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1

Experimental Investigation of Free-Convection Heat Transfer in Vertical Tube at Large Grashof Numbers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents the results of an investigation conducted to study free-convection heat transfer in a stationary vertical tube closed at the bottom. The walls of the tube were heated, and heated air in the tube was continuously replaced by fresh cool air at the top. The tube was designed to provide a gravitational field with Grashof numbers of a magnitude comparable with those generated by the centrifugal field in rotating-blade coolant passages (10(8) to 10(13)). Local heat-transfer coefficients in the turbulent-flow range and the temperature field within the fluid were obtained.

Eckert, E R G; Diaguila, A J

1955-01-01

2

On the finite element simulation of fluid motion with high Reynolds or Grashof number  

SciTech Connect

Numerical simulation of free convection problems with usual Finite Element (FE) formulations run into stability problems for large Grashof numbers. This is true even for simple models. In regions where the stream velocity or the temperature field is constant along the stream lines, the stiffness matrix may become ill-conditioned for large stream velocities although its physical contribution vanishes. Besides a costly increase in the number of elements and corresponding decrease of the length unit, a change in the unit system can not improve the matrix condition. The ill-conditioning arises from the usual decomposition of the nonlinear convective terms into a velocity-dependent stiffness matrix which represents a differential operator and a solution vector on which the stiffness matrix operates. The problem should be solved by an adapted choice of the matrix representation of the nonlinear convective terms. Alternatively and necessarily for Newton-Raphson iteration of the nonlinear equations - the ill-conditioning terms may be neglected within those elements, where their physical contribution is negligible.

Trautenberg, E.A.; Roeckelein, R. (SIEMENS Corporate Research Lab., Erlangen (Germany))

1993-03-01

3

Experimental investigation of free-convection heat transfer in vertical tube at large Grashof numbers / E. R. G. Eckert, A. J. Diaguila  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Local free-convection heat-transfer coefficients and temperature fields in the turbulent flow range were obtained within a vertical, stationary tube closed at the boom, heated along its walls, and having a length-to-diameter ratio of 5. Convective heat-transfer coefficients were correlated by the general relations for free-convection heat transfer. These coefficients, converted to dimensionless Nusselt numbers were 35 percent below known relations for vertical flat plates. Air temperature measurements within the tube indicated a thin boundary layer along the heated wall surface and unstable conditions in the air flow.

Eckert, E R G; Diaguila, A J

1952-01-01

4

Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This engaging web site contains information and interactive applets related to various number systems: Egyptian, Babylonian, Chinese, Greek, Roman, Mayan, and Arabic. Users learn the history and structure of each system as well as how to count and write numbers. The site also allows users to explore finger systems, calculating machines, other number bases, and "interesting numbers." A series of pages on data and graphs includes information and activities on gathering, analyzing, graphing and sorting data. (Because the section on the Arabic number system is so extensive, it is cataloged separately as a related resource.)

Edkins, Jo

2006-01-01

5

Number Track  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students can use this interactive Flash applet to practice ordering whole numbers within 20. The applet displays a track and number tiles, which the user drags to create the correct sequence of numbers 1 through 20. Users may choose from four levels: place 5 missing numbers, place 10 numbers, arrange all 20 numbers, or create your own challenge.

Bunker, Dan

2010-01-01

6

Number Sense  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hacker has given you a challenge. Heâll run his number machine to create a number. Then youâll get three numbers between one and nine. The challenge is to make a number that is larger than the one on Hackerâs machine. Be careful though--Hacker will give you numbers that canât be bigger than his!

2008-01-01

7

Number Line  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This iOS app helps students to visualize number sentences and create models for addition, subtractions, multiplication, and division. The number line can be adjusted to represent multiples of numbers from one to one hundred.

Clarity Innovations, Inc.

2013-11-22

8

Number Factory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive game develops fluency and flexibility with whole number operations. In each round the player is given 4 single-digit whole numbers, presented in the context of a factory. The player uses each number exactly once with the interactive calculator to arrive as close as possible to a given target number.

Doorman, Michiel

2003-01-01

9

Number Sense  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online math game from Cyberchase, learners play against Hacker in a place value game. The goal is to make a number bigger than the one created by Hacker's number machine. Learners select the numbers in the order in which they want them to go into their machine. The challenge is to either make a number larger than the one on Hacker's machine or realize that it's impossible to make a number bigger than Hacker's, no matter what the combination.

Wnet

2011-01-01

10

Number Cruncher  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks interactive game helps students increase their logic and decision making skills by challenging a player to consider a series of mathematical processes to find a path from a starting number to a goal number in a math maze. The activity appears as a 5x5 matrix of numbers, each of which has an operation symbol next to it, indicating whether it will be added to, subtracted from, or multiplied by the previous number. Starting in the center with a given number, players choose an adjoining number to complete the next step and they proceed until successfully reaching the goal number or until they have run out of usable numbers on the game board. To add an additional challenge to the game, a player can limit each level to reaching the target in seven or fewer steps.

2011-10-13

11

NUMBER SENSE  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will practice counting to 100, making numbers with base ten blocks and practicing ordinal numbers! Math is FUN! Lets have fun practicing counting to 100 ! Click when you are ready!Counting Now that you have practiced counting to 100, lets use the base ten blocks to make the number that is on the screen. Click when you are ready!Working with Base Ten Blocks We have now practiced counting and making numbers, lets ...

Simpson, Ms.

2007-10-27

12

Number Factory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Java applet promotes number sense, estimation, and provides practice with order of operations. The player's goal is to make a numerical expression using the four given numbers and the four basic operations with the result being the target number (or as close as they can get to it). The student can also use brackets in their calculation.

Doorman, Michiel

2012-01-07

13

Number Grids and Number Triangles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Practice counting, counting by tens, place value, and fact families by entering your answers into the blank boxes; click the big blue and green buttons to check your work. Each of the five levels of Number Grid activities displays a section of a matrix containing a set of of consecutive whole numbers. A move from one number to the next within a row corresponds to a change of one; a move from one number to the next within a column refers to a change of ten. The three levels of Number Triangle activities provide practice with fact families and inverse relationships through flash cards. An addition/subtraction Number Triangle has two addends and a sum; a multiplication/division Number Triangle has two factors and a product.

Brown, Quincy; Fetter, Annie

2006-08-01

14

Number Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

John Brignell, Professor Emeritus from the Department of Electronics & Computer Science at the University of Southampton, is the author of this informal website "devoted to the monitoring of the misleading numbers that rain down on us via the media." Brignell says he aims to "nail" a few of the "Single Issue Fanatics (SIFs), politicians, bureaucrats, quasi-scientists (junk, pseudo- or just bad)," who use misleading numbers to write catchy articles or who try to keep numbers away from public notice. Since April 2000, he has been posting a "number of the month" as well as a "number for the year," which offer his commentary on media usage of misleading numbers and explanations for why the numbers are misleading. He also posts book reviews and an extensive list of online resources on statistics and statistics education. The FAQ section includes answers to some interesting questions, such as "Is there such a thing as average global temperature?" and some more basic questions such as "What is the Normal Distribution and what is so normal about it?" The Bits and Pieces section includes a variety of short articles on statistics and his definitions for some terms he uses on the website. Visitors are also invited to join the discussion forum (complete with a few advertisements) and view comments by others who want to discuss "wrong numbers in science, politics and the media." A few comments sent to Brignell and his responses are also posted online. This site is also reviewed in the February 11, 2005_NSDL MET Report_.

15

Number Guessing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is instructive and interesting to find hidden numbers by using different positional numeration systems. Most of the present guessing techniques use the binary system expressed as less-than, greater-than or present-absent type information. This article describes how, by employing four cards having integers 1-64 written in different colours, one…

Sezin, Fatin

2009-01-01

16

Numbers, Please!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What topic would you choose if you had the luxury of writing forever? In this article, John Thelin provides his response: He would opt to write about the history of higher education in a way that relies on quantitative data. "Numbers, please!" is his research request in taking on a longitudinal study of colleges and universities over…

Thelin, John R.

2013-01-01

17

Salem numbers and Pisot numbers via interlacing  

E-print Network

We present a general construction of Salem numbers via rational functions whose zeros and poles mostly lie on the unit circle and satisfy an interlacing condition. This extends and unifies earlier work. We then consider the "obvious" limit points of the set of Salem numbers produced by our theorems, and show that these are all Pisot numbers, in support of a conjecture of Boyd. We then show that all Pisot numbers arise in this way. Combining this with a theorem of Boyd, we show that our theorems produce all Salem numbers.

McKee, James

2010-01-01

18

Number Square Puzzle: 10 Missing Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity for the interactive white board (free access with registration) allows the learner to explore the patterns in the hundreds chart and notice the relationships between the numbers in the horizontal and vertical puzzles. Users drag and drop the individual numbers back in their correct places in the blank 10 X 10 grid.

2012-07-19

19

Surplus Bid Cell Number  

E-print Network

Surplus Bid Form Name: Cell Number: Email Address: Fax Number: Item Number: Item Description: Bid the internal section below) Phone Number: FOR DALHOUSIE INTERNAL BID USE ONLY Department: Account Number (for costs associated with transportation of items from its current location. · All sales are final

Brownstone, Rob

20

Comparing Numbers-Between  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity for the interactive white board (free access with registration) allows the learner to practice comparing numbers. Two numbers are given and students identify those numbers inbetween the numbers by dragging them from below into the shaded window. A number line is provide as a means for the learner to check their choices.

2012-01-01

21

Kindergarten Number Sense  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let\\'s learn about numbers! How many Fish? Count the Fish Let\\'s count! How many... Matching is fun! Match the number How well do I really know these numbers? Getting to know the numbers Counting the kids Kids on the bus We love Ants! Count the ants Flying into the univerise of numbers Rocket ...

Estes, Mrs.

2007-11-02

22

Are Numbers Gendered?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the possibility that nonsocial, highly generic concepts are gendered. Specifically, we investigated the gender connotations of Arabic numerals. Across several experiments, we show that the number 1 and other odd numbers are associated with masculinity, whereas the number 2 and other even numbers are associated with femininity, in ways…

Wilkie, James E. B.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.

2012-01-01

23

Spooky Sequences- Square Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash game helps students recognize and generate the sequence of square numbers, and also to discover the pattern of differences between them. The applet displays a sequence of six consecutive square numbers with one number missing. The player provides the missing number to "send the ghosts back to the haunted house." Each game consists of five sequences to complete.

Cogan, Mark

2002-01-01

24

Guess The Number  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash applet is an interactive version of the classic game that develops number sense and strategic thinking. The computer generates a random secret number. The user makes guesses, taking advantage of the higher or lower clues provided, until the number is discovered. The goal is to find the secret number with as few attempts as possible. Three levels allow the user to adjust the range of possible numbers: up to 100, 500, or 1000.

Bunker, Dan

2010-01-01

25

Hyper Space Complex Number  

E-print Network

A new kind of numbers called Hyper Space Complex Numbers and its algebras are defined and proved. It is with good properties as the classic Complex Numbers, such as expressed in coordinates, triangular and exponent forms and following the associative and commutative laws of addition and multiplication. So the classic Complex Number is developed from in complex plane with two dimensions to in complex space with N dimensions and the number system is enlarged also.

Shanguang Tan

2007-03-23

26

PET: [number sign]1 is number one  

SciTech Connect

Subsidized in the beginning by bottle deposits, now spurred by the ability of curbside recycling to collect more than soda bottles, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) recycling has made great strides in the last 10 years. Its growth rate and increased market demand are the envy of many other materials. Appropriate, if not deliberately, this number-one resin is listed under the Society for the Plastics Industry's resin identification code as [number sign]1. Unlike most recyclables, the market demand for recycled PET is greater than the supply. As a result, demand not supply, is fueling the increase in PET recycling.

Miller, C.

1994-09-01

27

Number Line Arithmetic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet demonstrates operations with whole numbers on a number line. The student selects an operation and the applet represents an example. It helps students understand the commutativity of multiplication, remainders in division, inverse operations, and the relationships between operations.

1999-01-01

28

Elements of number theory  

E-print Network

The dissertation argues for the necessity of a morphosemantic theory of number, that is, a theory of number serviceable both to semantics and morphology. The basis for this position, and the empirical core of the dissertation, ...

Harbour, Daniel, 1975-

2003-01-01

29

HIV Wellness Numbers  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

HIV Wellness Numbers Updated:Mar 22,2012 Featured Video The Basics of HIV Management Length: 2:37 ... Learn more about your important heart-health numbers . HIV and Your Heart • Home • About HIV • HIV and ...

30

The Numbered Forest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the activity of numbering trees in which students number trees or find the numbered trees and observe other features according to class time. This activity aims to increase student tracking, mapping, and writing skills and integrate them with math skills. Suggests follow up activities that focus on reading, writing, and language skills.…

Kissner, Emily

2000-01-01

31

Random Number Generation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The process of creating numbers that simulate randomness on a computer is known as pseudorandom number generation. The "pseudo" in pseudo random refers to the fact that if you use a rule to generate a number, it is by definition not random, though it may appear so, and be close enough to random for all practical purposes.

Joiner, David; The Shodor Education Foundation, Inc.

32

Estimating Large Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite their importance in public discourse, numbers in the range of 1 million to 1 trillion are notoriously difficult to understand. We examine magnitude estimation by adult Americans when placing large numbers on a number line and when qualitatively evaluating descriptions of imaginary geopolitical scenarios. Prior theoretical conceptions…

Landy, David; Silbert, Noah; Goldin, Aleah

2013-01-01

33

The Remarkable Number "1"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In human history, the origin of the numbers came from definite practical needs. Indeed, there is strong evidence that numbers were created before writing. The number "1", dating back at least 20,000 years, was found as a counting symbol on a bone. The famous statement by the German mathematician Leopold Kronecker (1823-1891), "God…

Allen, G. Donald

2014-01-01

34

Reform by the Numbers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although numbers such as average test scores or dropout rates can capture part of a school system's success or failure, school statistics seldom tell the whole story. School board members should realize that numbers might measure compliance or process, rather than improvement. Also, improvements in numbers might reflect changes in assessment…

Hanford, Terry; White, Kathleen

1991-01-01

35

Whole Number Cruncher  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Give input to the Whole Number Cruncher and try to guess what it did from the output it generates. This activity only generates multiplication and addition functions to avoid outputting any negative numbers. Whole Number Cruncher is one of the Interactivate assessment explorers.

36

Law of Large Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The controls on this applet let you change the number of trials, the probability of success in each trial, and toggle between viewing either the difference between the number of successes and the expected number of successes, or the difference between the percentage of successes and the probability of success in each trial.

Stark, Philip B.

2009-10-26

37

Numbers in the News  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All those numbers in the newspaper: what do they mean? Challenge learners to find out as they develop their number sense. Distribute newspaper pages to learners so that each pair gets a section with numbers at the right level of difficulty: easyâweather or sports scores; mediumâclothing ads or event listings with times and dates; hardâautomobile ads, monetary exchange rates. Learners try to find the smallest and largest numbers on the page (including best deal/best rate) and explain to others what they found. Variation for younger learners: look for the largest or smallest number on a walk around the building or around the block. Available as a web page and downloadable pdf.

Terc

2010-01-01

38

Decimal Number Line  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash applet helps students explore place value and develop number sense within whole numbers, integers and decimals. It allows a child or teacher to select an interval in the given number line and show that interval divided into ten equal parts but on a larger scale, which can then be repeated. Users may choose the size of the interval between markers on the first number line and the starting number of that line, as well as whether to hide or show individual number lines and the numbers on them. This applet lends itself well for use on an interactive white board. A pdf guide to this collection of teaching applets is cataloged separately.

2006-01-01

39

Interactive Fraction Number Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students make models of fractions, including a human number line. Using a number line, students develop conceptual understanding of fractions. Students use the number line to represent and compare fractions less than one. The activities are engaging and include full participation/engagement of all students. The fractions are limited to positive fractions less than one with a denominator of 2 or 4 including 0 and 1 whole.

Green, Michael

2012-05-25

40

Curvature and Tachibana numbers  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this paper is to define the rth Tachibana number t{sub r} of an n-dimensional compact oriented Riemannian manifold as the dimension of the space of conformally Killing r-forms, for r=1,2,...,n-1. We also describe properties of these numbers, by analogy with properties of the Betti numbers b{sub r} of a compact oriented Riemannian manifold. Bibliography: 25 titles.

Stepanov, Sergey E [Finance Academy under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2011-07-31

41

Guess the Number  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive game gives students practice in counting and ordering numbers. Users try to determine the magician's secret number in as few tries as possible by adjusting their successive guesses according to feedback (too high or too low). Solvers can choose from three ranges of numbers (1 to 10, 1 to 100, or -1000 to 1000) and choose whether or not to view previous guesses.

2011-01-01

42

High Reynolds Number Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fundamental aerodynamic questions for which high Reynolds number experimental capability is required are discussed. The operational characteristics and design features of the National Transonic Facility are reviewed.

Baals, D. D. (editor)

1977-01-01

43

Numbers as Shapes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students are asked to relate the numbers 1- 20 to rectangular shapes. Learners use unit squares or cubes to sort numbers by their 'shapes,' either squares, rectangles or sticks (rectangles of unit width). Ideas for implementation, extension and support are included.

2011-08-01

44

Prime Numbers Video  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 4-minute video introduces the definition of a prime number and illustrates it through a discussion of factors and composite numbers. It makes use of the definition to explain why 1 is not a prime and ends with a question for the viewer to ponder.

2010-01-01

45

Numbers and Operations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Counting numbers 1-10 Help Champ the Monkey Count the Bananas! The higher you count the harder it gets when you Count the Fish In Pirate numbers count the barrels and then press the red button to launch the cannon. Make sure you're right or your ship will sink! Help count with Counting with Elmo and Zoe! ...

Gribbin, Miss

2010-11-10

46

Avogadro's Number Ferromagnetically  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Avogadro's number, usually denoted by N[subscript A], plays a fundamental role in both physics and chemistry. It defines the extremely useful concept of the mole, which is the base unit of the amount of matter in the international system of units. The fundamental character of this number can also be illustrated by its appearance in the definitions…

Houari, Ahmed

2010-01-01

47

Numbers in contextual frameworks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution consists of a report on research into the use of the bus context (boarding and leaving the bus) for introducing addition and subtraction in the first grade. Other contexts are taken into account as well, such as skittles, magic number tricks, birthday candles, rides in a ‘cart’, distribution of passengers on a double-decker bus, number-cards, and ages.

F. J. Brink

1984-01-01

48

The Fibonacci Numbers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After a brief historical account of Leonardo Pisano Fibonacci, some basic results concerning the Fibonacci numbers are developed and proved, and entertaining examples are described. Connections are made between the Fibonacci numbers and the Golden Ratio, biological nature, and other combinatorics examples. (MDH)

Onstad, Torgeir

1991-01-01

49

My First Number Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, "students produce a book that includes a page for numbers 0-10. On each page they write the numeral, the word for that numeral and place the correct number of stickers to represent the numeral. The cover includes a title, student's name and an illustration." (from Beacon Learning Center)

Center, Beacon L.

2008-12-15

50

Number and Operations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have fun with numbers! Visit Lemonade Larry to buy some fresh squeezed lemonade! Figure out the cost of each order. Spooky sequences!!! Figure out the missing number to send the ghosts back to the haunted house. Place value pirates. Please help match the pirate to the correct place value. Arrgh mates! ...

Johnson, Ms.

2007-10-25

51

Definitions Numbered Space  

E-print Network

Definitions · Numbered Space ­ a single space marked with a number and reserved for a single permit 24/7 · Unnumbered Space ­ a space which can be used by any customer allowed to park in that lot. High Low Average Question 4: If I buy a staff permit for an UNNUMBERED* space in a non-gated surface

Behmer, Spencer T.

52

Number Base Clocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visually explore counting and place value with different number bases, from base 2 to base 16, and up to the hundreds place using a clock like interface. The activity also allows you to look at the numbers on the clock in base 10 or in your other chosen base to explore the relationship between those values.

53

Number Conveyor Belt  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity for the interactive white board (free access with registration) allows a teacher to create an arithmetic sequence for students to watch being built as the sequence of numbers moves along a conveyor. Learners must determine the pattern being used so when the belt randomly stops, the missing number in the sequence can be dragged/ dropped into its place. The teacher sets the start number (0-19), the interval or common difference (1-10) and if the sequence will count up or down. This last option provides an opportunity to display patterns with integers.

2012-01-01

54

Number Systems Introduction & Objectives  

E-print Network

to the more familiar decimal system · In this lesson, you will learn: What is meant by a weighted number has the lowest weight Least Significant Digit (LSD) See the next example First Position Index First

Bouhraoua, Abdelhafid

55

Numbers at Work  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. In the section Real Numbers in Real Life, we offer scenarios that connect mathematics to questions that touch the world of the middle school student. Besides their real-world context, these activities challenge students to deepen their understanding of numbers â especially fractions, decimals, and percents. Another section, Number Skills, concentrates almost entirely on equivalent representations of these numbers as well as practice in computation and estimation. These activities appear in game formats, as most likely to engage students in the practice they need.

Herrera, Terese

2007-10-01

56

Complex Number Arithmetic Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The four complex number arithmetic models in this item show the addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of a complex number z2 to all numbers z1 of a point grid. The z1 and z2 are changed and the grid is moved by dragging the tip of the z1 and z2 arrows in the z-plane. The parallelogram for the vector construction representing the arithmetic operation are drawn on the simulation's right-hand side. Complex Number Arithmetic models are part of âLearning and Teaching Mathematics using Simulations â Plus 2000 Examples from Physicsâ ISBN 978-3-11-025005-3, Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. KG

Roess, Dieter

2011-08-11

57

Zero: A "None" Number?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the challenges students face in making sense of zero as a number. A range of different student responses to a computation problem involving zero reveal students' different understandings of zero.

Anthony, Glenda J.; Walshaw, Margaret A.

2004-01-01

58

The Numbers Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simple activity that explores and reveals the principles of significant figures and scientific notation using a 500 gram bag of unpopped popcorn. Students must devise a method for determining the number of kernels in the bag. (DDR)

Lustick, David

1997-01-01

59

In numbers we trust?  

PubMed Central

Scientists go to great lengths to ensure that data are collected and analysed properly, so why, asks Eve Marder, do they apply different standards to data about the number of times research papers have been cited and viewed? PMID:24692454

2014-01-01

60

Dangerous Doubles (Doubling Numbers)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson teaches students to use the strategy doubling numbers and doubles plus or minus one in order to use mental math to add one digit numbers. The students are engaged in learning through the read aloud of Double the Ducks by Stephen Murphy and then get to work with a partner to draw doubles and write equations that relate to their drawings. Students individually work on solving word problems using these strategies and manipulatives as necessary to solve.

Sharrer, Stephanie

2012-07-14

61

Numerical Calculation of Two-Dimensional Natural Convection in Isothermal Open Cavities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical computations of free convection flow inside an isothermal open square cavity are presented. The effects of the Grashof number and the inclination of cavity are examined. Unsteady solutions are observed for Grashof numbers larger than 100,000 and a cavity aperture facing upward.

F. Penot

1982-01-01

62

Report number codes  

SciTech Connect

This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

Nelson, R.N. (ed.)

1985-05-01

63

Third Grade Number Actiivities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides examples of Third Grade Number (Operations and Algebraic Thinking, Number and Operations in Base Ten, and Number Operations-Fractions) activities aligned with the Common Core State Standards. A CCSS standard is stated and the possible activities are listed below and linked. All activities are suitable for use in Math Centers, small group or whole class settings and are designed to elicit a range of responses and provide opportunities for students to communicate their reasoning and mathematical thinking. Instructions for each task are typed in large print and written in child-friendly language to enable students to work on activities independently after a brief introduction to the task. All files listed are in PDF format.

Godwin, Nicola

2012-01-01

64

Species number with confidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benthic sampling by J. Frederick Grassle and Nancy J. Maciolek during the 1980s contributed to a recognition of the enormous diversity of biota in the deep sea. The problem of predicting on the basis of such sampling, the number of species in a community is a classical one in statistical ecology. Here, we show how to construct a lower prediction bound on species number using the sequential broken-stick model of relative abundances. We illustrate the method using some data from Grassle and Maciolek's original sampling effort.

Smith, Woollcott K.; Solow, Andrew R.; Maciolek, Nancy J.

2009-09-01

65

Number Systems for Computers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding number systems, especially Binary and Hexadecimal, is important to comprehending how computers function. It all begins with the magic circle we call ZERO. Work through the exercises in the order listed to gain some background in number systems and what makes it possible for computers to work. The magic of ZeroPlace Value Place Value Fun!Place Value Fun! One if by land, Two if by sea.The Binary System And then there were sixteen....hexadecimal Hexadecimal Headquarters Mr Booth s Computer Systems Class Student Learning Domain ...

Mrbooth

2007-09-19

66

Multiplying Whole Numbers & Fractions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 9-minute video, Amy Spies shows her 4th grade class working through a problem multiplying a fraction by a whole number. During the lesson Amy realized that the students were not pulling out the knowledge that she had intended. She then revised the lesson and gave them examples and non-examples and through discussion had them make the connection between repeated addition and multiplying a fraction by a whole number. Students also gained a deeper understanding of the meaning of the numerator and denominator in these repeated addition problems.

2013-01-01

67

Positive About Negative Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article is devoted to the mathematical topic of negative numbers and provides a series of primary resources designed to familiarize children with the notion of counting on either side of a central point. The article presents that the activities listed should be played sequentially to build precursory ideas in understanding negative numbers. All the games discussed in the article are linked on the page and have been cataloged separately: Incy Wincy Spider, Tug of War, Swimming Pool, Tug Harder, First Connect Three and lastly Sea Level.

Woodham, Liz

2011-01-01

68

Enclosed Gas and Liquid with Nonuniform Heating from Above  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Buoyancy-driven flows of gases above liquids in a common enclosure with nonuniform heating from above are studied via finite-difference solutions of the governing equations. Unsteady solutions are calculated, and steady-state solutions are sought as asymptotes. Grashof numbers between 10 to the 3rd and 10 to the 8th are examined, and multicellular circulatory flow structure is found at the higher Grashof numbers. Convective transport dominates for higher Grashof numbers, while conductive transport is the primary mechanism at the lower Grashof numbers. Surface tension has a major effect upon the gas flow field only at lower Grashof numbers but, since conduction dominates there, it does not significantly affect transport.

Aggarwal, S. K.; Iyengar, J.; Sirignano, W. A.

1986-01-01

69

Playing the Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some say that the educators now have a gender-stratified system of higher education, with nearly 60 percent of all undergraduates being women and fewer men attending each year. The battle for gender equity for women in higher education has been a long and contentious one. In the decades since, increasing numbers of women have gone to college, to…

Doyle, William R.

2010-01-01

70

IN NUMBERS: Biostatistics Faculty  

E-print Network

STRENGTH IN NUMBERS: Biostatistics Faculty Are in Great Demand in the SPH and Beyond of the school's Department of Biostatistics faculty (clockwise starting from lower left): Drs. Catherine Sugar specialize in other aspects of clinical trials design. With this expertise, the Department of Biostatistics

Grether, Gregory

71

Why Delannoy numbers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is not a research paper, but a little note on the history of combinatorics: We present here a tentative short biography of Henri De- lannoy, and a survey of his most notable works. This answers to the question raised in the title, as these works are related to lattice paths enumeration, to the so-called Delannoy numbers, and were

Cyril Banderier; Sylviane R. Schwer

2004-01-01

72

Why Delannoy numbers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is not a research paper, but a little note on the history of combinatorics: we present here a tentative short biography of Henri Delannoy, and a survey of his most notable works. This answers the question raised in the title, as these works are related to lattice paths enumeration, to the so-called Delannoy numbers, and were the first

Cyril Banderier; Sylviane Schwer

2005-01-01

73

UCGE Reports Number 20251  

E-print Network

, 2007 © Jianning Qiu 2007 #12;iii Abstract As a part of the Global Navigation System (GPS) modernizationUCGE Reports Number 20251 Department of Geomatics Engineering RF Interference Impact on GPS L5://www.geomatics.ucalgary.ca/research/publications/GradTheses.html) by Jianning Qiu January 2007 #12;UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY RF Interference Impact on GPS L5 Reception Performance

Calgary, University of

74

UCGE Reports Number 20277  

E-print Network

to augment, enhance and/or replace GPS in the benign and hostile signal environments. iii #12;TABLEUCGE Reports Number 20277 Department of Geomatics Engineering Ultra Wideband Augmented GPS (URL;UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY Ultra Wideband Augmented GPS by David Sung-Tat Chiu A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY

Calgary, University of

75

UCGE Reports Number 20285  

E-print Network

accuracies. Recommendations for future work on GPS/Galileo kinematic positioning are also addressed. iii #12UCGE Reports Number 20285 Department of Geomatics Engineering Multi-frequency GPS and Galileo://www.geomatics.ucalgary.ca/research/publications) by Wei Cao February 2009 #12;UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY Multi-frequency GPS and Galileo Kinematic Positioning

Calgary, University of

76

UCGE Reports Number 20305  

E-print Network

adaptive loop filter (ALF) for TLA GPS/RIMU, and (iii) two innovative algorithms ­ namely a cascaded PLLUCGE Reports Number 20305 Department of Geomatics Engineering Ultra-Tight GPS/Reduced IMU for Land;UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY Ultra-Tight GPS/Reduced IMU for Land Vehicle Navigation by Debo Sun A THESIS SUBMITTED

Calgary, University of

77

Baryon Number Violation  

E-print Network

This report, prepared for the Community Planning Study - Snowmass 2013 - summarizes the theoretical motivations and the experimental efforts to search for baryon number violation, focussing on nucleon decay and neutron-antineutron oscillations. Present and future nucleon decay search experiments using large underground detectors, as well as planned neutron-antineutron oscillation search experiments with free neutron beams are highlighted.

