Science.gov

Sample records for grashof number

  1. Experimental Investigation of Free-Convection Heat Transfer in Vertical Tube at Large Grashof Numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, E R G; Diaguila, A J

    1955-01-01

    Report presents the results of an investigation conducted to study free-convection heat transfer in a stationary vertical tube closed at the bottom. The walls of the tube were heated, and heated air in the tube was continuously replaced by fresh cool air at the top. The tube was designed to provide a gravitational field with Grashof numbers of a magnitude comparable with those generated by the centrifugal field in rotating-blade coolant passages (10(8) to 10(13)). Local heat-transfer coefficients in the turbulent-flow range and the temperature field within the fluid were obtained.

  2. Large Eddy Simulation study of the development of finite-channel lock-release currents at high Grashof numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooi, Seng-Keat

    2005-11-01

    Lock-exchange gravity current flows produced by the instantaneous release of a heavy fluid are investigated using 3-D well resolved Large Eddy Simulation simulations at Grashof numbers up to 8*10^9. It is found the 3-D simulations correctly predict a constant front velocity over the initial slumping phase and a front speed decrease proportional to t-1/3 (the time t is measured from the release) over the inviscid phase, in agreement with theory. The evolution of the current in the simulations is found to be similar to that observed experimentally by Hacker et al. (1996). The effect of the dynamic LES model on the solutions is discussed. The energy budget of the current is discussed and the contribution of the turbulent dissipation to the total dissipation is analyzed. The limitations of less expensive 2D simulations are discussed; in particular their failure to correctly predict the spatio-temporal distributions of the bed shear stresses which is important in determining the amount of sediment the gravity current can entrain in the case in advances of a loose bed.

  3. Experimental investigation of free-convection heat transfer in vertical tube at large Grashof numbers / E. R. G. Eckert, A. J. Diaguila

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, E R G; Diaguila, A J

    1952-01-01

    Local free-convection heat-transfer coefficients and temperature fields in the turbulent flow range were obtained within a vertical, stationary tube closed at the boom, heated along its walls, and having a length-to-diameter ratio of 5. Convective heat-transfer coefficients were correlated by the general relations for free-convection heat transfer. These coefficients, converted to dimensionless Nusselt numbers were 35 percent below known relations for vertical flat plates. Air temperature measurements within the tube indicated a thin boundary layer along the heated wall surface and unstable conditions in the air flow.

  4. Experimental study of cold plume instability in large Prandtl number Czochralski melt: Parametric dependences and scaling laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miroshnichenko, E.; Kit, E.; Gelfgat, A. Yu.

    2016-03-01

    A parametric experimental study of the cold plume instability that appears in the large-Prandtl-number Czochralski melt flows is reported. The critical temperature difference (the critical Grashof number) and the frequency of appearing oscillations were measured for varying Prandtl numbers, aspect ratios of the melt, and crystal/crucible radii ratio. The measurements were carried out by two independent and fully non-intrusive experimental techniques. The results are reported as dimensional and dimensionless parametric dependences, and then are joined into relatively simple empirical relations showing how the critical Grashof number and the frequency of emerging oscillations depend on other parameters.

  5. Number Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, David

    1997-01-01

    Presents three number games for mathematics classrooms designed to improve the learning of number concepts. Game topics include determining products, arranging mathematical signs, and factoring. (ASK)

  6. Leftist Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The leftist number system consists of numbers with decimal digits arranged in strings to the left, instead of to the right. This system fails to be a field only because it contains zerodivisors. The same construction with prime base yields the p-adic numbers.

  7. Figurate Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Cloman

    1974-01-01

    Details of an investigation into polygonal numbers are given. From a study of the tabled series, patterns are discovered both within and between the various polygonal series. From a study of these results and the corresponding figures, formulas are developed. (LS)

  8. Numbers Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kathotia, Vinay

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on work undertaken by schools as part of Qualifications and Curriculum Authority's (QCA's) "Engaging mathematics for all learners" project. The goal was to use in the classroom, materials and approaches from a Royal Institution (Ri) Year 10 master-class, "Number Sense", which was inspired by examples from Michael Blastland and…

  9. Numbers Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kathotia, Vinay

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on work undertaken by schools as part of Qualifications and Curriculum Authority's (QCA's) "Engaging mathematics for all learners" project. The goal was to use in the classroom, materials and approaches from a Royal Institution (Ri) Year 10 master-class, "Number Sense", which was inspired by examples from Michael Blastland and…

  10. Numbers, Please!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelin, John R.

    2013-01-01

    What topic would you choose if you had the luxury of writing forever? In this article, John Thelin provides his response: He would opt to write about the history of higher education in a way that relies on quantitative data. "Numbers, please!" is his research request in taking on a longitudinal study of colleges and universities over…

  11. Number Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sezin, Fatin

    2009-01-01

    It is instructive and interesting to find hidden numbers by using different positional numeration systems. Most of the present guessing techniques use the binary system expressed as less-than, greater-than or present-absent type information. This article describes how, by employing four cards having integers 1-64 written in different colours, one…

  12. Numbers, Please!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelin, John R.

    2013-01-01

    What topic would you choose if you had the luxury of writing forever? In this article, John Thelin provides his response: He would opt to write about the history of higher education in a way that relies on quantitative data. "Numbers, please!" is his research request in taking on a longitudinal study of colleges and universities over…

  13. Enhanced enstrophy generation for turbulent convection in low-Prandtl-number fluids

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Jörg; Götzfried, Paul; Scheel, Janet D.

    2015-01-01

    Turbulent convection is often present in liquids with a kinematic viscosity much smaller than the diffusivity of the temperature. Here we reveal why these convection flows obey a much stronger level of fluid turbulence than those in which kinematic viscosity and thermal diffusivity are the same; i.e., the Prandtl number Pr is unity. We compare turbulent convection in air at Pr=0.7 and in liquid mercury at Pr=0.021. In this comparison the Prandtl number at constant Grashof number Gr is varied, rather than at constant Rayleigh number Ra as usually done. Our simulations demonstrate that the turbulent Kolmogorov-like cascade is extended both at the large- and small-scale ends with decreasing Pr. The kinetic energy injection into the flow takes place over the whole cascade range. In contrast to convection in air, the kinetic energy injection rate is particularly enhanced for liquid mercury for all scales larger than the characteristic width of thermal plumes. As a consequence, mean values and fluctuations of the local strain rates are increased, which in turn results in significantly enhanced enstrophy production by vortex stretching. The normalized distributions of enstrophy production in the bulk and the ratio of the principal strain rates are found to agree for both Prs. Despite the different energy injection mechanisms, the principal strain rates also agree with those in homogeneous isotropic turbulence conducted at the same Reynolds numbers as for the convection flows. Our results have thus interesting implications for small-scale turbulence modeling of liquid metal convection in astrophysical and technological applications. PMID:26195793

  14. Enhanced enstrophy generation for turbulent convection in low-Prandtl-number fluids.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Jörg; Götzfried, Paul; Scheel, Janet D

    2015-08-01

    Turbulent convection is often present in liquids with a kinematic viscosity much smaller than the diffusivity of the temperature. Here we reveal why these convection flows obey a much stronger level of fluid turbulence than those in which kinematic viscosity and thermal diffusivity are the same; i.e., the Prandtl number Pr is unity. We compare turbulent convection in air at Pr=0.7 and in liquid mercury at Pr=0.021. In this comparison the Prandtl number at constant Grashof number Gr is varied, rather than at constant Rayleigh number Ra as usually done. Our simulations demonstrate that the turbulent Kolmogorov-like cascade is extended both at the large- and small-scale ends with decreasing Pr. The kinetic energy injection into the flow takes place over the whole cascade range. In contrast to convection in air, the kinetic energy injection rate is particularly enhanced for liquid mercury for all scales larger than the characteristic width of thermal plumes. As a consequence, mean values and fluctuations of the local strain rates are increased, which in turn results in significantly enhanced enstrophy production by vortex stretching. The normalized distributions of enstrophy production in the bulk and the ratio of the principal strain rates are found to agree for both Prs. Despite the different energy injection mechanisms, the principal strain rates also agree with those in homogeneous isotropic turbulence conducted at the same Reynolds numbers as for the convection flows. Our results have thus interesting implications for small-scale turbulence modeling of liquid metal convection in astrophysical and technological applications. PMID:26195793

  15. Number Concepts with "Number Worlds": Thickening Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liljedahl, Peter; Sinclair, Nathalie; Zazkis, Rina

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the nature of preservice elementary school teachers' understandings of several concepts in elementary number theory that are evoked by a computer-based microworld called "Number Worlds". In particular, the focus is on the concepts of factor, multiple and prime number. The notion of "thickness" is examined with respect to…

  16. Number Concepts with "Number Worlds": Thickening Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liljedahl, Peter; Sinclair, Nathalie; Zazkis, Rina

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the nature of preservice elementary school teachers' understandings of several concepts in elementary number theory that are evoked by a computer-based microworld called "Number Worlds". In particular, the focus is on the concepts of factor, multiple and prime number. The notion of "thickness" is examined with respect to…

  17. Numbers Defy the Law of Large Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Ruma; Lann, Avital Lavie

    2015-01-01

    As the number of independent tosses of a fair coin grows, the rates of heads and tails tend to equality. This is misinterpreted by many students as being true also for the absolute numbers of the two outcomes, which, conversely, depart unboundedly from each other in the process. Eradicating that misconception, as by coin-tossing experiments,…

  18. Building Numbers from Primes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    Prime numbers are often described as the "building blocks" of natural numbers. This article shows how the author and his students took this idea literally by using prime factorizations to build numbers with blocks. In this activity, students explore many concepts of number theory, including the relationship between greatest common factors and…

  19. Building Numbers from Primes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    Prime numbers are often described as the "building blocks" of natural numbers. This article shows how the author and his students took this idea literally by using prime factorizations to build numbers with blocks. In this activity, students explore many concepts of number theory, including the relationship between greatest common factors and…

  20. Sum-Difference Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Yixun

    2010-01-01

    Starting with an interesting number game sometimes used by school teachers to demonstrate the factorization of integers, "sum-difference numbers" are defined. A positive integer n is a "sum-difference number" if there exist positive integers "x, y, w, z" such that n = xy = wz and x ? y = w + z. This paper characterizes all sum-difference numbers…

  1. Are Numbers Gendered?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkie, James E. B.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the possibility that nonsocial, highly generic concepts are gendered. Specifically, we investigated the gender connotations of Arabic numerals. Across several experiments, we show that the number 1 and other odd numbers are associated with masculinity, whereas the number 2 and other even numbers are associated with femininity, in ways…

  2. Number Sense Made Simple Using Number Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Hui Fang Huang; Marinas, Carol; Furner, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This article highlights investigating intriguing number patterns utilising an emerging technology called the Square Tool. Mathematics teachers of grades K-12 will find the Square Tool useful in making connections and bridging the gap from the concrete to the abstract. Pattern recognition helps students discover various mathematical concepts. With…

  3. Making decisions from numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, E.

    1987-03-01

    Regulatory agencies require numbers to provide health protection. The manner in which these numbers are derived from animal experiments and human epidemiology is considered together with the limitations and inadequacies of these numbers. Some recent examples of risk assessment in Canada are given including asbestos, drinking water, and indoor air quality. The value of these numbers in providing a measure of the hazard in a wider perspective is stressed, although they can never be the sole determinant of public policy.

  4. The Remarkable Number "1"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, G. Donald

    2014-01-01

    In human history, the origin of the numbers came from definite practical needs. Indeed, there is strong evidence that numbers were created before writing. The number "1", dating back at least 20,000 years, was found as a counting symbol on a bone. The famous statement by the German mathematician Leopold Kronecker (1823-1891), "God…

  5. Estimating Large Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landy, David; Silbert, Noah; Goldin, Aleah

    2013-01-01

    Despite their importance in public discourse, numbers in the range of 1 million to 1 trillion are notoriously difficult to understand. We examine magnitude estimation by adult Americans when placing large numbers on a number line and when qualitatively evaluating descriptions of imaginary geopolitical scenarios. Prior theoretical conceptions…

  6. Sum-Difference Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Yixun

    2010-01-01

    Starting with an interesting number game sometimes used by school teachers to demonstrate the factorization of integers, "sum-difference numbers" are defined. A positive integer n is a "sum-difference number" if there exist positive integers "x, y, w, z" such that n = xy = wz and x ? y = w + z. This paper characterizes all sum-difference numbers…

  7. Discovery: Prime Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Mestre, Neville

    2008-01-01

    Prime numbers are important as the building blocks for the set of all natural numbers, because prime factorisation is an important and useful property of all natural numbers. Students can discover them by using the method known as the Sieve of Eratosthenes, named after the Greek geographer and astronomer who lived from c. 276-194 BC. Eratosthenes…

  8. The Remarkable Number "1"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, G. Donald

    2014-01-01

    In human history, the origin of the numbers came from definite practical needs. Indeed, there is strong evidence that numbers were created before writing. The number "1", dating back at least 20,000 years, was found as a counting symbol on a bone. The famous statement by the German mathematician Leopold Kronecker (1823-1891), "God…

  9. Number Relationships in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Myoungwhon

    2011-01-01

    When a child understands number relationships, he or she comprehends the meaning of numbers by developing multiple, flexible ways of representing them. The importance of developing number relationships in the early years has been highlighted because it helps children build a good foundation for developing a more sophisticated understanding of…

  10. Estimating large numbers.

    PubMed

    Landy, David; Silbert, Noah; Goldin, Aleah

    2013-07-01

    Despite their importance in public discourse, numbers in the range of 1 million to 1 trillion are notoriously difficult to understand. We examine magnitude estimation by adult Americans when placing large numbers on a number line and when qualitatively evaluating descriptions of imaginary geopolitical scenarios. Prior theoretical conceptions predict a log-to-linear shift: People will either place numbers linearly or will place numbers according to a compressive logarithmic or power-shaped function (Barth & Paladino, ; Siegler & Opfer, ). While about half of people did estimate numbers linearly over this range, nearly all the remaining participants placed 1 million approximately halfway between 1 thousand and 1 billion, but placed numbers linearly across each half, as though they believed that the number words "thousand, million, billion, trillion" constitute a uniformly spaced count list. Participants in this group also tended to be optimistic in evaluations of largely ineffective political strategies, relative to linear number-line placers. The results indicate that the surface structure of number words can heavily influence processes for dealing with numbers in this range, and it can amplify the possibility that analogous surface regularities are partially responsible for parallel phenomena in children. In addition, these results have direct implications for lawmakers and scientists hoping to communicate effectively with the public. PMID:23819823

  11. Curvature and Tachibana numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanov, Sergey E

    2011-07-31

    The aim of this paper is to define the rth Tachibana number t{sub r} of an n-dimensional compact oriented Riemannian manifold as the dimension of the space of conformally Killing r-forms, for r=1,2,...,n-1. We also describe properties of these numbers, by analogy with properties of the Betti numbers b{sub r} of a compact oriented Riemannian manifold. Bibliography: 25 titles.

  12. High Reynolds Number Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baals, D. D. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Fundamental aerodynamic questions for which high Reynolds number experimental capability is required are discussed. The operational characteristics and design features of the National Transonic Facility are reviewed.

  13. Avogadro's Number Ferromagnetically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houari, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Avogadro's number, usually denoted by N[subscript A], plays a fundamental role in both physics and chemistry. It defines the extremely useful concept of the mole, which is the base unit of the amount of matter in the international system of units. The fundamental character of this number can also be illustrated by its appearance in the definitions…

  14. Numbers Are Not Everything

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Milton W.

    2009-01-01

    Numbers--of publications, grant money, PhD students, and invited talks, for example--play too large a role in assessments of faculty. The author's thirty-five years of experience in higher education have convinced him that overreliance on such numbers is a big problem, especially, but not exclusively, in the sciences. Every scientist recognizes…

  15. Avogadro's Number Ferromagnetically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houari, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Avogadro's number, usually denoted by N[subscript A], plays a fundamental role in both physics and chemistry. It defines the extremely useful concept of the mole, which is the base unit of the amount of matter in the international system of units. The fundamental character of this number can also be illustrated by its appearance in the definitions…

  16. The Fibonacci Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onstad, Torgeir

    1991-01-01

    After a brief historical account of Leonardo Pisano Fibonacci, some basic results concerning the Fibonacci numbers are developed and proved, and entertaining examples are described. Connections are made between the Fibonacci numbers and the Golden Ratio, biological nature, and other combinatorics examples. (MDH)

  17. Templates, Numbers & Watercolors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemesha, David J.

    1990-01-01

    Describes how a second-grade class used large templates to draw and paint five-digit numbers. The lesson integrated artistic knowledge and vocabulary with their mathematics lesson in place value. Students learned how draftspeople use templates, and they studied number paintings by Charles Demuth and Jasper Johns. (KM)

  18. First Graders' Number Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jonathan N.; Tabor, Pamela D.; Wright, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    As young children make sense of mathematics, they begin to see with new eyes. What once was uncertain may now be determined. Objects become countable; fingers become tools; and numbers become more than just names. Educators revel in such developments--which mark significant progress toward more sophisticated understanding of number--and work…

  19. Education by the Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadership, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Education, it seems, is increasingly driven by the numbers. Whether it is measuring student performance or a school district's ability to balance the books, one will find data out there about it. So much data, in fact, that it is difficult to sort through all the numbers to get the needed information. This article describes California's Ed-Data…

  20. Logo and Negative Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strawn, Candace A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes LOGO's turtle graphics capabilities based on a sixth-grade classroom's activities with negative numbers and Logo programming. A sidebar explains LOGO and offers suggestions to teachers for using LOGO effectively. (LRW)

  1. Core systems of number.

    PubMed

    Feigenson, Lisa; Dehaene, Stanislas; Spelke, Elizabeth

    2004-07-01

    What representations underlie the ability to think and reason about number? Whereas certain numerical concepts, such as the real numbers, are only ever represented by a subset of human adults, other numerical abilities are widespread and can be observed in adults, infants and other animal species. We review recent behavioral and neuropsychological evidence that these ontogenetically and phylogenetically shared abilities rest on two core systems for representing number. Performance signatures common across development and across species implicate one system for representing large, approximate numerical magnitudes, and a second system for the precise representation of small numbers of individual objects. These systems account for our basic numerical intuitions, and serve as the foundation for the more sophisticated numerical concepts that are uniquely human. PMID:15242690

  2. Discovering Avogadro's Number.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieck, William A.

    1997-01-01

    Illustrates the use of an inductive approach that leads students to the discovery of Avogadro's number while integrating thinking, mathematical, and calculator skills in the process. An understanding of scientific notation and a calculator are required. (DDR)

  3. In numbers we trust?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Scientists go to great lengths to ensure that data are collected and analysed properly, so why, asks Eve Marder, do they apply different standards to data about the number of times research papers have been cited and viewed? PMID:24692454

  4. The Impact of Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemieva, N. A.

    2015-07-01

    Smart impact hydrocodes running on modern powerful computers produce billions and billions of numbers in the blink of an eye. To sort them out and to generate new knowledge we have to work in collaboration with geologists, geochemists, seismologists.

  5. Fibonacci's Forgotten Number

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ezra; Brunson, Cornelius

    2008-01-01

    Fibonacci's forgotten number is the sexagesimal number 1;22,7,42,33,4,40, which he described in 1225 as an approximation to the real root of x[superscript 3] + 2x[superscript 2] + 10x - 20. In decimal notation, this is 1.36880810785...and it is correct to nine decimal digits. Fibonacci did not reveal his method. How did he do it? There is also a…

  6. [Projection of prisoner numbers].

    PubMed

    Metz, Rainer; Sohn, Werner

    2015-01-01

    The past and future development of occupancy rates in prisons is of crucial importance for the judicial administration of every country. Basic factors for planning the required penal facilities are seasonal fluctuations, minimum, maximum and average occupancy as well as the present situation and potential development of certain imprisonment categories. As the prisoner number of a country is determined by a complex set of interdependent conditions, it has turned out to be difficult to provide any theoretical explanations. The idea accepted in criminology for a long time that prisoner numbers are interdependent with criminal policy must be regarded as having failed. Statistical and time series analyses may help, however, to identify the factors having influenced the development of prisoner numbers in the past. The analyses presented here, first describe such influencing factors from a criminological perspective and then deal with their statistical identification and modelling. Using the development of prisoner numbers in Hesse as an example, it has been found that modelling methods in which the independent variables predict the dependent variable with a time lag are particularly helpful. A potential complication is, however, that for predicting the number of prisoners the different dynamics in German and foreign prisoners require the development of further models. PMID:26419083

  7. Report number codes

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.N.

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

  8. Beyond the number domain.

    PubMed

    Cantlon, Jessica F; Platt, Michael L; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2009-02-01

    In a world without numbers, we would be unable to build a skyscraper, hold a national election, plan a wedding or pay for a chicken at the market. The numerical symbols used in all these behaviors build on the approximate number system (ANS) which represents the number of discrete objects or events as a continuous mental magnitude. Here, we first discuss evidence that the ANS bears a set of behavioral and brain signatures that are universally displayed across animal species, human cultures and development. We then turn to the question of whether the ANS constitutes a specialized cognitive and neural domain - a question central to understanding how this system works, the nature of its evolutionary and developmental trajectory and its physical instantiation in the brain. PMID:19131268

  9. Uniform random number generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    Methods are presented for the generation of random numbers with uniform and normal distributions. Subprogram listings of Fortran generators for the Univac 1108, SDS 930, and CDC 3200 digital computers are also included. The generators are of the mixed multiplicative type, and the mathematical method employed is that of Marsaglia and Bray.

  10. Number in Classifier Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nomoto, Hiroki

    2013-01-01

    Classifier languages are often described as lacking genuine number morphology and treating all common nouns, including those conceptually count, as an unindividuated mass. This study argues that neither of these popular assumptions is true, and presents new generalizations and analyses gained by abandoning them. I claim that no difference exists…

  11. Assigning Driver's License Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallian, Joseph A.

    1991-01-01

    Described are some ways in which individual states code driver's license numbers. The encoding of month, date of birth, year of birth, sex, and others involving elementary mathematics and the use of an elaborate system of hashing functions in describing the first, middle, and last names are discussed. (KR)

  12. Analogies for Avogadro's Number.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poskozim, Paul S.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews analogies used to try to capture the concept of the magnitude of Avogadro's number, including analogies related to small/tiny objects, counting, people, water, and money. Also presents several new ones which are based on modern computers and printers. (JN)

  13. The Net by Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurdo, George

    1996-01-01

    The expansion of the commercial Internet has encouraged the interpretation of the Internet and its uses as a potential marketing medium. Examines statistical and demographic information about the Internet including number of Internet hosts and World Wide Web servers, and estimates of Internet users; and raises questions about definitions and…

  14. Preschoolers' Number Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moomaw, Sally; Carr, Victoria; Boat, Mary; Barnett, David

    2010-01-01

    A child's demonstration of his conceptual understanding of number bodes well for his future success in school mathematics. As youngsters' thinking becomes more logical, they apply one-to-one correspondence relationships to quantification. Yet, reliable assessment of young children's mathematical ability is difficult because of social and emotional…

  15. Paint by Numbers Revived!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Nic

    2012-01-01

    Remember paint by numbers? This revived trend was a perfect solution to teaching geometric shapes to the author's first-grade students. Geometric shapes are identified and used in early elementary art classrooms, but this lesson gives students a deeper understanding of shape, encourages problem-solving, and makes a strong correlation between math…

  16. The Net by Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurdo, George

    1996-01-01

    The expansion of the commercial Internet has encouraged the interpretation of the Internet and its uses as a potential marketing medium. Examines statistical and demographic information about the Internet including number of Internet hosts and World Wide Web servers, and estimates of Internet users; and raises questions about definitions and…

  17. "Better than Their Numbers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses College Summit, a nonprofit effort centered around the premise that there is a sizable number of students who are more capable of college academics than their test scores and grade point averages suggest. Its four-day summer sessions are focused not on ramping up students' academic performance but in mining students'…

  18. ALARA notes, Number 8

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.; Beckman, M.C.

    1993-10-01

    This document contains information dealing with the lessons learned from the experience of nuclear plants. In this issue the authors tried to avoid the `tyranny` of numbers and concentrated on the main lessons learned. Topics include: filtration devices for air pollution abatement, crack repair and inspection, and remote handling equipment.

  19. Paint by Numbers Revived!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Nic

    2012-01-01

    Remember paint by numbers? This revived trend was a perfect solution to teaching geometric shapes to the author's first-grade students. Geometric shapes are identified and used in early elementary art classrooms, but this lesson gives students a deeper understanding of shape, encourages problem-solving, and makes a strong correlation between math…

  20. Enclosed Gas and Liquid with Nonuniform Heating from Above

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, S. K.; Iyengar, J.; Sirignano, W. A.

    1986-01-01

    Buoyancy-driven flows of gases above liquids in a common enclosure with nonuniform heating from above are studied via finite-difference solutions of the governing equations. Unsteady solutions are calculated, and steady-state solutions are sought as asymptotes. Grashof numbers between 10 to the 3rd and 10 to the 8th are examined, and multicellular circulatory flow structure is found at the higher Grashof numbers. Convective transport dominates for higher Grashof numbers, while conductive transport is the primary mechanism at the lower Grashof numbers. Surface tension has a major effect upon the gas flow field only at lower Grashof numbers but, since conduction dominates there, it does not significantly affect transport.

  1. The Remarkable Number "1"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, G. Donald

    2014-09-01

    In human history, the origin of the numbers came from definite practical needs. Indeed, there is strong evidence that numbers were created before writing. The number "1", dating back at least 20,000 years, was found as a counting symbol on a bone. The famous statement by the German mathematician Leopold Kronecker (1823-1891), "God made the integers; all else is the work of man," has spawned a lively modern philosophical discussion, and this discussion begins by trying to get a philosophical handle on "1." This approach remains under heavy discussion, and is more-or-less unresolved (Frege in Die Grundlagen der Arithmetik (English: The foundations of arithmetic). Polhman, 1884). In this note, we consider the many facets of "one" in it many guises and applications. Nonetheless, "one" has multiple meanings, from the very practical to the abstract, from mathematics to science to basically everything. We examine here a mere slice of mathematical history with a focus on the most basic and applicable concept therein. It troubles many, particularly students, even today.

  2. Leading by numbers.

    PubMed

    Kerfoot, Karlene

    2005-01-01

    We measure to determine where we stand financially or in our quality outcomes. As people see the connection of measures and the success of the company, everything makes more sense. Izzo (2005) writes that profits/net margins are important to an organization and are like oxygen to a person. If we have oxygen, we can focus on the important things in life; if we don't we are preoccupied with gasping for air. Organizations are the same way. With the oxygen of profits, organizations can focus on those things that matter most to the staff and the customer. But when the search for profits becomes obsessive because of greed for excess profits or impending financial doom, everybody loses. Izzo (2005) reminds us that organizations shouldn't exist for only profit, just as people don't exist for only oxygen. Oxygen is merely an enabler for us to do the work of living. Measurement and numbers are the oxygen needed to achieve excellence. As people in organizations use numbers as their servants rather than being slaves to numbers, everyone will succeed. If the use of measurement is seen as punitive, and not a system of serving people to attain that zest for business and a higher mission, we will not achieve the level of excellence our people, patients, and communities deserve. PMID:16033147

  3. Rare Copy Number Variants

    PubMed Central

    Grozeva, Detelina; Kirov, George; Ivanov, Dobril; Jones, Ian R.; Jones, Lisa; Green, Elaine K.; St Clair, David M.; Young, Allan H.; Ferrier, Nicol; Farmer, Anne E.; McGuffin, Peter; Holmans, Peter A.; Owen, Michael J.; O’Donovan, Michael C.; Craddock, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Context Recent studies suggest that copy number variation in the human genome is extensive and may play an important role in susceptibility to disease, including neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. The possible involvement of copy number variants (CNVs) in bipolar disorder has received little attention to date. Objectives To determine whether large (>100 000 base pairs) and rare (found in <1% of the population) CNVs are associated with susceptibility to bipolar disorder and to compare with findings in schizophrenia. Design A genome-wide survey of large, rare CNVs in a case-control sample using a high-density microarray. Setting The Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. Participants There were 1697 cases of bipolar disorder and 2806 nonpsychiatric controls. All participants were white UK residents. Main Outcome Measures Overall load of CNVs and presence of rare CNVs. Results The burden of CNVs in bipolar disorder was not increased compared with controls and was significantly less than in schizophrenia cases. The CNVs previously implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia were not more common in cases with bipolar disorder. Conclusions Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder differ with respect to CNV burden in general and association with specific CNVs in particular. Our data are consistent with the possibility that possession of large, rare deletions may modify the phenotype in those at risk of psychosis: those possessing such events are more likely to be diagnosed as having schizophrenia, and those without them are more likely to be diagnosed as having bipolar disorder. PMID:20368508

  4. Modular redundant number systems

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-31

    With the increased use of public key cryptography, faster modular multiplication has become an important cryptographic issue. Almost all public key cryptography, including most elliptic curve systems, use modular multiplication. Modular multiplication, particularly for the large public key modulii, is very slow. Increasing the speed of modular multiplication is almost synonymous with increasing the speed of public key cryptography. There are two parts to modular multiplication: multiplication and modular reduction. Though there are fast methods for multiplying and fast methods for doing modular reduction, they do not mix well. Most fast techniques require integers to be in a special form. These special forms are not related and converting from one form to another is more costly than using the standard techniques. To this date it has been better to use the fast modular reduction technique coupled with standard multiplication. Standard modular reduction is much more costly than standard multiplication. Fast modular reduction (Montgomery`s method) reduces the reduction cost to approximately that of a standard multiply. Of the fast multiplication techniques, the redundant number system technique (RNS) is one of the most popular. It is simple, converting a large convolution (multiply) into many smaller independent ones. Not only do redundant number systems increase speed, but the independent parts allow for parallelization. RNS form implies working modulo another constant. Depending on the relationship between these two constants; reduction OR division may be possible, but not both. This paper describes a new technique using ideas from both Montgomery`s method and RNS. It avoids the formula problem and allows fast reduction and multiplication. Since RNS form is used throughout, it also allows the entire process to be parallelized.

  5. 7 CFR 29.9205 - Identification number (farm serial number).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Identification number (farm serial number). 29.9205 Section 29.9205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE... number (farm serial number). The serial number assigned to an individual farm by the appropriate...

  6. 7 CFR 29.9205 - Identification number (farm serial number).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Identification number (farm serial number). 29.9205 Section 29.9205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE... number (farm serial number). The serial number assigned to an individual farm by the appropriate...

  7. 7 CFR 29.9205 - Identification number (farm serial number).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Identification number (farm serial number). 29.9205 Section 29.9205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE... number (farm serial number). The serial number assigned to an individual farm by the appropriate...

  8. 7 CFR 29.9205 - Identification number (farm serial number).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Identification number (farm serial number). 29.9205 Section 29.9205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE... number (farm serial number). The serial number assigned to an individual farm by the appropriate...

  9. 7 CFR 29.9205 - Identification number (farm serial number).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification number (farm serial number). 29.9205 Section 29.9205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE... number (farm serial number). The serial number assigned to an individual farm by the appropriate...

  10. [The power of numbers].

    PubMed

    van Gijn, J

    2000-01-01

    The round figure for the current year has stirred people's minds in anticipation. Numbers have acquired great significance also in today's medical science. The Paris physician Pierre Charles Alexandre Louis (1787-1872) is considered the founding father of the numerical method in medicine. At first the principle of aggregating data from different individuals aroused much resistance and even disgust: Claude Bernard was a leading figure among those who warned that one will never find a mean in nature, and that grouping findings together obscures the true relationship between biological phenomena. True enough, statistical significance is not a characteristic of nature itself. Significant differences or risk reductions do not necessarily imply clinical relevance, and results obtained in a group of patients are rarely applicable to an individual patient in the consultation room. Likewise, the health of a human being cannot be captured in biochemical, radiological or other technical measures, nor in disease-specific scales that reduce well-being to one or two digits. The editors of this journal will remain keen on publishing numerical studies that contribute to evidence-based medicine, but at the same time they will continue to foster the art of reporting illness from the point of view of the sick person. PMID:10665294

  11. Lepton family number violation

    SciTech Connect

    Herczeg, P.

