extrapolation of the earth's bow shock measurements in the high Mach number (HMN) range to the superhigh Mach number (SHMN) range predict that the downstream electron pressure is only a negligible fraction of the Rankine-Hugoniot downstream pressure. Following Alfven, plasma physics experimental-theoretical data combined with magnetospheric observations were used to probe the physics of the SHMN shocks. It is shown that inclusion of proper plasma physics considerations in the interaction of the reflected and transmitted ions and the electrons at the 'foot' of the shock leads to the surprising result that electron heating can dominate in the SHNM range. A stationary model of the shock structure is derived and shown to be the result of extrapolation of the high Mach number shock physics wiht incorporation of collective interactions at the foot.

  1. Charge quantization from a number operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furey, C.

    2015-03-01

    We explain how an unexpected algebraic structure, the division algebras, can be seen to underlie a generation of quarks and leptons. From this new vantage point, electrons and quarks are simply excitations from the neutrino, which formally plays the role of a vacuum state. Using the ladder operators which exist within the system, we build a number operator in the usual way. It turns out that this number operator, divided by 3, mirrors the behaviour of electric charge. As a result, we see that electric charge is quantized because number operators can only take on integer values. Finally, we show that a simple hermitian form, built from these ladder operators, results uniquely in the nine generators of SUc (3) and Uem (1). This gives a direct route to the two unbroken gauge symmetries of the standard model.

  2. Number counts and dynamical vacuum cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, N. Chandrachani; Borges, H. A.; Carneiro, S.; Alcaniz, J. S.

    2015-03-01

    We study non-linear structure formation in an interacting model of the dark sector of the Universe in which the dark energy density decays linearly with the Hubble parameter, ?? ? H, leading to a constant-rate creation of cold dark matter. We derive all relevant expressions to calculate the mass function and the cluster number density using the Sheth-Torman formalism and show that the effect of the interaction process is to increase the number of bound structures of large masses (M ? 1014 M? h-1) when compared to the standard ? cold dark matter model. Since these models are not reducible to each other, this number counts signature can in principle be tested in future surveys.

  3. Baryon number as the fourth color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornal, Bartosz; Rajaraman, Arvind; Tait, Tim M. P.

    2015-09-01

    We propose an extension of the Standard Model in which baryon number is promoted to be part of a non-Abelian gauge symmetry at high energies. Specifically, we consider the gauge group S U (4 )×S U (2 )L×U (1 )X, where the S U (4 ) unifies baryon number and color. This symmetry is spontaneously broken down to the Standard Model gauge group at a scale which can be as low as a few TeV. The S U (4 ) structure implies that each SM quark comes along with an uncolored quark partner, the lightest of which is stabilized by the generalized baryon number symmetry and can play the role of dark matter. We explore circumstances under which one can realize a model of asymmetric dark matter whose relic abundance is connected to the observed baryon asymmetry, and discuss unique signatures that can be searched for at the LHC.

  4. Status of exotic-quantum-number mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, C. A.; Van Haarlem, Y.

    2010-08-15

    The search for mesons with non-quark-antiquark (exotic) quantum numbers has gone on for nearly 30 years. Currently there is experimental evidence of three isospin one states, the {pi}{sub 1}(1400), the {pi}{sub 1}(1600), and the {pi}{sub 1}(2015). For all of these states, there are questions about their identification and even if some of them exist. In this article, we will review both the theoretical work and the experimental evidence associated with these exotic quantum number states. We find that the {pi}{sub 1}(1600) could be the lightest exotic quantum number hybrid meson, but observations of other members of the nonet would be useful.

  5. IONIC TRANSFERENCE NUMBERS IN CELLOPHANE MEMBRANES

    PubMed Central

    Teorell, Torsten

    1936-01-01

    The "apparent" cation transference number within cellophane is determined for HCl, KCl, NH4Cl, NaCl, and LiCl. The method consists in measuring the E.M.F. in a concentration chain employing Ag:AgCl electrodes or calomel electrodes and calculating from formulas derived for cases of simple, unconstrained diffusion. The transference numbers and the cation mobilities relative to the chloride ion were found to be higher in the cellophane (relative cation mobilities increased about 40 per cent). The effect of the membrane is discussed. It is emphasized that with the introduction of a membrane as a liquid junction new factors are introduced, which are not considered in the formulas ordinarily used. Such factors may be activity changes due to dimensional or other reasons and particularly electrical effects exhibited by the membrane upon the ionic diffusion. Accordingly the transference number, as determined, may lack well defined physical significance. PMID:19872970

  6. Social Security Number (SSN) Application Instructions A Social Security Number (SSN) is a unique, 9-digit identification number issued by the US Social Security Administration (SSA).

    E-print Network

    Murphy, Robert F.

    6/2015 Social Security Number (SSN) Application Instructions A Social Security Number (SSN) is a unique, 9-digit identification number issued by the US Social Security Administration (SSA). An SSN to the government. Your SSN and Student ID number are different. When you are asked for these numbers, be clear

  7. Approximate resolution of hard numbering problems

    SciTech Connect

    Bailleux, O.; Chabrier, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    We present a new method for estimating the number of solutions of constraint satisfaction problems. We use a stochastic forward checking algorithm for drawing a sample of paths from a search tree. With this sample, we compute two values related to the number of solutions of a CSP instance. First, an unbiased estimate, second, a lower bound with an arbitrary low error probability. We will describe applications to the Boolean Satisfiability problem and the Queens problem. We shall give some experimental results for these problems.