K. S. Babu; E. Kearns; U. Al-Binni; S. Banerjee; D. V. Baxter; Z. Berezhiani; M. Bergevin; S. Bhattacharya; S. Brice; R. Brock; T. W. Burgess; L. Castellanos; S. Chattopadhyay; M-C. Chen; E. Church; C. E. Coppola; D. F. Cowen; R. Cowsik; J. A. Crabtree; H. Davoudiasl; R. Dermisek; A. Dolgov; B. Dutta; G. Dvali; P. Ferguson; P. Fileviez Perez; T. Gabriel; A. Gal; F. Gallmeier; K. S. Ganezer; I. Gogoladze; E. S. Golubeva; V. B. Graves; G. Greene; T. Handler; B. Hartfiel; A. Hawari; L. Heilbronn; J. Hill; D. Jaffe; C. Johnson; C. K. Jung; Y. Kamyshkov; B. Kerbikov; B. Z. Kopeliovich; V. B. Kopeliovich; W. Korsch; T. Lachenmaier; P. Langacker; C-Y. Liu; W. J. Marciano; M. Mocko; R. N. Mohapatra; N. Mokhov; G. Muhrer; P. Mumm; P. Nath; Y. Obayashi; L. Okun; J. C. Pati; R. W. Pattie Jr.; D. G. Phillips II; C. Quigg; J. L. Raaf; S. Raby; E. Ramberg; A. Ray; A. Roy; A. Ruggles; U. Sarkar; A. Saunders; A. Serebrov; Q. Shafi; H. Shimizu; M. Shiozawa; R. Shrock; A. K. Sikdar; W. M. Snow; A. Soha; S. Spanier; G. C. Stavenga; S. Striganov; R. Svoboda; Z. Tang; Z. Tavartkiladze; L. Townsend; S. Tulin; A. Vainshtein; R. Van Kooten; C. E. M. Wagner; Z. Wang; B. Wehring; R. J. Wilson; M. Wise; M. Yokoyama; A. R. Young

2013-11-21

78

Number and Operation Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Play the counting games below. First, help Curious George juggle the fruit in the Curious George Juggling game. Next, count the fish in the Fish Counting game. Then, try to catch the correct number of fish in the net. Go Fishing! ...

Allen, Ms.

2010-10-09

79

Rotationally consistent Love numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Love number k2 at a 14-month period is used to characterize the deformation of the solid earth during the Chandler wobble. Traditionally, the value of k2(CW), ~0.31, is inferred from observations of the Chandler wobble period, after the effects of the oceans have been subtracted. However, during wobble the core is almost completely decoupled from the mantle; consistency requires that we view that inference as a mantle-only value of the Love number. This in turn implies that k2= 0.35, almost 13 per cent higher than the traditionally accepted value. The use of rotationally consistent Love numbers leads to equations for predicting the effects of a given rotational excitation that are distinctly different from previous versions. Furthermore, formulations of the excitation itself-such as the `effective angular momentum functions' of Barnes et al.-are seriously modified, with the excitation functions up to ~14 per cent larger. Rotationally consistent Love numbers imply that the solid earth is much more anelastic at a 14-month period than previously considered. Popular `constant Q' and `power-law Q' models of anelasticity are unable to simultaneously fit observations of k2 at seismic, nine-day, and Chandler frequencies. Alternative anelastic relaxation models such as those proposed by Ivins hold much more promise.

Dickman, S. R.

2005-04-01

80

"Better than Their Numbers"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses College Summit, a nonprofit effort centered around the premise that there is a sizable number of students who are more capable of college academics than their test scores and grade point averages suggest. Its four-day summer sessions are focused not on ramping up students' academic performance but in mining students'…

Cech, Scott J.

2008-01-01

81

Houses with Height Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet allows students to freely build shapes by stacking cubes and "explore the relation between a building (house) consisting of cubes and the height numbers representing the height of the different parts of the building." This exercise helps students visualize and understand the concepts of volume and three-dimensional, measurable space.

Boon, Peter; Van Den Brink, Jan

2004-01-01

82

A Highly Random Number  

Microsoft Academic Search

In his celebrated 1936 paper Turing defined a machine to becircular iff it performs an infinite computation outputting only finitelymany symbols. We define ( as the probability that an arbitrary machinebe circular and we prove that is a random number that goes beyond$2, the probability that a universal self alelimiting machine halts. Thealgorithmic complexity of c is strictly greater than

Facultad De Ciencias Exactas; Gregory Chaitin; Sergio Daicz I; Vernica Becher

2001-01-01

83

Haida Numbers and Calculation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experienced traders in furs, blankets, and other goods, the Haidas of the 1700's had a well-developed decimal system for counting and calculating. Their units of linear measure included the foot, yard, and fathom, or six feet. This booklet lists the numbers from 1 to 20 in English and Haida; explains the Haida use of ten, hundred, and thousand…

Cogo, Robert

84

Preschoolers' Number Sense  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A child's demonstration of his conceptual understanding of number bodes well for his future success in school mathematics. As youngsters' thinking becomes more logical, they apply one-to-one correspondence relationships to quantification. Yet, reliable assessment of young children's mathematical ability is difficult because of social and emotional…

Moomaw, Sally; Carr, Victoria; Boat, Mary; Barnett, David

2010-01-01

85

ALARA notes, Number 8  

SciTech Connect

This document contains information dealing with the lessons learned from the experience of nuclear plants. In this issue the authors tried to avoid the `tyranny` of numbers and concentrated on the main lessons learned. Topics include: filtration devices for air pollution abatement, crack repair and inspection, and remote handling equipment.

Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.; Beckman, M.C. [eds.] [eds.

1993-10-01

86

Second grade Number Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides examples of Second Grade Number (Operations and Algebraic Thinking, and Number and Operations in Base Ten) activities aligned with the Common Core State Standards. A CCSS standard is stated and the possible activities are listed below and linked. All activities are suitable for use in Math Centers, small group or whole class settings and are designed to elicit a range of responses and provide opportunities for students to communicate their reasoning and mathematical thinking. Instructions for each task are typed in large print and written in child-friendly language to enable students to work on activities independently after a brief introduction to the task. All files listed are in PDF format.

Godwin, Nicola

2012-01-01

87

First Grade Number Actiivities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides examples of First Grade Number (Operations and Algebraic Thinking, and Number and Operations in Base Ten) activities aligned with the Common Core State Standards. A CCSS standard is stated and the possible activities are listed below and linked. All activities are suitable for use in Math Centers, small group or whole class settings and are designed to elicit a range of responses and provide opportunities for students to communicate their reasoning and mathematical thinking. Instructions for each task are typed in large print and written in child-friendly language to enable students to work on activities independently after a brief introduction to the task. All files listed are in PDF format.

Godwin, Nicola

2012-01-01

88

Nature by Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 4-minute computer animation highlights three forms in nature that have connections with numbers and geometry. The Fibonacci sequence and the golden ratio are shown relating to the chambered nautilus shell and the sunflower seed pattern. The Delaunay triangulation and Voronoi tessellation are shown to simulate the capillary distribution on a dragonfly wing. Included are descriptions of the mathematics and stills from the production.

2013-02-01

89

Maths Doctor: Number  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Maths Doctor website from Macmillan Publishers contains more than 250 lessons that are free for anyone. Each lesson includes a three to five minute video tutorial on the topic and a related worksheet for the student to complete. Each worksheet has a convenient QR code that a student can scan to access the video. The Number section contains numerous lessons ranging from Conversion of Units to Dividing Fractions to Subtracting Negative Integers.

2014-06-20

90

A Pentagonal Number Sieve  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prove a general "pentagonal sieve" theorem that has corollaries such as the following. First, thenumber of pairs of partitions of n that have no parts in common isp(n)2\\\\Gamma p(n \\\\Gamma 1)2\\\\Gamma p(n \\\\Gamma 2)2+ p(n \\\\Gamma 5)2+ p(n \\\\Gamma 7)2\\\\Gamma : : : :Second, if two unlabeled rooted forests of the same number of vertices are chosen i.u.a.r., then

Sylvie Corteel; Carla D. Savage; Herbert S. Wilf; Doron Zeilberger

1998-01-01

91

Safety in numbers?  

PubMed

We are constantly reminded of the high numbers of incidents or occasions of patient safety incidents, never events, deaths, hospital acquired infections and complaints that fill our journals, newspapers and media, in relation to the care we strive to deliver to our patients. I know that this is becoming a real source of anxiety as I speak to colleagues and members. The distress and frustration is almost tangible as they work under the enormous pressures of today's healthcare environments. PMID:22165487

Coates, Tracy

2011-11-01

92

All About Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 14-min video British teacher Rosalind Caren demonstrates group activities designed to develop number sense, fluency with addition and subtraction fact families, and reasoning skills. Caren exhibits effective questioning techniques and routines. Headteacher/math coordinator Kate Frood describes the guiding principles and expectations of teaching at the school. Following a class observation Frood provides constructive feedback to Caren and her teaching assistants.

2012-01-01

93

Paint by Number  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Only in America, one might say, would artistic self-expression be so successfully mass produced, commodified, and regimented. Nevertheless, in a brave attempt at recuperation, the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History offers this new Website on the popular 1950s' hobby of painting by number from the perspective of "the artists and entrepreneurs who created the popular paint kits, the cultural critics who reviled them, and the hobbyists who happily completed them and hung them in their homes." Taking a decidedly cultural studies approach, the Website stresses the pleasures derived from the activity as well as the modifications to the kits made by many participants. It also places the phenomenon in the context of the culture of the 1950s, particularly its expansion of leisure time. There are plenty of images here of the creation of the numbers kits as well as representations of the finished product. A bibliography and a bulletin board for posting reminiscences about painting by number are also provided. The authors claim the hobby, which pretty much died out in the 1960s, had the "peculiarly American virtue" of inviting people "who never held a brush before to enter a world of art and creativity." The editors invite our readers to be the judge of that.

2001-01-01

94

The Remarkable Number "1"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In human history, the origin of the numbers came from definite practical needs. Indeed, there is strong evidence that numbers were created before writing. The number "1", dating back at least 20,000 years, was found as a counting symbol on a bone. The famous statement by the German mathematician Leopold Kronecker (1823-1891), "God made the integers; all else is the work of man," has spawned a lively modern philosophical discussion, and this discussion begins by trying to get a philosophical handle on "1." This approach remains under heavy discussion, and is more-or-less unresolved (Frege in Die Grundlagen der Arithmetik (English: The foundations of arithmetic). Polhman, 1884). In this note, we consider the many facets of "one" in it many guises and applications. Nonetheless, "one" has multiple meanings, from the very practical to the abstract, from mathematics to science to basically everything. We examine here a mere slice of mathematical history with a focus on the most basic and applicable concept therein. It troubles many, particularly students, even today.

Allen, G. Donald

2014-09-01

95

Displaying Number Patterns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet from the E-Examples of NCTM, which could be used as an interactive presentation tool, allows the student to link numerical patterns to a visual display as a number pattern is displayed on a calculator and on a hundred board simultaneously. The learner's task is to compare counting sequences on the calculator with the patterns they generate on the hundred board with the goal of helping students to see patterns and then make predictions. Instructions for using the applet are provided as well as background for the teacher.

Bill Kreahling, Bob Panoff, and the Shodor Education Foundation

2011-05-05

96

History of Prime Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The School of Mathematics and Statistics at the University of St Andrews, Scotland has developed an extensive collection of articles on the history of mathematics (See also NSDL Scout Report for Math, Engineering, and Technology, June 4, 2004). This article, written by J J O'Connor and E F Robertson, reviews the history of Prime Numbers. The article includes hyperlinks to topics addressed further in other sections of the website. For example, from this website visitors can also find articles on Pythagoras and Euclid.

97

q Numbers of quantum groups, Fibonacci numbers, and orthogonal polynomials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We obtain algebraic relations (identities) for q-numbers that do not contain q\\u000a ?-factors. We derive a formula that expresses any q-number [x] in terms of the q-number [2]. We establish the relationship between the q-numbers [n] and the Fibonacci numbers, Chebyshev polynomials, and other special functions. The sums of combinations of q-numbers, in particular, the sums of their powers, are

I. I. Kachurik

1998-01-01

98

Pauli Pascal Pyramids, Pauli Fibonacci Numbers, and Pauli Jacobsthal Numbers  

E-print Network

The three anti-commutative two-dimensional Pauli Pascal triangles can be generalized into multi-dimensional Pauli Pascal hyperpyramids. Fibonacci and Jacobsthal numbers are then generalized into Pauli Fibonacci numbers, Pauli Jacobsthal numbers, and Pauli Fibonacci numbers of higher order. And the question is: are Pauli rabbits killer rabbits?

Martin Erik Horn

2007-11-26

99

Number Games, Magnitude Representation, and Basic Number Skills in Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of 3 intervention board games (linear number, linear color, and nonlinear number) on young children's (mean age = 3.8 years) counting abilities, number naming, magnitude comprehension, accuracy in number-to-position estimation tasks, and best-fit numerical magnitude representations was examined. Pre- and posttest performance was…

Whyte, Jemma Catherine; Bull, Rebecca

2008-01-01

100

Number Games, Magnitude Representation, and Basic Number Skills in Preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of 3 intervention board games (linear number, linear color, and nonlinear number) on young children's (mean age = 3.8 years) counting abilities, number naming, magnitude comprehension, accuracy in number-to-position estimation tasks, and best-fit numerical magnitude representations was examined. Pre- and posttest performance was compared following four 25-min intervention sessions. The linear number board game significantly improved children's performance

Jemma Catherine Whyte; Rebecca Bull

2008-01-01

101

Generalized Lucas Numbers and Relations with Generalized Fibonacci Numbers  

E-print Network

In this paper, we present a new generalization of the Lucas numbers by matrix representation using Genaralized Lucas Polynomials. We give some properties of this new generalization and some relations between the generalized order-k Lucas numbers and generalized order-k Fibonacci numbers. In addition, we obtain Binet formula and combinatorial representation for generalized order-k Lucas numbers by using properties of generalized Fibonacci numbers.

Kaygisiz, Kenan

2011-01-01

102

ccsd00003233, WHY DELANNOY NUMBERS?  

E-print Network

ccsd­00003233, version 1 ­ 6 Nov 2004 WHY DELANNOY NUMBERS? CYRIL BANDERIER AND SYLVIANE SCHWER, to the so-called Delannoy numbers, and were the #12;rst general way to solve Ballot-like problems of Delannoy numbers and Delannoy lattice paths, note that the classical number sequences or lattice paths have

103

Bondage number of grid graphs  

E-print Network

The bondage number $b(G)$ of a nonempty graph $G$ is the cardinality of a smallest set of edges whose removal from $G$ results in a graph with domination number greater than the domination number of $G$. Here we study the bondage number of some grid-like graphs. In this sense, we obtain some bounds or exact values of the bondage number of some Cartesian product, strong product or direct product of two paths.

Dettlaff, Magda; Yero, Ismael G

2012-01-01

104

15. Stress Sheet, Truss number 2, span number 6, Superior ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Stress Sheet, Truss number 2, span number 6, Superior Avenue viaduct. Drawing courtesy Engineering Dept., City of Cleveland. - Superior Avenue Viaduct, Cleveland East & West side, Cuyahoga Valley Vicinity, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

105

Truly Hypercomplex Numbers: Unification of Numbers and Vectors  

E-print Network

Since the beginning of the quest of hypercomplex numbers in the late eighteenth century, many hypercomplex number systems have been proposed but none of them succeeded in extending the concept of complex numbers to higher dimensions. This paper provides a definitive solution to this problem by defining the truly hypercomplex numbers of dimension N greater than or equal to 3. The secret lies in the definition of the multiplicative law and its properties. This law is based on spherical and hyperspherical coordinates. These numbers which I call spherical and hyperspherical hypercomplex numbers define Abelian groups over addition and multiplication. Nevertheless, the multiplicative law generally does not distribute over addition, thus the set of these numbers equipped with addition and multiplication does not form a mathematical field. However, such numbers are expected to have a tremendous utility in mathematics and in science in general.

Redouane Bouhennache

2014-09-07

106

The concrete theory of numbers: initial numbers and wonderful properties of numbers repunit  

E-print Network

In this work initial numbers and repunit numbers have been studied. All numbers have been considered in a decimal notation. The problem of simplicity of initial numbers has been studied. Interesting properties of numbers repunit are proved: $gcd(R_a, R_b) = R_{gcd(a,b)}$; $R_{ab}/(R_aR_b)$ is an integer only if $gcd(a,b) = 1$, where $a\\geq1$, $b\\geq1$ are integers. Dividers of numbers repunit, are researched by a degree of prime number.

Boris V. Tarasov

2007-04-06

107

The bondage numbers of graphs with small crossing numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bondage number b(G) of a nonempty graph G is the cardinality of a smallest edge set whose removal from G results in a graph with domination number greater than the domination number (G) of G. Kang and Yuan proved b(G) 8 for every connected planar graph G. Fischermann, Rautenbach and Volkmann obtained some further results for connected planar graphs.

Jia Huang; Jun-ming Xu

2007-01-01

108

Graphs, partitions and Fibonacci numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The Fibonacci number of a graph is the number of independent vertex subsets. In this paper, we investigate trees with large Fibonacci number. In particular, we show that all trees with n edges and Fibonacci number,> 2,\\/4 for constants A,B as n ! 1. This is proved by using a natural correspondence between partitions of integers and star-like trees.

Arnold Knopfmacher; Robert F. Tichy; Stephan Wagner; Volker Ziegler

2007-01-01

109

Linear or Exponential Number Lines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Having decided to spend some time looking at one's understanding of numbers, the author was inspired by "Alex's Adventures in Numberland," by Alex Bellos to look at one's innate appreciation of number. Bellos quotes research studies suggesting that an individual's natural appreciation of numbers is more likely to be exponential rather than linear,…

Stafford, Pat

2011-01-01

110

The Algebra of Complex Numbers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This programed text is an introduction to the algebra of complex numbers for engineering students, particularly because of its relevance to important problems of applications in electrical engineering. It is designed for a person who is well experienced with the algebra of real numbers and calculus, but who has no experience with complex number

LePage, Wilbur R.

111

Data Compression with Prime Numbers  

E-print Network

A compression algorithm is presented that uses the set of prime numbers. Sequences of numbers are correlated with the prime numbers, and labeled with the integers. The algorithm can be iterated on data sets, generating factors of doubles on the compression.

Gordon Chalmers

2005-11-16

112

Numbers and Math. Beginnings Workshop.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents five articles addressing numbers and math instruction for young children: "Math Talk with Young Children: One Parent's Experience" (Fred E. Gross); "How Children Build Their Understanding of Numbers" (David Elkind); "Early Math: It's More than Numbers" (Ann S. Epstein); "Assessing Mathematical Learning: Observing and Listening to…

Gross, Fred E.; Elkind, CavidEpstein, Ann S.; Copley, Juanita V.; Haugen, Ginny; Haugen, Kirsten

2003-01-01

113

Sounding Number Dr. Rachel Hall  

E-print Network

is of a tuning fork. Here's a picture of the sound wave: This looks like a sine wave! Let's highlight a portionSounding Number Dr. Rachel Hall Spectrum and Timbre The equation u(x, t) = ( sin nx L ) ( A sin is a positive whole number, is a solution to the wave equation (for a clarinet, n is an odd number). It predicts

Hall, Rachel W.

114

Some Ideas About Number Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The material in this booklet is designed for non-professional mathematicians who have an interest in the theory of numbers. The author presents some elementary results of number theory without involving detailed proofs. Much of the material has direct application for secondary school mathematics teachers. A brief account of the nature of number

Barnett, I. A.

115

The Number Space and Neglect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent cognitive models of numerical abilities have postulated that number processing may in part rely on a representation of quantities where magnitude is organized by spatial proximity, along a “mental number line” extending from left to right. We describe four experiments that examined whether such a spatial representation of number would be affected by the presence of unilateral neglect after

Patrik Vuilleumier; Stéphanie Ortigue; Peter Brugger

2004-01-01

116

Bayesian DNA copy number analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Some diseases, like tumors, can be related to chromosomal aberrations, leading to changes of DNA copy number. The copy number of an aberrant genome can be represented as a piecewise constant function, since it can exhibit regions of deletions or gains. Instead, in a healthy cell the copy number is two because we inherit one copy of each chromosome

Paola M. V. Rancoita; Marcus Hutter; Francesco Bertoni; Ivo Kwee

2009-01-01

117

A Lesson in Number Pattern  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a guided investigation into the spacial relationships between the centres of the squares in a Fibonacci tiling. It is essentially a lesson in number pattern, but includes work with surds, coordinate geometry, and some elementary use of complex numbers. The investigation could be presented to students in a number of ways…

Fletcher, Rodney

2008-01-01

118

Dynamic Virtual Credit Card Numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theft of stored credit card information is an increasing threat to e-commerce. We propose a dynamic virtual credit card number scheme that reduces the damage caused by stolen credit card numbers. A user can use an existing credit card account to generate multiple virtual credit card numbers that are either usable for a single transaction or are tied with a

Ian Molloy; Jiangtao Li; Ninghui Li

2007-01-01

119

PLURIDICTA, Numbers 28-35.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The eight titles in this document include the following: "Comprehension and Input Processing as Useful Terms in the Field of SLA" (number 28) (Teresa Cadierno); "On the Role of Instruction in SLA: Research Results and Theoretical Explanations" (number 29) (Teresa Cadierno); "Can Writing Be Taught" (number 30) (Stuart Greene); "Academic Listening"…

Wagner, Johannes, Ed.

1998-01-01

120

Three Cubes in One Number  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Separate a three-digit number into its component digits. After raising each digit to the third power and computing the sum of the cubes, determine how often the original number reappears. Modular arithmetic is used to reduce the number of potential solutions to a more manageable quantity. (Contains 4 tables.)

Jue, Brian

2010-01-01

121

Generalized Bernoulli-Hurwitz numbers and the universal Bernoulli numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The three fundamental properties of the Bernoulli numbers, namely, the von Staudt-Clausen theorem, von Staudt's second theorem, and Kummer's original congruence, are generalized to new numbers that we call generalized Bernoulli-Hurwitz numbers. These are coefficients in the power series expansion of a higher-genus algebraic function with respect to a suitable variable. Our generalization differs strongly from previous works. Indeed, the order of the power of the modulus prime in our Kummer-type congruences is exactly the same as in the trigonometric function case (namely, Kummer's own congruence for the original Bernoulli numbers), and as in the elliptic function case (namely, H. Lang's extension for the Hurwitz numbers). However, in other past results on higher-genus algebraic functions, the modulus was at most half of its value in these classical cases. This contrast is clarified by investigating the analogue of the three properties above for the universal Bernoulli numbers. Bibliography: 34 titles.

Ônishi, Yoshihiro

2011-10-01

122

Perfect, Amicable and Sociable Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These friendly sounding numbers are defined by their divisibility and sums. A perfect number is a number whose positive divisors (except for itself) sum to itself; an amicable number is a pair of numbers each of which equals the sum of the other's aliquot parts; and the members of aliquot cycles of length greater than two are often called sociable numbers. This page, housed at (but not officially affiliated with) the Institute for Materials Science at the University of Connecticut, defines and describes perfect, amicable, and sociable numbers and introduces aliquot sequences. The text has links to a bibliography and to numeric tables. This site might be interesting to college-level mathematics students or anyone into mathematical puzzles.

123

Perceiving numbers influences actions in number-space synesthesia.  

PubMed

Number and space are spontaneously linked in human cognition and have been metaphorically described as a 'mental number line'. In number-space synesthetes (NSS), numbers are visualized in specific spatial arrays, in an idiosyncratic and explicit manner. Here we tested whether the numerical-spatial association that characterizes NSS has the potential to affect individual's actions when the number is not a task-relevant feature. We used a Simon task that implies stimulus-response matching. Task-irrelevant Arabic numerals (1, 4, 6, 9) appeared simultaneously at the same location as a colored target. A group of 15 age-matched controls and 4 NSS completed a 2×2 within-subjects design consisting of Simon (compatible and incompatible) and number-space (congruent and incongruent) trials. Mean reaction time (RT) and RT cumulative distribution functions across Simon and number-space conditions for both NSS and controls were analyzed. Relative to controls, synesthetes' RTs were overall affected by the number-space mapping. Moreover, synesthetes' Simon effects occurred at later response times. These results provide strong evidence that numbers are cognitively represented as action codes and that the strength of the association shapes the impact of the numerical representation on individuals' actions. PMID:22800399

Arend, Isabel; Gertner, Limor; Henik, Avishai

2013-01-01

124

Nonliteral understanding of number words.  

PubMed

One of the most puzzling and important facts about communication is that people do not always mean what they say; speakers often use imprecise, exaggerated, or otherwise literally false descriptions to communicate experiences and attitudes. Here, we focus on the nonliteral interpretation of number words, in particular hyperbole (interpreting unlikely numbers as exaggerated and conveying affect) and pragmatic halo (interpreting round numbers imprecisely). We provide a computational model of number interpretation as social inference regarding the communicative goal, meaning, and affective subtext of an utterance. We show that our model predicts humans' interpretation of number words with high accuracy. Our model is the first to our knowledge to incorporate principles of communication and empirically measured background knowledge to quantitatively predict hyperbolic and pragmatic halo effects in number interpretation. This modeling framework provides a unified approach to nonliteral language understanding more generally. PMID:25092304

Kao, Justine T; Wu, Jean Y; Bergen, Leon; Goodman, Noah D

2014-08-19

125

Dynamic Virtual Credit Card Numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theft of stored credit card information is an increasing threat to e-commerce. We propose a dynamic virtual credit card number scheme that reduces the damage caused by stolen credit card numbers. A user can use an existing credit card account to generate multiple virtual credit card numbers that are either usable for a single transaction or are tied with a particular merchant. We call the scheme dynamic because the virtual credit card numbers can be generated without online contact with the credit card issuers. These numbers can be processed without changing any of the infrastructure currently in place; the only changes will be at the end points, namely, the card users and the card issuers. We analyze the security requirements for dynamic virtual credit card numbers, discuss the design space, propose a scheme using HMAC, and prove its security under the assumption the underlying function is a PRF.

Molloy, Ian; Li, Jiangtao; Li, Ninghui

126

What exactly do numbers mean?  

PubMed Central

Number words are generally used to refer to the exact cardinal value of a set, but cognitive scientists disagree about their meanings. Although most psychological analyses presuppose that numbers have exact semantics (two means EXACTLY TWO), many linguistic accounts propose that numbers have lower-bounded semantics (AT LEAST TWO), and that speakers restrict their reference through a pragmatic inference (scalar implicature). We address this debate through studies of children who are in the process of acquiring the meanings of numbers. Adults and 2- and 3-year-olds were tested in a novel paradigm that teases apart semantic and pragmatic aspects of interpretation (the covered box task). Our findings establish that when scalar implicatures are cancelled in the critical trials of this task, both adults and children consistently give exact interpretations for number words. These results, in concert with recent work on real-time processing, provide the first unambiguous evidence that number words have exact semantics. PMID:25285053

Huang, Yi Ting; Spelke, Elizabeth; Snedeker, Jesse

2014-01-01

127

Number Line Bars--Fractions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use these virtual fraction bars to model fractional addition, subtraction, multiplication (of fractions by whole numbers), and division on a number line. Students can create bars in positive or negative fractional lengths; align, stack, or remove bars; and change the number line marks in increments between 1/2 and 1/15. Applet instructions and teaching ideas are included in the links at the top of the page.

2005-01-01

128

Bondage number of planar graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bondage number b(G) of a nonempty graph G is the cardinality of a smallest set of edges whose removal from G results in a graph with a domination number greater than the domination number of G. In this paper, we prove that b(G)?min{8,?(G)+2} for a planar graph G and b(G)?3 for a graph G with forbidden minor K4.

Liying Kang; Jinjiang Yuan

2000-01-01

129

Familial Sinistrals Avoid Exact Numbers  

PubMed Central

We report data from an internet questionnaire of sixty number trivia. Participants were asked for the number of cups in their house, the number of cities they know and 58 other quantities. We compare the answers of familial sinistrals – individuals who are left-handed themselves or have a left-handed close blood-relative – with those of pure familial dextrals – right-handed individuals who reported only having right-handed close blood-relatives. We show that familial sinistrals use rounder numbers than pure familial dextrals in the survey responses. Round numbers in the decimal system are those that are multiples of powers of 10 or of half or a quarter of a power of 10. Roundness is a gradient concept, e.g. 100 is rounder than 50 or 200. We show that very round number like 100 and 1000 are used with 25% greater likelihood by familial sinistrals than by pure familial dextrals, while pure familial dextrals are more likely to use less round numbers such as 25, 60, and 200. We then use Sigurd’s (1988, Language in Society) index of the roundness of a number and report that familial sinistrals’ responses are significantly rounder on average than those of pure familial dextrals. To explain the difference, we propose that the cognitive effort of using exact numbers is greater for the familial sinistral group because their language and number systems tend to be more distributed over both hemispheres of the brain. Our data support the view that exact and approximate quantities are processed by two separate cognitive systems. Specifically, our behavioral data corroborates the view that the evolutionarily older, approximate number system is present in both hemispheres of the brain, while the exact number system tends to be localized in only one hemisphere. PMID:23544052

Sauerland, Uli; Gotzner, Nicole

2013-01-01

130

Number Talks Build Numerical Reasoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Classroom number talks," five- to fifteen-minute conversations around purposefully crafted computation problems, are a productive tool that can be incorporated into classroom instruction to combine the essential processes and habits of mind of doing math. During number talks, students are asked to communicate their thinking when presenting and…

Parrish, Sherry D.

2011-01-01

131

Building Buildings with Triangular Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Triangular numbers are used to unravel a new sequence of natural numbers here-to-fore not appearing on the Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences website. Insight is provided on the construction of the sequence using "buildings" as a viewable model of the sequence entries. A step-by-step analysis of the sequence pattern reveals a method for generating…

Pagni, David L.

2006-01-01

132

Investigating the Randomness of Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of random numbers is pervasive in today's world. Random numbers have practical applications in such far-flung arenas as computer simulations, cryptography, gambling, the legal system, statistical sampling, and even the war on terrorism. Evaluating the randomness of extremely large samples is a complex, intricate process. However, the…

Pendleton, Kenn L.

2009-01-01

133

Understanding Rational Numbers and Proportions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The three activities in this investigation center on situations involving rational numbers and proportions that students encounter at a bakery. These activities involve several important concepts of rational numbers and proportions, including partitioning a unit into equal parts, the quotient interpretation of fractions, the area model of fractions, determining fractional parts of a unit not cut into equal-sized pieces, and equivalence.