    1999-03-01

    At present there is evidence from neutrino oscillation searches that the neutrinos are in fact massive particles and that they mix. If confirmed, this would imply that the conservation of LFN is not exact. Lepton family number violation (LFNV) has been searched for with impressive sensitivities in many processes involving charged leptons. The present experimental limits on some of them (those which the author shall consider here) are shown in Table 1. These stringent limits are not inconsistent with the neutrino oscillation results since, given the experimental bounds on the masses of the known neutrinos and the neutrino mass squared differences required by the oscillation results, the effects of LFNV from neutrino mixing would be too small to be seen elsewhere (see Section 2). The purpose of experiments searching for LFNV involving the charged leptons is to probe the existence of other sources of LFNV. Such sources are present in many extensions of the SM. In this lecture the author shall discuss some of the possibilities, focusing on processes that require muon beams. Other LFNV processes, such as the decays of the kaons and of the {tau}, provide complementary information. In the next Section he shall consider some sources of LFNV that do not require an extension of the gauge group of the SM (the added leptons or Higgs bosons may of course originate from models with extended gauge groups). In Section 3 he discusses LFNV in left-right symmetric models. In Section 4 he considers LFNV in supersymmetric models, first in R-parity conserving supersymmetric grand unified models, and then in the minimal supersymmetric standard model with R-parity violation. The last section is a brief summary of the author`s conclusions.

  12. Percents Are Not Natural Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Adults are prone to treating percents, one representational format of rational numbers, as novel cases of natural number. This suggests that percent values are not differentiated from natural numbers; a conceptual shift from the natural numbers to the rational numbers has not yet occurred. This is most surprising, considering people are inundated…

  13. Percents Are Not Natural Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Adults are prone to treating percents, one representational format of rational numbers, as novel cases of natural number. This suggests that percent values are not differentiated from natural numbers; a conceptual shift from the natural numbers to the rational numbers has not yet occurred. This is most surprising, considering people are inundated…

  14. Series of Reciprocal Triangular Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruckman, Paul; Dence, Joseph B.; Dence, Thomas P.; Young, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Reciprocal triangular numbers have appeared in series since the very first infinite series were summed. Here we attack a number of subseries of the reciprocal triangular numbers by methodically expressing them as integrals.

  15. Number Games, Magnitude Representation, and Basic Number Skills in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyte, Jemma Catherine; Bull, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    The effect of 3 intervention board games (linear number, linear color, and nonlinear number) on young children's (mean age = 3.8 years) counting abilities, number naming, magnitude comprehension, accuracy in number-to-position estimation tasks, and best-fit numerical magnitude representations was examined. Pre- and posttest performance was…

  16. Number Games, Magnitude Representation, and Basic Number Skills in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyte, Jemma Catherine; Bull, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    The effect of 3 intervention board games (linear number, linear color, and nonlinear number) on young children's (mean age = 3.8 years) counting abilities, number naming, magnitude comprehension, accuracy in number-to-position estimation tasks, and best-fit numerical magnitude representations was examined. Pre- and posttest performance was…

  17. Representing Numbers: Prime and Irrational

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zazkis, Rina

    2005-01-01

    This article draws an analogy between prime and irrational numbers with respect to how these numbers are defined and how they are perceived by learners. Excerpts are presented from two research studies: a study on understanding prime numbers by pre-service elementary school teachers and a study on understanding irrational numbers by pre-service…

  18. A Study of Hyperperfect Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCranie, Judson S.

    2000-01-01

    A number n is k-hyperperfect for some integer k if n = 1 + k s(n), where s(n) is the sum of the proper divisors of n. The 1-hyperperfect numbers are the familiar perfect numbers. This paper presents some theorems, conjectures and tables concerning hyperperfect numbers. All hyperperfect numbers less than 1011 have been computed. Evidence is presented suggesting that a published conjecture is false.

  19. Turbulent Skin Friction at High Mach Numbers and Reynolds Numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matting, Fred W.; Chapman, Dean R.

    1958-01-01

    For a number of years now, experimenters have been making measurements of skin friction. Formerly, the main interest was at low Mach numbers; later, measurements were made at supersonic Mach numbers. However, almost all of these measurements were over a limited range of Reynolds numbers. On the other hand, these measurements fairly well determined the effects of Mach number and heat transfer on skin friction. The purpose of this paper is to give the results of skin-friction measurements in turbulent boundary layers at high Mach numbers and high Reynolds numbers where data have not previously existed. The equipment used was expressly designed to provide these conditions. As is well known, it is difficult to obtain high Mach numbers and high Reynolds numbers simultaneously with air in a wind tunnel. In order to avoid condensation, it is necessary to heat the air, with a resulting loss in density and Reynolds number. It is desirable, then, to use a gas that does not condense at high Mach numbers. This suggested helium, which was used as a working fluid in some of the tests. At high Mach numbers in a given wind tunnel, higher Reynolds numbers can be obtained with helium than with air, principally because no heating of the helium is required. The different ratios of specific heats also contribute to the increase. In using helium as a working fluid, it is, of course, necessary to determine the equivalence of air and helium in the turbulent boundary layer.

  20. 15. Stress Sheet, Truss number 2, span number 6, Superior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Stress Sheet, Truss number 2, span number 6, Superior Avenue viaduct. Drawing courtesy Engineering Dept., City of Cleveland. - Superior Avenue Viaduct, Cleveland East & West side, Cuyahoga Valley Vicinity, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  1. Natural Number Bias in Operations with Missing Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christou, Konstantinos P.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the hypothesis that there is a natural number bias that influences how students understand the effects of arithmetical operations involving both Arabic numerals and numbers that are represented by symbols for missing numbers. It also investigates whether this bias correlates with other aspects of students' understanding of…

  2. Feeling Number: Grounding Number Sense in a Sense of Quantity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, David; Davis, Brent

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on results from psychology and from cultural and linguistic studies, we argue for an increased focus on developing quantity sense in school mathematics. We explore the notion of "feeling number", a phrase that we offer in a twofold sense--resisting tendencies to feel numb-er (more numb) by developing a feeling for numbers and the…

  3. Natural Number Bias in Operations with Missing Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christou, Konstantinos P.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the hypothesis that there is a natural number bias that influences how students understand the effects of arithmetical operations involving both Arabic numerals and numbers that are represented by symbols for missing numbers. It also investigates whether this bias correlates with other aspects of students' understanding of…

  4. Relating Mason number to Bingham number in magnetorheological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Stephen G.; Becnel, Andrew C.; Wereley, Norman M.

    2015-04-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) fluids are described using two nondimensional numbers, the Bingham and Mason numbers. The Mason number is the ratio of particle magnetic forces to viscous forces and describes the behavior of MR fluids at the microscopic, particle level scale. At the macroscopic, continuum scale, Bingham number is the ratio of yield stress to viscous stress, and describes the bulk motion of the fluid. If these two nondimensional numbers can be related, then microscopic models can be directly compared to macroscopic results. We show that if microscopic and macroscopic forces are linearly related, then Bingham and Mason number are inversely related, or, alternatively, that the product of the Bingham number and the Mason number is a constant. This relationship is experimentally validated based on measurements of apparent viscosity on a high shear rate, ? ? ? 10 000s-1, Searle cell rheometer. This relationship between Mason number and Bingham number is then used to analyze a Mason number based result, and is also used to inform the MR fluid device design process.

  5. Number games, magnitude representation, and basic number skills in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Jemma Catherine; Bull, Rebecca

    2008-03-01

    The effect of 3 intervention board games (linear number, linear color, and nonlinear number) on young children's (mean age = 3.8 years) counting abilities, number naming, magnitude comprehension, accuracy in number-to-position estimation tasks, and best-fit numerical magnitude representations was examined. Pre- and posttest performance was compared following four 25-min intervention sessions. The linear number board game significantly improved children's performance in all posttest measures and facilitated a shift from a logarithmic to a linear representation of numerical magnitude, emphasizing the importance of spatial cues in estimation. Exposure to the number card games involving nonsymbolic magnitude judgments and association of symbolic and nonsymbolic quantities, but without any linear spatial cues, improved some aspects of children's basic number skills but not numerical estimation precision. PMID:18331146

  6. PLURIDICTA, Numbers 28-35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Johannes, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The eight titles in this document include the following: "Comprehension and Input Processing as Useful Terms in the Field of SLA" (number 28) (Teresa Cadierno); "On the Role of Instruction in SLA: Research Results and Theoretical Explanations" (number 29) (Teresa Cadierno); "Can Writing Be Taught" (number 30) (Stuart Greene); "Academic Listening"…

  7. Random Numbers and Quantum Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartney, Mark; Glass, David

    2002-01-01

    The topic of random numbers is investigated in such a way as to illustrate links between mathematics, physics and computer science. First, the generation of random numbers by a classical computer using the linear congruential generator and logistic map is considered. It is noted that these procedures yield only pseudo-random numbers since…

  8. What Exactly Do Numbers Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yi Ting; Spelke, Elizabeth; Snedeker, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    Number words are generally used to refer to the exact cardinal value of a set, but cognitive scientists disagree about their meanings. Although most psychological analyses presuppose that numbers have exact semantics ("two" means exactly two), many linguistic accounts propose that numbers have lower-bounded semantics (at least two), and…

  9. Random Numbers and Quantum Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartney, Mark; Glass, David

    2002-01-01

    The topic of random numbers is investigated in such a way as to illustrate links between mathematics, physics and computer science. First, the generation of random numbers by a classical computer using the linear congruential generator and logistic map is considered. It is noted that these procedures yield only pseudo-random numbers since…

  10. Numbers and Math. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Fred E.; Elkind, CavidEpstein, Ann S.; Copley, Juanita V.; Haugen, Ginny; Haugen, Kirsten

    2003-01-01

    Presents five articles addressing numbers and math instruction for young children: "Math Talk with Young Children: One Parent's Experience" (Fred E. Gross); "How Children Build Their Understanding of Numbers" (David Elkind); "Early Math: It's More than Numbers" (Ann S. Epstein); "Assessing Mathematical Learning: Observing and Listening to…

  11. The Algebra of Complex Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LePage, Wilbur R.

    This programed text is an introduction to the algebra of complex numbers for engineering students, particularly because of its relevance to important problems of applications in electrical engineering. It is designed for a person who is well experienced with the algebra of real numbers and calculus, but who has no experience with complex number…

  12. Linear or Exponential Number Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, Pat

    2011-01-01

    Having decided to spend some time looking at one's understanding of numbers, the author was inspired by "Alex's Adventures in Numberland," by Alex Bellos to look at one's innate appreciation of number. Bellos quotes research studies suggesting that an individual's natural appreciation of numbers is more likely to be exponential rather than linear,…

  13. What Exactly Do Numbers Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yi Ting; Spelke, Elizabeth; Snedeker, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    Number words are generally used to refer to the exact cardinal value of a set, but cognitive scientists disagree about their meanings. Although most psychological analyses presuppose that numbers have exact semantics ("two" means exactly two), many linguistic accounts propose that numbers have lower-bounded semantics (at least two), and…

  14. A Lesson in Number Pattern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Rodney

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a guided investigation into the spacial relationships between the centres of the squares in a Fibonacci tiling. It is essentially a lesson in number pattern, but includes work with surds, coordinate geometry, and some elementary use of complex numbers. The investigation could be presented to students in a number of ways…

  15. Linear or Exponential Number Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, Pat

    2011-01-01

    Having decided to spend some time looking at one's understanding of numbers, the author was inspired by "Alex's Adventures in Numberland," by Alex Bellos to look at one's innate appreciation of number. Bellos quotes research studies suggesting that an individual's natural appreciation of numbers is more likely to be exponential rather than linear,…

  16. Approximate Number Sense, Symbolic Number Processing, or Number-Space Mappings: What Underlies Mathematics Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasanguie, Delphine; Gobel, Silke M.; Moll, Kristina; Smets, Karolien; Reynvoet, Bert

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the performance of typically developing 6- to 8-year-old children on an approximate number discrimination task, a symbolic comparison task, and a symbolic and nonsymbolic number line estimation task was examined. For the first time, children's performances on these basic cognitive number processing tasks were explicitly contrasted…

  17. Irrational Numbers on the Number Line: Perfectly Placed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffey, Margaret E.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a low-tech, hands-on activity to improve student understanding of irrational numbers. Each student creates a number line from adding machine tapes and uses a square and a precisely folded triangle as the only measuring device. (KHR)

  18. Nonliteral understanding of number words

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Justine T.; Wu, Jean Y.; Bergen, Leon; Goodman, Noah D.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most puzzling and important facts about communication is that people do not always mean what they say; speakers often use imprecise, exaggerated, or otherwise literally false descriptions to communicate experiences and attitudes. Here, we focus on the nonliteral interpretation of number words, in particular hyperbole (interpreting unlikely numbers as exaggerated and conveying affect) and pragmatic halo (interpreting round numbers imprecisely). We provide a computational model of number interpretation as social inference regarding the communicative goal, meaning, and affective subtext of an utterance. We show that our model predicts humans’ interpretation of number words with high accuracy. Our model is the first to our knowledge to incorporate principles of communication and empirically measured background knowledge to quantitatively predict hyperbolic and pragmatic halo effects in number interpretation. This modeling framework provides a unified approach to nonliteral language understanding more generally. PMID:25092304

  19. Chaotic Nonlinear Prime Number Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateos, Luis A.

    2011-06-01

    Dynamical systems in nature, such as heartbeat patterns, DNA sequence pattern, prime number distribution, etc., exhibit nonlinear (chaotic) space-time fluctuations and exact quantification of the fluctuation pattern for predictability purposes has not yet been achieved [1]. In this paper a chaotic-nonlinear prime number function P(s) is developed, from which prime numbers are generated and decoded while composite numbers are encoded over time following the Euler product methodology, which works on sequences progressively culled from multiples of the preceding primes. By relating this P(s) to a virtually closed 2D number line manifold, it is possible to represent the evolving in time of nonlinear (chaotic) systems to a final value where the system becomes stable, becomes linear. This nonlinear prime number function is proposed as a chaotic model system able to describe chaotic systems.

  20. What exactly do numbers mean?

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi Ting; Spelke, Elizabeth; Snedeker, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Number words are generally used to refer to the exact cardinal value of a set, but cognitive scientists disagree about their meanings. Although most psychological analyses presuppose that numbers have exact semantics (two means EXACTLY TWO), many linguistic accounts propose that numbers have lower-bounded semantics (AT LEAST TWO), and that speakers restrict their reference through a pragmatic inference (scalar implicature). We address this debate through studies of children who are in the process of acquiring the meanings of numbers. Adults and 2- and 3-year-olds were tested in a novel paradigm that teases apart semantic and pragmatic aspects of interpretation (the covered box task). Our findings establish that when scalar implicatures are cancelled in the critical trials of this task, both adults and children consistently give exact interpretations for number words. These results, in concert with recent work on real-time processing, provide the first unambiguous evidence that number words have exact semantics. PMID:25285053

  1. What exactly do numbers mean?

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi Ting; Spelke, Elizabeth; Snedeker, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    Number words are generally used to refer to the exact cardinal value of a set, but cognitive scientists disagree about their meanings. Although most psychological analyses presuppose that numbers have exact semantics (two means EXACTLY TWO), many linguistic accounts propose that numbers have lower-bounded semantics (AT LEAST TWO), and that speakers restrict their reference through a pragmatic inference (scalar implicature). We address this debate through studies of children who are in the process of acquiring the meanings of numbers. Adults and 2- and 3-year-olds were tested in a novel paradigm that teases apart semantic and pragmatic aspects of interpretation (the covered box task). Our findings establish that when scalar implicatures are cancelled in the critical trials of this task, both adults and children consistently give exact interpretations for number words. These results, in concert with recent work on real-time processing, provide the first unambiguous evidence that number words have exact semantics. PMID:25285053

  2. Dynamic Virtual Credit Card Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molloy, Ian; Li, Jiangtao; Li, Ninghui

    Theft of stored credit card information is an increasing threat to e-commerce. We propose a dynamic virtual credit card number scheme that reduces the damage caused by stolen credit card numbers. A user can use an existing credit card account to generate multiple virtual credit card numbers that are either usable for a single transaction or are tied with a particular merchant. We call the scheme dynamic because the virtual credit card numbers can be generated without online contact with the credit card issuers. These numbers can be processed without changing any of the infrastructure currently in place; the only changes will be at the end points, namely, the card users and the card issuers. We analyze the security requirements for dynamic virtual credit card numbers, discuss the design space, propose a scheme using HMAC, and prove its security under the assumption the underlying function is a PRF.

  3. Familial Sinistrals Avoid Exact Numbers

    PubMed Central

    Sauerland, Uli; Gotzner, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    We report data from an internet questionnaire of sixty number trivia. Participants were asked for the number of cups in their house, the number of cities they know and 58 other quantities. We compare the answers of familial sinistrals – individuals who are left-handed themselves or have a left-handed close blood-relative – with those of pure familial dextrals – right-handed individuals who reported only having right-handed close blood-relatives. We show that familial sinistrals use rounder numbers than pure familial dextrals in the survey responses. Round numbers in the decimal system are those that are multiples of powers of 10 or of half or a quarter of a power of 10. Roundness is a gradient concept, e.g. 100 is rounder than 50 or 200. We show that very round number like 100 and 1000 are used with 25% greater likelihood by familial sinistrals than by pure familial dextrals, while pure familial dextrals are more likely to use less round numbers such as 25, 60, and 200. We then use Sigurd’s (1988, Language in Society) index of the roundness of a number and report that familial sinistrals’ responses are significantly rounder on average than those of pure familial dextrals. To explain the difference, we propose that the cognitive effort of using exact numbers is greater for the familial sinistral group because their language and number systems tend to be more distributed over both hemispheres of the brain. Our data support the view that exact and approximate quantities are processed by two separate cognitive systems. Specifically, our behavioral data corroborates the view that the evolutionarily older, approximate number system is present in both hemispheres of the brain, while the exact number system tends to be localized in only one hemisphere. PMID:23544052

  4. Familial sinistrals avoid exact numbers.

    PubMed

    Sauerland, Uli; Gotzner, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    We report data from an internet questionnaire of sixty number trivia. Participants were asked for the number of cups in their house, the number of cities they know and 58 other quantities. We compare the answers of familial sinistrals--individuals who are left-handed themselves or have a left-handed close blood-relative--with those of pure familial dextrals--right-handed individuals who reported only having right-handed close blood-relatives. We show that familial sinistrals use rounder numbers than pure familial dextrals in the survey responses. Round numbers in the decimal system are those that are multiples of powers of 10 or of half or a quarter of a power of 10. Roundness is a gradient concept, e.g. 100 is rounder than 50 or 200. We show that very round number like 100 and 1000 are used with 25% greater likelihood by familial sinistrals than by pure familial dextrals, while pure familial dextrals are more likely to use less round numbers such as 25, 60, and 200. We then use Sigurd's (1988, Language in Society) index of the roundness of a number and report that familial sinistrals' responses are significantly rounder on average than those of pure familial dextrals. To explain the difference, we propose that the cognitive effort of using exact numbers is greater for the familial sinistral group because their language and number systems tend to be more distributed over both hemispheres of the brain. Our data support the view that exact and approximate quantities are processed by two separate cognitive systems. Specifically, our behavioral data corroborates the view that the evolutionarily older, approximate number system is present in both hemispheres of the brain, while the exact number system tends to be localized in only one hemisphere. PMID:23544052

  5. Power Series of Fuzzy Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadak, U?ur; Ba?ar, Feyzi

    2010-11-01

    Following Talo and Ba?ar [Determination of the duals of classical sets of sequences of fuzzy numbers and related matrix transformations, Comput. Math. Appl. 58(2009), 717-733], we essentially deal with the power series of fuzzy numbers with real or fuzzy coefficients. We consider the different cases of power series of fuzzy numbers to be convergent and give the theorem on the term by term differentiation of power series of fuzzy numbers. Finally, we present a result on the Taylor expansion of a fuzzy valued function.

  6. Compendium of Experimental Cetane Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Yanowitz, J.; Ratcliff, M. A.; McCormick, R. L.; Taylor, J. D.; Murphy, M. J.

    2014-08-01

    This report is an updated version of the 2004 Compendium of Experimental Cetane Number Data and presents a compilation of measured cetane numbers for pure chemical compounds. It includes all available single compound cetane number data found in the scientific literature up until March 2014 as well as a number of unpublished values, most measured over the past decade at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This Compendium contains cetane values for 389 pure compounds, including 189 hydrocarbons and 201 oxygenates. More than 250 individual measurements are new to this version of the Compendium. For many compounds, numerous measurements are included, often collected by different researchers using different methods. Cetane number is a relative ranking of a fuel's autoignition characteristics for use in compression ignition engines; it is based on the amount of time between fuel injection and ignition, also known as ignition delay. The cetane number is typically measured either in a single-cylinder engine or a constant volume combustion chamber. Values in the previous Compendium derived from octane numbers have been removed, and replaced with a brief analysis of the correlation between cetane numbers and octane numbers. The discussion on the accuracy and precision of the most commonly used methods for measuring cetane has been expanded and the data has been annotated extensively to provide additional information that will help the reader judge the relative reliability of individual results.

  7. Measuring Distance of Fuzzy Numbers by Trapezoidal Fuzzy Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajjari, Tayebeh

    2010-11-01

    Fuzzy numbers and more generally linguistic values are approximate assessments, given by experts and accepted by decision-makers when obtaining value that is more accurate is impossible or unnecessary. Distance between two fuzzy numbers plays an important role in linguistic decision-making. It is reasonable to define a fuzzy distance between fuzzy objects. To achieve this aim, the researcher presents a new distance measure for fuzzy numbers by means of improved centroid distance method. The metric properties are also studied. The advantage is the calculation of the proposed method is far simple than previous approaches.

  8. Pseudo-Random Number Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, L. W.; Rheinfurth, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    Package features comprehensive selection of probabilistic distributions. Monte Carlo simulations resorted to whenever systems studied not amenable to deterministic analyses or when direct experimentation not feasible. Random numbers having certain specified distribution characteristic integral part of simulations. Package consists of collector of "pseudorandom" number generators for use in Monte Carlo simulations.

  9. Spontaneous Number Representation in Mosquitofish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadda, Marco; Piffer, Laura; Agrillo, Christian; Bisazza, Angelo

    2009-01-01

    While there is convincing evidence that preverbal human infants and non-human primates can spontaneously represent number, considerable debate surrounds the possibility that such capacity is also present in other animals. Fish show a remarkable ability to discriminate between different numbers of social companions. Previous work has demonstrated…

  10. Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers

    MedlinePLUS

    Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers If you have diabetes, keeping your blood sugar (glucose) numbers in your target range can help you feel ... Prevention There are two ways to measure blood sugar. 1 The A1C is a lab test that ...

  11. Spontaneous Number Representation in Mosquitofish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadda, Marco; Piffer, Laura; Agrillo, Christian; Bisazza, Angelo

    2009-01-01

    While there is convincing evidence that preverbal human infants and non-human primates can spontaneously represent number, considerable debate surrounds the possibility that such capacity is also present in other animals. Fish show a remarkable ability to discriminate between different numbers of social companions. Previous work has demonstrated…

  12. Acceptance of Others (Number Form).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, James R.; Laverty, Grace E.

    As part of the instrumentation to assess the effectiveness of the Schools Without Failure (SWF) program in 10 elementary schools in the New Castle, Pa. School District, the Acceptance of Others (Number Form) was prepared to determine pupil's attitudes toward classmates. Given a list of all class members, pupils are asked to circle a number from 1…

  13. Toddlers' Spontaneous Attention to Number

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baroody, Arthur J.; Li, Xia; Lai, Meng-lung

    2008-01-01

    Hannula and Lehtinen (2001, 2005) defined spontaneous focusing on numerosity (SFON) as the tendency to notice the relatively abstract attribute of number despite the presence of other attributes. According to nativists, an innate concept of one to three directs young children's attention to these "intuitive numbers" in everyday situations--even…

  14. Number Talks Build Numerical Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrish, Sherry D.

    2011-01-01

    "Classroom number talks," five- to fifteen-minute conversations around purposefully crafted computation problems, are a productive tool that can be incorporated into classroom instruction to combine the essential processes and habits of mind of doing math. During number talks, students are asked to communicate their thinking when presenting and…

  15. Counting copy number and calories.

    PubMed

    White, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    Copy number variation (CNV) at several genomic loci has been associated with different human traits and diseases, but in many cases the findings could not be replicated. A new study provides insights into the degree of variation present at the amylase locus and calls into question a previous association between amylase copy number and body mass index. PMID:26220133

  16. Number Talks Build Numerical Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrish, Sherry D.

    2011-01-01

    "Classroom number talks," five- to fifteen-minute conversations around purposefully crafted computation problems, are a productive tool that can be incorporated into classroom instruction to combine the essential processes and habits of mind of doing math. During number talks, students are asked to communicate their thinking when presenting and…

  17. On Counting the Rational Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almada, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…

  18. Investigating the Randomness of Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendleton, Kenn L.

    2009-01-01

    The use of random numbers is pervasive in today's world. Random numbers have practical applications in such far-flung arenas as computer simulations, cryptography, gambling, the legal system, statistical sampling, and even the war on terrorism. Evaluating the randomness of extremely large samples is a complex, intricate process. However, the…

  19. Building Buildings with Triangular Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagni, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Triangular numbers are used to unravel a new sequence of natural numbers here-to-fore not appearing on the Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences website. Insight is provided on the construction of the sequence using "buildings" as a viewable model of the sequence entries. A step-by-step analysis of the sequence pattern reveals a method for generating…

  20. Old and New Magic Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Talmi, Igal

    2008-11-11

    The discovery of magic numbers led to the shell model. They indicated closure of major shells and are robust: proton magic numbers are rather independent of the occupation of neutron orbits and vice versa. Recently the magic property became less stringent and we hear a lot about the discovery of new magic numbers. These, however, indicate sub-shell closures and strongly depend on occupation numbers and hence, may be called quasi-magic numbers. Some of these have been known for many years and the mechanism for their appearance as well as disappearance, was well understood within the simple shell model. The situation will be illustrated by a few examples which demonstrate the simple features of the shell model. Will this simplicity emerge from the complex computations of nuclear many-body theory?.

  1. Number line compression and the illusory perception of random numbers.

    PubMed

    Viarouge, Arnaud; Hubbard, Edward M; Dehaene, Stanislas; Sackur, Jérôme

    2010-01-01

    Developmental studies indicate that children initially possess a compressed intuition of numerical distances, in which larger numbers are less discriminable than small ones. Education then "linearizes" this responding until by about age eight, children become able to map symbolic numerals onto a linear spatial scale. However, this illusion of compression of symbolic numerals may still exist in a dormant form in human adults and may be observed in appropriate experimental contexts. To investigate this issue, we asked adult participants to rate whether a random sequence of numbers contained too many small numbers or too many large ones. Participants exhibited a large bias, judging as random a geometric series that actually oversampled small numbers, consistent with a compression of large numbers. This illusion resisted training on a number-space mapping task, even though performance was linear on this task. While the illusion was moderately reduced by explicit exposure to linear sequences, responding was still significantly compressed. Thus, the illusion of compression is robust in this task, but linear and compressed responding can be exhibited in the same participants depending on the experimental context. PMID:20382625

  2. Number without a language model

    PubMed Central

    Spaepen, Elizabet; Coppola, Marie; Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Carey, Susan E.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Cross-cultural studies suggest that access to a conventional language containing words that can be used for counting is essential to develop representations of large exact numbers. However, cultures that lack a conventional counting system typically differ from cultures that have such systems, not only in language but also in many other ways. As a result, it is difficult to isolate the effects of language on the development of number representations. Here we examine the numerical abilities of individuals who lack conventional language for number (deaf individuals who do not have access to a usable model for language, spoken or signed) but who live in a numerate culture (Nicaragua) and thus have access to other aspects of culture that might foster the development of number. These deaf individuals develop their own gestures, called homesigns, to communicate. We show that homesigners use gestures to communicate about number. However, they do not consistently extend the correct number of fingers when communicating about sets greater than three, nor do they always correctly match the number of items in one set to a target set when that target set is greater than three. Thus, even when integrated into a numerate society, individuals who lack input from a conventional language do not spontaneously develop representations of large exact numerosities. PMID:21300893

  3. Reynolds number influences in aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.; Yip, Long P.; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Lin, John C.; Lawing, Pierce L.; Batina, John T.; Hardin, Jay C.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Fenbert, James W.; Domack, Christopher S.

    1993-01-01

    Reynolds number, a measure of the ratio of inertia to viscous forces, is a fundamental similarity parameter for fluid flows and therefore, would be expected to have a major influence in aerodynamics and aeronautics. Reynolds number influences are generally large, but monatomic, for attached laminar (continuum) flow; however, laminar flows are easily separated, inducing even stronger, non-monatomic, Reynolds number sensitivities. Probably the strongest Reynolds number influences occur in connection with transitional flow behavior. Transition can take place over a tremendous Reynolds number range, from the order of 20 x 10(exp 3) for 2-D free shear layers up to the order of 100 x 10(exp 6) for hypersonic boundary layers. This variability in transition behavior is especially important for complex configurations where various vehicle and flow field elements can undergo transition at various Reynolds numbers, causing often surprising changes in aerodynamics characteristics over wide ranges in Reynolds number. This is further compounded by the vast parameterization associated with transition, in that any parameter which influences mean viscous flow development (e.g., pressure gradient, flow curvature, wall temperature, Mach number, sweep, roughness, flow chemistry, shock interactions, etc.), and incident disturbance fields (acoustics, vorticity, particulates, temperature spottiness, even electro static discharges) can alter transition locations to first order. The usual method of dealing with the transition problem is to trip the flow in the generally lower Reynolds number wind tunnel to simulate the flight turbulent behavior. However, this is not wholly satisfactory as it results in incorrectly scaled viscous region thicknesses and cannot be utilized at all for applications such as turbine blades and helicopter rotors, nacelles, leading edge and nose regions, and High Altitude Long Endurance and hypersonic airbreathers where the transitional flow is an innately critical portion of the problem.

  4. Number fields without small generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaaler, Jeffrey D.; Widmer, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Let $D>1$ be an integer, and let $b=b(D)>1$ be its smallest divisor. We show that there are infinitely many number fields of degree $D$ whose primitive elements all have relatively large height in terms of $b$, $D$ and the discriminant of the number field. This provides a negative answer to a questions of W. Ruppert from 1998 in the case when $D$ is composite. Conditional on a very weak form of a folk conjecture about the distribution of number fields, we negatively answer Ruppert's question for all $D>3$.

  5. Numbered nasal discs for waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartonek, J.C.; Dane, C.W.

    1964-01-01

    Numbered nasal discs were successfully used in studies requiring large numbers of individually marked waterfowl. The procedure for constructing these discs is outlined. Blue-winged teal (Anas discors) with 5/8-inch discs, and canvasback (Aythya valisineria) and redhead (A. americana) with 3/4-inch discs can be individually identified up to 50 and 80 yards, respectively, with a gunstock-mounted, 20-power spotting scope. The particular value of these markers is their durability, the number of combinations possible, and the apparent absence of behavioral or mortality influence among such species as the blue-winged teal.

  6. Avogadro's Number and Avogadro's Constant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, R. O.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses three possible methods of thinking about the implications of the definitions of the Avogadro constant and number. Indicates that there is only one way to arrive at a simple and standard conclusion. (CC)

  7. Integral Presentations of Catalan Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dana-Picard, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    We compute in three different ways the same definite parametric integral. By-products are the derivation of a combinatorial identity and two integral presentations of Catalan numbers. One of them leads to a presentation using the [gamma] function.

  8. Fibonacci Numbers and the Spreadsheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verderber, Nadine L.

    1991-01-01

    Described is a classroom activity incorporating a computer spreadsheet to study number patterns generated by the Fibonacci sequence. Included are examples and suggestions for the use of the spreadsheet in other recursive relationships. (JJK)

  9. Digital random-number generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brocker, D. H.

    1973-01-01

    For binary digit array of N bits, use N noise sources to feed N nonlinear operators; each flip-flop in digit array is set by nonlinear operator to reflect whether amplitude of generator which feeds it is above or below mean value of generated noise. Fixed-point uniform distribution random number generation method can also be used to generate random numbers with other than uniform distribution.

  10. Entropy estimation and Fibonacci numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeev, Evgeniy A.; Kaltchenko, Alexei

    2013-05-01

    We introduce a new metric on a space of right-sided infinite sequences drawn from a finite alphabet. Emerging from a problem of entropy estimation of a discrete stationary ergodic process, the metric is important on its own part and exhibits some interesting properties. Notably, the number of distinct metric values for a set of sequences of length m is equal to Fm+3 - 1, where Fm is a Fibonacci number.

