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Sample records for grass pea lathyrus

  1. Effects of Planting Date on Biomass Production by Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grass pea is a cool-season legume commonly grown for human consumption and livestock feed in Asia and East Africa. A better understanding of the agronomic importance of planting date and the influence of photoperiod may lead to improved management strategies for cultivation of grass pea in the sout...

  2. Fermentation of seeds of Teff (Eragrostis teff), grass-pea (Lathyrus sativus), and their mixtures: aspects of nutrition and food safety.

    PubMed

    Yigzaw, Yirgalem; Gorton, Lo; Solomon, Theodoros; Akalu, Girma

    2004-03-10

    Fermentation of pure teff (Eragrostis teff), pure grass-pea (Lathyrus sativus), and their mixtures, 9:1 and 8:2 (teff/grass-pea) has been done at two temperatures (room temperature and 35 degrees C) in duplicate using the strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, for bacterial fermentation, and Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oligosporus in succession for solid-state fungal fermentation as inocula. In addition, the natural or spontaneous and back-slopping methods of bacterial fermentation have been done on the above four substrate groups. The pH and essential amino acid profiles of the different fermentation processes were compared. The back-slopping in teff at a temperature of 35 degrees C gave the sharpest pH drop. All fermentations done at 35 degrees C showed a steeper slope in their pH versus time plot compared to their room temperature counterpart. Fungal fermentation gave an improved amino acid profile for the essential ones in all of the substrate groups, except in pure grass-pea. Fermented teff/grass-pea (8:2) in this fungal fermentation has been found to be quite comparable in essential amino acid profile to an ideal reference protein recommended for children of 2-5 years of age. None of the bacterial fermentations produced a net change in their essential amino acid profile in any of the substrate groups investigated. Solid state fungal fermentation on pure grass-pea using the fungal strains R. oligosporous and A. oryzae in succession has shown that the neurotoxin beta-N-oxalyl-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid (beta-ODAP) in grass-pea has been removed by 80% on average for the high-toxin variety and by up to 97% for the low-toxin variety as determined by an improved chromatographic method with bioelectrochemical detection coupled on-line with refractive index detection. PMID:14995115

  3. The effect of germination on antioxidant and nutritional parameters of protein isolates from grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) seeds.

    PubMed

    Starzyńska-Janiszewska, A; Stodolak, B; Mickowska, B

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this research was to study the antioxidant and nutritional (selected objects) properties of protein isolates obtained from grass pea seedlings as compared with soaked and raw seeds. Two percent extract of isolate from 5-day-old seedlings showed the highest total antioxidant activity (25%) and the ability to chelate Fe²+ (2.35 mg/g d.m.) as compared with other isolates. Protein isolates from grass pea seeds had on average 89% total protein, 87% in vitro protein bioavailability, about 5574 TIU/g (d.m.) (trypsin inhibitors activity) and did not contain ODAP. Germination of seeds for 5 days considerably improved the in vitro bioavailability of isolates, by 12%, and profile of sulfur amino acids by 42%, in comparison with isolates obtained from the raw seeds. Isolates from 5-day-old grass pea seedlings had the best antioxidant properties and improved nutritional parameters (as compared with raw seeds), which makes them worthy of being considered as a potential food additive. PMID:21339123

  4. Effect of maturity stage on the content of ash components in raw and preserved grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Lisiewska, Zofia; Korus, Anna; Kmiecik, Waldemar; Gebczyński, Piotr

    2006-01-01

    The grains of grass pea cultivar krab of dry matter content at the level of 26-40 g/100 g were used in the production of preserves by freezing and canning in air tight containers. The content of ash and its alkalinity and of potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron, total phosphorus, and phytic phosphorus was determined in raw and blanched material, in frozen products stored for six months and then cooked to consumption consistency, and in sterilized canned products after the same storage period. With the increasing degree of maturity the content of all the above constituents calculated per 100 g fresh matter, increased. Blanching considerably reduced the level of ash and its alkalinity, of potassium, and of phytic phosphorus. The cooking of frozen seeds and the sterilization in salty brine caused a reduction of the components analysed except for the content of ash, its alkalinity, and of calcium. In comparison with canned sterilized preserves in cooked frozen grains a higher content of all the mineral components was determined. PMID:16849113

  5. Effect of different levels of raw and heated grass pea seed (Lathyrus sativus) on nutrient digestibility, intestinal villus morphology and growth performance of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Riasi, A; Mahdavi, A H; Bayat, E

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate chemical composition and effect of different levels (0%, 10% and 20%) of raw grass pea (RGP) and heat-treated (120 °C for 30 min) grass pea seed (HGP) on nutrient digestibility, dressing percentage, relative internal organ weights, intestinal villous morphology and broiler chicks' performance. A total number of 200 day-old male chicks were raised under similar condition for 10 days. On day 11, chicks were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments and four replicates of 10 birds each. The result of chemical analysis indicated that Iranian grass pea seed has low levels of total and condensed tannin, and it may be considered as a good source of protein (36.1%) and energy (17.09 kJ GE/g). Heat treatment reduced (p < 0.05) the total and condensed tannin to 21% and 78% respectively. Grass peas seed had higher levels of nitrogen-free extract, P, Na, Mg and Zn than soya bean meal. The apparent digestibility of gross energy and lipid was affected (p < 0.01) by the treatment diets, and it was the lowest after feeding 20% of HGP (p < 0.05). The relative weight of breast and pancreas (p < 0.05) was affected by treatments. Percentage weight of breast and pancreas increased (p < 0.05) after feeding high levels (20%) of RGP and HGP. Substitution of 20% of RGP and HGP increased the duodenal crypt depth (p < 0.05); however, it had no suppressive effect on villus height as the absorptive surface of intestine. The feed conversion ratio was not affected by the treatments in the total experimental period. This study showed that, although the high level of grass pea seed caused a remarkable increase in the relative weight of pancreas and decreased the apparent digestibility of gross energy and lipid, it had beneficial effect on breast relative weight. It seems that heat processing is not effective method for improving quality of Iranian grass pea seed. PMID:25846572

  6. Effect of freezing and canning on the content of selected vitamins and pigments in seeds of two grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) cultivars at the not fully mature stage.

    PubMed

    Korus, Anna; Lisiewska, Zofia; Kmiecik, Waldemar

    2002-08-01

    Seeds of the grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) cultivars Derek and Krab, with a dry matter content of about 33%, were used for freezing and for canning. The content of vitamins C, B1, and B2 and of carotenoids, beta-carotene, and chlorophylls was determined in raw and blanched material, in frozen products after 6-month storage before and after cooking to consumption consistency, and in canned products after 6-month storage. In comparison with the cultivar Krab, raw seeds of Derek contained 45% more vitamin C, 14% more total chlorophylls, 13% less thiamine (vitamin B1), and 7% less riboflavin (vitamin B2). The level of carotenoids was similar. Blanching of seeds led to a statistically significant decrease only in the content of vitamin C. Freezing and frozen storage significantly lowered the level of vitamin C and chlorophylls. The cooking of frozen seeds and the production of canned products and their storage resulted in a statistically verified reduction in the content of components analysed in all the samples. Greater losses were found in products prepared from seeds of the cv. Krab. After cooking, frozen seeds contained more of all the analysed components than the canned products. PMID:12224416

  7. Grass pea consumption & present scenario of neurolathyrism in Maharashtra State of India

    PubMed Central

    Khandare, Arjun L.; Babu, J.J; Ankulu, M.; Aparna, N.; Shirfule, Amol; Rao, G. Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Neurolathyrism is a non progressive motor neuron disorder engendered by the prolonged over-consumption of Lathyrus sativus (grass pea) seeds which contain a neurotoxic amino acid, β-N oxalyl- L-α, β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP). It is characterized by spastic paraparesis in the hind limbs. The present study was conducted in 105 households (HHs) of Gondia district in Maharashtra, India, where grass pea is cultivated and consumed to assess the health implication of its consumption. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 105 HHS in five villages and grass pea samples were collected for β-ODAP estimation. Amino acid analysis was also done, neurolathyrism cases were identified by snowball sampling method and neurological examination was carried out. Results: The study revealed that 61 per cent of population was consuming this pulse as a part of diet. β-ODAP concentration in grass pea was high in Bora village (1254.5 ± 528.21 mg %) and less in Malgaon village (413.6±415.79 mg %). The nutritional status of the people was within the normal range (BMI 18± 3.40 kg/m2) in the surveyed households. Consumption of grass pea was observed to be less than 25g. Conclusions: The cases of neurolathyrism declined in all the studied villages due to reduced β-ODAP exposure through Lathyrus sativus consumption, however, the grass pea was cultivated and consumed in Gondia district of Maharashtra State. PMID:25222783

  8. Leaf Rolling and Stem Fasciation in Grass Pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) Mutant Are Mediated through Glutathione-Dependent Cellular and Metabolic Changes and Associated with a Metabolic Diversion through Cysteine during Phenotypic Reversal

    PubMed Central

    Talukdar, Dibyendu; Talukdar, Tulika

    2014-01-01

    A Lathyrus sativus L. mutant isolated in ethylmethane sulfonate-treated M2 progeny of mother variety BioL-212 and designated as rlfL-1 was characterized by inwardly rolled-leaf and stem and bud fasciations. The mutant exhibited karyomorphological peculiarities in both mitosis and meiosis with origin of aneuploidy. The mitosis was vigorous with high frequency of divisional cells and their quick turnover presumably steered cell proliferations. Significant transcriptional upregulations of cysteine and glutathione synthesis and concomitant stimulations of glutathione-mediated antioxidant defense helped rlfL-1 mutant to maintain balanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolisms, as deduced by ROS-imaging study. Glutathione synthesis was shut down in buthionine sulfoximine- (BSO-) treated mother plant and mutant, and leaf-rolling and stems/buds fasciations in the mutant were reversed, accompanied by normalization of mitotic cell division process. Antioxidant defense was downregulated under low glutathione-redox but cysteine-desulfurations and photorespiratory glycolate oxidase transcripts were markedly overexpressed, preventing cysteine overaccumulation but resulted in excess H2O2 in BSO-treated mutant. This led to oxidative damage in proliferating cells, manifested by severe necrosis in rolled-leaf and fasciated stems. Results indicated vital role of glutathione in maintaining abnormal proliferations in plant organs, and its deficiency triggered phenotypic reversal through metabolic diversions of cysteine and concomitant cellular and metabolic modulations. PMID:24987684

  9. Improving nutritional quality and fungal tolerance in soya bean and grass pea by expressing an oxalate decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinay; Chattopadhyay, Arnab; Ghosh, Sumit; Irfan, Mohammad; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Datta, Asis

    2016-06-01

    Soya bean (Glycine max) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) seeds are important sources of dietary proteins; however, they also contain antinutritional metabolite oxalic acid (OA). Excess dietary intake of OA leads to nephrolithiasis due to the formation of calcium oxalate crystals in kidneys. Besides, OA is also a known precursor of β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP), a neurotoxin found in grass pea. Here, we report the reduction in OA level in soya bean (up to 73%) and grass pea (up to 75%) seeds by constitutive and/or seed-specific expression of an oxalate-degrading enzyme, oxalate decarboxylase (FvOXDC) of Flammulina velutipes. In addition, β-ODAP level of grass pea seeds was also reduced up to 73%. Reduced OA content was interrelated with the associated increase in seeds micronutrients such as calcium, iron and zinc. Moreover, constitutive expression of FvOXDC led to improved tolerance to the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum that requires OA during host colonization. Importantly, FvOXDC-expressing soya bean and grass pea plants were similar to the wild type with respect to the morphology and photosynthetic rates, and seed protein pool remained unaltered as revealed by the comparative proteomic analysis. Taken together, these results demonstrated improved seed quality and tolerance to the fungal pathogen in two important legume crops, by the expression of an oxalate-degrading enzyme. PMID:26798990

  10. Comparative morpho-physiological and biochemical responses of lentil and grass pea genotypes under water stress

    PubMed Central

    Talukdar, Dibyendu

    2013-01-01

    Background: Both lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) in the family Fabaceae are two important cool-season food legumes, often experiencing water stress conditions during growth and maturity. Objective: The present study was undertaken to ascertain the response of these two crops under different water stress regimes. Materials and Methods: Different morpho-physiological and biochemical parameters were studied in a pot experiment under controlled environmental conditions. Along with control (proper irrigation, 0 stress), three sets of plants were subjected to mild (6 d), moderate (13 d) and severe (20 d) water stress by withholding irrigation at the appropriate time. Results: Compared with control, plant growth traits and seed yield components reduced significantly in both crops with increasing period of water stress, resulting in lowering of dry mass with more severe effect on lentil compared with grass pea. Foliar Relative Water Content (RWC) (%), K+/Na+ ratio, chlorophyll (chl) a, chl a/b ratio, stomatal conductance and net photosynthetic rate declined considerably in both crops under water stress. Leaf-free proline level increased significantly in both crops, but it decreased markedly in nodules of lentil and remained unchanged in grass pea. Nodulation was also affected due to water stress. The impairment in growth traits and physio-biochemical parameters under water stress was manifested in reduction of drought tolerance efficiency of both crops. Conclusion: Impact of water stress was more severe on lentil compared with grass pea, and modulation of growth traits signified necessity of a detailed strategy in breeding of food legumes under water stress. PMID:24082740

  11. Lathyrus sativus transcriptome resistance response to Ascochyta lathyri investigated by deepSuperSAGE analysis

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Nuno F.; Krezdorn, Nicolas; Rotter, Björn; Winter, Peter; Rubiales, Diego; Vaz Patto, Maria C.

    2015-01-01

    Lathyrus sativus (grass pea) is a temperate grain legume crop with a great potential for expansion in dry areas or zones that are becoming more drought-prone. It is also recognized as a potential source of resistance to several important diseases in legumes, such as ascochyta blight. Nevertheless, the lack of detailed genomic and/or transcriptomic information hampers further exploitation of grass pea resistance-related genes in precision breeding. To elucidate the pathways differentially regulated during ascochyta-grass pea interaction and to identify resistance candidate genes, we compared the early response of the leaf gene expression profile of a resistant L. sativus genotype to Ascochyta lathyri infection with a non-inoculated control sample from the same genotype employing deepSuperSAGE. This analysis generated 14.387 UniTags of which 95.7% mapped to a reference grass pea/rust interaction transcriptome. From the total mapped UniTags, 738 were significantly differentially expressed between control and inoculated leaves. The results indicate that several gene classes acting in different phases of the plant/pathogen interaction are involved in the L. sativus response to A. lathyri infection. Most notably a clear up-regulation of defense-related genes involved in and/or regulated by the ethylene pathway was observed. There was also evidence of alterations in cell wall metabolism indicated by overexpression of cellulose synthase and lignin biosynthesis genes. This first genome-wide overview of the gene expression profile of the L. sativus response to ascochyta infection delivered a valuable set of candidate resistance genes for future use in precision breeding. PMID:25852725

  12. Pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of gene technology methods for plants has allowed novel genes to be introduced, where natural variation is lacking, irrespective of hybridization barriers. Pea, an important agricultural crop worldwide, lacks certain genes for disease resistance and would benefit from introduction of nov...

  13. Simple Detection Methods for Antinutritive Factor β-ODAP Present in Lathyrus sativus L. by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography and Thin Layer Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Bidisha; Mitra, Joy; Chakraborty, Saikat; Bhattacharyya, Jagannath; Chakraborty, Anirban; Sen, Soumitra Kumar; Neerathilingam, Muniasamy

    2015-01-01

    Lathyrus sativus L. (Grass pea) is the source for cheap and nutritious food choice in drought and famine susceptible zones in greater part of North India and Africa. The non-protein amino acid β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP) has been known for decades for its potent neurotoxic effect, causing irreversible neurodegenerative disease “neurolathyrism”, present in both seed and leaf of Lathyrus sativus L. and other species in varying proportions. It is crucial to establish a rapid as well as reliable detection methodology for β-ODAP content in various Lathyrus plants. Currently available HPLC based methods involve multi-step derivatization of the sample. To overcome this, we have developed β-ODAP analysis method by HPLC without any prior derivatization. This method is statistically significant in the range of 2 to 100μg/ml and exhibited linear response with r2 > 0.99. Limit of detection and quantitation of the later method was determined to be 5.56 μg/ml and 16.86 μg/ml, respectively. In addition to this, a TLC based method has also been developed. The limit of detection of β-ODAP is 0.6μg and for its substrate, L-1,2-diaminopropionic acid is 5μg. Both HPLC and TLC methods were validated by conducting in-vitro bioconversion test to detect the presence of biocatalyst in plant extract. This method is economical, rapid and simple. PMID:26524073

  14. Rhizobium anhuiense as the predominant microsymbionts of Lathyrus maritimus along the Shandong Peninsula seashore line.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Wang, En Tao; Liu, Yajing; Li, Xiangyue; Yu, Bing; Ren, Chenggang; Liu, Wei; Li, Yunzhao; Xie, Zhihong

    2016-09-01

    Beach pea [Lathyrus maritimus Bigelow, or Lathyrus japonicus subsp. maritimus (L.) P.W. Ball] is a wild legume distributed on the seashore line, and the rhizobia nodulating with this plant have been reported only rarely. In order to reveal the diversity of beach pea rhizobia on the seashore line of Shandong Peninsula, China, a total of 124 bacterial strains were isolated from the root nodules of beach pea plants collected from five sites. All the isolates were divided into five recA types after screening by recA gene sequence analysis and they consisted of Rhizobium anhuiense covering 122 symbiotic isolates in three recA types, as well as two single isolates Rhizobium sp. and Rhizobium lusitanum representing distinct recA types. The recA genotype III of R. anhuiense (103 isolates) represented by strain YIC11270 was dominant at all five sampling sites. Identical symbiotic genes (nodC and nifH) were detected in the three recA genotypes of R. anhuiense isolates that were closely related to those of the pea and faba rhizobia. This study clarified that R. anhuiense was the main symbiont for beach pea rhizobia on the seashore line of Shandong Peninsula. The low level genetic diversity of beach pea rhizobia revealed by both MLSA and the symbiotic genes might be related to the strong selection pressure produced by the saline-alkaline environment and the host plants. PMID:27480059

  15. Oviposition Preference of Pea Weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. Among Host and Non-host Plants and its Implication for Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Mendesil, Esayas; Rämert, Birgitta; Marttila, Salla; Hillbur, Ylva; Anderson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. is a major insect pest of field pea, Pisum sativum L. worldwide and current control practices mainly depend on the use of chemical insecticides that can cause adverse effects on environment and human health. Insecticides are also unaffordable by many small-scale farmers in developing countries, which highlights the need for investigating plant resistance traits and to develop alternative pest management strategies. The aim of this study was to determine oviposition preference of pea weevil among P. sativum genotypes with different level of resistance (Adet, 32410-1 and 235899-1) and the non-host leguminous plants wild pea (Pisum fulvum Sibth. et Sm.) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.), in no-choice and dual-choice tests. Pod thickness and micromorphological traits of the pods were also examined. In the no-choice tests significantly more eggs were laid on the susceptible genotype Adet than on the other genotypes. Very few eggs were laid on P. fulvum and L. sativus. In the dual-choice experiments Adet was preferred by the females for oviposition. Furthermore, combinations of Adet with either 235899-1 or non-host plants significantly reduced the total number of eggs laid by the weevil in the dual-choice tests. Female pea weevils were also found to discriminate between host and non-host plants during oviposition. The neoplasm (Np) formation on 235899-1 pods was negatively correlated with oviposition by pea weevil. Pod wall thickness and trichomes might have influenced oviposition preference of the weevils. These results on oviposition behavior of the weevils can be used in developing alternative pest management strategies such as trap cropping using highly attractive genotype and intercropping with the non-host plants. PMID:26779220

  16. Oviposition Preference of Pea Weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. Among Host and Non-host Plants and its Implication for Pest Management.

    PubMed

    Mendesil, Esayas; Rämert, Birgitta; Marttila, Salla; Hillbur, Ylva; Anderson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. is a major insect pest of field pea, Pisum sativum L. worldwide and current control practices mainly depend on the use of chemical insecticides that can cause adverse effects on environment and human health. Insecticides are also unaffordable by many small-scale farmers in developing countries, which highlights the need for investigating plant resistance traits and to develop alternative pest management strategies. The aim of this study was to determine oviposition preference of pea weevil among P. sativum genotypes with different level of resistance (Adet, 32410-1 and 235899-1) and the non-host leguminous plants wild pea (Pisum fulvum Sibth. et Sm.) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.), in no-choice and dual-choice tests. Pod thickness and micromorphological traits of the pods were also examined. In the no-choice tests significantly more eggs were laid on the susceptible genotype Adet than on the other genotypes. Very few eggs were laid on P. fulvum and L. sativus. In the dual-choice experiments Adet was preferred by the females for oviposition. Furthermore, combinations of Adet with either 235899-1 or non-host plants significantly reduced the total number of eggs laid by the weevil in the dual-choice tests. Female pea weevils were also found to discriminate between host and non-host plants during oviposition. The neoplasm (Np) formation on 235899-1 pods was negatively correlated with oviposition by pea weevil. Pod wall thickness and trichomes might have influenced oviposition preference of the weevils. These results on oviposition behavior of the weevils can be used in developing alternative pest management strategies such as trap cropping using highly attractive genotype and intercropping with the non-host plants. PMID:26779220

  17. Olfactory cues from different plant species in host selection by female pea moths.

    PubMed

    Thöming, Gunda; Norli, Hans Ragnar

    2015-03-01

    In herbivorous insects specialized on few plant species, attraction to host odor may be mediated by volatiles common to all host species, by specific compounds, or combinations of both. The pea moth Cydia nigricana is an important pest of the pea. Volatile signatures of four host plant species were studied to identify compounds involved in pea moth host selection and to improve previously reported attractive volatile blends. P. sativum and alternative Fabaceae host species were compared regarding female attraction, oviposition, and larval performance. Pea moth females were strongly attracted to the sweet pea Lathyrus odoratus, but larval performance on that species was moderate. Chemical analyses of sweet pea odor and electrophysiological responses of moth antennae led to identification of seven sweet-pea-specific compounds and ten compounds common to all tested host species. Blends of these specific and common cues were highly attractive to mated pea moth females in wind tunnel and field experiments. PMID:25675276

  18. Genotypic and phenotypic diversity of rhizobia isolated from Lathyrus japonicus indigenous to Japan.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Seishiro; Kondo, Tetsuya; Prévost, Danielle; Nakata, Sayuri; Kajita, Tadashi; Ito, Motomi

    2010-11-01

    Sixty-one rhizobial strains from Lathyrus japonicus nodules growing on the seashore in Japan were characterized and compared to two strains from Canada. The PCR-based method was used to identify test strains with novel taxonomic markers that were designed to discriminate between all known Lathyrus rhizobia. Three genomic groups (I, II, and III) were finally identified using RAPD, RFLP, and phylogenetic analyses. Strains in genomic group I (related to Rhizobium leguminosarum) were divided into two subgroups (Ia and Ib) and subgroup Ia was related to biovar viciae. Strains in subgroup Ib, which were all isolated from Japanese sea pea, belonged to a distinct group from other rhizobial groups in the recA phylogeny and PCR-based grouping, and were more tolerant to salt than the isolate from an inland legume. Test strains in genomic groups II and III belonged to a single clade with the reference strains of R. pisi, R. etli, and R. phaseoli in the 16S rRNA phylogeny. The PCR-based method and phylogenetic analysis of recA revealed that genomic group II was related to R. pisi. The analyses also showed that genomic group III harbored a mixed chromosomal sequence of different genomic groups, suggesting a recent horizontal gene transfer between diverse rhizobia. Although two Canadian strains belonged to subgroup Ia, molecular and physiological analyses showed the divergence between Canadian and Japanese strains. Phylogenetic analysis of nod genes divided the rhizobial strains into several groups that reflected the host range of rhizobia. Symbiosis between dispersing legumes and rhizobia at seashore is discussed. PMID:20851546

  19. Moisture dependent physical properties of lathyrus.

    PubMed

    Kenghe, Rajendra Narayan; Nimkar, Prabhakar Manohar; Shirkole, Shivanand Shankarrao

    2013-10-01

    The moisture dependent physical properties of different lathyrus varieties namely NLK-40, Pratik and Ratan were studied at moisture content of 7.33 to 30.29, 6.75 to 29.95 and 7.90 to 30.90% (d.b.), respectively. The grain size, thousand grain weight, angle of repose, grain volume and surface area were found increased linearly. The grain size was found increased from 4.43 to 4.70, 4.96 to 5.32 and 5.08 to 5.49 mm. Thousand grain weight was found increased from 64.6 to 103.5, 69.1 to 105.3 and 85.3 to 125.6 g. The angle repose was increased from 28.3 to 35.4, 29.5 to 35.8 and 26.9 to 33.5°. The grain volume was increased from 9.13 to 10.38,11.73 to 13.24 and 12.22 to 14.15 mm(3) whereas, surface area increased from 54.78 to 62.29, 70.38 to 79.45 and 73.31 to 84.88 mm(2),respectively with the corresponding increase in moisture content, for NLK-40, Pratik and Ratan. The sphericity and porosity increased initially and then found decreased with increase in further moisture content. The bulk density values decreased linearly from 827.5 to 697.2, 851.3 to 726.3 and 856.0 to 727.4 kg/m(3). The true density values were found decreased from 1288.3 to 1074.3, 1324.0 to 1118.4 and 1277.7 to 1102.5 kg/m(3), respectively for these varieties with the corresponding increase in moisture content. PMID:24425992

  20. Effect of whole-crop pea (Pisum sativum L.) silages differing in condensed tannin content as a substitute for grass silage and soybean meal on the performance, metabolism, and carcass characteristics of lambs.