  8. Hypergraph Ramsey Numbers and Adiabatic Quantum Algorithm

    E-print Network

    Ri Qu; Yan-ru Bao

    2012-07-18

    Gaitan and Clark [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 010501 (2012)] have recently presented a quantum algorithm for the computation of the Ramsey numbers R(m, n) using adiabatic quantum evolution. We consider that the two-color Ramsey numbers R(m, n; r) for r-uniform hypergraphs can be computed by using the similar ways in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 010501 (2012)]. In this comment, we show how the computation of R(m, n; r) can be mapped to a combinatorial optimization problem whose solution be found using adiabatic quantum evolution.

  9. Determine Ramsey numbers on a quantum computer

    E-print Network

    Hefeng Wang

    2015-10-07

    We present a quantum algorithm for computing the Ramsey numbers whose computational complexity grows super-exponentially with the number of vertices of a graph on a classical computer. The problem is mapped to a decision problem on a quantum computer, a probe qubit is coupled to a register that represents the problem and detects the energy levels of the problem Hamiltonian. The decision problem is solved by determining whether the probe qubit exhibits resonance dynamics. The algorithm shows a quadratic speedup over its classical counterparts, and the degenerate ground state problem in the adiabatic quantum evolution algorithm for this problem is avoided.

  10. Simulations of motor unit number estimation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Major, Lora A.; Jones, Kelvin E.

    2005-06-01

    Motor unit number estimation (MUNE) is an electrodiagnostic procedure used to evaluate the number of motor axons connected to a muscle. All MUNE techniques rely on assumptions that must be fulfilled to produce a valid estimate. As there is no gold standard to compare the MUNE techniques against, we have developed a model of the relevant neuromuscular physiology and have used this model to simulate various MUNE techniques. The model allows for a quantitative analysis of candidate MUNE techniques that will hopefully contribute to consensus regarding a standard procedure for performing MUNE.

  11. M-Bonacci Numbers and Their Finite Sums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Joel; Higgings, Nathan; Yurekli, Osman

    2003-01-01

    The note considers M-bonacci numbers, which are a generalization of Fibonacci numbers. Two new summation formulas for M-bonacci numbers are given. The formulas are generalizations of the two summation formulas for Fibonacci numbers. (Contains 2 tables.)

  12. Courant Number and Mach Number Insensitive CE/SE Euler Solvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Sin-Chung

    2005-01-01

    It has been known that the space-time CE/SE method can be used to obtain ID, 2D, and 3D steady and unsteady flow solutions with Mach numbers ranging from 0.0028 to 10. However, it is also known that a CE/SE solution may become overly dissipative when the Mach number is very small. As an initial attempt to remedy this weakness, new 1D Courant number and Mach number insensitive CE/SE Euler solvers are developed using several key concepts underlying the recent successful development of Courant number insensitive CE/SE schemes. Numerical results indicate that the new solvers are capable of resolving crisply a contact discontinuity embedded in a flow with the maximum Mach number = 0.01.

  13. EXERCISES NUMBER THEORY 74.a) Which numbers are algebraic of degree 1?

    E-print Network

    Evertse, Jan-Hendrik

    number is called an algebraic integer if it is a zero of a monic polynomial with integer coe#cients, i.e, stating that if # 1 , . . . , # n and # 1 , . . . , # n are algebraic numbers, then # 1 e #1 + · · · + # n are algebraic numbers then e #0 # #1 1 · · · # #n n is transcenden­ tal, except in the following cases: (i) # 0

  14. Ramanujan's Harmonic Number Expansion into Negative Powers of a Triangular Number

    E-print Network

    Mark B. Villarino

    2007-07-28

    An algebraic transformation of the DeTemple-Wang half-integer approximation to the harmonic series produces the general formula and error estimate for the Ramanujan expansion for the nth harmonic number into negative powers of the nth triangular number. We also discuss the history of the Ramanujan expansion for the nth harmonic number as well as sharp estimates of its accuracy, with complete proofs, and we compare it with other approximative formulas.