Illuminations, Nctm

2000-01-01

134

Generalities Low Mach number limit  

E-print Network

in Mathematical Fluid Mechanics. The Alexander V. KAZHIKHOV Memorial Volume. Series: Advances in Mathematical Fluid Mechanics. Fursikov, Andrei V.; Galdi, Giovanni P.; Pukhnachev, Vladislav V. (Eds.) (2010). D = acoustic waves. Small parameter = Mach number, Froude number For instance = Mach = fluid velocity / sound

Gentil, Ivan

135

Spontaneous Number Representation in Mosquitofish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While there is convincing evidence that preverbal human infants and non-human primates can spontaneously represent number, considerable debate surrounds the possibility that such capacity is also present in other animals. Fish show a remarkable ability to discriminate between different numbers of social companions. Previous work has demonstrated…

Dadda, Marco; Piffer, Laura; Agrillo, Christian; Bisazza, Angelo

2009-01-01

136

Fractional Quantum Numbers on Solitons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is proposed to calculate quantum numbers on solitons in quantum field theory. The method is checked on previously known examples and, in a special model, by other methods. It is found, for example, that the fermion number on kinks in one dimension or on magnetic monopoles in three dimensions is, in general, a transcendental function of the coupling

Jeffrey Goldstone; Frank Wilczek

1981-01-01

137

On Counting the Rational Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…

Almada, Carlos

2010-01-01

138

Quantum Computing and Number Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prime factorization can be efficiently solved on a quantum computer. This result was given by Shor in 1994. In the first half of this article, a review of Shor's algorithm with mathematical setups is given. In the second half of this article, the prime number theorem which is an essential tool to understand the distribution of prime numbers is given.

Sasaki, Yoshitaka

2013-09-01

139

Whole Numbers - When in Rome  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The students perform the Sieve of Eratosthenes in class to find the prime number between 1 and 100. They also look for patterns such as where the multiples of 2 or 5 appear in the sieve. At home or in a computer lab they then research the Fibonacci Sequence and other number systems.

2010-01-01

140

Rational Numbers and Proportional Reasoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this workshop session, elementary and middle school teachers look at ways to interpret, model and work with rational numbers and to explore the basics of proportional reasoning. These ideas are investigated through interactive applets, problem sets, and a video of teachers solving one of the problems. This is session 8 of Learning Math: Number and Operations, a free online course.

Findell, Carol R.

2007-12-12

141

Quick Images: Visualizing Number Combinations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 6-minute video kindergarten teacher Stephanie Latimer describes and models techniques for developing children's number sense and visual recognition of number combinations. After quickly displaying groups of objects on a ten frame, she asks her students to describe the ways that they see the objects grouped. The resource includes reflection questions for viewers and a transcript of the video (doc).

2012-01-01

142

OFFICE USE ONLY Reference number  

E-print Network

of $ Credit or Check Card Please debit my card to the sum of $ Card number Expiration date M M / Y Y Y Y I) Card number Expiration date M M / Y Y Y Y Your credit or check card will be automatically charged of stocks or shares B. Regular Giving By Credit or Check Card Please debit my card to the sum of $ Monthly

Dixon, Peter

143

Learning Math: Number and Operations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video- and web-based course K-8 teachers examine the three main categories in the Number and Operations strand of Principles and Standards of School Mathematics (NCTM): understanding numbers, representations, relationships, and number systems; the meanings of operations and relationships among those operations; and reasonable estimation and fluent computation. The course covers the real number system, place value, the behavior of zero and infinity, meanings and models of basic operations, percentages, modeling operations with fractions, and basic number theory topics (factors, multiples, divisibility tests). The course consists of 10 approximately 2.5 hour sessions, each with video programming, problem-solving activities, and interactive activities and demonstrations on the web. Participants can work through the sessions on their own, in a study group, or as part of a facilitated, face-to-face, graduate-level course for credit.

2012-01-01

144

Chapter I-Frequently Called Numbers Emergency Numbers  

E-print Network

Library 432-2798 Student Telephone Number Information 432-4471 University Security 737-1937 Lost ID. The Yale Divinity School Directory and Facebook is a good resource for connecting names with faces, as well

145

8 Generalized Carmichael Numbers ON GENERALIZED CARMICHAEL NUMBERS  

E-print Network

\\Gamma k ? 1 is square­free. We also discuss generalized Carmichael numbers which have one or two prime that if p is a prime number, then p divides a p\\Gamma1 \\Gamma 1 for all integers a not divisible by p divides a p \\Gamma p for all integers a, whenever p is prime. Fermat's remark to Frenicle proved one half

Halbeisen, Lorenz

146

Reynolds number influences in aeronautics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reynolds number, a measure of the ratio of inertia to viscous forces, is a fundamental similarity parameter for fluid flows and therefore, would be expected to have a major influence in aerodynamics and aeronautics. Reynolds number influences are generally large, but monatomic, for attached laminar (continuum) flow; however, laminar flows are easily separated, inducing even stronger, non-monatomic, Reynolds number sensitivities. Probably the strongest Reynolds number influences occur in connection with transitional flow behavior. Transition can take place over a tremendous Reynolds number range, from the order of 20 x 10(exp 3) for 2-D free shear layers up to the order of 100 x 10(exp 6) for hypersonic boundary layers. This variability in transition behavior is especially important for complex configurations where various vehicle and flow field elements can undergo transition at various Reynolds numbers, causing often surprising changes in aerodynamics characteristics over wide ranges in Reynolds number. This is further compounded by the vast parameterization associated with transition, in that any parameter which influences mean viscous flow development (e.g., pressure gradient, flow curvature, wall temperature, Mach number, sweep, roughness, flow chemistry, shock interactions, etc.), and incident disturbance fields (acoustics, vorticity, particulates, temperature spottiness, even electro static discharges) can alter transition locations to first order. The usual method of dealing with the transition problem is to trip the flow in the generally lower Reynolds number wind tunnel to simulate the flight turbulent behavior. However, this is not wholly satisfactory as it results in incorrectly scaled viscous region thicknesses and cannot be utilized at all for applications such as turbine blades and helicopter rotors, nacelles, leading edge and nose regions, and High Altitude Long Endurance and hypersonic airbreathers where the transitional flow is an innately critical portion of the problem.

Bushnell, Dennis M.; Yip, Long P.; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Lin, John C.; Lawing, Pierce L.; Batina, John T.; Hardin, Jay C.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Fenbert, James W.; Domack, Christopher S.

1993-01-01

147

On rings of structural numbers  

E-print Network

ON RINGS OF STRUCTURAL NUMBERS A Thesis by WAYNE BRUCE POWELL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfil1ment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1973 Major Subject: h1athematics... ON RINGS OF STRUCTURAL NUMBERS A Thesis by WAYNE BRUCE POWELL Approved as to style and content by: C airman Committee Head of Oepar t l. , k / Me er )I Member Oecember 1973 ABSTRACT On Rings of Structural Numbers. (December 1973) Wayne Bruce...

Powell, Wayne Bruce

2012-06-07

148

Occupation numbers from functional integral  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Occupation numbers for non-relativistic interacting particles are discussed within a functional integral formulation. For bosons at zero temperature the Bogoliubov theory breaks down for strong couplings as well as for low-dimensional models. We find that the leading behavior of the occupation numbers for small momentum is governed by a quadratic time derivative in the inverse propagator that is not contained in the Bogoliubov theory. We propose to use a functional renormalization group equation for the occupation numbers in order to implement systematic non-perturbative extensions beyond the Bogoliubov theory. We also discuss interacting fermions, in particular the issue of pseudogaps.

Wetterich, C.

2008-10-01

149

The Jacobi-Stirling Numbers  

E-print Network

The Jacobi-Stirling numbers were discovered as a result of a problem involving the spectral theory of powers of the classical second-order Jacobi differential expression. Specifically, these numbers are the coefficients of integral composite powers of the Jacobi expression in Lagrangian symmetric form. Quite remarkably, they share many properties with the classical Stirling numbers of the second kind which, as shown in LW, are the coefficients of integral powers of the Laguerre differential expression. In this paper, we establish several properties of the Jacobi-Stirling numbers and its companions including combinatorial interpretations thereby extending and supplementing known contributions to the literature of Andrews-Littlejohn, Andrews-Gawronski-Littlejohn, Egge, Gelineau-Zeng, and Mongelli.

Andrews, George E; Gawronski, Wolfgang; Littlejohn, Lance L

2011-01-01

150

Poison control center - emergency number  

MedlinePLUS

For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

151

Atomic Structure - A Numbers Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emphasizes the simplicity and elegance of early discoveries related to the hydrogen spectrum and provides an elementary experimental basis of quantum theory based on a "numbers game" which can be played by students. (Author/GS)

George, W. O.; Vincent, A.

1975-01-01

152

4th Grade Number Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides examples of 4th Grade Number (Operations and Algebraic Thinking, Number and Operations in Base Ten, and Number Operations-Fractions) activities aligned with the Common Core State Standards. A CCSS standard is stated and the possible activities are listed below and linked. All activities are suitable for use in Math Centers, small group or whole class settings and are designed to elicit a range of responses and provide opportunities for students to communicate their reasoning and mathematical thinking. Instructions for each task are typed in large print and written in child-friendly language to enable students to work on activities independently after a brief introduction to the task. All files for the 4th Grade Number Activities listed are in PDF format.

Godwin, Nicola

2012-01-01

153

5th Grade Number Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides examples of 5th Grade Number (Operations and Algebraic Thinking, Number and Operations in Base Ten, and Number Operations-Fractions) activities aligned with the Common Core State Standards. A CCSS standard is stated and the possible activities are listed below and linked. All activities are suitable for use in Math Centers, small group or whole class settings and are designed to elicit a range of responses and provide opportunities for students to communicate their reasoning and mathematical thinking. Instructions for each task are typed in large print and written in child-friendly language to enable students to work on activities independently after a brief introduction to the task. All files for the 5th Grade Number Activities listed are in PDF format.

Godwin, Nicola

2012-01-01

154

Fibonacci Numbers and the Spreadsheet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is a classroom activity incorporating a computer spreadsheet to study number patterns generated by the Fibonacci sequence. Included are examples and suggestions for the use of the spreadsheet in other recursive relationships. (JJK)

Verderber, Nadine L.

1991-01-01

155

Comparing Two 3-Digit Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This whole-class lesson will reinforce the concept of comparing two 3-digit numbers as well as provide practice for students to become comparing experts. Students will use playing cards to practice their skills.

2013-01-31

156

Motion at low Reynolds number  

E-print Network

The work described in this thesis centers on inertialess motion at low Reynolds numbers at the crossroad between biofluids and microfluids. Here we address questions regarding locomotion of micro-swimmers, transport of ...

Tam, Daniel See Wai, 1980-

2008-01-01

157

Transition to Modern Number Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter establishes Gauss’s Law of Quadratic Reciprocity, the theory of binary quadratic forms, and Dirichlet’s Theorem\\u000a on primes in arithmetic progressions.\\u000a \\u000a Section 1 outlines how the three topics of the chapter occurred in natural sequence and marked a transition as the subject\\u000a of number theory developed a coherence and moved toward the kind of algebraic number theory that is

Anthony Knapp

158

Hypergraph Ramsey numbers David Conlon  

E-print Network

Hypergraph Ramsey numbers David Conlon Jacob Fox Benny Sudakov Abstract The Ramsey number rk(s, n) is the minimum N such that every red-blue coloring of the k-tuples of an N-element set contains a red set of size s or a blue set of size n, where a set is called red (blue) if all k-tuples from this set are red (blue

Fox, Jacob

159

Entropy estimation and Fibonacci numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a new metric on a space of right-sided infinite sequences drawn from a finite alphabet. Emerging from a problem of entropy estimation of a discrete stationary ergodic process, the metric is important on its own part and exhibits some interesting properties. Notably, the number of distinct metric values for a set of sequences of length m is equal to Fm+3 - 1, where Fm is a Fibonacci number.

Timofeev, Evgeniy A.; Kaltchenko, Alexei

2013-05-01

160

Number Sense Games and Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will select online games related to number sense and play them individually or with a partner Odd or Even Can you tell the difference between odd or even? Choose one of these games for some practice! Don\\'t be afraid. The ghosts in this game only haunt those who don\\'t know odd or even numbers. Surely that\\'s not YOU! Even Ghostblasters Odd Ghostblasters Odd/Even Building Game Counting Patterns I know you can count ...

Barker, Mrs.

2005-10-18

161

Negative Numbers and Antimatter Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dirac's equation states that an electron implies the existence of an antielectron with the same mass (more generally same arithmetic properties) and opposite charge (more generally opposite algebraic properties). Subsequent observation of antielectron validated this concept. This statement can be extended to all matter particles; observation of antiproton, antineutron, antideuton … is in complete agreement with this view. Recently antihypertriton was observed and 38 atoms of antihydrogen were trapped. This opens the path for use in precise testing of nature's fundamental symmetries. The symmetric properties of a matter particle and its mirror antimatter particle seem to be well established. Interactions operate on matter particles and antimatter particles as well. Conservation of matter parallels addition operating on positive and negative numbers. Without antimatter particles, interactions of the Standard Model (electromagnetism, strong interaction and weak interaction) cannot have the structure of group. Antimatter particles are characterized by negative baryonic number A or/and negative leptonic number L. Materialization and annihilation obey conservation of A and L (associated to all known interactions), explaining why from pure energy (A = 0, L = 0) one can only obtain a pair of matter particle antimatter particle — electron antielectron, proton and antiproton — via materialization where the mass of a pair of particle antiparticle gives back to pure energy with annihilation. These two mechanisms cannot change the difference in the number of matter particles and antimatter particles. Thus from pure energy only a perfectly symmetric (in number) universe could be generated as proposed by Dirac but observation showed that our universe is not symmetric, it is a matter universe which is nevertheless neutral. Fall of reflection symmetries shattered the prejudice that there is no way to define in an absolute way right and left or matter and antimatter. Experimental observation of CP violation aroused a great hope for explaining why our universe is not exactly matter antimatter symmetric. Sakharov stated that without the violation of baryonic number, it is not possible to obtain from pure energy a universe made of only matter. The fact that our universe is asymmetric (in number) but perfectly neutral, points toward the existence of a hypothetic interaction violating A and L but conserving all charges. This Matter Creation (MC) interaction creating either a pair of matter particles or antimatter particles (instead of a pair of particle antiparticle) would have a charge BAL = (A-L) and a neutral messenger Z*. Even if CP is conserved, MC would allow the creation of a number of matter particles not exactly equal to the number of antimatter particles. Our universe would then correspond to the remaining excess when all matter antimatter pairs have disappeared. Observation of matter nonconservation processes would be of great interest to falsify this speculation. In a plan with A and L as axes, pure energy is represented by the origin (A = 0, L = 0). A symmetric universe is also represented by (A = 0, L = 0) meaning that there are exactly the same number of baryons and antibaryons, and the same number of leptons and antileptons. Our present matter universe is instead represented by a point of the diagonal with A = L = present A value. This value is tiny relative to the number of gammas resulting from the annihilation of matter-antimatter particles.

Tsan, Ung Chan

162

Experimental Determination of Ramsey Numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ramsey theory is a highly active research area in mathematics that studies the emergence of order in large disordered structures. Ramsey numbers mark the threshold at which order first appears and are extremely difficult to calculate due to their explosive rate of growth. Recently, an algorithm that can be implemented using adiabatic quantum evolution has been proposed that calculates the two-color Ramsey numbers R(m,n). Here we present results of an experimental implementation of this algorithm and show that it correctly determines the Ramsey numbers R(3,3) and R(m,2) for 4?m?8. The R(8,2) computation used 84 qubits of which 28 were computational qubits. This computation is the largest experimental implementation of a scientifically meaningful adiabatic evolution algorithm that has been done to date.

Bian, Zhengbing; Chudak, Fabian; Macready, William G.; Clark, Lane; Gaitan, Frank

2013-09-01

163

Lorentz invariant photon number density  

E-print Network

A Lorentz invariant positive definite expression for photon number density is derived as the absolute square of the invariant scalar product of a polarization sensitive position eigenvector and the photon wave function. It is found that this scalar product is independent of the form chosen for the wave function and that the normalized positive frequency vector potential-electric field pair is a convenient choice of wave function in the presence of matter. The number amplitude describing a localized state is a delta-function at the instant at which localization and detection are seen as simultaneous.

Margaret Hawton

2008-04-23

164

Count the Dots: Binary Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Data in computers is stored and transmitted as a series of zeros and ones. Learners explore how to represent numbers using just these two symbols, through a binary system of cards. When the card's dots are showing, its value is 1 and the dots are counted. When the card's dots are not showing, its value is 0 and the dots are not counted. Learners model binary counting to discover patterns and represent numbers. This activity includes three worksheet activities (1 introductory and 2 extensions) for learners to complete and background information for the instructor.

Technology, National C.

2012-12-13

165

Learning math: Number and operations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online workshop for elementary and middle school teachers covers the real number system, place value, the behavior of zero and infinity, the meanings and models of basic operations, percentages, and modeling operations with fractions, often with the aid of concrete, physical models that enhance understanding. It also examines basic number theory topics, such as factors and multiples, as well as divisibility tests. Each of its ten sessions contains video programming, problem-solving activities provided online and in a print guide, and interactive activities and demonstrations on the Web.

Findell, Carol R.

2007-12-12

166

Biotechnology at low Reynolds numbers.  

PubMed Central

The shrinking of liquid handling systems to the micron and submicron size range entails moving into the area of small Reynolds numbers. The fluid dynamics in this regime are very different from the macroscale. We present an intuitive explanation of how the different physics of small Reynolds numbers flow, along with microscopic sizes, can influence device design, and give examples from our own work using fluid flow in microfabricated devices designed for biological processing. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 PMID:8968612

Brody, J P; Yager, P; Goldstein, R E; Austin, R H

1996-01-01

167

Algorithmic Number Theory MSRI Publications  

E-print Network

implemented and fine tuned. Using either of them it is now possible to routinely prove the primality efficient, but is only capable of proving that a given number is either composite or `very probably' prime a composite integer n > 1, this algorithm proves with high probability very quickly that n is not prime

Schoof, René

168

these numbers located on the  

E-print Network

at Giant Eagle. Clear Green Brown Blue Steel Tin Aluminum Please rinse before recycling. Batteries - UCLook for these numbers located on the bottom or sides of the container Plastic bags can be recycled info desk, Mellon 3rd floor, or sent by campus mail to FMS recycling CDs - UC recycling center or sent

McGaughey, Alan

169

Down to Earth: Binary Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use the binary number system to transmit messages. Two flashlights are used to demonstrate how astronomy spacecraft to transmit images and other scientific data to Earth. This activity is part of Unit 4 in the Space Based Astronomy guide that contains background information, worksheets, assessments, extensions, and standards.

170

Materiales. Numbers 17-20.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four booklets present articles on Spanish language and culture aimed at teachers of Spanish in the United States for student use in their classes. Number 17, "Los Jovenes Espanoles" (Spanish Youth), includes articles on Spanish youth sports, music, gangs, thoughts, and t-shirt slogans: (1) "Young Spanish Athletes"; (2) "Youth Music"; (3) "Urban…

Materiales, 1995

1995-01-01

171

Residual number processing in dyscalculia?  

PubMed Central

Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia. PMID:24266008

Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J.

2013-01-01

172

Ten Is the Magic Number!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How this teacher develops composition of ten with second graders was dramatically reshaped by the 2006 release of NCTM's "Curriculum Focal Points." The release of "Curriculum Focal Points"--particularly the suggestion that number sense and computation be focal areas in the second-grade mathematics curriculum--resulted in positive changes in this…

Barker, Lindsay

2009-01-01

173

Student Medical Certificate STUDENT NUMBER: ______________________  

E-print Network

Student Medical Certificate STUDENT NUMBER: ______________________ I. TO BE COMPLETED BY STUDENT: I Date II. TO BE COMPLETED BY PHYSICIAN/NURSE PRACTITIONER When completing this form, please keep in mind that the student "was seen for medical reasons" or "was ill."] : [Note to Physician/Nurse Practitioner: I hereby

Lennard, William N.

174

Questioning Zero and Negative Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After experiencing a Developing Mathematical Ideas (DMI) class on the construction of algebraic concepts surrounding zero and negative numbers, the author conducted an interview with a first grader to determine the youngster's existing level of understanding about these topics. Uncovering young students' existing understanding can provide focus…

Wilcox, Virginia B.

2008-01-01

175

Mitosis and Meiosis Chromosome number  

E-print Network

Lecture 5 Mitosis and Meiosis #12;Chromosome number Early improvements in our ability to look look at normal chromosomes as they go through mitosis and meiosis #12; Mitosis The biologic function is to produce 2 identical cells Mitotic cell cycle #12;#12;Mitosis #12;Difference between a cell entering

Dellaire, Graham

176

Not Just a Number Anymore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the Essex, Cincinnati retirement center where they both worked as nurses, Holly Doherty and Michele Schavoir often heard aides complain about one longtime resident in particular. The patient kicks and screams and nurses can not stand to be around her. After a year of playing detective, Doherty found a number of the patient's relatives in…

Henderson, Nancy

2008-01-01

177

Registered charity number: 207890 Creditonlyifrequired  

E-print Network

required to bring a drug to market is spent on pre-clinical screening and testing.4 The high rate of late-stageRegistered charity number: 207890 Creditonlyifrequired Featuring work from the Disease Biophysics as a clinically and physiologically relevant means of modeling health and disease. Bringing the patient from

Parker, Kevin Kit

178

Gummy vs. Gum (Number Pattern)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"In this lesson, students use gummy bears and sticks of gum to discover a number pattern and write an equation that describes it. This lesson should be conducted after students have worked with patterns and one- and two-step equations." from the Beacon Learning Center.

Center, Beacon L.

2009-10-13

179

Time to Make the Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to inspire her students to work in mixed media, the author chose to highlight the art of Jasper Johns and Robert Indiana, both of whom used numbers and letters as a main focus in their art. In this article, the author describes a mixed-media printmaking project. (Contains 2 online resources.)

Surrena, Michelle

2011-01-01

180

Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers  

MedlinePLUS

... numbers I need to know? Yes, you need tests of your blood pressure and cholesterol (a blood fat). You and your ... team: ? Look at his A1C, blood sugar self-test record, cholesterol, and blood pressure results. ? Check to see if he is reaching ...

181

EMERGENCY PHONE NUMBERS Medical Emergency  

E-print Network

EMERGENCY PHONE NUMBERS Medical Emergency 911 Harvard University Police Department (617) 495. Describe the type of emergency (fire, medical, utility disruption, public safety, etc). Give the phone can be utilized in all situations. Report emergencies to: Medical Emergency 911 · Injury · Illness

Chou, James

182

The elephant brain in numbers.  

PubMed

What explains the superior cognitive abilities of the human brain compared to other, larger brains? Here we investigate the possibility that the human brain has a larger number of neurons than even larger brains by determining the cellular composition of the brain of the African elephant. We find that the African elephant brain, which is about three times larger than the human brain, contains 257 billion (10(9)) neurons, three times more than the average human brain; however, 97.5% of the neurons in the elephant brain (251 billion) are found in the cerebellum. This makes the elephant an outlier in regard to the number of cerebellar neurons compared to other mammals, which might be related to sensorimotor specializations. In contrast, the elephant cerebral cortex, which has twice the mass of the human cerebral cortex, holds only 5.6 billion neurons, about one third of the number of neurons found in the human cerebral cortex. This finding supports the hypothesis that the larger absolute number of neurons in the human cerebral cortex (but not in the whole brain) is correlated with the superior cognitive abilities of humans compared to elephants and other large-brained mammals. PMID:24971054

Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Avelino-de-Souza, Kamilla; Neves, Kleber; Porfírio, Jairo; Messeder, Débora; Mattos Feijó, Larissa; Maldonado, José; Manger, Paul R

2014-01-01

183

Solar System Number-Crunching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines terrestrial and Jovian planets and provides directions to obtain planetary data from the National Space Science Data Center Web sites. Provides "number-crunching" activities for the terrestrial planets using Texas Instruments TI-83 graphing calculators: computing volumetric mean radius and volume, density, ellipticity, speed, surface…

Albrecht, Bob; Firedrake, George

1997-01-01

184

The elephant brain in numbers  

PubMed Central

What explains the superior cognitive abilities of the human brain compared to other, larger brains? Here we investigate the possibility that the human brain has a larger number of neurons than even larger brains by determining the cellular composition of the brain of the African elephant. We find that the African elephant brain, which is about three times larger than the human brain, contains 257 billion (109) neurons, three times more than the average human brain; however, 97.5% of the neurons in the elephant brain (251 billion) are found in the cerebellum. This makes the elephant an outlier in regard to the number of cerebellar neurons compared to other mammals, which might be related to sensorimotor specializations. In contrast, the elephant cerebral cortex, which has twice the mass of the human cerebral cortex, holds only 5.6 billion neurons, about one third of the number of neurons found in the human cerebral cortex. This finding supports the hypothesis that the larger absolute number of neurons in the human cerebral cortex (but not in the whole brain) is correlated with the superior cognitive abilities of humans compared to elephants and other large-brained mammals. PMID:24971054

Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Avelino-de-Souza, Kamilla; Neves, Kleber; Porfirio, Jairo; Messeder, Debora; Mattos Feijo, Larissa; Maldonado, Jose; Manger, Paul R.

2014-01-01

185

Computational Methods for Ramsey Numbers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Ramsey number R(k,l) is the least integer in such that all graphs on n or more vertices contain a clique of k vertices or an independent set of 1 vertices as an induced subgraph. In this work we investigate computational methods for finding lower boun...

H. Haanpaeae

2000-01-01

186

Statistical Treatment of Nominal Numbers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An attempt is made to find an answer to Lord's parable of the football numbers by demonstrating that he ignored the well known principle that a measurement operation should be consistent over allowable transformations of scale. An example is given to demo...

D. R. Harris

1971-01-01

187

Human copy number polymorphic genes  

PubMed Central

Recent large-scale genomic studies within human populations have identified numerous genomic regions as copy number variant (CNV). As these CNV regions often overlap coding regions of the genome, large lists of potentially copy number polymorphic genes have been produced that are candidates for disease association. Most of the current data regarding normal genic variation, however, has been generated using BAC or SNP microarrays, which lack precision especially with respect to exons. To address this, we assessed 2,790 candidate CNV genes defined from available studies in nine well-characterized HapMap individuals by designing a customized oligonucleotide microarray targeted specifically to exons. Using exon array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), we detected 255 (9%) of the candidates as true CNVs including 134 with evidence of variation over the entire gene. Individuals differed in copy number from the control by an average of 100 gene loci. Both partial- and whole-gene CNVs were strongly associated with segmental duplications (55 and 71%, respectively) as well as regions of positive selection. We confirmed 37% of the whole-gene CNVs using the fosmid end sequence pair (ESP) structural variation map for these same individuals. If we modify the end sequence pair mapping strategy to include low-sequence identity ESPs (98–99.5%) and ESPs with an everted orientation, we can capture 82% of the missed genes leading to more complete ascertainment of structural variation within duplicated genes. Our results indicate that segmental duplications are the source of the majority of full-length copy number polymorphic genes, most of the variant genes are organized as tandem duplications, and a significant fraction of these genes will represent paralogs with levels of sequence diversity beyond thresholds of allelic variation. In addition, these data provide a targeted set of CNV genes enriched for regions likely to be associated with human phenotypic differences due to copy number changes and present a source of copy number responsive oligonucleotide probes for future association studies. PMID:19287160

Bailey, J.A.; Kidd, J.M.; Eichler, E.E.

2009-01-01

188

Women in Politics: Beyond Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA), Women in Politics: Beyond Numbers is an initiative devoted to researching, evaluating, and promoting the role and impact of women in the advancement of sustainable democracy and electoral processes worldwide. This Website functions as an international resource providing information about IDEA's research projects and publications related to women's political involvement. The site features an extensive report, "Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers," that examines such issues as obstacles to women's political participation and the impact of women in international politics, as well as compares the involvement of women within various electoral systems. The site also includes links to relevant resources and maintains several interactive forums for discussing IDEA's projects to enhance women's political participation.

189

Cosmic Rays and Sunspot Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students analyze and compare two or more graphs to determine if there is a correlation between sunspot number and the variation of cosmic ray flux. They discover that cosmic rays are very energetic particles, mostly protons and electrons, that enter the solar system from the depths of interstellar space and that although the Earth's magnetic field partially shields us from these particles, so too does the much more extended solar wind with its own magnetic field. This is a three-part lesson in which students will construct line graphs displaying the cosmic ray flux and sunspot numbers for a period of time, and then determine if there is a correlation. In order to compare these two sets of data, students will need to scale the data in order to visualize the results. Teacher and student notes for the graphing calculator are included.

Higley, Susan

190

Large Number Discrimination by Mosquitofish  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies have demonstrated that fish display rudimentary numerical abilities similar to those observed in mammals and birds. The mechanisms underlying the discrimination of small quantities (<4) were recently investigated while, to date, no study has examined the discrimination of large numerosities in fish. Methodology/Principal Findings Subjects were trained to discriminate between two sets of small geometric figures using social reinforcement. In the first experiment mosquitofish were required to discriminate 4 from 8 objects with or without experimental control of the continuous variables that co-vary with number (area, space, density, total luminance). Results showed that fish can use the sole numerical information to compare quantities but that they preferentially use cumulative surface area as a proxy of the number when this information is available. A second experiment investigated the influence of the total number of elements to discriminate large quantities. Fish proved to be able to discriminate up to 100 vs. 200 objects, without showing any significant decrease in accuracy compared with the 4 vs. 8 discrimination. The third experiment investigated the influence of the ratio between the numerosities. Performance was found to decrease when decreasing the numerical distance. Fish were able to discriminate numbers when ratios were 1?2 or 2?3 but not when the ratio was 3?4. The performance of a sample of undergraduate students, tested non-verbally using the same sets of stimuli, largely overlapped that of fish. Conclusions/Significance Fish are able to use pure numerical information when discriminating between quantities larger than 4 units. As observed in human and non-human primates, the numerical system of fish appears to have virtually no upper limit while the numerical ratio has a clear effect on performance. These similarities further reinforce the view of a common origin of non-verbal numerical systems in all vertebrates. PMID:21203508

Agrillo, Christian; Piffer, Laura; Bisazza, Angelo

2010-01-01

191

RANDOM MATRICES AND NUMBER THEORY  

Microsoft Academic Search

My purpose in these lecture notes is to review and explain some recent results concerning connections between random matrix\\u000a theory and number theory. Specifically, I will focus on how random matrix theory has been used to shed new light on some classical\\u000a problems relating to the value distributions of the Riemann zeta-function and other L-functions, and on applications to modular

J. P. Keating

192

Optical Quantum Random Number Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A physical random number generator based on the intrinsic randomness of\\u000aquantum mechanics is described. The random events are realized by the choice of\\u000asingle photons between the two outputs of a beamsplitter. We present a simple\\u000adevice, which minimizes the impact of the photon counters' noise, dead-time and\\u000aafter pulses.

Nicolas Gisin; Olivier Guinnard; Laurent Guinnard; Hugo Zbinden

1999-01-01

193

Diophantine approximations with Fibonacci numbers  

E-print Network

Let $F_{n}$ be the $n$-th Fibonacci number. Put $\\varphi=\\frac{1+\\sqrt5}{2}$. We prove that the following inequalities hold for any real $\\alpha$: 1) $\\inf_{n \\in \\mathbb N} ||F_n\\alpha||\\le\\frac{\\varphi-1}{\\varphi+2}$, 2) $\\liminf_{n\\to \\infty}||F_n\\alpha||\\le 1/5$, 3) $\\liminf_{n \\to \\infty}||\\varphi^n \\alpha||\\le 1/5$. These results are the best possible.