    PubMed

    Hart, K J; Sinclair, L A; Wilkinson, R G; Huntington, J A

    2011-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of inclusion of whole-crop pea (WCP) silages, differing in condensed tannin content, as a substitute for grass silage (GS) and soybean meal on lamb metabolism, performance, plasma metabolites, digestibility, and carcass characteristics. In both experiments lambs were offered either solely GS or a 50:50 mix on a DM basis of GS with either low-tannin (LTPS) or high-tannin (HTPS) pea silage ad libitum. Each forage mix was fed with either 400 g/d of low-protein (LP) concentrate or 400 g/d of LP with an additional 200 g/d of pelletized soybean meal (HP), resulting in 6 dietary treatments. Experiment 1 examined the effects of the diets on metabolism, digestibility, and N balance using 6 lambs in 4 periods of 21 d in an incomplete crossover design. Experiment 2 used 48 lambs and examined the effects of the diets on ADG, plasma metabolites, and carcass characteristics over 56 d. Both experiments were analyzed using a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. In Exp. 1, lambs offered the LTPS diets had a greater (P < 0.05) digestibility of DM and OM than those offered the GS diets. Lambs offered the WCP silages had an increased (P < 0.05) N intake, N output, and digestibility of GE compared with those offered GS. Mean N digestibility was greatest (P < 0.05) in lambs offered LTPS. Lambs offered HP diets had increased (P < 0.001) digestibility of DM, OM, GE and N, and N- intake, output, retention, and digestibility compared with those offered the LP diets. In Exp. 2, there was no effect (P > 0.05) of forage type on intake, slaughter BW, or feed conversion efficiency (FCE). However, lambs offered the LTPS had a greater (P < 0.05) ADG than those offered the GS diets. Feeding diets containing HP increased (P < 0.001) total DMI, slaughter BW, ADG, and FCE. Lambs offered the WCP had a greater (P < 0.05) plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and urea concentration compared with those offered the GS diets. Feeding lambs HP diets

  1. Molecular phylogeny of Lathyrus species: insights from sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers.

    PubMed

    Marghali, S; Touati, A; Gharbi, M; Sdouga, D; Trifi-Farah, N

    2016-01-01

    Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers were used to evaluate the intra- and interspecific variation among 40 Lathyrus genotypes (four species) (Fabaceae). Ten SRAP primer combinations resulted in a total of 94 bands, and they exhibited high interspecific variability. The genetic differentiation among Lathyrus, estimated using AMOVA, was highly significant. The results indicated that 58% of the total genetic variation existed among species, and 42% of the differentiation was within species. This was explained by the high level of genome conservation of these species as well as the recent and slow evolution of this genus. These results were confirmed by the topology of the neighbor-joining cladogram and the results of the principal coordinate analysis. Our data support previous results based on seed protein diversity. These results make SRAP markers choice markers for the study of functional polymorphism that is directly related to the transcriptomic data. The SRAP markers used in this study provide an accurate picture of the population structure within Lathyrus germplasm, which is critically important information for the design of genetic diversity and structure analyses. Moreover, further extensive studies are necessary to fully examine other Lathyrus species and tests that adopt the SRAP technique to enrich the Lathyrus library for next-generation sequencing, thus providing a potent protocol for the study of polymorphism. PMID:27051021

  2. Lathyrus cicera copper amine oxidase reactions with tryptamine.

    PubMed

    Pietrangeli, Paola; Bellelli, Andrea; Fattibene, Paola; Mondovì, Bruno; Morpurgo, Laura

    2012-04-01

    Lathyrus cicera copper amine oxidase (LCAO) rapidly formed the typical Cu(I)-TPQ semiquinone UV-visible spectrum, identical to that formed by other substrates, upon O(2) exhaustion by turnover with excess tryptamine. A new band at 630 nm formed more slowly, with intensity dependent on aldehyde and H(2)O(2) concentrations. On prolonged incubation, all bands decayed in parallel, together with loss of enzymatic activity. The blue color disappeared on addition of KCN, a Cu(I) stabilizing agent, while the intensity of the radical visible bands increased. This shows that the 630 nm absorbing species is a Cu(II) derivative, as confirmed by the unchanged intensity of the EPR spectrum of the frozen blue solution from that of the native protein. Rapid kinetics experiments showed that this species derives from a reduced form of the protein, plus aldehyde and H(2)O(2) and that it is not in dynamic equilibrium with the radical. Given the similar population of the semiquinone radical with all substrates, it is possible that the reaction with aldehyde and H(2)O(2) occurs in all cases although substrates lacking the indole group only produce the Cu(I)-semiquinone band. The radical participation to the catalytic activity is demonstrated by the observation that its relative population (controlled by the pH) parallels changes in the reoxidation rate constant, while the 630 nm absorbing species is implied in the inactivation process, which depends on H(2)O(2) and aldehyde concentration. The results of the paper are consistent with half-of-the-site reactivity, i.e. the two subunits of LCAO are kinetically and spectroscopically distinct from each other. PMID:22369770

  3. Unexpected Irregular Monoterpene "Yomogi Alcohol" in the Volatiles of the Lathyrus L. species (Leguminosae) of Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Polatoğlu, Kaan; Arsal, Seniha; Demirci, Betül; Can Başer, Kemal Hüsnü

    2016-01-01

    Lathyrus species including L. ochrus and L. sativus are known for their food, feed and horticultural uses. Despite their widespread uses and cultivation, there is limited information on their chemistry. Previously, only the essential oil composition of L. rotundifolius, L. vernus and volatiles of L. odoratus have been reported. In the present research, volatiles of seven Lathyrus L. species, namely, L. aphaca, L. ochrus, L. cicera, L. sativus, L. gorgonei, L. saxatilis and L. blepharicarpos var. cyprius were analyzed by SPME GC-MS for the first time. Plant materials were collected from five different locations in Cyprus (February-March 2012). The main components of L. aphaca volatiles from four locations were yomogi alcohol 26.1-16.5%, camphor 21.6-10.1%, tetradecane 14.3-0%; L. cicera from five locations were yomogi alcohol 20.3-3.0%, camphor 18.7-2.0%; L. gorgonei from two locations were yomogi alcohol 24.5-13.1%, camphor 17.1-9.0% and L. sativus was yomogi alcohol 11.4%, camphor 9.0%. Yomogi alcohol was not present as the major compound in L. ochrus (2-methyl butanoic acid 7.2%), L. saxatilis (hexanal 7.7%) and L. blepharicarpos var. cyprius ((Z)-3-hexenal 8.6%) volatiles. The volatiles of the Lathyrus species were also compared with each other quantitative and qualitatively using AHC analysis to find out differences among the species. The irregular monoterpene yomogi alcohol is reported from the Lathyrus and the Leguminosae family for the first time. The existence of yomogi alcohol in Lathyrus volatiles points out that the irregular monoterpenes are not restricted solely to Asteraceae family. PMID:26876676

  4. Grass allergy

    MedlinePlus

    Although the grass itself may not be harmful, fertilizers, insecticides , and herbicides applied to the grass can ... with a chemical of any sort such as fertilizer, insecticide, or herbicide, find out the product name ...

  5. Effect of blend moisture and extrusion temperature on physical properties of everlasting pea-wheat extrudates.

    PubMed

    Zarzycki, P; Kasprzak, M; Rzedzicki, Z; Sobota, A; Wirkijowska, A; Sykut-Domańska, E

    2015-10-01

    The effect of everlasting pea in combination with wheat on physical properties and microstructure of extrudates were studied. The share of everlasting pea (Lathyrus sativus) was variable, at 35, 50 and 65 %, respectively. The everlasting pea-wheat mixtures were moistened to the required level (18, 21, and 24 %), homogenized, conditioned and extruded in twin-screw extruder with counter-rotating conical screws. All of the obtained extrudates were characterised by a slow degree of radial expansion and high specific density. The Pearson correlation analysis indicated a statistically significant linear Pearson correlation (p < 0.05) between chemical compositions of the blends and physical properties of the extrudates. The expansion ratio increased as the concentration of the fibers and proteins increased, while specific density and hardness decreased. Inverse relationship was observed for crude fat. The microstructure of the extrudates was determined by both the moisture of the blend and the process temperature. The differences observed in the size, number of air cells and in the cell wall shapes and thickness indicate possibilities of the modification of physical properties of everlasting pea-wheat extrudates. The extrudates produced from everlasting pea-wheat blends (50:50) at higher barrel temperature (110/140/180/170/130 °C) were characterised by more numerous air cells of smaller diameters. Increasing moisture content of extruded blends results in extrudates with a higher porosity. No significant effect was shown in the chemical compositions on the level of metal contamination in the extrudates. The application of a counter-rotating twin-screw extrusion-cooker in the study permitted the production of compact, hard everlasting pea-wheat extrudates for use in vegetarian lunch dishes. PMID:26396414

  6. Intracellular Localization of the Neurotoxin 2,4-Diaminobutyric Acid in Lathyrus sylvestris L. Leaf Tissue.

    PubMed

    Foster, J G; Cress, W D; Wright, S F; Hess, J L

    1987-04-01

    The intracellular distribution of the neurotoxin 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DABA) in mature leaves of the perennial legume Lathyrus sylvestris L. var ;Lathco' (flatpea) was determined using subcellular fractions from mesophyll protoplasts. Chloroplasts contained about 15% of the cellular DABA. At least 75% of the DABA was vacuolar, based on the assumptions that each protoplast contained a single vacuole and that acid phosphatase occurred exclusively in the vacuole. DABA was not detectable in peroxisomal and mitochondrial fractions. Because the vacuole is not a major site of amino acid synthesis, this distribution implicates synthesis of DABA within chloroplasts with subsequent transport to and storage within the vacuoles of the mesophyll cells. PMID:16665360

  7. Large-scale microsatellite development in grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.), an orphan legume of the arid areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L., 2n = 14), a member of the family Leguminosae, holds great agronomic potential as grain and forage legume crop in the arid areas for its superb resilience to abiotic stresses such as drought, flood and salinity. The crop could not make much progress through conventional...

  8. Pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pea belongs to the Leguminosae plant family, the third largest flowering plant family with 800 genera and over 18,000 species. Tribe Fabeae is considered one of the youngest groups in the legumes and Bayesian molecular clock and ancestral range analysis suggest a crown age of 23 – 16 Mya, in the mi...

  9. Attraction of pea moth Cydia nigricana to pea flower volatiles.

    PubMed

    Thöming, Gunda; Knudsen, Geir K

    2014-04-01

    The pea moth Cydia nigricana causes major crop losses in pea (Pisum sativum) production. We investigated attraction of C. nigricana females to synthetic pea flower volatiles in a wind tunnel and in the field. We performed electroantennogram analysis on 27 previously identified pea plant volatiles, which confirmed antennal responses to nine of the compounds identified in pea flowers. A dose-dependent response was found to eight of the compounds. Various blends of the nine pea flower volatiles eliciting antennal responses were subsequently studied in a wind tunnel. A four-compound blend comprising hexan-1-ol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-β-ocimene and (E)-β-ocimene was equally attractive to mated C. nigricana females as the full pea flower mimic blend. We conducted wind-tunnel tests on different blends of these four pea flower compounds mixed with a headspace sample of non-flowering pea plants. By considering the effects of such green leaf background odour, we were able to identify (Z)- and (E)-β-ocimene as fundamental for host location by the pea moths, and hexan-1-ol and (E)-2-hexen-1-ol as being of secondary importance in that context. In the field, the two isomers of β-ocimene resulted in trap catches similar to those obtained with the full pea flower mimic and the four-compound blend, which clearly demonstrated the prime significance of the β-ocimenes as attractants of C. nigricana. The high level of the trap catches of female C. nigricana noted in this first field experiment gives a first indication of the potential use of such artificial kairomones in pea moth control. PMID:24508043

  10. Underutilized Grasses.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial warm-season grasses have been recognized for having several properties, such as high rates of net photosynthesis, energy and labor savings, and reduced soil and nutrient losses that make them better suited for biofuel production than many annual crops. Prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinat...

  11. Purification, identification and preliminary crystallographic studies of an allergenic protein from Lathyrus sativus

    SciTech Connect

    Qureshi, Insaf A.; Sethi, Dhruv K.; Salunke, Dinakar M.

    2006-09-01

    A 24 kDa protein was purified from the seeds of L. sativus by ammonium sulfate fractionation and ion-exchange chromatography. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A 24 kDa protein was purified from the seeds of Lathyrus sativus by ammonium sulfate fractionation and ion-exchange chromatography. The N-terminal amino-acid sequence showed significant homology with the 2S albumin class of seed storage proteins. The protein showed 85% sequence homology with the seed albumin of Pisum sativum within the 40 N-terminal residues. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 43.5, b = 82.7, c = 153.4 Å.

  12. Epigenetic Histone Marks of Extended Meta-Polycentric Centromeres of Lathyrus and Pisum Chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Pavel; Schubert, Veit; Fuková, Iva; Manning, Jasper E; Houben, Andreas; Macas, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Species of the legume genera Lathyrus and Pisum possess chromosomes that exhibit a unique structure of their centromeric regions, which is clearly apparent during metaphase by the formation of extended primary constrictions which span up to a third of the length of the chromosome. In addition, these species express two different variants of the CenH3 protein which are co-localized in multiple domains along the poleward surface of the primary constrictions. Here, we show that the constrictions represent a distinct type of chromatin differing from the chromosome arms. In metaphase, histone phosphorylation patterns including H3S10ph, H3S28ph, and H3T3ph were observed along the entire constriction, in a way similar to holocentric chromosomes. On the other hand, distribution of phosphorylated H2AT120 was different from that previously reported from either, holocentric and monocentric chromosomes, occurring at chromatin surrounding but not overlapping CenH3 domains. Since some of these phosphorylations play a role in chromatid cohesion, it can be assumed that they facilitate correct chromosome segregation by ensuring that multiple separate CenH3 domains present on the same chromatid are oriented toward the same pole. The constrictions also displayed distinct patterns of histone methylation marks, being enriched in H3K9me2 and depleted in H3K4me3 and H3K27me2 compared to the chromosome arms. Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy revealed that although both CenH3 protein variants are present in all CenH3 domains detected on metaphase chromosomes, they are only partially co-localized while there are chromatin subdomains which are mostly made of only one CenH3 variant. Taken together, these data revealed specific features of extended primary constrictions of Lathyrus and Pisum and support the idea that they may represent an intermediate stage between monocentric and holocentric chromosomes. PMID:26973677

  13. Epigenetic Histone Marks of Extended Meta-Polycentric Centromeres of Lathyrus and Pisum Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Pavel; Schubert, Veit; Fuková, Iva; Manning, Jasper E.; Houben, Andreas; Macas, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Species of the legume genera Lathyrus and Pisum possess chromosomes that exhibit a unique structure of their centromeric regions, which is clearly apparent during metaphase by the formation of extended primary constrictions which span up to a third of the length of the chromosome. In addition, these species express two different variants of the CenH3 protein which are co-localized in multiple domains along the poleward surface of the primary constrictions. Here, we show that the constrictions represent a distinct type of chromatin differing from the chromosome arms. In metaphase, histone phosphorylation patterns including H3S10ph, H3S28ph, and H3T3ph were observed along the entire constriction, in a way similar to holocentric chromosomes. On the other hand, distribution of phosphorylated H2AT120 was different from that previously reported from either, holocentric and monocentric chromosomes, occurring at chromatin surrounding but not overlapping CenH3 domains. Since some of these phosphorylations play a role in chromatid cohesion, it can be assumed that they facilitate correct chromosome segregation by ensuring that multiple separate CenH3 domains present on the same chromatid are oriented toward the same pole. The constrictions also displayed distinct patterns of histone methylation marks, being enriched in H3K9me2 and depleted in H3K4me3 and H3K27me2 compared to the chromosome arms. Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy revealed that although both CenH3 protein variants are present in all CenH3 domains detected on metaphase chromosomes, they are only partially co-localized while there are chromatin subdomains which are mostly made of only one CenH3 variant. Taken together, these data revealed specific features of extended primary constrictions of Lathyrus and Pisum and support the idea that they may represent an intermediate stage between monocentric and holocentric chromosomes. PMID:26973677

  14. Lathyrus diversity: available resources with relevance to crop improvement – L. sativus and L. cicera as case studies

    PubMed Central

    Vaz Patto, M. C.; Rubiales, D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Lathyrus genus includes 160 species, some of which have economic importance as food, fodder and ornamental crops (mainly L. sativus, L. cicera and L. odoratus, respectively) and are cultivated in >1·5 Mha worldwide. However, in spite of their well-recognized robustness and potential as a source of calories and protein for populations in drought-prone and marginal areas, cultivation is in decline and there is a high risk of genetic erosion. Scope In this review, current and past taxonomic treatments of the Lathyrus genus are assessed and its current status is examined together with future prospects for germplasm conservation, characterization and utilization. A particular emphasis is placed on the importance of diversity analysis for breeding of L. sativus and L. cicera. Conclusions Efforts for improvement of L. sativus and L. cicera should concentrate on the development of publicly available joint core collections, and on high-resolution genotyping. This will be critical for permitting decentralized phenotyping. Such a co-ordinated international effort should result in more efficient and faster breeding approaches, which are particularly needed for these neglected, underutilized Lathyrus species. PMID:24623333

  15. 29 CFR 780.139 - Pea vining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pea vining. 780.139 Section 780.139 Labor Regulations... âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.139 Pea vining. Vining employees of a pea vinery located on a farm, who vine only the peas grown on that particular farm, are engaged in agriculture. If...

  16. 29 CFR 780.139 - Pea vining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pea vining. 780.139 Section 780.139 Labor Regulations... âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.139 Pea vining. Vining employees of a pea vinery located on a farm, who vine only the peas grown on that particular farm, are engaged in agriculture. If...

  17. 29 CFR 780.139 - Pea vining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pea vining. 780.139 Section 780.139 Labor Regulations... âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.139 Pea vining. Vining employees of a pea vinery located on a farm, who vine only the peas grown on that particular farm, are engaged in agriculture. If...

  18. 29 CFR 780.139 - Pea vining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pea vining. 780.139 Section 780.139 Labor Regulations... âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.139 Pea vining. Vining employees of a pea vinery located on a farm, who vine only the peas grown on that particular farm, are engaged in agriculture. If...

  19. 29 CFR 780.139 - Pea vining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pea vining. 780.139 Section 780.139 Labor Regulations... âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.139 Pea vining. Vining employees of a pea vinery located on a farm, who vine only the peas grown on that particular farm, are engaged in agriculture. If...

  20. Grass Lignocellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akin, Danny E.

    Grass lignocelluloses are limited in bioconversion by aromatic constituents, which include both lignins and phenolic acids esters. Histochemistry, ultraviolet absorption microspectrophotometry, and response to microorganisms and specific enzymes have been used to determine the significance of aromatics toward recalcitrance. Coniferyl lignin appears to be the most effective limitation to biodegradation, existing in xylem cells of vascular tissues; cell walls with syringyl lignin, for example, leaf sclerenchyma, are less recalcitrant. Esterified phenolic acids, i.e., ferulic and p-coumaric acids, often constitute a major chemical limitation in nonlignified cell walls to biodegradation in grasses, especially warm-season species. Methods to improve biodegradability through modification of aromatics include: plant breeding, use of lignin-degrading white-rot fungi, and addition of esterases. Plant breeding for new cultivars has been especially effective for nutritionally improved forages, for example, bermudagrasses. In laboratory studies, selective white-rot fungi that lack cellulases delignified the lignocellulosic materials and improved fermentation of residual carbohydrates. Phenolic acid esterases released p-coumaric and ferulic acids for potential coproducts, improved the available sugars for fermentation, and improved biodegradation. The separation and removal of the aromatic components for coproducts, while enhancing the availability of sugars for bioconversion, could improve the economics of bioconversion.

  1. Clarification on Host Range of Didymella pinodes the Causal Agent of Pea Ascochyta Blight

    PubMed Central

    Barilli, Eleonora; Cobos, Maria José; Rubiales, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Didymella pinodes is the principal causal agent of ascochyta blight, one of the most important fungal diseases of pea (Pisum sativum) worldwide. Understanding its host specificity has crucial implications in epidemiology and management; however, this has not been clearly delineated yet. In this study we attempt to clarify the host range of D. pinodes and to compare it with that of other close Didymella spp. D. pinodes was very virulent on pea accessions, although differences in virulence were identified among isolates. On the contrary, studied isolates of D. fabae, D. rabiei, and D. lentil showed a reduced ability to infect pea not causing macroscopically visible symptoms on any of the pea accessions tested. D. pinodes isolates were also infective to some extend on almost all species tested including species such as Hedysarum coronarium, Lathyrus sativus, Lupinus albus, Medicago spp., Trifolium spp., Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vicia articulata which were not mentioned before as hosts of D. pinodes. On the contrary, D. lentil and D. rabiei were more specific, infecting only lentil and chickpea, respectively. D. fabae was intermediate, infecting mainly faba bean, but also slightly other species such as Glycine max, Phaseolus vulgaris, Trifolium spp., Vicia sativa, and V. articulata. DNA sequence analysis of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) was performed to confirm identity of the isolates studies and to determine phylogenetic relationship among the Didymella species, revealing the presence of two clearly distinct clades. Clade one was represented by two supported subclusters including D. fabae isolates as well as D. rabiei with D. lentil isolates. Clade two was the largest and included all the D. pinodes isolates as well as Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella. Genetic distance between D. pinodes and the other Didymella spp. isolates was not correlated with overall differences in pathogenicity. Based on evidences presented here, D

  2. Clarification on Host Range of Didymella pinodes the Causal Agent of Pea Ascochyta Blight.

    PubMed

    Barilli, Eleonora; Cobos, Maria José; Rubiales, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Didymella pinodes is the principal causal agent of ascochyta blight, one of the most important fungal diseases of pea (Pisum sativum) worldwide. Understanding its host specificity has crucial implications in epidemiology and management; however, this has not been clearly delineated yet. In this study we attempt to clarify the host range of D. pinodes and to compare it with that of other close Didymella spp. D. pinodes was very virulent on pea accessions, although differences in virulence were identified among isolates. On the contrary, studied isolates of D. fabae, D. rabiei, and D. lentil showed a reduced ability to infect pea not causing macroscopically visible symptoms on any of the pea accessions tested. D. pinodes isolates were also infective to some extend on almost all species tested including species such as Hedysarum coronarium, Lathyrus sativus, Lupinus albus, Medicago spp., Trifolium spp., Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vicia articulata which were not mentioned before as hosts of D. pinodes. On the contrary, D. lentil and D. rabiei were more specific, infecting only lentil and chickpea, respectively. D. fabae was intermediate, infecting mainly faba bean, but also slightly other species such as Glycine max, Phaseolus vulgaris, Trifolium spp., Vicia sativa, and V. articulata. DNA sequence analysis of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) was performed to confirm identity of the isolates studies and to determine phylogenetic relationship among the Didymella species, revealing the presence of two clearly distinct clades. Clade one was represented by two supported subclusters including D. fabae isolates as well as D. rabiei with D. lentil isolates. Clade two was the largest and included all the D. pinodes isolates as well as Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella. Genetic distance between D. pinodes and the other Didymella spp. isolates was not correlated with overall differences in pathogenicity. Based on evidences presented here, D

  3. HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n) profiling of phenolic compounds from Lathyrus cicera L. seeds.

    PubMed

    Ferreres, F; Magalhães, S C Q; Gil-Izquierdo, A; Valentão, P; Cabrita, A R J; Fonseca, A J M; Andrade, P B

    2017-01-01

    Lathyrus cicera L. seeds are of interest for food and feed purposes. Despite the recognized antioxidant activity of the seeds, arising from the phenolic fraction, their phenolic compounds have not been studied in depth yet. Therefore, to determine the phenolics profile of these seeds, a target analysis was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode-array detection and electrospray ionization/ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n)). Thirty-seven glycosylated flavonoids were identified for the first time in the seeds of this species and, according to their MS fragmentation, clustered in flavonol-3-O-di-/tri-glycosides-7-O-rhamnosides and other flavonol-glycosides, and flavonol-3-O-(cinnamoyl)glycoside-7-O-rhamnosides, flavonol-3-O-(dihydrophaseoyl, cinnamoyl)glycoside-7-O-rhamnosides and flavonol-3-O-(malonyl)glycoside-7-O-rhamnosides. Glycosides of kaempferol were the main flavonoids found (10 non-acylated and 21 acylated), followed by those of quercetin (3) and those of isorhamnetin, apigenin and luteolin (1). The most abundant flavonols were identified as kaempferol-3-O-(2-hexosyl)hexoside-7-O-rhamnosides. The methodology used allowed to increase the knowledge on a relevant phytochemical class of seeds from L. cicera. PMID:27507525

  4. Lessons from neurolathyrism: A disease of the past & the future of Lathyrus sativus (Khesari dal)

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Surya S.; Rao, S.L.N.

    2013-01-01

    Neurolathyrism is past history in India since Lathyrus sativus (khesari dal) is no longer used as a staple. A consensus has evolved that khesari dal is harmless as part of a normal diet. L-ODAP (β-N-oxalyl-l-α-diamino propionic acid) the neurotoxic amino acid, from this pulse, is detoxified in humans but not in animals but still no laboratory animal is susceptible to it under acceptable feeding regimens. L-ODAP is an activator of protein kinase C and consequential crucial downstream effects such as stabilization of hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) could be extremely conducive to humans under a variety of situations. ODAP is gradually finding a place in several patents for this reason. Homoarginine the second amino acid from L. sativus can be a better substrate for endogenous generation of nitric oxide, a crucial signaling molecule associated with the cardiovasculature and control of hypertension. These features could make L. sativus a prized commodity as a functional food for the general cardiovasculature and overcome hypoxic events and is set to change the entire perception of this pulse and neurolathyrism. PMID:24056554

  5. 78 FR 63160 - United States Standards for Feed Peas, Split Peas, and Lentils

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... Peas, and Lentils AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA ACTION: Notice... Peas, and Lentils under the Agriculture Marketing Act (AMA) of 1946. To ensure that the standards and... current U.S. Standards for Feed Peas, Split Peas, and Lentils are meeting the needs in today's...

  6. Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B.

    1998-12-31

    The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat.

  7. PEAS AND PARTICLES, TEACHER'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1966

    THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE IS DESIGNED FOR USE WITH AN ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY UNIT ON "PEAS AND PARTICLES" WHICH DEALS WITH LARGE NUMBERS AND ESTIMATIONS. ITS PURPOSE IS TO GIVE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN AN UNDERSTANDING OF WHAT LARGE NUMBERS MEAN THROUGH INFORMAL ACTIVITIES INVOLVING FAMILIAR OBJECTS. THE MATERIAL HAS BEEN FOUND SUITABLE FOR GRADES…

  8. Sustained antidepressant effect of PEA replacement.

    PubMed

    Sabelli, H; Fink, P; Fawcett, J; Tom, C

    1996-01-01

    Phenylethylamine (PEA), an endogenous neuroamine, increases attention and activity in animals and has been shown to relieve depression in 60% of depressed patients. It has been proposed that PEA deficit may be the cause of a common form of depressive illness. Fourteen patients with major depressive episodes that responded to PEA treatment (10-60 mg orally per day, with 10 mg/day selegiline to prevent rapid PEA destruction) were reexamined 20 to 50 weeks later. The antidepressant response had been maintained in 12 patients. Effective dosage did not change with time. There were no apparent side effects. PEA produces sustained relief of depression in a significant number of patients, including some unresponsive to the standard treatments. PEA improves mood as rapidly as amphetamine but does not produce tolerance. PMID:9081552

  9. QTL may explain a tolerance response to Pea enation mosaic virus in pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV) is a serious disease of fresh market and dry pea in the Pacific Northwest region of the U.S. The dominant En gene confers resistance to PEMV in pea, however, only a limited number of available cultivars contain the gene. While some cultivars have been reported with ...