  11. Possible number of different neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Manko, V.I.; Markov, M.A.

    1986-05-01

    It is hypothesized that the number of different types of neutrinos may be related to the dimensionality of the space. This relationship is illustrated by a model of a four-dimensional relativistic oscillator which is an element of a relativistic string. It is shown that the total number of different neutrinos may vary from three to five (depending on the model), in agreement with astrophysical data. 5 references.

  12. Copy number variation and mutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Brian; Weidner, Jacob; Wabick, Kevin

    2009-11-01

    Until very recently, the standard model of DNA included two genes for each trait. This dated model has given way to a model that includes copies of some genes well in excess of the canonical two. Copy number variations in the human genome play critical roles in causing or aggravating a number of syndromes and diseases while providing increased resistance to others. We explore the role of mutation, crossover, inversion, and reproduction in determining copy number variations in a numerical simulation of a population. The numerical model consists of a population of individuals, where each individual is represented by a single strand of DNA with the same number of genes. Each gene is initially assigned to one of two traits. Fitness of the individual is determined by the two most fit genes for trait one, and trait two genetic material is treated as a reservoir of junk DNA. After a sufficient number of generations, during which the genetic distribution is allowed to reach a steady-state, the mean numberof genes per trait and the copy number variation are recorded. Here, we focus on the role of mutation and compare simulation results to theory.

  13. Number matters: control of mammalian mitochondrial DNA copy number

    PubMed Central

    Clay Montier, Laura L.; Deng, Janice; Bai, Yidong

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis is essential for proper cellular functioning. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion and the resulting mitochondrial malfunction have been implicated in cancer, neurodegeneration, diabetes, aging, and many other human diseases. Although it is known that the dynamics of the mammalian mitochondrial genome are not linked with that of the nuclear genome, very little is known about the mechanism of mtDNA propagation. Nevertheless, our understanding of the mode of mtDNA replication has advanced in recent years, though not without some controversies. This review summarizes our current knowledge of mtDNA copy number control in mammalian cells, while focusing on both mtDNA replication and turnover. Although mtDNA copy number is seemingly in excess, we reason that mtDNA copy number control is an important aspect of mitochondrial genetics and biogenesis and is essential for normal cellular function. PMID:19302968

  14. Number Meaning and Number Grammar in English and Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bock, Kathryn; Carreiras, Manuel; Meseguer, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Grammatical agreement makes different demands on speakers of different languages. Being widespread in the languages of the world, the features of agreement systems offer valuable tests of how language affects deep-seated domains of human cognition and categorization. Number agreement is one such domain, with intriguing evidence that typological…

  15. Number Meaning and Number Grammar in English and Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bock, Kathryn; Carreiras, Manuel; Meseguer, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Grammatical agreement makes different demands on speakers of different languages. Being widespread in the languages of the world, the features of agreement systems offer valuable tests of how language affects deep-seated domains of human cognition and categorization. Number agreement is one such domain, with intriguing evidence that typological…

  16. Experimental determination of Ramsey numbers.

    PubMed

    Bian, Zhengbing; Chudak, Fabian; Macready, William G; Clark, Lane; Gaitan, Frank

    2013-09-27

    Ramsey theory is a highly active research area in mathematics that studies the emergence of order in large disordered structures. Ramsey numbers mark the threshold at which order first appears and are extremely difficult to calculate due to their explosive rate of growth. Recently, an algorithm that can be implemented using adiabatic quantum evolution has been proposed that calculates the two-color Ramsey numbers R(m,n). Here we present results of an experimental implementation of this algorithm and show that it correctly determines the Ramsey numbers R(3,3) and R(m,2) for 4≤m≤8. The R(8,2) computation used 84 qubits of which 28 were computational qubits. This computation is the largest experimental implementation of a scientifically meaningful adiabatic evolution algorithm that has been done to date. PMID:24116761

  17. Negative Numbers and Antimatter Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsan, Ung Chan

    Dirac's equation states that an electron implies the existence of an antielectron with the same mass (more generally same arithmetic properties) and opposite charge (more generally opposite algebraic properties). Subsequent observation of antielectron validated this concept. This statement can be extended to all matter particles; observation of antiproton, antineutron, antideuton … is in complete agreement with this view. Recently antihypertriton was observed and 38 atoms of antihydrogen were trapped. This opens the path for use in precise testing of nature's fundamental symmetries. The symmetric properties of a matter particle and its mirror antimatter particle seem to be well established. Interactions operate on matter particles and antimatter particles as well. Conservation of matter parallels addition operating on positive and negative numbers. Without antimatter particles, interactions of the Standard Model (electromagnetism, strong interaction and weak interaction) cannot have the structure of group. Antimatter particles are characterized by negative baryonic number A or/and negative leptonic number L. Materialization and annihilation obey conservation of A and L (associated to all known interactions), explaining why from pure energy (A = 0, L = 0) one can only obtain a pair of matter particle antimatter particle — electron antielectron, proton and antiproton — via materialization where the mass of a pair of particle antiparticle gives back to pure energy with annihilation. These two mechanisms cannot change the difference in the number of matter particles and antimatter particles. Thus from pure energy only a perfectly symmetric (in number) universe could be generated as proposed by Dirac but observation showed that our universe is not symmetric, it is a matter universe which is nevertheless neutral. Fall of reflection symmetries shattered the prejudice that there is no way to define in an absolute way right and left or matter and antimatter. Experimental observation of CP violation aroused a great hope for explaining why our universe is not exactly matter antimatter symmetric. Sakharov stated that without the violation of baryonic number, it is not possible to obtain from pure energy a universe made of only matter. The fact that our universe is asymmetric (in number) but perfectly neutral, points toward the existence of a hypothetic interaction violating A and L but conserving all charges. This Matter Creation (MC) interaction creating either a pair of matter particles or antimatter particles (instead of a pair of particle antiparticle) would have a charge BAL = (A-L) and a neutral messenger Z*. Even if CP is conserved, MC would allow the creation of a number of matter particles not exactly equal to the number of antimatter particles. Our universe would then correspond to the remaining excess when all matter antimatter pairs have disappeared. Observation of matter nonconservation processes would be of great interest to falsify this speculation. In a plan with A and L as axes, pure energy is represented by the origin (A = 0, L = 0). A symmetric universe is also represented by (A = 0, L = 0) meaning that there are exactly the same number of baryons and antibaryons, and the same number of leptons and antileptons. Our present matter universe is instead represented by a point of the diagonal with A = L = present A value. This value is tiny relative to the number of gammas resulting from the annihilation of matter-antimatter particles.

  18. On the three primordial numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobbetti, Roberto; Pajer, Enrico; Roest, Diederik

    2015-09-01

    Cosmological observations have provided us with the measurement of just three numbers that characterize the very early universe: 1?ns , N and ln ?R2. Although each of the three numbers individually carries limited information about the physics of inflation, one may hope to extract non-trivial information from relations among them. Invoking minimality, namely the absence of ad hoc large numbers, we find two viable and mutually exclusive inflationary scenarios. The first is the well-known inverse relation between 1? ns and N. The second implies a new relation between 1?ns and ln ?R2, which might provide us with a handle on the beginning of inflation and predicts the intriguing lower bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r > 0.006 (95% CL).

  19. Bayesian DNA copy number analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rancoita, Paola MV; Hutter, Marcus; Bertoni, Francesco; Kwee, Ivo

    2009-01-01

    Background Some diseases, like tumors, can be related to chromosomal aberrations, leading to changes of DNA copy number. The copy number of an aberrant genome can be represented as a piecewise constant function, since it can exhibit regions of deletions or gains. Instead, in a healthy cell the copy number is two because we inherit one copy of each chromosome from each our parents. Bayesian Piecewise Constant Regression (BPCR) is a Bayesian regression method for data that are noisy observations of a piecewise constant function. The method estimates the unknown segment number, the endpoints of the segments and the value of the segment levels of the underlying piecewise constant function. The Bayesian Regression Curve (BRC) estimates the same data with a smoothing curve. However, in the original formulation, some estimators failed to properly determine the corresponding parameters. For example, the boundary estimator did not take into account the dependency among the boundaries and succeeded in estimating more than one breakpoint at the same position, losing segments. Results We derived an improved version of the BPCR (called mBPCR) and BRC, changing the segment number estimator and the boundary estimator to enhance the fitting procedure. We also proposed an alternative estimator of the variance of the segment levels, which is useful in case of data with high noise. Using artificial data, we compared the original and the modified version of BPCR and BRC with other regression methods, showing that our improved version of BPCR generally outperformed all the others. Similar results were also observed on real data. Conclusion We propose an improved method for DNA copy number estimation, mBPCR, which performed very well compared to previously published algorithms. In particular, mBPCR was more powerful in the detection of the true position of the breakpoints and of small aberrations in very noisy data. Hence, from a biological point of view, our method can be very useful, for example, to find targets of genomic aberrations in clinical cancer samples. PMID:19133123

  20. Biotechnology at low Reynolds numbers.

    PubMed Central

    Brody, J P; Yager, P; Goldstein, R E; Austin, R H

    1996-01-01

    The shrinking of liquid handling systems to the micron and submicron size range entails moving into the area of small Reynolds numbers. The fluid dynamics in this regime are very different from the macroscale. We present an intuitive explanation of how the different physics of small Reynolds numbers flow, along with microscopic sizes, can influence device design, and give examples from our own work using fluid flow in microfabricated devices designed for biological processing. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 PMID:8968612

  1. Poison control center - emergency number

    MedlinePLUS

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you talk to ... ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12630734 . Shannon MW. Emergency management of poisoning. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, ...

  2. The elephant brain in numbers.

    PubMed

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Avelino-de-Souza, Kamilla; Neves, Kleber; Porfírio, Jairo; Messeder, Débora; Mattos Feijó, Larissa; Maldonado, José; Manger, Paul R

    2014-01-01

    What explains the superior cognitive abilities of the human brain compared to other, larger brains? Here we investigate the possibility that the human brain has a larger number of neurons than even larger brains by determining the cellular composition of the brain of the African elephant. We find that the African elephant brain, which is about three times larger than the human brain, contains 257 billion (10(9)) neurons, three times more than the average human brain; however, 97.5% of the neurons in the elephant brain (251 billion) are found in the cerebellum. This makes the elephant an outlier in regard to the number of cerebellar neurons compared to other mammals, which might be related to sensorimotor specializations. In contrast, the elephant cerebral cortex, which has twice the mass of the human cerebral cortex, holds only 5.6 billion neurons, about one third of the number of neurons found in the human cerebral cortex. This finding supports the hypothesis that the larger absolute number of neurons in the human cerebral cortex (but not in the whole brain) is correlated with the superior cognitive abilities of humans compared to elephants and other large-brained mammals. PMID:24971054

  3. Squirming At Finite Reynolds Number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisholm, Nicholas; Zhu, Ziyi; Khair, Aditya

    2013-11-01

    The dynamics of swimming microorganisms at zero Reynolds number (Re = 0) has been the subject of extensive theoretical and experimental investigation over the past decade, and the study of locomotion at high Reynolds number (Re >> 1), where inertial forces are dominant, has a venerable history. In this talk, we consider swimming between these limits, i.e. at finite Reynolds numbers, using the popular ``squirmer'' model of self-propulsion, wherein locomotion is achieved through surface distortions. We first utilize matched asymptotic expansions to derive an analytical expression for the swimming velocity of a squirmer through O (Re2) , which highlights that inertia affects so-called ``pusher'' and ``puller'' swimmers in fundamentally different manners. (The equivalent of Whitehead's paradox for a self-propelled object is elucidated in the process.) Next, we employ numerical methods to compute the swimming velocity of pushers and pullers for higher Reynolds numbers. Finally, we demonstrate that inertia causes squirmers (which are non-chiral) to drift across the streamlines of an imposed shear flow.

  4. Adjuncts Build Strength in Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    June, Audrey Williams

    2012-01-01

    When professors in positions that offer no chance of earning tenure begin to stack the faculty, campus dynamics start to change. Growing numbers of adjuncts make themselves more visible. They push for roles in governance, better pay and working conditions, and recognition for work well done. And they do so at institutions where tenured faculty,…

  5. Magic Numbers and Pascal's Triangle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Cruz, Elías

    2002-03-01

    Papers concerning the so called "magic numbers"^1-3 span different areas of Solid State Physics. Treatment of the growth of metal clusters and its stability conditions from the theoretical point of view in Ref. 1 leads to the conclusion that the clusters can take place in two or three dimensions. The clusters are triangular or tetrahedral and are obtained only for certain "magic numbers". Experimental work concerning the growth of metal clusters in two dimensions^2 have confirmed the growth only for certain magic numbers and these are the same as the calculated ones in Ref. 1. The present work shows that these "magic numbers" can be deduced from the numeric arrangement called Pascal's Triangle as two of the many numeric sequences contained in the triangle. Some other sequences will be discussed. 1. S.M. Reimann, M. Kuskinen, H. Häkkinen, P.E. Lindelof, and M. Manninen, Phys. Rev. B 56, 12147 (1997-I) 2. M.Y. Lai and Y.L. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 164 (1998) 3. T.E.M. Staab, M. Haugk, Th. Frauenheim, and H.S. Leipner, Phys. REv. Lett. 83, 5519 (1999)

  6. Solar System Number-Crunching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Bob; Firedrake, George

    1997-01-01

    Defines terrestrial and Jovian planets and provides directions to obtain planetary data from the National Space Science Data Center Web sites. Provides "number-crunching" activities for the terrestrial planets using Texas Instruments TI-83 graphing calculators: computing volumetric mean radius and volume, density, ellipticity, speed, surface…

  7. The Mathematics of Identification Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallian, Joseph A.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed are the mathematical methods for detecting a variety of common error patterns within the bar-coded identification numbers utilized in conjunction with scanning devices. Schemes for the use of check digits are examined that ensure conditions for detecting errors of specific types, including single digit error, transposition error, twin…

  8. Oxidation Numbers and Their Limitations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolf, A. A.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews a method for determining oxidation numbers in covalent compounds and balancing mixed organic-inorganic or purely organic systems. Points out ambiguities presented when adjacent atoms have small or zero electronegativity differences. Presents other limitations that arise when using electronegativity values. (CW)

  9. Not Just a Number Anymore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    In the Essex, Cincinnati retirement center where they both worked as nurses, Holly Doherty and Michele Schavoir often heard aides complain about one longtime resident in particular. The patient kicks and screams and nurses can not stand to be around her. After a year of playing detective, Doherty found a number of the patient's relatives in…

  10. Project Solo; Newsletter Number Eleven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittsburgh Univ., PA. Project Solo.

    An experimental 9th grade computer science syllabus is proposed. The syllabus would include the technical information needed for controlling and programing the computer in a number of modes and would preview some of the areas covered in the high school curriculum. A sample module of a topic not normally taught in high school--distance and…

  11. Questioning Zero and Negative Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Virginia B.

    2008-01-01

    After experiencing a Developing Mathematical Ideas (DMI) class on the construction of algebraic concepts surrounding zero and negative numbers, the author conducted an interview with a first grader to determine the youngster's existing level of understanding about these topics. Uncovering young students' existing understanding can provide focus…

  12. Number Crunching: A Sheep's Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sam, Chris Lam

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about an allegorical tale which he has written as a message for teachers of mathematics. The story is about Gordon, who led a flock of small sheep. Gordon was a mathematics genius; however, his flock criticized his teaching of numbers and his boring lectures. His furry-god-farmer advised him to share his…

  13. Ten Is the Magic Number!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Lindsay

    2009-01-01

    How this teacher develops composition of ten with second graders was dramatically reshaped by the 2006 release of NCTM's "Curriculum Focal Points." The release of "Curriculum Focal Points"--particularly the suggestion that number sense and computation be focal areas in the second-grade mathematics curriculum--resulted in positive changes in this…

  14. High Reynolds number research - 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinney, L. W. (Editor); Baals, D. D. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The fundamental aerodynamic questions for which high Reynolds number experimental capability is required were examined. Potential experiments which maximize the research returns from the use of the National Transonic Facility (NTF) were outlined. Calibration plans were reviewed and the following topics were discussed: fluid dynamics; high lit; configuration aerodynamics; aeroelasticity and unsteady aerodynamics; wind tunnel/flight correlation; space vehicles; and theoretical aerodynamics

  15. Materiales. Numbers 17-20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Materiales, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Four booklets present articles on Spanish language and culture aimed at teachers of Spanish in the United States for student use in their classes. Number 17, "Los Jovenes Espanoles" (Spanish Youth), includes articles on Spanish youth sports, music, gangs, thoughts, and t-shirt slogans: (1) "Young Spanish Athletes"; (2) "Youth Music"; (3) "Urban…

  16. Materiales. Numbers 21-23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Materiales, 1997

    1997-01-01

    These three journals of contemporary cultural, historical, and social interest contain activities designed to enhance the awareness of students of Spanish as a foreign language regarding the entire panorama of daily life in Spain. Number 21 focuses on the role of modern Spanish women; their career status; female authors; and the changing place of…

  17. Residual number processing in dyscalculia?

    PubMed Central

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia. PMID:24266008

  18. The elephant brain in numbers

    PubMed Central

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Avelino-de-Souza, Kamilla; Neves, Kleber; Porfírio, Jairo; Messeder, Débora; Mattos Feijó, Larissa; Maldonado, José; Manger, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    What explains the superior cognitive abilities of the human brain compared to other, larger brains? Here we investigate the possibility that the human brain has a larger number of neurons than even larger brains by determining the cellular composition of the brain of the African elephant. We find that the African elephant brain, which is about three times larger than the human brain, contains 257 billion (109) neurons, three times more than the average human brain; however, 97.5% of the neurons in the elephant brain (251 billion) are found in the cerebellum. This makes the elephant an outlier in regard to the number of cerebellar neurons compared to other mammals, which might be related to sensorimotor specializations. In contrast, the elephant cerebral cortex, which has twice the mass of the human cerebral cortex, holds only 5.6 billion neurons, about one third of the number of neurons found in the human cerebral cortex. This finding supports the hypothesis that the larger absolute number of neurons in the human cerebral cortex (but not in the whole brain) is correlated with the superior cognitive abilities of humans compared to elephants and other large-brained mammals. PMID:24971054

  19. Time to Make the Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surrena, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    In order to inspire her students to work in mixed media, the author chose to highlight the art of Jasper Johns and Robert Indiana, both of whom used numbers and letters as a main focus in their art. In this article, the author describes a mixed-media printmaking project. (Contains 2 online resources.)

  20. A generalized sense of number

    PubMed Central

    Arrighi, Roberto; Togoli, Irene; Burr, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Much evidence has accumulated to suggest that many animals, including young human infants, possess an abstract sense of approximate quantity, a number sense. Most research has concentrated on apparent numerosity of spatial arrays of dots or other objects, but a truly abstract sense of number should be capable of encoding the numerosity of any set of discrete elements, however displayed and in whatever sensory modality. Here, we use the psychophysical technique of adaptation to study the sense of number for serially presented items. We show that numerosity of both auditory and visual sequences is greatly affected by prior adaptation to slow or rapid sequences of events. The adaptation to visual stimuli was spatially selective (in external, not retinal coordinates), pointing to a sensory rather than cognitive process. However, adaptation generalized across modalities, from auditory to visual and vice versa. Adaptation also generalized across formats: adapting to sequential streams of flashes affected the perceived numerosity of spatial arrays. All these results point to a perceptual system that transcends vision and audition to encode an abstract sense of number in space and in time. PMID:25377454

  1. In Defense of Quantum Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Robert M.

    1998-05-01

    A recent paper has argued that the derivation of the periodic table using quantum numbers is a topic that should be eliminated from introductory chemistry courses because it is too abstract, mysterious, and esoteric. A rebuttal is offered based on the claim that it would be wrong to omit discussions of the inductive approach of Mendeleev and the deductive approach initiated by Schroedinger, because they compose the consummate example of that interaction of empirical and rational epistemologies that defines how chemists think.

  2. Semantic alignment and number comparison.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jamie I D; Sacher, Sean G

    2012-01-01

    Are the quantity representations activated by Arabic digits influenced by semantic context? We developed a novel paradigm to examine semantic alignment effects (e.g., Bassok et al. in J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 34:343-352, 2008) in number comparison. A horizontal word pair (either less more or few many) appeared for 480 ms to prime either relative magnitude (less more) or quantity (few many). Then a horizontal pair of single digits that were either successors (near) or differed by at least four (far) appeared above the word pair. Participants indicated verbally whether or not the word and digit pairs were congruent with respect to left-to-right ascending or descending relative magnitude. The RT advantage for far number pairs compared to near pairs (the distance effect) was greater with magnitude primes (81 ms) than quantity primes (17 ms), demonstrating a semantic alignment effect. This effect disappeared in Experiment 2 in which participants received identical stimuli but named the larger of the two digits and were free to ignore the primes. Nonetheless, mean RT in Experiment 2 was faster with prime and target pairs both ascending or both descending, but only with quantity primes. This prime-dependent order-congruity effect suggests that semantic alignment with respect to numerical order affected number comparison in Experiment 2. The results thereby demonstrate that number comparison exhibits task-dependent semantic alignment effects and recruits distinct numerical representations as a function of semantic context (e.g., Cohen Kadosh and Walsh in Behav Brain Sci 32:313-373, 2009). PMID:21461771

  3. Approximate number sense, symbolic number processing, or number-space mappings: what underlies mathematics achievement?

    PubMed

    Sasanguie, Delphine; Göbel, Silke M; Moll, Kristina; Smets, Karolien; Reynvoet, Bert

    2013-03-01

    In this study, the performance of typically developing 6- to 8-year-old children on an approximate number discrimination task, a symbolic comparison task, and a symbolic and nonsymbolic number line estimation task was examined. For the first time, children's performances on these basic cognitive number processing tasks were explicitly contrasted to investigate which of them is the best predictor of their future mathematical abilities. Math achievement was measured with a timed arithmetic test and with a general curriculum-based math test to address the additional question of whether the predictive association between the basic numerical abilities and mathematics achievement is dependent on which math test is used. Results revealed that performance on both mathematics achievement tests was best predicted by how well childrencompared digits. In addition, an association between performance on the symbolic number line estimation task and math achievement scores for the general curriculum-based math test measuring a broader spectrum of skills was found. Together, these results emphasize the importance of learning experiences with symbols for later math abilities. PMID:23270796

  4. Quasiperpendicular High Mach Number Shocks.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, A H; Masters, A; Dougherty, M K; Burgess, D; Fujimoto, M; Hospodarsky, G B

    2015-09-18

    Shock waves exist throughout the Universe and are fundamental to understanding the nature of collisionless plasmas. Reformation is a process, driven by microphysics, which typically occurs at high Mach number supercritical shocks. While ongoing studies have investigated this process extensively both theoretically and via simulations, their observations remain few and far between. In this Letter we present a study of very high Mach number shocks in a parameter space that has been poorly explored and we identify reformation using in situ magnetic field observations from the Cassini spacecraft at 10 AU. This has given us an insight into quasiperpendicular shocks across 2 orders of magnitude in Alfvén Mach number (M_{A}) which could potentially bridge the gap between modest terrestrial shocks and more exotic astrophysical shocks. For the first time, we show evidence for cyclic reformation controlled by specular ion reflection occurring at the predicted time scale of ~0.3?_{c}, where ?_{c} is the ion gyroperiod. In addition, we experimentally reveal the relationship between reformation and M_{A} and focus on the magnetic structure of such shocks to further show that for the same M_{A}, a reforming shock exhibits stronger magnetic field amplification than a shock that is not reforming. PMID:26430997

  5. Vertebral numbers and human evolution.

    PubMed

    Williams, Scott A; Middleton, Emily R; Villamil, Catalina I; Shattuck, Milena R

    2016-01-01

    Ever since Tyson (1699), anatomists have noted and compared differences in the regional numbers of vertebrae among humans and other hominoids. Subsequent workers interpreted these differences in phylogenetic, functional, and behavioral frameworks and speculated on the history of vertebral numbers during human evolution. Even in a modern phylogenetic framework and with greatly expanded sample sizes of hominoid species, researchers' conclusions vary drastically, positing that hominins evolved from either a "long-backed" (numerically long lumbar column) or a "short-backed" (numerically short lumbar column) ancestor. We show that these disparate interpretations are due in part to the use of different criteria for what defines a lumbar vertebra, but argue that, regardless of which lumbar definition is used, hominins are similar to their great ape relatives in possessing a short trunk, a rare occurrence in mammals and one that defines the clade Hominoidea. Furthermore, we address the recent claim that the early hominin thoracolumbar configuration is not distinct from that of modern humans and conclude that early hominins show evidence of "cranial shifting," which might explain the anomalous morphology of several early hominin fossils. Finally, we evaluate the competing hypotheses on numbers of vertebrae and argue that the current data support a hominin ancestor with an African ape-like short trunk and lower back. Am J Phys Anthropol 159:S19-S36, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26808105

  6. Quasiperpendicular High Mach Number Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaiman, A. H.; Masters, A.; Dougherty, M. K.; Burgess, D.; Fujimoto, M.; Hospodarsky, G. B.

    2015-09-01

    Shock waves exist throughout the Universe and are fundamental to understanding the nature of collisionless plasmas. Reformation is a process, driven by microphysics, which typically occurs at high Mach number supercritical shocks. While ongoing studies have investigated this process extensively both theoretically and via simulations, their observations remain few and far between. In this Letter we present a study of very high Mach number shocks in a parameter space that has been poorly explored and we identify reformation using in situ magnetic field observations from the Cassini spacecraft at 10 AU. This has given us an insight into quasiperpendicular shocks across 2 orders of magnitude in Alfvén Mach number (MA ) which could potentially bridge the gap between modest terrestrial shocks and more exotic astrophysical shocks. For the first time, we show evidence for cyclic reformation controlled by specular ion reflection occurring at the predicted time scale of ˜0.3 ?c , where ?c is the ion gyroperiod. In addition, we experimentally reveal the relationship between reformation and MA and focus on the magnetic structure of such shocks to further show that for the same MA , a reforming shock exhibits stronger magnetic field amplification than a shock that is not reforming.

  7. A Pseudo-Random Number Generator Based on Normal Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.

    2004-12-31

    In a recent paper, Richard Crandall and the present author established that each of a certain class of explicitly given real constants, uncountably infinite in number, is b-normal, for an integer that appears in the formula defining the constant. A b-normal constant is one where every string of m digits appears in the base-b expansion of the constant with limiting frequency b{sup -m}. This paper shows how this result can be used to fashion an efficient and effective pseudo-random number generator, which generates successive strings of binary digits from one of the constants in this class. The resulting generator, which tests slightly faster than a conventional linear congruential generator, avoids difficulties with large power-of-two data access strides that may occur when using conventional generators. It is also well suited for parallel processing--each processor can quickly and independently compute its starting value, with the collective sequence generated by all processors being the same as that generated by a single processor.

  8. The conceptual representation of number.

    PubMed

    Patson, Nikole D; George, Gerret; Warren, Tessa

    2014-01-01

    The experiments reported here investigated the format of plural conceptual representations using a picture-matching paradigm. In Experiment 1, participants read sentences that ended with a singular noun phrase (NP), a two-quantified plural NP, or a plural definite description [The parents handed the child the (two) crayon/s] and then saw a picture of one or multiple referents for the NP. Judgement times to confirm that there was overlap between the pictured object(s) and a noun in the sentence showed an interaction between the NP's number and NP-picture match. For singular NPs and two-quantified NPs, participants were reliably faster to respond "yes" to a picture that had the exact number of objects specified by the NP, but for plural definite descriptions, the effect of the number of pictured items was not reliable. Experiment 2 extended this finding to conceptual plurals. Participants read sentences biased toward either a collective (Together the men carried a box-box is interpreted as singular) or distributed (Each of the men carried a box-box is likely interpreted as plural) reading. Experiment 2 showed the same interaction between NP conceptual plurality and NP-picture match as that in Experiment 1. These results suggest that: (a) our default conceptual representations for plural definite descriptions are no more similar to images of small sets of multiple items than to images of singular items; and (b) the difference between singular and plural conceptual representations is unlikely to be simply the presence or absence of a plural feature. The results are consistent with theories in which plurality is unmarked, such that some plural NPs can refer to singular referents [e.g., Sauerland, U., Anderssen, J., & Yatsushiro, J. (2005). The plural is semantically unmarked. In S. Kepser & M. Reis (Eds.), Linguistic evidence (pp. 413-434). Berlin: de Gruyter]. PMID:24251989

  9. Propulsion at low Reynolds number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najafi, Ali; Golestanian, Ramin

    2005-04-01

    We study the propulsion of two model swimmers at low Reynolds number. Inspired by Purcell's model, we propose a very simple one-dimensional swimmer consisting of three spheres that are connected by two arms whose lengths can change between two values. The proposed swimmer can swim with a special type of motion, which breaks the time-reversal symmetry. We also show that an ellipsoidal membrane with tangential travelling wave on it can also propel itself in the direction preferred by the travelling wave. This system resembles the realistic biological animals like Paramecium.

  10. Semantic priming in number naming.

    PubMed

    Reynvoet, Bert; Brysbaert, Marc; Fias, Wim

    2002-10-01

    The issue of semantic and non-semantic conversion routes for numerals is still debated in numerical cognition. We report two number-naming experiments in which the target numerals were preceded by another numeral (prime). The primes and targets could be presented either in arabic (digit) notation or in verbal (alphabetical) notation. The results reveal a semantically related distance effect: Latencies are fastest when the prime has the same value as the target and increase when the distance between prime and target increases. We argue that the present results are congruent with the idea that the numerals make access to an ordered semantic number line common to all notations, as the results are the same for within-notation priming (arabic-arabic or verbal-verbal) and between-notations priming (arabic-verbal or verbal-arabic). The present results also point to a rapid involvement of semantics in the naming of numerals, also when the numerals are words. As such, they are in line with recent claims of rapid semantic mediation in word naming. PMID:12420988

  11. Number of cosmic string loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Olum, Ken D.; Shlaer, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Using recent simulation results, we provide the mass and speed spectrum of cosmic string loops. This is the quantity of primary interest for many phenomenological signatures of cosmic strings, and it can be accurately predicted using recently acquired detailed knowledge of the loop production function. We emphasize that gravitational smoothing of long strings plays a negligible role in determining the total number of existing loops. We derive a bound on the string tension imposed by recent constraints on the stochastic gravitational wave background from pulsar timing arrays, finding Gμ ≤2.8×10-9. We also provide a derivation of the Boltzmann equation for cosmic string loops in the language of differential forms.

  12. Number systems, ?-splines and refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zube, Severinas

    2004-12-01

    This paper is concerned with the smooth refinable function on a plane relative with complex scaling factor . Characteristic functions of certain self-affine tiles related to a given scaling factor are the simplest examples of such refinable function. We study the smooth refinable functions obtained by a convolution power of such charactericstic functions. Dahlke, Dahmen, and Latour obtained some explicit estimates for the smoothness of the resulting convolution products. In the case ?=1+i, we prove better results. We introduce ?-splines in two variables which are the linear combination of shifted basic functions. We derive basic properties of ?-splines and proceed with a detailed presentation of refinement methods. We illustrate the application of ?-splines to subdivision with several examples. It turns out that ?-splines produce well-known subdivision algorithms which are based on box splines: Doo-Sabin, Catmull-Clark, Loop, Midedge and some -subdivision schemes with good continuity. The main geometric ingredient in the definition of ?-splines is the fundamental domain (a fractal set or a self-affine tile). The properties of the fractal obtained in number theory are important and necessary in order to determine two basic properties of ?-splines: partition of unity and the refinement equation.

  13. Verification Challenges at Low Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Benz, Jacob M.; Booker, Paul M.; McDonald, Benjamin S.

    2013-06-01

    Many papers have dealt with the political difficulties and ramifications of deep nuclear arms reductions, and the issues of “Going to Zero”. Political issues include extended deterrence, conventional weapons, ballistic missile defense, and regional and geo-political security issues. At each step on the road to low numbers, the verification required to ensure compliance of all parties will increase significantly. Looking post New START, the next step will likely include warhead limits in the neighborhood of 1000 . Further reductions will include stepping stones at1000 warheads, 100’s of warheads, and then 10’s of warheads before final elimination could be considered of the last few remaining warheads and weapons. This paper will focus on these three threshold reduction levels, 1000, 100’s, 10’s. For each, the issues and challenges will be discussed, potential solutions will be identified, and the verification technologies and chain of custody measures that address these solutions will be surveyed. It is important to note that many of the issues that need to be addressed have no current solution. In these cases, the paper will explore new or novel technologies that could be applied. These technologies will draw from the research and development that is ongoing throughout the national laboratory complex, and will look at technologies utilized in other areas of industry for their application to arms control verification.