Zhuravleva, Victoria

2011-01-01

194

"JUST THE MATHS" UNIT NUMBER  

E-print Network

"JUST THE MATHS" UNIT NUMBER 13.2 INTEGRATION APPLICATIONS 2 (Mean values) & (Root mean square values) by A.J.Hobson 13.2.1 Mean values 13.2.2 Root mean square values 13.2.3 Exercises 13.2.4 Answers to exercises #12;UNIT 13.2 - INTEGRATION APPLICATIONS 2 MEAN AND ROOT MEAN SQUARE VALUES 13.2.1 MEAN VALUES - 6

Davies, Christopher

195

Use of Number by Fish  

PubMed Central

Background Research on human infants, mammals, birds and fish has demonstrated that rudimentary numerical abilities pre-date the evolution of human language. Yet there is controversy as to whether animals represent numbers mentally or rather base their judgments on non-numerical perceptual variables that co-vary with numerosity. To date, mental representation of number has been convincingly documented only for a few mammals. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we used a training procedure to investigate whether mosquitofish could learn to discriminate between two and three objects even when denied access to non-numerical information. In the first experiment, fish were trained to discriminate between two sets of geometric figures. These varied in shape, size, brightness and distance, but no control for non-numerical variables was made. Subjects were then re-tested while controlling for one non-numerical variable at a time. Total luminance of the stimuli and the sum of perimeter of figures appeared irrelevant, but performance dropped to chance level when stimuli were matched for the cumulative surface area or for the overall space occupied by the arrays, indicating that these latter cues had been spontaneously used by the fish during the learning process. In a second experiment, where the task consisted of discriminating 2 vs 3 elements with all non-numerical variables simultaneously controlled for, all subjects proved able to learn the discrimination, and interestingly they did not make more errors than the fish in Experiment 1 that could access non-numerical information in order to accomplish the task. Conclusions/Significance Mosquitofish can learn to discriminate small quantities, even when non-numerical indicators of quantity are unavailable, hence providing the first evidence that fish, like primates, can use numbers. As in humans and non-human primates, genuine counting appears to be a ‘last resort’ strategy in fish, when no other perceptual mechanism may suggest the quantity of the elements. However, our data suggest that, at least in fish, the priority of perceptual over numerical information is not related to a greater cognitive load imposed by direct numerical computation. PMID:19274079

Agrillo, Christian; Dadda, Marco; Serena, Giovanna; Bisazza, Angelo

2009-01-01

196

Life at high Deborah number  

E-print Network

In many biological systems, microorganisms swim through complex polymeric fluids, and usually deform the medium at a rate faster than the inverse fluid relaxation time. We address the basic properties of such life at high Deborah number analytically by considering the small-amplitude swimming of a body in an arbitrary complex fluid. Using asymptotic analysis and differential geometry, we show that for a given swimming gait, the time-averaged leading-order swimming kinematics of the body can be expressed as an integral equation on the solution to a series of simpler Newtonian problems. We then use our results to demonstrate that Purcell's scallop theorem, which states that time-reversible body motion cannot be used for locomotion in a Newtonian fluid, breaks down in polymeric fluid environments.

Eric Lauga

2009-04-28

197

The Numbers Game: A Values Clarification Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After completing personal identification forms consisting only of numbers (phone number, Social Security number, etc.), students discuss the need for more personal means of identification within society in order for people to feel a useful sense of identity. (AV)

Ognibene, Richard; Winter, Cynthia

1976-01-01

198

REGULAR ARTICLE Reproductive Numbers for Nonautonomous Spatially  

E-print Network

REGULAR ARTICLE Reproductive Numbers for Nonautonomous Spatially Distributed Periodic SIS Models, aggregated, system. We derive global reproduction numbers governing the general spatially distributed and the frequency dependent transmission law are considered. Comparing these global reproductive numbers

Bravo de la Parra, Rafael

199

46 CFR 169.515 - Number required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Number required. 169.515 Section...Lifesaving Equipment § 169.515 Number required. (a) Except...the persons on board or the number of persons accommodated in the largest lifeboat or liferaft,...

2010-10-01

200

Links to Information on Number Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Site provides links to Web sites covering topics about different numbering systems. The site includes links to Arabic, Chinese, Mayan, Roman, Greek, Egyptian, and Babylonian numbering system resources.

Forum, Math; Alejandre, Suzanne

2007-12-12

201

Fascinating Fibonaccis: Mystery and Magic in Numbers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents activities and information related to Fibonacci numbers, which are based upon the Golden Ratio, in areas of the arts, sciences, and mathematics. The work is organized into eight chapters: (1) "Origins and Definitions"; (2) "Fibonacci Numbers in Nature"; (3) "Fibonacci Numbers in Art and Architecture"; (4) "Fibonacci Numbers

Garland, Trudi Hammel

202

Pm Numbers, Ambiguity, and Regularity Helen Cameron  

E-print Network

Pm Numbers, Ambiguity, and Regularity Helen Cameron Derick Wood Abstract We introduce the pseudo-m introduce the pseudo-m-ary (Pm) number system and show that the set of greedy representations and the set of representations of unambigu- ous numbers in the Pm number system are regular sets. For any fixed integer m > 1

Waterloo, University of

203

Some Remarks on Numbers and their Cognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humans perceive numbers (positive integers) through counting, i.e., by establishing a correspondence between the cardinality of a set of objects and a structured set of number symbols or number names. The structure requires the choice of a base -- `succession' structure alone is not enough. The point is made that for numbers below the base, cognition involves the learning and recalling of this association, fixed once and for all, while for larger numbers it results from learning the rules of construction of based numbers. Experiments on number cognition which do not take into account this essential distinction are likely to remain inconclusive.

Divakaran, P. P.

2014-07-01

204

On q-deformed Stirling numbers  

E-print Network

The purpose of this article is to introduce q-deformed Stirling numbers of the first and second kinds. Relations between these numbers, Riemann zeta function and q-Bernoulli numbers of higher order are given. Some relations related to the classical Stirling numbers and Bernoulli numbers of higher order are found. By using derivative operator to the generating function of the q-deformed Stirling numbers of the second kinds, a new function is defined which interpolates the q-deformed Stirling numbers of the second kinds at negative integers. The recurrence relations of the Stirling numbers of the first and second kind are given. In addition, relation between q-deformed Stirling numbers and q-Bell numbers is obtained.

Yilmaz Simsek

2007-11-03

205

Additive number systems: Egyptian (Session 2)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this session you will learn about the Egyptian number system. Learn About the Egyptian number system What do you notice about the Egyptian number system?Go here to learn In depth information about the Egyptian number system How does the number system represent the Egyptian culture? Additional questions: 1.What is the base? 2.Why was that base chosen? 3.How easy is the system to learn and to write? 4.Is there any ambiguity in ...

Nunes-Bufford, Mrs.

2008-12-01

206

h-analogue of Fibonacci Numbers  

E-print Network

In this paper, we introduce the h-analogue of Fibonacci numbers for non-commutative h-plane. For h h'= 1 and h = 0, these are just the usual Fibonacci numbers as it should be. We also derive a collection of identities for these numbers. Furthermore, h-Binet's formula for the h-Fibonacci numbers is found and the generating function that generates these numbers is obtained.

H. B. Benaoum

2009-09-30

207

Grant Title: SOCIOLOGY Funding Opportunity Number: PD-98-1331. CFDA Number(s): 47.075.  

E-print Network

Grant Title: SOCIOLOGY Funding Opportunity Number: PD-98-1331. CFDA Number(s): 47.075. Agency Applicants: Unrestricted. Summary: The Sociology Program supports research on human social organization, socialization, gender roles, and the sociology of science and technology. In assessing the intrinsic merit

Farritor, Shane

208

Appendix 36 Number of KEFs by Biome  

E-print Network

Appendix 36 Number of KEFs by Biome Table 1. The number of Key Ecological Functions performed by the biomes pertinent to Sub basin planning Select Key Ecological Functions Eastside (Interior) Grasslands

209

48 CFR 304.7001 - Numbering acquisitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Officer shall also assign the letter contract number to the superseding definitized contract.) (2) Basic ordering agreements (BOAs) and BPAs. (3) Requests for proposals and invitations for bids. (4) Requests for quotations. (b) Numbering...

2010-10-01

210

48 CFR 304.7001 - Numbering acquisitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Officer shall also assign the letter contract number to the superseding definitized contract.) (2) Basic ordering agreements (BOAs) and BPAs. (3) Requests for proposals and invitations for bids. (4) Requests for quotations. (b) Numbering...

2011-10-01

211

49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Boiler number. 230.47 Section 230.47...LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The...

2012-10-01

212

49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Boiler number. 230.47 Section 230.47...LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The...

2011-10-01

213

49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Boiler number. 230.47 Section 230.47...LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The...

2013-10-01

214

49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boiler number. 230.47 Section 230.47...LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The...

2010-10-01

215

A determinant of generalized Fibonacci numbers  

E-print Network

We evaluate a determinant of generalized Fibonacci numbers, thus providing a common generalization of several determinant evaluation results that have previously appeared in the literature, all of them extending Cassini's identity for Fibonacci numbers.

Krattenthaler, Christian

2012-01-01

216

Number Theory in the High School Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates some of the usefulness of number theory to students on the high school setting in four areas: Fibonacci numbers, Diophantine equations, continued fractions, and algorithms for computing pi. (ASK)

Dence, Thomas

1999-01-01

217

Negative numbers are generated in the mind.  

PubMed

The goal of the present study was to disentangle two possible representations of negative numbers--the holistic representation, where absolute magnitude is integrated with polarity; and the components representation, where absolute magnitude is stored separately from polarity. Participants' performance was examined in two tasks involving numbers from--100 to 100. In the numerical comparison task, participants had to decide which number of a pair was numerically larger/smaller. In the number line task, participants were presented with a spatial number line on which they had to place a number. The results of both tasks support the components representation of negative numbers. The findings suggest that processing of negative numbers does not involve retrieval of their meaning from memory, but rather the integration of the polarity sign with the digits' magnitudes. PMID:18549162

Ganor-Stern, Dana; Tzelgov, Joseph

2008-01-01

218

46 CFR Sec. 2 - Voyage numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...with voyage No. 1 having the prefixed designation NSA and followed by the General Agents' abbreviated designation and voyage number, as NSA-1/ABC-1. (b) The continuity of NSA voyage numbers shall not change with berth...

2013-10-01

219

Positional number system (Babylonian) Session 5  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this session you will learn about the positional number system (Babylonian) Read Babylonian number system information. Read Babylonian Numerals. 1.What is the base? 2. Why was that base chosen? 3.How easy is the system to learn and to write? 4.Is there any ambiguity in the interpretation of symbols? 5.Does the culture use spoken numbers, body counting, or counting devices? Explain for each. 6.What patterns exist in the number systems? 7.How do ...

Nunes-Bufford, Mrs.

2008-12-01

220

Averaged coordination numbers of planar aperiodic tilings  

E-print Network

We consider averaged shelling and coordination numbers of aperiodic tilings. Shelling numbers count the vertices on radial shells around a vertex. Coordination numbers, in turn, count the vertices on coordination shells of a vertex, defined via the graph distance given by the tiling. For the Ammann-Beenker tiling, we find that coordination shells consist of complete shelling orbits, which enables us to calculate averaged coordination numbers for rather large distances explicitly. The relation to topological invariants of tilings is briefly discussed.

Michael Baake; Uwe Grimm

2005-09-18

221

Pearl Diver: A number line math game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Java application students must identify several points on a number line. The number line positions may include integers, fractional values, decimal values, and whole numbers. In the more advanced levels the number line does not begin with a 0 in all cases. Between levels students are asked to cut the eel into fractional parts and given points for their accuracy. This game is also available as an iOS app for a fee.

Lab, Nm S.

2013-01-01

222

On Anti-Elite Prime Numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An odd prime number p is called anti-elite if only finitely many Fermat numbers are quadratic non-residues to p. This concept is the exact opposite to that of elite prime numbers. We study some fundamental properties of anti-elites and show that there are infinitely many of them. A computational search among all the numbers up to 100 billion yielded 84 anti-elite primes.

M"Uller, Tom

2007-09-01

223

Developing Young Children's Multidigit Number Sense.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a series of enrichment experiences designed to develop young (ages 5 to 8) gifted children's understanding of large numbers, central to their investigation of space travel. It describes activities designed to teach reading of large numbers and exploring numbers to a thousand and then a million. (Contains ten references.) (DB)

Diezmann, Carmel M.; English, Lyn D.

2001-01-01

224

Time series analysis for bug number prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring and predicting the increasing or decreasing trend of bug number in a software system is of great importance to both software project managers and software end-users. For software managers, accurate prediction of bug number of a software system will assist them in making timely decisions, such as effort investment and resource allocation. For software end-users, knowing possible bug number

Wenjin Wu; Wen Zhang; Ye Yang; Qing Wang

2010-01-01

225

Number-Theoretic Functions via Convolution Rings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates the number theory property that the number of divisors of an integer n times the number of positive integers k, less than or equal to and relatively prime to n, equals the sum of the divisors of n using theory developed about multiplicative functions, the units of a convolution ring, and the Mobius Function. (MDH)

Berberian, S. K.

1992-01-01

226

Inhomogeneous quadratic forms and triangular numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prove an explicit formula for the number of representations of an integer as the sum of n triangular numbers for each n in the range 2 ? n ? 8 as special cases of a more general formula applicable to an inhomogeneous quadratic form over a totally real number field. The formula can be derived by calculating explicitly the

Goro Shimura

2004-01-01

227

Calculating Mach Numbers Using Ratios and Fractions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A mach number represents how many times the speed of sound a vehicle is traveling. NASA uses mach numbers to describe the speed of their planes. This video shows you how algebra can be used to determine the mach number of a NASA plane.

2004-01-01

228

Insights into Our Understandings of Large Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores prospective teachers' understandings of one million to gain insights into the development of adult understanding of large numbers. Themes in the prospective teachers' work included number associated with a quantity of objects, number as an abstraction, and additive and multiplicative approaches. The authors suggest that the…

Kastberg, Signe E.; Walker, Vicki

2008-01-01

229

Teach Kids about Numbers All around Us  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing the role numbers play in people's everyday lives is crucial to students' math understanding now and down the road. That's why Bob Krech, a curriculum specialist in New Jersey's West Windsor-Plainsboro district, likes to teach a lesson he calls "Numbers All Around Us." This lesson uses real-world examples to show that numbers help…

Hudson, Hannah Trierweiler

2011-01-01

230

Generating random numbers in parallel Mark Hoemmen  

E-print Network

the random numbers in parallel too. We won't make you implement all of this yourself in HW 1, but we do think to parallelize random number generation yourself some time. We'll begin by explaining what we mean by "random random numbers in some of your parallel applications in the future, and you may very well have

California at Berkeley, University of

231

Number Pieces, by the Math Learning Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This free iOS app uses virtual base-10 blocks to help students develop their understanding of place value and computation strategies with multi-digit numbers. Students use the number pieces to represent multi-digit numbers, regroup, add, subtract, multiply, and divide.

2013-11-23

232

Chromosome numbers in Indian medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The paper deals with the chromosome numbers in some of the Indian medicinal plants. Of the twenty plants studied, the chromosome\\u000a numbers of nine plants are reported for the first time. Five plants had numbers different from previous observations.

R. Sundara Raghavan

1957-01-01

233

A note on Quarks and numbers theory  

E-print Network

We express the basis vectors of Cartan fundamental representations of unitary groups by binary numbers. We determine the expression of Gel'fand basis of SU (3) based on the usual subatomic quarks notations and we represent it by binary numbers. By analogy with the mesons and quarks we find a new property of prime numbers.

Mehdi Hage-Hassan

2013-02-26

234

The total bondage number of grid graphs  

E-print Network

The total domination number of a graph $G$ without isolated vertices is the minimum number of vertices that dominate all vertices in $G$. The total bondage number $b_t(G)$ of $G$ is the minimum number of edges whose removal enlarges the total domination number. This paper considers grid graphs. An $(n,m)$-grid graph $G_{n,m}$ is defined as the cartesian product of two paths $P_n$ and $P_m$. This paper determines the exact values of $b_t(G_{n,2})$ and $b_t(G_{n,3})$, and establishes some upper bounds of $b_t(G_{n,4})$.

Hu, Fu-Tao; Xu, Jun-Ming

2011-01-01

235

Levels of Number 1 Running head: LEVELS OF NUMBER KNOWLEDGE IN EARLY CHILDHOOD  

E-print Network

Levels of Number 1 Running head: LEVELS OF NUMBER KNOWLEDGE IN EARLY CHILDHOOD Levels of Number Knowledge in Early Childhood Barbara W. Sarnecka and Michael D. Lee University of California, Irvine Author of Number 3 Levels of Number Knowledge in Early Childhood Children learn to count (i.e., to recite

Stanford, Kyle

236

The Bondage Number of Graphs with Crossing Number Less than Four  

E-print Network

The Bondage Number of Graphs with Crossing Number Less than Four Yong-Chang Cao Jia Huang Jun, China Abstract The bondage number b(G) of a graph G is the smallest number of edges whose removal [Bondage number of planar graphs. Discrete Math. 222 (2000), 191- 198] proved b(G) min{8, + 2} for every

Xu, Jun-Ming

237

Using Call Numbers to Find Books 8/23/2012 Using Call Numbers to Find Books  

E-print Network

with a Library of Congress call number: Comparative Children's Literature. 6. The book is located on the 7thUsing Call Numbers to Find Books 8/23/2012 Using Call Numbers to Find Books 1. Using Call Numbers to Find Books 2. A call number is like a book's address. It tells you where the book is located

Su, Xiao

238

Transient natural convection heat and mass transfer in crystal growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerical analysis of transient combined heat and mass transfer across a rectangular cavity is performed by a numerical method based on the SIMPLE algorithm. The physical parameters are selected to represent a range of possible crystal growth in solutions. Numerical results are compared with available experimental data to confirm the accuracy of the results. Good qualitative agreements are obtained for the average mass transfer rate across the cavity. Also, qualitative agreements are observed for the global development of thermal and solute fields. It is found that the thermal and solute fields become highly oscillatory when the thermal and solute Grashof numbers are large. Oscillations are probably caused by a number of different instability mechanisms. By reducing the gravity some of these instabilities were made to disappear at the lower Grashof numbers. Transient temperature and solute distribution near the crystal growing surface are highly non-uniform at the higher Grashof numbers. These non-uniformities are less severe in the reduced gravity environments but still exist. The effects of convection on the rate of average mass transfer are more than one order of magnitude higher than those of conduction in the range of Grashof numbers studied. Dependency of mass transfer rate on the Grashof number indicates that the convection effects many not be negligible even in the microgravity environments for the range of parameters investigated.

Han, Samuel S.

1988-01-01

239

On the binary expansions of algebraic numbers  

SciTech Connect

Employing concepts from additive number theory, together with results on binary evaluations and partial series, we establish bounds on the density of 1's in the binary expansions of real algebraic numbers. A central result is that if a real y has algebraic degree D > 1, then the number {number_sign}(|y|, N) of 1-bits in the expansion of |y| through bit position N satisfies {number_sign}(|y|, N) > CN{sup 1/D} for a positive number C (depending on y) and sufficiently large N. This in itself establishes the transcendency of a class of reals {summation}{sub n{ge}0} 1/2{sup f(n)} where the integer-valued function f grows sufficiently fast; say, faster than any fixed power of n. By these methods we re-establish the transcendency of the Kempner--Mahler number {summation}{sub n{ge}0}1/2{sup 2{sup n}}, yet we can also handle numbers with a substantially denser occurrence of 1's. Though the number z = {summation}{sub n{ge}0}1/2{sup n{sup 2}} has too high a 1's density for application of our central result, we are able to invoke some rather intricate number-theoretical analysis and extended computations to reveal aspects of the binary structure of z{sup 2}.

Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Crandall, Richard E.; Pomerance, Carl

2003-07-01

240

76 FR 60789 - Local Number Portability Porting Interval and Validation Requirements; Telephone Number Portability  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...requests that involve a large quantity of telephone numbers. Specifically, the Commission...the quantity of telephone numbers they will port within four...requests that involve a large quantity of telephone numbers. The NANC notes that...

2011-09-30

241

Fibonacci Numbers and the Golden Section  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1202, the mathematician Fibonacci investigated the problem of how fast rabbits could breed under ideal circumstances. This problem and many more are detailed at the Fibonacci Numbers and the Golden Section Website, made available by Dr. Ron Knott of the University of Surrey (UK). A new addition to the site is a link to a reference page of over 100 formulas and equations demonstrating the properties of Fibonacci, Phi, and Lucus numbers series. The site's many links are categorized in the following sections: Fibonacci Numbers and Golden sections in Nature; The Intriguing Mathematical World of Fibonacci and Phi; The Puzzling World of Fibonacci Numbers; The Golden String; Fibonacci: the Man and His Times; and More Applications of Fibonacci Numbers and Phi. This site, through its extensive listings of links, contains a plethora of mathematical theories, equations, and proofs based on Fibonacci numbers.

Knott, Ron.

242

Generalized Schroder Numbers and the Rotation Principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given a point-lattice (m+1)times (n+1) subseteq N times N and l in N, we determine the number of royal paths from (0,0) to (m,n) with unit steps (1,0), (0,1) and (1,1), which never go below the line y = l*x, by means of the rotation principle. Compared to the method of "penetrating analysis", this principle has here the advantage of greater clarity and enables us to find meaningful additive decompositions of Schroder numbers. It also enables us to establish a connection to coordination numbers and the crystal ball in the cubic lattice Z^d. As a by-product we derive a recursion for the number of North-East turns of rectangular lattice paths and construct a WZ-pair involving coordination numbers and Delannoy numbers.

Schr"Oder, Joachim

2007-07-01

243

Using the Number Line to Compare  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students determine differences using the number line to compare lengths. Because this model is based on linear measurement, it is a distinctly different representation from the models presented in the previous two lessons. At the end of this lesson, children are encouraged to predict differences and answer puzzles involving subtraction. Students will: use the number line model to find differences by comparing lengths solve and create puzzles using the number line

Illuminations

2012-03-31

244

Quantum numbers and band topology of nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanotubes as well as polymers and quasi-1D subsystems of 3D crystals have line group symmetry. This allows two types of quantum numbers: roto-translational and helical. The roto-translational quantum numbers are linear and total angular (not conserved) momenta, while the helical quantum numbers are helical and complementary angular momenta. Their mutual relations determine some topological properties of energy bands, such as

M. Damnjanovic; I. Milosevic; T. Vukovic; J. Maultzsch

2003-01-01

245

Bohr correspondence principle for large quantum numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periodic systems are considered whose increments in quantum energy grow with quantum number. In the limit of large quantum number, systems are found to give correspondence in form between classical and quantum frequency-energy dependences. Solely passing to large quantum numbers, however, does not guarantee the classical spectrum. For the examples cited, successive quantum frequencies remain separated by the incrementhI\\u000a–1,

Richard L. Liboff

1975-01-01

246

When Symbolic Spatial Cues Go before Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work explores the effect of spatial cueing on number processing. Participants performed a parity judgment task. However, shortly before the target number, a cue (arrow pointing to left, arrow pointing to right or a cross) was centrally presented. In Experiment 1, in which responses were lateralized, the cue direction modulated the interaction…

Herrera, Amparo; Macizo, Pedro

2011-01-01

247

ICS 351: Today's plan port numbers  

E-print Network

#12;TCP Behavior TCP control bits (SYN, FIN, ACK, RST) help maintain TCP connections three, TCP can send one window every RTT (round-trip time) #12;port numbers an IP address identifies an interface, and by extension a machine a port number identifies an application within a machine servers

Biagioni, Edoardo S.

248

Search for lepton-family-number nonconservation  

SciTech Connect

A review of the status of lepton-family-number nonconservation is given. After a brief historical and theoretical discussion, a description of how experimental searches for lepton-family-number nonconservation are performed is presented. Finally, a summary of the results from past experiments and prospects for future experiments is given.

Hoffman, C.M.

1986-01-01

249

Random Number Generation Based on Fingerprints  

E-print Network

Random Number Generation Based on Fingerprints Shkodran Gerguri, V�aclav Maty�as, Zdenek R is to present a possible method for random number generation from repeated mea- surements of fingerprints with a fingerprint scanner. 1 Introduction Biometric systems have become a well-established technology in modern

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

250

Writing about Numbers We Should Know  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This opening assignment for an introductory quantitative reasoning course asks students to write about "Numbers We Should Know." Its goal is to help students begin to think quantitatively, evaluate the sources of quantitative information critically, and write using numbers precisely and thoughtfully.

Lutsky, Neil

251

THREE PARIETAL CIRCUITS FOR NUMBER PROCESSING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Did evolution endow the human brain with a predisposition to represent and acquire knowledge about numbers? Although the parietal lobe has been suggested as a potential substrate for a domain-specific representation of quantities, it is also engaged in verbal, spatial, and attentional functions that may contribute to calculation. To clarify the organisation of number-related processes in the parietal lobe, we

Stanislas Dehaene; Manuela Piazza; Philippe Pinel; Laurent Cohen

2002-01-01

252

THREE PARIETAL CIRCUITS FOR NUMBER PROCESSING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Did evolution endow the human brain with a predisposition to represent and acquire knowledge about numbers? Although the parietal lobe has been suggested as a potential substrate for a domain-specific representation of quantities, it is also engaged in verbal, spatial, and attentional functions that may contribute to calculation. To clarify the organisation of number-related processes in the parietal lobe, we

Stanislas Dehaene; Manuela Piazza; Philippe Pinel; Laurent Cohen

2003-01-01

253

From Whole Numbers to Invert and Multiply  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers report that engaging students in solving contextual problems is an important part of supporting student understanding of algorithms for fraction division. Meaning for whole-number operations is a crucial part of making sense of contextual problems involving rational numbers. The authors present a developed instructional sequence to…

Cavey, Laurie O.; Kinzel, Margaret T.

2014-01-01

254

Fostering Number Sense through Digits and Dice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Games are among the many types of activities that can be used to help promote number sense. Chosen and used wisely, games encourage learning and motivate many students to grasp concepts more quickly and fully. This article describes a popular and easy-to-implement number sense game--called Digits and Dice--most commonly used in conjunction with…

Wiest, Lynda R.

2006-01-01

255

Dynamical real numbers and living systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently uncovered second derivative discontinuous solutions of the simplest linear ordinary differential equation define not only an nonstandard extension of the framework of the ordinary calculus, but also provide a dynamical representation of the ordinary real number system. Every real number can be visualized as a living cell -like structure, endowed with a definite evolutionary arrow. We discuss the relevance

Dhurjati Prasad Datta

2010-01-01

256

Automatic number plate detection for Korean vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the task of detection of Korean vehicle number plates (also named license plates or registration plates in other countries). A system for number plate detection must cope with wide variations in the appearance of the plates. Few yeas ago, Korea government permits the new types of license plates with wide width as same as foreign country. It occurred

Ho-Sub Yoon; Hong-Chang Lee; Jae-Yeon Lee

2009-01-01

257

On the Concept Image of Complex Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of how Swedish students understand the concept of complex numbers was performed. A questionnaire was issued reflecting the student view of own perception. Obtained answers show a variety of concept images describing how students adopt the concept of complex numbers. These concept images are classified into four categories in order to…

Nordlander, Maria Cortas; Nordlander, Edvard

2012-01-01

258

Understanding a Child's Development of Number Sense  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The brief video clips on this webpage illustrate the range of number sense exhibited by students in grades Pre K-2. In interviews, Cena and Jonathan, both age 7, and Rudy, age 9, demonstrate different levels of understanding number and place value concepts. The page includes discussion questions for each set of videos as well as concluding reflection questions.

Burns, Marilyn

2011-01-01

259

Volume 47, Number 01 January 6, 2007  

E-print Network

Volume 47, Number 01 January 6, 2007 Abstract Nos. 913,957--914,656 PETROLEUM ABSTRACTS® Electronic-mail: padds@utulsa.edu #12;PETROLEUM ABSTRACTS® Volume 47, Number 01 January 6, 2007 Abstract Nos. 913 ..................................................................112..................******** ©2007 The University of Tulsa No part of this bulletin may be reproduced

Reynolds, Albert C.

260

SESAME equation of state number 7740: Polycarbonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

An equation of state (EOS) for polycarbonate (a widely used polymer) has been generated with the computer code GRIZZLY and will be added to the SESAME library as material number 7740. Although a number of the input parameter used in the calculations are based on rough estimates. 7740 provides a good match to experimental Hugoniot data and should be reliable

Boettger

1991-01-01

261

Lepton and quark internal quantum numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We define relations giving all the internal quantum numbers of leptons, quarks, and hadrons from their rishon constituents. The introduction of bubbles on the rishon lines gives a bootstrap geometrical approach of quarks and leptons of any generation. It appears to limit the number of generations to 4. It is finally shown that the generalized isospin Ig3 of the quarks

E. Elbaz; J. Meyer; R. Nahabetian

1981-01-01

262

Quantum numbers of Majorana neutrino masses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assuming that the neutrinos have Majorana masses, we study the possibility of conserving various lepton numbers and the form of the resulting neutrino mass matrix. A model of lepton-number violation proposed some years ago is found to have interesting properties in this connection. Various phenomenological implications are noted.

A. Zee

1986-01-01

263

Sociable numbers: new developments on an ancient  

E-print Network

-Majriti, ca. 1050 years ago reports in "Aim of the Wise" that he had put to the test the erotic effect years ago: "If as many numbers as we please beginning from a unit be set out continuously in double." 8 #12;Abundant numbers are like an animal with "ten mouths, or nine lips, and provided with three

Pomerance, Carl

264

Brandeis University Economics current number of majors  

E-print Network

, engage our students in studying economic problems and issues that span the globe. Faculty research and Economics, where students study Chinese language, international business and economic development in oneBrandeis University Economics fast facts current number of majors and minors: 389 Number of faculty

Fraden, Seth

265

Infinite Sums of M-Bonacci Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this note, we construct infinite series using M-bonacci numbers in a manner similar to that used in previous studies and investigate the convergence of the series to an integer. Our results generalize the ones obtained for Fibonacci numbers.

A-iru, Muniru A.