  10. Growth parameters of vegetable pigeon pea cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigeon pea is an important crop in the dry regions of eastern Kenya, due to its drought tolerance and high protein content; however, farmer’s yield is limiting. Ojwang et al. (HortTech Vol 26 (1), 2016) evaluated twelve pigeon pea cultivars for flowering, plant height, branches, pod length and yield...

  11. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen peas. 158.170 Section 158.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FROZEN VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Frozen Vegetables § 158.170 Frozen peas. (a) Identity—(1) Product...

  12. Yield potential of pigeon pea cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yield potential of twelve vegetable pigeon pea (Cajanus cajun) cultivars was evaluated at two locations in eastern Kenya during 2012 and 2013 cropping years. Pigeon pea pod numbers, seeds per pod, seed mass, grain yield and shelling percentage were quantified in three replicated plots, arranged in a...

  13. Pea amyloplast DNA is qualitatively similar to pea chloroplast DNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaynor, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Amyloplast DNA (apDNA), when subjected to digestion with restriction endonucleases, yields patterns nearly identical to that of DNA from mature pea chloroplasts (ctDNA). Southern transfers of apDNA and ctDNA, probed with the large subunit (LS) gene of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco), shows hybridization to the expected restriction fragments for both apDNA and ctDNA. However, Northern transfers of total RNA from chloroplasts and amyloplasts, probed again with the LS gene of Rubisco, shows that no detectable LS meggage is found in amyloplasts although LS expression in mature chloroplasts is high. Likewise, two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of etiolated gravisensitive pea tissue shows that both large and small subunits of Rubisco are conspicuously absent; however, in greening tissue these two constitute the major soluble proteins. These findings suggest that although the informational content of these two organelle types is equivalent, gene expression is quite different and is presumably under nuclear control.

  14. Pests in Ornamental Grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ornamental perennial grasses are becoming increasingly popular in the landscape due to their beauty and ease of care. Although few pest problems are encountered in ornamental grasses, they are not immune to insects and disease. Two lined spittlebugs (Prosapia bicincta) can cause damage to ornament...

  15. 21 CFR 155.172 - Canned dry peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned dry peas. 155.172 Section 155.172 Food and... peas. (a) Identity. Canned dry peas conforms to the definition and standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients, prescribed for canned peas by §...

  16. 21 CFR 155.172 - Canned dry peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned dry peas. 155.172 Section 155.172 Food and... peas. (a) Identity. Canned dry peas conforms to the definition and standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients, prescribed for canned peas by §...

  17. 21 CFR 155.172 - Canned dry peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned dry peas. 155.172 Section 155.172 Food and... peas. (a) Identity. Canned dry peas conforms to the definition and standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients, prescribed for canned peas by §...

  18. 21 CFR 155.172 - Canned dry peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned dry peas. 155.172 Section 155.172 Food and... peas. (a) Identity. Canned dry peas conforms to the definition and standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients, prescribed for canned peas by §...

  19. 21 CFR 155.172 - Canned dry peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned dry peas. 155.172 Section 155.172 Food and... peas. (a) Identity. Canned dry peas conforms to the definition and standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients, prescribed for canned peas by §...

  20. Pea Aphid Outbreaks and Virus Epidemics on Peas in the U.S. Pacific Northwest: Histories, Mysteries, and Challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pea aphid adversely affects the health and vigor of peas in the U.S. Pacific Northwest by sucking sap from leaves, stems, and pods and by transmitting four different pathogenic viruses. In eastern Washington, field peas are devastated by pea aphid feeding damage and legume viruses during periodi...

  1. Occurrence of viruses infecting pea in Iran.

    PubMed

    Esfandiari, N; Kohi-Habibi, M; Mosahebi, Gh

    2006-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the incidence of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV), Broad bean wilt virus-1 (BBWV), Pea leafroll virus (PLRV), Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV), Pea seed borne mosaic virus (PSbMV), Potato virus x(PVX), Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) on pea (Pisum sativum) in Iran. A Total of 1276 random and 684 symptomatic pea samples were collected during the spring and summer of 2002-2004 in Tehran province of Iran, where pea is grown, and tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using specific polyclonal antibodies. Serological diagnoses were confirmed by electron microscopy and host range studies. Incidence of viruses in decreasing order was PVX (69%), ToMV (59%), PSbMV (36.6%), BBWV-1 (26.1%), BYMV (20.3%), AMV (17.77%), TSWV (12.6%), PEMV (10.9%), PLRV (6.78%). In this survey, natural occurrence of AMV, BBWV-1, PSbMV, TSWV, PVX and ToMV was reported for the first time on the pea in Iran. PMID:17390891

  2. DPPH scavenging, PRAP activities and essential oil composition of edible Lathyrus ochrus L. (Cyprus Vetch, Luvana) from Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Polatoğlu, Kaan; Arsal, Seniha; Demirci, Betül; Başer, Kemal Hüsnü Can

    2015-01-01

    The essential oil of the aerial parts of edible Lathyrus ochrus L. was investigated by simultaneous GC, GC/MS analyses under the same conditions. Trace amount of oil (0.01> mL) obtained by hydro distillation of 200 g fresh plants was trapped in 1 mL n-hexane. Twenty components were detected representing 91.55 ± 0.56 % of the oil. The main components were phytol 49.39 ± 0.44 %, hexadecanoic acid 20.64 ± 0.89 % and pentacosane 4.20 ± 0.09 %. Essential oil solution (1% oil: n-hexane) afforded similar DPPH scavenging activity (9.28 ± 1.30 %) when compared with positive controls α-tocopherol (9.74 ± 0.21 %) and BHT (7.79 ± 0.26 %) at the same concentrations. Antioxidant activity of the oil was determined using a new HPTLC-PRAP assay. The oil afforded two fold higher reducing activity of phosphomolybdenum complex (594.85 ± 5.14 AU) when compared with positive controls α- tocopherol (271.10 ± 2.86 AU) and BHT (210.53 ± 1.81 AU) at the same concentration. PMID:25757435

  3. Grass Rooting the System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Janice E.

    1976-01-01

    Suggests a taxonomy of the grass roots movement and gives a general descriptive over view of the 60 groups studied with respect to origin, constituency, size, funding, issues, and ideology. (Author/AM)

  4. GRASS GIS Vector Processing: Towards GRASS 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, Markus; Landa, Martin; Petrasova, Anna; Petras, Vaclav; Chemin, Yann; Neteler, Markus

    2014-05-01

    The upcoming GRASS GIS 7 release improves not only raster processing and general design but the vector processing in the first place. GRASS GIS, as a topological GIS, recognizes that the topology plays the key role in the vector processing and analysis. Topology ensures that adjacent geographic components in a single vector map are related. In contrast to non-topological GIS, a border common to two areas exists only once and is shared between the two areas. Topological representation of vector data helps to produce and maintain vector maps with clean geometry as well as enables the user to perform certain analyses that can not be conducted with non-topological or spaghetti data. Non-topological vector data are automatically converted to a topological representation upon import. Further more, various cleaning tools exist to remove non-trivial topological errors. In the upcoming GRASS GIS 7 release the vector library was particularly improved to make it faster and more efficient with an improved internal vector file format. This new topological format reduces memory and disk space requirements, leading to a generally faster processing. Opening an existing vector requires less memory providing additionally support for large files. The new spatial index performs queries faster (compared to GRASS GIS 6 more than 10 times for large vectors). As a new option the user can select a file-based version of the spatial index for large vector data. All topological cleaning tools have been optimized with regard to processing speed, robustness, and system requirements. The topological engine comes with a new prototype for direct read/write support of Simple Features API/OGR. Additionally vector data can be directly exchanged with topological PostGIS 2 databases. Considering the wide spread usage of ESRI Shapefile, a non-topological format for vector data exchange, it is particularly advantageous that GRASS GIS 7 offers advanced cleaning tools. For power users and programmers, the

  5. Antifungal Hydrolases in Pea Tissue 1

    PubMed Central

    Mauch, Felix; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Boller, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    Chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase purified from pea pods acted synergistically in the degradation of fungal cell walls. The antifungal potential of the two enzymes was studied directly by adding protein preparations to paper discs placed on agar plates containing germinated fungal spores. Protein extracts from pea pods infected with Fusarium solani f.sp. phaseoli, which contained high activities of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, inhibited growth of 15 out of 18 fungi tested. Protein extracts from uninfected pea pods, which contained low activities of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, did not inhibit fungal growth. Purified chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, tested individually, did not inhibit growth of most of the test fungi. Only Trichoderma viride was inhibited by chitinase alone, and only Fusarium solani f.sp. pisi was inhibited by β-1,3-glucanase alone. However, combinations of purified chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase inhibited all fungi tested as effectively as crude protein extracts containing the same enzyme activities. The pea pathogen, Fusarium solani f.sp. pisi, and the nonpathogen of peas, Fusarium solani f.sp. phaseoli, were similarly strongly inhibited by chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, indicating that the differential pathogenicity of the two fungi is not due to differential sensitivity to the pea enzymes. Inhibition of fungal growth was caused by the lysis of the hyphal tips. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:16666407

  6. Peas in a Pod: Environment and Ionization in Green Pea Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, Heather; Jaskot, Anne; Drew, Patrick; Pare, Dylan; Griffin, Jon; Petersen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Green Peas are extreme, highly ionized, starburst galaxies with strong [OIII] 5007 emission. Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we present statistics on the environment of Green Peas and investigate its effects on their ionized gas properties. Although most dwarf starburst galaxies are in low-density environments, we identify a sample of Green Peas in dense environments. Emission line observations with the WIYN 0.9-meter telescope at Kitt Peak reveal that one cluster Green Pea is more highly ionized in the direction of the cluster center. Ram pressure stripping likely generates this ionization gradient. We explore the role of the environment in enhancing star formation rates and ionization, and we compare the nebular properties of Green Peas in high-density environments to those in low-density environments.

  7. Pea Plants Show Risk Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Dener, Efrat; Kacelnik, Alex; Shemesh, Hagai

    2016-07-11

    Sensitivity to variability in resources has been documented in humans, primates, birds, and social insects, but the fit between empirical results and the predictions of risk sensitivity theory (RST), which aims to explain this sensitivity in adaptive terms, is weak [1]. RST predicts that agents should switch between risk proneness and risk aversion depending on state and circumstances, especially according to the richness of the least variable option [2]. Unrealistic assumptions about agents' information processing mechanisms and poor knowledge of the extent to which variability imposes specific selection in nature are strong candidates to explain the gap between theory and data. RST's rationale also applies to plants, where it has not hitherto been tested. Given the differences between animals' and plants' information processing mechanisms, such tests should help unravel the conflicts between theory and data. Measuring root growth allocation by split-root pea plants, we show that they favor variability when mean nutrient levels are low and the opposite when they are high, supporting the most widespread RST prediction. However, the combination of non-linear effects of nitrogen availability at local and systemic levels may explain some of these effects as a consequence of mechanisms not necessarily evolved to cope with variance [3, 4]. This resembles animal examples in which properties of perception and learning cause risk sensitivity even though they are not risk adaptations [5]. PMID:27374342

  8. 1. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ISLAND. REMAINS OF SEA WALL VISIBLE IN FOREGROUND AND RIGHT OF IMAGE. - Fort Delaware, Sea Wall, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  9. Immunofluorescence detection of pea protein in meat products.

    PubMed

    Petrášová, Michaela; Pospiech, Matej; Tremlová, Bohuslava; Javůrková, Zdeňka

    2016-08-01

    In this study we developed an immunofluorescence method to detect pea protein in meat products. Pea protein has a high nutritional value but in sensitive individuals it may be responsible for causing allergic reactions. We produced model meat products with various additions of pea protein and flour; the detection limit (LOD) of the method for pea flour was 0.5% addition, and for pea protein it was 0.001% addition. The repeatabilities and reproducibilities for samples both positive and negative for pea protein were all 100%. In a blind test with model products and commercial samples, there was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) between the declared concentrations of pea protein and flour and the immunofluorescence method results. Sensitivity was 1.06 and specificity was 1.00. These results show that the immunofluorescence method is suitable for the detection of pea protein in meat products. PMID:27441410

  10. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ISLAND. REMAINS OF SEA WALL VISIBLE IN FOREGROUND AND RIGHT OF IMAGE - Fort Delaware, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  11. Pea weevil damage and chemical characteristics of pea cultivars determining their resistance to Bruchus pisorum L.

    PubMed

    Nikolova, I

    2016-04-01

    Bruchus pisorum (L.) is one of the most intractable pest problems of cultivated pea in Europe. Development of resistant cultivars is very important to environmental protection and would solve this problem to a great extent. Therefore, the resistance of five spring pea cultivars was studied to B. pisorum: Glyans, Modus; Kamerton and Svit and Pleven 4 based on the weevil damage and chemical composition of seeds. The seeds were classified as three types: healthy seeds (type one), damaged seeds with parasitoid emergence holes (type two) and damaged seeds with bruchid emergence holes (type three). From visibly damaged pea seeds by pea weevil B. pisorum was isolated the parasitoid Triaspis thoracica Curtis (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). Modus, followed by Glyans was outlined as resistant cultivars against the pea weevil. They had the lowest total damaged seed degree, loss in weight of damaged seeds (type two and type three) and values of susceptibility coefficients. A strong negative relationship (r = -0.838) between the weight of type one seeds and the proportion of type three seeds was found. Cultivars with lower protein and phosphorus (P) content had a lower level of damage. The crude protein, crude fiber and P content in damaged seeds significantly or no significantly were increased as compared with the healthy seeds due to weevil damage. The P content had the highest significant influence on pea weevil infestation. Use of chemical markers for resistance to the creation of new pea cultivars can be effective method for defense and control against B. pisorum. PMID:26837535

  12. Identification of Resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorium in Peas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White mold, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, can be a serious disease in irrigated and dryland peas in the Pacific Northwest and is considered a serious potential threat to the expanding pea production in the Midwest of the United States. Due to poor economic returns to pea growers, expensive fo...

  13. 7 CFR 457.137 - Green pea crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Green pea crop insurance provisions. 457.137 Section 457.137 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.137 Green pea crop insurance provisions. The Green Pea Crop...

  14. Possible causes of dry pea synergy to corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry pea improves corn yield and tolerance to weed interference compared with soybean, spring wheat, or canola as preceding crops. To understand this synergy between dry pea and corn, we examined growth and nutrient concentration of corn following dry pea or soybean in sequence. Each corn plot was ...

  15. Potential alternative hosts for a powdery mildew on pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery mildew of pea (Pisum sativum) is an important disease in the field and in the greenhouse. The most widely documented powdery mildew on pea is Erysiphe pisi, but E. trifolii and E. baeumleri have also been reported. From greenhouse-grown peas, we obtained powdery mildew samples with rDNA ITS ...

  16. 78 FR 68410 - United States Standards for Whole Dry Peas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... for Whole Dry Peas. The proposal would establish an additional color grading factor requirement for the Whole Dry Peas class ``Smooth Yellow Dry Peas'' and establish a definition for ``fair color yellow..., grade, and packaging and recommend and demonstrate such standards in order to encourage uniformity...

  17. LIGNIN ACYLATION IN GRASSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acylation of lignin during growth and development is a commonly found among some plant species. Grasses form unique acylated lignins involving p-coumarate (pCA). In corn rind tissue, it is exclusively attached to the gamma-carbon of lignin monomers, with a strong preference (over 90%) for attachment...

  18. Evidence that QTL may be involved in a tolerance response to Pea enation mosaic virus in pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV) is a serious disease of fresh market and dry pea in the Pacific Northwest region of the U.S. The En gene confers resistance to PEMV in pea, however a limited number of available cultivars contain the gene, and sources of tolerance have not been reported. In 2007, ad...

  19. Registration of Pea Germplasm Partially Resistant to Aphanomyces Root Rot for Breeding Fresh or Freezer Pea and Dry Pea Types

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven F8 derived breeding lines, 846-07, 847-08, 847-22, 847-45, 847-50, 847-53 and 847-68, of green pea (Pisum sativum, L.) were selected from a recombinant inbred line population that was developed by the USDA ARS in 2002. These lines are unique as they combine high levels of tolerance to Aphanom...

  20. Polyvinyl polypyrrolidone attenuates genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles synthesized via green route, tested in Lathyrus sativus L. root bioassay.

    PubMed

    Panda, Kamal K; Achary, V Mohan M; Phaomie, Ganngam; Sahu, Hrushi K; Parinandi, Narasimham L; Panda, Brahma B

    2016-08-01

    The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized extracellularly from silver nitrate (AgNO3) using kernel extract from ripe mango Mengifera indica L. under four different reaction conditions of the synthesis media such as the (i) absence of the reducing agent, trisodium citrate (AgNPI), (ii) presence of the reducing agent (AgNPII), (iii) presence of the cleansing agent, polyvinyl polypyrrolidone, PVPP (AgNPIII), and (iv) presence of the capping agent, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, PVP (AgNPIV). The synthesis of the AgNPs was monitored by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The AgNPs were characterised by the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and small-angle X-ray scattering. Functional groups on the AgNPs were established by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The AgNPs (AgNPI, AgNPII, AgNPIII and AgNPIV) were spherical in shape with the diameters and size distribution-widths of 14.0±5.4, 19.2±6.6, 18.8±6.6 and 44.6±13.2nm, respectively. Genotoxicity of the AgNPs at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100mgL(-1) was determined by the Lathyrus sativus L. root bioassay and several endpoint assays including the generation of reactive oxygen species and cell death, lipid peroxidation, mitotic index, chromosome aberrations (CA), micronucleus formation (MN), and DNA damage as determined by the Comet assay. The dose-dependent induction of genotoxicity of the silver ion (Ag(+)) and AgNPs was in the order Ag(+)>AgNPII>AgNPI>AgNPIV>AgNPIII that corresponded with their relative potencies of induction of DNA damage and oxidative stress. Furthermore, the findings underscored the CA and MN endpoint-based genotoxicity assay which demonstrated the genotoxicity of AgNPs at concentrations (≤10mgL(-1)) lower than that (≥10mgL(-1)) tested in the Comet assay. This study demonstrated the protective action of PVPP against the genotoxicity of AgNPIII which was independent of the size of the AgNPs in the L. sativus L. root bioassay

  1. Review of the health benefits of peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Dahl, Wendy J; Foster, Lauren M; Tyler, Robert T

    2012-08-01

    Pulses, including peas, have long been important components of the human diet due to their content of starch, protein and other nutrients. More recently, the health benefits other than nutrition associated with pulse consumption have attracted much interest. The focus of the present review paper is the demonstrated and potential health benefits associated with the consumption of peas, Pisum sativum L., specifically green and yellow cotyledon dry peas, also known as smooth peas or field peas. These health benefits derive mainly from the concentration and properties of starch, protein, fibre, vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals in peas. Fibre from the seed coat and the cell walls of the cotyledon contributes to gastrointestinal function and health, and reduces the digestibility of starch in peas. The intermediate amylose content of pea starch also contributes to its lower glycaemic index and reduced starch digestibility. Pea protein, when hydrolysed, may yield peptides with bioactivities, including angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor activity and antioxidant activity. The vitamin and mineral contents of peas may play important roles in the prevention of deficiency-related diseases, specifically those related to deficiencies of Se or folate. Peas contain a variety of phytochemicals once thought of only as antinutritive factors. These include polyphenolics, in coloured seed coat types in particular, which may have antioxidant and anticarcinogenic activity, saponins which may exhibit hypocholesterolaemic and anticarcinogenic activity, and galactose oligosaccharides which may exert beneficial prebiotic effects in the large intestine. PMID:22916813

  2. CEI-PEA Alert, Summer 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Educational Innovation - Public Education Association, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The "CEI-PEA Alert" is an advocacy newsletter that deals with topics of interest to all concerned with the New York City public schools. This issue includes: (1) Practical Skills & High Academic Standards: Career Technical Education; (2) Parents: Help Your Children Gain "Soft Skills" for the Workforce; (3) Culinary Arts Motivate High School…

  3. CEI-PEA Alert, Fall 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Educational Innovation - Public Education Association, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The "CEI-PEA Alert" is an advocacy newsletter that deals with topics of interest to all concerned with the New York City public schools. This issue includes: (1) Chancellor Joel I. Klein Announces New Accountability System for NYC Schools; (2) Students Achieve Record-High Scores!; (3) Use Data to Help Your Child Improve Performance; (4) Are…

  4. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen peas. 158.170 Section 158.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FROZEN VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Frozen Vegetables § 158.170 Frozen...

  5. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen peas. 158.170 Section 158.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FROZEN VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Frozen Vegetables § 158.170 Frozen...

  6. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen peas. 158.170 Section 158.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FROZEN VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Frozen Vegetables § 158.170 Frozen...

  7. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen peas. 158.170 Section 158.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FROZEN VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Frozen Vegetables § 158.170 Frozen...

  8. Iron bioavailability in low phytate pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds have high nutritional value but also contain potential anti-nutritional factors, such as phytate and polyphenols. Phytate can store up to 80% of the phosphorus in seeds. In the seed and during digestion it can complex minerals such as iron and zinc and make them un...

  9. Attacking invasive grasses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2015-01-01

    In grasslands fire may play a role in the plant invasion process, both by creating disturbances that potentially favour non-native invasions and as a possible tool for controlling alien invasions. Havill et al. (Applied Vegetation Science, 18, 2015, this issue) determine how native and non-native species respond to different fire regimes as a first step in understanding the potential control of invasive grasses.

  10. Response of Pea Varieties to Damage Degree of Pea Weevil, Bruchus pisorum L.

    PubMed Central

    Nikolova, Ivelina Mitkova

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the response of five pea varieties (Pisum sativum L.) to damage degree of Bruchus pisorum: Glyans, Modus, Kamerton, and Svit (Ukrainian cultivars) and Pleven 4 (Bulgarian cultivar). The seeds were classified into three types: healthy seeds (type 1), damaged seeds with parasitoid emergence hole (type 2), and damaged seeds with bruchid emergence hole (type 3) and they were sown. It was found that the weight of 1000 seeds did not affect the field germination of the pea varieties. Healthy and damaged seeds with parasitoid emergence holes (first and second seed types) provide a very good opportunity for growth and development while plants from damaged seeds with bruchid emergence holes had poor germination and vigor and low productivity. These seeds cannot provide the creation of well-garnished seeding and stable crop yields. Among tested varieties, the Ukrainian variety Glyans had considerably higher seed weight, field germination, and index germination and weak egg-laying activity of B. pisorum compared to others. Use of spring pea cultivars that are weakly preferred by the pea weevil in breeding programs would reduce losses due to pea weevil and provide an environmentally safer option to its control. PMID:27042379

  11. Genotoxicological Evaluation of NUTRALYS Pea Protein Isolate.

    PubMed

    Aouatif, Chentouf; Looten, Ph; Parvathi, M V S; Raja Ganesh, S; Paranthaman, V

    2013-01-01

    NUTRALYS Pea Protein Isolate, a protein supplement, is a high-quality source of protein which is primarily emulsifying functional protein. We evaluated the genotoxic potential of NUTRALYS isolated from dry yellow pea, using three established genotoxicity tests (AMES test in vitro chromosomal aberration test, and in vivo micronucleus test) employing OECD guidelines under GLP conditions. In the bacterial reverse mutation test, NUTRALYS did not show positive responses in strains detecting point and frame shift mutations. In the chromosomal aberration test, NUTRALYS did not induce chromosome aberrations in the presence and absence of metabolic activation. In the bone marrow micronucleus test, NUTRALYS did not induce significant increases of micronucleated immature (polychromatic) erythrocytes in bone marrow of test animals. PMID:23762639

  12. PERENNIAL WARM-SEASON GRASSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Warm-season grasses and can be used to augment the forage supply for grazing livestock operations in the northeastern U.S. Much of what is known about warm season grass production and management in the northeastern US was obtained from a soil conservation or wildlife habitat perspective. Warm-seas...

  13. Ornamental Landscape Grasses. Slide Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Still, Steven M.; Adams, Denise W.

    This slide script to accompany the slide series, Ornamental Landscape Grasses, contains photographs of the 167 slides and accompanying narrative text intended for use in the study and identification of commercially important ornamental grasses and grasslike plants. Narrative text is provided for slides of 62 different perennial and annual species…

  14. Genomic Tools in Pea Breeding Programs: Status and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Tayeh, Nadim; Aubert, Grégoire; Pilet-Nayel, Marie-Laure; Lejeune-Hénaut, Isabelle; Warkentin, Thomas D.; Burstin, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an annual cool-season legume and one of the oldest domesticated crops. Dry pea seeds contain 22–25% protein, complex starch and fiber constituents, and a rich array of vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals which make them a valuable source for human consumption and livestock feed. Dry pea ranks third to common bean and chickpea as the most widely grown pulse in the world with more than 11 million tons produced in 2013. Pea breeding has achieved great success since the time of Mendel's experiments in the mid-1800s. However, several traits still require significant improvement for better yield stability in a larger growing area. Key breeding objectives in pea include improving biotic and abiotic stress resistance and enhancing yield components and seed quality. Taking advantage of the diversity present in the pea genepool, many mapping populations have been constructed in the last decades and efforts have been deployed to identify loci involved in the control of target traits and further introgress them into elite breeding materials. Pea now benefits from next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies that are paving the way for genome-wide association studies and genomic selection approaches. This review covers the significant development and deployment of genomic tools for pea breeding in recent years. Future prospects are discussed especially in light of current progress toward deciphering the pea genome. PMID:26640470

  15. Genomic Tools in Pea Breeding Programs: Status and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Tayeh, Nadim; Aubert, Grégoire; Pilet-Nayel, Marie-Laure; Lejeune-Hénaut, Isabelle; Warkentin, Thomas D; Burstin, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an annual cool-season legume and one of the oldest domesticated crops. Dry pea seeds contain 22-25% protein, complex starch and fiber constituents, and a rich array of vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals which make them a valuable source for human consumption and livestock feed. Dry pea ranks third to common bean and chickpea as the most widely grown pulse in the world with more than 11 million tons produced in 2013. Pea breeding has achieved great success since the time of Mendel's experiments in the mid-1800s. However, several traits still require significant improvement for better yield stability in a larger growing area. Key breeding objectives in pea include improving biotic and abiotic stress resistance and enhancing yield components and seed quality. Taking advantage of the diversity present in the pea genepool, many mapping populations have been constructed in the last decades and efforts have been deployed to identify loci involved in the control of target traits and further introgress them into elite breeding materials. Pea now benefits from next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies that are paving the way for genome-wide association studies and genomic selection approaches. This review covers the significant development and deployment of genomic tools for pea breeding in recent years. Future prospects are discussed especially in light of current progress toward deciphering the pea genome. PMID:26640470

  16. Effect of cowpea and pea inocula on cool-season grasses.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizobium or Bradyrhizobium bacteria, which form nitrogen fixing nodules on the legume plant roots, also produce plant growth, or other compounds that may inhibit pathogenic bacteria. Non-legume crops, such as corn and rice, inoculated with these bacteria have shown greater plant growth as compared ...