  15. Comparison of the Variations of Sunspot Number, Number of Sunspot Groups, and Sunspot Area, 1875 -2013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Examined are the yearly variations and ratios of sunspot number, the number of sunspot groups, and the total corrected sunspot area for the interval 1875-2013. While yearly sunspot number independently correlates strongly (r = 0.98) with the yearly number of sunspot groups (y = -2 + 11.99x) and the total corrected sunspot area (y = 5 + 0.059x), the strongest correlation (Ry12 = 0.99) is the one based on the bivariate fit of sunspot number against the combined variations of the number of sunspot groups and sunspot area (y = 1 + 5.88x1 + 0.031x2, where y refers to sunspot number, x1 refers to the number of sunspot groups, and x2 refers to the sunspot area). While all cycle minima based on the bivariate fit are concurrent with the observed minimum in sunspot number, cycle maxima are sometimes found to differ. For sunspot cycles 12, 19, 20, and 23, cycle maximum is inferred to have occurred in 1884, 1958, 1970, and 2002, respectively, rather than in 1883, 1957, 1968, and 2000, based on the observed sunspot number. Also, cycle 19's maximum amplitude based on observed sunspot number seems too high in comparison to that found using the bivariate fit. During the 139-year interval 1875-2013, the difference between the observed and predicted sunspot number based on the bivariate fit is <1 standard error of estimate (se) (<6.4) for 111 years, between 1 and <2 se (6.4 to <12.8) for 28 years, and =2 se (=12.8) for only 4 years, these years being 1957 (16.6), 1978 (-15.8), 1980 (23), and 1982 (-16.3). For sunspot cycle 24, the difference between observed and predicted values has been only -0.7 and 3.2 (=0.5 se).

  16. Quantum random-number generator based on a photon-number-resolving detector

    SciTech Connect

    Ren Min; Wu, E; Liang Yan; Jian Yi; Wu Guang; Zeng Heping

    2011-02-15

    We demonstrated a high-efficiency quantum random number generator which takes inherent advantage of the photon number distribution randomness of a coherent light source. This scheme was realized by comparing the photon flux of consecutive pulses with a photon number resolving detector. The random bit generation rate could reach 2.4 MHz with a system clock of 6.0 MHz, corresponding to a random bit generation efficiency as high as 40%. The random number files passed all the stringent statistical tests.

  17. Volume 16, Number 26 April 27, 2010

    E-print Network

    Sertöz, Ali Sinan

    Volume 16, Number 26 April 27, 2010 Mathematics: The Gentle Giant On Wednesday, April 21, last week "Mathematics: The Gentle Giant" as part of the Library's Lunchtime Lecture series. Prof. Sertöz began his believe their own scholarly discipline to be of utmost significance and relevance for humanity, he regards

  18. Satellite situation report, volume 31, number 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Data computed at GSFC, NORAD, or provided by satellite owners is reported. A space objects box score is presented of objects in orbit and decayed objects. Data of objects in orbit is presented in tabular form and the table headings include name of the object, catalog number, source, launch date, period minutes, inclination, apogee KM., perigee KM., and transmitting frequency.

  19. Clemson Universit CONSERVATION BULLETIN NUMBER 38

    E-print Network

    Atlantic Coast s#. >sj By RACHEL L. CARSON Designed by KATHERINE L. HOWE CONSERVATION BULLETIN NUMBER 38 FROM THE SEA: FISH AND SHELLFISH OF NEW ENGLAND by Rachel L. Carson. Conservation Bulletin No. 33. 15c. FOOD FROM HOME WATERS,: FISHES OF THE MIDDLE WEST by Rachel L. Carson. Conservation Bulletin No. 34. 15

  20. Photon-number-resolving superconducting nanowire detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattioli, Francesco; Zhou, Zili; Gaggero, Alessandro; Gaudio, Rosalinda; Jahanmirinejad, Saeedeh; Sahin, Döndü; Marsili, Francesco; Leoni, Roberto; Fiore, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, photon-number-resolving (PNR) detectors have attracted great interest, mainly because they can play a key role in diverse application fields. A PNR detector with a large dynamic range would represent an ideal photon detector, bringing the linear response of conventional analogue detectors down to the single-photon level. Several technologies, such as InGaAs single photon avalanche detectors (SPADs), arrays of silicon photomultipliers, InGaAs SPADs with self-differencing circuits and transition edge sensors have shown photon number resolving capability. Superconducting nanowires provide free-running single-photon sensitivity from visible to mid-infrared frequencies, low dark counts, excellent timing resolution (<60 ps) and short dead time (˜10 ns), at an easily accessible temperature (2-3 K), but they do not inherently resolve the photon number. In this framework, PNR detectors based on arrays of superconducting nanowires have been proposed. In this article we describe a number of methods and device configurations that have been pursued to obtain PNR capability using superconducting nanowire detectors.

  1. Clar number of catacondensed benzenoid hydrocarbons

    E-print Network

    Klavzar, Sandi

    Clar number of catacondensed benzenoid hydrocarbons Sandi Klavzara, , Petra Zigerta , Ivan Gutmanb sextets in any of the Clar formulae) of a catacondensed benzenoid hydrocarbon: CL is equal to the minimum; Resonance graph; Benzenoid hydrocarbons 1. Introduction Within the theory that was formulated [1, 2

  2. Department .: Sociology Course number : Soci 258W

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Department .: Sociology Course number : Soci 258W Title : The Developing World Credits : 3 Contact Person : Brad Wright Catalog Copy : Soci 258. The Developing World. Either Semester. Three credits. Developing World. Prerequisite: Engl 110 or 111 or 250. W Criteria: The objective of this course

  3. On the double competition number Zoltan Furedi

    E-print Network

    Furedi, Zoltan

    On the double competition number Zolt´an F¨uredi Department of Mathematics, University of Illinois competition graph of a digraph. In this note a construction is given to show that 2n4/3 are always sufficient. 1 Definitions The double competition graph of a directed graph D = (V, A) is the graph G = (V, E