2009-01-01

266

The Fibonacci Numbers and the Golden Section  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This award-winning site explores not only who Fibonacci was, but also the Fibonacci number properties, where they occur in nature, and much, much more. Puzzles with answers, illustrations, diagrams, and graphs are included. The Golden Ratio and Lucas numbers are addressed here as well. This site contains over 200 pages of information.

Knott, Ron

2007-12-12

267

National Resources [and] National Toll Free Numbers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource list provides names, addresses, and telephone numbers of 13 information clearinghouses and 42 organizations providing information on children and youth with disabilities. Telephone numbers are designated as either voice or text telephone. Spanish-language resources are also indicated. A list of organizations that have national…

National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

268

Multilevel fault tree analysis using fuzzy numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper applies fuzzy concepts to fault tree analysis (FTA), where the basic events are considered as fuzzy numbers, and shows that n-ary fuzzy AND and OR operators are used to evaluate the possibility of systems failure. L?R type fuzzy numbers can be defined completely by a triplet (m, ?, ?) and the value m is also considered a triangular

C. E. Kim; Y. J. Ju; M. Gens

1996-01-01

269

On the bondage number of a graph  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bondage number b(G) of a graph G is the minimum cardinality of a set of edges of G whose removal from G makes the domination number of G increase. There are several papers discussed the upper bound of b(G). In this paper, we shall give an improved upper bound of b(G).

Yue-li Wang

1996-01-01

270

Lifting Galois representations over arbitrary number fields  

E-print Network

Lifting Galois representations over arbitrary number fields Yoshiyuki Tomiyama September 16, 2008 group of an arbitrary number field lifts to a charac- teristic zero p-adic representation, if local lifting problems at places above p are unobstructed. 1 Introduction Let k be a finite field

Nakamura, Iku

271

Veterinary Seizure Detector Report Number 1  

E-print Network

Veterinary Seizure Detector Report Number 1 Page 1 of 20 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: Distribution authorized to all. Veterinary Seizure Detector Report Number 1 Submitted by Nicolas Roy University) 393 8351 Email nroy@usc.edu Date: April 27, 2010 Work performed at USC #12;Veterinary Seizure Detector

Levi, Anthony F. J.

272

New string theories and their generation number  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New heterotic string theories in four dimensions are constructed by tensoring a nonstandard SCFT along with some minimal SCFTs. All such theories are identified and their particle generation number is found. We prove that from the infinite number of new heterotic string theories only the {6} theory predicts three generations as seen in nature which makes it an interesting candidate for further study.

Genish, Arel; Gepner, Doron

2014-08-01

273

SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBER AND NAME VERIFICATION  

E-print Network

SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBER AND NAME VERIFICATION Academic Year 2014­2015 *FA552-A* Please recycle. DIRECTIONS--You must verify your name and Social Security number for processing of your 2014­2015 Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) to continue. Please attach a legible copy of your Social Security

Amin, S. Massoud

274

SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBER AND NAME VERIFICATION  

E-print Network

SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBER AND NAME VERIFICATION Academic Year 2013­2014 *FA552-A* Please recycle. DIRECTIONS--You must verify your name and Social Security number for processing of your 2013­2014 Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) to continue. Please attach a legible copy of your Social Security

Amin, S. Massoud

275

Study odd numbers with traditional functions  

E-print Network

In this paper we will focus on the study of relationships that can exist between odd numbers and different traditional functions like the gamma function, Riemann zeta function or function of von Mangoldt. Number theory applies to this study. It will also analyze the convergence of the series obtained as a result of that relationship.

Elias Rios

2012-08-21

276

enter part number BNC / RP-BNC  

E-print Network

enter part number Products 7/16 1.0/2.3 1.6/5.6 AFI AMC BNC / RP-BNC C FAKRA SMB FME HN MCX Mini ------- Product Search ------- Inventory Search Search Results for: 31-10152-RFX Results: 1 - 1 of 1 Part Number. All rights reserved. Copyright | Terms & Conditions | RF E-Mail Client | Contact Us | Amphenol

Berns, Hans-Gerd

277

Brandeis University Psychology current number of majors  

E-print Network

research in diverse areas including cognitive science; normal and abnormal psychology; health psychologyBrandeis University Psychology fast facts current number of majors and minors: 282 NumberBoUt the Program the Department of Psychology helps students establish a strong scientific and research foundation

Fraden, Seth

278

Mental Number Line, Number Line Estimation, and Mathematical Achievement: Their Interrelations in Grades 5 and 6  

Microsoft Academic Search

As indicated by the distance effect and the spatial–numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect, natural numbers are mentally represented on a number line. Purportedly, this number line underlies children’s number sense, which supports the acquisition of more advanced mathematical competencies. In 3 studies with a total of 429 fifth and sixth graders, the authors compared the influences of each

Michael Schneider; Roland H. Grabner; Jennifer Paetsch

2009-01-01

279

Predicting landfalling hurricane numbers from basin hurricane numbers: basic statistical analysis  

E-print Network

One possible method for predicting landfalling hurricane numbers is to first predict the number of hurricanes in the basin and then convert that prediction to a prediction of landfalling hurricane numbers using an estimated proportion. Should this work better than just predicting landfalling hurricane numbers directly? We perform a basic statistical analysis of this question in the context of a simple abstract model.

Laepple, T; Penzer, J; Bellone, E; Nzerem, K; Laepple, Thomas; Jewson, Stephen; Penzer, Jeremy; Bellone, Enrica; Nzerem, Kechi

2007-01-01

280

Young Children's Number-Word Knowledge Predicts Their Performance on a Nonlinguistic Number Task  

E-print Network

Young Children's Number-Word Knowledge Predicts Their Performance on a Nonlinguistic Number Task-word learning and changes in the child's attention and memory for implicit number information. 71 children (ages 2-2 to 4-9) were asked, without number words, to replicate sets of 1 to 4 objects. Children

Stanford, Kyle

281

SALEM NUMBERS, PISOT NUMBERS, MAHLER MEASURE AND GRAPHS JAMES MCKEE AND CHRIS SMYTH  

E-print Network

SALEM NUMBERS, PISOT NUMBERS, MAHLER MEASURE AND GRAPHS JAMES MCKEE AND CHRIS SMYTH ABSTRACT. We use graphs to define sets of Salem and Pisot numbers, and prove that the union of these sets is closed, supporting a conjecture of Boyd that the set of all Salem and Pisot numbers is closed. We find all trees

Smyth, Chris

282

Conjugates of Parry numbers near the unit circle Conjugates of Parry Numbers near the unit  

E-print Network

's convergent family of cubic Pisot numbers #12;Conjugates of Parry numbers near the unit circle Theorem (Salem : given a sequence of Salem numbers (i ) which converges to x (1, +), what is x ? (i.e. Pisot or Salem) limit - concentration, 2) removal. #12;Conjugates of Parry numbers near the unit circle Theorem (Salem

283

Deriving the number of jobs in proximity services from the number of inhabitants in French rural  

E-print Network

Deriving the number of jobs in proximity services from the number of inhabitants in French rural a minimum requirement approach to derive the number of jobs of proximity services per inhabitant observe that the minimum number of service jobs per inhabitant (interpreted as jobs of proximity services

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

284

Number-space mapping in human infants.  

PubMed

Mature representations of number are built on a core system of numerical representation that connects to spatial representations in the form of a mental number line. The core number system is functional in early infancy, but little is known about the origins of the mapping of numbers onto space. In this article, we show that preverbal infants transfer the discrimination of an ordered series of numerosities to the discrimination of an ordered series of line lengths. Moreover, infants construct relationships between numbers and line lengths when they are habituated to unordered pairings that vary positively, but not when they are habituated to unordered pairings that vary inversely. These findings provide evidence that a predisposition to relate representations of numerical magnitude to spatial length develops early in life. A central foundation of mathematics, science, and technology therefore emerges prior to experience with language, symbol systems, or measurement devices. PMID:20483843

de Hevia, Maria Dolores; Spelke, Elizabeth S

2010-05-01

285

Roman Bondage Numbers of Some Graphs  

E-print Network

A Roman dominating function on a graph $G=(V,E)$ is a function $f: V\\to \\{0,1,2\\}$ satisfying the condition that every vertex $u$ with $f(u)=0$ is adjacent to at least one vertex $v$ with $f(v)=2$. The weight of a Roman dominating function is the value $f(G)=\\sum_{u\\in V} f(u)$. The Roman domination number of $G$ is the minimum weight of a Roman dominating function on $G$. The Roman bondage number of a nonempty graph $G$ is the minimum number of edges whose removal results in a graph with the Roman domination number larger than that of $G$. This paper determines the exact value of the Roman bondage numbers of two classes of graphs, complete $t$-partite graphs and $(n-3)$-regular graphs with order $n$ for any $n\\ge 5$.

Hu, Fu-Tao

2011-01-01

286

STP Ideal Gas Number Of States Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The STP IdealGasNumberOfStates program numerically evaluates the number of states of an ideal gas and demonstrates finite size effects by plotting the actual number of states and the asymptotic expression. The default is two-dimensional system (d=2). STP IdealGasNumberOfStates is part of a suite of Open Source Physics programs that model aspects of Statistical and Thermal Physics (STP). The program is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the stp_IdealGasNumberOfStates.jar file will run the program if Java is installed on your computer. Additional programs can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, STP, or Statistical and Thermal Physics.

Gould, Harvey; Tobochnik, Jan; Christian, Wolfgang; Cox, Anne

2009-02-17

287

Relativistic theory of surficial Love numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A relativistic theory of surficial Love numbers, which characterize the surface deformation of a body subjected to tidal forces, was initiated by Damour and Nagar. We revisit this effort in order to extend it, clarify some of its aspects, and simplify its computational implementation. First, we refine the definition of surficial Love numbers proposed by Damour and Nagar and formulate it directly in terms of the deformed curvature of the body's surface, a meaningful geometrical quantity. Second, we develop a unified theory of surficial Love numbers that applies equally well to material bodies and black holes. Third, we derive a compactness-dependent relation between the surficial and (electric-type) gravitational Love numbers of a perfect-fluid body and show that it reduces to the familiar Newtonian relation when the compactness is small. And fourth, we simplify the tasks associated with the practical computation of the surficial and gravitational Love numbers for a material body.

Landry, Philippe; Poisson, Eric

2014-06-01

288

J. Number Theory 131(2011), no. 12, 23872397. ON DELANNOY NUMBERS  

E-print Network

J. Number Theory 131(2011), no. 12, 2387­2397. ON DELANNOY NUMBERS AND SCHR¨ODER NUMBERS Zhi@nju.edu.cn http://math.nju.edu.cn/zwsun Abstract. The nth Delannoy number and the nth Schr¨oder number given by Dn. Primary 11A07, 11B75; Secondary 05A15, 11B39, 11B68, 11E25. Keywords. Congruences, central Delannoy

Sun, Zhi-Wei

289

Navier number and transition to turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The motivation behind this article is to explain a role of the Navier number (Na - dimensionless slip-length) in prediction of closures for laminar to turbulent transition undergoing via eddies detachment from the slip layer in nano-cannals. Additionally the role of the Navier number Na in universal modeling of phenomenon of enhanced mass flow rate reported in micro- and nano-channels has been explained. The Na number should be treated as a ratio of internal viscous to external viscous momentum transport and therefore this notion cannot be extended onto whole friction resistance phenomena. Our proposal for unique expressing of a critical point in turbulence transition is that on a plane of fD - Re one needs two coordinates. The second critical coordinate has been discovered by Stanton and Pannell and is known to be the Stanton-Pannell number StPa. Finally dependence of the Stanton- Pannell number StPa on Navier number Na and Reynolds number Re is presented.

Zió?kowski, P.; Badur, J.

2014-08-01

290

Multiplication: An Adventure in Number Sense  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity helps students learn their multiplication tables, but also build their reasoning about numbers, their relationships and their patterns in the multiplication table. The tutorial begins with a multiplication applet and leads the student through a number of different strategies for stream lining the number of multiplication facts from 100 down to thirteen. Each page in the unit consists of dialogs between a student and a mentor, as well as illustrations, summaries and suggestions for further explorations and activities. Users can skip dialogs if they wish, going directly for the summaries and activities.

2005-01-01

291

Ranking Fuzzy Numbers Based on Lexicographical Ordering  

E-print Network

Abstract—Although so far, many methods for ranking fuzzy numbers have been discussed broadly, most of them contained some shortcomings, such as requirement of complicated calculations, inconsistency with human intuition and indiscrimination. The motivation of this study is to develop a model for ranking fuzzy numbers based on the lexicographical ordering which provides decision-makers with a simple and efficient algorithm to generate an ordering founded on a precedence. The main emphasis here is put on the ease of use and reliability. The effectiveness of the proposed method is finally demonstrated by including a comprehensive comparing different ranking methods with the present one. Keywords—Ranking fuzzy numbers, Lexicographical ordering. I.

B. Farhadinia

292

An Introduction to the Theory of Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Written by Leo Moser and presented by the Trillia Group, this virtual text introduces visitors to the theory of numbers. After agreeing to the terms and conditions of use, users will be able to download the full document as an 87-page pdf file in either large or regular print. The chapters include: "Compositions and Partitions," "Irrational Numbers," "Diophantine Equations," and "Geometry of Numbers." The terms limit this free download to students in mathematic self-study or for instructors to consider this text for use in their classrooms.

Moser, Leo

2007-12-03

293

The Bondage Number of Mesh Networks  

E-print Network

The bondage number $b(G)$ of a nonempty graph $G$ is the smallest number of edges whose removal from $G$ results in a graph with domination number greater than that of $G$. Denote $P_n\\times P_m$ be the Cartesian product of two paths $P_n$ and $P_m$. This paper determines that the exact value of $b(P_n\\times P_2)$, $b(P_n\\times P_3)$ and $b(P_n\\times P_4)$ for $n\\ge 2$.

Hu, Fu-Tao; Xu, Jun-Ming

2011-01-01

294

Critical points and number of master integrals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the question about the number of master integrals for a multiloop Feynman diagram. We show that, for a given set of denominators, this number is totally determined by the critical points of the polynomials entering either of the two representations: the parametric representation and the Baikov representation. In particular, for the parametric representation the corresponding polynomial is just the sum of Symanzik polynomials. The relevant topological invariant is the sum of the Milnor numbers of the proper critical points. We present a Mathematica package Mint to automatize the counting of the master integrals for the typical case, when all critical points are isolated.

Lee, Roman N.; Pomeransky, Andrei A.

2013-11-01

295

PERFECT NUMBERS: AN ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION JOHN VOIGHT  

E-print Network

6 to marriage, health, and beauty on account of the integrity and agreement of its parts. Around 100 as the number itself. For the same reason twenty-eight, four hundred ninety-six, and eight thousand one hundred

Voight, John

296

Getting Help: Know the Numbers (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... car as well. Also, consider programming some of the emergency numbers in your cell phone. In addition, make sure that people who come to the house to watch your kids ( babysitters or relatives, ...

297

Minor Change Procedure 9501 Number: Revision 09  

E-print Network

/or radiation generating devices under their RSC authorization are trained in safe laboratory practices information: 5.2.1.2 Applicant Information (Name, Georgia Tech Identification number, Date of Birth, #12;Minor

Nair, Sankar

298

Five Little Ducks - Decomposing Number 5  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity practices the decomposing of numbers one through five using a fuzzy stick with five yellow Pony beads on the stick. While manipulating the beads, the students will recite the poem "Five Little Ducks".

Mathis, Clara

2012-07-10

299

Links to Literature: Popping Up Number Sense.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a school-wide project using popcorn to gain number sense by learning more about a million. Used the books "How Much Is a Million?" and "If You Made a Million" to introduce the project. (MKR)

Hopkins, Lindy

1995-01-01

300

Boundary layer manipulators at high Reynolds numbers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airfoil large-eddy breakup (LEBU) devices were tested on an axisymmetric body in the Langley Two Tank up to speeds of 50 ft/sec. NACA-0009, NACA-2412, E-193, and Clark Y contours were tested in single and tandem configurations. At the higher Reynolds numbers local skin friction downstream of the devices showed minimal reductions O (10 percent) and total body drag was increased 1 to 3 percent. At lower Reynolds numbers skin-friction reductions as large as 25 percent were measured and total body drag tended toward net reductions. The loss of effectiveness with increasing Reynolds number of conventional, outer layer devices suggests a decoupling of the outer and inner scales in high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layers.

Anders, J. B.

1990-01-01

301

Course Syllabus COURSE NUMBER: NURS 511  

E-print Network

#12;#12;1 Course Syllabus COURSE NUMBER: NURS 511 COURSE TITLE: Advanced Nursing Practice Advanced nursing and interprofessional practice competencies necessary to reduce health disparities will consider concepts such as community partnerships, social justice, cultural safety, rurality, health policy

Collins, Gary S.

302

PISOT NUMBERS AND GREEDY ALGORITHM Shigeki Akiyama  

E-print Network

PISOT NUMBERS AND GREEDY ALGORITHM Shigeki Akiyama Niigata University Abstract. We study the greedy expansion rational num* *bers has purely periodic greedy expansion in Pisot unit base under a certain

Akiyama, Shigeki

303

IRB Approval Number ___________ University of California  

E-print Network

medical records containing your Personal Health Information. Your Personal Health Information includes health information in your medical records and information that can identify you. For example, PersonalIRB Approval Number ___________ 1 University of California Permission to Use Personal Health

Nguyen, Danh

304

Registered Charity Number 207890 Accepted Manuscript  

E-print Network

acidification: a millennial challenge 1754-5692(2010)3:12;1-G www.rsc.org/ees Volume 3 | Number 12 | December, CA 94305, USA. § These authors contributed equally to this work * Correspondence to hdai

Cui, Yi

305

Computing the Betti Numbers of Arrangements  

E-print Network

The basic result in bounding the Betti numbers of semi-. algebraic sets defined by .... sets be topologically trivial and convex sets clearly satisfy. this condition. ... scribed in this paper does not answer this question, as we. use triangulations ...

306

Department of Defense Worldwide Numbers for TBI  

MedlinePLUS

... traumatic brain injury (TBI) data in the U.S. military. Our website provides numbers for service members diagnosed ... of TBI include crashes in privately owned and military vehicles, falls, sports and recreation activities, and military ...

307

Sociable numbers Carl Pomerance, Dartmouth College  

E-print Network

': " In the case of too much, is produced excess, superfluity, exaggerations and abuse; in the case of too little." 16 #12;Abundant numbers are like an animal with "ten mouths, or nine lips, and provided with three

Pomerance, Carl

308

Copy Number Variation across European Populations  

PubMed Central

Genome analysis provides a powerful approach to test for evidence of genetic variation within and between geographical regions and local populations. Copy number variants which comprise insertions, deletions and duplications of genomic sequence provide one such convenient and informative source. Here, we investigate copy number variants from genome wide scans of single nucleotide polymorphisms in three European population isolates, the island of Vis in Croatia, the islands of Orkney in Scotland and the South Tyrol in Italy. We show that whereas the overall copy number variant frequencies are similar between populations, their distribution is highly specific to the population of origin, a finding which is supported by evidence for increased kinship correlation for specific copy number variants within populations. PMID:21829696

Chen, Wanting; Hayward, Caroline; Wright, Alan F.; Hicks, Andrew A.; Vitart, Veronique; Knott, Sara; Wild, Sarah H.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Wilson, James F.; Rudan, Igor; Porteous, David J.

2011-01-01

309

COMBINED EFFECT OF FREEAND FORCED CONVECTION ON MHD FLOW IN A ROTATING POROUS CHANNEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a steady linear theory of the combined effect of the free and forced convection in rotating hydromagnetic viscous fluid flows in a por- ous channel under the action of a uniform magnetic field. The flow is governed by the Grashof number G, the Hartmann number H, the Ekman number E, and the suction Reynolds number S. The

PRASADA RAO; D. V. KRISHNA; LOKENATH DEBNATH

310

Factoring: A Visual Representation of Number  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Focus on Math blog post presents a dot diagram by Brent Yorgey of the consecutive natural numbers. The configuration of each number of dots reveals quickly whether it is prime or composite and provides information about its prime factorization. Included are two links: one to Stephen Von Wordley's animated factorization diagrams and the other to Malke Rosenfeld's blog describing a game based on the diagram.

Norris, Carollee

2013-01-08

311

4.NBT Ordering 4-digit numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Arrange these numbers in increasing order, beginning with the least. 2400 \\ 4002 \\ 2040 \\ 420 \\ 2004 Arrange these numbers in decreasing order, beginni...

312

I'm Thinking of a Number  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game for the interactive white board (free access with registration) provides an opportunity for players to practice finding the number in a word problem using the function chosen ( double it, halve it, 1 more/1 less and 10 more/10 less). The numbers are also shown as amounts in marbles to help children to visualize the calculation. There are options to change the difficulty level and the operation.

2012-07-13

313

SESAME equation of state number 7740: Polycarbonate  

SciTech Connect

An equation of state (EOS) for polycarbonate (a widely used polymer) has been generated with the computer code GRIZZLY and will be added to the SESAME library as material number 7740. Although a number of the input parameter used in the calculations are based on rough estimates. 7740 provides a good match to experimental Hugoniot data and should be reliable on or near the principal Hugoniot. 6 refs., 1 fig.

Boettger, J.C.

1991-06-01

314

Objects Counted by the Central Delannoy Numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central Delannoy numbers, d_n_{n >=0} = 1,3,13,63,321, 1683, 8989, 48639, ... (A001850 of The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences) will be defined so that d_n counts the lattice paths running from (0,0) to (n,n) that use the steps (1,0), (0,1), and (1,1). In a recreational spirit we give a collection of 29 configurations that these numbers count.

Sulanke, Robert A.

2003-03-01

315

OBJECTS COUNTED BY THE CENTRAL DELANNOY NUMBERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central Delannoy numbers, (dn)n‚0 = 1;3;13;63;321;1683;8989;48639; : : : (A001850 of The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences) will be deflned so that dn counts the lattice paths running from (0;0) to (n; n) that use the steps (1;0), (0;1), and (1;1). In a recreational spirit we give a collection of 29 conflgurations that these numbers count.

ROBERT A. SULANKE

316

PISOT NUMBERS AND GREEDY ALGORITHM Shigeki Akiyama  

E-print Network

PISOT NUMBERS AND GREEDY ALGORITHM Shigeki Akiyama Niigata University Abstract. We study the greedy numbers has purely periodic greedy expansion in Pisot unit base under a certain #12;niteness condition. 1. Then the expansion of the form x = P 1 N0#20;i a i #12; i is said to be a greedy expansion if (G) jx X N0#20;i#20;N

Akiyama, Shigeki

317

Fibonacci numbers in phyllotaxis : a simple model  

E-print Network

A simple model is presented which explains the occurrence of high order Fibonacci number parastichies in asteracae flowers by two distinct steps. First low order parastichies result from the fact that a new floret, at its appearance is repelled by two former ones, then, in order to accommodate for the increase of the radius, parastichies numbers have to evolve and can do it only by applying the Fibonacci recurrence formula.

Gilbert Zalczer

2012-03-28

318

On the Fibonacci k-numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a general Fibonacci sequence that generalizes, between others, both the classic Fibonacci sequence and the Pell sequence. These general kth Fibonacci numbers {Fk,n}n=0? were found by studying the recursive application of two geometrical transformations used in the well-known four-triangle longest-edge (4TLE) partition. Many properties of these numbers are deduce directly from elementary matrix algebra.

Sergio Falcón; Ángel Plaza

2007-01-01

319

Dynamical real numbers and living systems  

E-print Network

Recently uncovered second derivative discontinuous solutions of the simplest linear ordinary differential equation define not only an nonstandard extension of the framework of the ordinary calculus, but also provide a dynamical representation of the ordinary real number system. Every real number can be visualized as a living cell -like structure, endowed with a definite evolutionary arrow. We discuss the relevance of this extended calculus in the study of living systems. We also present an intelligent version of the Newton's first law of motion.

Dhurjati Prasad Datta

2010-01-11

320

Mingle & Count: A Game of Number Sense  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 5-minute video Barbara McCormick demonstrates an activity that helps her kindergarten students develop number sense. Students mingle and, on the teacher's signal, form themselves into groups of a given number. This active experience with equal groups helps build the foundation for multiplication and division with remainders. A sidebar provides reflection questions for viewers. A downloadable transcript (doc) of the video is included.

2012-01-01

321

Place Fractions on a Number Line  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers can use this interactive tool to help students build a conceptual understanding of the value of fractions by placing numbers, visual models, and decimals on a number line. Students learn that every fraction and decimal describes a specific value. This page includes a video demonstration of the tool and sample lessons from the Conceptua curriculum. Free registration is required to use the tool. A paid subscription is necessary to access full curriculum and allow full student use.

2011-01-01

322

Texas Rice, Volume VII, Number 7  

E-print Network

Texas A&M University System Agricultural Research and Extension Center Beaumont, Texas September 2007 Volume VII Number 7 Texas Rice Nobel Peace Prize Recipient Dr. Norman Borlaug continued on page 4 September of 2003 was a time etched...Texas A&M University System Agricultural Research and Extension Center Beaumont, Texas September 2007 Volume VII Number 7 Texas Rice Nobel Peace Prize Recipient Dr. Norman Borlaug continued on page 4 September of 2003 was a time etched...

323

Texas Rice, Volume VII, Number 8  

E-print Network

Texas A&M University System Agricultural Research and Extension Center Beaumont, Texas Texas Rice Sorghum Research Sheds Light on Sugar Movement continued on page 7 October 2007 Volume VII Number 8 Picture this – Intravenous lines...Texas A&M University System Agricultural Research and Extension Center Beaumont, Texas Texas Rice Sorghum Research Sheds Light on Sugar Movement continued on page 7 October 2007 Volume VII Number 8 Picture this – Intravenous lines...

324

Finite precision lexicographic continued fraction number systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lexicographic continued fraction binary (LCF) representation provides an order preserving bitstring representation of the non negative real numbers where every rational number has a finite length bitstring representation. We investigate the precision of k-bit LCF approximation. The maximum gap size over [0,1] for (k+1)-bit LCF representation is shown to be less than 2?.81k, comparable to binary coded decimal in worst

Peter Kornerup; David W. Matula

1985-01-01

325

Effects of condition number on preconditioning for low Mach number flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of the condition number on convergence characteristics and solution quality for the preconditioned Navier-Stokes equations are studied. A general approach to the construction of preconditioning parameters is proposed to account for the effects of the condition number on these parameters. To verify this technique, laminar flows past a circular cylinder at Reynolds numbers of 20 and 40, and laminar flows past a NACA0012 airfoil at Reynolds numbers of 2500 and 5000 are solved. It is shown that the condition number has effects on the convergence characteristics and solution qualities, and also that a condition number exists that optimizes the convergence characteristics and solution quality.

Lee, Sang-Hyeon

2012-05-01

326

A feeling for the numbers in biology  

PubMed Central

Although the quantitative description of biological systems has been going on for centuries, recent advances in the measurement of phenomena ranging from metabolism to gene expression to signal transduction have resulted in a new emphasis on biological numeracy. This article describes the confluence of two different approaches to biological numbers. First, an impressive array of quantitative measurements make it possible to develop intuition about biological numbers ranging from how many gigatons of atmospheric carbon are fixed every year in the process of photosynthesis to the number of membrane transporters needed to provide sugars to rapidly dividing Escherichia coli cells. As a result of the vast array of such quantitative data, the BioNumbers web site has recently been developed as a repository for biology by the numbers. Second, a complementary and powerful tradition of numerical estimates familiar from the physical sciences and canonized in the so-called “Fermi problems” calls for efforts to estimate key biological quantities on the basis of a few foundational facts and simple ideas from physics and chemistry. In this article, we describe these two approaches and illustrate their synergism in several particularly appealing case studies. These case studies reveal the impact that an emphasis on numbers can have on important biological questions. PMID:20018695

Phillips, Rob; Milo, Ron

2009-01-01

327

Number skills are maintained in healthy ageing.  

PubMed

Numerical skills have been extensively studied in terms of their development and pathological decline, but whether they change in healthy ageing is not well known. Longer exposure to numbers and quantity-related problems may progressively refine numerical skills, similar to what happens to other cognitive abilities like verbal memory. Alternatively, number skills may be sensitive to ageing, reflecting either a decline of number processing itself or of more auxiliary cognitive abilities that are involved in number tasks. To distinguish between these possibilities we tested 30 older and 30 younger participants on an established numerosity discrimination task requiring to judge which of two sets of items is more numerous, and on arithmetical tasks. Older participants were remarkably accurate in performing arithmetical tasks although their numerosity discrimination (also known as 'number acuity') was impaired. Further analyses indicate that this impairment was limited to numerosity trials requiring inhibiting information incongruent to numerosity (e.g., fewer but larger items), and that this also correlated with poor inhibitory processes measured by standard tests. Therefore, rather than a numerical impairment, poor numerosity discrimination is likely to reflect elderly's impoverished inhibitory processes. This conclusion is supported by simulations with a recent neuro-computational model of numerosity perception, where only the specific degradation of inhibitory processes produced a pattern that closely resembled older participants' performance. Numeracy seems therefore resilient to ageing but it is influenced by the decline of inhibitory processes supporting number performance, consistent with the 'Inhibitory Deficit' Theory. PMID:24423632

Cappelletti, Marinella; Didino, Daniele; Stoianov, Ivilin; Zorzi, Marco

2014-03-01

328

Persistent consequences of atypical early number concepts.  

PubMed

How does symbolic number knowledge performance help identify young children at risk for poor mathematics achievement outcomes? In research and practice, classification of mathematics learning disability (MLD, or dyscalculia) is typically based on composite scores from broad measures of mathematics achievement. These scores do predict later math achievement levels, but do not specify the nature of math difficulties likely to emerge among students at greatest risk for long-term mathematics failure. Here we report that gaps in 2nd and 3rd graders' number knowledge predict specific types of errors made on math assessments at Grade 8. Specifically, we show that early whole number misconceptions predict slower and less accurate performance, and atypical computational errors, on Grade 8 arithmetic tests. We demonstrate that basic number misconceptions can be detected by idiosyncratic responses to number knowledge items, and that when such misconceptions are evident during primary school they persist throughout the school age years, with variable manifestation throughout development. We conclude that including specific qualitative assessments of symbolic number knowledge in primary school may provide greater specificity of the types of difficulties likely to emerge among students at risk for poor mathematics outcomes. PMID:24027540

Mazzocco, Michčle M M; Murphy, Melissa M; Brown, Ethan C; Rinne, Luke; Herold, Katherine H

2013-01-01

329

Transference number calculations for sodium polysulfides  

SciTech Connect

Transference numbers of sodium cations and sulfur anions in sodium polysulfide melts are calculated from previously determined experimental data. Concentrated electrolyte theory assuming a binary electrolyte consisting of sodium anions, sulfide cations, in a neutral sulfur solvent is used to relate the transference numbers to fundamental solution transport properties. Slopes of open-circuit potential measurements vs. melt composition on sodium-sulfur cells with and without transference are used to determine the sulfur anion and sodium cation transference numbers. The transference number of sodium cations is calculated from previous experimental data for two temperatures, 573 and 633 K, and range from 0.88 to 0.93 for sodium sulfide mole fractions between 0.20 and 0.34. These values for transference numbers presented here are more accurate than previous interpretations of these data where unity sodium cation transference numbers were assumed. The results of this work are shown to be important in the design of sodium-sulfur cells.