  14. Choice and number of reinforcers

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jay

    1979-01-01

    Pigeons were exposed to the concurrent-chains procedure in two experiments designed to investigate the effects of unequal numbers of reinforcers on choice. In Experiment 1, the pigeons were indifferent between long and short durations of access to variable-interval schedules of equal reinforcement density, but preferred a short high-density terminal link over a longer, lower density terminal link, even though in both sets of comparisons there were many more reinforcers per cycle in the longer terminal link. In Experiment 2, the pigeons preferred five reinforcers, the first of which was available after 30 sec, over a single reinforcer available at 30 sec, but only when the local interval between successive reinforcers was short. The pigeons were indifferent when this local interval was sufficiently long. The pigeons' behavior appeared to be under the control of local terminal-link variables, such as the intervals to the first reinforcer and between successive reinforcers, and was not well described in terms of transformed delays of reinforcement or reductions in average delay to reinforcement. PMID:16812143

  15. Verification Challenges at Low Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Benz, Jacob M.; Booker, Paul M.; McDonald, Benjamin S.

    2013-07-16

    This paper will explore the difficulties of deep reductions by examining the technical verification challenges. At each step on the road to low numbers, the verification required to ensure compliance of all parties will increase significantly. Looking post New START, the next step will likely include warhead limits in the neighborhood of 1000 (Pifer 2010). Further reductions will include stepping stones at 100’s of warheads, and then 10’s of warheads before final elimination could be considered of the last few remaining warheads and weapons. This paper will focus on these three threshold reduction levels, 1000, 100’s, 10’s. For each, the issues and challenges will be discussed, potential solutions will be identified, and the verification technologies and chain of custody measures that address these solutions will be surveyed. It is important to note that many of the issues that need to be addressed have no current solution. In these cases, the paper will explore new or novel technologies that could be applied. These technologies will draw from the research and development that is ongoing throughout the national lab complex, and will look at technologies utilized in other areas of industry for their application to arms control verification.

  16. Buoyancy-aided convection flow in a heated straight pipe: comparing different asymptotic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arfaoui, Walid; Safi, Mohamed Jomaa; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves

    2015-09-01

    A vertical straight circular adiabatic vertical long tube, open at its lower and upper ends, is heated at its base on a short portion. The flow is studied with the hypothesis of no pressure drop between the entrance and the exit. Direct resolution of Navier Stokes equations is done by finite volumes. The numerical solutions are then compared to a one dimensional model and to two asymptotic models. The first asymptotic model is inspired from boundary layer approximations whereas the second one is more a linear perturbation of the Navier Stokes Boussinesq equations. For moderate values of the Grashof number, pressure, starting from zero decreases over the heated part to a minimum and increases on the adiabatic tube to zero. For larger values of Grashof, a local maximum in pressure appears, this pressure hump may even be positive. The four model agree, for moderate Grashof. When increasing the Grashof, only the two asymptotic models recover the behavior obtained from the numerical simulations.

  17. The Numbers Game: A Values Clarification Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ognibene, Richard; Winter, Cynthia

    1976-01-01

    After completing personal identification forms consisting only of numbers (phone number, Social Security number, etc.), students discuss the need for more personal means of identification within society in order for people to feel a useful sense of identity. (AV)

  18. The Decimal Number System and Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, John

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author believes that a visual image of the number system is helpful to everyone, especially children, in understanding what is, after all, an abstract idea. The simplest model is the number line, a row of equally spaced numbers, starting at zero. This illustrates the continuous progression of the natural numbers, moving to the…

  19. Contextual Effects on Number-Time Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Aitao; Hodges, Bert; Zhang, Jijia; Zhang, John X.

    2009-01-01

    Time perception has long been known to be affected by numerical representations. Recent studies further demonstrate that when participants estimate the duration of Arabic numbers, number magnitude, though task-irrelevant, biases duration judgment to produce underestimation for smaller numbers and overestimation for larger numbers. Such effects…

  20. The Decimal Number System and Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, John

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author believes that a visual image of the number system is helpful to everyone, especially children, in understanding what is, after all, an abstract idea. The simplest model is the number line, a row of equally spaced numbers, starting at zero. This illustrates the continuous progression of the natural numbers, moving to the…

  1. 7 CFR 987.102 - Lot number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lot number. 987.102 Section 987.102 Agriculture... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules Definitions § 987.102 Lot number. Lot number is synonymous with code and means a combination of letters or numbers, or both, acceptable to the Committee,...

  2. 7 CFR 900.5 - Docket number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Docket number. 900.5 Section 900.5 Agriculture... Docket number. Each proceeding, immediately following its institution, shall be assigned a docket number by the hearing clerk and thereafter the proceeding may be referred to by such number....

  3. 7 CFR 75.48 - Identification number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification number. 75.48 Section 75.48 Agriculture... number. The Director may require the use of official identification numbers in connection with seed certificated or sampled under the Act. When identification numbers are required, they shall be specified by...

  4. 9 CFR 355.8 - Official number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official number. 355.8 Section 355.8... IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION Inauguration of Inspection § 355.8 Official number. To each plant granted inspection an official number shall be assigned. Such number shall be...

  5. 14 CFR 47.15 - Identification number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification number. 47.15 Section 47.15... REGISTRATION General § 47.15 Identification number. (a) Number required. An applicant for Aircraft Registration must place a U.S. identification number (registration mark) on his Aircraft Registration...

  6. 9 CFR 351.6 - Official number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official number. 351.6 Section 351.6... of Program § 351.6 Official number. The Administrator will assign a certified technical animal fat plant number to each plant granted service. Such number shall be preceded by the letter “C” and be...

  7. 7 CFR 46.20 - Lot numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lot numbers. 46.20 Section 46.20 Agriculture... Receivers § 46.20 Lot numbers. An identifying lot number shall be assigned to each shipment of produce to be sold on consignment or joint account or for the account of another person or firm. A lot number...

  8. 7 CFR 29.32 - Identification number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification number. 29.32 Section 29.32 Agriculture... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.32 Identification number. A number or a combination of letters and numbers in a design or mark approved by the Director, stamped, printed, or stenciled on a lot of...

  9. Visuospatial Priming of the Mental Number Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoianov, Ivilin; Kramer, Peter; Umilta, Carlo; Zorzi, Marco

    2008-01-01

    It has been argued that numbers are spatially organized along a "mental number line" that facilitates left-hand responses to small numbers, and right-hand responses to large numbers. We hypothesized that whenever the representations of visual and numerical space are concurrently activated, interactions can occur between them, before response…

  10. Avogadro Number and Mole: A Royal Confusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emiliani, Cesare

    1991-01-01

    There is a great deal of confusion in physics and chemistry textbooks, dictionaries, manuals, and handbooks about the definition of Avogadro's number and the term "mole." Avogadro's number is defined simply as the number of atomic mass units in one gram. Mole is defined as the mass of one Avogadro number of identical items. (Author/PR)

  11. 14 CFR 47.15 - Registration number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Registration number. 47.15 Section 47.15... REGISTRATION General § 47.15 Registration number. (a) Number required. An applicant for aircraft registration must place a U.S. registration number (registration mark) on the Aircraft Registration Application,...

  12. 7 CFR 29.32 - Identification number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Identification number. 29.32 Section 29.32 Agriculture... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.32 Identification number. A number or a combination of letters and numbers in a design or mark approved by the Director, stamped, printed, or stenciled on a lot of...

  13. 7 CFR 75.48 - Identification number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Identification number. 75.48 Section 75.48 Agriculture... number. The Director may require the use of official identification numbers in connection with seed certificated or sampled under the Act. When identification numbers are required, they shall be specified by...

  14. 7 CFR 46.20 - Lot numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lot numbers. 46.20 Section 46.20 Agriculture... Receivers § 46.20 Lot numbers. An identifying lot number shall be assigned to each shipment of produce to be sold on consignment or joint account or for the account of another person or firm. A lot number...

  15. 9 CFR 351.6 - Official number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Official number. 351.6 Section 351.6... of Program § 351.6 Official number. The Administrator will assign a certified technical animal fat plant number to each plant granted service. Such number shall be preceded by the letter “C” and be...

  16. 7 CFR 900.5 - Docket number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Docket number. 900.5 Section 900.5 Agriculture... Docket number. Each proceeding, immediately following its institution, shall be assigned a docket number by the hearing clerk and thereafter the proceeding may be referred to by such number....

  17. 7 CFR 987.102 - Lot number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lot number. 987.102 Section 987.102 Agriculture... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules Definitions § 987.102 Lot number. Lot number is synonymous with code and means a combination of letters or numbers, or both, acceptable to the Committee,...

  18. 9 CFR 355.8 - Official number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Official number. 355.8 Section 355.8... IDENTIFICATION AS TO CLASS, QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND CONDITION Inauguration of Inspection § 355.8 Official number. To each plant granted inspection an official number shall be assigned. Such number shall be...

  19. Fascinating Fibonaccis: Mystery and Magic in Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Trudi Hammel

    This document presents activities and information related to Fibonacci numbers, which are based upon the Golden Ratio, in areas of the arts, sciences, and mathematics. The work is organized into eight chapters: (1) "Origins and Definitions"; (2) "Fibonacci Numbers in Nature"; (3) "Fibonacci Numbers in Art and Architecture"; (4) "Fibonacci Numbers…

  20. Mental number space in three dimensions.

    PubMed

    Winter, Bodo; Matlock, Teenie; Shaki, Samuel; Fischer, Martin H

    2015-10-01

    A large number of experimental findings from neuroscience and experimental psychology demonstrated interactions between spatial cognition and numerical cognition. In particular, many researchers posited a horizontal mental number line, where small numbers are thought of as being to the left of larger numbers. This review synthesizes work on the mental association between space and number, indicating the existence of multiple spatial mappings: recent research has found associations between number and vertical space, as well as associations between number and near/far space. We discuss number space in three dimensions with an eye on potential origins of the different number mappings, and how these number mappings fit in with our current knowledge of brain organization and brain-culture interactions. We derive novel predictions and show how this research fits into a general view of cognition as embodied, grounded and situated. PMID:26365108

  1. Integrated-Circuit Pseudorandom-Number Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steelman, James E.; Beasley, Jeff; Aragon, Michael; Ramirez, Francisco; Summers, Kenneth L.; Knoebel, Arthur

    1992-01-01

    Integrated circuit produces 8-bit pseudorandom numbers from specified probability distribution, at rate of 10 MHz. Use of Boolean logic, circuit implements pseudorandom-number-generating algorithm. Circuit includes eight 12-bit pseudorandom-number generators, outputs are uniformly distributed. 8-bit pseudorandom numbers satisfying specified nonuniform probability distribution are generated by processing uniformly distributed outputs of eight 12-bit pseudorandom-number generators through "pipeline" of D flip-flops, comparators, and memories implementing conditional probabilities on zeros and ones.

  2. Number Systems. Popular Lectures in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fomin, S. V.

    The origin, properties, and applications of various number systems are discussed. Among the 15 topics discussed are: tests for divisibility, the binary system, the game of Nim, computers, and infinite number representations. (MK)

  3. Measurement Corner Mass, Moles and Avogadro's Number

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Robert M.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses and clarifies the confusion arising from the use of the terms "mass,""volume,""matter,""mole," and "Avogadro's number." Suggests three laboratory activities concerning mass, volume, and number of particles in a given volume. (CS)

  4. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Job order numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 7 Job order numbering. (a) The NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract number shall be inserted in every job order and supplemental...

  5. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Job order numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 7 Job order numbering. (a) The NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract number shall be inserted in every job order and supplemental...

  6. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Job order numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 7 Job order numbering. (a) The NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract number shall be inserted in every job order and supplemental...

  7. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Job order numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 7 Job order numbering. (a) The NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract number shall be inserted in every job order and supplemental...

  8. 46 CFR Sec. 7 - Job order numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 7 Job order numbering. (a) The NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract number shall be inserted in every job order and supplemental...

  9. The Many Pearls of Number Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prielipp, Robert W.

    1970-01-01

    Presents information about prime numbers which the elementary or junior high school teacher might introduce to students. Gives five definition statements followed by at least one theorem and its proof. Introduces some historical aspects to prime numbers. (RR)

  10. Number Theory in the High School Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dence, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Demonstrates some of the usefulness of number theory to students on the high school setting in four areas: Fibonacci numbers, Diophantine equations, continued fractions, and algorithms for computing pi. (ASK)

  11. 32 CFR 1602.19 - Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Numbers. 1602.19 Section 1602.19 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.19 Numbers. Cardinal numbers may be expressed by Arabic or Roman symbols....

  12. 32 CFR 1602.19 - Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Numbers. 1602.19 Section 1602.19 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.19 Numbers. Cardinal numbers may be expressed by Arabic or Roman symbols....

  13. 32 CFR 1602.19 - Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Numbers. 1602.19 Section 1602.19 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.19 Numbers. Cardinal numbers may be expressed by Arabic or Roman symbols....

  14. 32 CFR 1602.19 - Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Numbers. 1602.19 Section 1602.19 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.19 Numbers. Cardinal numbers may be expressed by Arabic or Roman symbols....

  15. 32 CFR 1602.19 - Numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Numbers. 1602.19 Section 1602.19 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.19 Numbers. Cardinal numbers may be expressed by Arabic or Roman symbols....

  16. 47 CFR 32.20 - Numbering convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Numbering convention. 32.20 Section 32.20 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES General Instructions § 32.20 Numbering convention. (a) The number...

  17. 47 CFR 95.671 - Serial number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Serial number. 95.671 Section 95.671... SERVICES Technical Regulations Additional Certification Requirements for Cb Transmitters § 95.671 Serial number. The serial number of each CB transmitter must be engraved on the transmitter chassis....

  18. 47 CFR 95.671 - Serial number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Serial number. 95.671 Section 95.671... SERVICES Technical Regulations Additional Certification Requirements for Cb Transmitters § 95.671 Serial number. The serial number of each CB transmitter must be engraved on the transmitter chassis....

  19. 47 CFR 95.671 - Serial number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Serial number. 95.671 Section 95.671... SERVICES Technical Regulations Additional Certification Requirements for Cb Transmitters § 95.671 Serial number. The serial number of each CB transmitter must be engraved on the transmitter chassis....

  20. 47 CFR 95.671 - Serial number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Serial number. 95.671 Section 95.671... SERVICES Technical Regulations Additional Certification Requirements for Cb Transmitters § 95.671 Serial number. The serial number of each CB transmitter must be engraved on the transmitter chassis....

  1. 47 CFR 95.671 - Serial number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Serial number. 95.671 Section 95.671 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Technical Regulations Additional Certification Requirements for Cb Transmitters § 95.671 Serial number. The serial number of each...

  2. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Voyage numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... voyage No. 1 having the prefixed designation NSA and followed by the General Agents' abbreviated designation and voyage number, as NSA-1/ABC-1. (b) The continuity of NSA voyage numbers shall not change with... General Agent shall affix his abbreviated designation and initial voyage numbers, as NSA-13/XYZ-1....

  3. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Voyage numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... voyage No. 1 having the prefixed designation NSA and followed by the General Agents' abbreviated designation and voyage number, as NSA-1/ABC-1. (b) The continuity of NSA voyage numbers shall not change with... General Agent shall affix his abbreviated designation and initial voyage numbers, as NSA-13/XYZ-1....

  4. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Voyage numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... voyage No. 1 having the prefixed designation NSA and followed by the General Agents' abbreviated designation and voyage number, as NSA-1/ABC-1. (b) The continuity of NSA voyage numbers shall not change with... General Agent shall affix his abbreviated designation and initial voyage numbers, as NSA-13/XYZ-1....

  5. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Voyage numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... voyage No. 1 having the prefixed designation NSA and followed by the General Agents' abbreviated designation and voyage number, as NSA-1/ABC-1. (b) The continuity of NSA voyage numbers shall not change with... General Agent shall affix his abbreviated designation and initial voyage numbers, as NSA-13/XYZ-1....

  6. Teach Kids about Numbers All around Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Hannah Trierweiler

    2011-01-01

    Recognizing the role numbers play in people's everyday lives is crucial to students' math understanding now and down the road. That's why Bob Krech, a curriculum specialist in New Jersey's West Windsor-Plainsboro district, likes to teach a lesson he calls "Numbers All Around Us." This lesson uses real-world examples to show that numbers help…

  7. Evaluating Number Sense in Workforce Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinke, Dorothea A.

    2015-01-01

    Earlier institution-sponsored research revealed that about 20% of students in community college basic math and pre-algebra programs lacked a sense of part-whole relationships with whole numbers. Using the same tool with a group of 86 workforce students, about 75% placed five whole numbers on an empty number line in a way that indicated lack of…

  8. 47 CFR 32.20 - Numbering convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Numbering convention. 32.20 Section 32.20 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES General Instructions § 32.20 Numbering convention. (a) The number...

  9. 40 CFR 264.11 - Identification number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification number. 264.11 Section... Facility Standards § 264.11 Identification number. Every facility owner or operator must apply to EPA for an EPA identification number in accordance with the EPA notification procedures (45 FR 12746)....

  10. 46 CFR 169.515 - Number required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Number required. 169.515 Section 169.515 Shipping COAST... and Firefighting Equipment Primary Lifesaving Equipment § 169.515 Number required. (a) Except as... additional inflatable liferafts to accommodate 25% of the persons on board or the number of...

  11. 47 CFR 1.1405 - File numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false File numbers. 1.1405 Section 1.1405... Procedures § 1.1405 File numbers. Each complaint which appears to be essentially complete under § 1.1404 will be accepted and assigned a file number. Such assignment is for administrative purposes only and...

  12. 47 CFR 64.1506 - Number designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Number designation. 64.1506 Section 64.1506... Number designation. Any interstate service described in § 64.1501(a)(1)-(2), and not subject to the exclusions contained in § 64.1501(a)(4), shall be offered only through telephone numbers beginning with a...

  13. 47 CFR 32.6622 - Number services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Number services. 32.6622 Section 32.6622... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6622 Number services. This account shall include costs incurred in providing customer number and classified listings. This...

  14. 47 CFR 51.203 - Number portability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Number portability. 51.203 Section 51.203 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.203 Number portability. The rules governing number...

  15. 27 CFR 24.115 - Registry number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Registry number. 24.115... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Application § 24.115 Registry number. Upon approval of the application, the appropriate TTB officer will assign a registry number to the bonded...

  16. 7 CFR 29.133 - Identification number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification number. 29.133 Section 29.133... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.133 Identification number. The Director may require the use of official identification numbers in connection with tobacco certificated or...

  17. 7 CFR 900.54 - Docket number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Docket number. 900.54 Section 900.54 Agriculture... Governing Proceedings on Petitions To Modify or To Be Exempted From Marketing Orders § 900.54 Docket number. Each proceeding, immediately following its institution, shall be assigned a docket number by...

  18. 24 CFR 3280.6 - Serial number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Serial number. 3280.6 Section 3280... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS General § 3280.6 Serial number. (a) A manufactured home serial number which will identify the manufacturer and the state in which the...

  19. 7 CFR 1.414 - Docket number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Docket number. 1.414 Section 1.414 Agriculture Office... Conservation and Shortage Relief Act of 1990 (16 U.S.C. 620 et seq.) § 1.414 Docket number. Each proceeding, following its institution, shall be assigned a docket number by the Hearing Clerk, and thereafter...

  20. 7 CFR 1200.6 - Docket number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Docket number. 1200.6 Section 1200.6 Agriculture... Governing Proceedings To Formulate and Amend an Order § 1200.6 Docket number. Each proceeding, immediately following its institution, shall be assigned a docket number by the hearing clerk and thereafter...

  1. 46 CFR 10.207 - Identification number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Identification number. 10.207 Section 10.207 Shipping... CREDENTIAL General Requirements for All Merchant Mariner Credentials § 10.207 Identification number. For recordkeeping purposes only, a mariner's official MMC identification number is the individual's social...

  2. 7 CFR 1.134 - Docket number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Docket number. 1.134 Section 1.134 Agriculture Office... Adjudicatory Proceedings Instituted by the Secretary Under Various Statutes § 1.134 Docket number. Each proceeding, immediately following its institution, shall be assigned a docket number by the Hearing...

  3. 40 CFR 265.11 - Identification number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification number. 265.11 Section... FACILITIES General Facility Standards § 265.11 Identification number. Every facility owner or operator must apply to EPA for an EPA identification number in accordance with the EPA notification procedures (45...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1220 - Identification numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Identification numbers. 404.1220 Section 404... § 404.1220 Identification numbers. (a) State and local governments. When a State submits a modification... will assign a special identification number to each political subdivision included in that...

  5. Reading the World through Very Large Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Brian; Mukhopadhyay, Swapna

    2010-01-01

    One original, and continuing, source of interest in large numbers is observation of the natural world, such as trying to count the stars on a clear night or contemplation of the number of grains of sand on the seashore. Indeed, a search of the internet quickly reveals many discussions of the relative numbers of stars and grains of sand. Big…

  6. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Voyage numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Voyage numbers. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY VOYAGE DATA Sec. 2 Voyage numbers. (a) The voyages of National Shipping Authority vessels shall be numbered consecutively commencing with voyage No. 1 having the...

  7. 7 CFR 1.134 - Docket number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Docket number. 1.134 Section 1.134 Agriculture Office... Adjudicatory Proceedings Instituted by the Secretary Under Various Statutes § 1.134 Docket number. Each proceeding, immediately following its institution, shall be assigned a docket number by the Hearing...

  8. 40 CFR 265.11 - Identification number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Identification number. 265.11 Section... FACILITIES General Facility Standards § 265.11 Identification number. Every facility owner or operator must apply to EPA for an EPA identification number in accordance with the EPA notification procedures (45...

  9. 7 CFR 1.414 - Docket number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Docket number. 1.414 Section 1.414 Agriculture Office... Conservation and Shortage Relief Act of 1990 (16 U.S.C. 620 et seq.) § 1.414 Docket number. Each proceeding, following its institution, shall be assigned a docket number by the Hearing Clerk, and thereafter...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1220 - Identification numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Identification numbers. 404.1220 Section 404... § 404.1220 Identification numbers. (a) State and local governments. When a State submits a modification... will assign a special identification number to each political subdivision included in that...

  11. 7 CFR 29.133 - Identification number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Identification number. 29.133 Section 29.133... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.133 Identification number. The Director may require the use of official identification numbers in connection with tobacco certificated or...

  12. 46 CFR 10.207 - Identification number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Identification number. 10.207 Section 10.207 Shipping... CREDENTIAL General Requirements for All Merchant Mariner Credentials § 10.207 Identification number. For recordkeeping purposes only, a mariner's official MMC identification number is the individual's social...

  13. 24 CFR 3280.6 - Serial number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Serial number. 3280.6 Section 3280... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS General § 3280.6 Serial number. (a) A manufactured home serial number which will identify the manufacturer and the state in which the...

  14. 47 CFR 1.1405 - File numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false File numbers. 1.1405 Section 1.1405... Procedures § 1.1405 File numbers. Each complaint which appears to be essentially complete under § 1.1404 will be accepted and assigned a file number. Such assignment is for administrative purposes only and...

  15. 40 CFR 264.11 - Identification number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Identification number. 264.11 Section... Facility Standards § 264.11 Identification number. Every facility owner or operator must apply to EPA for an EPA identification number in accordance with the EPA notification procedures (45 FR 12746)....

  16. 47 CFR 51.203 - Number portability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Number portability. 51.203 Section 51.203 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.203 Number portability. The rules governing number...

  17. 7 CFR 1200.6 - Docket number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Docket number. 1200.6 Section 1200.6 Agriculture... Governing Proceedings To Formulate and Amend an Order § 1200.6 Docket number. Each proceeding, immediately following its institution, shall be assigned a docket number by the hearing clerk and thereafter...

  18. 27 CFR 24.115 - Registry number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Registry number. 24.115... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Application § 24.115 Registry number. Upon approval of the application, the appropriate TTB officer will assign a registry number to the bonded...

  19. 47 CFR 64.1506 - Number designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Number designation. 64.1506 Section 64.1506... Number designation. Any interstate service described in § 64.1501(a)(1)-(2), and not subject to the exclusions contained in § 64.1501(a)(4), shall be offered only through telephone numbers beginning with a...

  20. 47 CFR 32.6622 - Number services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Number services. 32.6622 Section 32.6622... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6622 Number services. This account shall include costs incurred in providing customer number and classified listings. This...

  1. 46 CFR 169.515 - Number required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Number required. 169.515 Section 169.515 Shipping COAST... and Firefighting Equipment Primary Lifesaving Equipment § 169.515 Number required. (a) Except as... additional inflatable liferafts to accommodate 25% of the persons on board or the number of...

  2. 7 CFR 900.54 - Docket number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Docket number. 900.54 Section 900.54 Agriculture... Governing Proceedings on Petitions To Modify or To Be Exempted From Marketing Orders § 900.54 Docket number. Each proceeding, immediately following its institution, shall be assigned a docket number by...

  3. 49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The builder's number of the boiler, if known, shall be stamped on the steam dome or manhole flange. If the builder's number cannot be obtained,...

  4. 49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The builder's number of the boiler, if known, shall be stamped on the steam dome or manhole flange. If the builder's number cannot be obtained,...

  5. 49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The builder's number of the boiler, if known, shall be stamped on the steam dome or manhole flange. If the builder's number cannot be obtained,...

  6. 49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The builder's number of the boiler, if known, shall be stamped on the steam dome or manhole flange. If the builder's number cannot be obtained,...

  7. 49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The builder's number of the boiler, if known, shall be stamped on the steam dome or manhole flange. If the builder's number cannot be obtained,...

  8. Number-Theoretic Functions via Convolution Rings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berberian, S. K.

    1992-01-01

    Demonstrates the number theory property that the number of divisors of an integer n times the number of positive integers k, less than or equal to and relatively prime to n, equals the sum of the divisors of n using theory developed about multiplicative functions, the units of a convolution ring, and the Mobius Function. (MDH)

  9. Insights into Our Understandings of Large Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastberg, Signe E.; Walker, Vicki

    2008-01-01

    This article explores prospective teachers' understandings of one million to gain insights into the development of adult understanding of large numbers. Themes in the prospective teachers' work included number associated with a quantity of objects, number as an abstraction, and additive and multiplicative approaches. The authors suggest that the…

  10. Historical Objections Against the Number Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heeffer, Albrecht

    2011-09-01

    Historical studies on the development of mathematical concepts will help mathematics teachers to relate their students' difficulties in understanding to conceptual problems in the history of mathematics. We argue that one popular tool for teaching about numbers, the number line, may not be fit for early teaching of operations involving negative numbers. Our arguments are drawn from the many discussions on negative numbers during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries from philosophers and mathematicians such as Arnauld, Leibniz, Wallis, Euler and d'Alembert. Not only does division by negative numbers pose problems for the number line, but even the very idea of quantities smaller than nothing has been challenged. Drawing lessons from the history of mathematics, we argue for the introduction of negative numbers in education within the context of symbolic operations.

  11. Topics in Mathematics for Elementary School Teachers, Booklet Number 11, The System of Real Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckenbach, Edwin F.; And Others

    This booklet has been written for elementary school teachers as an introductory survey of the real number system. The topics which are developed include the number line, infinite decimals, density, rational numbers, repeating decimals, irrational numbers, approximation, and operations on the real numbers. (RS)

  12. An Evaluation of App-Based and Paper-Based Number Lines for Teaching Number Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weng, Pei-Lin; Bouck, Emily C.

    2016-01-01

    Number comparison is a fundamental skill required for academic and functional mathematics (e.g., time, money, purchasing) for students with disabilities. The most commonly used method to teach number comparison is number lines. Although historically paper number lines are used, app-based number lines may offer greater flexibility. This study…

  13. Maximum Sunspot Numbers and Active Days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Heon-Young

    2013-09-01

    Parameters associated with solar minimum have been studied to relate them to solar activity at solar maximum so that one could possibly predict behaviors of an upcoming solar cycle. The number of active days has been known as a reliable indicator of solar activity around solar minimum. Active days are days with sunspots reported on the solar disk. In this work, we have explored the relationship between the sunspot numbers at solar maximum and the characteristics of the monthly number of active days. Specifically, we have statistically examined how the maximum monthly sunspot number of a given solar cycle is correlated with the slope of the linear relationship between monthly sunspot numbers and the monthly number of active days for the corresponding solar cycle. We have calculated the linear correlation coefficient r and the Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient rs for data sets prepared under various conditions. Even though marginal correlations are found, they turn out to be insufficiently significant (r ~ 0.3). Nonetheless, we have confirmed that the slope of the linear relationship between monthly sunspot numbers and the monthly number of active days is less steep when solar cycles belonging to the "Modern Maximum" are considered compared with rests of solar cycles. We conclude, therefore, that the slope of the linear relationship between monthly sunspot numbers and the monthly number of active days is indeed dependent on the solar activity at its maxima, but that this simple relationship should be insufficient as a valid method to predict the following solar activity amplitude.

  14. Interaction of Number Magnitude and Auditory Localization.

    PubMed

    Golob, Edward J; Lewald, Jörg; Jungilligens, Johannes; Getzmann, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The interplay of perception and memory is very evident when we perceive and then recognize familiar stimuli. Conversely, information in long-term memory may also influence how a stimulus is perceived. Prior work on number cognition in the visual modality has shown that in Western number systems long-term memory for the magnitude of smaller numbers can influence performance involving the left side of space, while larger numbers have an influence toward the right. Here, we investigated in the auditory modality whether a related effect may bias the perception of sound location. Subjects (n = 28) used a swivel pointer to localize noise bursts presented from various azimuth positions. The noise bursts were preceded by a spoken number (1-9) or, as a nonsemantic control condition, numbers that were played in reverse. The relative constant error in noise localization (forward minus reversed speech) indicated a systematic shift in localization toward more central locations when the number was smaller and toward more peripheral positions when the preceding number magnitude was larger. These findings do not support the traditional left-right number mapping. Instead, the results may reflect an overlap between codes for number magnitude and codes for sound location as implemented by two channel models of sound localization, or possibly a categorical mapping stage of small versus large magnitudes. PMID:26562857

  15. On the binary expansions of algebraic numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Crandall, Richard E.; Pomerance, Carl

    2003-07-01

    Employing concepts from additive number theory, together with results on binary evaluations and partial series, we establish bounds on the density of 1's in the binary expansions of real algebraic numbers. A central result is that if a real y has algebraic degree D > 1, then the number {number_sign}(|y|, N) of 1-bits in the expansion of |y| through bit position N satisfies {number_sign}(|y|, N) > CN{sup 1/D} for a positive number C (depending on y) and sufficiently large N. This in itself establishes the transcendency of a class of reals {summation}{sub n{ge}0} 1/2{sup f(n)} where the integer-valued function f grows sufficiently fast; say, faster than any fixed power of n. By these methods we re-establish the transcendency of the Kempner--Mahler number {summation}{sub n{ge}0}1/2{sup 2{sup n}}, yet we can also handle numbers with a substantially denser occurrence of 1's. Though the number z = {summation}{sub n{ge}0}1/2{sup n{sup 2}} has too high a 1's density for application of our central result, we are able to invoke some rather intricate number-theoretical analysis and extended computations to reveal aspects of the binary structure of z{sup 2}.

  16. Transient natural convection heat and mass transfer in crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Samuel S.

    1988-01-01

    A numerical analysis of transient combined heat and mass transfer across a rectangular cavity is performed by a numerical method based on the SIMPLE algorithm. The physical parameters are selected to represent a range of possible crystal growth in solutions. Numerical results are compared with available experimental data to confirm the accuracy of the results. Good qualitative agreements are obtained for the average mass transfer rate across the cavity. Also, qualitative agreements are observed for the global development of thermal and solute fields. It is found that the thermal and solute fields become highly oscillatory when the thermal and solute Grashof numbers are large. Oscillations are probably caused by a number of different instability mechanisms. By reducing the gravity some of these instabilities were made to disappear at the lower Grashof numbers. Transient temperature and solute distribution near the crystal growing surface are highly non-uniform at the higher Grashof numbers. These non-uniformities are less severe in the reduced gravity environments but still exist. The effects of convection on the rate of average mass transfer are more than one order of magnitude higher than those of conduction in the range of Grashof numbers studied. Dependency of mass transfer rate on the Grashof number indicates that the convection effects many not be negligible even in the microgravity environments for the range of parameters investigated.