  17. How does pea architecture influence light sharing in virtual wheat–pea mixtures? A simulation study based on pea genotypes with contrasting architectures

    PubMed Central

    Barillot, Romain; Combes, Didier; Chevalier, Valérie; Fournier, Christian; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Abraham J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Light interception is a key factor driving the functioning of wheat–pea intercrops. The sharing of light is related to the canopy structure, which results from the architectural parameters of the mixed species. In the present study, we characterized six contrasting pea genotypes and identified architectural parameters whose range of variability leads to various levels of light sharing within virtual wheat–pea mixtures. Methodology Virtual plants were derived from magnetic digitizations performed during the growing cycle in a greenhouse experiment. Plant mock-ups were used as inputs of a radiative transfer model in order to estimate light interception in virtual wheat–pea mixtures. The turbid medium approach, extended to well-mixed canopies, was used as a framework for assessing the effects of leaf area index (LAI) and mean leaf inclination on light sharing. Principal results Three groups of pea genotypes were distinguished: (i) early and leafy cultivars, (ii) late semi-leafless cultivars and (iii) low-development semi-leafless cultivars. Within open canopies, light sharing was well described by the turbid medium approach and was therefore determined by the architectural parameters that composed LAI and foliage inclination. When canopy closure started, the turbid medium approach was unable to properly infer light partitioning because of the vertical structure of the canopy. This was related to the architectural parameters that determine the height of pea genotypes. Light capture was therefore affected by the development of leaflets, number of branches and phytomers, as well as internode length. Conclusions This study provides information on pea architecture and identifies parameters whose variability can be used to drive light sharing within wheat–pea mixtures. These results could be used to build up the architecture of pea ideotypes adapted to multi-specific stands towards light competition. PMID:23240074

  18. Additional pea EST-SSR markers for comparative mapping in pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The availability of a large set of molecular markers is an excellent resource for both applied and basic research for any organism. The current consensus molecular map of pea is 1,430 cM and contains 239 simple sequence repeat markers. The goal was to identify and test unique gene-based simple sequ...

  19. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) in the genomics era

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) was the original model organism for Mendel´s discovery of the laws of inheritance, making it the foundation of modern plant genetics. However, subsequent progress in pea genomics has lagged behind many other plant species, largely as a consequence of its low multiplication rat...

  20. 7 CFR 457.137 - Green pea crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... timely planted acreage. If you have limited or additional levels of coverage, as specified in 7 CFR part... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Green pea crop insurance provisions. 457.137 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.137 Green pea crop...

  1. 7 CFR 457.137 - Green pea crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... timely planted acreage. If you have limited or additional levels of coverage, as specified in 7 CFR part... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Green pea crop insurance provisions. 457.137 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.137 Green pea crop...

  2. Plant characteristics and growth parameters of vegetable pigeon pea cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigeon pea is an important crop in dry land and semi-arid regions and is a supplementary source of dietary protein for the resource-constrained farmers. The aim of this research was to evaluate growth parameters of twelve vegetable pigeon pea genotypes at two locations in Eastern Kenya. The number o...

  3. Chapter 8. Genetic Adjustment to Changing Climates: Pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peas are adapted to cool, semi-arid to sub-humid growing conditions and although they are widely grown throughout the world, the best performance is realized in the cool, relatively dry areas of the mid-latitudes. The literature to date on the potential effects of climate change specifically on pea ...

  4. 7 CFR 457.137 - Green pea crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... additional levels of coverage, as specified in 7 CFR part 400, subpart T, and pay an additional premium, you... canned or frozen and sold for human consumption. Harvest. Combining (vining) of the peas. Nurse crop... green peas for human consumption, that possesses all licenses and permits for processing green...

  5. 7 CFR 457.137 - Green pea crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... additional levels of coverage, as specified in 7 CFR part 400, subpart T, and pay an additional premium, you... canned or frozen and sold for human consumption. Harvest. Combining (vining) of the peas. Nurse crop... green peas for human consumption, that possesses all licenses and permits for processing green...

  6. Development of genetic resources for association mapping in pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A previous study of the allelic diversity of the USDA pea core collection resequenced ten loci of 32 diverse pea germplasm accessions from which SNP assays were designed for Agpl1, AspS2, Cwi1, DRR206c, PPlike, PsAS2, SOD9, Thaumatin1, PsLD, and Viola2 (Aubert et al. 2006; Gilpin et al 1997; Hecht ...

  7. Grass fungal endophytes and uses thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Craven, Kelly

    2015-03-10

    The invention provides isolated fungal endophytes and synthetic combinations thereof with host grass plants. Methods for inoculating grass plant with the endophytes, for propagating the grass-endophyte combinations, and for producing feeds and biofuels from grass-endophyte combinations are also provided.

  8. Ethylene effects in pea stem tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Steen, D.A.; Chadwick, A.V.

    1981-01-01

    The marked effects of ethylene on pea stem growth have been investigated. Low temperatures and colchicine, both known microtubule depolymerization agents, reverse the effects of ethylene in straight growth tests. Low temperature (6 C) also profoundly reduces the effects of gas in terms of swelling, hook curvature, and horizontal mutation. Deuterium oxide, an agent capable of rigidifying microtubular structure, mimics the effects of ethylene. Electron microscopy shows that microtubule orientation is strikingly altered by ethylene. These findings indicate that some of the ethylene responses may be due to a stabilizing effect on microtubules in plant cells.

  9. Assessment of organic seed treatments in a pea disease nursery to manage seed and root rot on peas, 2008.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-one organic seed treatments consisting of biological, non-biological and a combination of each were evaluated in a pea root rot field nursery in Prosser, WA for their potential to manage seed and root rot pathogens of processed peas. Non-treated seed and a commercial seed treatment (Capta...

  10. Pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum (L.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), resistance in Pisum sativum x P. fulvum interspecific crosses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum (L.), is one of the most intractable pest problems of cultivated pea, Pisum sativum L., in the world. This study investigated the transfer of pea weevil resistance from two accessions (PI 595946, PI 343955) of wild pea, Pisum fulvum Sibth. & Sm., to interspecific pop...

  11. Glycolate transporter of the pea chloroplast envelope

    SciTech Connect

    Howitz, K.T.

    1985-01-01

    The discovery of a glycolate transporter in the pea (Pisum sativum) chloroplast envelope is described. Several novel silicone oil centrifugation methods were developed to resolve the initial rate kinetics of (/sup 14/C)glycolate transport by isolated, intact pea chloroplasts. Chloroplast glycolate transport was found to be carrier mediated. Transport rates saturated with increasing glycolate concentration. N-Ethylmaleimide (NEM) pretreatment of chloroplasts inhibited transport, an inhibition prevented by glycolate. Glycolate distributed across the envelope in a way which equalized stromal and medium glycolic acid concentrations, limiting possible transport mechanisms to facilitated glycolic acid diffusion, proton symport or hydroxyl antiport. The effects of stomal and medium pH's on the K/sub m/ and V/sub max/ fit the predictions of mobile carrier kinetic models of hydroxyl antiport or proton symport (H/sup +/ binds first). The carrier mediated transport was fast enough to be consistent with in vivo rates of photorespiration. The 2-hydroxymonocarboxylates, glycerate, lactate and glyoxylate are competitive inhibitors of chloroplast glycolate uptake. Glyoxylate, D-lactate and D-glycerate cause glycolate counterflow, indicating that they are also substrates of the glycolate carrier. This finding was confirmed for D-glycerate by studies on glycolate effects on (1-/sup 14/C)D-glycerate transport.

  12. Glycerolipid biosynthesis in isolated pea root plastids

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Lingru; Sparace, S.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Plastids have been isolated from germinating pea (Pisum sativum L.) roots by differential centrifugation and purified on Percoll gradients. Marker enzymes (NADPH: cytochrome c reductase, fumarase and fatty acid synthesis) indicate that greater than 50% of the plastids are recovered essentially free from mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum contamination. Fatty acids synthesized from ({sup 14}C)acetate by Percoll-purified plastids are primarily 16:0, 16:1 and 18:1. ({sup 14}C)Acetate-labelled fatty acids and ({sup 14}C)glycerol-3-phosphate are both readily incorporated into glycerolipid. Approximately 12% of the total activity for glycerolipid biosynthesis from glycerol-3-phosphate is recovered in the purified plastid fraction. Glycerolipids synthesized from these precursors are primarily TAG, DAG, PE, PG, PC, PI and PA. Acyl-CoA's also accumulate when acetate is the precursor.

  13. Ozone stress proteins in pea plants

    SciTech Connect

    Beckett, P.; Mozley, D.; Price, A.; Hetherington, A.; Lea, P. )

    1989-04-01

    21 day old pea plants were fumigated with 200, 100, 50 and 0 ppb ozone (8 hrs/day) for 5 days. Soluble proteins were extracted from the first 6 leaves and analyzed by 1D SDS PAGE. Polypeptides were visualized after coomassie blue staining. With respect to controls, fumigation resulted in a dose dependent decrease in staining intensity of several polypeptides (of approximate M.W. 94, 54, 35 kD). However, treatment with 200 ppb ozone resulted in the appearance of a polypeptide with a molecular weight of circa 32 kD. This polypeptide was absent from control (0 ppb ozone) plants. Currently, we are (1) purifying the c32kD polypeptide, (2) studying the temporal aspects of the synthesis of this polypeptide and (3) investigating whether this represents a general response to pollutant gases.

  14. Protein methylation reactions in intact pea chloroplasts

    SciTech Connect

    Niemi, K.J. )

    1989-04-01

    Post-translational protein methylation was investigated in Pisum sativum chloroplasts. Intact pea chloroplasts were incubated with ({sup 3}H-methyl)-S-adenosylmethionine under various conditions. The chloroplasts were then separated into stromal and thylakoid fractions and analyzed for radioactivity transferred to protein. Light enhanced the magnitude of labeling in both fractions. One thylakoid polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 43 kDa was labeled only in the light. Several other thylakoid and stromal proteins were labeled in both light and dark-labeling conditions. Both base-labile methylation, carboxy-methylesters and base-stable groups, N-methylations were found. Further characterization of the methyl-transfer reactions will be presented.

  15. [Characteristic of one-paired pea virus].

    PubMed

    Kakareka, N N; Kozlovskaia, Z N; Volkov, Iu G

    2010-01-01

    The new virus isolated from Vicia unijuga A.Br. with filament particles with size 1000-1200 x 10-12 nm is revealed. A thermal inactivation point is 55 degrees C; dilution end point - 10(-5)-10(-6) longevity in vitro in broad bean sap--less than one day. It is transferred by aphids and by pea, bean and broad bean seeds. The plants of Fabaceae, Solanaceae and Chenopodiaceae fam. were affected by this virus isolate. The virus yield was 40-50 mg per 100 g of leaves. The ratio of absorption E260/E280 corresponded to 1.4-1.5. The molecular mass of a core protein of the virus was 34 kD. The virus has a high immunogenic properties--titer is 1:256000 (indirect method of ELISA). It is presumably identified as a member of Closteroviridae. PMID:20695230

  16. Multiple molecular forms of glutamine synthetase in pea seeds.

    PubMed

    Antonyuk, L P; Pushkin, A V; Vorobyeva, L M; Solovjeva, N A; Evstigneeva, Z G; Kretovich, W L

    1982-08-20

    Multiple molecular forms of glutamine synthetase (GS, EC 6.3.1.2) have been studied in pea seeds of different varieties. The number of GS molecular forms in the seeds proved to be related to their colour. Two GS forms in the green seeds have been found and only one of them in the yellow seeds. Green seeds had chlorophyll content amounted to 0.4% of the total pigment content in the leaves. Chloroplasts, somewhat smaller than those in pea leaves of the same variety, have been isolated from green seeds. The presence of the second GS form in the pea green seeds we relate to the chloroplasts. By electrophoretic mobility both forms of GS from the green seeds are not identical to the chloroplast GS and the cytosol GS of leaves. Thus, we believe pea plant to contain, at least, four GS forms. PMID:6127624

  17. Modeling growth of Clostridium perfringens in pea soup during cooling.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Aarieke E I; Beumer, Rijkel R; Zwietering, Marcel H

    2005-02-01

    Clostridium perfringens is a pathogen that mainly causes food poisoning outbreaks when large quantities of food are prepared. Therefore, a model was developed to predict the effect of different cooling procedures on the growth of this pathogen during cooling of food: Dutch pea soup. First, a growth rate model based on interpretable parameters was used to predict growth during linear cooling of pea soup. Second, a temperature model for cooling pea soup was constructed by fitting the model to experimental data published earlier. This cooling model was used to estimate the effect of various cooling environments on average cooling times, taking into account the effect of stirring and product volume. The growth model systematically overestimated growth of C. perfringens during cooling in air, but this effect was limited to less than 0.5 log N/ml and this was considered to be acceptable for practical purposes. It was demonstrated that the growth model for C. perfringens combined with the cooling model for pea soup could be used to sufficiently predict growth of C. perfringens in different volume sizes of pea soup during cooling in air as well as the effect of stirring, different cooling temperatures, and various cooling environments on the growth of C. perfringens in pea soup. Although fine-tuning may be needed to eliminate inaccuracies, it was concluded that the combined model could be a useful tool for designing good manufacturing practices (GMP) procedures. PMID:15787757

  18. The Lathyrus excitotoxin beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid is a substrate of the L-cystine/L-glutamate exchanger system xc-.

    PubMed

    Warren, Brady A; Patel, Sarjubhai A; Nunn, Peter B; Bridges, Richard J

    2004-10-15

    Beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha-beta-diaminopropionic acid (beta-L-ODAP) is an unusual amino acid present in seeds of plants from the Lathyrus genus that is generally accepted as the causative agent underlying the motor neuron degeneration and spastic paraparesis in human neurolathyrism. Much of the neuropathology produced by beta-L-ODAP appears to be a direct consequence of its structural similarities to the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate and its ability to induce excitotoxicity as an agonist of non-NMDA receptors. Its actions within the CNS are, however, not limited to non-NMDA receptors, raising the likely possibility that the anatomical and cellular specificity of the neuronal damage observed in neurolathyrism may result from the cumulative activity of beta-L-ODAP at multiple sites. Accumulating evidence suggests that system xc-, a transporter that mediates the exchange of L-cystine and L-glutamate, is one such site. In the present work, two distinct approaches were used to define the interactions of beta-L-ODAP with system xc-: Traditional radiolabel-uptake assays were employed to quantify inhibitory activity, while fluorometrically coupled assays that follow the exchange-induced efflux of L-glutamate were used to assess substrate activity. In addition to confirming that beta-L-ODAP is an effective competitive inhibitor of system xc-, we report that the compound exhibits a substrate activity comparable to that of the endogenous substrate L-cystine. The ability of system xc- to transport and accumulate beta-L-ODAP identifies additional variables that could influence its toxicity within the CNS, including the ability to limit its access to EAA receptors by clearing the excitotoxin from the extracellular synaptic environment, as well as serving as a point of entry through which beta-L-ODAP could have increased access to intracellular targets. PMID:15476861

  19. Chemicals Reduce Need To Mow Grass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrys, Brooks; Farley, Max; Gast, Larry J.

    1993-01-01

    Brief report discusses use of herbicides Roundup(R), Campaign(R), and Oust(R) to retard growth of Argentine bahia grass. Herbicide applied by use of spraying apparatus pulled by tractor. "Chemical mowing" keeps grass at "freshly mowed" height with less mechanical mowing. Applied to grass on shoulders of roads, reducing time spent on mowing.

  20. VARIABILITY OF GRASS LIGNIN ACYLATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasses are being championed as biomass sources for bioenergy production. Their ultimate use would be as a source of carbohydrate for fermentation to ethanol, conversion to oils via pyrolysis, or direct conversion to energy through combustion. In the latter case, increasing lignin content would enha...

  1. Grass pollen allergens globally: the contribution of subtropical grasses to burden of allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Davies, J M

    2014-06-01

    Grass pollens of the temperate (Pooideae) subfamily and subtropical subfamilies of grasses are major aeroallergen sources worldwide. The subtropical Chloridoideae (e.g. Cynodon dactylon; Bermuda grass) and Panicoideae (e.g. Paspalum notatum; Bahia grass) species are abundant in parts of Africa, India, Asia, Australia and the Americas, where a large and increasing proportion of the world's population abide. These grasses are phylogenetically and ecologically distinct from temperate grasses. With the advent of global warming, it is conceivable that the geographic distribution of subtropical grasses and the contribution of their pollen to the burden of allergic rhinitis and asthma will increase. This review aims to provide a comprehensive synthesis of the current global knowledge of (i) regional variation in allergic sensitivity to subtropical grass pollens, (ii) molecular allergenic components of subtropical grass pollens and (iii) allergic responses to subtropical grass pollen allergens in relevant populations. Patients from subtropical regions of the world show higher allergic sensitivity to grass pollens of Chloridoideae and Panicoideae grasses, than to temperate grass pollens. The group 1 allergens are amongst the allergen components of subtropical grass pollens, but the group 5 allergens, by which temperate grass pollen extracts are standardized for allergen content, appear to be absent from both subfamilies of subtropical grasses. Whilst there are shared allergenic components and antigenic determinants, there are additional clinically relevant subfamily-specific differences, at T- and B-cell levels, between pollen allergens of subtropical and temperate grasses. Differential immune recognition of subtropical grass pollens is likely to impact upon the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy of patients who are primarily sensitized to subtropical grass pollens. The literature reviewed herein highlights the clinical need to standardize allergen preparations for both

  2. Videographic enhancement of GRASS imagery: Recent advances

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.G.

    1992-06-01

    The Geographic Resource Analysis Support System (GRASS), a geographic information system, has been fielded at approximately 50 US Army training installations as a land-management decision-making tool. Use of the GRASS geographic information system involves the production of numerous digital maps of environmental parameters, such as elevation, soils, hydrography, etc. A recently emerging technology called computer videographics can be used to graphically enhance GRASS images, thereby creating new ways to visualize GRASS analysis results. The project described in this report explored the enhancement of GRASS images through the use of videographic technology. General image quality of videographically enhanced GRASS images was improved through the use of high-resolution imagery and improved software. Several new types of geographic data visualizations were developed, including three-dimensional shaded-relief maps of GRASS data, overlay of GRASS images with satellite images, and integration of computer-aided-design imagery with GRASS images. GRASS images were successfully enhanced using Macintosh hardware and software, rather than the DOS-based equipment used previously. Images scanned with a document scanner were incorporated into GRASS imagery, and enhanced images were output in an S-VHS high-resolution video format.

  3. UV induced visual cues in grasses

    PubMed Central

    Baby, Sabulal; Johnson, Anil John; Govindan, Balaji; Lukose, Sujith; Gopakumar, Bhaskaran; Koshy, Konnath Chacko

    2013-01-01

    Grasses are traditionally considered as wind pollinated, however, field observations confirmed frequent insect visits to grass flowers, suggesting insect pollination. Fruit and seed predators inflict heavy losses to cereals and millets during their growth, maturation and storage. The actual factors guiding insects and predators to grass flowers, fruits and seeds are not clear. Here, we report attractive blue fluorescence emissions on grass floral parts such as glumes, lemma, palea, lodicules, staminal filaments, pollens and fruits in ultraviolet (UV) 366 nm, whereas the stigmatic portions were not blue, but red fluorescent. We characterized the blue fluorescent constituent in grass reproductive structures as ferulic acid (FA). Fluorescence spectra of blue-emitting grass floral, seed extracts and isolated FA on excitation at 366 nm showed their emissions at 420–460 nm. We propose these FA-based blue fluorescence emissions in grass reproductive structures as visual cues that attract pollinators, predators and even pests towards them. PMID:24061408

  4. Nitrite Uptake into Intact Pea Chloroplasts 1

    PubMed Central

    Brunswick, Pamela; Cresswell, Christopher F.

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between net nitrite uptake and its reduction in intact pea chloroplasts was investigated employing electron transport regulators, uncouplers, and photophosphorylation inhibitors. Observations confirmed the dependence of nitrite uptake on stromal pH and nitrite reduction but also suggested a partial dependance upon PSI phosphorylation. It was also suggested that ammonia stimulates nitrogen assimilation in the dark by association with stromal protons. Inhibition of nitrite uptake by N-ethylmaleimide and dinitrofluorobenzene could not be completely attributed to their inhibition of carbon dioxide fixation. Other protein binding reagents which inhibited photosynthesis showed no effect on nitrite uptake, except for p-chlormercuribenzoate which stimulated nitrite uptake. The results with N-ethylmaleimide and dinitrofluorobenzene tended to support the proposed presence of a protein permeation channel for nitrite uptake in addition to HNO2 penetration. On the basis of a lack of effect by known anion uptake inhibitors, it was concluded that the nitrite uptake mechanism was distinct from that of phosphate and chloride/sulfate transport. PMID:16665917

  5. Fatty acid biosynthesis in pea root plastids

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, R.J.; Sparace, S.A. )

    1989-04-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis from (1-{sup 14}C)acetate was optimized in plastids isolated from primary root tips of 7-day-old germinating pea seeds. Fatty acid synthesis was maximum at approximately 80 nmoles/hr/mg protein in the presence of 200 {mu}M acetate, 0.5 mM each of NADH, NADPH and CoA, 6 mM each of ATP and MgCl{sub 2}, 1 mM each of the MnCl{sub 2} and glycerol-3-phosphate, 15 mM KHCO{sub 3}, and 0.1M Bis-tris-propane, pH 8.0 incubated at 35C. At the standard incubation temperature of 25C, fatty acid synthesis was linear from up to 6 hours with 80 to 100 {mu}g/mL plastid protein. ATP and CoA were absolute requirements, whereas KHCO{sub 3}, divalent cations and reduced nucleotides all improved activity by 80 to 85%. Mg{sup 2+} and NADH were the preferred cation and nucleotide, respectively. Dithiothreitol and detergents were generally inhibitory. The radioactive products of fatty acid biosynthesis were approximately 33% 16:0, 10% 18:0 and 56% 18:1 and generally did not vary with increasing concentrations of each cofactor.

  6. Protein methylation in pea chloroplasts. [Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Niemi, K.J.; Adler, J.; Selman, B.R. )

    1990-07-01

    The methylation of chloroplast proteins has been investigated by incubating intact pea (Pisum sativum) chloroplasts with ({sup 3}H-methyl)-S-adenosylmethionine. Incubation in the light increases the amount of methylation in both the thylakoid and stromal fractions. Numerous thylakoid proteins serve as substrates for the methyltransfer reactions. Three of these thylakoid proteins are methylated to a significantly greater extent in the light than in the dark. The primary stromal polypeptide methylated is the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. One other stromal polypeptide is also methylated much more in the light than in the dark. Two distinct types of protein methylation occur. One methylinkage is stable to basic conditions whereas a second type is base labile. The base-stable linkage is indicative of N-methylation of amino acid residues while base-lability is suggestive of carboxymethylation of amino acid residues. Labeling in the light increases the percentage of methylation that is base labile in the thylakoid fraction while no difference is observed in the amount of base-labile methylations in light-labeled and dark-labeled stromal proteins. Also suggestive of carboxymethylation is the detection of volatile ({sup 3}H)methyl radioactivity which increases during the labeling period and is greater in chloroplasts labeled in the light as opposed to being labeled in the dark; this implies in vivo turnover of the ({sup 3}H)methyl group.

  7. Protein import into isolated pea root leucoplasts

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chiung-Chih; Li, Hsou-min

    2015-01-01

    Leucoplasts are important organelles for the synthesis and storage of starch, lipids and proteins. However, molecular mechanism of protein import into leucoplasts and how it differs from that of import into chloroplasts remain unknown. We used pea seedlings for both chloroplast and leucoplast isolations to compare within the same species. We further optimized the isolation and import conditions to improve import efficiency and to permit a quantitative comparison between the two plastid types. The authenticity of the import was verified using a mitochondrial precursor protein. Our results show that, when normalized to Toc75, most translocon proteins are less abundant in leucoplasts than in chloroplasts. A precursor shown to prefer the receptor Toc132 indeed had relatively more similar import efficiencies between chloroplasts and leucoplasts compared to precursors that prefer Toc159. Furthermore we found two precursors that exhibited very high import efficiency into leucoplasts. Their transit peptides may be candidates for delivering transgenic proteins into leucoplasts and for analyzing motifs important for leucoplast import. PMID:26388889

  8. Auxin influences strigolactones in pea mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Foo, E

    2013-03-15

    Hormone interactions are essential for the control of many developmental processes, including intracellular symbioses. The interaction between auxin and the new plant hormone strigolactone in the regulation of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis was examined in one of the few auxin deficient mutants available in a mycorrhizal species, the auxin-deficient bsh mutant of pea (Pisum sativum). Mycorrhizal colonisation with the fungus Glomus intraradices was significantly reduced in the low auxin bsh mutant. The bsh mutant also exhibited a reduction in strigolactone exudation and the expression of a key strigolactone biosynthesis gene (PsCCD8). Strigolactone exudation was also reduced in wild type plants when the auxin content was reduced by stem girdling. Low strigolactone levels appear to be at least partially responsible for the reduced colonisation of the bsh mutant, as application of the synthetic strigolactone GR24 could partially rescue the mycorrhizal phenotype of bsh mutants. Data presented here indicates root auxin content was correlated with strigolactone exudation in both mutant and wild type plants. Mutant studies suggest that auxin may regulate early events in the formation of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis by controlling strigolactone levels, both in the rhizosphere and possibly during early root colonisation. PMID:23219475

  9. Redistribution of annexin in gravistimulated pea plumules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, G. B.; Rafati, D. S.; Bolton, R. J.; Dauwalder, M.; Roux, S. J.

    2000-01-01

    We used immunocytochemistry to investigate the effects of gravistimulation on annexin localization in etiolated pea plumule shoots. In longitudinal sections, an asymmetric annexin immunostaining pattern was observed in a defined group of cells located just basipetal to apical meristems at the main shoot apex and at all of the axillary buds, an area classically referred to as the leaf gap. The pattern was observed using both protein-A-purified anti-annexin and affinity-purified anti-annexin antibodies for the immunostaining. A subset of the cells with the annexin staining also showed an unusually high level of periodic acid Schiff (PAS) staining in their cell walls. Prior to gravistimulation, the highest concentration of annexin was oriented toward the direction of gravity along the apical end of these immunostained cells. In contrast, both at 15 and 30 min after gravistimulation, the annexin immunostain became more evenly distributed all around the cell and more distinctly cell peripheral. The asymmetry along the lower wall of these cells was no longer evident. In accord with current models of annexin action, we interpret the results to indicate that annexin-mediated secretion in the leaf gap area is preferentially toward the apical meristem prior to gravistimulation, and that gravistimulation results in a redirection of this secretion. These data are to our knowledge the first to show a correlation between the vector of gravity and the distribution of annexins in the cells of flowering plants. c 2000 Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS.