Risch, T.; Newman, J.

1988-07-01

330

21 CFR 207.35 - Notification of registrant; drug establishment registration number and drug listing number.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notification of registrant; drug establishment registration number and drug listing number. 207.35 Section 207.35 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION,...

2011-04-01

331

21 CFR 207.35 - Notification of registrant; drug establishment registration number and drug listing number.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notification of registrant; drug establishment registration number and drug listing number. 207.35 Section 207.35 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION,...

2013-04-01

332

21 CFR 207.35 - Notification of registrant; drug establishment registration number and drug listing number.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification of registrant; drug establishment registration number and drug listing number. 207.35 Section 207.35 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION,...

2010-04-01

333

21 CFR 207.35 - Notification of registrant; drug establishment registration number and drug listing number.  

21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notification of registrant; drug establishment registration number and drug listing number. 207.35 Section 207.35 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION,...

2014-04-01

334

21 CFR 207.35 - Notification of registrant; drug establishment registration number and drug listing number.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Notification of registrant; drug establishment registration number and drug listing number. 207.35 Section 207.35 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION,...

2012-04-01

335

Young Children's Number-Word Knowledge Predicts Their Performance on a Nonlinguistic Number Task  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the link between number-word learning and changes in the child's attention and memory for implicit number information. 71 children (ages 2-2 to 4-9) were asked, without number words, to replicate sets of 1 to 4 objects. Children's performance on the set-replication task was correlated with cardinal number-word knowledge, independent of age, and also independent of target

James Negen; Barbara W. Sarnecka

336

ON THE PROBLEM OF UNIQUENESS FOR THE MAXIMUM STIRLING NUMBER(S) OF THE SECOND KIND  

E-print Network

ON THE PROBLEM OF UNIQUENESS FOR THE MAXIMUM STIRLING NUMBER(S) OF THE SECOND KIND E. Rodney Say that an integer n is exceptional if the maximum Stirling number of the second kind S(n, k) occurs or equal to x is O(x3/5+ ), for any > 0. 1. Introduction Let S(n, k) be the Stirling number of the second

Pomerance, Carl

337

Of Colored Numbers and Numbered Colors: Interactive Processes in Grapheme-Color Synesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grapheme-color synesthetes experience a specific color when they see a grapheme but they do not report to perceive a grapheme when a color is presented. In this study, we investigate whether color can still evoke number-processes even when a vivid number experience is absent. We used color-number and number-color priming, both revealing faster responses in congruent compared to incongruent conditions.

Titia Gebuis; Tanja C. W. Nijboer; Maarten J. van der Smagt

2009-01-01

338

Numerical investigation of conjugate heat transfer in a local working area in conditions of its radiant heating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mathematical modeling of unsteady conjugate heat transfer in a closed rectangular area with a local heat-conducting object in a gas cavity in conditions of radiative heat supply is conducted. Fields of temperatures and stream functions, illustrating the influence of Grashof number on the character of heat transfer are formulated. The dependence of average Nusselt number from time at different Grashof numbers is given. The influence of heat-conductive object on the intensity of heat transfer in under study solution domain is shown.

Nee, A.; Nagornova, T.

2014-10-01

339

The concrete theory of numbers : Problem of simplicity of Fermat number-twins  

E-print Network

The problem of simplicity of Fermat number-twins $f_{n}^{\\pm}=2^{2^n}\\pm3$ is studied. The question for what $n$ numbers $f_{n}^{\\pm}$ are composite is investigated. The factor-identities for numbers of a kind $x^2 \\pm k $ are found.

Boris V. Tarasov

2007-07-06

340

On the domination number and the 2-packing number of Fibonacci cubes and Lucas cubes  

E-print Network

On the domination number and the 2-packing number of Fibonacci cubes and Lucas cubes Aline Castro, Korea e-mail: rho@incheon.ac.kr Abstract Let n and n be the n-dimensional Fibonacci cube and Lucas cube, respectively. The domination number of Fibonacci cubes and Lucas cubes is studied. In particular it is proved

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

341

Beyond the Mental Number Line: A Neural Network Model of Number-Space Interactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is commonly assumed that there is an interaction between the representations of number and space (e.g., [Dehaene et al., 1993] and [Walsh, 2003]), typically ascribed to a mental number line. The exact nature of this interaction has remained elusive, however. Here we propose that spatial aspects are not inherent to number representations, but…

Chen, Qi; Verguts, Tom

2010-01-01

342

Call Numbers Explained 1 8/23/2012 Call Numbers Explained  

E-print Network

in the library. 6. The King Library is unusual because it is both a public library and a university library numbers. 7. The first is the Dewey Decimal System, which is used to classify public library books. In the library, books are organized by call number. 3. A call number classifies a book by its subject and tells

Su, Xiao

343

Beyond First Order Logic: From number of structures to structure of numbers  

E-print Network

the phrase `to structure of numbers' in the title. Example 3.3.4, initiated by Zilber, uses infini- taryBeyond First Order Logic: From number of structures to structure of numbers John Baldwin, Tapani Hyttinen and Meeri Kesälä February 22, 2011 1 Introduction Model theory studies classes of structures

Baldwin, John T.

344

Particle Measurement Methods. Number Concentrations. One common method used to measure number concentrations  

E-print Network

. Pulses are counter by an electronic counter and summed over some period of time. Number concentration canParticle Measurement Methods. Number Concentrations. One common method used to measure number concentrations of all ambient particles is the Condensation Particle Counter (CPC, also called Condensation

Weber, Rodney

345

The Numbers Game: Phasing in Generated ID Numbers at the University of Oregon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With all the recent headlines about security breaches and information loss at financial and educational institutions, the higher education community needs to address the issue of using social security numbers as ID numbers. The University of Oregon undertook a change process to assign generated ID numbers to all records in their information…

Eveland, Sue

2005-01-01

346

The conversion of residue numbers to binary coded decimal numbers using a counter method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a technique for the conversion of the residue number of the equivalent binary coded decimal number using counter circuitry. The conversion process is not limited by the residue number-system moduli. The test circuit wan operated with a 1 MHz clock pulse.

MUHAMMAD QUAMRUL HASAN; RAMESH CHANDRA DEBNATH

1984-01-01

347

Grant Title: CHILDHOOD OBESITY PREVENTION Funding Opportunity Number: USDA-NIFA-AFRI-004156. CFDA Number(s): 10.310.  

E-print Network

Grant Title: CHILDHOOD OBESITY PREVENTION Funding Opportunity Number: USDA-NIFA-AFRI-004156. CFDA, including food environment, that influence childhood obesity and use this information to develop of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents 2-19 years. The Childhood Obesity Program supports

Farritor, Shane

348

Number Counts and Dynamical Vacuum Cosmologies  

E-print Network

We study non-linear structure formation in an interacting model of the dark sector of the Universe in which the dark energy density decays linearly with the Hubble parameter, $\\rho_{\\Lambda} \\propto H$, leading to a constant-rate creation of cold dark matter. We derive all relevant expressions to calculate the mass function and the cluster number density using the Sheth-Torman formalism and show that the effect of the interaction process is to increase the number of bound structures of large masses ($M \\gtrsim 10^{14} M_{\\odot}h^{-1}$) when compared to the standard $\\Lambda$CDM model. Since these models are not reducible to each other, this number counts signature can in principle be tested in future surveys.

Devi, N Chandrachani; Carneiro, S; Alcaniz, J S

2014-01-01

349

Status of exotic-quantum-number mesons  

SciTech Connect

The search for mesons with non-quark-antiquark (exotic) quantum numbers has gone on for nearly 30 years. Currently there is experimental evidence of three isospin one states, the {pi}{sub 1}(1400), the {pi}{sub 1}(1600), and the {pi}{sub 1}(2015). For all of these states, there are questions about their identification and even if some of them exist. In this article, we will review both the theoretical work and the experimental evidence associated with these exotic quantum number states. We find that the {pi}{sub 1}(1600) could be the lightest exotic quantum number hybrid meson, but observations of other members of the nonet would be useful.

Meyer, C. A.; Van Haarlem, Y. [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)

2010-08-15

350

Large numbers hypothesis. II - Electromagnetic radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper develops the theory of electromagnetic radiation in the units covariant formalism incorporating Dirac's large numbers hypothesis (LNH). A direct field-to-particle technique is used to obtain the photon propagation equation which explicitly involves the photon replication rate. This replication rate is fixed uniquely by requiring that the form of a free-photon distribution function be preserved, as required by the 2.7 K cosmic radiation. One finds that with this particular photon replication rate the units covariant formalism developed in Paper I actually predicts that the ratio of photon number to proton number in the universe varies as t to the 1/4, precisely in accord with LNH. The cosmological red-shift law is also derived and it is shown to differ considerably from the standard form of (nu)(R) - const.

Adams, P. J.

1983-01-01

351

Linear Congruent Random Number Generator Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Linear Congruent Random Number Generator Model generates a sequence of integers x[i] over the interval [0, m-1] by the recurrence relation x[i+1] = (a*x[i]+c) mod m where the modulus m is greater than zero, the multiplier a is greater than zero and less than m, and the increment c is greater than zero and less than m. All numbers are integers and all arithmetic is integer arithmetic. The initial value x[0] is known as the seed. The Linear Congruent Number Generator Model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_math_RandomLCG.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Christian, Wolfgang

2009-05-09

352

Optimal Strouhal number for swimming animals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To evaluate the swimming performances of aquatic animals, an important dimensionless quantity is the Strouhal number, St=fA/U, with f the tail-beat frequency, A the peak-to-peak tail amplitude, and U the swimming velocity. Experiments with flapping foils have exhibited maximum propulsive efficiency in the interval 0.25number increases from 0.15 to 0.8 for animals spanning from the largest cetaceans to the smallest tadpoles. To assess the validity of this model, the swimming kinematics of 53 different species of aquatic animals have been compiled from the literature and it shows that their Strouhal numbers are consistently near the predicted optimum.

Eloy, Christophe

2012-04-01

353

A new methodology for detecting source number  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current methods for detecting source number in magnetic source image (MSI) have some shortcomings: i) they are somewhat subjective, ii) various MSIs employ different indexes, and iii) the number of the potential sources in MSI via Beamforming may be underestimated. The new approach extracts a principal component from each trial which serves as a (one) representative virtual channel for that trial. Principal components from all trials are combined to form a (one) synthesized trial. The information criterion is applied to this synthesized trial to select an optimal estimate of the source number. PCA reduces noise and captures the greatest variability in each trial, the synthesized trial reduces data fluctuations among trials and also reduces the dimensions of the covariance matrix. The approach is entirely data-driven and is suitable for detecting seizures and interictal spikes in epilepsy patients.

Lei, Tianhu; Roberts, Timothy P. L.

2011-03-01

354

Fibonacci Numbers and the Pascal Triangle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Offered in English, German, and Serbian, this site is a good introduction to the mathematical concepts of Pascal's Triangle, Fibonacci numbers, and the Golden Section. Because it is operated in Yugoslavia, there are occasional grammatical errors in the English version. Nevertheless, the information presented gives a valuable account of the significance of these topics. The content of the site includes historical perspectives (with brief profiles of the mathematicians who originated the ideas) and descriptions of the arithmetic and formulas involved in each concept. The close relationship of Pascal's Triangle, Fibonacci numbers, and the Golden Section is also outlined.

Jovanovic, Rasko.

355

Simulations of motor unit number estimation techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motor unit number estimation (MUNE) is an electrodiagnostic procedure used to evaluate the number of motor axons connected to a muscle. All MUNE techniques rely on assumptions that must be fulfilled to produce a valid estimate. As there is no gold standard to compare the MUNE techniques against, we have developed a model of the relevant neuromuscular physiology and have used this model to simulate various MUNE techniques. The model allows for a quantitative analysis of candidate MUNE techniques that will hopefully contribute to consensus regarding a standard procedure for performing MUNE.

Major, Lora A.; Jones, Kelvin E.

2005-06-01

356

Algebraic Expressions - Number Line Model for Multiplication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Java learning tool allows a teacher to demonstrate and explore with students number line models for two simple variable expressions for multiplication. The first expression is a variable with an understood coefficient of one and the second is the multiplication of a variable by a coefficient. Sliders are used to select the value of the variable (-10 to 10) and the coefficient (0 to 10). Check boxes show or hide the algebraic expression, the expression with substitution, the notation shown for multiplication, the result, and a model for the multiplication, shown as jumps along a number line.

Maine, Edc I.

2010-08-26

357

Transference number approaching unity in nanocomposite electrolytes.  

PubMed

In a nanocomposite electrolyte, which is made of a dielectric solid and an electrolyte, the diffuse double layer can retain counter-ions and reject co-ions. The axial external field can then interact to produce hydrodynamic flow. If the radius of the nanocapillaries is on the same order as the Debye length of the electrolyte, the transference number of an ion can approach unity, eliminating concentration gradients. Nanocomposite electrolytes are therefore suggested for battery and fuel cell applications where the transference number of the transported ion approaches unity, thus eliminating concentration gradients and reducing energy losses. PMID:17163742

Jorne, Jacob

2006-12-01

358

Hydration number, topological control, and ion selectivity  

PubMed Central

The topological control hypothesis presented by Bostick and Brooks [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:9260, 2007] has sought to explain binding selectivity in potassium channels on the basis of universal environment-independent features related to ion coordination. This leads to the view that ion selectivity is predominantly controlled by the number of ligands coordinating the ion, and that the chemical type of those ligands plays a minor role. The significance of the topological control hypothesis and its ability to predict ion selectivity in protein binding sites are examined. It is shown that the framework encounters increasing difficulties when different protein binding sites with similar coordination numbers are considered. PMID:19489546

Yu, Haibo; Noskov, Sergei Yu.; Roux, Benoit

2009-01-01

359

Thermocapillary bubble migration for large Marangoni Numbers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermocapillary motion of spherical bubbles present in an unbounded liquid with a linear temperature distribution, when the Reynolds number and the Marangoni number are large is analyzed. Previous calculations of the terminal velocity performed for this parametric range did not take into complete consideration the thermal boundary layer present near the surface of the bubble. A scaling analysis is presented for this problem. The thermal boundary layer is analyzed by an integral method. The resulting terminal velocity is lower than the one previously calculated, though it is of the same order of magnitude.

Balasubramaniam, R.

1987-01-01

360

Probing lepton number violation on three frontiers  

SciTech Connect

Neutrinoless double beta decay constitutes the main probe for lepton number violation at low energies, motivated by the expected Majorana nature of the light but massive neutrinos. On the other hand, the theoretical interpretation of the (non-)observation of this process is not straightforward as the Majorana neutrinos can destructively interfere in their contribution and many other New Physics mechanisms can additionally mediate the process. We here highlight the potential of combining neutrinoless double beta decay with searches for Tritium decay, cosmological observations and LHC physics to improve the quantitative insight into the neutrino properties and to unravel potential sources of lepton number violation.

Deppisch, Frank F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London (United Kingdom)

2013-12-30

361

Approximate resolution of hard numbering problems  

SciTech Connect

We present a new method for estimating the number of solutions of constraint satisfaction problems. We use a stochastic forward checking algorithm for drawing a sample of paths from a search tree. With this sample, we compute two values related to the number of solutions of a CSP instance. First, an unbiased estimate, second, a lower bound with an arbitrary low error probability. We will describe applications to the Boolean Satisfiability problem and the Queens problem. We shall give some experimental results for these problems.

Bailleux, O.; Chabrier, J.J. [CRID Universite de Bourgogne, Dijon (France)

1996-12-31

362

Chromosome numbers of Mongolian Angiosperms. II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosome numbers are reported for 20 collections of Mongolian plants representing 19 taxa. The first chromosome records\\u000a are reported forArabidopsis mongolica (2n=16),Caragana pygmaea (2n=16),Isatis costata var.leiocarpa (2n=28),Lophanthus chinensis (2n=18) andStevenia cheiranthoides (2n=32). Counts partly differing from those previously recorded are given forBatrachium trichophyllum subsp.trichophyllum (2n=32+0-2B, 36+6B),Cuscuta chinensis (2n=60),Dracocephalum fragile (2n=72) andErysimum flavum (2n=14). Chromosome numbers of the following taxa were

Josef M?sí?ek; Ji?í Soják

1995-01-01

363

Texas Rice, Volume 1, Number 8  

E-print Network

of Agriculture’s Agricultural Re- search Service, a substantial number have been evalu- ated for allelopathic effects on aquatic weeds-about 12,000 for ducksalad [Heteranthera limosa (Sw.) Willd] and around 5,000 for redstem (Ammannia coccinea Rottb.). In field... of Agriculture’s Agricultural Re- search Service, a substantial number have been evalu- ated for allelopathic effects on aquatic weeds-about 12,000 for ducksalad [Heteranthera limosa (Sw.) Willd] and around 5,000 for redstem (Ammannia coccinea Rottb.). In field...

364

Number Systems: Finger Counting (Session 1)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will examine number systems from various cultures around the world. Session 1: First let's begin by examining how other cultures finger count. First examine Image of Ancient Chinese finger counting system. 1.What do you notice about this counting system? 2.How are the fingers used in this system? Now watch the Youtube video finger counting to 10 in Chinese. Now Learn how to finger count to 10 in Chinese. What numbers are similar to our own finger counting system? At what point ...

Nunes-Bufford, Mrs.

2008-12-01

365

Law of Large Numbers-Hospital  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity discusses probability topics, such as: sample space, independent events, Law of Large Numbers, deviation percentage. The resource is structured in a seven step process, these steps include: probability topics, assumed prior experience, rationale, learning objectives, materials and technology needed, procedure, and finally, assessment. An Excel-like program is required for this activity, which can be reached via the website.

2009-03-20

366

Demonstrations of the Enormity of Avogadro's Number  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most high-school students learn of Avogadro's number for the first time when they begin study of the mole concept. It is important to impress students with the enormity of Avogadro's number and the concomitant minuscularity of the atom, and papers addressing this need have regularly appeared in this Journal. The present article describes three new problems used annually at Trinity School to make the impression. The first two problems are suitable to be assigned as homework. The first of these uses Avogadro's number simply as a scaling factor; the second, requiring more attention to units, is a calculation of the number of moles of sand grains in the Sahara Desert. The third problem is a series of related calculations that requires some closer in-class mathematical analysis and culminates in an astonishing result. All calculations are done in familiar English units, because with them I have found the results to be more immediately impressive to American students. Conversion factors to metric units can be applied if teachers find that desirable.

Diemente, Damon

1998-12-01

367

Chapter Number Gender Classification by Information Fusion  

E-print Network

Chapter Number Gender Classification by Information Fusion of Hair and Face Zheng Ji, Xiao Dong Chuan Road, Shanghai 200240, China 1. Introduction Various gender classification methods have been reported in the literature. These existing methods fall into two categories. The first kind of method

Lu, Bao-Liang

368

Original article Numbers of spermatozoa in queens  

E-print Network

Original article Numbers of spermatozoa in queens and drones indicate multiple mating of queens, Makandura, Gonawila (NWP), Sri Lanka (Received 24 November 1989; accepted 3 May 1990) Summary — Drones.67•106 spermatozoa in their spermathecae. In A adreniformis, drones had an average of 0.13•106

Boyer, Edmond

369

WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY SUBJECT INITIALS________ DERMATOLOGY SUBJECT NUMBER________  

E-print Network

of 4 Triggers for your itch: Does the itch start spontaneously without a trigger? No Yes Does lightWASHINGTON UNIVERSITY SUBJECT INITIALS________ DERMATOLOGY SUBJECT NUMBER________ CHRONIC ITCH itch? Less than 1 month 1-3 months 3-6 months 6-12 months Between 1-5years Greater than 5 years Which

Gereau, Robert W. IV

370

ESTIMATES OF SINGULAR NUMBERS OF INTEGRAL OPERATORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ContentsIntroduction § 1. Operator spaces and function spaces § 2. Estimates of singular numbers based on the method of piecewise-polynomial approximation § 3. Interpolation methods § 4. General results on estimates (statements) § 5. Proof of the main results on estimates § 6. Operators with a difference kernel § 7. Tests for nuclearity § 8. Multipliers in classes of kernels

M Sh Birman; M. Z. Solomjak

1977-01-01

371

Overall Performance Evaluation of Aerosol Number Samplers  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, there is neither an officially accepted size-selective fiber (aerosol number) sampler, nor are there established performance criteria. In this work, a prototype preclassifier (multihole impactor) was used to connect a conventional asbestos sampler so that the aerosol penetration test and particle counting process could be performed. The bias, as a function of particle size, was defined as the

Chane-Yu Lai; Chih-Chieh Chen; Jing-Shiang Hwang; Tung-Sheng Shih

2002-01-01

372

Volume 11, Number 3 30 September 1991  

E-print Network

Volume 11, Number 3 30 September 1991 JOURNAL of VERTEBRATE PALEONTOLOGY SOCIETY OF VERTEBRATE PALEONTOLOGY ISSN 0272-4634 #12;Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 11(3):269-292, September 1991 0 1991 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology MORPHOLOGY OF THE SEMIONOTUS ELEGANS SPECIES GROUP FROM THE EARLY

Olsen, Paul E.

373

COASTAL CHARTS Stock Number Title Scale =1  

E-print Network

of Bothnia (Baltic Sea) 665,040 #12;3 #12;4 BARENTS SEA-BELOYE MORE AREA (WHITE SEA) Stock Number Title Scale to Kandalakshskiy Zaliv and Onezhskaya Guba 200,000 42660 Onezhskiy Zaliv 200,000 #12;5 #12;6 BARENTS SEA AREA Stock

Russell, Lynn

374

VOLUME 2 NUMBER 3 AUGUST 1975 ANTHROPOLOGY  

E-print Network

VOLUME 2 · NUMBER 3 · AUGUST 1975 REVIEWS IN ANTHROPOLOGY CONTENTS DOUGLAS R. WHITE I Process, Statistics and Anthropological Theory: 295 An Appreciation of Harold E. Driver Jorgensen, cd., ComparativeHuman Social Bebavior "ATTY 10 WATSON I Archaeology as Diachronic Anthropology Plog, Tbe Study of

White, Douglas R.

375

Number Lines: A Key Representational Tool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 7- minute video Dr. Yukari Okamoto describes the misconceptions students have about fractions based upon the common fraction models that are used in the classroom. Dr. Yukari highly recommends the use of number lines as models of fractional parts, sums and equivalency A transcript of this video is available in PDF format.

Okamoto, Yukari

2011-01-01

376

Science Sampler: Pick-a-number  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pick-a-number activity, a variation of the game 20 Questions, provides a way to address challenges at the beginning of the school year, in a standards-based way. It also helps students develop the essential skill of asking questions as part of the scientific inquiry process.

Sitzman, Daniel

2005-09-01

377

THE CONGRUENT NUMBER PROBLEM KEITH CONRAD  

E-print Network

THE CONGRUENT NUMBER PROBLEM KEITH CONRAD 1. Introduction A right triangle is called rational when integer (e.g., 18/7 = 32 ·2/7, 1 #12;2 KEITH CONRAD so multiplying by (7/3)2 produces the squarefree

Lozano-Robledo, Alvaro

378

Chapter Number Amplitude Phase Shift Keying Constellation  

E-print Network

Chapter Number Amplitude Phase Shift Keying Constellation Design and its Applications to Satellite demand to replace or complement conventional modulation schemes, such as Quaternary Phase Shift Keying exceeding 1 Gbps. In this regard, Amplitude Phase Shift Keying (APSK) represents an attractive modulation

Guillén i Fàbregas, Albert

379

Comments on nonparametric predictions of sunspot numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A critique is offered of the results presented by Cerrito (1990), which were seen as indicating that classical time-series models are not suitable for the series of sunspot numbers. Using the so-called 'correlation integral', it is shown that the data have the same structure as a stochastic system with a large noise term, such as a high-dimensional system.

Jensen, J. L.

1993-01-01

380

VOLUME NUMBER Unified Scaling Law Earthquakes  

E-print Network

VOLUME NUMBER P I CA REV I L APRIL Unified Scaling Law Earthquakes Bak, * Christensen, Leon Danon (Received August 2001; published April 2002) distribution waiting times between earthquakes occurring to aftershocks, is nothing the limit general hierarchical properties earthquakes. There unique operational

Christensen, Kim

381

Chapter Number Locally Adaptive Resolution (LAR) codec  

E-print Network

rates, flexibility and adaptability, rate and quality control, algorithm unicity (with/without lossesChapter Number Locally Adaptive Resolution (LAR) codec François Pasteau, Marie Babel, Olivier on JPEG-AIC (Advanced Image Coding) in order to look for new solutions for still image coding techniques

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

382

Mechanisms of change in gene copy number  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deletions and duplications of chromosomal segments (copy number variants, CNVs) are a major source of variation between individual humans and are an underlying factor in human evolution and in many diseases, including mental illness, developmental disorders and cancer. CNVs form at a faster rate than other types of mutation, and seem to do so by similar mechanisms in bacteria, yeast

James R. Lupski; Susan M. Rosenberg; Grzegorz Ira; P. J. Hastings

2009-01-01

383

Adaptive Copy Number Evolution in Malaria Parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copy number polymorphism (CNP) is ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes, but the degree to which this reflects the action of positive selection is poorly understood. The first gene in the Plasmodium folate biosynthesis pathway, GTP-cyclohydrolase I (gch1), shows extensive CNP. We provide compelling evidence that gch1 CNP is an adaptive consequence of selection by antifolate drugs, which target enzymes downstream in

Shalini Nair; Becky Miller; Marion Barends; Anchalee Jaidee; Jigar Patel; Mayfong Mayxay; Paul Newton; François Nosten; Michael T. Ferdig; Tim J. C. Anderson

2008-01-01

384

How Do Students Misunderstand Number Representations?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We used both student interviews and diagnostic testing to reveal students' misconceptions about number representations in computing systems. This article reveals that students who have passed an undergraduate level computer organization course still possess surprising misconceptions about positional notations, two's complement representation, and…

Herman, Geoffrey L.; Zilles, Craig; Loui, Michael C.

2011-01-01

385

Synesthesia and Number Cognition in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grapheme-color synesthesia, when achromatic digits evoke an experience of a specific color (photisms), has been shown to be consistent, involuntary, and linked with number concept in adults, yet there have been no comparable investigations with children. We present a systematic study of grapheme-color synesthesia in children aged between 7 and 15…

Green, Jennifer A. K.; Goswami, Usha

2008-01-01

386

Satellite situation report, volume 31, number 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data computed at GSFC, NORAD, or provided by satellite owners is reported. A space objects box score is presented of objects in orbit and decayed objects. Data of objects in orbit is presented in tabular form and the table headings include name of the object, catalog number, source, launch date, period minutes, inclination, apogee KM., perigee KM., and transmitting frequency.

1991-01-01

387

Phylogenetic diversity measures based on Hill numbers  

PubMed Central

We propose a parametric class of phylogenetic diversity (PD) measures that are sensitive to both species abundance and species taxonomic or phylogenetic distances. This work extends the conventional parametric species-neutral approach (based on ‘effective number of species’ or Hill numbers) to take into account species relatedness, and also generalizes the traditional phylogenetic approach (based on ‘total phylogenetic length’) to incorporate species abundances. The proposed measure quantifies ‘the mean effective number of species’ over any time interval of interest, or the ‘effective number of maximally distinct lineages’ over that time interval. The product of the measure and the interval length quantifies the ‘branch diversity’ of the phylogenetic tree during that interval. The new measures generalize and unify many existing measures and lead to a natural definition of taxonomic diversity as a special case. The replication principle (or doubling property), an important requirement for species-neutral diversity, is generalized to PD. The widely used Rao's quadratic entropy and the phylogenetic entropy do not satisfy this essential property, but a simple transformation converts each to our measures, which do satisfy the property. The proposed approach is applied to forest data for interpreting the effects of thinning. PMID:20980309

Chao, Anne; Chiu, Chun-Huo; Jost, Lou

2010-01-01

388

Interval algorithm for random number generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of generating a random number with an arbitrary probability distribution by using a general biased M-coin is studied. An efficient and very simple algorithm based on the successive refinement of partitions of the unit interval (0, 1), which we call the interval algorithm, is proposed. A fairly tight evaluation on the efficiency is given. Generalizations of the interval

Te Sun Han; Mamoru Hoshi

1997-01-01

389

March 2005 Number 238 CARBON CAPTURE AND  

E-print Network

March 2005 Number 238 CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE (CCS) As part of the government's global strategy. This POSTnote discusses the potential of carbon capture and storage (CCS), a method of carbon sequestration2 stages: CO2 capture, transport and storage. CO2 capture Carbon capture is best applied to large

Mather, Tamsin A.

390

The LSS Review. Volume 3, Number 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing number of American students are nonnative English speakers. These students are vulnerable to early school exit and schools are facing more and more such students each year. Presently, about 56% of all public school teachers in the United States have at least one English language learner (ELL) student in their class, but less than 20% of…

Hoag, Lydia, Ed.

2004-01-01

391

Absolute number concentration measurement of submicrometer particles  

SciTech Connect

Condensation nuclei in the atmosphere are known to be an important factor in the development of clouds, the occurrence of rainfall, and the formation of particulate air pollutions that can cause undesirable effects on man and his environment. Condensation nuclei are invisible and numerous, and their number concentration has become the characteristic of interest and has been widely studied since the development of the first condensation nuclei counter by Aitken in 1888. A conventional nuclei counter employs the so-called condensation technique which enables the minute nuclei to grow, in a supersaturated environment, to ..mu..m-sized droplets; the number concentration of the visible droplets is then measured. Since each nucleus grows to a droplet, the number concentration of droplets and nuclei remains the same. The number of droplets is measured by (1) direct observation with a microscope (direct counter), (2) counting from photographs of the droplets (photographic counter), (3) suitably calibrated light transmission (or scattering) measurement (relative photoelectric counter). Most of the widely-used counters are relative counters in which the instrument reading must be calibrated against a direct or photographic counter. A new condensation nuclei counter is described which is designed to have the following advantages over the widely-used counters: (a) It provides an absolute concentration measurement. (b) Even a small random fluctuation of nuclei concentration can immediately be detected.