  4. Department: Statistics Course number: STAT 202W

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Department: Statistics Course number: STAT 202W Title: Undergraduate Seminar II Credits: 1 Contact, and choose one statistical topic to investigate in detail. The student will write a well revised comprehensive paper on this topic, including a literature review, description of technical details

  5. Counting on Using a Number Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Counting all and counting on are distinct counting strategies that can be used to compute such quantities as the total number of objects in two sets (Wright, Martland, and Stafford 2010). Given five objects and three more objects, for example, children who use counting all to determine quantity will count both collections; that is, they count…

  6. Computation of Semantic Number from Morphological Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berent, Iris; Pinker, Steven; Tzelgov, Joseph; Bibi, Uri; Goldfarb, Liat

    2005-01-01

    The distinction between singular and plural enters into linguistic phenomena such as morphology, lexical semantics, and agreement and also must interface with perceptual and conceptual systems that assess numerosity in the world. Three experiments examine the computation of semantic number for singulars and plurals from the morphological…

  7. Department: Political Science Course number: 3472/W

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    which are relevant to many parts of the world, including the United States. #12;3. Acquire criticalDepartment: Political Science Course number: 3472/W Course title: South Asia in World Politics Credits: 3 Contact Person: Jennifer Sterling-Folker, Associate Professor Content Area: CA 4 International

  8. Sequences of Numbers Involved in Unsolved Problems

    E-print Network

    Florentin Smarandache

    2006-04-03

    Over 300 sequences and many unsolved problems and conjectures related to them are presented herein together with theorems corollaries, formulae, examples, mathematical criteria, etc. (about integer sequences, numbers, quotients, residues, exponents, sieves, pseudo-primes/squares/cubes/factorials, almost primes, mobile periodicals, functions, tables, prime/square/factorial bases, generalized factorials, generalized palindromes, etc.).

  9. On the Number of Abelian Bordered Words

    E-print Network

    Liège, Université de

    On the Number of Abelian Bordered Words Narad Rampersad (Univ. of Winnipeg), Michel Rigo (Univ 2013 #12;A word is bordered, if it has a proper prefix that is also a suffix of that word. Otherwise, it is unbordered. A word v = wu is a nontrivial Duval extension of the unbordered word w if v contains

  10. Dept: Nursing Course number: INTD 150

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    related to physiological effects of alcohol and other drugs and basic theory related to health issuesDept: Nursing Course number: INTD 150 Course title: Alcohol & Drugs on Campus: Exploring the College Culture & Effects on Society Credits: 3 Contact Person: Sherry Bassi Content Area: CA2 Catalog

  11. Department.: Psychology Course Number: PSYC 205W

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Department.: Psychology Course Number: PSYC 205W Course Title: Introduction to Behavioral Genetics of behavioral genetics W Criteria: 1. For the term paper, students will research and evaluate in detail one topic in behavioral genetics. They will apply to this single topic many of the concepts and methods

  12. High speed optical quantum random number generation

    E-print Network

    Weinfurter, Harald

    for deterministic random number generators, v2.0, bsi," https://www.bsi.bund.de/cae/servlet/contentblob/478150 generators (v3.1)." https://www.bsi.bund.de/cae/servlet/contentblob/ 478134/publication- File/30230/trngk31e

  13. Sesame equation of state number 2293, Li

    SciTech Connect

    Boettger, J.C.

    1988-08-01

    A new equation of state (EOS) for Li has been constructed and placed on the SESAME library as material number 2293. This new equation of state uses a cold curve obtained via electronic band structure calculations using the linear-muffin-tin-orbitals (LMTO) techique. 15 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Volume 11, Number 3 30 September 1991

    E-print Network

    Olsen, Paul E.

    Volume 11, Number 3 30 September 1991 JOURNAL of VERTEBRATE PALEONTOLOGY SOCIETY OF VERTEBRATE PALEONTOLOGY ISSN 0272-4634 #12;Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 11(3):269-292, September 1991 0 1991 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology MORPHOLOGY OF THE SEMIONOTUS ELEGANS SPECIES GROUP FROM THE EARLY

  15. Can our number system be improved?

    E-print Network

    Miguel Navarro

    2001-12-14

    Our number system is a magnificent tool. But it is far from perfect. Can it be improved? In this paper some possibilities are discussed, including the use of a different base or directed (negative as well as positive) numerals. We also put forward some suggestions for further research.

  16. VOLUME 18, NUMBER 3 In this issue...

    E-print Network

    Bhattacharya, Debashish

    teams of investigators studying butterflies, fish, beetles, clams, algae, bacteria, sponges, crustaceans of Life?" Here are their answers. PorToL -- The Sponge Tree of Life https://www.portol.org Assembling the Sponge Tree of Life is important for a number of reasons. The appearance of sponges oc- curred

  17. How Do Students Misunderstand Number Representations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Geoffrey L.; Zilles, Craig; Loui, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    We used both student interviews and diagnostic testing to reveal students' misconceptions about number representations in computing systems. This article reveals that students who have passed an undergraduate level computer organization course still possess surprising misconceptions about positional notations, two's complement representation, and…

  18. On Circuits and Numbers Jean E. Vuillemin

    E-print Network

    Vuillemin, Jean

    On Circuits and Numbers Jean E. Vuillemin Digital Equipment Corp., Paris Research Laboratory (PRL, yet intimate relationships between the 2adic integers 2Z from arithmetics and digital circuits, finite synchronous circuits. (b) Bit-wise 2ading mappings correspond to combinational circuits. (c) On-line functions

  19. p-adic numbers in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brekke, Lee; Freund, Peter G. O.