  10. Genome Sequence of the Pea Aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Aphids are important agricultural pests and also biological models for studies of insect-plant interactions, symbiosis, virus vectoring, and the developmental causes of extreme phenotypic plasticity. Here we present the 464 Mb draft genome assembly of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. This first published whole genome sequence of a basal hemimetabolous insect provides an outgroup to the multiple published genomes of holometabolous insects. Pea aphids are host-plant specialists, they can reproduce both sexually and asexually, and they have coevolved with an obligate bacterial symbiont. Here we highlight findings from whole genome analysis that may be related to these unusual biological features. These findings include discovery of extensive gene duplication in more than 2000 gene families as well as loss of evolutionarily conserved genes. Gene family expansions relative to other published genomes include genes involved in chromatin modification, miRNA synthesis, and sugar transport. Gene losses include genes central to the IMD immune pathway, selenoprotein utilization, purine salvage, and the entire urea cycle. The pea aphid genome reveals that only a limited number of genes have been acquired from bacteria; thus the reduced gene count of Buchnera does not reflect gene transfer to the host genome. The inventory of metabolic genes in the pea aphid genome suggests that there is extensive metabolite exchange between the aphid and Buchnera, including sharing of amino acid biosynthesis between the aphid and Buchnera. The pea aphid genome provides a foundation for post-genomic studies of fundamental biological questions and applied agricultural problems. PMID:20186266

  11. [Effect of gibberellic acid on RNA synthesis in dwarf peas].

    PubMed

    Kilev, S N; Kholodar', A V; Chekurov, V M; Mertvetsov, N P

    1982-04-01

    The effect of gibberellic acid (GA) on total RNA and polysomal poly-[A]+-RNA synthesis in epicotylia and embryos of dwarf pea of two varieties differing in their physiological sensitivity to GA was studied. It was found that incubation with GA increases the accumulation of total RNA in pea epicotylia, var. "Pioner" and "Polzunok". The maximal stimulation of RNA accumulation makes up to 40% for the low sensitivity variety "Polzunok" and 150% for the highly sensitive variety "Pioner". GA increases the synthesis of polysomal poly (A)+-mRNA in 5-year-old pea sprouts and that of newly synthesized poly (A)+-mRNA in epicotylian polysomes of both varieties 5, 24, 48 and 72 hrs after incubation with GA. GA at concentrations of 10(-6) and 10(-5) stimulates the incorporation of [3H]uridine into polysomal mRNA during the first 1--3 hours after treatment and enhances the accumulation of newly synthesized mRNA in pea embryonic polyribosomes. The stimulating effect is directly proportional to the dose of the hormone. The mechanisms of GA effect on the transcription and translation in pea plant cells are discussed. PMID:6177351

  12. 7 CFR 319.56-45 - Shelled garden peas from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CFR 319.56-45 and have been inspected and found free of pests.” (Approved by the Office of Management... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shelled garden peas from Kenya. 319.56-45 Section 319... Shelled garden peas from Kenya. Garden peas (Pisum sativum) may be imported into the continental...

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-45 - Shelled garden peas from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR 319.56-45 and have been inspected and found free of pests.” (Approved by the Office of Management... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shelled garden peas from Kenya. 319.56-45 Section 319... Shelled garden peas from Kenya. Garden peas (Pisum sativum) may be imported into the continental...

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-45 - Shelled garden peas from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CFR 319.56-45 and have been inspected and found free of pests.” (Approved by the Office of Management... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shelled garden peas from Kenya. 319.56-45 Section 319... Shelled garden peas from Kenya. Garden peas (Pisum sativum) may be imported into the continental...

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-45 - Shelled garden peas from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CFR 319.56-45 and have been inspected and found free of pests.” (Approved by the Office of Management... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shelled garden peas from Kenya. 319.56-45 Section 319... Shelled garden peas from Kenya. Garden peas (Pisum sativum) may be imported into the continental...

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-45 - Shelled garden peas from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CFR 319.56-45 and have been inspected and found free of pests.” (Approved by the Office of Management... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shelled garden peas from Kenya. 319.56-45 Section 319... Shelled garden peas from Kenya. Garden peas (Pisum sativum) may be imported into the continental...

  17. 76 FR 21712 - Notice of Availability for Final PEA and Draft FONSI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Availability for Final PEA and Draft FONSI AGENCY: Department of the Navy... of the Navy announces the availability of, the Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA) and... appropriate. Dates and Addresses: The waiting period for the Final PEA and FONSI will end 30 days...

  18. The International Pea Genome Sequencing Project: Sequencing and Assembly Progresses Updates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The International Consortium for the Pea Genome Sequencing (ICPG) includes scientists from six countries around the world. Its aim is to provide a high quality reference of the pea genome to the scientific community as well as to the pea breeder community. The consortium proposed a strategy that int...

  19. Differences in weed seedling emergence is not involved in pea synergism to corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have observed the dry pea is synergistic to corn and improves its tolerance to weeds. We are examining various aspects of this interaction between dry pea and corn to understand this natural benefit. This study compared the impact of soybean and dry pea on corn growth and tolerance to foxtail m...

  20. Resistance of Peas to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in the Pisum Core Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White mold, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, can be a major disease of irrigated and dryland peas. Management of white mold in peas is challenging because foliar fungicides are cost prohibiting to many pea growers, sclerotia survive for long periods of time limiting the effectiveness of crop rot...

  1. Geographic pattern of genetic diversity in the genus Pisum, with inferences about pea domestication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have analysed genetic diversity of common pea (Pisum sativum L.) focusing on wild pea and exploiting biogeographic information. Phylogenetic markers (trnSG and ITS) along with 35,647 genome-wide DARTseq generated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and PeaGene 13.2k SNP Illumina assays reveale...

  2. Bean [alpha]-Amylase Inhibitor Confers Resistance to the Pea Weevil (Bruchus pisorum) in Transgenic Peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, H. E.; Gollasch, S.; Moore, A.; Tabe, L. M.; Craig, S.; Hardie, D. C.; Chrispeels, M. J.; Spencer, D.; Higgins, TJV.

    1995-01-01

    Bruchid larvae cause major losses of grain legume crops through-out the world. Some bruchid species, such as the cowpea weevil and the azuki bean weevil, are pests that damage stored seeds. Others, such as the pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum), attack the crop growing in the field. We transferred the cDNA encoding the [alpha]-amylase inhibitor ([alpha]-AI) found in the seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) into pea (Pisum sativum) using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Expression was driven by the promoter of phytohemagglutinin, another bean seed protein. The [alpha]-amylase inhibitor gene was stably expressed in the transgenic pea seeds at least to the T5 seed generation, and [alpha]-AI accumulated in the seeds up to 3% of soluble protein. This level is somewhat higher than that normally found in beans, which contain 1 to 2% [alpha]-AI. In the T5 seed generation the development of pea weevil larvae was blocked at an early stage. Seed damage was minimal and seed yield was not significantly reduced in the transgenic plants. These results confirm the feasibility of protecting other grain legumes such as lentils, mungbean, groundnuts, and chickpeas against a variety of bruchids using the same approach. Although [alpha]-AI also inhibits human [alpha]-amylase, cooked peas should not have a negative impact on human energy metabolism. PMID:12228429

  3. Preparation and characterization of films from pea protein.

    PubMed

    Viroben, G; Barbot, J; Mouloungui, Z; Guéguen, J

    2000-04-01

    The conditions for protein film preparation from an alkaline dispersion of a pea protein isolate were investigated in the presence of polyols as plasticizers. Mechanical and barrier properties of resulting films were studied as a function of protein dispersion conditions, protein and plasticizer concentrations and ratios, chain length of the plasticizer, and pH and composition of the alkaline medium. Neither the mode of protein hydration nor the pea isolate origin had a significant effect on the mechanical properties of pea protein films. However, increasing the plasticizer chain length induced slightly higher surface hydrophobicity but poor mechanical properties. Addition of monoglycerides to film-forming solution allowed a significant improvement of the films during aging. Both tensile strength and surface hydrophobicity increased when ammonium hydroxide was used as protein dispersing agent instead of sodium hydroxide. PMID:10775350

  4. Gibberellin-auxin interaction in pea stem elongation.

    PubMed

    Ockerse, R; Galston, A W

    1967-01-01

    Joint application of gibberellic acid and indole-3-acetic acid to excised stem sections, terminal cuttings, and decapitated plants of a green dwarf pea results in a markedly synergistic growth response to these hormones. Synergism in green tall pea stem sections is comparatively small, although growth is kinetically indistinguishable from similarly treated dwarf sections.Gibberellin-induced growth does not appear to be mediated through its effect on auxin synthesis, since gibberellin pretreatment of dwarf cuttings fails to elicit an enhanced tryptophan-induced growth response of sections, whereas auxin-induced growth is strongly enhanced. Also, tryptophan-gibberellin synergism is not significant in sections and cuttings of green dwarf peas, while auxin-gibberellin synergism is.Administration of gibberellic acid prior to indole-3-acetic acid results in greatly increased growth. In reversed order, the application fails to produce any synergistic interaction. This indicates that gibberellin action must precede auxin action in growth regulation. PMID:16656484

  5. Protein Methylation in Pea Chloroplasts 1

    PubMed Central

    Niemi, Kevin J.; Adler, Julius; Selman, Bruce R.

    1990-01-01

    The methylation of chloroplast proteins has been investigated by incubating intact pea (Pisum sativum) chloroplasts with [3H-methyl]-S-adenosylmethionine. Incubation in the light increases the amount of methylation in both the thylakoid and stromal fractions. Numerous thylakoid proteins serve as substrates for the methyltransfer reactions. Three of these thylakoid proteins are methylated to a significantly greater extent in the light than in the dark. One is a polypeptide with a molecular mass of 64 kD, a second has an Mr of 48 kD, and the third has a molecular mass of less than 10 kD. The primary stromal polypeptide methylated is the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. One other stromal polypeptide, having a molecular mass of 24 kD, is also methylated much more in the light than in the dark. Two distinct types of protein methylation occur. One methyl-linkage is stable to basic conditions whereas a second type is base labile. The base-stable linkage is indicative of N-methylation of amino acid residues while base-lability is suggestive of carboxymethylation of amino acid residues. Labeling in the light increases the percentage of methylation that is base labile in the thylakoid fraction while no difference is observed in the amount of base-labile methylations in light-labeled and dark-labeled stromal proteins. Also suggestive of carboxymethylation is the detection of volatile [3H]methyl radioactivity which increases during the labeling period and is greater in chloroplasts labeled in the light as opposed to being labeled in the dark; this implies in vivo turnover of the [3H]methyl group. Images Figure 1 PMID:16667584

  6. Characterization of two brassinosteroid C-6 oxidase genes in pea.

    PubMed

    Jager, Corinne E; Symons, Gregory M; Nomura, Takahito; Yamada, Yumiko; Smith, Jennifer J; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Kamiya, Yuji; Weller, James L; Yokota, Takao; Reid, James B

    2007-04-01

    C-6 oxidation genes play a key role in the regulation of biologically active brassinosteroid (BR) levels in the plant. They control BR activation, which involves the C-6 oxidation of 6-deoxocastasterone (6-DeoxoCS) to castasterone (CS) and in some cases the further conversion of CS to brassinolide (BL). C-6 oxidation is controlled by the CYP85A family of cytochrome P450s, and to date, two CYP85As have been isolated in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), two in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), one in rice (Oryza sativa), and one in grape (Vitis vinifera). We have now isolated two CYP85As (CYP85A1 and CYP85A6) from pea (Pisum sativum). However, unlike Arabidopsis and tomato, which both contain one BR C-6 oxidase that converts 6-DeoxoCS to CS and one BR C-6 Baeyer-Villiger oxidase that converts 6-DeoxoCS right through to BL, the two BR C-6 oxidases in pea both act principally to convert 6-DeoxoCS to CS. The isolation of these two BR C-6 oxidation genes in pea highlights the species-specific differences associated with C-6 oxidation. In addition, we have isolated a novel BR-deficient mutant, lke, which blocks the function of one of these two BR C-6 oxidases (CYP85A6). The lke mutant exhibits a phenotype intermediate between wild-type plants and previously characterized pea BR mutants (lk, lka, and lkb) and contains reduced levels of CS and increased levels of 6-DeoxoCS. To date, lke is the only mutant identified in pea that blocks the latter steps of BR biosynthesis and it will therefore provide an excellent tool to further examine the regulation of BR biosynthesis and the relative biological activities of CS and BL in pea. PMID:17322341

  7. The pea seedling mitochondrial Nε-lysine acetylome.

    PubMed

    Smith-Hammond, Colin L; Hoyos, Elizabeth; Miernyk, Ján A

    2014-11-01

    Posttranslational lysine acetylation is believed to occur in all taxa and to affect thousands of proteins. In contrast to the hundreds of mitochondrial proteins reported to be lysine-acetylated in non-plant species, only a handful have been reported from the plant taxa previously examined. To investigate whether this reflects a biologically significant difference or merely a peculiarity of the samples thus far examined, we immunoenriched and analyzed acetylated peptides from highly purified pea seedling mitochondria using mass spectrometry. Our results indicate that a multitude of mitochondrial proteins, involved in a variety of processes, are acetylated in pea seedlings. PMID:24780491

  8. Comparative Transcriptomic Analyses of Vegetable and Grain Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Seed Development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Na; Zhang, Guwen; Xu, Shengchun; Mao, Weihua; Hu, Qizan; Gong, Yaming

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating pea seed developmental process is extremely important for pea breeding. In this study, we used high-throughput RNA-Seq and bioinformatics analyses to examine the changes in gene expression during seed development in vegetable pea and grain pea, and compare the gene expression profiles of these two pea types. RNA-Seq generated 18.7 G of raw data, which were then de novo assembled into 77,273 unigenes with a mean length of 930 bp. Our results illustrate that transcriptional control during pea seed development is a highly coordinated process. There were 459 and 801 genes differentially expressed at early and late seed maturation stages between vegetable pea and grain pea, respectively. Soluble sugar and starch metabolism related genes were significantly activated during the development of pea seeds coinciding with the onset of accumulation of sugar and starch in the seeds. A comparative analysis of genes involved in sugar and starch biosynthesis in vegetable pea (high seed soluble sugar and low starch) and grain pea (high seed starch and low soluble sugar) revealed that differential expression of related genes at late development stages results in a negative correlation between soluble sugar and starch biosynthetic flux in vegetable and grain pea seeds. RNA-Seq data was validated by using real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis for 30 randomly selected genes. To our knowledge, this work represents the first report of seed development transcriptomics in pea. The obtained results provide a foundation to support future efforts to unravel the underlying mechanisms that control the developmental biology of pea seeds, and serve as a valuable resource for improving pea breeding. PMID:26635856

  9. Symbiotic grasses: A review of basic biology of forage grass fungal endophytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungal endophytes associated with grasses are the fundamental reason for the basic successes of several pasture grasses, notable tall fescues, and perennial ryegrass. Tall fescue and perennial ryegrass fungal endophytes, Neotyphodium coenophialum and N. lolii, respectively, and their relatives ...

  10. Water use and yields of no-till managed dryland grasspea and yellow pea under different planting configurations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasspea (GP) (Lathyrus sativus) is a drought-tolerant legume that can be grown for forage and grain. It has potential value to be used as a nitrogen-fixing crop in dryland rotations with non-legume grain crops. However, the agronomics of GP for the Central Great Plains region have not been investi...

  11. L-band radar scattering from grass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chauhan, N.; O'Neill, P.; Le Vine, D.; Lang, R.; Khadr, N.

    1992-01-01

    A radar system based on a network analyzer has been developed to study the backscatter from vegetation. The radar is operated at L-band. Radar measurements of a grass field were made in 1991. The radar returns from the grass were measured at three incidence angles. Ground truth and canopy parameters such as blade and stem dimensions, moisture content of the grass and the soil, and blade and stem density, were measured. These parameters are used in a distorted Born approximation model to compute the backscatter coefficients from the grass layer. The model results are compared with the radar data.

  12. Enhancing Neoplasm Expression in Field Pea (Pisum sativum) via Intercropping and Its Significance to Pea Weevil (Bruchus pisorum) Management.

    PubMed

    Teshome, Abel; Bryngelsson, Tomas; Mendesil, Esayas; Marttila, Salla; Geleta, Mulatu

    2016-01-01

    Neoplasm formation, a non-meristematic tissue growth on young field pea (Pisum sativum L.) pods is triggered in the absence of UV light and/or in response to oviposition by pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.). This trait is expressed in some genotypes [neoplastic (Np) genotypes] of P. sativum and has the capacity to obstruct pea weevil larval entry into developing seeds. In the present study, 26% of the tested accessions depicted the trait when grown under greenhouse conditions. However, UV light inhibits full expression of this trait and subsequently it is inconspicuous at the field level. In order to investigate UV light impact on the expression of neoplasm, particular Np genotypes were subjected to UV lamp light exposure in the greenhouse and sunlight at the field level. Under these different growing conditions, the highest mean percentage of Np pods was in the control chamber in the greenhouse (36%) whereas in single and double UV lamp chambers, the percentage dropped to 10 and 15%, respectively. Furthermore, when the same Np genotypes were grown in the field, the percentage of Np pods dropped significantly (7%). In order to enhance Np expression at the field level, intercropping of Np genotypes with sorghum was investigated. As result, the percentage of Np pods was threefold in intercropped Np genotypes as compared to those without intercropping. Therefore, intercropping Np genotypes with other crops such as sorghum and maize can facilitate neoplasm formation, which in turn can minimize the success rate of pea weevil larvae entry into developing seeds. Greenhouse artificial infestation experiments showed that pea weevil damage in Np genotypes is lower in comparison to wild type genotypes. Therefore, promoting Np formation under field conditions via intercropping can serve as part of an integrated pea weevil management strategy especially for small scale farming systems. PMID:27242855

  13. Enhancing Neoplasm Expression in Field Pea (Pisum sativum) via Intercropping and Its Significance to Pea Weevil (Bruchus pisorum) Management

    PubMed Central

    Teshome, Abel; Bryngelsson, Tomas; Mendesil, Esayas; Marttila, Salla; Geleta, Mulatu

    2016-01-01

    Neoplasm formation, a non-meristematic tissue growth on young field pea (Pisum sativum L.) pods is triggered in the absence of UV light and/or in response to oviposition by pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.). This trait is expressed in some genotypes [neoplastic (Np) genotypes] of P. sativum and has the capacity to obstruct pea weevil larval entry into developing seeds. In the present study, 26% of the tested accessions depicted the trait when grown under greenhouse conditions. However, UV light inhibits full expression of this trait and subsequently it is inconspicuous at the field level. In order to investigate UV light impact on the expression of neoplasm, particular Np genotypes were subjected to UV lamp light exposure in the greenhouse and sunlight at the field level. Under these different growing conditions, the highest mean percentage of Np pods was in the control chamber in the greenhouse (36%) whereas in single and double UV lamp chambers, the percentage dropped to 10 and 15%, respectively. Furthermore, when the same Np genotypes were grown in the field, the percentage of Np pods dropped significantly (7%). In order to enhance Np expression at the field level, intercropping of Np genotypes with sorghum was investigated. As result, the percentage of Np pods was threefold in intercropped Np genotypes as compared to those without intercropping. Therefore, intercropping Np genotypes with other crops such as sorghum and maize can facilitate neoplasm formation, which in turn can minimize the success rate of pea weevil larvae entry into developing seeds. Greenhouse artificial infestation experiments showed that pea weevil damage in Np genotypes is lower in comparison to wild type genotypes. Therefore, promoting Np formation under field conditions via intercropping can serve as part of an integrated pea weevil management strategy especially for small scale farming systems. PMID:27242855

  14. Checklist of Serengeti Ecosystem Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Ficinski, Paweł; Vorontsova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We present the first taxonomic checklist of the Poaceae species of the Serengeti, Tanzania. A review of the literature and herbarium specimens recorded 200 species of grasses, in line with similar studies in other parts of East Africa. The checklist is supported by a total of 939 herbarium collections. Full georeferenced collection data is made available alongside a summary checklist in pdf format. More than a quarter of the species are known from a single collection highlighting the need for further research, especially concerning the rare species and their distribution. PMID:27226761

  15. Checklist of Serengeti Ecosystem Grasses.

    PubMed

    Williams, Emma Victoria; Elia Ntandu, John; Ficinski, Paweł; Vorontsova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    We present the first taxonomic checklist of the Poaceae species of the Serengeti, Tanzania. A review of the literature and herbarium specimens recorded 200 species of grasses, in line with similar studies in other parts of East Africa. The checklist is supported by a total of 939 herbarium collections. Full georeferenced collection data is made available alongside a summary checklist in pdf format. More than a quarter of the species are known from a single collection highlighting the need for further research, especially concerning the rare species and their distribution. PMID:27226761

  16. Diversity of Rhizobium leguminosarum from pea fields in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizobia-mediated biological nitrogen (N) fixation in legumes contributes to yield potential in these crops and also provides residual fertilizer to subsequent cereals. Our objectives were to collect isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum from several pea fields in Washington, examine genetic diversity...

  17. Marker-assisted selection for powdery mildew in pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe pisi Syd. is an important pathogen of pea (Pisum sativum L.) worldwide. It causes significant yield loss and reduced crop quality when present in epidemic proportion. Genetic resistance is controlled by two recessive alleles, er-1 and er-2. Availability of co-domin...

  18. Associations of wheat with pea can reduce aphid infestations.

    PubMed

    Lopes, T; Bodson, B; Francis, F

    2015-06-01

    Increasing plant diversity within crops can be beneficial for pest control. In this field study, the effects of two wheat and pea associations (mixed cropping and strip cropping) on aphid populations were compared with pure stands of both crops by observations on tillers and plants. Pea was more susceptible to infestations than wheat. As expected, the density of aphid colonies was significantly higher in pure stands during the main occurrence periods, compared with associations. Additionally, flying beneficials, such as not only aphidophagous adult ladybirds but also parasitoid, hoverfly and lacewing species that feed on aphids at the larval stage, were monitored using yellow pan traps. At specific times of the sampling season, ladybirds and hoverflies were significantly more abundant in the pure stand of pea and wheat, respectively, compared with associations. Few parasitoids and lacewings were trapped. This study showed that increasing plant diversity within crops by associating cultivated species can reduce aphid infestations, since host plants are more difficult to locate. However, additional methods are needed to attract more efficiently adult beneficials into wheat and pea associations. PMID:26013274

  19. A diagnostic guide for Fusarium Root Rot of pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium root rot, caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi, is a major root rot pathogen in pea production areas worldwide. Here we provide a diagnostic guide that describes: the taxonomy of the pathogen, signs and symptoms of the pathogen, host range, geographic distribution, methods used to isolate ...

  20. 7 CFR 457.140 - Dry pea crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... timely planted acreage. If you have additional levels of coverage as specified in 7 CFR part 400, subpart...) Fall-planted dry peas more than 25 days after the final planting date for the corresponding spring... section 3 of the Basic Provisions, in counties with both a fall and spring sales closing date for...

  1. 7 CFR 457.140 - Dry pea crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... timely planted acreage. If you have additional levels of coverage as specified in 7 CFR part 400, subpart...) Fall-planted dry peas more than 25 days after the final planting date for the corresponding spring... section 3 of the Basic Provisions, in counties with both a fall and spring sales closing date for...

  2. Effect of cooling on Clostridium perfringens in pea soup.

    PubMed

    de Jong, A E I; Rombouts, F M; Beumer, R R

    2004-02-01

    Foods associated with Clostridium perfringens outbreaks are usually abused after cooking. Because of their short generation times, C. perfringens spores and cells can grow out to high levels during improper cooling. Therefore, the potential of C. perfringens to multiply in Dutch pea soup during different cooling times was investigated. Tubes of preheated pea soup (50 degrees C) were inoculated with cocktails of cells or heat-activated spores of this pathogen. The tubes were linearly cooled to 15 degrees C in time spans of 3, 5, 7.5, and 10 h and were subsequently stored in a refrigerator at 3 or 7 degrees C for up to 84 h. Cell numbers increased by 1-log cycle during the 3-h cooling period and reached their maximum after 10 h of cooling. Subsequent refrigeration hardly reduced cell numbers. Cooling of 3.75 liters of pea soup in an open pan showed that this amount of pea soup cooled from 50 to 15 degrees C in 5 h, which will allow a more than 10-fold increase in cell numbers. These findings emphasize the need of good hygienic practices and quick cooling of heated foods after preparation. PMID:14968969

  3. Yield Component Study of the USDA Pea Core Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cool season food legumes (peas, chickpeas, faba beans, and lentils) are excellent foods, low in fat and rich in protein, fiber, minerals and vitamins. Large-scale, cost-effective genome analysis techniques have been developed in plant model species (eg. Arabidopsis thaliana, Medicago truncatula) an...

  4. Seed Effects on Gibberellin Metabolism in Pea Pericarp 12

    PubMed Central

    Ozga, Jocelyn A.; Brenner, Mark L.; Reinecke, Dennis M.

    1992-01-01

    Pea fruit (Pisum sativum L.) is a model system for studying the effect of seeds on fruit growth in order to understand coordination of organ development. The metabolism of 14C-labeled gibberellin A12 (GA12) by pea pericarp was followed using a method that allows access to the seeds while maintaining pericarp growth in situ. Identification and quantitation of GAs in pea pericarp was accomplished by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry following extensive purification of the putative GAs. Here we report for the first time that the metabolism of [14C]GA12 to [14C]GA19 and [14C]GA20 occurs in pericarp of seeded pea fruit. Removal of seeds from the pericarp inhibited the conversion of radiolabeled GA19 to GA20 and caused the accumulation of radiolabeled and endogenous GA19. Deseeded pericarp contained no detectable GA20, GA1, or GA8, whereas pericarp with seeds contained endogenous and radiolabeled GA20 and endogenous GA1. These data strongly suggest that seeds are required for normal GA biosynthesis in the pericarp, specifically the conversion of GA19 to GA20. PMID:16653006

  5. Pea (Pisum sp.) genetic resources, its analysis and exploration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pea is important temperate region pulse, with feed, fodder and vegetable uses. Originated and domesticated in Middle East and Mediterranean, it formed important dietary components of early civilizations. Although Pisum is a small genus with two or three species, it is very diverse and structured, r...