  17. Complex architecture of primes and natural numbers.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, Guillermo; Serrano, M Ángeles; Boguñá, Marián

    2014-08-01

    Natural numbers can be divided in two nonoverlapping infinite sets, primes and composites, with composites factorizing into primes. Despite their apparent simplicity, the elucidation of the architecture of natural numbers with primes as building blocks remains elusive. Here, we propose a new approach to decoding the architecture of natural numbers based on complex networks and stochastic processes theory. We introduce a parameter-free non-Markovian dynamical model that naturally generates random primes and their relation with composite numbers with remarkable accuracy. Our model satisfies the prime number theorem as an emerging property and a refined version of Cramér's conjecture about the statistics of gaps between consecutive primes that seems closer to reality than the original Cramér's version. Regarding composites, the model helps us to derive the prime factors counting function, giving the probability of distinct prime factors for any integer. Probabilistic models like ours can help to get deeper insights about primes and the complex architecture of natural numbers. PMID:25215780

  18. Complex architecture of primes and natural numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Pérez, Guillermo; Serrano, M. Ángeles; Boguñá, Marián

    2014-08-01

    Natural numbers can be divided in two nonoverlapping infinite sets, primes and composites, with composites factorizing into primes. Despite their apparent simplicity, the elucidation of the architecture of natural numbers with primes as building blocks remains elusive. Here, we propose a new approach to decoding the architecture of natural numbers based on complex networks and stochastic processes theory. We introduce a parameter-free non-Markovian dynamical model that naturally generates random primes and their relation with composite numbers with remarkable accuracy. Our model satisfies the prime number theorem as an emerging property and a refined version of Cramér's conjecture about the statistics of gaps between consecutive primes that seems closer to reality than the original Cramér's version. Regarding composites, the model helps us to derive the prime factors counting function, giving the probability of distinct prime factors for any integer. Probabilistic models like ours can help to get deeper insights about primes and the complex architecture of natural numbers.

  19. Relativistic theory of tidal Love numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Binnington, Taylor; Poisson, Eric

    2009-10-15

    In Newtonian gravitational theory, a tidal Love number relates the mass multipole moment created by tidal forces on a spherical body to the applied tidal field. The Love number is dimensionless, and it encodes information about the body's internal structure. We present a relativistic theory of Love numbers, which applies to compact bodies with strong internal gravities; the theory extends and completes a recent work by Flanagan and Hinderer, which revealed that the tidal Love number of a neutron star can be measured by Earth-based gravitational-wave detectors. We consider a spherical body deformed by an external tidal field, and provide precise and meaningful definitions for electric-type and magnetic-type Love numbers; and these are computed for polytropic equations of state. The theory applies to black holes as well, and we find that the relativistic Love numbers of a nonrotating black hole are all zero.

  20. Demonstrations of the Enormity of Avogadro's Number.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diemente, Damon

    1998-01-01

    Describes three calculations used to make students aware of the size of Avogadro's number: (1) the new size of a 6-inch diameter ball with volume increased by a factor of Avogadro's number; (2) the number of moles of sand grains in the Sahara Desert; and (3) the dimensions and length of a mole of hydrogen atoms shaped into a cube, a square, and a…

  1. Factoring numbers with a single interferogram

    SciTech Connect

    Tamma, Vincenzo; Zhang Heyi; He Xuehua; Shih Yanhua; Garuccio, Augusto; Schleich, Wolfgang P.

    2011-02-15

    We construct an analog computer based on light interference to encode the hyperbolic function f({zeta}){identical_to}1/{zeta} into a sequence of skewed curlicue functions. The resulting interferogram when scaled appropriately allows us to find the prime number decompositions of integers. We implement this idea exploiting polychromatic optical interference in a multipath interferometer and factor seven-digit numbers. We give an estimate for the largest number that can be factored by this scheme.

  2. Demonstrations of the Enormity of Avogadro's Number.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diemente, Damon

    1998-01-01

    Describes three calculations used to make students aware of the size of Avogadro's number: (1) the new size of a 6-inch diameter ball with volume increased by a factor of Avogadro's number; (2) the number of moles of sand grains in the Sahara Desert; and (3) the dimensions and length of a mole of hydrogen atoms shaped into a cube, a square, and a…

  3. Towards even and odd squeezed number states

    SciTech Connect

    Nieto, M.M. |

    1998-03-01

    The time evolution of even and odd squeezed states, as well as that of squeezed number states, has been given in simple, analytic form. This follows experimental work on trapped ions which has demonstrated even and odd coherent states, number states, and squeezed (but not displaced) ground states. The authors review this situation and consider the extension to even and odd squeezed number states. Questions of uncertainty relations are also discussed.

  4. CRC octane-number-requirement survey, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    An annual statistical survey of octane number requirements of current model vehicles is conducted by the Coordinating Research Council, Inc. Test data have been obtained by seventeen companies on 356 1990 vehicles including passenger cars and light-duty trucks and vans, of which 169 were equipped with knock sensors. Octane number requirements were determined by testing at maximum-throttle conditions, as well as at part-throttle, with three unleaded fuel series of varying sensitivities. Requirements are expressed as the (R+M)/2 octane number, Research octane number, and Motor octane number of the reference fuel producing knock which was recurrent and repeatable at the lowest audible level. Estimated octane number requirements for the total vehicles are weighted in proportion to the 1990 vehicle model production and/or sales figures. The octane number requirements of 1990 models with average sensitivity unleaded fuels were 85.4 (R+M)/2 octane numbers at the 50 percent satisfaction level, and 89.2 (R+M)/2 octane numbers at the 90 percent satisfaction level.

  5. CRC octane number requirement survey 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    An annual statistical survey of octane number requirements of current model vehicles is conducted by the Coordinating Research Council, Inc. Test data have been obtained by ten companies on 184 1992 vehicles including passenger cars and light-duty trucks and vans, of which 88 were equipped with knock sensors. Octane number requirements were determined by testing at maximum-throttle conditions, as well as at part-throttle, with four unleaded fuel series of varying sensitivities, one containing 15 percent methyl tertiary butyl ether. Requirements are expressed as the (R+M)/2 octane number, Research octane number, and Motor octane number of the reference fuel producing knock which was recurrent and repeatable at the lowest audible level. Estimated octane number requirements for the total vehicles are weighted in proportion to the 1992 vehicle model production and/or sales figures. The octane number requirements of 1992 models with average sensitivity unleaded fuels were 85.1 (R+M)/2 octane numbers at the 50 percent satisfaction level, and 92.0 (R+M)/2 octane numbers at the 90 percent satisfaction level. In order to make a more powerful test of statistical significance of the FBRUM fuel series, the 1991 ONRS was pooled with the 1992 ONRS and compared with the pooled data for the FBRU fuel series. There was no significant difference between the two fuel series up to about 90 percent satisfaction. Beyond 90 percent satisfaction, the variability in the data is high.

  6. CRC octane number requirement survey for 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    An annual statistical survey of octane number requirements of current model vehicles is conducted by the Coordinating Research Council, Inc. Test data have been obtained by eighteen companies on 391 1989 vehicles including passenger cars and light-duty trucks and vans, of which 179 were equipped with knock sensors. Maximum octane number requirements were determined by testing at maximum-throttle conditions, as well as at part-throttle, with three unleaded fuel series of varying sensitivities. Requirements are expressed as the (R+M)/2 octane number, Research octane number, and Motor octane number of the reference fuel producing knock which was recurrent and repeatable at the lowest audible level. Estimated octane number requirements for the total vehicles are weighted in proportion to the 1989 vehicle model production and/or sales figures. The maximum octane number requirements of 1989 models with average sensitivity unleaded fuels were 85.1 (R+M)/2 octane numbers at the 50 percent satisfaction level, and 89.2 (R+M)/2 octane numbers at the 90 percent satisfaction level. Comparison with previous Surveys are made in this report.

  7. Graceful label numbering in optical MPLS networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkut, Ibrahim C.; Arkut, Refik C.; Ghani, Nasir

    2000-09-01

    This paper explores the positive effects of the new multi protocol label switching (MPLS) routing platform in IP networks. In particular, novel node numbering algorithms based upon graceful numbering of trees are presented. The first part presents the application of the well-known graceful numbering of spanning caterpillars to the MPLS multicast routing problem. In the second part of the paper, the numbering algorithm is adjusted for the case of unicast routing in the framework of IP-over-WDM optical networks using MPLS, e.g., particularly lambda-labeling and multi protocol lambda switching.

  8. THE DISCOUNTED REPRODUCTIVE NUMBER FOR EPIDEMIOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Reluga, Timothy C.; Medlock, Jan; Galvani, Alison

    2013-01-01

    The basic reproductive number, , and the effective reproductive number, , are commonly used in mathematical epidemiology as summary statistics for the size and controllability of epidemics. However, these commonly used reproductive numbers can be misleading when applied to predict pathogen evolution because they do not incorporate the impact of the timing of events in the life-history cycle of the pathogen. To study evolution problems where the host population size is changing, measures like the ultimate proliferation rate must be used. A third measure of reproductive success, which combines properties of both the basic reproductive number and the ultimate proliferation rate, is the discounted reproductive number . The discounted reproductive number is a measure of reproductive success that is an individual’s expected lifetime offspring production discounted by the background population growth rate. Here, we draw attention to the discounted reproductive number by providing an explicit definition and a systematic application framework. We describe how the discounted reproductive number overcomes the limitations of both the standard reproductive numbers and proliferation rates, and show that is closely connected to Fisher’s reproductive values for different life-history stages PMID:19364158

  9. Calculating Atomic Number Densities for Uranium

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1993-01-01

    Provides method to calculate atomic number densities of selected uranium compounds and hydrogenous moderators for use in nuclear criticality safety analyses at gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment facilities.

  10. On the Concept Image of Complex Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordlander, Maria Cortas; Nordlander, Edvard

    2012-01-01

    A study of how Swedish students understand the concept of complex numbers was performed. A questionnaire was issued reflecting the student view of own perception. Obtained answers show a variety of concept images describing how students adopt the concept of complex numbers. These concept images are classified into four categories in order to…

  11. Keypad Geometry and Divisibility of Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dyke, Frances; Keynes, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors show how students can form familiar geometric figures on the calculator keypad and generate numbers that are all divisible by a common number. Students are intrigued by the results and want to know "why it works". The activities can be presented and students given an extended amount of time to think about them. As…

  12. New Numbers in Mathematics in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, Johann; Harding, Ansie

    2009-01-01

    This article is a follow-up of a study conducted in 2000 by the same authors on trends in numbers of mathematics majors at South African universities. Data from 12 universities for the 2000-2007 period is investigated. The previously observed trend of general and dramatic decrease in numbers of mathematics majors appears to have been reversed and…

  13. Families of Linear Recurrences for Catalan Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, N.

    2011-01-01

    Four different families of linear recurrences are derived for Catalan numbers. The derivations rest on John Riordan's 1973 generalization of Catalan numbers to a set of polynomials. Elementary differential and integral calculus techniques are used and the results should be of interest to teachers and students of introductory courses in calculus…

  14. Nonclassicality in phase-number uncertainty relations

    SciTech Connect

    Matia-Hernando, Paloma; Luis, Alfredo

    2011-12-15

    We show that there are nonclassical states with lesser joint fluctuations of phase and number than any classical state. This is rather paradoxical since one would expect classical coherent states to be always of minimum uncertainty. The same result is obtained when we replace phase by a phase-dependent field quadrature. Number and phase uncertainties are assessed using variance and Holevo relation.

  15. 20 CFR 404.1220 - Identification numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Identification numbers. 404.1220 Section 404.1220 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY... § 404.1220 Identification numbers. (a) State and local governments. When a State submits a...

  16. Seedbed, Numbers 29-31, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldenhersh, Barbara, Ed.

    This document consists of three issues of the journal "Seedbed," an outcome of the Teachers' Center Project at Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville (SIUE). Issue Number 29 contains 67 articles on teachers' ideas that they thought worth sharing with other teachers. Issue Number 30 consists of a single paper, "Children and Mathematics in the…

  17. 20 CFR 404.1220 - Identification numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... will assign a special identification number to each political subdivision included in that modification... State or a political subdivision based on designated proprietary or governmental functions, the State... within a State or political subdivision. When a State requests separate payroll record unit numbers,...

  18. Estimating Avogadro's number from skylight and airlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesic, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Naked-eye determinations of the visual range yield order-of-magnitude estimates of Avogadro's number, using an argument of Rayleigh. Alternatively, by looking through a cardboard tube, we can compare airlight and skylight and give another estimate of this number using the law of atmospheres.

  19. National Resources [and] National Toll Free Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This resource list provides names, addresses, and telephone numbers of 13 information clearinghouses and 42 organizations providing information on children and youth with disabilities. Telephone numbers are designated as either voice or text telephone. Spanish-language resources are also indicated. A list of organizations that have national…

  20. Language Influence on Children's Cognitive Number Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsawaie, Othman N.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effect of language on children's cognitive representation of number. The sample for the study consisted of 90 Arabic speaking children with a mean age of 80 months. Children were interviewed individually and asked to represent written two-digit numbers using base-10 blocks. A new approach for testing the linguistic…

  1. Learning Disabled: Number Concepts, Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Educational Media and Materials for the Handicapped, Columbus, OH.

    Selected from the National Instructional Materials Information System (NIMIS)--a computer based on-line interactive retrieval system on special education materials--the bibliography covers 62 materials for teaching number concepts to learning disabled students at the primary grades. Entries are presented in order of NIMIS accession number and…

  2. Inhibition, Conflict Detection, and Number Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubin, Amélie; Simon, Grégory; Houdé, Olivier; De Neys, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The acquisition of number conservation is a critical step in children's numerical and mathematical development. Classic developmental studies have established that children's number conservation is often biased by misleading intuitions. However, the precise nature of these conservation errors is not clear. A key question is whether conservation…

  3. From Whole Numbers to Invert and Multiply

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavey, Laurie O.; Kinzel, Margaret T.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers report that engaging students in solving contextual problems is an important part of supporting student understanding of algorithms for fraction division. Meaning for whole-number operations is a crucial part of making sense of contextual problems involving rational numbers. The authors present a developed instructional sequence to…

  4. Neural correlates of merging number words.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yi-Hui; Pallier, Christophe; Dehaene, Stanislas; Lin, Yi-Chen; Chang, Acer; Tzeng, Ovid J-L; Wu, Denise H

    2015-11-15

    Complex number words (e.g., "twenty two") are formed by merging together several simple number words (e.g., "twenty" and "two"). In the present study, we explored the neural correlates of this operation and investigated to what extent it engages brain areas involved processing numerical quantity and linguistic syntactic structure. Participants speaking two typologically distinct languages, French and Chinese, were required to read aloud sequences of simple number words while their cerebral activity was recorded by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Each number word could either be merged with the previous ones (e.g., 'twenty three') or not (e.g., 'three twenty'), thus forming four levels ranging from lists of number words to complex numerals. When a number word could be merged with the preceding ones, it was named faster than when it could not. Neuroimaging results showed that the number of merges correlated with activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus and in the left inferior parietal lobule. Consistent findings across Chinese and French participants suggest that these regions serve as the neural bases for forming complex number words in different languages. PMID:26226086

  5. 21 CFR 1210.21 - Permit number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Permit number. 1210.21 Section 1210.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS... IMPORT MILK ACT Permit Control § 1210.21 Permit number. Each permit issued under the Federal Import...

  6. 21 CFR 1210.21 - Permit number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Permit number. 1210.21 Section 1210.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS... IMPORT MILK ACT Permit Control § 1210.21 Permit number. Each permit issued under the Federal Import...

  7. 21 CFR 1210.21 - Permit number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Permit number. 1210.21 Section 1210.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS... IMPORT MILK ACT Permit Control § 1210.21 Permit number. Each permit issued under the Federal Import...

  8. 21 CFR 1210.21 - Permit number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Permit number. 1210.21 Section 1210.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS... IMPORT MILK ACT Permit Control § 1210.21 Permit number. Each permit issued under the Federal Import...

  9. 21 CFR 1210.21 - Permit number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permit number. 1210.21 Section 1210.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS... IMPORT MILK ACT Permit Control § 1210.21 Permit number. Each permit issued under the Federal Import...

  10. When Symbolic Spatial Cues Go before Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Amparo; Macizo, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    This work explores the effect of spatial cueing on number processing. Participants performed a parity judgment task. However, shortly before the target number, a cue (arrow pointing to left, arrow pointing to right or a cross) was centrally presented. In Experiment 1, in which responses were lateralized, the cue direction modulated the interaction…

  11. Families of Linear Recurrences for Catalan Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, N.

    2011-01-01

    Four different families of linear recurrences are derived for Catalan numbers. The derivations rest on John Riordan's 1973 generalization of Catalan numbers to a set of polynomials. Elementary differential and integral calculus techniques are used and the results should be of interest to teachers and students of introductory courses in calculus…

  12. 46 CFR 169.541 - Number required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Number required. 169.541 Section 169.541 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Personal Flotation Devices § 169.541 Number required. Each vessel must...

  13. Fostering Number Sense through Digits and Dice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiest, Lynda R.

    2006-01-01

    Games are among the many types of activities that can be used to help promote number sense. Chosen and used wisely, games encourage learning and motivate many students to grasp concepts more quickly and fully. This article describes a popular and easy-to-implement number sense game--called Digits and Dice--most commonly used in conjunction with…

  14. A Generalization of the Prime Number Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruckman, Paul S.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author begins with the prime number theorem (PNT), and then develops this into a more general theorem, of which many well-known number theoretic results are special cases, including PNT. He arrives at an asymptotic relation that allows the replacement of certain discrete sums involving primes into corresponding differentiable…

  15. 48 CFR 304.7001 - Numbering acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... AHRQ: A ASPR/OAMCG: O CDC: D CMS: M FDA: F HRSA: H IHS: I NIH: N PSC: P SAMHSA: S (3) The three-digit... identification code of the servicing agency: AHRQ: A ASPR/OAMCG: O CDC: D CMS: M FDA: F HRSA: H IHS: I NIH: N PSC... ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Acquisition Instrument Identification Numbering System 304.7001 Numbering acquisitions....

  16. 7 CFR 1.414 - Docket number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of Sourcing Area Applications and Formal Review of Sourcing Areas Pursuant to the Forest Resources... proceeding shall be referred to by such number. The Hearing Clerk shall notify the sourcing area applicant... number and the name of the Judge to whom the case has been assigned. In a formal review of a...

  17. 7 CFR 1.414 - Docket number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of Sourcing Area Applications and Formal Review of Sourcing Areas Pursuant to the Forest Resources... proceeding shall be referred to by such number. The Hearing Clerk shall notify the sourcing area applicant... number and the name of the Judge to whom the case has been assigned. In a formal review of a...

  18. 7 CFR 1.414 - Docket number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of Sourcing Area Applications and Formal Review of Sourcing Areas Pursuant to the Forest Resources... proceeding shall be referred to by such number. The Hearing Clerk shall notify the sourcing area applicant... number and the name of the Judge to whom the case has been assigned. In a formal review of a...

  19. Number Theory in the Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beougher, Elton E.

    The paper presents reasons for teaching topics from number theory to elementary school students: (1) it can help reveal why numbers "act" in a certain way when added, multiplied, etc., (2) it offers drill material in new areas of mathematics, (3) it can develop interest - as mathematical enrichment, (4) it offers opportunities for students to…

  20. Fostering At-Risk Preschoolers' Number Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baroody, Arthur; Eiland, Michael; Thompson, Bradley

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: A 9-month study served to evaluate the effectiveness of a pre-kindergarten number sense curriculum. Phase 1 of the intervention involved manipulative-, game-based number sense instruction; Phase 2, computer-aided mental-arithmetic training with the simplest sums. Eighty 4- and 5-year-olds at risk for school failure were randomly…

  1. 46 CFR 169.541 - Number required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Number required. 169.541 Section 169.541 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Personal Flotation Devices § 169.541 Number required. Each vessel must...

  2. Seedbed, Numbers 29-31, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldenhersh, Barbara, Ed.

    This document consists of three issues of the journal "Seedbed," an outcome of the Teachers' Center Project at Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville (SIUE). Issue Number 29 contains 67 articles on teachers' ideas that they thought worth sharing with other teachers. Issue Number 30 consists of a single paper, "Children and Mathematics in the…

  3. 41 CFR 105-1.109 - Numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Numbering. 105-1.109 Section 105-1.109 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulations System § 105-1.109 Numbering....

  4. Good Morning, Numbers Day: Motivating for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramentol, Salvador Vidal

    2011-01-01

    The aversion that many girls and boys experience towards mathematics has been one of the author's major concerns since he started teaching. In this article, he describes a project called "Numbers Day" that was designed to improve students' attitudes toward mathematics. There are many features of Numbers Day that teachers might incorporate into…

  5. Infinite Sums of M-Bonacci Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    A-iru, Muniru A.

    2009-01-01

    In this note, we construct infinite series using M-bonacci numbers in a manner similar to that used in previous studies and investigate the convergence of the series to an integer. Our results generalize the ones obtained for Fibonacci numbers.

  6. The Second Strong Law of Small Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy, Richard K.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are 44 examples in which students are invited to guess what pattern of numbers is emerging and to decide whether the pattern will persist. Topics of examples include Pascal's triangle, integers, vertices, Fibonacci numbers, power series, partition functions, and Euler's theorem. The answers to all problems are included. (KR)

  7. Teaching Number in the Early Elementary Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Chris R.; Faulkner, Valerie N.

    2011-01-01

    The widely adopted Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) are designed to deepen instruction of number sense and will demand that elementary school teachers have a strong understanding of number. These changes arrive at a time when it is still understood that teachers and the curriculum in the United States have not been fundamentally…

  8. 29 CFR 783.41 - “Numbered” vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...)). The requirements and procedures of this Act are explained in detail in 46 CFR part 170. ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false âNumberedâ vessel. 783.41 Section 783.41 Labor Regulations... EMPLOYED AS SEAMEN What Is An âamerican Vesselâ § 783.41 “Numbered” vessel. A vessel “numbered under...

  9. 29 CFR 783.41 - “Numbered” vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...)). The requirements and procedures of this Act are explained in detail in 46 CFR part 170. ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false âNumberedâ vessel. 783.41 Section 783.41 Labor Regulations... EMPLOYED AS SEAMEN What Is An âamerican Vesselâ § 783.41 “Numbered” vessel. A vessel “numbered under...

  10. 29 CFR 783.41 - “Numbered” vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...)). The requirements and procedures of this Act are explained in detail in 46 CFR part 170. ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âNumberedâ vessel. 783.41 Section 783.41 Labor Regulations... EMPLOYED AS SEAMEN What Is An âamerican Vesselâ § 783.41 “Numbered” vessel. A vessel “numbered under...

  11. 29 CFR 783.41 - “Numbered” vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...)). The requirements and procedures of this Act are explained in detail in 46 CFR part 170. ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âNumberedâ vessel. 783.41 Section 783.41 Labor Regulations... EMPLOYED AS SEAMEN What Is An âamerican Vesselâ § 783.41 “Numbered” vessel. A vessel “numbered under...

  12. 29 CFR 783.41 - “Numbered” vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...)). The requirements and procedures of this Act are explained in detail in 46 CFR part 170. ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false âNumberedâ vessel. 783.41 Section 783.41 Labor Regulations... EMPLOYED AS SEAMEN What Is An âamerican Vesselâ § 783.41 “Numbered” vessel. A vessel “numbered under...

  13. LEAN: laser-etched aqua number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schell, Karel J.

    1998-04-01

    A security device on a banknote has to be recognized immediately by the general public and has to enable the general public to establish the genuineness of the banknote. This is the so-called first line of defense. Recently the development of the ability to establish the genuiness has gained momentum and is called 'self authenticating.' Comparing the banknote number with a 'watermark number' can do authenticating. The watermark number is engraved by a laser beam in the paper and is -- as the printed number -- different for each note. Recent progress in the material processing by laser enables the engraving of the individual watermark number for each banknote in line with the production process.

  14. Compendium of Experimental Cetane Number Data

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, M. J.; Taylor, J. D.; McCormick, R. L.

    2004-09-01

    In this report, we present a compilation of reported cetane numbers for pure chemical compounds. The compiled database contains cetane values for 299 pure compounds, including 156 hydrocarbons and 143 oxygenates. Cetane number is a relative ranking of fuels based on the amount of time between fuel injection and ignition. The cetane number is typically measured either in a combustion bomb or in a single-cylinder research engine. This report includes cetane values from several different measurement techniques - each of which has associated uncertainties. Additionally, many of the reported values are determined by measuring blending cetane numbers, which introduces significant error. In many cases, the measurement technique is not reported nor is there any discussion about the purity of the compounds. Nonetheless, the data in this report represent the best pure compound cetane number values available from the literature as of August 2004.

  15. Low Reynolds number airfoil survey, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmichael, B. H.

    1981-01-01

    The differences in flow behavior two dimensional airfoils in the critical chordlength Reynolds number compared with lower and higher Reynolds number are discussed. The large laminar separation bubble is discussed in view of its important influence on critical Reynolds number airfoil behavior. The shortcomings of application of theoretical boundary layer computations which are successful at higher Reynolds numbers to the critical regime are discussed. The large variation in experimental aerodynamic characteristic measurement due to small changes in ambient turbulence, vibration, and sound level is illustrated. The difficulties in obtaining accurate detailed measurements in free flight and dramatic performance improvements at critical Reynolds number, achieved with various types of boundary layer tripping devices are discussed.

  16. Clinicopathological assessment of the nephron number

    PubMed Central

    Tsuboi, Nobuo; Kanzaki, Go; Koike, Kentaro; Kawamura, Tetsuya; Ogura, Makoto; Yokoo, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated much larger variability in the total number of nephrons in normal populations than previously suspected. In addition, it has been suggested that individuals with a low nephron number may have an increased lifetime risk of hypertension or renal insufficiency, emphasizing the importance of evaluating the nephron number in each individual. In view of the fact that all previous reports of the nephron number were based on analyses of autopsy kidneys, the identification of surrogate markers detectable in living subjects is needed in order to enhance understanding of the clinical significance of this parameter. In this review, we summarize the clinicopathological factors and findings indicating a reduction in the nephron number, focusing particularly on those found at the time of a preserved renal function. PMID:25852857

  17. Random numbers spring from alpha decay

    SciTech Connect

    Frigerio, N.A.; Sanathanan, L.P.; Morley, M.; Clark, N.A.; Tyler, S.A.

    1980-05-01

    Congruential random number generators, which are widely used in Monte Carlo simulations, are deficient in that the number they generate are concentrated in a relatively small number of hyperplanes. While this deficiency may not be a limitation in small Monte Carlo studies involving a few variables, it introduces a significant bias in large simulations requiring high resolution. This bias was recognized and assessed during preparations for an accident analysis study of nuclear power plants. This report describes a random number device based on the radioactive decay of alpha particles from a /sup 235/U source in a high-resolution gas proportional counter. The signals were fed to a 4096-channel analyzer and for each channel the frequency of signals registered in a 20,000-microsecond interval was recorded. The parity bits of these frequency counts (0 for an even count and 1 for an odd count) were then assembled in sequence to form 31-bit binary random numbers and transcribed to a magnetic tape. This cycle was repeated as many times as were necessary to create 3 million random numbers. The frequency distribution of counts from the present device conforms to the Brockwell-Moyal distribution, which takes into account the dead time of the counter (both the dead time and decay constant of the underlying Poisson process were estimated). Analysis of the count data and tests of randomness on a sample set of the 31-bit binary numbers indicate that this random number device is a highly reliable source of truly random numbers. Its use is, therefore, recommended in Monte Carlo simulations for which the congruential pseudorandom number generators are found to be inadequate. 6 figures, 5 tables.

  18. Zooming in and out from the Mental Number Line: Evidence for a Number Range Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinhas, Michal; Pothos, Emmanuel M.; Tzelgov, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The representation of numbers is commonly viewed as an ordered continuum of magnitudes, referred to as the "mental number line." Previous work has repeatedly shown that number representations evoked by a given task can be easily altered, yielding an ongoing discussion about the basic properties of the mental number line and how malleable…

  19. Number Worlds: Visual and Experimental Access to Elementary Number Theory Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Nathalie; Zazkis, Rina; Liljedahl, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Recent research demonstrates that many issues related to the structure of natural numbers and the relationship among numbers are not well grasped by students. In this article, we describe a computer-based learning environment called "Number Worlds" that was designed to support the exploration of elementary number theory concepts by making the…

  20. Number Worlds: Visual and Experimental Access to Elementary Number Theory Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Nathalie; Zazkis, Rina; Liljedahl, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Recent research demonstrates that many issues related to the structure of natural numbers and the relationship among numbers are not well grasped by students. In this article, we describe a computer-based learning environment called "Number Worlds" that was designed to support the exploration of elementary number theory concepts by making the…

  1. Estimating shorebird numbers at migration stopover sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farmer, A.; Durbian, F.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a method for estimating the total number of shorebirds that use a migration stopover site during spring and fall migration. We combined weekly shorebird counts with parameter estimates for detection probability, sampled proportion, and length of stay on the Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge. Double sampling was used to determine detection probability and estimated values varied among wetland units from a low of 0.07 to a high of 0.82. The sampled proportion of most wetland units was 100% but was lower in some of the larger units. Length of stay (measured for Pectoral [Calidris melanotos] and Least Sandpipers [C. minutilla] combined) averaged 10.0 days in spring and 3.7 days in fall. Spring shorebird numbers were approximately five times greater than fall numbers on the Refuge. Annual shorebird numbers varied among years from an estimated low in 2003 of 15 734 to a high in 2002 of 69 570. Peak daily counts during study years averaged only 12% of estimated spring totals and 4% of fall totals. An estimate of shorebird numbers based on summing weekly counts, not corrected for detection probability or sampled proportion, would have been only 21% (spring) to 31% (fall) of the total number of birds. These results reveal that peak counts and nonadjusted counts can significantly underestimate the number of shorebirds that use migration stopover sites in the midcontinent of North America. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2006.

  2. Baryon Number Violation beyond the Standard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornal, Bartosz

    This thesis describes simple extensions of the standard model with new sources of baryon number violation but no proton decay. The motivation for constructing such theories comes from the shortcomings of the standard model to explain the generation of baryon asymmetry in the universe, and from the absence of experimental evidence for proton decay. However, lack of any direct evidence for baryon number violation in general puts strong bounds on the naturalness of some of those models and favors theories with suppressed baryon number violation below the TeV scale. The initial part of the thesis concentrates on investigating models containing new scalars responsible for baryon number breaking. A model with new color sextet scalars is analyzed in more detail. Apart from generating cosmological baryon number, it gives nontrivial predictions for the neutron-antineutron oscillations, the electric dipole moment of the neutron, and neutral meson mixing. The second model discussed in the thesis contains a new scalar leptoquark. Although this model predicts mainly lepton flavor violation and a nonzero electric dipole moment of the electron, it includes, in its original form, baryon number violating nonrenormalizable dimension-five operators triggering proton decay. Imposing an appropriate discrete symmetry forbids such operators. Finally, a supersymmetric model with gauged baryon and lepton numbers is proposed. It provides a natural explanation for proton stability and predicts lepton number violating processes below the supersymmetry breaking scale, which can be tested at the Large Hadron Collider. The dark matter candidate in this model carries baryon number and can be searched for in direct detection experiments as well. The thesis is completed by constructing and briefly discussing a minimal extension of the standard model with gauged baryon, lepton, and flavor symmetries.