    1993-10-01

    The boundary of the ordinary open string world sheet is the real line. Along with the usual open string, one can consider p-adic open strings whose world sheet has as boundary the p-adic line instead (the points on this boundary are labelled by p-adic numbers rather than real numbers). The world sheet itself is then no longer a continous manifold but becomes a discrete homogeneous Bethe lattice, or Bruhat-Tits tree of incidence number p + 1. The p-adic strings thus correspond to specific discretizations of the world sheet. Studying all these discretizations (one for each prime p) together, as suggested by number theory, sheds new light on the ordinary string, via adelic product formulae. One is also led this way to a new type of string, the adelic string. These issues and their generalization to closed strings are discussed after a self-contained mathematical introduction. Other physical systems with natural p-adic counterparts are considered and in their context the connection between p-adic theories and quantum groups is explored.

  20. Zero Tolerance Policies. ERIC Digest Number 146.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAndrews, Tobin

    State legislatures and school boards are adopting a growing number of zero-tolerance polices toward weapons, guns, and violence. Zero-tolerance polices are rules intended to address specific school-safety issues. They have arisen in part as a response to the threat of the withdrawal of federal funds under the 1994 Gun-Free Schools Act, and…

  1. Department: HISTORY Course number: 3551 W

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    in industrial development, the law of slavery and freedom in the North, and various aspects of civil rights. WDepartment: HISTORY Course number: 3551 W Course title: Topics in U.S. Legal History Credits: 3 Contact Person: Sherri Olson Q/W: W Catalog Copy:HIST 3551W [248W]. Topics in U.S.Legal History. 3 credits

  2. NUMBER: 1530 TITLE: Code of Student Conduct

    E-print Network

    1530 1 NUMBER: 1530 TITLE: Code of Student Conduct APPROVED: August 27, 1970; Revised June 14, 2012 I. BASIS AND RATIONALE FOR A CODE OF STUDENT CONDUCT Old Dominion University of the community are expected to uphold and abide by standards of conduct that form the basis of the Code

  3. Demonstrations of the Enormity of Avogadro's Number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diemente, Damon

    1998-12-01

    Most high-school students learn of Avogadro's number for the first time when they begin study of the mole concept. It is important to impress students with the enormity of Avogadro's number and the concomitant minuscularity of the atom, and papers addressing this need have regularly appeared in this Journal. The present article describes three new problems used annually at Trinity School to make the impression. The first two problems are suitable to be assigned as homework. The first of these uses Avogadro's number simply as a scaling factor; the second, requiring more attention to units, is a calculation of the number of moles of sand grains in the Sahara Desert. The third problem is a series of related calculations that requires some closer in-class mathematical analysis and culminates in an astonishing result. All calculations are done in familiar English units, because with them I have found the results to be more immediately impressive to American students. Conversion factors to metric units can be applied if teachers find that desirable.

  4. Valley Singularities and Baryon Number Violation

    E-print Network

    Provero, P

    1994-01-01

    We consider the valley--method computation of the inclusive cross section of baryon number violating processes in the Standard Model. We show that any physically correct model of the valley action should present a singularity in the saddle point valley parameters as functions of the energy of the process. This singularity prevents the saddle point configuration from collapsing into the perturbative vacuum.

  5. The LSS Review. Volume 3, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoag, Lydia, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    A growing number of American students are nonnative English speakers. These students are vulnerable to early school exit and schools are facing more and more such students each year. Presently, about 56% of all public school teachers in the United States have at least one English language learner (ELL) student in their class, but less than 20% of…

  6. Department: Art History Course number: 3050W

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Department: Art History Course number: 3050W Course title: African American Art Credits: 3 Contact Person:Jean Givens Content Area: Q/W: W only Catalog Copy:ARTH 3050W African American Art, Either semester. 3 credits The artistic and social legacy of African American art from the eighteenth century

  7. Department: Art & Art History Course number: 3375

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Department: Art & Art History Course number: 3375 Course title: Indian Art and Popular Culture Copy: ART 244/3375: Indian Art and Popular Culture: Independence to the Present, 3 credits. Either semester. Instructor: Myers. An interdisciplinary studio art course introducing modern, contemporary, folk

  8. The representation of numbers in quantum mechanics.

    SciTech Connect

    Benioff, P.; Physics

    2002-12-01

    Earlier work on modular arithmetic of k-ary representations of length L of the natural numbers in quantum mechanics is extended here to k-ary representations of all natural numbers, and to integers and rational numbers. Since the length L is indeterminate, representations of states and operators using creation and annihilation operators for bosons and fermions are defined. Emphasis is on definitions and properties of operators corresponding to the basic operations whose properties are given by the axioms for each type of number. The importance of the requirement of efficient implementability for physical models of the axioms is emphasized. Based on this, successor operations for each value of j corresponding to addition of k {l_brace}j-1{r_brace} if j>0 and k {l_brace}j{r_brace} if j<0 are defined. It follows from the efficient implementability of these successors, which is the case for all computers, that implementation of the addition and multiplication operators, which are defined in terms of polynomially many iterations of the successors, should be efficient. This is not the case for definitions based on the successor for j=1 only. This is the only successor defined in the usual axioms of arithmetic.