  6. Exploiting the Potential Differences in Pasture Grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperate grasses grown for pasture in Wisconsin exhibit a range of chemical and physical characteristics that influence their utilization by grazing cattle. Potential intake of all grasses declines with maturity due to decreasing cell wall digestiblity, but the leaves and stems of orchardgrass and...

  7. Enhancing GRASS data communication with videographic technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.G. ); Gerdes, D.; Youngs, D. )

    1992-01-01

    Research at Argonne National Laboratory and the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory has shown that computer videographic technology can be used to assist visualization and communication of GIS-generated geographic information. Videographic tools can be used to make results of GRASS analyses clear to decision-makers and to public interest groups, as well as to help GRASS users visualize geographic data more easily. Useful videographic visualization tools include graphic overlay of GRASS layers onto panchromatic images, allowing landscape features to be associated with GIS classifications; draping of GIS layers onto terrain models to create shaded relief maps; and incorporation of photographic imagery into GIS graphics. Useful videographic communications capabilities include convenient, direct interface to video formats, allowing incorporation of live video into GRASS graphics and output of GRASS graphics to video; convenient output of high-quality slides and prints; and enhanced labeling and editing of GRASS images. Conversion of GRASS imagery to standard videographic file formats also facilitates incorporation of GRASS images into other software programs, such as database and work-processing packages.

  8. Enhancing GRASS data communication with videographic technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.G.; Gerdes, D.; Youngs, D.

    1992-07-01

    Research at Argonne National Laboratory and the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory has shown that computer videographic technology can be used to assist visualization and communication of GIS-generated geographic information. Videographic tools can be used to make results of GRASS analyses clear to decision-makers and to public interest groups, as well as to help GRASS users visualize geographic data more easily. Useful videographic visualization tools include graphic overlay of GRASS layers onto panchromatic images, allowing landscape features to be associated with GIS classifications; draping of GIS layers onto terrain models to create shaded relief maps; and incorporation of photographic imagery into GIS graphics. Useful videographic communications capabilities include convenient, direct interface to video formats, allowing incorporation of live video into GRASS graphics and output of GRASS graphics to video; convenient output of high-quality slides and prints; and enhanced labeling and editing of GRASS images. Conversion of GRASS imagery to standard videographic file formats also facilitates incorporation of GRASS images into other software programs, such as database and work-processing packages.

  9. A Walk in the "Tall, Tall Grass"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaatz, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    This inquiry-based lesson was inspired by Denise Fleming's book entitled, "In the Tall, Tall Grass" (1991). The author used the book and a real study of prairie grasses to teach kindergartners how to make careful observations and record what they see. In addition, they learn how to "draw as scientists." Here the author describes her class's yearly…

  10. Unique aspects of the grass cell wall

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasses are amongst the most important crops worldwide, and the composition of their cell walls is critical for uses as food, feed, and energy crops. Grass cell walls differ dramatically from dicot cell walls in terms of the major structural polysaccharides present, how those polysaccharides are lin...

  11. The Endophytic Niche and Grass Defense

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much research has been done on the interactive nature of the tall fescue grass and its fungal partner. This research has established that this very valuable forage, turf and conservation grass, which occupies 30 million plus acres in the south-eastern USA, is toxic to most livestock and wild animal...

  12. Abundances in "Green Pea" Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawley, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    He II λ4686 is identified in the spectra of nine of the original "Green Peas," a type of compact star-forming galaxy characterized by low mass; low metallicity; strong [O III] λλ4959, 5007; and redshifts in the range of ~0.1-0.4. Measured λ4686/Hβ ratios are roughly 1-2%, consistent with photoionization by Wolf-Rayet stars. Emission-line intensities are measured from Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectra for 71 Green Peas and are used to determine Te-based abundances of O, N, Ne, S, and He. Neon abundances confirm the mass-metallicity relation inferred from O/H. The N/O ratio is roughly constant with O/H, and the average N/O is evidence of a modest nitrogen enhancement compared with other low-metallicity galaxies. Nitrogen enrichment could be due to Wolf-Rayet stars or to intermediate-mass stars during a previous quiescent period. The Te-based abundances allow a reevaluation of some of the strong-line methods favored for estimating O/H or N/O in large spectroscopic surveys of star-forming galaxies. Photoionization by Wolf-Rayet stars raises questions about the validity of strong-line methods based on [N II]/Hα, [N II]/[O III], or [N II]/[S II], as those line ratios are known to be ionization-sensitive. Analysis of these measurements shows that ionization, low metallicity, and the small variation in important line ratios in the Green Pea spectra all affect the behavior of one or more of the N2, O3N2, N2O2 and N2S2 strong-line methods. The previous findings for trends in O/H and N/O in the Green Peas can be reproduced and the discrepancies can be explained. In particular, the reported increase of N/O with O/H appears to be a bias introduced by combining N2 with N2S2. N2O2 does not give valid results in the Green Peas, while N2 and N2S2 do, although the calibrations of the N2 and N2S2 methods based on Green Pea abundances are different from the existing calibrations based primarily on abundances in extragalactic H II regions and H II galaxies.

  13. Evolution of Grasses and Grassland Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strömberg, Caroline A. E.

    2011-05-01

    The evolution and subsequent ecological expansion of grasses (Poaceae) since the Late Cretaceous have resulted in the establishment of one of Earth's dominant biomes, the temperate and tropical grasslands, at the expense of forests. In the past decades, several new approaches have been applied to the fossil record of grasses to elucidate the patterns and processes of this ecosystem transformation. The data indicate that the development of grassland ecosystems on most continents was a multistage process involving the Paleogene appearance of (C3 and C4) open-habitat grasses, the mid-late Cenozoic spread of C3 grass-dominated habitats, and, finally, the Late Neogene expansion of C4 grasses at tropical-subtropical latitudes. The evolution of herbivores adapted to grasslands did not necessarily coincide with the spread of open-habitat grasses. In addition, the timing of these evolutionary and ecological events varied between regions. Consequently, region-by-region investigations using both direct (plant fossils) and indirect (e.g., stable carbon isotopes, faunas) evidence are required for a full understanding of the tempo and mode of grass and grassland evolution.

  14. Tropical grasses as a renewable energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, G.; Alexander, A.G.; Rios, C.; Garcia, M.

    1983-01-01

    Agronomists, evaluating tropical grasses from Saccharum and allied genera as potential renewable energy sources for boiler fuel and alcohol, emphasized (1) maximizing sugar cane's total biomass rather than sucrose production, (2) utilizing alternative tropical grasses during sugar cane's offseason for year-round fuel production, and (3) mechanizing production technologies for fibrous, thin-stemmed tropical grasses that are to be managed as solar-dried fuels and feedstocks. Based on the time required to maximize their dry matter yields, three categories of grasses have emerged as potential energy crops: short rotation (2-3 months) with Sordan 70A (a sorghum/sudan grass hybrid), intermediate rotation (4-6 months) with napier grass, and long rotation (12-18 months) with sugar cane. Total oven-dried matter is 50 tons/acre-yr (114 metric tons /hectare-yr) for sugar cane, 33 tons (74 metric tons) from napier grass harvested at 6-month intervals, and 21 tons (47 metric tons) from Sordan 70A harvested every 14 weeks.

  15. A role for the ETS domain transcription factor PEA3 in myogenic differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, J M; Dupont-Versteegden, E E; Davies, J D; Hassell, J A; Houlé, J D; Gurley, C M; Peterson, C A

    1997-01-01

    Activation of adult myoblasts called satellite cells during muscle degeneration is an important aspect of muscle regeneration. Satellite cells are believed to be the only myogenic stem cells in adult skeletal muscle and the source of regenerating muscle fibers. Upon activation, satellite cells proliferate, migrate to the site of degeneration, and become competent to fuse and differentiate. We show here that the transcription factor polyomavirus enhancer activator 3 (PEA3) is expressed in adult myoblasts in vitro when they are proliferative and during the early stages of differentiation. Overexpression of PEA3 accelerates differentiation, whereas blocking of PEA3 function delays myoblast fusion. PEA3 activates gene expression following binding to the ets motif most efficiently in conjunction with the transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2). In vivo, PEA3 is expressed in satellite cells only after muscle degeneration. Taken together, these results suggest that PEA3 is an important regulator of activated satellite cell function. PMID:9271430

  16. Developmental differences in posttranslational calmodulin methylation in pea plants

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Sukheung; Roberts, D.M. )

    1990-05-01

    A calmodulin-N-methyltransferase was used to analyze the degree of lysine-115 methylation of pea calmodulin. Calmodulin was isolated from segments of developing roots of young etiolated and green pea plants and was tested for its ability to be methylated by the calmodulin methyltransferase in the presence of {sup 3}H-methyl-S-adenosylmethionine. Calmodulin methylation levels were lower in apical root segments and in the young lateral roots compared with the mature, differentiated root tissues. The methylation of these calmodulin samples occurs specifically at lysine 115 since site-directed mutants of calmodulin with substitutions at this position were not methylated and competitively inhibited methylation. The present findings, combined with previous data showing differences in NAD kinase activation by methylated and unmethylated calmodulins, raise the possibility that posttranslational methylation could affect calmodulin action.

  17. Effect of presowing magnetic treatment on properties of pea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, M.; Haq, Z.; Jamil, Y.; Ahmad, M.

    2012-02-01

    The pea seeds were exposed to full-wave rectified sinusoidal magnetic fields. The effects of electromagnetic treatment on seedling growth and chlorophyll contents and have been investigated. Seed were sown after magnetic field treatment according to ISTA under controlled laboratory conditions. The magnetic filed treatment of seeds increased the growth significantly (P<0.05), while the increment in contents of chlorophyll have been found non significant (P<0.05). The shoot length, root length, root dry mass, shoot dry mass, fresh root mass and fresh shoot mass increased up to 140.5, 218.2, and 104, 263.6, 74.5, 91.3%, respectively. The result suggested that magnetic field could be used to enhance the growth in pea plant.

  18. Pulsed electro-acoustic (PEA) measurements of embedded charge distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennison, J. R.; Pearson, Lee H.

    2013-09-01

    Knowledge of the spatial distribution and evolution of embedded charge in thin dielectric materials has important applications in semiconductor, high-power electronic device, high-voltage DC power cable insulation, high-energy and plasma physics apparatus, and spacecraft industries. Knowing how, where, and how much charge accumulates and how it redistributes and dissipates can predict destructive charging effects. Pulsed Electro-acoustic (PEA) measurements— and two closely related methods, Pressure Wave Propagation (PWP) and Laser Intensity Modulation (LIMM)— nondestructively probe such internal charge distributions. We review the instrumentation, methods, theory and signal processing of simple PEA experiments, as well as the related PPW and LIMM methods. We emphasize system improvements required to achieve high spatial resolution for in vacuo measurements of thin dielectrics charged using electron beam injection.

  19. Isolation and study of the functional properties of pea proteins.

    PubMed

    Tömösközi, S; Lásztity, R; Haraszi, R; Baticz, O

    2001-10-01

    Proteins of pea seeds were isolated after defatting with hexane using alkaline (0.1 M sodium hydroxide) extraction and acid (HCl) precipitation. Concentrates were also prepared by hexane extraction and ethanolic extraction (pH = 5). Gross chemical composition amino acid content and functional properties (solubility profile, emulsifying--and foaming properties, water--and oil absorption) were studied. The results were compared with the same parameters of soy and lupin protein products. Although the majority of functional characteristics of isolates were lower in comparison to soy isolates, pea protein concentrate and isolate could be successfully used in bakery products for enrichment in protein and improvement of biological value. Their utilization as meat protein substitute in some Frankfurter type sausages is also possibly. PMID:11712241

  20. Genome sequence analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon: insights into grass genome evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Schulman, Al

    2009-08-09

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Erhardtoideae (rice), the Panicoideae (maize, sorghum, sugar cane and millet), and the Pooideae (wheat, barley and cool season forage grasses) provide the basis of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be completely sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes reveals a precise sequence- based history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grass family and identifies nested insertions of whole chromosomes into centromeric regions as a predominant mechanism driving chromosome evolution in the grasses. The relatively compact genome of Brachypodium is maintained by a balance of retroelement replication and loss. The complete genome sequence of Brachypodium, coupled to its exceptional promise as a model system for grass research, will support the development of new energy and food crops

  1. Distribution of N within Pea, Lupin, and Soybean Nodules.

    PubMed

    Kohl, D H; Reynolds, P H; Shearer, G

    1989-06-01

    The (15)N abundance of some, but not all, legume root nodules is significantly elevated compared to that of the whole plant. It seems probable that differences in (15)N enrichment reflect differences in the assimilatory pathway of fixed N. In that context, we have determined the distribution of naturally occurring (15)N in structural fractions of nodules from soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.), yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus), and pea (Pisum sativum) nodules and in chemical components from soybean nodules and to a lesser extent, pea and lupin nodules. None of the fractions of pea nodules (cortex, bacteriod, or host plant cytoplasm) was enriched in (15)N. The differences among bacteriods, cortex, and plant cytoplasm were smaller in lupin than in soybean nodules, but in both, bacteriods had the highest (15)N enrichment. In soybean nodules, the (15)N abundance of bacteriods and cortex was higher than plant cytoplasm, but all three fractions were more enriched in (15)N than the entire plant. Plant cytoplasm from soybean nodules was fractionated into protein-rich material, nonprotein alcohol precipitable material (NA), and a low molecular weight fraction. The N of the latter was further separated into N of ureides, nucleotides and free amino acids. Most of these components were either similar to or lower in (15)N abundance than the plant cytoplasm as a whole, but the NA fraction showed unusual (15)N enrichment. However, the percentage of nodule N in this fraction was small. NA fractions from yellow lupin and pea nodules and from soybean leaves were not enriched in (15)N. Nor was the NA fraction in ruptured bacteriods and cortical tissue of soybean nodules. Variation among soybean nodule fractions in the preponderance in protein of different amino acids was not large enough to explain the differences in (15)N abundances among them. A hypothesis, consistent with all known data, concerning the mechanism leading to the observed excess (15)N of lupin and soybean bacteriods is

  2. Effect of clinostating on photosynthetic apparatus of pea plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochubey, S. M.; Volovik, O. I.; Porubleva, L. V.; Shevchenko, V. V.

    The photosynthetic membrane composition and low temperature fluorescence spectra were analyzed for pea chloroplasts from control and clinostated plants. Clinorotation induces a decrease in the amount of the oligomeric form of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b complex (LHCII) and an increase of its monomeric form. Some changes in organization of photosystem 1 (PS1) complex were revealed as well. These changes are in accordance with the variations of fluorescence characteristics and photochemical activity.

  3. Green Pea Galaxies: Extreme, Optically-Thin Starbursts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaskot, Anne

    2013-10-01

    The high UV luminosities, compact sizes, and enormous ionization parameters of the Green Pea galaxies make them some of the most extreme starburst galaxies known. Most importantly, due to their unusual emission line ratios and high specific star formation rates, the Green Peas are the best candidates for escaping ionizing radiation in the nearby Universe. We propose to study four Green Peas with COS FUV spectra and ACS emission line imaging to constrain the Lyman continuum {LyC} escape fraction and determine the origin of high ionization emission in these galaxies. COS spectra will set strong limits on the LyC optical depth via the residual intensity in the CII 1335 line, while the NV 1240 line will constrain the stellar population's age and ionizing flux. We will also observe the starbursts with ACS ramp filters in [OII], [OIII], HeII, and H-beta to determine whether the nebular emission is consistent with a low LyC optical depth. The [OIII]/[OII] ratio map will reveal the ionization structure of the emitting gas. If the [OIII] emission is found to be more spatially extended than the [OII] in any regions, it will imply that the regions are most likely optically thin. If HeII is found to be spatially offset from the dominant nebular emission, then we infer the presence of shocks. Correcting for this shock contribution to the observed emission is critical to accurately evaluate the LyC optical depth. These observations will either reveal the Green Peas as a class of galaxies having substantial LyC escape fractions or demonstrate that even some of the most extreme galaxies in the nearby Universe are optically thick.

  4. Mechanism of gibberellin-dependent stem elongation in peas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.; Sovonick-Dunford, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    Stem elongation in peas (Pisum sativum L.) is under partial control by gibberellins, yet the mechanism of such control is uncertain. In this study, we examined the cellular and physical properties that govern stem elongation, to determine how gibberellins influence pea stem growth. Stem elongation of etiolated seedlings was retarded with uniconozol, a gibberellin synthesis inhibitor, and the growth retardation was reversed by exogenous gibberellin. Using the pressure probe and vapor pressure osmometry, we found little effect of uniconozol and gibberellin on cell turgor pressure or osmotic pressure. In contrast, these treatments had major effects on in vivo stress relaxation, measured by turgor relaxation and pressure-block techniques. Uniconozol-treated plants exhibited reduced wall relaxation (both initial rate and total amount). The results show that growth retardation is effected via a reduction in the wall yield coefficient and an increase in the yield threshold. These effects were largely reversed by exogenous gibberellin. When we measured the mechanical characteristics of the wall by stress/strain (Instron) analysis, we found only minor effects of uniconozol and gibberellin on the plastic compliance. This observation indicates that these agents did not alter wall expansion through effects on the mechanical (viscoelastic) properties of the wall. Our results suggest that wall expansion in peas is better viewed as a chemorheological, rather than a viscoelastic, process.

  5. Green Pea Galaxies Reveal Secrets of Lyα Escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huan; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Gronke, Max; Rhoads, James E.; Dijkstra, Mark; Jaskot, Anne; Zheng, Zhenya; Wang, Junxian

    2016-04-01

    We analyze archival Lyα spectra of 12 “Green Pea” galaxies observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, model their Lyα profiles with radiative transfer models, and explore the dependence of the Lyα escape fraction on various properties. Green Pea galaxies are nearby compact starburst galaxies with [O iii] λ5007 equivalent widths (EWs) of hundreds of Å. All 12 Green Pea galaxies in our sample show Lyα lines in emission, with an Lyα EW distribution similar to high-redshift Lyα emitters. Combining the optical and UV spectra of Green Pea galaxies, we estimate their Lyα escape fractions and find correlations between Lyα escape fraction and kinematic features of Lyα profiles. The escape fraction of Lyα in these galaxies ranges from 1.4% to 67%. We also find that the Lyα escape fraction depends strongly on metallicity and moderately on dust extinction. We compare their high-quality Lyα profiles with single H i shell radiative transfer models and find that the Lyα escape fraction anticorrelates with the derived H i column densities. Single-shell models fit most Lyα profiles well, but not the ones with the highest escape fractions of Lyα. Our results suggest that low H i column density and low metallicity are essential for Lyα escape and make a galaxy an Lyα emitter.

  6. Effective stabilization of CLA by microencapsulation in pea protein.

    PubMed

    Costa, A M M; Nunes, J C; Lima, B N B; Pedrosa, C; Calado, V; Torres, A G; Pierucci, A P T R

    2015-02-01

    CLA was microencapsulated by spray drying in ten varied wall systems (WS) consisting of pea protein isolate or pea protein concentrate (PPC) alone at varied core:WS ratios (1:2; 1:3 and 1:4), or blended with maltodextrin (M) and carboxymethylcellulose at a pea protein:carbohydrate ratio of 3:1. The physical-chemical properties of the CLA microparticles were characterised by core retention, microencapsulation efficiency (ME), particle size and moisture. CLA:M:PPC (1:1:3) showed the most promising results, thus we evaluated the effect of M addition in the WS on other physical-chemical characteristics and oxidative stability (CLA isomer profile, quantification of CLA and volatile compounds by SPME coupled with CG-MS) during two months of storage at room temperature, CLA:PPC (1:4) was selected for comparisons. CLA:M:PPC (1:1:3) microparticles demonstrated better morphology, solubility, dispersibility and higher glass-transition temperature values. M addition did not influence the oxidative stability of CLA, however its presence improved physical-chemical characteristics necessary for food applications. PMID:25172695

  7. Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase in Pea Root Nodules 1

    PubMed Central

    Appels, Michiel A.; Haaker, Huub

    1991-01-01

    Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (l-glutamate: oxaloacetate aminotransferase, EC 2.6.1.1 [GOT]), a key enzyme in the flow of carbon between the organic acid and amino acid pools in pea (Pisum sativum L.) root nodules, was studied. By ion exchange chromatography, the presence of two forms of GOT in the cytoplasm of pea root nodule cells was established. The major root nodule form was present in only a small quantity in the cytoplasm of root cells. Fractionation of root nodule cell extracts demonstrated that the increase in the GOT activity during nodule development was due to the increase of the activity in the cytoplasm of the plant cells, and not to an increase in activity in the plastids or in the mitochondria. The kinetic properties of the different cytoplasmic forms of GOT were studied. Some of the Km values differed, but calculations indicated that not the kinetic properties but a high concentration of the major root nodule form caused the observed increase in GOT activity in the pea root nodules. It was found that the reactions of the malate/aspartate shuttle are catalyzed by intact bacteroids, and that these reactions can support nitrogen fixation. It is proposed that the main function of the nodule-stimulated cytoplasmic form of GOT is participation in this shuttle. PMID:16668048

  8. Immunity and other defenses in pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent genomic analyses of arthropod defense mechanisms suggest conservation of key elements underlying responses to pathogens, parasites and stresses. At the center of pathogen-induced immune responses are signaling pathways triggered by the recognition of fungal, bacterial and viral signatures. These pathways result in the production of response molecules, such as antimicrobial peptides and lysozymes, which degrade or destroy invaders. Using the recently sequenced genome of the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum), we conducted the first extensive annotation of the immune and stress gene repertoire of a hemipterous insect, which is phylogenetically distantly related to previously characterized insects models. Results Strikingly, pea aphids appear to be missing genes present in insect genomes characterized to date and thought critical for recognition, signaling and killing of microbes. In line with results of gene annotation, experimental analyses designed to characterize immune response through the isolation of RNA transcripts and proteins from immune-challenged pea aphids uncovered few immune-related products. Gene expression studies, however, indicated some expression of immune and stress-related genes. Conclusions The absence of genes suspected to be essential for the insect immune response suggests that the traditional view of insect immunity may not be as broadly applicable as once thought. The limitations of the aphid immune system may be representative of a broad range of insects, or may be aphid specific. We suggest that several aspects of the aphid life style, such as their association with microbial symbionts, could facilitate survival without strong immune protection. PMID:20178569

  9. Auxin biosynthesis in pea: characterization of the tryptamine pathway.

    PubMed

    Quittenden, Laura J; Davies, Noel W; Smith, Jason A; Molesworth, Peter P; Tivendale, Nathan D; Ross, John J

    2009-11-01

    One pathway leading to the bioactive auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), is known as the tryptamine pathway, which is suggested to proceed in the sequence: tryptophan (Trp), tryptamine, N-hydroxytryptamine, indole-3-acetaldoxime, indole-3-acetaldehyde (IAAld), IAA. Recently, this pathway has been characterized by the YUCCA genes in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and their homologs in other species. YUCCA is thought to be responsible for the conversion of tryptamine to N-hydroxytryptamine. Here we complement the genetic findings with a compound-based approach in pea (Pisum sativum), detecting potential precursors by gas chromatography/tandem-mass spectrometry. In addition, we have synthesized deuterated forms of many of the intermediates involved, and have used them to quantify the endogenous compounds, and to investigate their metabolic fates. Trp, tryptamine, IAAld, indole-3-ethanol, and IAA were detected as endogenous constituents, whereas indole-3-acetaldoxime and one of its products, indole-3-acetonitrile, were not detected. Metabolism experiments indicated that the tryptamine pathway to IAA in pea roots proceeds in the sequence: Trp, tryptamine, IAAld, IAA, with indole-3-ethanol as a side-branch product of IAAld. N-hydroxytryptamine was not detected, but we cannot exclude that it is an intermediate between tryptamine and IAAld, nor can we rule out the possibility of a Trp-independent pathway operating in pea roots. PMID:19710233

  10. Gravitropic response and circumnutation in pea (Pisum sativum) seedling roots.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Jeong; Kobayashi, Akie; Fujii, Nobuharu; Miyazawa, Yutaka; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2016-05-01

    Plant circumnutation is a helical movement of growing organs such as shoots and roots. Gravitropic response is hypothesized to act as an external oscillator in shoot circumnutation, although this is subject to debate. The relationship between circumnutational movement and gravitropic response in roots remains unknown. In this study, we analyzed circumnutation of agravitropic roots using the ageotropum pea (Pisum sativum) mutant, and compared it with that of wild-type (cv. Alaska) pea roots. We further examined the relationship of gravitropic response to circumnutation of Alaska seedling roots by removing the gravisensing tissue (the root cap) and by treating the roots with auxin transport inhibitors. Alaska roots displayed circumnutational movements with a period of approximately 150 min, whereas ageotropum roots did not exhibit distinct circumnutational movement. Removal of the root cap in Alaska roots reduced gravitropic response and circumnutational movements. Treatment of Alaska roots with auxin transport inhibitors, 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) and N-(1-naphthyl)phthalamic acid (NPA), dramatically reduced gravitropic response and circumnutational movements. These results suggest that a gravity-regulated auxin transport is involved in circumnutation of pea seedling roots. PMID:26565659

  11. Mechanism of gibberellin-dependent stem elongation in peas.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, D J; Sovonick-Dunford, S A

    1989-01-01

    Stem elongation in peas (Pisum sativum L.) is under partial control by gibberellins, yet the mechanism of such control is uncertain. In this study, we examined the cellular and physical properties that govern stem elongation, to determine how gibberellins influence pea stem growth. Stem elongation of etiolated seedlings was retarded with uniconozol, a gibberellin synthesis inhibitor, and the growth retardation was reversed by exogenous gibberellin. Using the pressure probe and vapor pressure osmometry, we found little effect of uniconozol and gibberellin on cell turgor pressure or osmotic pressure. In contrast, these treatments had major effects on in vivo stress relaxation, measured by turgor relaxation and pressure-block techniques. Uniconozol-treated plants exhibited reduced wall relaxation (both initial rate and total amount). The results show that growth retardation is effected via a reduction in the wall yield coefficient and an increase in the yield threshold. These effects were largely reversed by exogenous gibberellin. When we measured the mechanical characteristics of the wall by stress/strain (Instron) analysis, we found only minor effects of uniconozol and gibberellin on the plastic compliance. This observation indicates that these agents did not alter wall expansion through effects on the mechanical (viscoelastic) properties of the wall. Our results suggest that wall expansion in peas is better viewed as a chemorheological, rather than a viscoelastic, process. PMID:11537446

  12. Pre-fractionation strategies to resolve pea (Pisum sativum) sub-proteomes

    PubMed Central

    Meisrimler, Claudia-Nicole; Menckhoff, Ljiljana; Kukavica, Biljana M.; Lüthje, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Legumes are important crop plants and pea (Pisum sativum L.) has been investigated as a model with respect to several physiological aspects. The sequencing of the pea genome has not been completed. Therefore, proteomic approaches are currently limited. Nevertheless, the increasing numbers of available EST-databases as well as the high homology of the pea and medicago genome (Medicago truncatula Gaertner) allow the successful identification of proteins. Due to the un-sequenced pea genome, pre-fractionation approaches have been used in pea proteomic surveys in the past. Aside from a number of selective proteome studies on crude extracts and the chloroplast, few studies have targeted other components such as the pea secretome, an important sub-proteome of interest due to its role in abiotic and biotic stress processes. The secretome itself can be further divided into different sub-proteomes (plasma membrane, apoplast, cell wall proteins). Cell fractionation in combination with different gel-electrophoresis, chromatography methods and protein identification by mass spectrometry are important partners to gain insight into pea sub-proteomes, post-translational modifications and protein functions. Overall, pea proteomics needs to link numerous existing physiological and biochemical data to gain further insight into adaptation processes, which play important roles in field applications. Future developments and directions in pea proteomics are discussed. PMID:26539198

  13. Hypolipidemic effect of dietary pea proteins: Impact on genes regulating hepatic lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Rigamonti, Elena; Parolini, Cinzia; Marchesi, Marta; Diani, Erika; Brambilla, Stefano; Sirtori, Cesare R; Chiesa, Giulia

    2010-05-01

    Controversial data on the lipid-lowering effect of dietary pea proteins have been provided and the mechanisms behind this effect are not completely understood. The aim of the study was to evaluate a possible hypolipidemic activity of a pea protein isolate and to determine whether pea proteins could affect the hepatic lipid metabolism through regulation of genes involved in cholesterol and fatty acid homeostasis. Rats were fed Nath's hypercholesterolemic diets for 28 days, the protein sources being casein or a pea protein isolate from Pisum sativum. After 14 and 28 days of dietary treatment, rats fed pea proteins had markedly lower plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels than rats fed casein (p<0.05). Pea protein-fed rats displayed higher hepatic mRNA levels of LDL receptor versus those fed casein (p<0.05). Hepatic mRNA concentration of genes involved in fatty acids synthesis, such as fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase, was lower in pea protein-fed rats than in rats fed casein (p<0.05). In conclusion, the present study demonstrates a marked cholesterol and triglyceride-lowering activity of pea proteins in rats. Moreover, pea proteins appear to affect cellular lipid homeostasis by upregulating genes involved in hepatic cholesterol uptake and by downregulating fatty acid synthesis genes. PMID:20077421

  14. Watching Grass Grow: Biology Explorations Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puttick, Gillian

    2002-01-01

    Describes an online biology course for science teachers in a master's degree program that focuses on the adaptation and natural selection of grass under environmental challenges. Provides experience with how biologists use questioning and investigation in their research. (YDS)

  15. New Developments in Grasses for Pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New forage varieties with improved traits are an essential component of best management practices for livestock agriculture. This paper discusses new varieties of several cool-season forage grasses used for pasture production....