  3. The 2015 Revision of the Sunspot Number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svalgaard, L.

    2014-12-01

    Our knowledge of the long-term evolution of solar activity and of its primary modulation, the 11-year cycle, largely depends on a single direct observational record: the visual sunspot counts that retrace the last 4 centuries, since the invention of the astronomical telescope. Currently, this activity index is available in two main forms: the International Sunspot Number initiated by R. Wolf in 1849 and the Group Number constructed more recently by Hoyt and Schatten (1998a,b). Unfortunately, those two series do not match by various aspects, inducing confusions and contradictions when used in crucial contemporary studies of the solar dynamo or of the solar forcing on the Earth climate. Recently, new efforts have been undertaken to diagnose and correct flaws and biases affecting both sunspot series, in the framework of a series of dedicated Sunspot Number Workshops. Here, we present a global overview of our current understanding of the sunspot number calibration. While the early part of the sunspot record before 1800 is still characterized by large uncertainties due to poorly observed periods, the more recent sunspot numbers are mainly affected by three main inhomogeneities: in 1880-1915 for the Group Number and in 1947 and 1980-2014 for the Sunspot Number. The newly corrected series clearly indicates a progressive decline of solar activity before the onset of the Maunder Minimum, while the slowly rising trend of the activity after the Maunder Minimum is strongly reduced, suggesting that by the mid 18th century, solar activity had already returned to the level of those observed in recent solar cycles in the 20th century. We finally conclude with future prospects opened by this epochal revision of the Sunspot Number, the first one since Wolf himself, and its reconciliation with the Group Number, a long-awaited modernization that will feed solar cycle research into the 21st century.

  4. Spatio-temporal optical random number generator.

    PubMed

    Stip?evi?, M; Bowers, J E

    2015-05-01

    We present a first random number generator (RNG) which simultaneously uses independent spatial and temporal quantum randomness contained in an optical system. Availability of the two independent sources of entropy makes the RNG resilient to hardware failure and signal injection attacks. We show that the deviation from randomness of the generated numbers can be estimated quickly from simple measurements thus eliminating the need for usual time-consuming statistical testing of the output data. As a confirmation it is demonstrated that generated numbers pass NIST Statistical test suite. PMID:25969254

  5. Froissart bound and gluon number fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang Wenchang

    2010-05-01

    We study the effect of gluon number fluctuations (Pomeron loops) on the impact parameter behavior of the scattering amplitude in the fixed coupling case. We demonstrate that the dipole-hadron cross section computed from gluon number fluctuations saturates the Froissart bound and the growth of the radius of the black disk with rapidity is enhanced by an additional term as compared to the single event case. We find that the physical amplitude has a Gaussian impact parameter dependence once the gluon number fluctuations are included. This indicates that the fluctuations may be the microscopic origin for the Gaussian impact parameter dependence of the scattering amplitude.

  6. Critical points and number of master integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Roman N.; Pomeransky, Andrei A.

    2013-11-01

    We consider the question about the number of master integrals for a multiloop Feynman diagram. We show that, for a given set of denominators, this number is totally determined by the critical points of the polynomials entering either of the two representations: the parametric representation and the Baikov representation. In particular, for the parametric representation the corresponding polynomial is just the sum of Symanzik polynomials. The relevant topological invariant is the sum of the Milnor numbers of the proper critical points. We present a Mathematica package Mint to automatize the counting of the master integrals for the typical case, when all critical points are isolated.

  7. Lorenz number in low-dimensional structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, M. N.; Bhandari, C. M.; Singh, M. P.

    2010-12-01

    Folded sheets appear to behave as a quasi one or two-dimensional system depending on temperature and radius of the tubes. The Lorenz number for such a system is obtained and it is concluded that for unfolded sheets, which show 2-D behavior, the Lorenz number may fall sharply at very low temperature. On relatively high temperature side, the Lorenz number acquires a constant value, close to the usual metallic behavior, whereas in 1-D systems the Lorenz value is smaller than usual, but is not expected to fall with the lowering of temperature.

  8. Decay of turbulence at high reynolds numbers.

    PubMed

    Sinhuber, Michael; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Bewley, Gregory P

    2015-01-23

    Turbulent motions in a fluid decay at a certain rate once stirring has stopped. The role of the most basic parameter in fluid mechanics, the Reynolds number, in setting the decay rate is not generally known. This Letter concerns the high-Reynolds-number limit of the process. In a classical grid-turbulence wind-tunnel experiment that both reaches higher Reynolds numbers than ever before and covers a wide range of them (10^{4}number independent, which contradicts some models and supports others. PMID:25659002

  9. Thermal convection at infinite Prandtl number

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, J. R.

    1969-01-01

    Numerical solutions are developed for the full scaled three dimensional thermal convection problem, at infinite Prandtl number, and for rigid boundaries. The procedure is designed to give an approximate account of horizontally homogeneous and isotropic flow situations. Results, which included a maximum of 36 horizontal wave number vectors and 20 vertical wave numbers, appear to adequately describe the flow fill up to R = 100,000; beyond this R the results appear to show horizontal wave number truncation error. This error seems to affect the boundary slope of the mean temperature field more than other mean quantities. Despite some numerical uncertainities, certain of the qualitative features of the flow fill are predicted with reasonable confidence.

  10. A Fast Coulometric Estimation of Avogadro's Number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Nicholas C.

    2007-10-01

    Using simple materials found in any high school or college laboratory, an electrochemical method of determining Avogadro's number is presented. Once set up, the measurement can be completed in about 5 minutes.

  11. Textbook Errors Index: Numbers 73-138.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberhardt, W. H.

    1980-01-01

    Listed are textbook errors, by numbered topic, which have been noted in the Journal of Chemical Education since 1966. This index supplements a previous one published in June 1967. Appended is a subject matter index as well. (CS)

  12. Infiltration formulas by curve number procedure.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, C.-L.

    1982-01-01

    The Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number procedure for estimating runoff volume is examined in terms of the validity and applicability of the derived infiltration equations. -from ASCE Publications Abstracts

  13. Copy Number Variation across European Populations

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wanting; Hayward, Caroline; Wright, Alan F.; Hicks, Andrew A.; Vitart, Veronique; Knott, Sara; Wild, Sarah H.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Wilson, James F.; Rudan, Igor; Porteous, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Genome analysis provides a powerful approach to test for evidence of genetic variation within and between geographical regions and local populations. Copy number variants which comprise insertions, deletions and duplications of genomic sequence provide one such convenient and informative source. Here, we investigate copy number variants from genome wide scans of single nucleotide polymorphisms in three European population isolates, the island of Vis in Croatia, the islands of Orkney in Scotland and the South Tyrol in Italy. We show that whereas the overall copy number variant frequencies are similar between populations, their distribution is highly specific to the population of origin, a finding which is supported by evidence for increased kinship correlation for specific copy number variants within populations. PMID:21829696

  14. Chaotic behaviour of high Mach number flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varvoglis, H.; Ghosh, S.

    1985-01-01

    The stability of the super-Alfvenic flow of a two-fluid plasma model with respect to the Mach number and the angle between the flow direction and the magnetic field is investigated. It is found that, in general, a large scale chaotic region develops around the initial equilibrium of the laminar flow when the Mach number exceeds a certain threshold value. After reaching a maximum the size of this region begins shrinking and goes to zero as the Mach number tends to infinity. As a result high Mach number flows in time independent astrophysical plasmas may lead to the formation of 'quasi-shocks' in the presence of little or no dissipation.

  15. Networking of large numbers of satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brayer, Kenneth; Collins, William E.; Crane, Peter C.

    Networking a large number of satellites for the passage of command and traffic control is examined. The characteristics of the 16-node double loop model utilized in this study are discussed. Equations for calculating the delay for a specific pair of nodes and the throughput of the ring are presented. In order to calculate the hop length, it is necessary to know the number of satellites within the line-of-sight of a given satellite. The performance of a number of satellites is evaluated. It is noted that, using the double ring routing of short forward hops and long backward hops, it is possible to traverse a ring by sending a message on a small fraction of the links in that ring. Networking large numbers of satellites to deliver traffic is applicable to SDI.

  16. New technique for number-plate recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jie; Shi, Peng-Fei

    2001-09-01

    This paper presents an alternative algorithm for number plate recognition. The algorithm consists of three modules. Respectively, they are number plate location module, character segmentation module and character recognition module. Number plate location module extracts the number plate from the detected car image by analyzing the color and the texture properties. Different from most license plate location methods, the algorithm has fewer limits to the car size, the car position in the image and the image background. Character segmentation module applies connected region algorithm both to eliminate noise points and to segment characters. Touching characters and broken characters can be processed correctly. Character recognition module recognizes characters with HHIC (Hierarchical Hybrid Integrated Classifier). The system has been tested with 100 images obtained from crossroad and parking lot, etc, where the cars have different size, position, background and illumination. Successful recognition rate is about 92%. The average processing time is 1.2 second.

  17. Generation of pseudo-random numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, L. W.; Rheinfurth, M. H.

    1982-01-01

    Practical methods for generating acceptable random numbers from a variety of probability distributions which are frequently encountered in engineering applications are described. The speed, accuracy, and guarantee of statistical randomness of the various methods are discussed.

  18. Decay of Turbulence at High Reynolds Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinhuber, Michael; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Bewley, Gregory P.

    2015-01-01

    Turbulent motions in a fluid decay at a certain rate once stirring has stopped. The role of the most basic parameter in fluid mechanics, the Reynolds number, in setting the decay rate is not generally known. This Letter concerns the high-Reynolds-number limit of the process. In a classical grid-turbulence wind-tunnel experiment that both reaches higher Reynolds numbers than ever before and covers a wide range of them (1 04number independent, which contradicts some models and supports others.

  19. Bone Mass Measurement: What the Numbers Mean

    MedlinePLUS

    ... not supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Bone Mass Measurement: What the Numbers Mean Publication available ... Print-Friendly Page June 2015 What Is a Bone Density Test? A bone mineral density (BMD) test ...

  20. An Application of Number Theory to Cryptology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Joanne R.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is an application of number theory to cryptology that can be used with secondary school students. Background on the topics is given first, followed by an explanation for use of the topic. (MNS)

  1. Ideal photon number amplifier and duplicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dariano, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    The photon number-amplification and number-duplication mechanism are analyzed in the ideal case. The search for unitary evolutions leads to consider also a number-deamplification mechanism, the symmetry between amplification and deamplification being broken by the integer-value nature of the number operator. Both transformations, amplification and duplication, need an auxiliary field which, in the case of amplification, turns out to be amplified in the inverse way. Input-output energy conservation is accounted for using a classical pump or through frequency-conversion of the fields. Ignoring one of the fields is equivalent to considering the amplifier as an open system involving entropy production. The Hamiltonians of the ideal devices are given and compared with those of realistic systems.

  2. Determining Ramsey numbers on a quantum computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hefeng

    2016-03-01

    We present a quantum algorithm for computing the Ramsey numbers whose computational complexity grows superexponentially with the number of vertices of a graph on a classical computer. The problem is mapped to a decision problem on a quantum computer, and a probe qubit is coupled to a register that represents the problem and detects the energy levels of the problem Hamiltonian. The decision problem is solved by detecting the decay dynamics of the probe qubit.

  3. Computing the isoperimetric number of a graph

    SciTech Connect

    Golovach, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Let G be a finite graph. Denote by {partial_derivative}X, where X {contained_in} VG, the set of edges of the graph G with one end in X and the other end in the set VG{backslash}X. The ratio i(G) = min {vert_bar}{vert_bar}X{vert_bar}/{vert_bar}X{vert_bar}, where the minimum is over all nonempty subsets X of the set VG such that {vert_bar}X{vert_bar} {le} {vert_bar} VG {vert_bar}/2, is called the isoperimetric number of the graph G. It is easy to see that the isoperimetric number may be used as a {open_quotes}measure of connectivity{close_quotes} of the graph. The problem of determining the isoperimetric number is clearly linked with graph partition problems, which often arise in various applications. The isoperimetric number is also important for studying Riemann surfaces. These and other applications of the isoperimetric number justify the analysis of graphs of this kind. The properties of the isoperimetric number are presented in more detail elsewhere. It is shown elsewhere that the computation of the isoperimetric number is an NP-hard problem for graphs with multiple edges. We will show that the decision problem {open_quotes}given the graph G and two integers s and t decide if i(G) {le} s/t{close_quotes} is NP-complete even for simple graphs with vertex degrees not exceeding 3. Note that the isoperimetric number of a tree can be computed by a known polynomial-time algorithm.

  4. Large Number Discrimination in Newborn Fish

    PubMed Central

    Piffer, Laura; Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena; Agrillo, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative abilities have been reported in a wide range of species, including fish. Recent studies have shown that adult guppies (Poecilia reticulata) can spontaneously select the larger number of conspecifics. In particular the evidence collected in literature suggest the existence of two distinct systems of number representation: a precise system up to 4 units, and an approximate system for larger numbers. Spontaneous numerical abilities, however, seem to be limited to 4 units at birth and it is currently unclear whether or not the large number system is absent during the first days of life. In the present study, we investigated whether newborn guppies can be trained to discriminate between large quantities. Subjects were required to discriminate between groups of dots with a 0.50 ratio (e.g., 7 vs. 14) in order to obtain a food reward. To dissociate the roles of number and continuous quantities that co-vary with numerical information (such as cumulative surface area, space and density), three different experiments were set up: in Exp. 1 number and continuous quantities were simultaneously available. In Exp. 2 we controlled for continuous quantities and only numerical information was available; in Exp. 3 numerical information was made irrelevant and only continuous quantities were available. Subjects successfully solved the tasks in Exp. 1 and 2, providing the first evidence of large number discrimination in newborn fish. No discrimination was found in experiment 3, meaning that number acuity is better than spatial acuity. A comparison with the onset of numerical abilities observed in shoal-choice tests suggests that training procedures can promote the development of numerical abilities in guppies. PMID:23626824

  5. Chromosome number evolution in skippers (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Lukhtanov, Vladimir A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), as many other groups of animals and plants, simultaneously represent preservation of ancestral karyotype in the majority of families with a high degree of chromosome number instability in numerous independently evolved phylogenetic lineages. However, the pattern and trends of karyotype evolution in some Lepidoptera families are poorly studied. Here I provide a survey of chromosome numbers in skippers (family Hesperiidae) based on intensive search and analysis of published data. I demonstrate that the majority of skippers preserve the haploid chromosome number n=31 that seems to be an ancestral number for the Hesperiidae and the order Lepidoptera at whole. However, in the tribe Baorini the derived number n=16 is the most typical state which can be used as a (syn)apomorphic character in further phylogenetic investigations. Several groups of skippers display extreme chromosome number variations on within-species (e.g. the representatives of the genus Carcharodus Hübner, [1819]) and between-species (e.g. the genus Agathymus Freeman, 1959) levels. Thus, these groups can be used as model systems for future analysis of the phenomenon of chromosome instability. Interspecific chromosomal differences are also shown to be useful for discovering and describing new cryptic species of Hesperiidae representing in such a way a powerful tool in biodiversity research. Generally, the skipper butterflies promise to be an exciting group that will significantly contribute to the growing knowledge of patterns and processes of chromosome evolution. PMID:25610542

  6. The influence of numbers on invasion success.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Tim M; Lockwood, Julie L; Cassey, Phillip

    2015-05-01

    The process by which a species becomes a biological invader, at a location where it does not naturally occur, can be divided into a series of sequential stages (transport, introduction, establishment and spread). A species' success at passing through each of these stages depends, in a large part, on the number of individuals available to assist making each transition. Here, we review the evidence that numbers determine success at each stage of the invasion process and then discuss the likely mechanisms by which numbers affect success. We conclude that numbers of individuals affect transport and introduction by moderating the likelihood that abundant (and widespread) species are deliberately or accidentally translocated; affect establishment success by moderating the stochastic processes (demographic, environmental, genetic or Allee) to which small, introduced populations will be vulnerable; and affect invasive spread most likely because of persistent genetic effects determined by the numbers of individuals involved in the establishment phase. We finish by suggesting some further steps to advance our understanding of the influence of numbers on invasion success, particularly as they relate to the genetics of the process. PMID:25641210

  7. A feeling for the numbers in biology

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Rob; Milo, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Although the quantitative description of biological systems has been going on for centuries, recent advances in the measurement of phenomena ranging from metabolism to gene expression to signal transduction have resulted in a new emphasis on biological numeracy. This article describes the confluence of two different approaches to biological numbers. First, an impressive array of quantitative measurements make it possible to develop intuition about biological numbers ranging from how many gigatons of atmospheric carbon are fixed every year in the process of photosynthesis to the number of membrane transporters needed to provide sugars to rapidly dividing Escherichia coli cells. As a result of the vast array of such quantitative data, the BioNumbers web site has recently been developed as a repository for biology by the numbers. Second, a complementary and powerful tradition of numerical estimates familiar from the physical sciences and canonized in the so-called “Fermi problems” calls for efforts to estimate key biological quantities on the basis of a few foundational facts and simple ideas from physics and chemistry. In this article, we describe these two approaches and illustrate their synergism in several particularly appealing case studies. These case studies reveal the impact that an emphasis on numbers can have on important biological questions. PMID:20018695

  8. Riemann equation for prime number diffusion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen; Liang, Yingjie

    2015-05-01

    This study makes the first attempt to propose the Riemann diffusion equation to describe in a manner of partial differential equation and interpret in physics of diffusion the classical Riemann method for prime number distribution. The analytical solution of this equation is the well-known Riemann representation. The diffusion coefficient is dependent on natural number, a kind of position-dependent diffusivity diffusion. We find that the diffusion coefficient of the Riemann diffusion equation is nearly a straight line having a slope 0.99734 in the double-logarithmic axis. Consequently, an approximate solution of the Riemann diffusion equation is obtained, which agrees well with the Riemann representation in predicting the prime number distribution. Moreover, we interpret the scale-free property of prime number distribution via a power law function with 1.0169 the scale-free exponent in respect to logarithmic transform of the natural number, and then the fractal characteristic of prime number distribution is disclosed. PMID:26026319

  9. Ion Stopping Powers and CT Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Moyers, Michael F.; Sardesai, Milind; Sun, Sean; Miller, Daniel W.

    2010-10-01

    One of the advantages of ion beam therapy is the steep dose gradient produced near the ion's range. Use of this advantage makes knowledge of the stopping powers for all materials through which the beam passes critical. Most treatment planning systems calculate dose distributions using depth dose data measured in water and an algorithm that converts the kilovoltage X-ray computed tomography (CT) number of a given material to its linear stopping power relative to water. Some materials present in kilovoltage scans of patients and simulation phantoms do not lie on the standard tissue conversion curve. The relative linear stopping powers (RLSPs) of 21 different tissue substitutes and positioning, registration, immobilization, and beamline materials were measured in beams of protons accelerated to energies of 155, 200, and 250 MeV; carbon ions accelerated to 290 MeV/n; and iron ions accelerated to 970 MeV/n. These same materials were scanned with both kilovoltage and megavoltage CT scanners to obtain their CT numbers. Measured RLSPs and CT numbers were compared with calculated and/or literature values. Relationships of RLSPs to physical densities, electronic densities, kilovoltage CT numbers, megavoltage CT numbers, and water equivalence values converted by a treatment planning system are given. Usage of CT numbers and substitution of measured values into treatment plans to provide accurate patient and phantom simulations are discussed.

  10. Courant number and unsteady flow computation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lai, Chintu

    1993-01-01

    The Courant number C, the key to unsteady flow computation, is a ratio of physical wave velocity, ??, to computational signal-transmission velocity, ??, i.e., C = ??/??. In this way, it uniquely relates a physical quantity to a mathematical quantity. Because most unsteady open-channel flows are describable by a set of n characteristic equations along n characteristic paths, each represented by velocity ??i, i = 1,2,....,n, there exist as many as n components for the numerator of C. To develop a numerical model, a numerical integration must be made on each characteristic curve from an earlier point to a later point on the curve. Different numerical methods are available in unsteady flow computation due to the different paths along which the numerical integration is actually performed. For the denominator of C, the ?? defined as ?? = ?? 0 = ??x/??t has been customarily used; thus, the Courant number has the familiar form of C?? = ??/??0. This form will be referred to as ???common Courant number??? in this paper. The commonly used numerical criteria C?? for stability, neutral stability and instability, are imprecise or not universal in the sense that r0 does not always reflect the true maximum computational data-transmission speed of the scheme at hand, i.e., Ctau is no indication for the Courant constraint. In view of this , a new Courant number, called the ???natural Courant number???, Cn, that truly reflects the Courant constraint, has been defined. However, considering the numerous advantages inherent in the traditional C??, a useful and meaningful composite Courant number, denoted by C??* has been formulated from C??. It is hoped that the new aspects of the Courant number discussed herein afford the hydraulician a broader perspective, consistent criteria, and unified guidelines, with which to model various unsteady flows.

  11. [The number needed to treat (NNT) and the number needed to harm (NNH)].

    PubMed

    Suter, Katja; Briel, Matthias; Günther, Judith

    2015-03-01

    In our previous articles we introduced the relative and absolute expressions of risk: baseline risk, relative risk (RR), relative risk reduction (RRR), absolute risk reduction (ARR), or risk difference (RD). The "number needed to xy" is another concept to describe the results of a clinical trial. Depending on the investigated problem the "number needed to xy" is the "number needed to treat", the "number needed to harm", the "number needed to vaccinate", or the "number needed to screen". In this article of our series we introduce the number needed to treat (NNT) and the number needed to harm (NNH) as a method to characterize the difference of two compared therapy options. As the other effect sizes the NNT and NNH can be used to inform patients about the expected benefit (or harm) of different therapy options. PMID:26364396

  12. Children's Number-Line Estimation Shows Development of Measurement Skills (Not Number Representations)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Dale J.; Sarnecka, Barbara W.

    2014-01-01

    Children's understanding of numbers is often assessed using a number-line task, where the child is shown a line labeled with 0 at one end and a higher number (e.g., 100) at the other end. The child is then asked where on the line some intermediate number (e.g., 70) should go. Performance on this task changes predictably during childhood, and…

  13. Children's Number-Line Estimation Shows Development of Measurement Skills (Not Number Representations)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Dale J.; Sarnecka, Barbara W.

    2014-01-01

    Children's understanding of numbers is often assessed using a number-line task, where the child is shown a line labeled with 0 at one end and a higher number (e.g., 100) at the other end. The child is then asked where on the line some intermediate number (e.g., 70) should go. Performance on this task changes predictably during childhood, and…

  14. Measurements in a High Reynolds Number Wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, Juan; Hultmark, Marcus; Smits, Alexander

    2009-11-01

    Experiments were conducted in the Princeton/ONR HRTF windtunnel with air pressurized up to 220atm. The wake of a DARPA SUBOFF submarine model was measured at 5 different downstream locations for Reynolds numbers from 1x10^6 to 70x10^6. For all Reynolds numbers studied, the mean velocity distribution is self-similar from 3 diameters, D, downstream for the side where the support is not located. In contrast, self-similarity in the Reynolds stresses is not reached at the furthest downstream location (x/D=15). The non-dimensional fluctuations are Reynolds number dependent for all measured Reynolds numbers. The energy spectra reveal two peaks in the near-wake. The lower wavenumber peak corresponds to a Strouhal number based on diameter and freestream velocity of about 0.2, suggesting that it is associated with an azimuthal or helical shedding mode in the wake. The peak decays with downstream distance, suggesting that this mode might play a parital role in the approach to self-similarity of the turbulent stresses

  15. Modeling Low Reynolds Number Homogeneous Decaying Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perot, Blair

    2008-11-01

    Very low Reynolds number nearly homogeneous turbulence can occur in the free-stream outside of a turbulent boundary layer. It is also found in nocturnal atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers. Low Reynolds number turbulence represent the interesting situation where the nonlinear terms in the Navier-Stokes equations are weak, and therefore negligible or linearizable, and yet a turbulence model is still required because the initial conditions are unknown and a variety of length scales are still present. This work considers the behavior of two-equation turbulence models in the low Reynolds number limit. It is shown that some models are unstable in this limit and others result in inconsistent or incorrect decay rates. Perhaps most importantly, all current models involve an ad hoc blending function to include the low Re limit. In this work a low Reynolds number correction to classic two-equation models is proposed which requires no blending functions, which obtains the correct decay limits (for any low wavenumber spectra), and which is simple. The performance of the model is compared with a variety of experiments and simulations over a range of Reynolds numbers.

  16. On Generalizations of the Stirling Number Triangles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Wolfdieter

    2000-09-01

    Sequences of generalized Stirling numbers of both kinds are introduced. These sequences of triangles (i.e. infinite-dimensional lower triangular matrices) of numbers will be denoted by S2(k;n,m) and S1(k;n,m) with k in Z. The original Stirling number triangles of the second and first kind arise when k = 1. S2(2;n,m) is identical with the unsigned S1(2;n,m) triangle, called S1p(2;n,m), which also represents the triangle of signless Lah numbers. Certain associated number triangles, denoted by s2(k;n,m) and s1(k;n,m), are also defined. Both s2(2;n,m) and s1(2;n + 1, m + 1) form Pascal's triangle, and s2(-1,n,m) turns out to be Catalan's triangle. Generating functions are given for the columns of these triangles. Each S2(k) and S1(k) matrix is an example of a Jabotinsky matrix. Therefore the generating functions for the rows of these triangular arrays constitute exponential convolution polynomials. The sequences of the row sums of these triangles are also considered. These triangles are related to the problem of obtaining finite transformations from infinitesimal ones generated by x^k d/dx, for k in Z.

  17. Unpredictability and the transmission of numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, John M.; Madjid, F. Hadi

    2015-08-01

    Curiously overlooked in physics is its dependence on the transmission of numbers. For example, the transmission of numerical clock readings is implicit in the concept of a coordinate system. The transmission of numbers and other logical distinctions is often achieved over a computer-mediated communications network in the face of an unpredictable environment. By unpredictable we mean something stronger than the spread of probabilities over given possible outcomes, namely an opening to unforeseeable possibilities. Unpredictability, until now overlooked in theoretical physics, makes the transmission of numbers interesting. Based on recent proofs within quantum theory that provide a theoretical foundation to unpredictability, here we show how regularities in physics rest on a background of channels over which numbers are transmitted. As is known to engineers of digital communications, numerical transmissions depend on coordination reminiscent of the cycle of throwing and catching by players tossing a ball back and forth. In digital communications, the players are computers, and the required coordination involves unpredictably adjusting "live clocks" that step these computers through phases of a cycle. We show how this phasing, which we call logical synchronization, constrains number-carrying networks, and, if a spacetime manifold in invoked, put "stripes" on spacetime. Via its logically synchronized channels, a network of live clocks serves as a reference against which to locate events. Such a network in any case underpins a coordinate frame, and in some cases the direct use of a network can be tailored to investigate an unpredictable environment. Examples include explorations of gravitational variations near Earth.

  18. The Numbers Game: Phasing in Generated ID Numbers at the University of Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eveland, Sue

    2005-01-01

    With all the recent headlines about security breaches and information loss at financial and educational institutions, the higher education community needs to address the issue of using social security numbers as ID numbers. The University of Oregon undertook a change process to assign generated ID numbers to all records in their information…

  19. 78 FR 36725 - Numbering Policies for Modern Communications; IP-Enabled Services; Telephone Number Requirements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... Filing System (ECFS). See Electronic Filing of Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121 (1998... multiple devices. See Nathan Ingram, iOS 6 unifies your Apple ID and phone number for improved iMessage and...-unified-apple-id-phone-number (``Now, if someone calls your phone number for Facetime, you'll be able...

  20. 17 CFR 232.309 - Paper size; binding; sequential numbering; number of copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Paper size; binding... Preparation of Electronic Submissions § 232.309 Paper size; binding; sequential numbering; number of copies. (a) Requirements as to paper size, binding, and sequential page numbering shall not apply...

  1. 17 CFR 232.309 - Paper size; binding; sequential numbering; number of copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Paper size; binding... Preparation of Electronic Submissions § 232.309 Paper size; binding; sequential numbering; number of copies. (a) Requirements as to paper size, binding, and sequential page numbering shall not apply...

  2. An Exploratory Study of a Number Sense Program to Develop Kindergarten Students' Number Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sood, Sheetal; Jitendra, Asha K.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a number sense program on kindergarten students' number proficiency and responsiveness to treatment as a function of students' risk for mathematics difficulties. The program targeted development of relationships among numbers (e.g., spatial, more and less). A total of 101 kindergarten students (not at risk:…

  3. An Exploratory Study of a Number Sense Program to Develop Kindergarten Students' Number Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sood, Sheetal; Jitendra, Asha K.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a number sense program on kindergarten students' number proficiency and responsiveness to treatment as a function of students' risk for mathematics difficulties. The program targeted development of relationships among numbers (e.g., spatial, more and less). A total of 101 kindergarten students (not at risk:…

  4. Numbers, Thoughts, and Things: The Ontology of Numbers for Children and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sophian, Catherine; Wood, Amy

    1996-01-01

    Adapted Keil's predictability method to examine adults' and preschoolers' conceptions of numbers, focusing on the ontological distinction between numbers and sets of objects. Found that children, like adults, attribute spatial-arrangement properties to collections much more than to numbers, although both are considered to have quantitative…

  5. Segmental copy number variation shapes tissue transcriptomes.

    PubMed

    Henrichsen, Charlotte N; Vinckenbosch, Nicolas; Zöllner, Sebastian; Chaignat, Evelyne; Pradervand, Sylvain; Schütz, Frédéric; Ruedi, Manuel; Kaessmann, Henrik; Reymond, Alexandre

    2009-04-01

    Copy number variation (CNV) is a key source of genetic diversity, but a comprehensive understanding of its phenotypic effect is only beginning to emerge. We have generated a CNV map in wild mice and classical inbred strains. Genome-wide expression data from six major organs show not only that expression of genes within CNVs tend to correlate with copy number changes, but also that CNVs influence the expression of genes in their vicinity, an effect that extends up to half a megabase. Genes within CNVs show lower expression and more specific spatial expression patterns than genes mapping elsewhere. Our analyses reveal differential constraint on copy number changes of genes expressed in different tissues. Dosage alterations of brain-expressed genes are less frequent than those of other genes and are buffered by tighter transcriptional regulation. Our study provides initial evidence that CNVs shape tissue transcriptomes on a global scale. PMID:19270705

  6. Number counts and dynamical vacuum cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, N. Chandrachani; Borges, H. A.; Carneiro, S.; Alcaniz, J. S.

    2015-03-01

    We study non-linear structure formation in an interacting model of the dark sector of the Universe in which the dark energy density decays linearly with the Hubble parameter, ρΛ ∝ H, leading to a constant-rate creation of cold dark matter. We derive all relevant expressions to calculate the mass function and the cluster number density using the Sheth-Torman formalism and show that the effect of the interaction process is to increase the number of bound structures of large masses (M ≳ 1014 M⊙ h-1) when compared to the standard Λ cold dark matter model. Since these models are not reducible to each other, this number counts signature can in principle be tested in future surveys.

  7. Large numbers hypothesis. II - Electromagnetic radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper develops the theory of electromagnetic radiation in the units covariant formalism incorporating Dirac's large numbers hypothesis (LNH). A direct field-to-particle technique is used to obtain the photon propagation equation which explicitly involves the photon replication rate. This replication rate is fixed uniquely by requiring that the form of a free-photon distribution function be preserved, as required by the 2.7 K cosmic radiation. One finds that with this particular photon replication rate the units covariant formalism developed in Paper I actually predicts that the ratio of photon number to proton number in the universe varies as t to the 1/4, precisely in accord with LNH. The cosmological red-shift law is also derived and it is shown to differ considerably from the standard form of (nu)(R) - const.

  8. High Reynolds Number Thermal Stability Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emens, Jessica M.; Brown, Sarah P.; Frederick Robert A., Jr.; Wood, A. John

    2004-01-01

    This work represents preliminary thermal stability results for liquid hydrocarbon fuels. High Reynolds Number Thermal Stability experiments with Jet A and RP-1 resulted in a quantitative measurement of the thermal stability. Each fuel flowed through a heated capillary tube that held the outlet temperature at 290 C. An optical pyrometer measured the surface temperature of the tube at 12 locations as a function of time. The High Reynolds Number Thermal Stability number was then determined using standards published by the American Society for Testing and Materials. The results for Jet A showed lower thermal stability than similar tests conducted at another facility. The RP-1 results are the first reported using this technique. Because the temperature rise on the capillary tube during testing for the RP-1 fuels was not significant, a new standard for the testing conditions should be developed for these types of fuels.

  9. Autocorrelation peaks in congruential pseudorandom number generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuman, F.; Merrick, R. B.

    1976-01-01

    The complete correlation structure of several congruential pseudorandom number generators (PRNG) of the same type and small cycle length was studied to deal with the problem of congruential PRNG almost repeating themselves at intervals smaller than their cycle lengths, during simulation of bandpass filtered normal random noise. Maximum period multiplicative and mixed congruential generators were studied, with inferences drawn from examination of several tractable members of a class of random number generators, and moduli from 2 to the 5th power to 2 to the 9th power. High correlation is shown to exist in mixed and multiplicative congruential random number generators and prime moduli Lehmer generators for shifts a fraction of their cycle length. The random noise sequences in question are required when simulating electrical noise, air turbulence, or time variation of wind parameters.