  9. The aerodynamics of small Reynolds numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, F. W.

    1980-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics of wing model gliders and bird wings in particular are discussed. Wind tunnel measurements and aerodynamics of small Reynolds numbers are enumerated. Airfoil behavior in the critical transition from laminar to turbulent boundary layer, which is more important to bird wing models than to large airplanes, was observed. Experimental results are provided, and an artificial bird wing is described.

  10. 9 CFR 351.6 - Official number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION CERTIFICATION OF TECHNICAL ANIMAL FATS FOR EXPORT Procedure for Obtaining Service: Administration of Program § 351.6 Official number. The Administrator will assign a certified technical animal fat... to identify all certified technical animal fat prepared or stored by the plant....

  11. 9 CFR 351.6 - Official number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION CERTIFICATION OF TECHNICAL ANIMAL FATS FOR EXPORT Procedure for Obtaining Service: Administration of Program § 351.6 Official number. The Administrator will assign a certified technical animal fat... to identify all certified technical animal fat prepared or stored by the plant....

  12. Cetane numbers of biodiesel and its components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cetane number is one of the prime fuel quality indicators of a petrodiesel or biodiesel fuel as it relates to the tendency of the fuel to ignite in the combustion chamber. It has been established that compound structure, including chain length, branching, and the presence of double bonds, is a m...

  13. Very high Mach number shocks: theory

    SciTech Connect

    Quest, K.B.

    1986-01-01

    The theory and simulation of collisionless perpendicular supercritical shock structure is reviewed, with major emphasis on recent research results. The primary tool of investigation is the hybrid simulation method, in which the Newtonian orbits of a large number of ion macroparticles are followed numerically, and in which the electrons are treated as a charge neutralizing fluid. The principal results to be presented are (1) electron resistivity is not required to explain the observed quasi-stationarity of the earth's bow shock, (2) the structure of the perpendicular shock at very high Mach numbers (M/sub A/ approx. = 15 - 20 and ..beta.. approx. = 1, where M/sub A/ is the Alfven Mach number of the shock and ..beta.. is the ratio of the thermal to magnetic pressure) depends sensitively on the upstream ..beta.. and electron resistivity, (3) two-dimensional turbulence will become increasingly important as the Mach number is increased, and (4) non-adiabatic bulk electron heating will result when a thermal electron cannot complete a gyro-orbit while transiting the shock. 32 refs., 13 figs.

  14. Sequence Factorial of "g"-Gonal Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiru, Muniru A.

    2013-01-01

    The gamma function, which has the property to interpolate the factorial whenever the argument is an integer, is a special case (the case "g"?=?2) of the general term of the sequence factorial of "g"-gonal numbers. In relation to this special case, a formula for calculating the general term of the sequence factorial of any…

  15. Early Concepts of Number and Counting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Box, Katherine; Scott, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Before primitive man had grasped the concept of number, the written word or even speech, he was able to count. This was important for keeping track of food supplies, sending messages, trading between villages and even keeping track of how many animals were in their herd. Counting was done in various ways, but in all cases, the underlying principle…

  16. TEXAS MEMORIAL MUSEUM Speleological Monographs, Number 7

    E-print Network

    Suarez, Andrew V.

    TEXAS MEMORIAL MUSEUM Speleological Monographs, Number 7 Studies on the CAVE AND ENDOGEAN FAUNA Science Research Laboratory Museum of Texas Tech University, 3301 4th Street Lubbock, Texas 79409 U.S.A. Email: james.cokendolpher@ttu.edu and James R. Reddell Texas Natural Science Center The University

  17. 9 CFR 351.6 - Official number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION CERTIFICATION OF TECHNICAL ANIMAL FATS FOR EXPORT Procedure for Obtaining Service: Administration of Program § 351.6 Official number. The Administrator will assign a certified technical animal fat... to identify all certified technical animal fat prepared or stored by the plant....

  18. 9 CFR 351.6 - Official number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION CERTIFICATION OF TECHNICAL ANIMAL FATS FOR EXPORT Procedure for Obtaining Service: Administration of Program § 351.6 Official number. The Administrator will assign a certified technical animal fat... to identify all certified technical animal fat prepared or stored by the plant....

  19. 9 CFR 351.6 - Official number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION CERTIFICATION OF TECHNICAL ANIMAL FATS FOR EXPORT Procedure for Obtaining Service: Administration of Program § 351.6 Official number. The Administrator will assign a certified technical animal fat... to identify all certified technical animal fat prepared or stored by the plant....