  16. Temperate grass response to timing of grazing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing management has a significant impact on pasture growth. We determined how timing of grazing influences grass productivity, yield distribution, and persistence. Meadow fescue [Schedonorus pratensis (Huds.) P. Beauv.], orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), quackgrass [Elymus repens (L.) Gould...

  17. Post senescent grass canopy remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Analysis of in situ collected spectral reflectance data from a dormant or senescent grass canopy showed a direct relationship existed between spectral reflectance and biomass for the 0.50-0.80 micron spectral region. The data, collected four weeks after the end of the growing season, indicated that post senescent remote sensing of grass canopy biomass is possible and helps to elucidate the spectral contribution of recently dead vegetation in mixed live/dead canopy situations.

  18. Madagascar's grasses and grasslands: anthropogenic or natural?

    PubMed Central

    Besnard, Guillaume; Forest, Félix; Malakasi, Panagiota; Moat, Justin; Clayton, W. Derek; Ficinski, Paweł; Savva, George M.; Nanjarisoa, Olinirina P.; Razanatsoa, Jacqueline; Randriatsara, Fetra O.; Kimeu, John M.; Luke, W. R. Quentin; Kayombo, Canisius; Linder, H. Peter

    2016-01-01

    Grasses, by their high productivity even under very low pCO2, their ability to survive repeated burning and to tolerate long dry seasons, have transformed the terrestrial biomes in the Neogene and Quaternary. The expansion of grasslands at the cost of biodiverse forest biomes in Madagascar is often postulated as a consequence of the Holocene settlement of the island by humans. However, we show that the Malagasy grass flora has many indications of being ancient with a long local evolutionary history, much predating the Holocene arrival of humans. First, the level of endemism in the Madagascar grass flora is well above the global average for large islands. Second, a survey of many of the more diverse areas indicates that there is a very high spatial and ecological turnover in the grass flora, indicating a high degree of niche specialization. We also find some evidence that there are both recently disturbed and natural stable grasslands: phylogenetic community assembly indicates that recently severely disturbed grasslands are phylogenetically clustered, whereas more undisturbed grasslands tend to be phylogenetically more evenly distributed. From this evidence, it is likely that grass communities existed in Madagascar long before human arrival and so were determined by climate, natural grazing and other natural factors. Humans introduced zebu cattle farming and increased fire frequency, and may have triggered an expansion of the grasslands. Grasses probably played the same role in the modification of the Malagasy environments as elsewhere in the tropics. PMID:26791612

  19. Madagascar's grasses and grasslands: anthropogenic or natural?

    PubMed

    Vorontsova, Maria S; Besnard, Guillaume; Forest, Félix; Malakasi, Panagiota; Moat, Justin; Clayton, W Derek; Ficinski, Paweł; Savva, George M; Nanjarisoa, Olinirina P; Razanatsoa, Jacqueline; Randriatsara, Fetra O; Kimeu, John M; Luke, W R Quentin; Kayombo, Canisius; Linder, H Peter

    2016-01-27

    Grasses, by their high productivity even under very low pCO2, their ability to survive repeated burning and to tolerate long dry seasons, have transformed the terrestrial biomes in the Neogene and Quaternary. The expansion of grasslands at the cost of biodiverse forest biomes in Madagascar is often postulated as a consequence of the Holocene settlement of the island by humans. However, we show that the Malagasy grass flora has many indications of being ancient with a long local evolutionary history, much predating the Holocene arrival of humans. First, the level of endemism in the Madagascar grass flora is well above the global average for large islands. Second, a survey of many of the more diverse areas indicates that there is a very high spatial and ecological turnover in the grass flora, indicating a high degree of niche specialization. We also find some evidence that there are both recently disturbed and natural stable grasslands: phylogenetic community assembly indicates that recently severely disturbed grasslands are phylogenetically clustered, whereas more undisturbed grasslands tend to be phylogenetically more evenly distributed. From this evidence, it is likely that grass communities existed in Madagascar long before human arrival and so were determined by climate, natural grazing and other natural factors. Humans introduced zebu cattle farming and increased fire frequency, and may have triggered an expansion of the grasslands. Grasses probably played the same role in the modification of the Malagasy environments as elsewhere in the tropics. PMID:26791612

  20. Molecular control of grass inflorescence development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dabing; Yuan, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    The grass family is one of the largest families in angiosperms and has evolved a characteristic inflorescence morphology, with complex branches and specialized spikelets. The origin and development of the highly divergent inflorescence architecture in grasses have recently received much attention. Increasing evidence has revealed that numerous factors, such as transcription factors and plant hormones, play key roles in determining reproductive meristem fate and inflorescence patterning in grasses. Moreover, some molecular switches that have been implicated in specifying inflorescence shapes contribute significantly to grain yields in cereals. Here, we review key genetic and molecular switches recently identified from two model grass species, rice (Oryza sativa) and maize (Zea mays), that regulate inflorescence morphology specification, including meristem identity, meristem size and maintenance, initiation and outgrowth of axillary meristems, and organogenesis. Furthermore, we summarize emerging networks of genes and pathways in grass inflorescence morphogenesis and emphasize their evolutionary divergence in comparison with the model eudicot Arabidopsis thaliana. We also discuss the agricultural application of genes controlling grass inflorescence development. PMID:24471834

  1. Genetic compatibility determines endophyte-grass combinations.

    PubMed

    Saikkonen, Kari; Wäli, Piippa R; Helander, Marjo

    2010-01-01

    Even highly mutually beneficial microbial-plant interactions, such as mycorrhizal- and rhizobial-plant exchanges, involve selfishness, cheating and power-struggles between the partners, which depending on prevailing selective pressures, lead to a continuum of interactions from antagonistic to mutualistic. Using manipulated grass-endophyte combinations in a five year common garden experiment, we show that grass genotypes and genetic mismatches constrain genetic combinations between the vertically (via host seeds) transmitted endophytes and the out-crossing host, thereby reducing infections in established grass populations. Infections were lost in both grass tillers and seedlings in F(1) and F(2) generations, respectively. Experimental plants were collected as seeds from two different environments, i.e., meadows and nearby riverbanks. Endophyte-related benefits to the host included an increased number of inflorescences, but only in meadow plants and not until the last growing season of the experiment. Our results illustrate the importance of genetic host specificity and trans-generational maternal effects on the genetic structure of a host population, which act as destabilizing forces in endophyte-grass symbioses. We propose that (1) genetic mismatches may act as a buffering mechanism against highly competitive endophyte-grass genotype combinations threatening the biodiversity of grassland communities and (2) these mismatches should be acknowledged, particularly in breeding programmes aimed at harnessing systemic and heritable endophytes to improve the agriculturally valuable characteristics of cultivars. PMID:20614034

  2. A peptide that binds the pea aphid gut impedes entry of Pea enation mosaic virus into the aphid hemocoel

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Sijun; Sivakumar, S.; Sparks, Wendy O.; Miller, W. Allen; Bonning, Bryony C.

    2010-05-25

    Development of ways to block virus transmission by aphids could lead to novel and broad-spectrum means of controlling plant viruses. Viruses in the Luteoviridae enhanced are obligately transmitted by aphids in a persistent manner that requires virion accumulation in the aphid hemocoel. To enter the hemocoel, the virion must bind and traverse the aphid gut epithelium. By screening a phage display library, we identified a 12-residue gut binding peptide (GBP3.1) that binds to the midgut and hindgut of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Binding was confirmed by labeling the aphid gut with a GBP3.1-green fluorescent protein fusion. GBP3.1 reduced uptake of Pea enation mosaic virus (Luteoviridae) from the pea aphid gut into the hemocoel. GBP3.1 also bound to the gut epithelia of the green peach aphid and the soybean aphid. These results suggest a novel strategy for inhibiting plant virus transmission by at least three major aphid pest species.

  3. THE ORIGIN AND OPTICAL DEPTH OF IONIZING RADIATION IN THE 'GREEN PEA' GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Jaskot, A. E.; Oey, M. S.

    2013-04-01

    Although Lyman-continuum (LyC) radiation from star-forming galaxies likely drove the reionization of the universe, observations of star-forming galaxies at low redshift generally indicate low LyC escape fractions. However, the extreme [O III]/[O II] ratios of the z = 0.1-0.3 Green Pea galaxies may be due to high escape fractions of ionizing radiation. To analyze the LyC optical depths and ionizing sources of these rare, compact starbursts, we compare nebular photoionization and stellar population models with observed emission lines in the Peas' Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra. We focus on the six most extreme Green Peas, the galaxies with the highest [O III]/[O II] ratios and the best candidates for escaping ionizing radiation. The Balmer line equivalent widths and He I {lambda}3819 emission in the extreme Peas support young ages of 3-5 Myr, and He II {lambda}4686 emission in five extreme Peas signals the presence of hard ionizing sources. Ionization by active galactic nuclei or high-mass X-ray binaries is inconsistent with the Peas' line ratios and ages. Although stacked spectra reveal no Wolf-Rayet (WR) features, we tentatively detect WR features in the SDSS spectra of three extreme Peas. Based on the Peas' ages and line ratios, we find that WR stars, chemically homogeneous O stars, or shocks could produce the observed He II emission. If hot stars are responsible, then the Peas' optical depths are ambiguous. However, accounting for emission from shocks lowers the inferred optical depth and suggests that the Peas may be optically thin. The Peas' ages likely optimize the escape of LyC radiation; they are old enough for supernovae and stellar winds to reshape the interstellar medium, but young enough to possess large numbers of UV-luminous O or WR stars.

  4. On the Quest of Cellular Functions of PEA-15 and the Therapeutic Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    Phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes, 15 KDa (PEA-15), a ubiquitously expressed small protein in all mammals, is known for decades for its potent interactions with various protein partners along distinct biological pathways. Most notable interacting partners of PEA-15 include extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, the Fas-associated death domain (FADD) protein involving in the formation of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC), and the phospholipase D1 (PLD1) affecting the insulin sensitivity. However, the actual cellular functions of PEA-15 are still mysterious, and the question why this protein is expressed in almost all cell and tissue types remains unanswered. Here we synthesize the most recent structural, biological, and clinical studies on PEA-15 with emphases on its anti-apoptotic, anti-proliferative, and anti-inflammative properties, and propose a converged protective role of PEA-15 that maintains the balance of death and survival in different cell types. Under conditions that this delicate balance is unsustainable, PEA-15 may become pathological and lead to various diseases, including cancers and diabetes. Targeting PEA-15 interactions, or the use of PEA-15 protein as therapeutics, may provide a wider window of opportunities to treat these diseases. PMID:26263999

  5. Deletion of PEA-15 in mice is associated with specific impairments of spatial learning abilities

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background PEA-15 is a phosphoprotein that binds and regulates ERK MAP kinase and RSK2 and is highly expressed throughout the brain. PEA-15 alters c-Fos and CREB-mediated transcription as a result of these interactions. To determine if PEA-15 contributes to the function of the nervous system we tested mice lacking PEA-15 in a series of experiments designed to measure learning, sensory/motor function, and stress reactivity. Results We report that PEA-15 null mice exhibited impaired learning in three distinct spatial tasks, while they exhibited normal fear conditioning, passive avoidance, egocentric navigation, and odor discrimination. PEA-15 null mice also had deficient forepaw strength and in limited instances, heightened stress reactivity and/or anxiety. However, these non-cognitive variables did not appear to account for the observed spatial learning impairments. The null mice maintained normal weight, pain sensitivity, and coordination when compared to wild type controls. Conclusion We found that PEA-15 null mice have spatial learning disabilities that are similar to those of mice where ERK or RSK2 function is impaired. We suggest PEA-15 may be an essential regulator of ERK-dependent spatial learning. PMID:19917132

  6. Association mapping of agronomic and quality traits in USDA pea single-plant collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Association mapping is an efficient approach for the identification of the molecular basis of agronomic traits in crop plants. For this purpose in pea (Pisum sativum L.), we genotyped and phenotyped individual lines of the single-plant derived core collection of the USDA pea single-plant (PSP) colle...

  7. Molecular evidence for lack of seed transmission of Pea enation mosaic virus in Pisum sativum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV) has never been definitively demonstrated to be seed transmitted and as such, has been a point of issue in movement of pea seed to other countries such as Australia and New Zealand. To determine whether the virus is seed-borne and the likelihood that it may be seed tr...

  8. Screening of pea genotypes for resistance to root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 8, 2012.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani AG 8 is one of the major pathogens that causes pea root rot and stunting in the Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington. The disease is most severe in fields where wheat has been mono-cropped for a number of years or where cereal cover crops are incorporated just before pea seedin...

  9. PEA15 Regulates the DNA Damage-Induced Cell Cycle Checkpoint and Oncogene-Directed Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Arvindhan; Dogra, Shaillay Kumar; Liu, Alex Y.; Green, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of the DNA damage response and cell cycle progression is critical for maintaining genome integrity. Here, we report that in response to DNA damage, COPS5 deubiquitinates and stabilizes PEA15 in an ATM kinase-dependent manner. PEA15 expression oscillates throughout the cell cycle, and the loss of PEA15 accelerates cell cycle progression by activating CDK6 expression via the c-JUN transcription factor. Cells lacking PEA15 exhibit a DNA damage-induced G2/M checkpoint defect due to increased CDC25C activity and, consequentially, higher cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1)/cyclin B activity, and accordingly they have an increased rate of spontaneous mutagenesis. We find that oncogenic RAS inhibits PEA15 expression and that ectopic PEA15 expression blocks RAS-mediated transformation, which can be partially rescued by ectopic expression of CDK6. Finally, we show that PEA15 expression is downregulated in colon, breast, and lung cancer samples. Collectively, our results demonstrate that tumor suppressor PEA15 is a regulator of genome integrity and is an integral component of the DNA damage response pathway that regulates cell cycle progression, the DNA-damage-induced G2/M checkpoint, and cellular transformation. PMID:24710276

  10. PEA15 regulates the DNA damage-induced cell cycle checkpoint and oncogene-directed transformation.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Arvindhan; Dogra, Shaillay Kumar; Liu, Alex Y; Green, Michael R; Wajapeyee, Narendra

    2014-06-01

    Regulation of the DNA damage response and cell cycle progression is critical for maintaining genome integrity. Here, we report that in response to DNA damage, COPS5 deubiquitinates and stabilizes PEA15 in an ATM kinase-dependent manner. PEA15 expression oscillates throughout the cell cycle, and the loss of PEA15 accelerates cell cycle progression by activating CDK6 expression via the c-JUN transcription factor. Cells lacking PEA15 exhibit a DNA damage-induced G2/M checkpoint defect due to increased CDC25C activity and, consequentially, higher cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1)/cyclin B activity, and accordingly they have an increased rate of spontaneous mutagenesis. We find that oncogenic RAS inhibits PEA15 expression and that ectopic PEA15 expression blocks RAS-mediated transformation, which can be partially rescued by ectopic expression of CDK6. Finally, we show that PEA15 expression is downregulated in colon, breast, and lung cancer samples. Collectively, our results demonstrate that tumor suppressor PEA15 is a regulator of genome integrity and is an integral component of the DNA damage response pathway that regulates cell cycle progression, the DNA-damage-induced G2/M checkpoint, and cellular transformation. PMID:24710276

  11. Selenium bioavailability from naturally produced high-selenium peas and oats in selenium-deficient rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined the bioavailability of selenium (Se) from yellow peas and oats harvested from high-Se soil of South Dakota, United States. The Se concentrations of the peas and oats were 13.5 ± 0.2 and 2.5 ± 0.1 mg/kg, respectively. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were depleted of Se by feeding them...

  12. Characterization of regenerated butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea L.) accessions for morphological, phenology, reproductive and potential nutraceutical, pharmaceutical trait utilization.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butterfly pea, Clitoria ternatea, has been used in Africa as a companion crop and in the United States as an ornamental. The USDA, ARS, PGRCU curates 28 butterfly pea accessions. Butterfly pea accessions were transplanted from about 30-day-old seedlings to the field in Griffin, GA, around 01 June ...

  13. Pea germplasm with partial resistance to sclerotinia sclerotiorum that extends the time required by the pathogen to infect host tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White mold, caused by the fungus S. sclerotiorum can be a serious disease on pea. Currently there are no pea genotypes with complete resistance to this pathogen. Selective wild pea genotypes from the Pisum Core Collection and cultivars were assessed for the time required by S. sclerotiorum to seve...

  14. Phylogenetic niche conservatism in C4 grasses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Edwards, Erika J; Freckleton, Robert P; Osborne, Colin P

    2012-11-01

    Photosynthetic pathway is used widely to discriminate plant functional types in studies of global change. However, independent evolutionary lineages of C(4) grasses with different variants of C(4) photosynthesis show different biogeographical relationships with mean annual precipitation, suggesting phylogenetic niche conservatism (PNC). To investigate how phylogeny and photosynthetic type differentiate C(4) grasses, we compiled a dataset of morphological and habitat information of 185 genera belonging to two monophyletic subfamilies, Chloridoideae and Panicoideae, which together account for 90 % of the world's C(4) grass species. We evaluated evolutionary variance and covariance of morphological and habitat traits. Strong phylogenetic signals were found in both morphological and habitat traits, arising mainly from the divergence of the two subfamilies. Genera in Chloridoideae had significantly smaller culm heights, leaf widths, 1,000-seed weights and stomata; they also appeared more in dry, open or saline habitats than those of Panicoideae. Controlling for phylogenetic structure showed significant covariation among morphological traits, supporting the hypothesis of phylogenetically independent scaling effects. However, associations between morphological and habitat traits showed limited phylogenetic covariance. Subfamily was a better explanation than photosynthetic type for the variance in most morphological traits. Morphology, habitat water availability, shading, and productivity are therefore all involved in the PNC of C(4) grass lineages. This study emphasized the importance of phylogenetic history in the ecology and biogeography of C(4) grasses, suggesting that divergent lineages need to be considered to fully understand the impacts of global change on plant distributions. PMID:22569558

  15. Formation of electric dipoles in pea stem tissue due to an electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Fatemeh; Farahani, Elham

    2016-07-01

    For examining the effect of an electrical field (DC) on pea seed, we exposed the pea seeds to electric fields with intensities 1, 4 and 7 kV/cm for 30, 230, 430 and 630 seconds. The tests were repeated three times, and each iteration had 5 seeds. Then, the seeds were moved to packaged plates. Finally, microscopic observation of the pea stem tissue showed that the application of a DC electrical field caused a deformation in the pea stem tissue. The results led us to examine the deformation of the tissue theoretically and to address that deformation as an electrostatic problem. In this regard, we modeled the pea stem based on the formation of electric dipoles. Then, theoretically, we calculated the force acting on each xylem section by coding, and the results were consistent with the experimental data.

  16. Physicochemical and bitterness properties of enzymatic pea protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Humiski, L M; Aluko, R E

    2007-10-01

    The effects of different proteolytic treatments on the physiochemical and bitterness properties of pea protein hydrolysates were investigated. A commercial pea protein isolate was digested using each of 5 different proteases to produce protein hydrolysates with varying properties. After 4 h of enzyme digestion, samples were clarified by centrifugation followed by desalting of the supernatant with a 1000 Da membrane; the retentates were then freeze-dried. Alcalase and Flavourzymetrade mark produced protein hydrolysates with significantly higher (P < 0.05) degree of hydrolysis when compared to the other proteases. Flavourzyme, papain, and alcalase produced hydrolysates that contained the highest levels of aromatic amino acids, while trypsin hydrolysate had the highest levels of lysine and arginine. Papain hydrolysate contained high molecular weight peptides (10 to 178 kDa) while hydrolysates from the other 4 proteases contained predominantly low molecular weight peptides (pea protein hydrolysates because of the low bitterness scores combined with a high level of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition and moderate free radical scavenging activity. PMID:17995627

  17. Bean α-amylase inhibitor 1 in transgenic peas (Pisum sativum) provides complete protection from pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum) under field conditions

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Roger L.; Schroeder, Hart E.; Bateman, Kaye S.; Chrispeels, Maarten J.; Armstrong, Eric; Higgins, Thomas J. V.

    2000-01-01

    Two α-amylase inhibitors, called αAI-1 and αAI-2, that share 78% amino acid sequence identity and have a differential specificity toward mammalian and insect α-amylases are present in different accessions of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Using greenhouse-grown transgenic peas (Pisum sativum), we have shown previously that expression of αAI-1 in pea seeds can provide complete protection against the pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum). Here, we report that αAI-1 also protects peas from the weevil under field conditions. The high degree of protection is explained by our finding that αAI-1 inhibits pea bruchid α-amylase by 80% over a broad pH range (pH 4.5–6.5). αAI-2, on the other hand, is a much less effective inhibitor of pea bruchid α-amylase, inhibiting the enzyme by only 40%, and only in the pH 4.0–4.5 range. Nevertheless, this inhibitor was still partially effective in protecting field-grown transgenic peas against pea weevils. The primary effect of αAI-2 appeared to be a delay in the maturation of the larvae. This contrasts with the effect of αAI-1, which results in larval mortality at the first or second instar. These results are discussed in relationship to the use of amylase inhibitors with different specificities to bring about protection of crops from their insect pests or to decrease insect pest populations below the economic injury level. PMID:10759552

  18. Southern Florida's River of Grass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Florida's Everglades is a region of broad, slow-moving sheets of water flowing southward over low-lying areas from Lake Okeechobeeto the Gulf of Mexico. In places this remarkable 'river of grass' is 80 kilometers wide. These images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer show the Everglades region on January 16, 2002. Each image covers an area measuring 191 kilometers x 205 kilometers. The data were captured during Terra orbit 11072.

    On the left is a natural color view acquired by MISR's nadir camera. A portion of Lake Okeechobee is visible at the top, to the right of image center. South of the lake, whose name derives from the Seminole word for 'big water,' an extensive region of farmland known as the Everglades Agricultural Area is recognizable by its many clustered squares. Over half of the sugar produced in United States is grown here. Urban areas along the east coast and in the northern part of the image extend to the boundaries of Big Cypress Swamp, situated north of Everglades National Park.

    The image on the right combines red-band data from the 46-degree backward, nadir and 46-degree forward-viewing camera angles to create a red, green, blue false-color composite. One of the interesting uses of the composite image is for detecting surface water. Wet surfaces appear blue in this rendition because sun glitter produces a greater signal at the forward camera's view angle. Wetlands visible in these images include a series of shallow impoundments called Water Conservation Areas which were built to speed water flow through the Everglades in times of drought. In parts of the Everglades, these levees and extensive systems such as the Miami and Tamiami Canals have altered the natural cycles of water flow. For example, the water volume of the Shark River Slough, a natural wetland which feeds Everglades National Park, is influenced by the Tamiami Canal. The unique and intrinsic value of the Everglades is now widely recognized, and efforts to restore

  19. Porridge and peas: C. Stanton Hicks and Australian army rations.

    PubMed

    Collingham, Lizzie

    2009-09-01

    In 1942 Australian troops came back from fighting the Japanese in New Guinea exhausted and malnourished. The army rations of bully beef and biscuits were insufficiently rich in vitamins to sustain men in combat in tropical conditions. The nutritionist C. Stanton Hicks was one of a vast army of scientists who worked behind the scenes to maximize the war effort. He made it his mission to improve the army diet. He set up the Australian Army Catering Corps, invented combat ration packs and tried to introduce vitamin-rich foods into the soldiers' diet. Two of his more idiosyncratic innovations were wheat porridge and Tasmanian blue peas. PMID:19539373

  20. Gibberellic acid stimulates acid invertase secretion in pea ovary protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Estruch, J J; Beltrán, J P

    1991-02-25

    Protoplasts purified from mesocarp of nonpollinated pea (Pisum sativum L.) ovaries released acid invertase to the incubation medium. The association of the acid invertase with microsomal fractions, and the sensitivity to energy-metabolism inhibitors and to tunicamycin, indicated the secretory nature of the release process. In the presence of GA3 (10 microM), the protoplasts increased their invertase secretion at about 60 min, this effect being counteracted by tunicamycin but not by cycloheximide. Subcellular fractionation of GA3-treated protoplasts showed that higher invertase secretion was the result of a promotion of invertase transfer from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi apparatus. PMID:2001743

  1. Cyanide-insensitive Respiration in Pea Cotyledons 1

    PubMed Central

    James, Terrance W.; Spencer, Mary S.