Chen, T.H.B.

1982-01-01

392

Bioinspired Corrugated Airfoil at Low Reynolds Numbers  

E-print Network

Bioinspired Corrugated Airfoil at Low Reynolds Numbers Hui Hu and Masatoshi Tamai Iowa State behavior around a bioinspired corrugated airfoil compared with a traditional streamlined airfoil and a flat of such bioinspired corrugated airfoils for micro air vehicle applications. The experiments were conducted in a low

Hu, Hui

393

Volume 53, Number 01 January 5, 2013  

E-print Network

/affirmative action institution. #12;GEOLOGY GEOLOGY ALASKA 1,137,120 DEVELOPMENT OF PETROLEUM SYSTEMS IN NORTHERN ALASKA: TIMING OF PETROLEUM SYSTEM EVENTS CONTROLS PRESENCE OF ACCUMULATIONS O.Schenk, K.J.Bird, KVolume 53, Number 01 January 5, 2013 Abstract Nos. 1,137,120--1,137,819 PETROLEUM ABSTRACTS

Reynolds, Albert C.

394

Poison control center - Emergency number (image)  

MedlinePLUS

For a poison emergency call 1-800-222-1222 anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the U.S. use this national ...

395

ESTIMATING SHOREBIRD NUMBERS AT MIGRATION STOPOVER SITES  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a method for estimating the total number of shorebirds that use a migration stopover site during spring and fall migration. We combined weekly shorebird counts with parameter estimates for detection probability, sampled proportion, and length of stay on the Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge. Double sampling was used to determine detection probability and estimated values varied among wetland

Adrian. Farmer; Frank. Durbian

2006-01-01

396

Sesame equation of state number 2293, Li  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new equation of state (EOS) for Li has been constructed and placed on the SESAME library as material number 2293. This new equation of state uses a cold curve obtained via electronic band structure calculations using the linear-muffin-tin-orbitals (LMTO) techique. 15 refs., 5 figs.

Boettger

1988-01-01

397

Sesame equation of state number 2293, Li  

SciTech Connect

A new equation of state (EOS) for Li has been constructed and placed on the SESAME library as material number 2293. This new equation of state uses a cold curve obtained via electronic band structure calculations using the linear-muffin-tin-orbitals (LMTO) techique. 15 refs., 5 figs.

Boettger, J.C.

1988-08-01

398

MARINE RESEARCH Volume 61, Number 5  

E-print Network

Journal of MARINE RESEARCH Volume 61, Number 5 Wave-induced boundary mixing in a partially mixed with the shoaling lateral boundaries. The structure and energy of IWs are diagnosed with a two instability driven by the combination of mean vertical shear and internal-wave shear is thought to be the main

Kelley, Dan

399

SPRING,1993 VOLUME 7, NUMBER 3  

E-print Network

today to a teen-ager leaving home for the first time, off to the adventure of a liberal education? He..-- --- SPRING,1993 Student Lives Mission Viejo Campus More Budget Woes VOLUME 7, NUMBER 3 A Tale, heading for Fullerton where I have an internship in the College Legal Clinic. On Mondays, Tuesday

de Lijser, Peter

400

Sequence Factorial of "g"-Gonal Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The gamma function, which has the property to interpolate the factorial whenever the argument is an integer, is a special case (the case "g"?=?2) of the general term of the sequence factorial of "g"-gonal numbers. In relation to this special case, a formula for calculating the general term of the sequence factorial of any…

Asiru, Muniru A.

2013-01-01

401

Letter Optical quantum random number generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A physical random number generator based on the intrinsic randomness of quantum mechanics is described. The random events are realized by the choice of single photons between the two outputs of a beamsplitter. We present a simple device, which minimizes the impact of the photon counters' noise, dead-time and after pulses.

Andre Stefanov; Nicolas Gisin; Olivier Guinnard; Laurent Guinnard; Hugo Zbinden

2000-01-01

402

Plant Ecology VOLUME 5, NUMBER 1,  

E-print Network

and diversity Da-Yong Zhang1, *, Bo-Yu Zhang2,3 , Kui Lin1 , Xinhua Jiang1 , Yi Tao3 , Stephen Hubbell4 interpretation of the relation between Fisher's a and Hubbell's fundamental biodiversity number. Our model shows

Ostling, Annette

403

Oxidation Numbers in the Study of Metabolism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The calculation and use of oxidation numbers in the study of metabolic reactions are discussed for normal oxidations (alcohol dehydrogenase and the NAD+/NADH couple, propanediol dehydratase) and for enzymatic reactions with a "hidden" redox component (transamination, the coupled conversion of ethylamine to ethanol, and the biomethylation of…

Bentley, Ronald; Franzen, James; Chasteen, Thomas G.

2002-01-01

404

MARINE RESEARCH Volume 66, Number 1  

E-print Network

. 1. Introduction Energy input to the ocean by the wind stress, or wind power, is the main source as the current), the mechanical energy of the ocean is increased. This process represents a transfer of windJournal of MARINE RESEARCH Volume 66, Number 1 Mean energy balance in the tropical Pacific Ocean

405

Chromosome numbers of woody plants from Bulgaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chromosome numbers of 22 woody plants from 25 populations in the Bulgarian flora are reported: Acer monspessulanum, A. tataricum, Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula, Celtis glabrata, Euonymus europaeus, Ligustrum vulgare, Paliurus spina-christi, Populus nigra, Prunus domestica var. instititia, P. spinosa , Pyrus bulgarica, Quercus hartwissiana, Q. petraea, Rosa agrestis, R. canina, Salix alba, S. reticulata, S. rosmarinifolia, S. xanthicola, Sorbus

Ana Petrov; Rayna Natcheva

406

Probability and the Law of Large Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This probability activity guides students to discover the law of large numbers by having them consider why flipping a coin multiple times does not always produce equal results. The activity includes a 3 minute video featuring Bianca from Cyberchase, a document for data collection, and two assessment options (rtf format).

2012-01-01

407

PISOT NUMBERS AND GREEDY ALGORITHM Shigeki Akiyama  

E-print Network

PISOT NUMBERS AND GREEDY ALGORITHM Shigeki Akiyama Niigata University Abstract. We study the greedy purely periodic greedy expansion in Pisot unit base under a certain finiteness condition. 1. Introduction of the form x = N0i ai-i is said to be a greedy expansion if (G) |x - N0iN ai-i |

Akiyama, Shigeki

408

Paper Preview Paper Number 10701-MS  

E-print Network

Paper Preview Paper Number 10701-MS Title A Preliminary Study of In-Situ Combustion in Diatomites Authors Fassihi, Mohammad Reza, Abu-Khamsin, Sidqi, Brigham, William E., Williams, Loretta A., Graham, Steve A. Source SPE Enhanced Oil Recovery Symposium, 4-7 April, Tulsa, Oklahoma Preview Fassihi

Abu-Khamsin, Sidqi

409

Golden Proportions for the Generalized Tribonacci Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is known that the ratios of consecutive terms of Fibonacci and Tribonacci sequences converge to the fixed ratio. In this article, we consider the generalized form of Tribonacci numbers and derive the "golden proportion" for the whole family of this generalized sequence. (Contains 2 tables.)

Shah, Devbhadra V.; Mehta, Darshana A.

2009-01-01

410

FACILITIES AND SERVICES EXCAVATION JOB NUMBER : ______________  

E-print Network

FACILITIES AND SERVICES EXCAVATION JOB NUMBER : ______________ Form No 0/038 Rev. April 2013 Page 1 of 3 APPLICATION FORM FOR CLEARANCE TO EXCAVATE ON PROPERTY OF THE AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL UNIVERSITY Prior to any excavation work being carried out at the AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL UNIVERSITY this form must

Botea, Adi

411

On Campus with Women. Number 11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This occasional newsletter summarizes a variety of activities concerning women on campuses and in the job market across the United States. Topics covered in the newsletter are affirmative action and employment, education of women, coeducation and admissions, and sports. A number of specific reports of activities are found under each topic. For…

Association of American Colleges, Washington, DC. Project on the Status and Education of Women.

412

CSUF Services and Numbers University Police Department  

E-print Network

· Do not trust stranger to watch your personal belongings · Record the make, model, and serial numbers Request 657-278-4308 · Student Health Services 657-278-2800, www.fullerton.edu/shcc · Counseling your cell phone nearby the campus ­ goes directly to our Police dispatch Personal Safety · Program non

de Lijser, Peter

413

Reference Number: LSXXX Job Title: Research Technician  

E-print Network

Reference Number: LSXXX Job Title: Research Technician College: College of Life Sciences School technician position is available immediately in the group of Prof. Daan van Aalten at the College of Life will be interested in training new lab members. Work in the van Aalten lab is focused on the molecular mechanisms

van Aalten, Daan

414

Radical Software. Number Two. The Electromagnetic Spectrum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to foster the innovative uses of television technology, this tabloid format periodical details social, educational, and artistic experiments with television and lists a large number of experimental videotapes available from various television-centered groups and individuals. The principal areas explored in this issue include cable…

Korot, Beryl, Ed.; Gershuny, Phyllis, Ed.

1970-01-01

415

PAIN MEDICINE Volume 4 Number 3 2003  

E-print Network

PAIN MEDICINE Volume 4 · Number 3 · 2003 Individual Differences in the Emotional Reaction to Shock of Psychology, University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma; Department of Psychology, Texas A&M University, College in human participants and subsequently inhibit pain on the hand receiving shocks. The present study

Meagher, Mary

416

Methane number testing of alternative gaseous fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative gaseous fuels, like syn-gas and bio-gas, are attractive fuels for internal combustion engines due to energy and environmental concerns. Although the worldwide use of alternative gaseous fuels has increased, the knock properties of these fuels are not well understood. The methane number (MN) knock rating technique was selected based on its range and sensitivity. Eight alternative gaseous fuel compositions

Martin Malenshek; Daniel B. Olsen

2009-01-01

417

Synesthesia and number cognition in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grapheme-color synesthesia, when achromatic digits evoke an experience of a specific color (photisms), has been shown to be consistent, involuntary, and linked with number concept in adults, yet there have been no comparable investigations with children. We present a systematic study of grapheme-color synesthesia in children aged between 7 and 15 years. Here we show that such children (but not

Jennifer A. K. Green; Usha Goswami

2008-01-01

418

Error-free computation with rational numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for doing error-free computation when the operands are rational numbers. A rational operanda\\/b is mapped onto the integer ¦a·b?1¦p and the arithmetic is performed inGF(p). A method is given for taking an integer result and finding its rational equivalent (the one which corresponds to the correct rational result).

R. T. Gregory

1981-01-01

419

Customer Service Specialist Job Number: 54844874  

E-print Network

and benefits. To view additional opportunities at Baxter and to learn more about the company, please visit ourCustomer Service Specialist Job Number: 54844874 Company Name: Baxter International, Inc Job is accountable for providing superior service to all external customers and Baxter team members. This Customer

Heller, Barbara

420

Algebra Magic- Make your own Numbers Puzzle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an explanation of two number/magic puzzles that can be demystified and explained by using algebra. This resource is from PUMAS - Practical Uses of Math and Science - a collection of brief examples created by scientists and engineers showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes have real world applications.

421

Number Representations Make binary more human friendly  

E-print Network

= f = mantissa = value = Text ­ Characters and Strings · ASCII ­ American Standard Code will typically use in class Benefits of Hex · Real beauty of hex notation is ease with which one can move back # of bits) means we cannot represent every real number exactly · IEEE std. 754 describes a standard form

Chamberlain, Roger

422

ISSN10225439 Volume12Number12002  

E-print Network

ISSN1022­5439 Volume12Number12002 A newsletter from the International Tropical Timber Organization and trade permits for mahogany logs and mahogany timber products amidst allegations of illegality (see TFU mahogany . . . . . . . . . . 15 Policy failure: the accomplice of illegal trade

423

Author Queries JOB NUMBER: MS 232719  

E-print Network

as a region-growing method, we can for example extract the surface of the colon out of a CT scanner, starting do not provide anexcellentcontrastliketheair-filledcolonona CT scanner, and the front usually flowsAuthor Queries JOB NUMBER: MS 232719 JOURNAL: GCMB Q1 We have inserted a running head. Please

Cohen, Laurent

424

COURSE DESCRIPTION Dept., Number CS 4351  

E-print Network

; Internet security. Textbook: Gollmann, D. (2011), Computer Security, 3rd edition. Course Outcomes: Level 3COURSE DESCRIPTION Dept., Number CS 4351 Selected Elective Course Title Computer Security Semester methods of computer security, especially as they relate to confidentiality, integrity, and availability

Kreinovich, Vladik

425

Volume 14, Number XX XX Month 2013  

E-print Network

earth element from the volcanic Andes. Unexpected radiogenic values (eNd reaching ­3.7) are alsoArticle Volume 14, Number XX XX Month 2013 doi:10.1029/GC004309 ISSN: 1525-2027 Rare earth element Midi-Pyrénées, Toulouse, France [1] Three vertical profiles of rare earth element concentrations and Nd

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

426

Very high Mach number shocks: theory  

SciTech Connect

The theory and simulation of collisionless perpendicular supercritical shock structure is reviewed, with major emphasis on recent research results. The primary tool of investigation is the hybrid simulation method, in which the Newtonian orbits of a large number of ion macroparticles are followed numerically, and in which the electrons are treated as a charge neutralizing fluid. The principal results to be presented are (1) electron resistivity is not required to explain the observed quasi-stationarity of the earth's bow shock, (2) the structure of the perpendicular shock at very high Mach numbers (M/sub A/ approx. = 15 - 20 and ..beta.. approx. = 1, where M/sub A/ is the Alfven Mach number of the shock and ..beta.. is the ratio of the thermal to magnetic pressure) depends sensitively on the upstream ..beta.. and electron resistivity, (3) two-dimensional turbulence will become increasingly important as the Mach number is increased, and (4) non-adiabatic bulk electron heating will result when a thermal electron cannot complete a gyro-orbit while transiting the shock. 32 refs., 13 figs.

Quest, K.B.

1986-01-01

427

On the Number and Size of Nations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the equilibrium determination of the number of countries in different political regimes, and in different economic environments, with more or less economic integration. The authors focus on the trade-off between the benefits of large jurisdictions and the costs of heterogeneity of large and diverse populations. Their model implies that (1) democratization leads to secessions; (2) in equilibrium

Alberto Alesina; Enrico Spolaore

1997-01-01

428

Computation of Semantic Number from Morphological Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The distinction between singular and plural enters into linguistic phenomena such as morphology, lexical semantics, and agreement and also must interface with perceptual and conceptual systems that assess numerosity in the world. Three experiments examine the computation of semantic number for singulars and plurals from the morphological…

Berent, Iris; Pinker, Steven; Tzelgov, Joseph; Bibi, Uri; Goldfarb, Liat

2005-01-01

429

MARINE RESEARCH Volume 61, Number 1  

E-print Network

Journal of MARINE RESEARCH Volume 61, Number 1 On the thermohaline circulation in flat bottom marginal seas by Michael A. Spall1 ABSTRACT The thermohaline circulation in an idealized marginal sea and the downwelling limb of the thermohaline circulation. 1. Department of Physical Oceanography, Woods Hole

430

Complex Network Approach to Number Theory  

E-print Network

In this short paper, following the most recent advances in complex network theory, a new approach to number theory with potential applications to other fields is proposed. The model by Garcia-P\\'erez, Serrano and Bogu\\~n\\'a, introduces an algorithm which allows to create a bipartite graph of integers (with primes and composites) statistically very close to the real one. Since the algorithm is defined a priori, we can have a description of the simulated prime number distribution in terms of a known differential equation, which in general can be treated more easily. The so determined properties of the simulated distribution can give useful hints about the behavior of the real prime number distribution. In principle it could be also possible to demonstrate open questions in number theory, proven the total equivalence of the simulated and real distributions. We show that the model by Garcia-P\\'erez, Serrano and Bogu\\~n\\'a, though very good to describe the architecture of the relations among composites and primes,...

Vilone, Daniele

2014-01-01

431

University System of Maryland Policy Number 510162  

E-print Network

University System of Maryland Policy Number 510162 Long Term Disability Income Protection Insurance. Your Plan Eligibility All permanent employees of the University System of Maryland (and contractual Taxation The taxability of benefits depends on how premium was taxed during the plan year in which you

Adali, Tulay

432

Cost Center: 9417 Job Number: 5501  

E-print Network

Cost Center: 9417 Job Number: 5501 Job Title: Coil Bus Runs Job Manager: Mark Smith Estimate (user 33 Busbar System Design 34 Analysis / Calculations: EM, Stress, Thermal 35 Assembly and Detailed / Calculations: EM, Stress, Thermal 40 Assembly and Detailed drawings ready for FDR 12 5% 2,4,9,11 41 42 TF Bus

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

433

Representing Fractions on a Number Line  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this formative assessment lesson (PDF) students learn to represent fractions on a number line. This multi-part lesson is based upon a story problem involving six friends swimming a 1-mile race in a lake. Included in the lesson is a pre-assessment, two versions of the lesson task, an assessment, and suggested feedback based on student errors.

Ray, Jenny

2012-04-26

434

Early Concepts of Number and Counting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Before primitive man had grasped the concept of number, the written word or even speech, he was able to count. This was important for keeping track of food supplies, sending messages, trading between villages and even keeping track of how many animals were in their herd. Counting was done in various ways, but in all cases, the underlying principle…

Box, Katherine; Scott, Paul

2004-01-01

435

University Admissions. Policy Note. Number 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University admissions, like many other aspects of the higher education sector, are going through a time of significant change. From 2012, universities will receive full funding under the Commonwealth Grants Scheme (CGS) for as many places as they offer. Previously, the Government limited the number of funded places, with a tolerance band for…

Group of Eight (NJ1), 2012

2012-01-01

436

Research Letter Volume 11, Number 7  

E-print Network

margins show fundamental along axis segmentation patterns that have been attributed to one or a number are well exposed onshore and covered by thin sediment layers offshore. This obliquely spreading rift that this small scale variability may be explained (1) by the distribution of volcanism and (2) by the along

Demouchy, Sylvie

437

Research Letter Volume 11, Number 7  

E-print Network

alongaxis segmentation patterns that have been attributed to one or a number of different processes are well exposed onshore and covered by thin sediment layers offshore. This obliquely spreading rift that this smallscale variability may be explained (1) by the distribution of volcanism and (2) by the alongstrike

Boyer, Edmond

438

Course Syllabus COURSE NUMBER: NURS 553  

E-print Network

#12;#12;1 Course Syllabus COURSE NUMBER: NURS 553 COURSE TITLE: Practicum in Organizational Systems & Leadership CREDIT HOURS: 3 (1 theory; 2 practicum) COURSE FORMAT Hybrid course (on-campus, in-class, and online activities) CLINICAL/PRACTICUM REQUIREMENTS: This course requires the completion of a minimum

Collins, Gary S.

439

Course Syllabus COURSE NUMBER: NURS 512  

E-print Network

learning management system Angel (see below). The success of the course in meeting your learning needs#12;#12;#12;1 Course Syllabus COURSE NUMBER: NURS 512 COURSE TITLE: Practicum in Interprofessional Collaboration CREDIT HOURS: 2 CLINICAL/PRACTICUM REQUIREMENTS: This course requires the completion of a minimum

Collins, Gary S.

440

Quantum abacus for counting and factorizing numbers  

SciTech Connect

We generalize the binary quantum counting algorithm of Lesovik, Suslov, and Blatter [Phys. Rev. A 82, 012316 (2010)] to higher counting bases. The algorithm makes use of qubits, qutrits, and qudits to count numbers in a base-2, base-3, or base-d representation. In operating the algorithm, the number nnumber n in the base-d representation; the inverse transformation is fully quantum at the level of individual qudits, while a simpler semiclassical version can be used on the level of qudit registers. Combining registers of qubits, qutrits, and qudits, where d is a prime number, with a simpler single-shot measurement allows us to find the powers of 2, 3, and other primes d in the number n. We show that the counting task naturally leads to the shift operation and an algorithm based on the quantum Fourier transformation. We discuss possible implementations of the algorithm using quantum spin-d systems, d-well systems, and their emulation with spin-1/2 or double-well systems. We establish the analogy between our counting algorithm and the phase estimation algorithm and make use of the latter's performance analysis in stabilizing our scheme. Applications embrace a quantum metrological scheme to measure voltage (an analog to digital converter) and a simple procedure to entangle multiparticle states.

Suslov, M. V. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Institutskii per. 9, 141700 Dolgoprudny, Moscow District (Russian Federation); R and D Department, NIX Computer Company, Zvezdniy boulevard 19, 129085 Moscow (Russian Federation); Lesovik, G. B. [L. D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117940 Moscow (Russian Federation); Blatter, G. [Theoretische Physik, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)

2011-05-15

441

Journal of Crystal Growth 230 (2001) 6372 Effect of axial magnetic field on three-dimensional instability  

E-print Network

of the dependence of the critical Grashof number Grcr on the Hartmann number Ha for fixed values of the Prandtl number (Pr=0.015) and the aspect ratio of the cylinder (A=height/radius=1, 2 and 3) is carried out to the Rayleigh­ B!enard configuration, i.e. isothermal top and bottom and thermally insulated side boundary

Gelfgat, Alexander

442

Courant Number and Mach Number Insensitive CE/SE Euler Solvers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been known that the space-time CE/SE method can be used to obtain ID, 2D, and 3D steady and unsteady flow solutions with Mach numbers ranging from 0.0028 to 10. However, it is also known that a CE/SE solution may become overly dissipative when the Mach number is very small. As an initial attempt to remedy this weakness, new 1D Courant number and Mach number insensitive CE/SE Euler solvers are developed using several key concepts underlying the recent successful development of Courant number insensitive CE/SE schemes. Numerical results indicate that the new solvers are capable of resolving crisply a contact discontinuity embedded in a flow with the maximum Mach number = 0.01.

Chang, Sin-Chung

2005-01-01

443

Detection of Chern numbers and entanglement in topological two-species systems through subsystem winding numbers  

E-print Network

Topological invariants, such as the Chern number, characterise topological phases of matter. Here we provide a method to detect Chern numbers in systems with two distinct species of fermion, such as spins, orbitals or several atomic states. We analytically show that the Chern number can be decomposed as a sum of component specific winding numbers, which are themselves physically observable. We apply this method to two systems, the quantum spin Hall insulator and a staggered topological superconductor, and show that (spin) Chern numbers are accurately reproduced. The measurements required for constructing the component winding numbers also enable one to probe the entanglement spectrum with respect to component partitions. Our method is particularly suited to experiments with cold atoms in optical lattices where time-of-flight images can give direct access to the relevant observables.

James de Lisle; Suvabrata De; Emilio Alba; Alex Bullivant; Juan J. Garcia-Ripoll; Ville Lahtinen; Jiannis K. Pachos

2014-02-13

444

On the average number of power residues modulo a composite number  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the behaviour of the quantities a_{n}(q) and b_{n}(q), that is, the number of nth power residues in the reduced and complete residue systems modulo a composite number q, respectively, where n\\ge2 is an arbitrary fixed number. In particular, we prove asymptotic formulae for the sum functions A_{n}(x) and B_{n}(x) of these quantities.

Korolev, Maxim A.

2010-12-01

445

Alphabetic number systems (Greek and Hebrew) and multiplicative number systems (Greek acrophonic system)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this session you will learn about the Greek acrophonic and alphabetic systems and the Hebrew number system. Greek acrophonic system was a very long way of writing numbers. The number 849 consists of 13 characters. The acrophonic system took up too much space and was difficult to write since people were carving in stone at that time. To fix this problem the Greeks thought of using ...

Nunes-Bufford, Mrs.

2008-12-01

446

On the relation between grammatical number and cardinal numbers in development  

PubMed Central

This mini-review focuses on the question of how the grammatical number system of a child’s language may help the child learn the meanings of cardinal number words (e.g., “one” and “two”). Evidence from young children learning English, Russian, Japanese, Mandarin, Slovenian, or Saudi Arabic suggests that trajectories of number-word learning differ for children learning different languages. Children learning English, which distinguishes between singular and plural, seem to learn the meaning of the cardinal number “one” earlier than children learning Japanese or Mandarin, which have very little singular/plural marking. Similarly, children whose languages have a singular/dual/plural system (Slovenian and Saudi Arabic) learn the meaning of “two” earlier than English-speaking children. This relation between grammatical and cardinal number may shed light on how humans acquire cardinal-number concepts. There is an ongoing debate about whether mental symbols for small cardinalities (concepts for “oneness,” “twoness,” etc.) are innate or learned. Although an effect of grammatical number on number-word learning does not rule out nativist accounts, it seems more consistent with constructivist accounts, which portray the number-learning process as one that requires significant conceptual change. PMID:25346709

Sarnecka, Barbara W.

2014-01-01

447

Natural convection in a semielliptic cavity  

SciTech Connect

Natural convective steady-state motion inside a bidimensional semielliptic cavity is investigated numerically by means of a finite-element algorithm. The ceiling of the cavity is kept at a known temperature with a sinusoidal spatial distribution and the floor is assumed thermally insulated. A parametric study is carried out by varying the aspect ratio and the Grashof number. The convective motion is found to be composed of a main cell plus two small corner cells, one of which disappears at high Grashof numbers or aspects ratios. Heat is transferred mainly across the upper part of the cavity, the lower portion remaining essentially isothermal.

Del Campo, E.M.; Sen, M.; Ramos, E.

1987-01-01

448

Reynolds number criticality in dynamic tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To extrapolate from subscale wind tunnel tests to full-scale flight is a well-recognized problem. It becomes especially critical for present day high performance missiles and aircraft which operate at high angles of attack where separated flow effects often dominate the vehicle aerodynamics. The dynamic effects of flow separation can usually not be simulated at subscale Reynolds numbers. This is illustrated by examples of tests with slender vehicles and high performance aircraft. It is shown how analytic means can be developed establishing theoretical relationships between dynamic and static aerodynamic characteristics and how such means make it possible to extrapolate analytically from subscale tests to full-scale flight. The roll of future high Reynolds number facilities in establishing such 'analytic extrapolation' tools is discussed.

Ericsson, L. E.; Reding, J. P.

1978-01-01

449

Low Reynolds number, long endurance aircraft design  

SciTech Connect

Airplanes are typically designed to maximize range at the highest practical cruising speed. However, several missions require extended duration rather than range, and favor the slowest possible cruise speed. Such missions include surveillance, radio relay, and ship's electronic decoy. These missions are ideally suited for advanced technology unmanned aircraft, either remotely piloted or autonomous. Feasibility studies have been conducted and flight demonstrator prototypes of such unique aircraft have been under steady research and development at the Naval Research Laboratory since 1978. This paper discusses the design aspects and tradeoffs unique to small, slow speed long endurance unmanned aircraft operating at wing chord Reynolds numbers between 150,000 and 500,000. Additionally, many of these low Reynolds number-driven design features have applicability to high altitude, long endurance aircraft. 6 refs.

Foch, R.J.; Ailinger, K.G. (U.S. Navy, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States))

1992-02-01

450

An introduction to the Hilger quaternion numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The classical time scales calculus used in applied mathematics was originated as the result of investigating calculus of variations on time scales. It was introduced by its originator Stefan Hilger in the late eighties as an attempt to unify continuous and discrete problems in one theory. The main purpose of this paper is to introduce the Hilger quaternion numbers and deduce some of their fundamental properties. We extend the definitions of Hilger pure imaginary number, Hilger real axis, the Hilger alternating axis, and the Hilger imaginary circle within this context. We further introduce a generalized cylinder transformation to give a definition of the quaternionic exponential function on time scales. To the best of our knowledge, this does not appear to have been done in literature before.

Georgiev, S.; Morais, J.

2013-10-01

451

Number Patterns Fun with Curves & Topology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Educational consultant and textbook author Jill Britton is the author of these metasites listing Web resources for grade 5-8 mathematics. Each metasite revolves around a certain topic. For instance, the first site, Number Patterns Fun with Curves & Topology, is an index of eighteen subtopics such as prime numbers, the golden ratio, Pascal's Triangle, mazes and maps, etc. Under each subtopic, an annotated list of Web resources (from other authors and organizations) points to tutorials and fun activities for students as well as printable activity sheets and lesson plans for teachers. Other types of links given on these pages are to merchants selling educational materials, sites on the history of mathematics, and activities with holiday themes.

Britton, Jill.

2001-01-01

452

Bridge condition assessment using D numbers.  

PubMed

Bridge condition assessment is a complex problem influenced by many factors. The uncertain environment increases more its complexity. Due to the uncertainty in the process of assessment, one of the key problems is the representation of assessment results. Though there exists many methods that can deal with uncertain information, however, they have more or less deficiencies. In this paper, a new representation of uncertain information, called D numbers, is presented. It extends the Dempster-Shafer theory. By using D numbers, a new method is developed for the bridge condition assessment. Compared to these existing methods, the proposed method is simpler and more effective. An illustrative case is given to show the effectiveness of the new method. PMID:24696639

Deng, Xinyang; Hu, Yong; Deng, Yong

2014-01-01

453

Finite-particle-number approach to physics  

SciTech Connect

Starting from a discrete, self-generating and self-organizing, recursive model and self-consistent interpretive rules we construct: the scale constants of physics (3,10,137,1.7x10/sup 38/); 3+1 Minkowski space with a discrete metric and the algebraic bound ..delta.. is an element of ..delta.. tau is greater than or equal to 1; the Einstein-deBroglie relation; algebraic double slit interference; a single-time momentum-space scattering theory connected to laboratory experience; an approximation to wave functions; local phase severance and hence both distant correlations and separability; baryon number, lepton number, charge and helicity; m/sub p//m/sub e/; a cosmology not in disagreement with current observations.

Noyes, H.P.

1982-10-01

454

Dynamic imagery in children's representations of number  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An exploratory study of 77 high ability Grade 5 and 6 children investigated links between their understanding of the numeration system and their representations of the counting sequence 1-100. Analysis of children's explanations, and pictorial and notational recordings of the numbers 1-100 revealed three dimensions of external representation—pictorial, ikonic, or notational characteristics—thus providing evidence of creative structural development of the number system, and evidence for the static or dynamic nature of the internal representation. Our observations indicated that children used a wide variety of internal images of which about 30% were dynamic internal representations. Children with a high level of understanding of the numeration system showed evidence of both structure and dynamic imagery in their representations.