  10. National transonic facility Mach number system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, F. A.; Knight, C. W.; Zasimowich, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    The Mach number system for the Langley Research Center's National Transonic Facility was designed to measure pressures to determine Mach number to within + or - 0.002. Nine calibration laboratory type fused quartz gages, four different range gages for the total pressure measurement, and five different range gages for the static pressure measurement were used to satisfy the accuracy requirement over the 103,000-890,000 Pa total pressure range of the tunnel. The system which has been in operation for over 1 year is controlled by a programmable data process controller to select, through the operation of solenoid valves, the proper range fused quartz gage to maximize the measurement accuracy. The pressure gage's analog outputs are digitized by the process controller and transmitted to the main computer for Mach number computation. An automatic two-point on-line calibration of the nine quartz gages is provided using a high accuracy mercury manometer.

  11. Status of exotic-quantum-number mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, C. A.; Van Haarlem, Y.

    2010-08-15

    The search for mesons with non-quark-antiquark (exotic) quantum numbers has gone on for nearly 30 years. Currently there is experimental evidence of three isospin one states, the {pi}{sub 1}(1400), the {pi}{sub 1}(1600), and the {pi}{sub 1}(2015). For all of these states, there are questions about their identification and even if some of them exist. In this article, we will review both the theoretical work and the experimental evidence associated with these exotic quantum number states. We find that the {pi}{sub 1}(1600) could be the lightest exotic quantum number hybrid meson, but observations of other members of the nonet would be useful.

  12. Baryon number as the fourth color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornal, Bartosz; Rajaraman, Arvind; Tait, Tim M. P.

    2015-09-01

    We propose an extension of the Standard Model in which baryon number is promoted to be part of a non-Abelian gauge symmetry at high energies. Specifically, we consider the gauge group S U (4 )×S U (2 )L×U (1 )X, where the S U (4 ) unifies baryon number and color. This symmetry is spontaneously broken down to the Standard Model gauge group at a scale which can be as low as a few TeV. The S U (4 ) structure implies that each SM quark comes along with an uncolored quark partner, the lightest of which is stabilized by the generalized baryon number symmetry and can play the role of dark matter. We explore circumstances under which one can realize a model of asymmetric dark matter whose relic abundance is connected to the observed baryon asymmetry, and discuss unique signatures that can be searched for at the LHC.

  13. Reynolds number effects on turbulent pipe flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultmark, Marcus

    The scaling of the mean velocities in turbulent wall-bounded flows is fairly well understood, but the scaling of the turbulence is not. This lack of understanding, particularly at high Reynolds number, limits our ability to predict important quantities such as drag on a vehicle, heat transfer from a hot surface or the melting of the ice caps. What makes the study of turbulence very complicated (numerically and experimentally) is that it is characterized by a large range of scales and this range increases with Reynolds number. At high Reynolds number, numerical investigations become extraordinarily difficult, and all previous experiments have been compromised by inadequate instrumentation and a lack of high quality facilities. In this thesis I report a set of measurements that give new insight into the behavior of pipe flow turbulence at high Reynolds number. To obtain reliable and accurate data, the limitations in current measurement techniques were investigated and quantified. To reduce the effects of these limitations, we developed a novel nano-scale velocity sensor that can resolve scales an order of magnitude smaller than conventional sensors. This, combined with facilities that can produce extreme Reynolds numbers, allows us to study flows never before possible. The results show that the scaling of the turbulence, in a pipe, is much more similar to the scaling of the mean velocities than previously believed. This behavior only becomes evident at high Reynolds numbers, much higher than previous experiments could attain. The results also reveal fundamental differences between the scaling of the turbulence in pipes and boundary layers, two canonical flows previously believed to behave similarly.

  14. Simulations of motor unit number estimation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Major, Lora A.; Jones, Kelvin E.

    2005-06-01

    Motor unit number estimation (MUNE) is an electrodiagnostic procedure used to evaluate the number of motor axons connected to a muscle. All MUNE techniques rely on assumptions that must be fulfilled to produce a valid estimate. As there is no gold standard to compare the MUNE techniques against, we have developed a model of the relevant neuromuscular physiology and have used this model to simulate various MUNE techniques. The model allows for a quantitative analysis of candidate MUNE techniques that will hopefully contribute to consensus regarding a standard procedure for performing MUNE.

  15. Probing lepton number violation on three frontiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deppisch, Frank F.

    2013-12-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay constitutes the main probe for lepton number violation at low energies, motivated by the expected Majorana nature of the light but massive neutrinos. On the other hand, the theoretical interpretation of the (non-)observation of this process is not straightforward as the Majorana neutrinos can destructively interfere in their contribution and many other New Physics mechanisms can additionally mediate the process. We here highlight the potential of combining neutrinoless double beta decay with searches for Tritium decay, cosmological observations and LHC physics to improve the quantitative insight into the neutrino properties and to unravel potential sources of lepton number violation.

  16. Approximate resolution of hard numbering problems

    SciTech Connect

    Bailleux, O.; Chabrier, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    We present a new method for estimating the number of solutions of constraint satisfaction problems. We use a stochastic forward checking algorithm for drawing a sample of paths from a search tree. With this sample, we compute two values related to the number of solutions of a CSP instance. First, an unbiased estimate, second, a lower bound with an arbitrary low error probability. We will describe applications to the Boolean Satisfiability problem and the Queens problem. We shall give some experimental results for these problems.

  17. Increasing the Numbers, A Partial Success Story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stith, James H.

    2000-04-01

    Compared to all other sciences, physics has the lowest representation of women, with only engineering having proportionally fewer women. According to NSF, only 201 African-Americans earned physics Ph.D. degrees between 1973 and 1996, less than 1% of the total number of physics Ph.D. degrees granted during that time period. The picture is similar for other under represented groups. AIP has a number of outreach programs that serve to focus attention on the above issue. This talk will describe some of these programs and chronicle efforts to work with the physics community to attract and retain members of underrepresented groups in physics.

  18. Thermocapillary bubble migration for large Marangoni Numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramaniam, R.

    1987-01-01

    The thermocapillary motion of spherical bubbles present in an unbounded liquid with a linear temperature distribution, when the Reynolds number and the Marangoni number are large is analyzed. Previous calculations of the terminal velocity performed for this parametric range did not take into complete consideration the thermal boundary layer present near the surface of the bubble. A scaling analysis is presented for this problem. The thermal boundary layer is analyzed by an integral method. The resulting terminal velocity is lower than the one previously calculated, though it is of the same order of magnitude.

  19. Type number and rigidity of fibred surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Markov, P E

    2001-02-28

    Infinitesimal l-th order bendings, 1{<=}l{<=}{infinity}, of higher-dimensional surfaces are considered in higher-dimensional flat spaces (for l={infinity} an infinitesimal bending is assumed to be an analytic bending). In terms of the Allendoerfer type number, criteria are established for the (r,l)-rigidity (in the terminology of Sabitov) of such surfaces. In particular, an (r,l)-infinitesimal analogue is proved of the classical theorem of Allendoerfer on the unbendability of surfaces with type number {>=}3 and the class of (r,l)-rigid fibred surfaces is distinguished.

  20. Number word use in toddlerhood is associated with number recall performance at seven years of age.

    PubMed

    Libertus, Melissa E; Marschik, Peter B; Einspieler, Christa

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that verbal working memory and vocabulary acquisition are linked in early childhood. However, it is unclear whether acquisition of a narrow range of words during toddlerhood may be particularly related to recall of the same words later in life. Here we asked whether vocabulary acquisition of number words, location and quantifier terms over the first three years of life are associated with verbal and visuospatial working memory at seven years. Our results demonstrate that children who produced more number words between 20-26 months and started to produce the number words 1-10 earlier showed greater number recall at 7 years of age. This link was specific to numbers and neither extended to quantifier and location terms nor verbal and visuospatial working memory performance with other stimuli. These findings suggest a category-specific link between the mental lexicon of number words and working memory for numbers at an early age. PMID:24892835

  1. Number Word Use in Toddlerhood Is Associated with Number Recall Performance at Seven Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Libertus, Melissa E.; Marschik, Peter B.; Einspieler, Christa

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that verbal working memory and vocabulary acquisition are linked in early childhood. However, it is unclear whether acquisition of a narrow range of words during toddlerhood may be particularly related to recall of the same words later in life. Here we asked whether vocabulary acquisition of number words, location and quantifier terms over the first three years of life are associated with verbal and visuospatial working memory at seven years. Our results demonstrate that children who produced more number words between 20–26 months and started to produce the number words 1–10 earlier showed greater number recall at 7 years of age. This link was specific to numbers and neither extended to quantifier and location terms nor verbal and visuospatial working memory performance with other stimuli. These findings suggest a category-specific link between the mental lexicon of number words and working memory for numbers at an early age. PMID:24892835

  2. Number Concepts without Number Lines in an Indigenous Group of Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Núñez, Rafael; Cooperrider, Kensy; Wassmann, Jürg

    2012-01-01

    Background The generic concept of number line, which maps numbers to unidimensional space, is a fundamental concept in mathematics, but its cognitive origins are uncertain. Two defining criteria of the number line are that (i) there is a mapping of each individual number (or numerosity) under consideration onto a specific location on the line, and (ii) that the mapping defines a unidimensional space representing numbers with a metric — a distance function. It has been proposed that the number line is based on a spontaneous universal human intuition, rooted directly in brain evolution, that maps number magnitude to linear space with a metric. To date, no culture lacking this intuition has been documented. Methodology/Principal Findings By means of a number line task, we investigated the universality proposal with the Yupno of Papua New Guinea. Unschooled adults did exhibit a number-to-space mapping (criterion i) but, strikingly, despite having precise cardinal number concepts, they located numbers only on the endpoints, thus failing to use the extent of the line. The produced mapping was bi-categorical and metric-free, in violation of criterion ii. In contrast, Yupnos with scholastic experience used the extent of the segment according to known standards, but they did so not as evenly as western controls, exhibiting a bias towards the endpoints. Conclusions/Significance Results suggest that cardinal number concepts can exist independently from number line representations. They also suggest that the number line mapping, although ubiquitous in the modern world, is not universally spontaneous, but rather seems to be learned through — and continually reinforced by — specific cultural practices. PMID:22558193

  3. Curve Numbers for Golf Course Watersheds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storm event runoff is a critical component to the environmental and structural design related to hydrology. The curve number (CN) method is a robust and accepted method for determining excess rainfall. Measured CNs for golf course watersheds and for that matter hydrologic data from golf course wate...

  4. Measurements in a High Reynolds Number Wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultmark, Marcus; Jimenez, Juan; Bailey, Sean; Smits, Alexander

    2008-11-01

    Experiments were conducted in the Princeton/ONR HRTF windtunnel with highly pressurized air. The wake of a DARPA SUBOFF submarine model was measured over a large range of Reynolds numbers at 5 different downstream locations. The model is an axisymmetric body without appendages (fins) supported by a streamlined support, mimicking a semi-infinite sail. For all Reynolds numbers studied, the mean velocity distribution becomes self-similar between 3 and 6 diameters, D, downstream for the side where the support is not located. In contrast, self-similarity in the Reynolds stresses is not reached at the furthest downstream location (x/D=15). The spectra reveal two peaks in the near-wake. The lower wavenumber peak corresponds to a Strouhal number based on diameter and freestream velocity of about 0.22, suggesting that it is associated with an azimuthal or helical shedding mode in the wake. This mode is evident at all Reynolds numbers, at all cross-stream positions, indicating that it is unlikely to be due to the interference of the support wake with the model wake. The mode is seen only for x/D<15, suggesting that it plays a partial role in the approach to self-similarity of the turbulent stresses.

  5. Poison control center - Emergency number (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    For a poison emergency call 1-800-222-1222 anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you talk to ... prevention. It does NOT need to be an emergency. You can call for any reason, 24 hours ...

  6. 18 CFR 367.4 - Numbering system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED SERVICE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO THE PROVISIONS OF THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT General... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Numbering system....

  7. Number Bingo. Technical Note No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Jock

    Designed for use in rural Ecuador, addition and multiplication bingo games which promote number recognition and fluency in arithmetic operations are described. These skills are necessary for successful transaction at the market place where rural Ecuadorians must be able to buy goods and make change. The leader calls out a mathematical problem and…

  8. How Can Syntax Support Number Word Acquisition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syrett, Kristen; Musolino, Julien; Gelman, Rochel

    2012-01-01

    We expand upon a previous proposal by Bloom and Wynn (1997) that young children learn about the meaning of number words by tracking their occurrence in particular syntactic environments, in combination with the discourse context in which they are used. An analysis of the Childes database (MacWhinney, 2000) reveals that the environments studied by…

  9. Genomic characteristics of cattle copy number variations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We performed a systematic analysis of cattle copy number variations (CNVs) using the Bovine HapMap SNP genotyping data, including 539 animals of 21 modern cattle breeds and 6 outgroups. After correcting genomic waves and considering the trio information, we identified 682 candidate CNV regions (CNVR...

  10. Estimate octane numbers using an enhanced method

    SciTech Connect

    Twu, C.H.; Coon, J.E.

    1997-03-01

    An improved model, based on the Twu-Coon method, is not only internally consistent, but also retains the same level of accuracy as the previous model in predicting octanes of gasoline blends. The enhanced model applies the same binary interaction parameters to components in each gasoline cut and their blends. Thus, the enhanced model can blend gasoline cuts in any order, in any combination or from any splitting of gasoline cuts and still yield the identical value of octane number for blending the same number of gasoline cuts. Setting binary interaction parameters to zero for identical gasoline cuts during the blending process is not required. The new model changes the old model`s methodology so that the same binary interaction parameters can be applied between components inside a gasoline cut as are applied to the same components between gasoline cuts. The enhanced model is more consistent in methodology than the original model, but it has equal accuracy for predicting octane numbers of gasoline blends, and it has the same number of binary interaction parameters. The paper discusses background, enhancement of the Twu-Coon interaction model, and three examples: blend of 2 identical gasoline cuts, blend of 3 gasoline cuts, and blend of the same 3 gasoline cuts in a different order.

  11. How Do Students Misunderstand Number Representations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Geoffrey L.; Zilles, Craig; Loui, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    We used both student interviews and diagnostic testing to reveal students' misconceptions about number representations in computing systems. This article reveals that students who have passed an undergraduate level computer organization course still possess surprising misconceptions about positional notations, two's complement representation, and…

  12. A Knack for Numbers: Paquita Friday

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Eleanor Lee

    2005-01-01

    Back in middle school Dr. Paquita Friday began helping keep books at her grandmother's pharmacy during inventory. It was no chore, she recalls. It was fun. By then, of course, she already knew she had a knack for numbers. Today Friday is gaining recognition for her research in accounting stock market disclosures and winning awards for her teaching…

  13. Maple Explorations, Perfect Numbers, and Mersenne Primes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghusayni, B.

    2005-01-01

    Some examples from different areas of mathematics are explored to give a working knowledge of the computer algebra system Maple. Perfect numbers and Mersenne primes, which have fascinated people for a very long time and continue to do so, are studied using Maple and some questions are posed that still await answers.

  14. Mirror Numbers and Wigner's ``Unreasonable Effectiveness''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezin, Alexander

    2006-04-01

    Wigner's ``unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics in physics'' can be augmented by concept of mirror number (MN). It is defined as digital string infinite in both directions. Example is ()5141327182() where first 5 digits is Pi ``spelled'' backward (``mirrored'') and last 5 digits is the beginning of decimal exp1 string. Let MN be constructed from two different transcendental (or algebraically irrational) numbers, set of such MNs is Cantor-uncountable. Most MNs have contain any finite digital sequence repeated infinitely many times. In spirit of ``Contact'' (C.Sagan) each normal MN contains ``Library of Babel'' of all possible texts and patterns (J.L.Borges). Infinite at both ends, MN do not have any numerical values and, contrary to numbers written in positional systems, all digits in MNs have equal weight -- sort of ``numerological democracy''. In Pythagorean-Platonic models (space-time and physical world originating from pure numbers) idea of MN resolves paradox of ``beginning'' (or ``end'') of time. Because in MNs all digits have equal status, (quantum) randomness leads to more uniform and fully ergodic phase trajectories (cf. F.Dyson, Infinite in All Directions) .

  15. Determining the Number of Factors To Retain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanguma, Jesus

    This paper presents four methods for determining the number of factors to retain: (1) determining an eigenvalue greater than unity (K1); (2) the scree test; (3) the minimum average parallel approach; and (4) parallel analysis. Three of the four methods are illustrated through an example. Although the eigenvalue greater than unity and the scree…

  16. Computation of Semantic Number from Morphological Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berent, Iris; Pinker, Steven; Tzelgov, Joseph; Bibi, Uri; Goldfarb, Liat

    2005-01-01

    The distinction between singular and plural enters into linguistic phenomena such as morphology, lexical semantics, and agreement and also must interface with perceptual and conceptual systems that assess numerosity in the world. Three experiments examine the computation of semantic number for singulars and plurals from the morphological…

  17. Gene copy number variation in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sutrala, Smitha R; Goossens, Dirk; Williams, Nigel M; Heyrman, Lien; Adolfsson, Rolf; Norton, Nadine; Buckland, Paul R; Del-Favero, Jurgen

    2007-11-01

    The possibility that gene copy number variations play a role in the development of complex disorders is a topic of considerable interest. Recent reports have highlighted the large number of such variations that exist and that their occurrence varies considerably between populations. A recent report has suggested that copy number variations in four genes (GRIK3, EFNA5, AKAP5 and CACNG2) may be associated with schizophrenia. One problem with this area of study is the validation of high throughput methods such as comparative genomic hybridisation, as the latter inevitably generates false positives. We have used two contrasting methodologies to determine the validity of the findings reported above which if true would have major implications for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Samples from a UK population were tested using a method of allele quantification by DNA pooling and samples from Belgium and northern Sweden were tested using Multiplex Amplicon Quantification (MAQ). Both methods were used to test DNA samples used in the original investigation. No copy number variations were found for any of the genes in any samples. Our data suggests that more reliable methods need to be used to validate the existence of CNVs before full scale association studies are carried out. PMID:17826036

  18. EXPERIMENTAL RETRIEVAL SYSTEMS STUDIES, REPORT NUMBER 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ANDERSON, RONALD R.; AND OTHERS

    CONTENTS--(1) AN ASSOCIATIVITY TECHNIQUE FOR AUTOMATICALLY OPTIMIZING RETRIEVAL RESULTS BY RONALD R. ANDERSON. AN ASSOCIATIVE TECHNIQUE BY WHICH IT IS POSSIBLE TO AUTOMATICALLY EXPAND AND NARROW THE NUMBER OF DOCUMENTS RETRIEVED AND TO RETRIEVE DOCUMENTS RELATED TO A REQUEST EVEN THOUGH THEY MAY NOT BE INDEXED BY THE EXACT TERMS OF THE REQUEST IS…

  19. Demonstrations of the Enormity of Avogadro's Number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diemente, Damon

    1998-12-01

    Most high-school students learn of Avogadro's number for the first time when they begin study of the mole concept. It is important to impress students with the enormity of Avogadro's number and the concomitant minuscularity of the atom, and papers addressing this need have regularly appeared in this Journal. The present article describes three new problems used annually at Trinity School to make the impression. The first two problems are suitable to be assigned as homework. The first of these uses Avogadro's number simply as a scaling factor; the second, requiring more attention to units, is a calculation of the number of moles of sand grains in the Sahara Desert. The third problem is a series of related calculations that requires some closer in-class mathematical analysis and culminates in an astonishing result. All calculations are done in familiar English units, because with them I have found the results to be more immediately impressive to American students. Conversion factors to metric units can be applied if teachers find that desirable.

  20. Science Books & Films, Volume XIII, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Shari, Ed.

    This document provides annotated bibliographies of 205 books, 61 children's books, and 87 films all of which are science related. Each annotation includes author, publisher, title, number of pages, cost, an appraisal from highly recommended to not recommended, and level of difficulty from preschool to professional. Entries are grouped by topics…

  1. ANARCI: antigen receptor numbering and receptor classification

    PubMed Central

    Dunbar, James; Deane, Charlotte M.

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Antibody amino-acid sequences can be numbered to identify equivalent positions. Such annotations are valuable for antibody sequence comparison, protein structure modelling and engineering. Multiple different numbering schemes exist, they vary in the nomenclature they use to annotate residue positions, their definitions of position equivalence and their popularity within different scientific disciplines. However, currently no publicly available software exists that can apply all the most widely used schemes or for which an executable can be obtained under an open license. Results: ANARCI is a tool to classify and number antibody and T-cell receptor amino-acid variable domain sequences. It can annotate sequences with the five most popular numbering schemes: Kabat, Chothia, Enhanced Chothia, IMGT and AHo. Availability and implementation: ANARCI is available for download under GPLv3 license at opig.stats.ox.ac.uk/webapps/anarci. A web-interface to the program is available at the same address. Contact: deane@stats.ox.ac.uk PMID:26424857

  2. 14 CFR 47.15 - Registration number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Registration number. 47.15 Section 47.15 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT..., AC Form 8050-64. The authorization expires one year from the date the Registry issues an...

  3. Forecast of the Decadal Average Sunspot Number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volobuev, D. M.; Makarenko, N. G.

    2008-05-01

    The forecast of the decadal average sunspot number (SN) becomes possible with an extension of telescopic observations based on proxy reconstructions using the tree ring radiocarbon data during the Holocene. These decadal numbers (SNRC) provide a powerful statistic to verify the forecasting methods. Complicated dynamics of long-term solar activity and noise of proxy-based reconstruction make the one-step-ahead forecast challenging for any forecasting method. Here we construct a continuous data set of SNRC which extends the group sunspot number and the international sunspot number. The known technique of nonlinear forecast, the local linear approximation, is adapted to estimate the coming SN. Both the method and the continuous data set were tested and tuned to obtain the minimum of a normalized average prediction error ( E) during the last millennium using several past millennia as a training data set. E=0.58 ? D is achieved to forecast the SN successive differences whose standard deviation is ? D=7.39 for the period of training. This corresponds to the correlation ( r=0.97) between true and forecasted SN. This error is significantly smaller than the prediction error when the surrogate data were used for the training data set, and proves the nonlinearity in the decadal SN. The estimated coming SN is smaller than the previous one.

  4. English Teachers' Journal (Israel), Number 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English Teachers' Journal (Israel), 1981

    1981-01-01

    This number of a journal devoted to ideas for teachers of English as a second language (ESL) contains the following articles: (1) "Teaching Grammar as Part of Meaningful Communication" by Raphael Gefen, (2) "Does the School Have a Role to Play in Teaching Environmental Awareness?" by Ora Herzog, (3) "Identifying with Jewish Traditions in the…

  5. Collaborative Schools. ERIC Digest Series, Number 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, James J.; Smith, Stuart C.

    A growing number of educators are focusing their efforts on improving the work environment of teaching. In place of the typical school's norms and practices that isolate teachers from one another, collaborative schools have norms that encourage teachers and principals to cooperate for school improvement. Such schools are characterized by frequent…

  6. Odd numbers of photons and teleportation

    SciTech Connect

    Enk, S.J. van

    2003-02-01

    Several teleportation protocols, namely those using entangled coherent states, entangled squeezed states, and the single-photon Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen state, are all shown to be particular instances of a more general scheme that relies on the detection of an odd number of photons.

  7. Mass-induced transition in fermion number

    SciTech Connect

    Aragao de Carvalho, C.; Pureza, J. M.

    1989-05-15

    We show that if we increase the mass of fermions in interaction with a topological (kink) scalar background in 1+1 dimensions, the fractional fermion number of the system will eventually vanish. The transition is sharp and corresponds to the disappearance of localized states from the spectrum of a Dirac operator which is exactly solvable. Possible applications to different physical systems are discussed.

  8. Number Processing in Chinese-English Bilinguals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jamie I. D.; Kanz, Cindy L.; Xue, Qilin

    1999-01-01

    Examines number naming, magnitude selection, and simple arithmetic performed by adult Chinese-English bilinguals born and educated in China to investigate the effects of surface notation on basic numerical skills. Indicates that retrieval processes in the arithmetic and selection tasks were more efficient with Arabic than Mandarin stimuli.…

  9. Cetane numbers of biodiesel and its components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cetane number is one of the prime fuel quality indicators of a petrodiesel or biodiesel fuel as it relates to the tendency of the fuel to ignite in the combustion chamber. It has been established that compound structure, including chain length, branching, and the presence of double bonds, is a m...

  10. Question Number Two: How Many Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwyn, Fara

    2012-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis involves five key decisions. The second decision, how many factors to retain, is the focus of the current paper. Extracting too many or too few factors often leads to devastating effects on study results. The advantages and disadvantages of the most effective and/or most utilized strategies to determine the number of…

  11. A Framework for Remediating Number Combination Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Powell, Sarah R.; Seethaler, Pamela M.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.; Cirino, Paul T.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces a framework for the remediation of number combination (NC) deficits. Research on the remediation of NC deficits is summarized, and research program studies are used to illustrate the 3 approaches to remediation. The Framework comprises a 2-stage system of remediation. The less intensive stage implementing 1 of 3…

  12. p-adic numbers in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brekke, Lee; Freund, Peter G. O.

    1993-10-01

    The boundary of the ordinary open string world sheet is the real line. Along with the usual open string, one can consider p-adic open strings whose world sheet has as boundary the p-adic line instead (the points on this boundary are labelled by p-adic numbers rather than real numbers). The world sheet itself is then no longer a continous manifold but becomes a discrete homogeneous Bethe lattice, or Bruhat-Tits tree of incidence number p + 1. The p-adic strings thus correspond to specific discretizations of the world sheet. Studying all these discretizations (one for each prime p) together, as suggested by number theory, sheds new light on the ordinary string, via adelic product formulae. One is also led this way to a new type of string, the adelic string. These issues and their generalization to closed strings are discussed after a self-contained mathematical introduction. Other physical systems with natural p-adic counterparts are considered and in their context the connection between p-adic theories and quantum groups is explored.

  13. Visualizing the Arithmetic of Complex Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto-Johnson, Hortensia

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards Initiative stresses the importance of developing a geometric and algebraic understanding of complex numbers in their different forms (i.e., Cartesian, polar and exponential). Unfortunately, most high school textbooks do not offer such explanations much less exercises that encourage students to bridge geometric and…

  14. Vantage Theory, VT2, and Number.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Keith

    2002-01-01

    Reviews vantage theory and makes a claim that it does not replace, but coexists with a semantics for color terms. Identifies basic facts about countability in English, and presents further evidence of the fact that the grammar of number and quantification in English is exploited to reveal different conceptualizations of what is spoken of. Claims…

  15. Partial Coordination Numbers in Binary Metallic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miracle, Daniel B.; Laws, Kevin; Senkov, Oleg N.; Wilks, Garth B.

    2012-08-01

    A critical analysis of measured partial coordination numbers for binary metallic glasses as a function of composition shows a large scatter of ±1.5 but clear trends. The current work uses two topological models to predict the influence of relative atomic size and concentration on partial coordination numbers. The equations for partial coordination numbers derived from these two models can reproduce measured data within experimental scatter, suggesting that chemical effects on local structure, although present, may be relatively small. Insights gained from these models show that structural site-filling rules are different for glasses with solute atoms that are smaller than solvent atoms and for glasses where solute atoms are larger than solvent atoms. Specifically, solutes may occupy both ? and ? intercluster sites when the solute-to-solvent radius ratio R is less than 1.26, but only ? sites can be occupied by solutes when R > 1.26. This distinction gives a simple topological explanation for the observed preference for binary metallic glasses with solutes smaller than solvent atoms. In addition to structure-specific equations, simplified phenomenological equations for partial coordination numbers are given as a convenience.

  16. 40 CFR 86.1204 - Section numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Test Procedures for New Gasoline-Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Section numbering. 86.1204 Section 86.1204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1204 - Section numbering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Test Procedures for New Gasoline-Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Section numbering. 86.1204 Section 86.1204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  18. Early Concepts of Number and Counting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Box, Katherine; Scott, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Before primitive man had grasped the concept of number, the written word or even speech, he was able to count. This was important for keeping track of food supplies, sending messages, trading between villages and even keeping track of how many animals were in their herd. Counting was done in various ways, but in all cases, the underlying principle…

  19. Photon-number-resolving superconducting nanowire detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattioli, Francesco; Zhou, Zili; Gaggero, Alessandro; Gaudio, Rosalinda; Jahanmirinejad, Saeedeh; Sahin, Döndü; Marsili, Francesco; Leoni, Roberto; Fiore, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, photon-number-resolving (PNR) detectors have attracted great interest, mainly because they can play a key role in diverse application fields. A PNR detector with a large dynamic range would represent an ideal photon detector, bringing the linear response of conventional analogue detectors down to the single-photon level. Several technologies, such as InGaAs single photon avalanche detectors (SPADs), arrays of silicon photomultipliers, InGaAs SPADs with self-differencing circuits and transition edge sensors have shown photon number resolving capability. Superconducting nanowires provide free-running single-photon sensitivity from visible to mid-infrared frequencies, low dark counts, excellent timing resolution (<60 ps) and short dead time (˜10 ns), at an easily accessible temperature (2-3 K), but they do not inherently resolve the photon number. In this framework, PNR detectors based on arrays of superconducting nanowires have been proposed. In this article we describe a number of methods and device configurations that have been pursued to obtain PNR capability using superconducting nanowire detectors.

  20. Radical Software. Number Two. The Electromagnetic Spectrum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korot, Beryl, Ed.; Gershuny, Phyllis, Ed.

    1970-01-01

    In an effort to foster the innovative uses of television technology, this tabloid format periodical details social, educational, and artistic experiments with television and lists a large number of experimental videotapes available from various television-centered groups and individuals. The principal areas explored in this issue include cable…

  1. A Knack for Numbers: Paquita Friday

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Eleanor Lee

    2005-01-01

    Back in middle school Dr. Paquita Friday began helping keep books at her grandmother's pharmacy during inventory. It was no chore, she recalls. It was fun. By then, of course, she already knew she had a knack for numbers. Today Friday is gaining recognition for her research in accounting stock market disclosures and winning awards for her teaching…

  2. On gauged Baryon and Lepton numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Rajpoot, S.

    1990-01-01

    The observation that Baryon number and Lepton number are conserved in nature provides strong motivation for associating gauge symmetries to these conserved numbers. This endeavor requires that the gauge group of electroweak interactions be extended from SU(2){sub L} X U(1){sub Y} to SU(2){sub L} X U(1){sub R} X U(1){sub Lepton} where U(1){sub R} couples only to the right-handed quarks and leptons. If it furthur postulated that right-handed currents exist on par with the left-handed ones, then the full electroweak symmetry is SU(2){sub L} X SU(2){sub R} X U(1){sub Baryon} X U(1){sub Lepton}. The SU(2){sub L} X SU(2){sub R} X U(1){sub Baryon} X U(1){sub Lepton} model is described in some detail. The triangle anomalies of the three families of quarks and leptons in the model are cancelled invoking leptoquark matter which is new fermionic matter that carries baryon as well as lepton numbers. In addition to the standard neutral boson (Z {degree}), the theory predicts two neutral gauge bosons with mass lower bounds of 120 GeV and 210 GeV which makes these particles prospective candidates for production at LEP, the TEVATRON and the SSC.

  3. Understanding Quantum Numbers in General Chemistry Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor; Fernandez, Ramon

    2008-01-01

    Quantum numbers and electron configurations form an important part of the general chemistry curriculum and textbooks. The objectives of this study are: (1) Elaboration of a framework based on the following aspects: (a) Origin of the quantum hypothesis, (b) Alternative interpretations of quantum mechanics, (c) Differentiation between an orbital and…

  4. Number Processing in Chinese-English Bilinguals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jamie I. D.; Kanz, Cindy L.; Xue, Qilin

    1999-01-01

    Examines number naming, magnitude selection, and simple arithmetic performed by adult Chinese-English bilinguals born and educated in China to investigate the effects of surface notation on basic numerical skills. Indicates that retrieval processes in the arithmetic and selection tasks were more efficient with Arabic than Mandarin stimuli.…

  5. 9 CFR 355.8 - Official number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Official number. 355.8 Section 355.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS,...

  6. 9 CFR 355.8 - Official number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Official number. 355.8 Section 355.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS,...