  20. ASTROBIOLOGY Volume 2, Number 2, 2002

    E-print Network

    Seager, Sara

    fraction of the number of po- tentially useful organic compounds. Alien life forms probably explored-sized extrasolar planets directly and to seek spec- troscopic evidence of habitable conditions and life. Here we, but it is considered essential to life. Substantial CO2 indicates an atmosphere and oxidation state typical

  1. Paper Number (Assigned by IFPE Staff)

    E-print Network

    Van de Ven, James D.

    ) . Offshore wind power is especially promising due to high class wind zones existing near areas of high population density. Further benefits of offshore wind power include the ability to ship and construct largerPaper Number (Assigned by IFPE Staff) Compressed Air Energy Storage for Offshore Wind Turbines

  2. 2006 TRAFFIC ZONE BOUNDARIES Zone Numbers

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    2006 TRAFFIC ZONE BOUNDARIES Zone Numbers & Detailed Definitions #12;2006 TRAFFIC ZONE BOUNDARIES of Civil Engineering University of Toronto June 2009 #12;PREFACE This report presents the 2006 traffic zone boundary definitions. The report is divided into two parts. The first part presents the traffic zone

  3. Understanding Quantum Numbers in General Chemistry Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor; Fernandez, Ramon

    2008-01-01

    Quantum numbers and electron configurations form an important part of the general chemistry curriculum and textbooks. The objectives of this study are: (1) Elaboration of a framework based on the following aspects: (a) Origin of the quantum hypothesis, (b) Alternative interpretations of quantum mechanics, (c) Differentiation between an orbital and…

  4. Department.: Nursing Course number: NURS 213W

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Department.: Nursing Course number: NURS 213W Course title: Nursing Research Credits: 3 Contact) or better in STATS 100V or 110V; open only to nursing majors. An introduction to qualitative research, and apply research finding to nursing. W Criteria: -The course meets the following exit

  5. University of Washington Social Security Number Standard

    E-print Network

    Matrajt, Graciela

    required by state or federal law." 4. Approved Collection, Use, and Distribution a. General Rule SSNs may protections provided for by law (e.g., FERPA and HIPAA). #12;University of Washington Social Security Number by federal and state law as noted above, to evaluate students applying for admission to the UW or to verify

  6. ASTROBIOLOGY Volume 3, Number 3, 2003

    E-print Network

    Roopnarine, Peter D.

    ASTROBIOLOGY Volume 3, Number 3, 2003 © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Evaporites, Water, and Life, Part I Complex Morphological Variability in Complex Evaporitic Systems: Thermal Spring Snails from the Chihuahuan Desert, Mexico CAROL M. TANG and PETER D. ROOPNARINE ABSTRACT Thermal springs in evaporitic environments

  7. Chapter Number Gender Classification by Information Fusion

    E-print Network

    Lu, Bao-Liang

    Chapter Number Gender Classification by Information Fusion of Hair and Face Zheng Ji, Xiao Dong Chuan Road, Shanghai 200240, China 1. Introduction Various gender classification methods have been] applied Adaboost to gender classification problem with the feature pools composed of a set of linear

  8. The 17 GHz active region number

    SciTech Connect

    Selhorst, C. L.; Pacini, A. A.; Costa, J. E. R.; Giménez de Castro, C. G.; Valio, A.; Shibasaki, K.

    2014-08-01

    We report the statistics of the number of active regions (NAR) observed at 17 GHz with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph between 1992, near the maximum of cycle 22, and 2013, which also includes the maximum of cycle 24, and we compare with other activity indexes. We find that NAR minima are shorter than those of the sunspot number (SSN) and radio flux at 10.7 cm (F10.7). This shorter NAR minima could reflect the presence of active regions generated by faint magnetic fields or spotless regions, which were a considerable fraction of the counted active regions. The ratio between the solar radio indexes F10.7/NAR shows a similar reduction during the two minima analyzed, which contrasts with the increase of the ratio of both radio indexes in relation to the SSN during the minimum of cycle 23-24. These results indicate that the radio indexes are more sensitive to weaker magnetic fields than those necessary to form sunspots, of the order of 1500 G. The analysis of the monthly averages of the active region brightness temperatures shows that its long-term variation mimics the solar cycle; however, due to the gyro-resonance emission, a great number of intense spikes are observed in the maximum temperature study. The decrease in the number of these spikes is also evident during the current cycle 24, a consequence of the sunspot magnetic field weakening in the last few years.

  9. Authenticating "Number the Stars" Using Nonfiction Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groce, Robin D.