Thomas, Noel; Mulligan, Joanne

1995-04-01

455

Bridge Condition Assessment Using D Numbers  

PubMed Central

Bridge condition assessment is a complex problem influenced by many factors. The uncertain environment increases more its complexity. Due to the uncertainty in the process of assessment, one of the key problems is the representation of assessment results. Though there exists many methods that can deal with uncertain information, however, they have more or less deficiencies. In this paper, a new representation of uncertain information, called D numbers, is presented. It extends the Dempster-Shafer theory. By using D numbers, a new method is developed for the bridge condition assessment. Compared to these existing methods, the proposed method is simpler and more effective. An illustrative case is given to show the effectiveness of the new method. PMID:24696639

Hu, Yong

2014-01-01

456

Sampling numbers of embeddings of Besov spaces  

E-print Network

â??ďż˝ral, FSU Jena #12; Motivation Approximation of functions in Sobolev space W k p(##inLp­norm ||f - Snf |Lp(## || worst­case error: e(Sn , id : W k p # Lp) = sup{||f-Snf |Lp || : ||f |W k p || # 1} Approximation p # Lp) = inf e(Sn , id) Snf = n # j=1 f(x j )h j , x j ## , h j # Lp(## Sampling numbers: gn(id : W

Novak, Erich

457

Chromosome numbers and polyploidy in Orobanche (Orobanchaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosome numbers are reported for 48 collections representing ten species (and five subspecies) ofOrobanche of western North America. Two species of sect.Gymnocaulis have 2n = 48; previous counts are 2n = 36 and 72 for one of these species. In sect.Nothaphyllon eight species have 2n = 48 and three of these (O. cooperi, O. corymbosa, O. parishii) also have 2n

L. R. Heckard; T. I. Chuang

1975-01-01

458

Laser interrogation of latent vehicle registration number  

SciTech Connect

A recent investigation involved automobile registration numbers as important evidentiary specimens. In California, as in most states, small, thin metallic decals are issued to owners of vehicles each year as the registration is renewed. The decals are applied directly to the license plate of the vehicle and typically on top of the previous year`s expired decal. To afford some degree of security, the individual registration decals have been designed to tear easily; they cannot be separated from each other, but can be carefully removed intact from the metal license plate by using a razor blade. In September 1993, the City of Livermore Police Department obtained a blue 1993 California decal that had been placed over an orange 1992 decal. The two decals were being investigated as possible evidence in a case involving vehicle registration fraud. To confirm the suspicion and implicate a suspect, the department needed to known the registration number on the bottom (completely covered) 1992 decal. The authors attempted to use intense and directed light to interrogate the colored stickers. Optical illumination using a filtered white-light source partially identified the latent number. However, the most successful technique used a tunable dye laser pumped by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. By selectively tuning the wavelength and intensity of the dye laser, backlit illumination of the decals permitted visualization of the underlying registration number through the surface of the top sticker. With optimally-tuned wavelength and intensity, 100% accuracy was obtained in identifying the sequence of latent characters. The advantage of optical techniques is their completely nondestructive nature, thus preserving the evidence for further interrogation or courtroom presentation.

Russo, R.E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Forensic Science Center; Pelkey, G.E. [City of Livermore Police Dept., CA (United States); Grant, P.; Whipple, R.E.; Andresen, B.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Forensic Science Center

1994-09-01

459

Texas Rice, Volume VI, Number 3  

E-print Network

crops. For example, GA application often increases the fruit size of grapes, signifi- cantly increasing berry weight by 60% compared with un- treated controls. Gibberellin has been commercially used for many years on the popular ‘Thompson Seed- less...’ table grapes for this purpose. Gibberellin also in- creases the number of retained ovaries in ‘Carignane’ grapes. Our research suggests that GA application during grain fill of the main crop can increase ratoon-crop yield by promoting tiller vigor...

460

Chromosome number variation in two antipodean floras  

PubMed Central

Background and aims We compared chromosome number (CN) variation in the nearly antipodean Italian and New Zealand floras to verify (i) whether patterns of variation reflect their similar latitudinal ranges or their different biogeographic/taxonomic contexts, (ii) if any differences are equally distributed across major taxa/lineages and (iii) if the frequency, number and taxonomic distribution of B-chromosomes differ between the two countries. Methodology We compared two datasets comprising 3426 (Italy) and 2525 (New Zealand) distinct cytotypes. We also compared a subset based on taxonomic orders and superimposed them onto a phylogeny of vascular plants. We used standard statistics, histograms, and either analysis of variance or Kruskal–Wallis tests to analyse the data. Principal results Mean CN of the vascular New Zealand flora is about twice that of Italy. For most orders, mean CN values for New Zealand are higher than those of the Italian flora and the differences are statistically significant. Further differences in CN variation among the orders and main clades that we studied, irrespective of geographical distinctions, are revealed. No correlation was found between chromosome and B-chromosome number. Conclusions Mean CN of the whole New Zealand dataset is about twice that of the Italian flora. This suggests that extensive polyploidization played a major role in the evolution of the New Zealand vascular flora that is characterized by a rate of high endemism. Our results show that the hypothesis of a polyploid increase proportional to distance from the Equator cannot be applied to territories with the same latitudinal ranges but placed in different hemispheres. We suggest that bioclimatic gradients, rather than or in addition to latitudinal gradients, might account for a polyploidy increase. Our data also suggest that any adaptive role of B-chromosomes at geographic scale may be sought in their frequency rather than in their number. PMID:22476490

Peruzzi, Lorenzo; Dawson, Murray I.; Bedini, Gianni

2011-01-01

461

Linking numbers, spin, and statistics of solitons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spin and statistics of solitons in the (2 + 1)- and (3 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear sigma models is considered. For the (2 + 1)-dimensional case, there is the possibility of fractional spin and exotic statistics; for 3 + 1 dimensions, the usual spin-statistics relation is demonstrated. The linking-number interpretation of the Hopf invariant and the use of suspension considerably simplify the analysis.

Wilczek, F.; Zee, A.

1983-01-01

462

Texas Rice, Volume VII, Number 2  

E-print Network

Texas A&M University System Agricultural Research and Extension Center Beaumont, Texas April 2007 Volume VII Number 2 Texas Rice Latest News on the Farm Bill continued on page 6 Agriculture Secretary, Mike Johanns, appears... to be poised to break with tradition by becoming the first secretary in recent history to submit a farm bill to Congress. Whether the draft bill gets more than a cursory review remains to be seen. Previous administrations have sent farm bill proposals...

463

The quantum numbers of the ?-meson  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In the analysis of the experimental material concerning the 3-pion resonance state, called ?-meson, theG-parity is an important quantum number. If only states with spin <2 are considered, eight states have to be discussed. Only\\u000a the symmetries 0?+ and 1?? seem to be compatible with the available material. The Dalitz plot favours slightly the symmetry 1??; the small width of

H.-P. Duerr; W. Heisenberg

1962-01-01

464

Photon arrival time quantum random number generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an efficient random number generator based on the randomness present in photon emission and detection. The interval between successive photons from a light source with Poissonian statistics is separated into individual time bins, which are then used to create several random bits per detection event. Using a single-photon counter and FPGA-based data processing allows for a cost-efficient and

MICHAEL ALAN WAYNE; Evan R. Jeffrey; Gleb M. Akselrod; Paul G. Kwiat

2009-01-01

465

Detecting Prime Numbers via Roots of Polynomials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is proved that an integer n [greater than or equal] 2 is a prime (resp., composite) number if and only if there exists exactly one (resp., more than one) nth-degree monic polynomial f with coefficients in Z[subscript n], the ring of integers modulo n, such that each element of Z[subscript n] is a root of f. This classroom note could find use in…

Dobbs, David E.

2012-01-01

466

Novel quantum numbers in condensed matter physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physics understanding novel quantum numbers in condensed matter physics are discussed. Examples are given from the fields of conducting quasi-one-dimensional conductors 3He–A and the fractional quantum Hall effect. A common feature of these systems is a symmetry breaking whose under parameter describes a discrete symmetry breaking. This lead to flow of charge in the vacuum without excitation of carriers

J. R. Schrieffer

2004-01-01

467

Integer Addition and Subtraction (Number Line Model)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Java learning tool, which was constructed using the cross-platform open educational resource GeoGebra, allows a teacher to demonstrate and explore addition and subtraction of integers from -10 to 10 with a number line model with students. Users can change the values of the first and second term using sliders. Another option models subtraction of the first term, for example, - (-4) + (-5). Check boxes allow users to show each expression, model, and answer individually.

2010-09-16

468

Large numbers hypothesis. I - Classical formalism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A self-consistent formulation of physics at the classical level embodying Dirac's large numbers hypothesis (LNH) is developed based on units covariance. A scalar 'field' phi(x) is introduced and some fundamental results are derived from the resultant equations. Some unusual properties of phi are noted such as the fact that phi cannot be the correspondence limit of a normal quantum scalar field.

Adams, P. J.

1982-01-01

469

Statistical Applets: Law of Large Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by authors Duckworth, McCabe, Moore and Sclove for W.H. Freeman and Co., this applet is designed to help students understand the Law of Large Numbers by simulating rolling dice. The applet graphs the mean of the sum of the rolls for user specified conditions. This applet accompanies "Practice of Business Statistics;" however, it can be used without this text. Even though brief, this is still a nice interactive resource for an introductory statistics course.

Duckworth, William; Mccabe, George; Moore, David; Sclove, Stanley

2009-03-06

470

14 CFR 47.15 - Registration number.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1...manufacturer who applies for a group of U.S. registration...registration number under § 47.16. (1) Aircraft not previously...in accordance with § 47.37(b) or the applicant's...47-1, 31 FR 13314, Oct. 14, 1966; Amdt. 47-5, 32 FR 13505, Sept. 27, 1967; Amdt. 47-7, 34 FR 2480, Feb. 21, 1969; Amdt. 47-13, 36 FR......

2012-01-01

471

14 CFR 47.15 - Identification number.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1...manufacturer who applies for a group of U.S. identification...registration number under § 47.16. (1) Aircraft not previously...registration in accordance with § 47.37(b) or the applicant's affidavit...47-1, 31 FR 13314, Oct. 14, 1966; Amdt. 47-5, 32 FR 13505, Sept. 27, 1967; Amdt. 47-7, 34 FR 2480, Feb. 21, 1969; Amdt.......

2010-01-01

472

14 CFR 47.15 - Registration number.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1...manufacturer who applies for a group of U.S. registration...registration number under § 47.16. (1) Aircraft not previously...in accordance with § 47.37(b) or the applicant's...47-1, 31 FR 13314, Oct. 14, 1966; Amdt. 47-5, 32 FR 13505, Sept. 27, 1967; Amdt. 47-7, 34 FR 2480, Feb. 21, 1969; Amdt. 47-13, 36 FR......

2011-01-01

473

14 CFR 47.15 - Registration number.  

14 Aeronautics and Space 1...manufacturer who applies for a group of U.S. registration...registration number under § 47.16. (1) Aircraft not previously...in accordance with § 47.37(b) or the applicant's...47-1, 31 FR 13314, Oct. 14, 1966; Amdt. 47-5, 32 FR 13505, Sept. 27, 1967; Amdt. 47-7, 34 FR 2480, Feb. 21, 1969; Amdt. 47-13, 36 FR......

2014-01-01

474

14 CFR 47.15 - Registration number.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1...manufacturer who applies for a group of U.S. registration...registration number under § 47.16. (1) Aircraft not previously...in accordance with § 47.37(b) or the applicant's...47-1, 31 FR 13314, Oct. 14, 1966; Amdt. 47-5, 32 FR 13505, Sept. 27, 1967; Amdt. 47-7, 34 FR 2480, Feb. 21, 1969; Amdt. 47-13, 36 FR......

2013-01-01

475

Fractions on the number line (grade 3)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a sample PARCC assessment task based on CCSS grade 3 fraction standards. In this interactive five-part task students reason about fractions used to represent part of a whole or a location on a number line, compare fractions with and without models, and construct arguments to defend their decisions. Included are the alignments to the CCSS, a scoring rubric, and background on the task itself.

2013-01-01

476

A Pentagonal Number Sieve Sylvie Corteel \\Lambda  

E-print Network

the field GF (q), then the probability that f; g are relatively prime is 1 \\Gamma 1=q. We give explicit such as the following. First, the number of pairs of partitions of n that have no parts in common is p(n) 2 \\Gamma p(n \\Gamma 1) 2 \\Gamma p(n \\Gamma 2) 2 + p(n \\Gamma 5) 2 + p(n \\Gamma 7) 2 \\Gamma : : : : Second, if two

Savage, Carla D.

477

Texas Rice, Volume 1, Number 7  

E-print Network

Texas A&M University System Agricultural Research and Extension Center Beaumont, Texas September 2001 Volume I Number 7 Texas Rice Integrated Pest Management: A Historical Perspective Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a management.... Registration materials can be obtained by calling the USA Rice Federation at 800-888-7423 or visit their website at www.usarice.com. * Texas A&M University System Agricultural Research and Extension Center 1509 Aggie Dr. Beaumont, TX 77713 NONPROFIT ORG. U...

478

Rational Number Project: Initial Fraction Ideas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Twenty-eight lesson plans make up this research-based fourth and fifth grade fraction curriculum. It includes a teacher guide with theoretical framework and instructions and templates for making manipulatives. The Rational Number Project is an NSF-funded multi-university research project, and originally published this series of lessons in 1997 as "Fraction Lessons for the Middle Grades Level 1". This is an updated version, aligned to NCTM Standards for 2000.

Cramer, Kathleen; Behr, Merlyn; Post, Thomas; Lesh, Richard

2009-01-01

479

Semantics and the Number of English Sentences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has long been said that there are an infinite number of English sentences. "This is the cat that caught the rat" is an Enqlish sentence. So is "This is the cat that caught the rat that stole the cheese.""This is the cat with white paws that caught the rat that stole the cheese" is unobjectionable as well. Since a clear cutoff point cannot be…

Bjurlof, Thomas; Jamieson, Dale

480

Low-Reynolds-number swimming at pycnoclines.  

PubMed

Microorganisms play pivotal functions in the trophic dynamics and biogeochemistry of aquatic ecosystems. Their concentrations and activities often peak at localized hotspots, an important example of which are pycnoclines, where water density increases sharply with depth due to gradients in temperature or salinity. At pycnoclines organisms are exposed to different environmental conditions compared to the bulk water column, including reduced turbulence, slow mass transfer, and high particle and predator concentrations. Here we show that, at an even more fundamental level, the density stratification itself can affect microbial ecology at pycnoclines, by quenching the flow signature, increasing the energetic expenditure, and stifling the nutrient uptake of motile organisms. We demonstrate this through numerical simulations of an archetypal low-Reynolds-number swimmer, the "squirmer." We identify the Richardson number--the ratio of buoyancy forces to viscous forces--as the fundamental parameter that quantifies the effects of stratification. These results demonstrate an unexpected effect of buoyancy on low-Reynolds-number swimming, potentially affecting a broad range of abundant organisms living at pycnoclines in oceans and lakes. PMID:22355147

Doostmohammadi, Amin; Stocker, Roman; Ardekani, Arezoo M

2012-03-01

481

Identification of copy number variants in horses.  

PubMed

Copy number variants (CNVs) represent a substantial source of genetic variation in mammals. However, the occurrence of CNVs in horses and their subsequent impact on phenotypic variation is unknown. We performed a study to identify CNVs in 16 horses representing 15 distinct breeds (Equus caballus) and an individual gray donkey (Equus asinus) using a whole-exome tiling array and the array comparative genomic hybridization methodology. We identified 2368 CNVs ranging in size from 197 bp to 3.5 Mb. Merging identical CNVs from each animal yielded 775 CNV regions (CNVRs), involving 1707 protein- and RNA-coding genes. The number of CNVs per animal ranged from 55 to 347, with median and mean sizes of CNVs of 5.3 kb and 99.4 kb, respectively. Approximately 6% of the genes investigated were affected by a CNV. Biological process enrichment analysis indicated CNVs primarily affected genes involved in sensory perception, signal transduction, and metabolism. CNVs also were identified in genes regulating blood group antigens, coat color, fecundity, lactation, keratin formation, neuronal homeostasis, and height in other species. Collectively, these data are the first report of copy number variation in horses and suggest that CNVs are common in the horse genome and may modulate biological processes underlying different traits observed among horses and horse breeds. PMID:22383489

Doan, Ryan; Cohen, Noah; Harrington, Jessica; Veazey, Kylee; Veazy, Kylee; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, Gus; McCue, Molly E; Skow, Loren; Dindot, Scott V

2012-05-01

482

Vertebrate kinetochore protein architecture: protein copy number  

PubMed Central

To define the molecular architecture of the kinetochore in vertebrate cells, we measured the copy number of eight kinetochore proteins that link kinetochore microtubules (MTs [kMTs]) to centromeric DNA. We used a fluorescence ratio method and chicken DT40 cell lines in which endogenous loci encoding the analyzed proteins were deleted and complemented using integrated green fluorescent protein fusion transgenes. For a mean of 4.3 kMTs at metaphase, the protein copy number per kMT is between seven and nine for members of the MT-binding KNL-1/Mis12 complex/Ndc80 complex network. It was between six and nine for four members of the constitutive centromere-associated network: centromere protein C (CENP-C), CENP-H, CENP-I, and CENP-T. The similarity in copy number per kMT for all of these proteins suggests that each MT end is linked to DNA by six to nine fibrous unit attachment modules in vertebrate cells, a conclusion that indicates architectural conservation between multiple MT-binding vertebrate and single MT-binding budding yeast kinetochores. PMID:20548100

Johnston, Katherine; Joglekar, Ajit; Hori, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Aussie; Fukagawa, Tatsuo

2010-01-01

483

Algebra, Number Theory and Combinatorics (ANTC) (Program Description)  

NSF Publications Database

... of Mathematical Sciences Algebra, Number Theory and Combinatorics (ANTC) Description Supports ... linear algebra; number theory, including algebraic, analytic number theory, arithmetic geometry ...

484

Preston Probe Calibrations at High Reynolds Number  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall goal of the research effort is to study the performance of two Preston probes designed by NASA Langley Research Center across an unprecedented range of Reynolds number (based on friction velocity and probe diameter), and perform an accurate calibration over the same Reynolds number range. Using the Superpipe facility in Princeton, two rounds of experiments were performed. In each round of experiments for each Reynolds number, the pressure gradient, static pressure from the Preston probes and the total pressure from the Preston probes were measured. In the first round, 3 Preston probes having outer diameters of 0.058 inches, 0.083 inches and 0.203 inches were tested over a large range of pipe Reynolds numbers. Two data reduction methods were employed: first, the static pressure measured on the Preston probe was used to calculate P (modified Preston probe configuration), and secondly, the static pressure measured at the reference pressure tap was used to calculate P (un-modified Preston probe configuration). For both methods, the static pressure was adjusted to correspond with the static pressure at the Preston probe tip using the pressure gradient. The measurements for Preston probes with diameters of 0.058 inches, and 0.083 inches respectively were performed in the test pipe before it was polished a second time. Therefore, the measurements at high pipe Reynolds numbers may have been affected by roughness. In the second round of experiments the 0.058 inches and 0.083 inches diameter, un-modified probes were tested after the pipe was polished and prepared to ensure that the surface was smooth. The average velocity was estimated by assuming that the connection between the centerline velocity and the average velocity was known, and by using a Pitot tube to measure the centerline velocity. A preliminary error estimate suggests that it is possible to introduce a 1% to 2% error in estimating the average velocity using this approach. The evidence on the errors attending the second data set is somewhat circumstantial, and the measurements have not been repeated using a better approach, it seems probable that the correlation given applies to un-modified Preston probes over the range 6.4 less than x* less than 11.3.

Smits, Alexander J.

1998-01-01

485

76 FR 79607 - Local Number Portability Porting Interval and Validation Requirements; Telephone Number Portability  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...when the new service provider requests a CSR: any working telephone number associated...provider requests a Customer Service Record (CSR). Best Practice 70 provides that the transferring...when the new service provider requests a CSR: any working telephone number...

2011-12-22

486

Language and Number Values: The Influence of Number Names on Children's Understanding of Place Value  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, the idea of language influencing the cognitive development of an understanding of place value has received increasing attention. This study explored the influence of using explicit number names on pre-kindergarten and kindergarten students' ability to rote count, read two-digit numerals, model two-digit numbers, and identify the…

Browning, Sandra T.; Beauford, Judith E.

2012-01-01

487

Genetic Association Studies of Copy-Number Variation: Should Assignment of Copy Number States Precede Testing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, structural variation in the genome has been implicated in many complex diseases. Using genomewide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays, researchers are able to investigate the impact not only of SNP variation, but also of copy-number variants (CNVs) on the phenotype. The most common analytic approach involves estimating, at the level of the individual genome, the underlying number of copies

Patrick Breheny; Prabhakar Chalise; Anthony Batzler; Liewei Wang; Brooke L. Fridley

2012-01-01

488

Effect of Reynolds Number and Mach Number on flow angularity probe sensitivity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary calibrations were performed on nine flow angularity probes in the Langley 7- by 10-Foot High-Speed Tunnel (7 x 10 HST) and the Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (0.3-m TCT). These probes will be used in surveying the test section flows of the National Transonic Facility (NTF). The probes used in this study have a pyramid head with five pressure orifices. The calibrations consisted of both isolated probe measurements and rake-mounted multiprobe measurements that covered a range of subsonic Mach numbers up to 0.90 and Reynolds numbers per foot up to 40 X 10 to the 6th power. The preliminary calibration in the 7 x 10 HST included testing the probes both individually and in a rake. The 0.3-m TCT calibration tested two probes singly at varying Reynolds numbers. The results from these tests include Mach number, Reynolds number, and rake-mounting effects. The results of these tests showed probe sensitivity to be slightly affected by Mach number. At Reynolds numbers per foot above 10 x 10 to the 6th power, the probe did not exhibit a Reynolds number sensitivity.

Smith, L. A.; Adcock, J. B.

1986-01-01

489

Cosmological baryon and lepton number in the presence of electroweak fermion-number violation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the presence of rapid fermion-number violation due to nonperturbative electroweak effects certain relations between the baryon number of the Universe and the lepton numbers of the Universe are predicted. In some cases the electron-neutrino asymmetry is exactly specified in terms of the baryon asymmetry. Without introducing new particles, beyond the usual quarks and leptons, it is necessary that the Universe possess a nonzero value of B - L prior to the epoch of fermion-number violation if baryon and lepton asymmetries are to survive. Contrary to intuition, even though electroweak processes violate B + L, a nonzero value of B + L persists after the epoch of rapid fermion-number violation. If the standard model is extended to include lepton-number violation, for example through Majorana neutrino masses, then electroweak processes will reduce the baryon number to zero even in the presence of an initial B - L unless 20 M(sub L) approximately greater than the square root of (T(sub B - L) m(sub P1)) where M(sub L) sets the scale of lepton number violation and T(sub B - L) is the temperature at which a B - L asymmetry is produced. In many models this implies that neutrinos must be so light that they cannot contribute appreciably to the mass density of the Universe.

Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Turner, Michael S.

1990-01-01

490

Computing with Real Numbers I. The LFT Approach to Real Number Computation  

E-print Network

Computing with Real Numbers I. The LFT Approach to Real Number Computation II. A Domain Framework operations are implemented in terms of linear frac- tional transformations (LFT's). We derive lower and upper of a computation, which imply that the complexity of LFT application is that of multiplying n-bit integers. In Part

Edalat, Abbas

491

How to Learn the Natural Numbers: Inductive Inference and the Acquisition of Number Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theories of number concepts often suppose that the natural numbers are acquired as children learn to count and as they draw an induction based on their interpretation of the first few count words. In a bold critique of this general approach, Rips, Asmuth, Bloomfield [Rips, L., Asmuth, J. & Bloomfield, A. (2006). Giving the boot to the bootstrap:…

Margolis, Eric; Laurence, Stephen

2008-01-01

492

Reconstruction of Photon Number Distribution without Relying on Photon Number-Resolving Detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photon number distribution is reconstructed from the measured statistics of vacuum states in single-photon detection. Numerical results are presented for the coherent, thermal, number and squeezed-vacuum states. The quantum efficiency of single-photon detection should be high for the successful evaluation of the number state. The quantum efficiency provides the marginal influence for the evaluation of the coherent, thermal and squeezed-vacuum states. However, the accuracy of the reconstructed photon number distribution of the squeezed-vacuum state is low even though the quantum efficiency is unity. For a more accurate reconstruction, we must obtain a priori information on the photon number distribution of the squeezed-vacuum state.

Yoshizawa, Akio; Tsuchida, Hidemi

2005-11-01

493

New Developed Pattern on Number System, New Number Field and Their Applications in Physics  

E-print Network

Based on a brief review on developments of number system, a new developed pattern is proposed. The quaternion is extended to a matrix form aI+bC+cB+dA, in which the unit matrix I and three special matrices C,B,A correspond to number 1 and three units of imaginary number i,j,k, respectively. They form usually a ring. But some fields may be composed of some special 2-rank, even n-rank matrices, for example, three matrices aI+bC, aI+cB, aI+dA and so on. It is a new type of hypercomplex number fields. Finally, the physical applications and possible meaning of the new number system is researched.

Yi-Fang Chang

2009-06-20

494

Bayesian Disease Classification Using Copy Number Data  

PubMed Central

DNA copy number variations (CNVs) have been shown to be associated with cancer development and progression. The detection of these CNVs has the potential to impact the basic knowledge and treatment of many types of cancers, and can play a role in the discovery and development of molecular-based personalized cancer therapies. One of the most common types of high-resolution chromosomal microarrays is array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) methods that assay DNA CNVs across the whole genomic landscape in a single experiment. In this article we propose methods to use aCGH profiles to predict disease states. We employ a Bayesian classification model and treat disease states as outcome, and aCGH profiles as covariates in order to identify significant regions of the genome associated with disease subclasses. We propose a principled two-stage method where we first make inferences on the underlying copy number states associated with the aCGH emissions based on hidden Markov model (HMM) formulations to account for serial dependencies in neighboring probes. Subsequently, we infer associations with disease outcomes, conditional on the copy number states, using Bayesian linear variable selection procedures. The selected probes and their effects are parameters that are useful for predicting the disease categories of any additional individuals on the basis of their aCGH profiles. Using simulated datasets, we investigate the method’s accuracy in detecting disease category. Our methodology is motivated by and applied to a breast cancer dataset consisting of aCGH profiles assayed on patients from multiple disease subtypes. PMID:25336897

Guha, Subharup; Ji, Yuan; Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran

2014-01-01

495

Halo occupation numbers and galaxy bias  

E-print Network

We propose a heuristic model that displays the main features of realistic theories for galaxy bias. We show that the low-order clustering statistics of the dark-matter distribution depend almost entirely on the locations and density profiles of dark-matter haloes. A hypothetical galaxy catalogue depends on (i) the efficiency of galaxy formation, as manifested by the halo occupation number -- the number of galaxies brighter than some sample limit contained in a halo of a given mass; (ii) the location of these galaxies within their halo. The first factor is constrained by the empirical luminosity function of groups. For the second factor, we assume that one galaxy marks the halo centre, with any remaining galaxies acting as satellites that trace the halo mass. These simple assumptions amount to a recipe for non-local bias, in which the probability of finding a galaxy is not a simple function of its local mass density. We have applied this prescription to some CDM models of current interest, and find that the predictions are close to the observed galaxy correlations for a flat $\\Omega=0.3$ model ($\\Lambda$CDM), but not for an $\\Omega=1$ model with the same power spectrum ($\\tau$CDM). This is an inevitable consequence of cluster normalization for the power spectra: cluster-scale haloes of given mass have smaller core radii for high $\\Omega$, and hence display enhanced small-scale clustering. Finally, the pairwise velocity dispersion of galaxies in the $\\Lambda$CDM model is lower than that of the mass, allowing cluster-normalized models to yield a realistic Mach number for the peculiar velocity field. This is largely due to the strong variation of galaxy-formation efficiency with halo mass that is required in this model.

J. A. Peacock; R. E. Smith

2000-04-29

496

Texas Rice, Volume VI, Number 7  

E-print Network

trace amounts of an unapproved, genetically modified rice developed by Bayer Crop Sciences. Ignoring any impact the GMO contamination had on premiums, this equates to roughly a $56 million drop in the value of U.S. long-grain rice, up from... the roughly $188 million drop in value two days following the announcement. These numbers suggest the market is recovering from the GMO contamination problem, but it has a way to go to fully recover. The GMO contamination story continues to unfold...

497

Truly random number generation: an example  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Randomness is crucial for a variety of applications, ranging from gambling to computer simulations, and from cryptography to statistics. However, many of the currently used methods for generating randomness do not meet the criteria that are necessary for these applications to work properly and safely. A common problem is that a sequence of numbers may look random but nevertheless not be truly random. In fact, the sequence may pass all standard statistical tests and yet be perfectly predictable. This renders it useless for many applications. For example, in cryptography, the predictability of a "andomly" chosen password is obviously undesirable. Here, we review a recently developed approach to generating true | and hence unpredictable | randomness.

Frauchiger, Daniela; Renner, Renato

2013-10-01

498

Volume 61, Numbers 1&2 (Complete)  

E-print Network

method that would systematically increase human knowledge and render philosophy fruitful. Continuing to his death in 1626 to add to his plan of scientific reform, dubbed the Instauratio Magna, he succeeded in attract- ing a large and growing following..., beginning with James I. But prior to 1605 he had devoted himself largely to the reform of the Church of England. In two major treatises and a number of official papers and other works, all written from 1589 to 1604, and reflecting Elizabethan rather than...

Dickson, Donald

2003-01-01

499

It's the skill mix not the numbers.  

PubMed

In the February issue of Nursing Management, chief nurse at Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, Eileen Sills is reported as expressing fears that having staffing levels posted at ward entrances heightens patients' anxiety. Her concerns raise a number of issues. Anxiety about displaying nurse-to-patient ratios (NPRs) on the ward reminds me of similar discussions in the past about whether patients and their relatives should be told if they had cancer. Sometimes relatives were told, but not the patients, because 'they would not be able to cope'. PMID:24870434

Hunt, Jennifer

2014-06-01

500

Single-cell copy number variation detection  

PubMed Central

Detection of chromosomal aberrations from a single cell by array comparative genomic hybridization (single-cell array CGH), instead of from a population of cells, is an emerging technique. However, such detection is challenging because of the genome artifacts and the DNA amplification process inherent to the single cell approach. Current normalization algorithms result in inaccurate aberration detection for single-cell data. We propose a normalization method based on channel, genome composition and recurrent genome artifact corrections. We demonstrate that the proposed channel clone normalization significantly improves the copy number variation detection in both simulated and real single-cell array CGH data. PMID:21854607

2011-01-01