  7. 9 CFR 355.8 - Official number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Official number. 355.8 Section 355.8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS,...

  8. Science Books & Films, Volume XIII, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Shari, Ed.

    This document provides annotated bibliographies of 205 books, 61 children's books, and 87 films all of which are science related. Each annotation includes author, publisher, title, number of pages, cost, an appraisal from highly recommended to not recommended, and level of difficulty from preschool to professional. Entries are grouped by topics…

  9. Counting on Using a Number Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Counting all and counting on are distinct counting strategies that can be used to compute such quantities as the total number of objects in two sets (Wright, Martland, and Stafford 2010). Given five objects and three more objects, for example, children who use counting all to determine quantity will count both collections; that is, they count…

  10. Sequence Factorial of "g"-Gonal Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiru, Muniru A.

    2013-01-01

    The gamma function, which has the property to interpolate the factorial whenever the argument is an integer, is a special case (the case "g"?=?2) of the general term of the sequence factorial of "g"-gonal numbers. In relation to this special case, a formula for calculating the general term of the sequence factorial of any…

  11. Absolute number concentration measurement of submicrometer particles

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, T.H.B.

    1982-01-01

    Condensation nuclei in the atmosphere are known to be an important factor in the development of clouds, the occurrence of rainfall, and the formation of particulate air pollutions that can cause undesirable effects on man and his environment. Condensation nuclei are invisible and numerous, and their number concentration has become the characteristic of interest and has been widely studied since the development of the first condensation nuclei counter by Aitken in 1888. A conventional nuclei counter employs the so-called condensation technique which enables the minute nuclei to grow, in a supersaturated environment, to ..mu..m-sized droplets; the number concentration of the visible droplets is then measured. Since each nucleus grows to a droplet, the number concentration of droplets and nuclei remains the same. The number of droplets is measured by (1) direct observation with a microscope (direct counter), (2) counting from photographs of the droplets (photographic counter), (3) suitably calibrated light transmission (or scattering) measurement (relative photoelectric counter). Most of the widely-used counters are relative counters in which the instrument reading must be calibrated against a direct or photographic counter. A new condensation nuclei counter is described which is designed to have the following advantages over the widely-used counters: (a) It provides an absolute concentration measurement. (b) Even a small random fluctuation of nuclei concentration can immediately be detected.

  12. Kupffer cell numbers during human development.

    PubMed Central

    Cope, E M; Dilly, S A

    1990-01-01

    Immunohistological assessment of Kupffer cells was made using the antibody MAC387 and an antibody to lysozyme. Autopsy liver samples from 13 fetuses aged from 17 weeks gestation to term, and from 10 neonates and children aged 1 day to 18 months, were studied. For comparison, 10 normal adult autopsy liver specimens were included. The number of positively staining cells per unit area was counted for periportal sinusoids (zone 1) and centrilobular sinusoids (zone 3). No difference was found between zone 1 and zone 3 macrophage numbers with either antibody at any stage of development. Hepatic sinusoidal macrophage numbers were low during early gestation but increased during intra-uterine life to reach approximately normal adult values in the neonatal period. The numbers of cells staining with MAC387 or lysozyme were similar in each case except for hepatic sinusoidal macrophages in fetuses of less than 30 weeks gestation. Here anti-lysozyme stained significantly fewer cells, suggesting that lysozyme production may be low in immature fetuses. No difference was found between infants of similar maturity who had died immediately or had lived for more than 48 h and hence been exposed to gut antigens. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:2397614

  13. Satellite situation report, volume 31, number 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Data computed at GSFC, NORAD, or provided by satellite owners is reported. A space objects box score is presented of objects in orbit and decayed objects. Data of objects in orbit is presented in tabular form and the table headings include name of the object, catalog number, source, launch date, period minutes, inclination, apogee KM., perigee KM., and transmitting frequency.

  14. Synesthesia and Number Cognition in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jennifer A. K.; Goswami, Usha

    2008-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia, when achromatic digits evoke an experience of a specific color (photisms), has been shown to be consistent, involuntary, and linked with number concept in adults, yet there have been no comparable investigations with children. We present a systematic study of grapheme-color synesthesia in children aged between 7 and 15…

  15. 7 CFR 29.32 - Identification number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Identification number. 29.32 Section 29.32 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Definitions...

  16. A Geometrical Application of Number Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, V. K.

    2013-01-01

    Any quadruple of natural numbers {a, b, c, d} is called a "Pythagorean quadruple" if it satisfies the relationship "a[superscript 2] + b[superscript 2] + c[superscript 2]". This "Pythagorean quadruple" can always be identified with a rectangular box of dimensions "a greater than 0," "b greater than…

  17. Sustaining Student Numbers in the Competitive Marketplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekeres, Judy

    2010-01-01

    The climate of competition for students in the higher education sector makes it imperative that institutions increase their marketing efforts, both domestically and internationally, to help sustain student numbers. In Australia, the Bradley Report and the government response, which will do away with quotas, allows for a much freer market than…

  18. Skin test reactivity and number of siblings.

    PubMed Central

    von Mutius, E.; Martinez, F. D.; Fritzsch, C.; Nicolai, T.; Reitmeir, P.; Thiemann, H. H.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the relation between skin test reactivity in children and number of siblings. DESIGN--Cross sectional survey among schoolchildren aged 9-11 years. Skin prick tests in the children and self completion of written questionnaire by their parents. SUBJECTS--5030 children in Munich and 2623 children in Leipzig and Halle, Germany. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Atopic status assessed by skin prick tests. RESULTS--After possible confounders were controlled for, the prevalence of atopic sensitisation decreased linearly with increasing number of siblings (odds ratio = 0.96 for one sibling, 0.67 for five or more siblings; P = 0.005). In atopic children the severity of the skin test reaction as assessed by the weal size was not associated with the number of siblings. CONCLUSIONS--Factors directly or indirectly related to the number of siblings may decrease the susceptibility of children to become atopic. Thus, declining family size may in part contribute to the increased prevalence of atopic diseases reported in Western countries over the past few decades. PMID:8142793

  19. 18 CFR 367.4 - Numbering system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Numbering system. 367.4 Section 367.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS...

  20. The 17 GHz active region number

    SciTech Connect

    Selhorst, C. L.; Pacini, A. A.; Costa, J. E. R.; Giménez de Castro, C. G.; Valio, A.; Shibasaki, K.

    2014-08-01

    We report the statistics of the number of active regions (NAR) observed at 17 GHz with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph between 1992, near the maximum of cycle 22, and 2013, which also includes the maximum of cycle 24, and we compare with other activity indexes. We find that NAR minima are shorter than those of the sunspot number (SSN) and radio flux at 10.7 cm (F10.7). This shorter NAR minima could reflect the presence of active regions generated by faint magnetic fields or spotless regions, which were a considerable fraction of the counted active regions. The ratio between the solar radio indexes F10.7/NAR shows a similar reduction during the two minima analyzed, which contrasts with the increase of the ratio of both radio indexes in relation to the SSN during the minimum of cycle 23-24. These results indicate that the radio indexes are more sensitive to weaker magnetic fields than those necessary to form sunspots, of the order of 1500 G. The analysis of the monthly averages of the active region brightness temperatures shows that its long-term variation mimics the solar cycle; however, due to the gyro-resonance emission, a great number of intense spikes are observed in the maximum temperature study. The decrease in the number of these spikes is also evident during the current cycle 24, a consequence of the sunspot magnetic field weakening in the last few years.

  1. Sustaining Student Numbers in the Competitive Marketplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekeres, Judy

    2010-01-01

    The climate of competition for students in the higher education sector makes it imperative that institutions increase their marketing efforts, both domestically and internationally, to help sustain student numbers. In Australia, the Bradley Report and the government response, which will do away with quotas, allows for a much freer market than…

  2. Autotelic Behavior in Socialization. Report Number 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inbar, Michael; Stoll, Clarice S.

    A selective review of the literature on the socialization effect of games uncovers a varied and increasing number of hypotheses, but only little and scattered evidence. Direct studies of play and game functions are primarily in uncontrolled clinical reports. Therefore, a pilot study was conducted as a preliminary attempt to establish correlational…

  3. Proofs in Number Theory: History and Heresy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Tim

    The domain of number theory lends itself particularly well to generic argument, presented with the intention of conveying the force and structure of a conventional generalized argument through the medium of a particular case. The potential of generic examples as a didactic tool is virtually unrecognized. Although the use of such examples has good…

  4. Synesthesia and Number Cognition in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jennifer A. K.; Goswami, Usha

    2008-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia, when achromatic digits evoke an experience of a specific color (photisms), has been shown to be consistent, involuntary, and linked with number concept in adults, yet there have been no comparable investigations with children. We present a systematic study of grapheme-color synesthesia in children aged between 7 and 15…

  5. Computation of Semantic Number from Morphological Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berent, Iris; Pinker, Steven; Tzelgov, Joseph; Bibi, Uri; Goldfarb, Liat

    2005-01-01

    The distinction between singular and plural enters into linguistic phenomena such as morphology, lexical semantics, and agreement and also must interface with perceptual and conceptual systems that assess numerosity in the world. Three experiments examine the computation of semantic number for singulars and plurals from the morphological…

  6. Counting on Using a Number Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Counting all and counting on are distinct counting strategies that can be used to compute such quantities as the total number of objects in two sets (Wright, Martland, and Stafford 2010). Given five objects and three more objects, for example, children who use counting all to determine quantity will count both collections; that is, they count…

  7. Shell corrections, magic numbers, and mean field

    SciTech Connect

    Denisov, V. Yu.

    2007-02-15

    It is shown that the positions of deep local minima of shell corrections associated with magic numbers in the region of superheavy nuclei depend on the parameters of the central and spin-orbit mean-field potentials. The accuracy of nuclear-mass predictions made within various models for superheavy nuclei is analyzed.

  8. NSDC Policy Points. Volume 1, Number 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Staff Development Council, 2009

    2009-01-01

    "NSDC Policy Points" is a newsletter published by the National Staff Development Council (NSDC). This issue of "NSDC Policy Points" discusses why collaborative learning is critical to professional development. Included in this newsletter is an article about team learning in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. [For Volume 1, Number 3 of "NSDC Policy Points," see…

  9. Zero Tolerance Policies. ERIC Digest Number 146.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAndrews, Tobin

    State legislatures and school boards are adopting a growing number of zero-tolerance polices toward weapons, guns, and violence. Zero-tolerance polices are rules intended to address specific school-safety issues. They have arisen in part as a response to the threat of the withdrawal of federal funds under the 1994 Gun-Free Schools Act, and…

  10. The LSS Review. Volume 3, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoag, Lydia, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    A growing number of American students are nonnative English speakers. These students are vulnerable to early school exit and schools are facing more and more such students each year. Presently, about 56% of all public school teachers in the United States have at least one English language learner (ELL) student in their class, but less than 20% of…

  11. The aerodynamics of small Reynolds numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, F. W.

    1980-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics of wing model gliders and bird wings in particular are discussed. Wind tunnel measurements and aerodynamics of small Reynolds numbers are enumerated. Airfoil behavior in the critical transition from laminar to turbulent boundary layer, which is more important to bird wing models than to large airplanes, was observed. Experimental results are provided, and an artificial bird wing is described.

  12. A Geometrical Application of Number Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, V. K.

    2013-01-01

    Any quadruple of natural numbers {a, b, c, d} is called a "Pythagorean quadruple" if it satisfies the relationship "a[superscript 2] + b[superscript 2] + c[superscript 2]". This "Pythagorean quadruple" can always be identified with a rectangular box of dimensions "a greater than 0," "b greater than…

  13. Oxidation Numbers in the Study of Metabolism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Ronald; Franzen, James; Chasteen, Thomas G.

    2002-01-01

    The calculation and use of oxidation numbers in the study of metabolic reactions are discussed for normal oxidations (alcohol dehydrogenase and the NAD+/NADH couple, propanediol dehydratase) and for enzymatic reactions with a "hidden" redox component (transamination, the coupled conversion of ethylamine to ethanol, and the biomethylation of…

  14. Golden Proportions for the Generalized Tribonacci Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Devbhadra V.; Mehta, Darshana A.

    2009-01-01

    It is known that the ratios of consecutive terms of Fibonacci and Tribonacci sequences converge to the fixed ratio. In this article, we consider the generalized form of Tribonacci numbers and derive the "golden proportion" for the whole family of this generalized sequence. (Contains 2 tables.)

  15. Oxidation Numbers in the Study of Metabolism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Ronald; Franzen, James; Chasteen, Thomas G.

    2002-01-01

    The calculation and use of oxidation numbers in the study of metabolic reactions are discussed for normal oxidations (alcohol dehydrogenase and the NAD+/NADH couple, propanediol dehydratase) and for enzymatic reactions with a "hidden" redox component (transamination, the coupled conversion of ethylamine to ethanol, and the biomethylation of…

  16. Assessments: Numbers, Context, Graphics, and Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorin, Barbara; Hunsader, Patricia D.; Thompson, Denisse R.

    2013-01-01

    This article shows how to modify classroom evaluation items to avoid four potential difficulties that limit a teacher's insight into students' mathematical understanding by addressing these issues: (1) poor choice of numbers; (2) implausible or inappropriate contexts; (3) inclusion of graphics that do not help make learning visible; and…

  17. Integrative Education. ERIC Digest, Number 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Dean

    A growing number of education reformers are justifying their reform strategies by pointing to the findings of developmental brain research, theories of information processing, and the needs dictated by today's information-rich world. They advocate integrative education, which places students in a holistic context. This digest describes the…

  18. Visualizing the Arithmetic of Complex Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto-Johnson, Hortensia

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards Initiative stresses the importance of developing a geometric and algebraic understanding of complex numbers in their different forms (i.e., Cartesian, polar and exponential). Unfortunately, most high school textbooks do not offer such explanations much less exercises that encourage students to bridge geometric and…

  19. Understanding Quantum Numbers in General Chemistry Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor; Fernandez, Ramon

    2008-01-01

    Quantum numbers and electron configurations form an important part of the general chemistry curriculum and textbooks. The objectives of this study are: (1) Elaboration of a framework based on the following aspects: (a) Origin of the quantum hypothesis, (b) Alternative interpretations of quantum mechanics, (c) Differentiation between an orbital and…

  20. Authenticating "Number the Stars" Using Nonfiction Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groce, Robin D.

    2009-01-01

    "Number the Stars" by Lois Lowry is a popular historical novel for adolescent readers about the Nazi occupation of Copenhagen, Denmark during World War II and the efforts of Danish resisters who successfully rescued 98% of that nation's Jewish population. While this 1998 book is considered to be a fictional account, most of the events in the story…

  1. Ordered chromatic number of planar maps

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, G.J.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper it is shown that there exist planar maps and orderings of the regions of those maps foe which no finite number of colors will suffice for a parsimonious proper coloring. In particular, planar maps with 0(2/sup n/2/) regions are exhibited that require n colors for their proper ordered coloring.

  2. The 17 GHz Active Region Number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selhorst, C. L.; Costa, J. E. R.; Giménez de Castro, C. G.; Valio, A.; Pacini, A. A.; Shibasaki, K.

    2014-08-01

    We report the statistics of the number of active regions (NAR) observed at 17 GHz with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph between 1992, near the maximum of cycle 22, and 2013, which also includes the maximum of cycle 24, and we compare with other activity indexes. We find that NAR minima are shorter than those of the sunspot number (SSN) and radio flux at 10.7 cm (F10.7). This shorter NAR minima could reflect the presence of active regions generated by faint magnetic fields or spotless regions, which were a considerable fraction of the counted active regions. The ratio between the solar radio indexes F10.7/NAR shows a similar reduction during the two minima analyzed, which contrasts with the increase of the ratio of both radio indexes in relation to the SSN during the minimum of cycle 23-24. These results indicate that the radio indexes are more sensitive to weaker magnetic fields than those necessary to form sunspots, of the order of 1500 G. The analysis of the monthly averages of the active region brightness temperatures shows that its long-term variation mimics the solar cycle; however, due to the gyro-resonance emission, a great number of intense spikes are observed in the maximum temperature study. The decrease in the number of these spikes is also evident during the current cycle 24, a consequence of the sunspot magnetic field weakening in the last few years.

  3. How Can Syntax Support Number Word Acquisition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syrett, Kristen; Musolino, Julien; Gelman, Rochel

    2012-01-01

    We expand upon a previous proposal by Bloom and Wynn (1997) that young children learn about the meaning of number words by tracking their occurrence in particular syntactic environments, in combination with the discourse context in which they are used. An analysis of the Childes database (MacWhinney, 2000) reveals that the environments studied by…

  4. Sequence Factorial of "g"-Gonal Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiru, Muniru A.

    2013-01-01

    The gamma function, which has the property to interpolate the factorial whenever the argument is an integer, is a special case (the case "g"?=?2) of the general term of the sequence factorial of "g"-gonal numbers. In relation to this special case, a formula for calculating the general term of the sequence factorial of any…

  5. Phylogenetic diversity measures based on Hill numbers

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Anne; Chiu, Chun-Huo; Jost, Lou

    2010-01-01

    We propose a parametric class of phylogenetic diversity (PD) measures that are sensitive to both species abundance and species taxonomic or phylogenetic distances. This work extends the conventional parametric species-neutral approach (based on ‘effective number of species’ or Hill numbers) to take into account species relatedness, and also generalizes the traditional phylogenetic approach (based on ‘total phylogenetic length’) to incorporate species abundances. The proposed measure quantifies ‘the mean effective number of species’ over any time interval of interest, or the ‘effective number of maximally distinct lineages’ over that time interval. The product of the measure and the interval length quantifies the ‘branch diversity’ of the phylogenetic tree during that interval. The new measures generalize and unify many existing measures and lead to a natural definition of taxonomic diversity as a special case. The replication principle (or doubling property), an important requirement for species-neutral diversity, is generalized to PD. The widely used Rao's quadratic entropy and the phylogenetic entropy do not satisfy this essential property, but a simple transformation converts each to our measures, which do satisfy the property. The proposed approach is applied to forest data for interpreting the effects of thinning. PMID:20980309

  6. Magnetic Particle Recovery of Serial Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    D. Utrata; M.J. Johnson

    2003-10-01

    One method used by crime labs to recover obliterated serial numbers in steel firearms (ferrous samples) is the magnetic particle technique. The use of this method is predicated on the detection of metal deformation present under stamped serial numbers after the visible stamp has been removed. Equipment specialized for this detection is not used in these attempts; a portable magnetic yoke used typically for flaw detection on large weldments or structures, along with dry visible magnetic powders, have been the tools of criminologists working in this area. Crime labs have reported low success rates using these tools [1, 2]. This is not surprising when one considers that little formal development has apparently evolved for use in such investigations since the publication of seminal work in this area some time ago [3]. The aim of this project is to investigate specific aspects of magnetic particle inspection for serial number recovery. This includes attempts to understand the magnetic characteristics of different steels that affect their performance in the test, such as varying results for carbon steels and alloy steels after different thermal and forming treatments. Also investigated are the effects of the nature of the sample magnetization (AC, rectified DC, and true DC) and the use of various detection media, such as visible powders and fluorescent sprays, on test outcome. Additionally, some aspects of surface preparation of firearm samples prior to number recovery were included in this work. The scope of this report includes a brief overview of the magnetic particle inspection method in general and its applications to forensic serial number recovery. This is followed by a description of how such investigations were simulated on lab samples, including a look at how the microstructure of a given steel will affect its performance in the test. Investigations into the serial number recovery in a series of ferromagnetic firearms (both steel and certain stainless steels) will then be presented. Recommendations for modifications to current approaches used in crime labs for serial number recovery, as well as suggestions for future work, conclude this document.

  7. MHD Turbulence at Moderate Magnetic Reynolds Number

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knaepen, B.; Kassinos, S.; Carati, D.

    2003-01-01

    In the present article we will consider the decay of MHD turbulence under the influence of a strong external magnetic field at moderate magnetic Reynolds numbers. Typical values of R(sub m) that are considered here range from R(sub m) approx. 0.1 to R(sub m) approx. 20. As a comparison, the initial kinetic Reynolds number common to all our simulations is Re(sub L) = 199. This means that the range of Prandtl numbers explored is 5 x 10(exp -4) to 10(exp -1). Our motivation is mainly to exhibit how the transition from the QS approximation to FMHD occurs. At the lowest values of R(sub m) studied here, the QS approximation is shown to model the flow faithfully. However, for the higher values of R(sub m) considered, it is clearly inadequate but can be replaced by another approximation which will be referred to as the Quasi-Linear (QL) approximation. Another objective of the present study is to describe how variations in the magnetic Reynolds number (while maintaining all other parameters constant) affect the dynamics of the flow. This complements past studies where variations in either the strength of the external magnetic field or the kinetic Reynolds number were considered. This article is organized as follows. In section 2 we recall the definition of the quasi-static approximation. Section 3 is devoted to the description of the numerical experiments performed using the quasi-static approximation and full MHD. In section 4 we describe the quasi-linear approximation and test it numerically against full MHD. A concluding summary is given in section 5.

  8. Quantum abacus for counting and factorizing numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Suslov, M. V.; Lesovik, G. B.; Blatter, G.

    2011-05-15

    We generalize the binary quantum counting algorithm of Lesovik, Suslov, and Blatter [Phys. Rev. A 82, 012316 (2010)] to higher counting bases. The algorithm makes use of qubits, qutrits, and qudits to count numbers in a base-2, base-3, or base-d representation. In operating the algorithm, the number nnumber n in the base-d representation; the inverse transformation is fully quantum at the level of individual qudits, while a simpler semiclassical version can be used on the level of qudit registers. Combining registers of qubits, qutrits, and qudits, where d is a prime number, with a simpler single-shot measurement allows us to find the powers of 2, 3, and other primes d in the number n. We show that the counting task naturally leads to the shift operation and an algorithm based on the quantum Fourier transformation. We discuss possible implementations of the algorithm using quantum spin-d systems, d-well systems, and their emulation with spin-1/2 or double-well systems. We establish the analogy between our counting algorithm and the phase estimation algorithm and make use of the latter's performance analysis in stabilizing our scheme. Applications embrace a quantum metrological scheme to measure voltage (an analog to digital converter) and a simple procedure to entangle multiparticle states.

  9. Quantum abacus for counting and factorizing numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suslov, M. V.; Lesovik, G. B.; Blatter, G.

    2011-05-01

    We generalize the binary quantum counting algorithm of Lesovik, Suslov, and Blatter [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.82.012316 82, 012316 (2010)] to higher counting bases. The algorithm makes use of qubits, qutrits, and qudits to count numbers in a base-2, base-3, or base-d representation. In operating the algorithm, the number nnumber n in the base-d representation; the inverse transformation is fully quantum at the level of individual qudits, while a simpler semiclassical version can be used on the level of qudit registers. Combining registers of qubits, qutrits, and qudits, where d is a prime number, with a simpler single-shot measurement allows us to find the powers of 2, 3, and other primes d in the number n. We show that the counting task naturally leads to the shift operation and an algorithm based on the quantum Fourier transformation. We discuss possible implementations of the algorithm using quantum spin-d systems, d-well systems, and their emulation with spin-1/2 or double-well systems. We establish the analogy between our counting algorithm and the phase estimation algorithm and make use of the latter’s performance analysis in stabilizing our scheme. Applications embrace a quantum metrological scheme to measure voltage (an analog to digital converter) and a simple procedure to entangle multiparticle states.

  10. BioNumbers—the database of key numbers in molecular and cell biology

    PubMed Central

    Milo, Ron; Jorgensen, Paul; Moran, Uri; Weber, Griffin; Springer, Michael

    2010-01-01

    BioNumbers (http://www.bionumbers.hms.harvard.edu) is a database of key numbers in molecular and cell biology—the quantitative properties of biological systems of interest to computational, systems and molecular cell biologists. Contents of the database range from cell sizes to metabolite concentrations, from reaction rates to generation times, from genome sizes to the number of mitochondria in a cell. While always of importance to biologists, having numbers in hand is becoming increasingly critical for experimenting, modeling, and analyzing biological systems. BioNumbers was motivated by an appreciation of how long it can take to find even the simplest number in the vast biological literature. All numbers are taken directly from a literature source and that reference is provided with the number. BioNumbers is designed to be highly searchable and queries can be performed by keywords or browsed by menus. BioNumbers is a collaborative community platform where registered users can add content and make comments on existing data. All new entries and commentary are curated to maintain high quality. Here we describe the database characteristics and implementation, demonstrate its use, and discuss future directions for its development. PMID:19854939

  11. Rational-number comparison across notation: Fractions, decimals, and whole numbers.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Michelle; Cordes, Sara

    2016-02-01

    Although fractions, decimals, and whole numbers can be used to represent the same rational-number values, it is unclear whether adults conceive of these rational-number magnitudes as lying along the same ordered mental continuum. In the current study, we investigated whether adults' processing of rational-number magnitudes in fraction, decimal, and whole-number notation show systematic ratio-dependent responding characteristic of an integrated mental continuum. Both reaction time (RT) and eye-tracking data from a number-magnitude comparison task revealed ratio-dependent performance when adults compared the relative magnitudes of rational numbers, both within the same notation (e.g., fractions vs. fractions) and across different notations (e.g., fractions vs. decimals), pointing to an integrated mental continuum for rational numbers across notation types. In addition, eye-tracking analyses provided evidence of an implicit whole-number bias when we compared values in fraction notation, and individual differences in this whole-number bias were related to the individual's performance on a fraction arithmetic task. Implications of our results for both cognitive development research and math education are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26389612

  12. Courant Number and Mach Number Insensitive CE/SE Euler Solvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Sin-Chung

    2005-01-01

    It has been known that the space-time CE/SE method can be used to obtain ID, 2D, and 3D steady and unsteady flow solutions with Mach numbers ranging from 0.0028 to 10. However, it is also known that a CE/SE solution may become overly dissipative when the Mach number is very small. As an initial attempt to remedy this weakness, new 1D Courant number and Mach number insensitive CE/SE Euler solvers are developed using several key concepts underlying the recent successful development of Courant number insensitive CE/SE schemes. Numerical results indicate that the new solvers are capable of resolving crisply a contact discontinuity embedded in a flow with the maximum Mach number = 0.01.

  13. Self-testing quantum random number generator.

    PubMed

    Lunghi, Tommaso; Brask, Jonatan Bohr; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Lavigne, Quentin; Bowles, Joseph; Martin, Anthony; Zbinden, Hugo; Brunner, Nicolas

    2015-04-17

    The generation of random numbers is a task of paramount importance in modern science. A central problem for both classical and quantum randomness generation is to estimate the entropy of the data generated by a given device. Here we present a protocol for self-testing quantum random number generation, in which the user can monitor the entropy in real time. Based on a few general assumptions, our protocol guarantees continuous generation of high quality randomness, without the need for a detailed characterization of the devices. Using a fully optical setup, we implement our protocol and illustrate its self-testing capacity. Our work thus provides a practical approach to quantum randomness generation in a scenario of trusted but error-prone devices. PMID:25933297

  14. Self-Testing Quantum Random Number Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunghi, Tommaso; Brask, Jonatan Bohr; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Lavigne, Quentin; Bowles, Joseph; Martin, Anthony; Zbinden, Hugo; Brunner, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    The generation of random numbers is a task of paramount importance in modern science. A central problem for both classical and quantum randomness generation is to estimate the entropy of the data generated by a given device. Here we present a protocol for self-testing quantum random number generation, in which the user can monitor the entropy in real time. Based on a few general assumptions, our protocol guarantees continuous generation of high quality randomness, without the need for a detailed characterization of the devices. Using a fully optical setup, we implement our protocol and illustrate its self-testing capacity. Our work thus provides a practical approach to quantum randomness generation in a scenario of trusted but error-prone devices.

  15. Bridge condition assessment using D numbers.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xinyang; Hu, Yong; Deng, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Bridge condition assessment is a complex problem influenced by many factors. The uncertain environment increases more its complexity. Due to the uncertainty in the process of assessment, one of the key problems is the representation of assessment results. Though there exists many methods that can deal with uncertain information, however, they have more or less deficiencies. In this paper, a new representation of uncertain information, called D numbers, is presented. It extends the Dempster-Shafer theory. By using D numbers, a new method is developed for the bridge condition assessment. Compared to these existing methods, the proposed method is simpler and more effective. An illustrative case is given to show the effectiveness of the new method. PMID:24696639

  16. Sensitivity in risk analyses with uncertain numbers.

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, W. Troy; Ferson, Scott

    2006-06-01

    Sensitivity analysis is a study of how changes in the inputs to a model influence the results of the model. Many techniques have recently been proposed for use when the model is probabilistic. This report considers the related problem of sensitivity analysis when the model includes uncertain numbers that can involve both aleatory and epistemic uncertainty and the method of calculation is Dempster-Shafer evidence theory or probability bounds analysis. Some traditional methods for sensitivity analysis generalize directly for use with uncertain numbers, but, in some respects, sensitivity analysis for these analyses differs from traditional deterministic or probabilistic sensitivity analyses. A case study of a dike reliability assessment illustrates several methods of sensitivity analysis, including traditional probabilistic assessment, local derivatives, and a ''pinching'' strategy that hypothetically reduces the epistemic uncertainty or aleatory uncertainty, or both, in an input variable to estimate the reduction of uncertainty in the outputs. The prospects for applying the methods to black box models are also considered.

  17. Nonequilibrium hadronization and constituent quark number scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Zschocke, Sven; Horvat, Szabolcs; Mishustin, Igor N.; Csernai, Laszlo P.

    2011-04-15

    The constituent quark number scaling of elliptic flow is studied in a nonequilibrium hadronization and freeze-out model with rapid dynamical transition from ideal, deconfined, and chirally symmetric quark-gluon plasma, to final noninteracting hadrons. In this transition a bag model of constituent quarks is considered, where the quarks gain constituent quark mass while the background bag field breaks up and vanishes. The constituent quarks then recombine into simplified hadron states, while chemical, thermal, and flow equilibrium break down one after the other. In this scenario the resulting temperatures and flow velocities of baryons and mesons are different. Using a simplified few source model of the elliptic flow, we are able to reproduce the constituent quark number scaling, with assumptions on the details of the nonequilibrium processes.

  18. Entanglement distillation protocols and number theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bombin, H.; Martin-Delgado, M.A.

    2005-09-15

    We show that the analysis of entanglement distillation protocols for qudits of arbitrary dimension D benefits from applying basic concepts from number theory, since the set Z{sub D}{sup n} associated with Bell diagonal states is a module rather than a vector space. We find that a partition of Z{sub D}{sup n} into divisor classes characterizes the invariant properties of mixed Bell diagonal states under local permutations. We construct a very general class of recursion protocols by means of unitary operations implementing these local permutations. We study these distillation protocols depending on whether we use twirling operations in the intermediate steps or not, and we study them both analytically and numerically with Monte Carlo methods. In the absence of twirling operations, we construct extensions of the quantum privacy algorithms valid for secure communications with qudits of any dimension D. When D is a prime number, we show that distillation protocols are optimal both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  19. Low Reynolds number, long endurance aircraft design

    SciTech Connect

    Foch, R.J.; Ailinger, K.G. )

    1992-02-01

    Airplanes are typically designed to maximize range at the highest practical cruising speed. However, several missions require extended duration rather than range, and favor the slowest possible cruise speed. Such missions include surveillance, radio relay, and ship's electronic decoy. These missions are ideally suited for advanced technology unmanned aircraft, either remotely piloted or autonomous. Feasibility studies have been conducted and flight demonstrator prototypes of such unique aircraft have been under steady research and development at the Naval Research Laboratory since 1978. This paper discusses the design aspects and tradeoffs unique to small, slow speed long endurance unmanned aircraft operating at wing chord Reynolds numbers between 150,000 and 500,000. Additionally, many of these low Reynolds number-driven design features have applicability to high altitude, long endurance aircraft. 6 refs.

  20. Rational and irrational numbers from unit resistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasperski, Maciej; K?obus, Waldemar

    2014-01-01

    We address the problem of constructing a network of unit resistors such that it enables the retrieval of an arbitrary value of equivalent resistance. In particular, we employ the notion of continued fractions to construct a ladder network by which we can easily obtain any fractional value resistance. In addition, since any irrational number is associated with an infinite continued fraction, we discuss the convergence of the equivalent resistance of an infinite resistive ladder and various aspects concerning the approximations of arbitrary numbers attained by adding additional resistors successively to the network. The presented methods can be easily implemented in an educational laboratory and offer an interesting addition to the topic of Ohm’s law.