    2009-01-01

    "Number the Stars" by Lois Lowry is a popular historical novel for adolescent readers about the Nazi occupation of Copenhagen, Denmark during World War II and the efforts of Danish resisters who successfully rescued 98% of that nation's Jewish population. While this 1998 book is considered to be a fictional account, most of the events in the story…

  10. A Framework for Remediating Number Combination Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Powell, Sarah R.; Seethaler, Pamela M.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.; Cirino, Paul T.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces a framework for the remediation of number combination (NC) deficits. Research on the remediation of NC deficits is summarized, and research program studies are used to illustrate the 3 approaches to remediation. The Framework comprises a 2-stage system of remediation. The less intensive stage implementing 1 of 3…

  11. Synesthesia and Number Cognition in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jennifer A. K.; Goswami, Usha

    2008-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia, when achromatic digits evoke an experience of a specific color (photisms), has been shown to be consistent, involuntary, and linked with number concept in adults, yet there have been no comparable investigations with children. We present a systematic study of grapheme-color synesthesia in children aged between 7 and 15…

  12. Hardware Random number Generator for cryptography

    E-print Network

    Soorat, Ram; Vudayagiri, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    One of the key requirement of many schemes is that of random numbers. Sequence of random numbers are used at several stages of a standard cryptographic protocol. A simple example is of a Vernam cipher, where a string of random numbers is added to massage string to generate the encrypted code. It is represented as $C=M \\oplus K $ where $M$ is the message, $K$ is the key and $C$ is the ciphertext. It has been mathematically shown that this simple scheme is unbreakable is key K as long as M and is used only once. For a good cryptosystem, the security of the cryptosystem is not be based on keeping the algorithm secret but solely on keeping the key secret. The quality and unpredictability of secret data is critical to securing communication by modern cryptographic techniques. Generation of such data for cryptographic purposes typically requires an unpredictable physical source of random data. In this manuscript, we present studies of three different methods for producing random number. We have tested them by study...

  13. GRADUATION AUDIT CERTIFICATION Name: _______________________________________________C Number: _______________

    E-print Network

    Miami, University of

    GRADUATION AUDIT CERTIFICATION Name: _______________________________________________C Number Term: (circle one) December/May/August Graduation Audit Certification and Self-Audit forms are due be submitted with completed Self-Audit form available at www.law.miami.edu/registrar. Students who do

  14. Children's Quantitative Notion of Rational Number.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachsmuth, Ipke; And Others

    This study was undertaken to gain insights into children's understanding of rational numbers as quantities; that is, the extent to which they associate a size with a fraction like 2/3. Eight children in an experimental group in DeKalb, Illinois, chosen to reflect the range from low to high ability, were observed during 30 weeks of experimental…

  15. Estimate octane numbers using an enhanced method

    SciTech Connect

    Twu, C.H.; Coon, J.E.

    1997-03-01

    An improved model, based on the Twu-Coon method, is not only internally consistent, but also retains the same level of accuracy as the previous model in predicting octanes of gasoline blends. The enhanced model applies the same binary interaction parameters to components in each gasoline cut and their blends. Thus, the enhanced model can blend gasoline cuts in any order, in any combination or from any splitting of gasoline cuts and still yield the identical value of octane number for blending the same number of gasoline cuts. Setting binary interaction parameters to zero for identical gasoline cuts during the blending process is not required. The new model changes the old model`s methodology so that the same binary interaction parameters can be applied between components inside a gasoline cut as are applied to the same components between gasoline cuts. The enhanced model is more consistent in methodology than the original model, but it has equal accuracy for predicting octane numbers of gasoline blends, and it has the same number of binary interaction parameters. The paper discusses background, enhancement of the Twu-Coon interaction model, and three examples: blend of 2 identical gasoline cuts, blend of 3 gasoline cuts, and blend of the same 3 gasoline cuts in a different order.

  16. Visualizing the Arithmetic of Complex Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto-Johnson, Hortensia

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards Initiative stresses the importance of developing a geometric and algebraic understanding of complex numbers in their different forms (i.e., Cartesian, polar and exponential). Unfortunately, most high school textbooks do not offer such explanations much less exercises that encourage students to bridge geometric and…

  17. Department.: Marketing Course number: MKTG 4997W

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Department.: Marketing Course number: MKTG 4997W Course title: Senior Thesis in Marketing Credits that it become a 'W' course: 4997. Senior Thesis in Marketing (296) Either semester. Three credits. Hours by arrangement. Prerequisite: Open only to Marketing Department Honor Students with consent of instructor

  18. Paper Number: 024168 An ASAE Meeting Presentation

    E-print Network

    Kentucky, University of

    Paper Number: 024168 An ASAE Meeting Presentation A Portable System for Continuous Ammonia, they are not to be presented as refereed publications. Citation of this work should state that it is from an ASAE meeting paper. EXAMPLE: Author's Last Name, Initials. 2002. Title of Presentation. ASAE Meeting Paper No. 02xxxx. St

  19. Department: Animal Science Course number: 3642W

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Department: Animal Science Course number: 3642W Course title: Scientific writing in animal food. Scientific Writing in Animal Food Products: Dairy Technology. Second semester. One credit. Corequisite: ANSC in Animal Science to fulfill their W requirement for graduation. The course will also allow students

  20. Code Number :.............. HEAT TRANSFER QUALIFYING EXAM

    E-print Network

    Feeny, Brian

    allowed) Answer all four questions All questions have equal weight TIME: 3.0 hrs Prepared by Profs. N ············································································································· · #12;Question # 1 Water enters a circular tube at 10 °C and is to be heated to 45 °C in a tube of 0 entrance effects, find a) The Reynolds number (state at what temperature you estimate the properties) b