    1979-01-01

    Mitochondria isolated by a zonal procedure from the cotyledons of germinating peas possessed a cyanide-resistant respiration. This respiration was virtually absent in mitochondria isolated during the first 24 hours of germination but thereafter increased gradually until the 6th or 7th day of seedling development. At this time between 15 and 20% of the succinate oxidation was not inhibited by cyanide. The activity of the cyanide-resistant respiration was also determined in the absence of cyanide. Relationships among mitochondrial structure, cyanide-resistant respiration, and seedling development are discussed. PMID:16660982

  2. The pharmacokinetics of phenylethyl alcohol (PEA): safety evaluation comparisons in rats, rabbits, and humans.

    PubMed

    Politano, Valerie T; Diener, Robert M; Christian, Mildred S; Hawkins, David R; Ritacco, Gretchen; Api, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    The present studies were conducted to compare the dermal absorption, plasma pharmacokinetics, and excretion of phenylethyl alcohol (PEA) by pregnant and nonpregnant rats, rabbits, and humans. The PEA is a natural fragrance material that is widely used in perfumes, soaps, and lotions and is a major ingredient of natural rose oil. Following dermal (430, 700, or 1400 mg/kg body weight [bw]), gavage (430 mg/kg bw), or dietary (430 mg/kg bw) administration of PEA to rats, plasma concentrations of PEA were found to be low regardless of the route of administration. The plasma concentrations of phenylacetic acid (PAA, the major metabolite of PEA) greatly exceeded the concentrations of PEA and were highest after gavage, followed by dermal then dietary administration. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion were compared following topical application of ¹⁴C-labeled PEA to rats, rabbits, and humans (specific activities of dosing solutions: 58-580, 164, and 50 µCi/mL, respectively). In rabbits, the plasma concentration-time profile for PAA was markedly prolonged compared to rats or humans. In humans, only 7.6% of the applied dose of PEA was absorbed, versus 77% in rats and 50% in rabbits. Based on a human dermal systemic exposure of 0.3 mg/kg per day from the use of multiple consumer personal care products containing PEA, a rat dermal no observed adverse effect level of 70 mg/kg per day, and the percentage of dose absorbed in humans, the margin of safety exceeds 2600 concluding that, under normal fragrance use conditions, PEA is not a developmental toxicity hazard for humans. PMID:23385160

  3. Grass pollen immunotherapy: where are we now.

    PubMed

    Würtzen, Peter A; Gupta, Shashank; Brand, Stephanie; Andersen, Peter S

    2016-04-01

    During allergen immunotherapy (AIT), the allergic patient is exposed to the disease-inducing antigens (allergens) in order to induce clinical and immunological tolerance and obtain disease modification. Large trials of grass AIT with highly standardized subcutaneous and sublingual tablet vaccines have been conducted to document the clinical effect. Induction of blocking antibodies as well as changes in the balance between T-cell phenotypes, including induction of regulatory T-cell subtypes, have been demonstrated for both treatment types. These observations increase the understanding of the immunological mechanism behind the clinical effect and may make it possible to use the immunological changes as biomarkers of clinical effect. The current review describes the recent mechanistic findings for subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy/tablet treatment and discusses how the observed immunological changes translate into a scientific foundation for the observed clinical effects of grass pollen immunotherapy and lead to new treatment strategies for grass AIT. PMID:26973122

  4. Molecular biomarkers for grass pollen immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, Florin-Dan

    2014-01-01

    Grass pollen allergy represents a significant cause of allergic morbidity worldwide. Component-resolved diagnosis biomarkers are increasingly used in allergy practice in order to evaluate the sensitization to grass pollen allergens, allowing the clinician to confirm genuine sensitization to the corresponding allergen plant sources and supporting an accurate prescription of allergy immunotherapy (AIT), an important approach in many regions of the world with great plant biodiversity and/or where pollen seasons may overlap. The search for candidate predictive biomarkers for grass pollen immunotherapy (tolerogenic dendritic cells and regulatory T cells biomarkers, serum blocking antibodies biomarkers, especially functional ones, immune activation and immune tolerance soluble biomarkers and apoptosis biomarkers) opens new opportunities for the early detection of clinical responders for AIT, for the follow-up of these patients and for the development of new allergy vaccines. PMID:25237628

  5. Guidelines for growing perennial grasses for biofuel and bioproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Guidelines for growing perennial grasses for biofuel and bioproducts Rob Mitchell Abstract: Switchgrass, big bluestem, and warm-season grass mixtures provide numerous benefits. Existing field equipment, herbicides, and cultivar improvement promote rapid establishment in the planting year. These gra...

  6. [Protein complementation of defatted hazelnut flour with pea flour].

    PubMed

    Villarroel, M; Biolley, E; Ballester, D

    1990-09-01

    A great deal of research has been carried out to increase the availability of naturally-occurring proteins, or obtained from secondary products derived through industrial processes. As a result of the industrial exploitation of the native hazelnut (Gevuina avellana) in Chile, a defatted residue is obtained which eventually could be utilized as a human food. To determine the complementary potential capacity of the defatted hazelnut flour and pea flour, a study was carried out in weaning rats of the Wistar strain, as follows. The biological evaluation considered diet formulation with defatted hazelnut flour and pea flour in the 30:70, 50:50, 60:40 and 70:30 proportions, respectively. The NPR values obtained in this evaluation of the assay diets were: 3.4, 3.5, 3.9, 4.1 and 4.1, in comparison with 3.7 for casein. In percentage terms, the 4.1 NPR value was 11% higher than that obtained for casein. The maximum protein quality was observed when the two protein sources were mixed in the 60:40 and 70:30 (w/w) ratios. In regard to true digestibility, there were no significant differences among the experimental diets, but were lower than casein. The results of this study demonstrate that the defatted hazelnut flour constitutes an attractive nutritional alternative for the amino acid supplementation of cereal and legumes, the latter being of habitual consumption by the Chilean population. PMID:2134141

  7. [Pigment composition and photosynthetic activity of pea chlorophyll mutants].

    PubMed

    Ladygin, V G

    2003-01-01

    Pea chlorophyll mutants chlorotica 2004 and 2014 have been studied. The mutants differ from the initial form (pea cultivar Torsdag) in stem and leaf color (light green in the mutant 2004 and yellow-green in the mutant 2014), relative chlorophyll content (approximately 80 and 50%, respectively), and the composition of carotenoids: the mutant 2004 contains a significantly smaller amount of carotene but accumulates more lutein and violaxanthine; in the mutant 2014, the contents of all carotenoids are decreased proportionally to the decrease in chlorophyll content. It is shown that the rates of CO2 assimilation and oxygen production in the mutant chlorotica 2004 and 2014 plants are reduced. The quantum efficiency of photosynthesis in the mutants is 29-30% lower than in the control plants; in their hybrids, however, it is 1.5-2 higher. It is proposed that both the greater role of dark respiration in gas exchange and the reduced photosynthetic activity in chlorotica mutants are responsible for the decreased phytomass increment in these plants. On the basis of these results, the conclusion is drawn that the mutations chlorotica 2004 and 2014 affect the genes controlling the formation and functioning of various components of the photosynthetic apparatus. PMID:12942751

  8. Rare-earth occurrences in the Pea Ridge tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Vierrether, C.W.; Cornell, W.I.

    1993-01-01

    Tailings from the Pea Ridge iron mine contain significant amounts of apatite, which has rare-earth element values associated with it. In association with the recovery of rare-earth minerals as a secondary resource, the US Bureau of Mines conducted an investigation on the recoverability of the rare-earth minerals from the tailings. The mill tailings were subjected to a phosphate flotation to separate the apatite from other constituents. More than 70-pct recovery of the rare-earth values was achieved. Based on mineralogical characterization and prior analysis of rare-earth-bearing breccia pipe material at Pea Ridge, it is proposed that processing this phosphate concentrate on a vanner table would yield up to a 95-pct recovery of the rare earths in the concentrate, with the apatite reporting to the tailings. Intensive ore microscopy studies of the original tailings to the flotation products led to the identification of monazite, xenotime, and rare-earth-enriched apatite as the major rare-earth-bearing minerals in the tailings.

  9. Gibberellin metabolism in isolated pea fruit tissue and intact fruits

    SciTech Connect

    Maki, S.; Brenner, M.L. )

    1989-04-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) have been shown by others to be required for normal development of pea fruit. Whether the pericarp of the developing pea fruit produces GAs in situ is not known. To determine if the pericarp has the capacity to produce GAs during fruit growth, the metabolism of the first two committed GAs in the biosynthetic pathway, ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde and ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} was examined in tissue obtained from pollinated, parthenocarpic, and control fruit over 4 days from treatment. ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde was converted primarily to conjugates, including ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde conjugate. ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} was converted to ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 53} in all tissue, but by day 4 only tissue from pollinated or parthenocarpic fruits showed sustained formation of ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 53}. When ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} is applied to 4-day-old fruits attached to the plants, the major product obtained after 24 hours is ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 20} (as identified by GC-MS). No transport to the developing seed was observed. These results indicate that the elongating fruit tissue has the capacity to produce GAs.

  10. Fluidity of pea root plasma membranes under altered gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klymchuk, D. O.; Baranenko, V. V.; Vorobyova, T. V.; Dubovoy, V. D.

    This investigation aims to determine whether clinorotation 2 rev min of pea Pisum sativum L seedlings induces the alterations in the physical-chemical properties of cellular membranes including the plasma membrane fluidity The last is an important regulator of functional activity of membrane enzymes The plasma membranes were isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning from roots of 6-day old pea seedlings The membrane fluidity was examined by fluorescence spectroscopy using pyrene probe The plasma membrane vesicles with known protein concentration were added to the incubation buffer to a final concentration of 50 mu g of protein per ml A small amount by 1 mu l of pyrene solution in 2-propanol was added to the incubation mixture to a final probe concentration 5 mu M at constant mixing Fluorescence spectra were measured using a Perkin-Elmer LS-50 spectrofluorometer Perkin-Elmer England Pyrene was excited at 337 nm and fluorescence intensity of monomers I M and excimers I E were measured at 393 and 470 nm respectively The I E I M ratios were 0 081 pm 0 003 and 0 072 pm 0 004 in preparations obtained from clinorotated and the control seedlings respectively This fact indicates that rotation on the clinostat increases the membrane fluidity Compared with controls clinorotated seedlings have also showed a reduced growth and a higher level of total unsaturated fatty acids determined by gas chromatography The factors that influence on the fluidity of membrane lipids in bilayer appear to be the

  11. Transient protein expression in three Pisum sativum (green pea) varieties.

    PubMed

    Green, Brian J; Fujiki, Masaaki; Mett, Valentina; Kaczmarczyk, Jon; Shamloul, Moneim; Musiychuk, Konstantin; Underkoffler, Susan; Yusibov, Vidadi; Mett, Vadim

    2009-02-01

    The expression of proteins in plants both transiently and via permanently transformed lines has been demonstrated by a number of groups. Transient plant expression systems, due to high expression levels and speed of production, show greater promise for the manufacturing of biopharmaceuticals when compared to permanent transformants. Expression vectors based on a tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) are the most commonly utilized and the primary plant used, Nicotiana benthamiana, has demonstrated the ability to express a wide range of proteins at levels amenable to purification. N. benthamiana has two limitations for its use; one is its relatively slow growth, and the other is its low biomass. To address these limitations we screened a number of legumes for transient protein expression. Using the alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and the cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) vectors, delivered via Agrobacterium, we were able to identify three Pisum sativum varieties that demonstrated protein expression transiently. Expression levels of 420 +/- 26.24 mg GFP/kgFW in the green pea variety speckled pea were achieved. We were also able to express three therapeutic proteins indicating promise for this system in the production of biopharmaceuticals. PMID:19156736

  12. De Novo Assembly of the Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Nodule Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Zhukov, Vladimir A.; Zhernakov, Alexander I.; Kulaeva, Olga A.; Ershov, Nikita I.; Borisov, Alexey Y.; Tikhonovich, Igor A.

    2015-01-01

    The large size and complexity of the garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) genome hamper its sequencing and the discovery of pea gene resources. Although transcriptome sequencing provides extensive information about expressed genes, some tissue-specific transcripts can only be identified from particular organs under appropriate conditions. In this study, we performed RNA sequencing of polyadenylated transcripts from young pea nodules and root tips on an Illumina GAIIx system, followed by de novo transcriptome assembly using the Trinity program. We obtained more than 58,000 and 37,000 contigs from “Nodules” and “Root Tips” assemblies, respectively. The quality of the assemblies was assessed by comparison with pea expressed sequence tags and transcriptome sequencing project data available from NCBI website. The “Nodules” assembly was compared with the “Root Tips” assembly and with pea transcriptome sequencing data from projects indicating tissue specificity. As a result, approximately 13,000 nodule-specific contigs were found and annotated by alignment to known plant protein-coding sequences and by Gene Ontology searching. Of these, 581 sequences were found to possess full CDSs and could thus be considered as novel nodule-specific transcripts of pea. The information about pea nodule-specific gene sequences can be applied for gene-based markers creation, polymorphism studies, and real-time PCR. PMID:26688806

  13. Consumption of dry beans, peas, and lentils could improve diet quality in the US population.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Diane C; Lawrence, Frank R; Hartman, Terryl J; Curran, Julianne M

    2009-05-01

    The US Department of Agriculture's MyPyramid guidelines introduced a near doubling of the dietary recommendations for vegetables. These recommendations target specific subgroups of vegetables, including dry beans and peas. Dry beans and peas provide an array of nutrients and phytochemicals that have been shown to have beneficial health effects, yet consumption levels in the United States are quite low. Few studies have examined the influence of legume consumption on nutrient intakes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess nutrient and food group intakes of dry bean and pea consumers compared to nonconsumers. Dietary intake data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for adults aged > or =19 years was used. Results show that on any given day only 7.9% of adults are consuming dry beans and peas; Mexican Americans or other Hispanics are more likely to be consumers than nonconsumers. Consuming approximately (1/2) c dry beans or peas resulted in higher intakes of fiber, protein, folate, zinc, iron, and magnesium with lower intakes of saturated fat and total fat. These data support the specific recommendation for dry beans and peas as part of the overall vegetable recommendation. Increased consumption of dry beans and peas-economical and nutrient-rich foods-could improve the diet quality of Americans. PMID:19394480

  14. Germinated Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan): a novel diet for lowering oxidative stress and hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Uchegbu, Nneka N; Ishiwu, Charles N

    2016-09-01

    This work studied the antioxidant activity of extract of germinated pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Germination was carried out in a dark chamber under room temperature (28°C). The total phenolic, 1,1,diphenyl-2-picrylhy-drazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase were done in vitro and blood glucose levels of the animal were investigated. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were analyzed spectrophotometrically. The total phenolic and DPPH scavenging activity increased by 30% and 63%, respectively, after germinating pigeon pea. Also after germination there was an increase in the inhibitory potential of pigeon pea extract against α-glucosidase compared with the nongerminated pigeon pea extract. There was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in fasting blood glucose level of alloxan-induced rats. Consumption of germinated pigeon pea extract gave rise to a reduced fasting blood glucose level in diabetic rats. On administration of germinated pigeon pea extract, LPO reduced drastically but there was an increase in the level of GSH. This study concluded that intake of germinated pigeon pea is a good dietary supplement for controlling hyperglycemia and LPO. PMID:27625782

  15. Genetically Modified α-Amylase Inhibitor Peas Are Not Specifically Allergenic in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dekan, Gerhard; Moore, Andrew E.; Higgins, T. J. V.; Epstein, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    Weevils can devastate food legumes in developing countries, but genetically modified peas (Pisum sativum), chickpeas and cowpeas expressing the gene for alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 (αAI) from the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) are completely protected from weevil destruction. αAI is seed-specific, accumulated at high levels and undergoes post-translational modification as it traverses the seed endomembrane system. This modification was thought to be responsible for the reported allergenicity in mice of the transgenic pea but not the bean. Here, we observed that transgenic αAI peas, chickpeas and cowpeas as well as non-transgenic beans were all allergenic in BALB/c mice. Even consuming non-transgenic peas lacking αAI led to an anti-αAI response due to a cross-reactive response to pea lectin. Our data demonstrate that αAI transgenic peas are not more allergenic than beans or non-transgenic peas in mice. This study illustrates the importance of repeat experiments in independent laboratories and the potential for unexpected cross-reactive allergic responses upon consumption of plant products in mice. PMID:23326368

  16. Genetically modified α-amylase inhibitor peas are not specifically allergenic in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Rui-Yun; Reiner, Daniela; Dekan, Gerhard; Moore, Andrew E; Higgins, T J V; Epstein, Michelle M

    2013-01-01

    Weevils can devastate food legumes in developing countries, but genetically modified peas (Pisum sativum), chickpeas and cowpeas expressing the gene for alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 (αAI) from the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) are completely protected from weevil destruction. αAI is seed-specific, accumulated at high levels and undergoes post-translational modification as it traverses the seed endomembrane system. This modification was thought to be responsible for the reported allergenicity in mice of the transgenic pea but not the bean. Here, we observed that transgenic αAI peas, chickpeas and cowpeas as well as non-transgenic beans were all allergenic in BALB/c mice. Even consuming non-transgenic peas lacking αAI led to an anti-αAI response due to a cross-reactive response to pea lectin. Our data demonstrate that αAI transgenic peas are not more allergenic than beans or non-transgenic peas in mice. This study illustrates the importance of repeat experiments in independent laboratories and the potential for unexpected cross-reactive allergic responses upon consumption of plant products in mice. PMID:23326368

  17. Isotopic signatures of vegetation change on northern mixed grass prairie

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    National analyses have shown invasion of northern mixed-grass prairie by nonnative grasses such as Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.). Invasion of native prairie by nonnative grasses may compromise ecosystem function and limit potential ecosystem services. Recent data from a long-term (100 year) ...

  18. Native Grasses as a Management Alternative on Vegetated Closure Caps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwit, Charles; Collins, Beverly

    2008-06-01

    Capped waste sites often are vegetated with commercial turf grasses to increase evapotranspiration and prevent erosion and possible exposure of the barrier. Fertilizer, frequent watering, and mowing may be required to establish the turf grass and prevent invasion by trees and shrubs. Oldfield vegetation of grasses and forbs is a possible sustainable alternative to turf grass communities. To determine if oldfield vegetation can establish on caps, we (1) compared establishment of a dominant oldfield grass and a commercial turf grass under different combinations of new closure cap management: spring or summer planting and presence or absence of amendments to alleviate drought (watering, mulch) or increase soil fertility (fertilizer, lime, a nitrogen-fixing legume); (2) surveyed existing caps to determine if oldfield species establish naturally; and (3) performed a greenhouse experiment to compare growth of two native grasses under low and amended (added water, soil nutrients) conditions. Both the commercial grass and oldfield species established under new cap conditions; fertilizer, water, and mulch improved vegetation establishment in spring or summer, but legumes decreased grass cover. In the greenhouse, both native grasses grew best with amendments; however, substantial stem and root length were obtained with no fertilizer and only once-weekly watering. Existing vegetated caps supported planted grasses and naturally established oldfield species. Overall, the results indicate native grasses can establish on new caps and oldfields can serve as a management model; further work is needed to determine the management strategy to maintain herbaceous vegetation and slow woody species invasion.

  19. Native Warm Season Grasses in the National Plant Germplasm System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) warm-season grass collection which is maintained in Griffin, Georgia currently has over 7300 accessions of which less than ten percent of the collection can be classified as native grass material. This native grass material has been collected from dif...

  20. A Tensile Strength of Bermuda Grass and Vetiver Grass in Terms of Root Reinforcement Ability Toward Soil Slope Stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noorasyikin, M. N.; Zainab, M.

    2016-07-01

    An examination on root characteristics and root properties has been implemented in this study. Two types of bioengineering were chose which are Vetiver grass and Bermuda grass as these grasses were widely applied for slope stabilization. The root samples were taken to the laboratory to investigate its classification, characteristics and strength. The root of both grasses was found grow with fibrous root matrix system. In terms of root anchorage, the root matrix system of Vetiver grass was exhibits more strengthen than the Bermuda grass. However, observation on root image from Scanning Electron Microscope test reveals that the root of Vetiver grass becomes non-porous as the moisture content reduced. Meanwhile, the root tensile strength of Bermuda grass was obtained acquired low value with higher percentage of moisture content, root morphology and bonding strength. The results indicated that the root tensile strength is mainly influence by percentage of moisture content and root morphology.

  1. Grassroots e-floras in the Poaceae: growing GrassBase and GrassWorld

    PubMed Central

    Vorontsova, Maria S.; Clayton, Derek; Simon, Bryan K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract GrassBase and GrassWorld are the largest structured descriptive datasets in plants, publishing descriptions of 11,290 species in the DELTA format. Twenty nine years of data compilation and maintenance have created a dataset which now underpins much of the Poaceae bioinformatics. GrassBase and GrassWorld can continue to grow productively if the proliferation of alternative classifications and datasets can be brought together into a consensus system. If the datasets are reconciled instead of diverging further apart a long term cumulative process can bring knowledge together for great future utility. This paper presents the Poaceae as the first and largest model system for e-taxonomy and the study of classification development in plants. The origin, development, and content of both datasets is described and key contributors are noted. The challenges of alternative classifications, data divergence, collaborative contribution mechanisms, and software are outlined. PMID:25941449

  2. Project GRADS (Grass Roots Alternative Diploma Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Harold S.; Lucas, Geoffrey S.

    A project to develop grass roots alternative diploma study (Project GRADS) was undertaken for the purpose of formulating and implementing a multimodal, systems approach to preparing rural adults to pass the General Educational Development (GED) Tests. During the year-long, countywide program, GED programming was developed and delivered via the…

  3. Wheatgrass and Wildrye Grasses (Triticeae) (Book Chapter)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheatgrass and wildrye grasses are valued throughout the temperature regions of the world as forage and habitat for livestock and wildlife as well as for other qualities relating to aesthetics, soil stabilization, weed control, and watershed management in semiarid environments. These perennial gras...

  4. Grasses and Legumes: Genetics and Plant Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Humans have been breeding forage and turf species for over 100 years. This chapter explores the progress that has been made in improving grasses and legumes for human benefit and the evolution of breeding and selection systems that have brought about those changes....

  5. INTESPECIIC DIFFERENCES IN GRASS SEED IMBIBITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seeds from 12 grass species were studied relative to mode of wetting and time of exposure to water to document interspecific differences in imbibition characteristics. Imbibition causes seeds to become wet, and wet seeds are more detectable to consumers than dry seeds. Thus, ge...

  6. Basin wildrye: the forgotten grass revisited

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Basin wildrye was once a very abundant and widely occurring species throughout the landscapes of northern Nevada. When Captain Simpson, of the topographical Engineers, explored the route for a wagon road across the central Great Basin he marveled at the grass in the valley bottoms that reached to h...

  7. Common Ground for Managing Invasive Annual Grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive annual grasses often reach their full biological potential in ecosystems of the western United States. This suggests that crucial ecosystem "checks and balances" are not functioning. In other words, invasion occurs because ecosystems have lost resistance to invasion, and invasive plants a...

  8. Challenging Cancer at the Grass Roots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casto, James E.

    1997-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute created the Appalachia Leadership Initiative on Cancer, composed of four similar projects that focus on increasing screening for cervical and breast cancer among low-income, older women. The program relies on community coalitions that develop innovative grass roots methods to spread the message about the importance of…

  9. Annual grass as supplements for beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research has shown when limit grazing cool-season annual grasses as a supplement in a complementary forage system, energy and CP supplementation are not required and hay requirements are reduced 23% for gestating beef cows. To further improve the sustainability of complementary forage systems, repla...

  10. Grass Woman Stories. Blackfeet Heritage Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ground, Mary

    During her lifetime Mary Ground, whose Indian name is Grass Woman, has experienced extreme changes in the life of Blackfeet Indians. Born in 1883, she remembers the travois and teepee days as well as the change to reservation life when the reservation was a fenced compound patrolled by the U.S. military. She has seen the decline in the use of…

  11. Grass roots of soil carbon sequestration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soils rooted with perennial grasses have high organic matter content, and therefore, can contribute to an agricultural future with high soil quality; a condition that can help to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions through soil carbon sequestration and improve a multitude of other ecosystem responses,...

  12. Pea aphid infestation induces changes in flavonoids, antioxidative defence, soluble sugars and sugar transporter expression in leaves of pea seedlings.

    PubMed

    Morkunas, Iwona; Woźniak, Agnieszka; Formela, Magda; Mai, Van Chung; Marczak, Łukasz; Narożna, Dorota; Borowiak-Sobkowiak, Beata; Kühn, Christina; Grimm, Bernhard

    2016-07-01

    The perception of aphid infestation induces highly coordinated and sequential defensive reactions in plants at the cellular and molecular levels. The aim of the study was to explore kinetics of induced antioxidative defence responses in leaf cells of Pisum sativum L.cv. Cysterski upon infestation of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum at varying population sizes, including accumulation of flavonoids, changes of carbon metabolism, and expression of nuclear genes involved in sugar transport. Within the first 96 h, after A. pisum infestation, flavonoid accumulation and increased peroxidase activity were observed in leaves. The level of pisatin increased after 48 h of infestation and reached a maximum at 96 h. At this time point, a higher concentration of flavonols was observed in the infested tissue than in the control. Additionally, strong post-infestation accumulation of chalcone synthase (CHS) and isoflavone synthase (IFS) transcription products was also found. The levels of sucrose and fructose in 24-h leaves infested by 10, 20, and 30 aphids were significantly lower than in the control. Moreover, in leaves infested by 30 aphids, the reduced sucrose level observed up to 48 h was accompanied by a considerable increase in the expression level of the PsSUT1 gene encoding the sucrose transporter. In conclusion, A. pisum infestation on pea leads to stimulation of metabolic pathways associated with defence. PMID:26239447

  13. Bioavailability of Phosphorus in Two Cultivars of Pea for Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    Woyengo, T A; Emiola, I A; Kim, I H; Nyachoti, C M

    2016-03-01

    The aim was to determine the relative bioavailability of phosphorus (P) in peas for 21-day old broiler chickens using slope-ratio assay. One hundred and sixty eight male Ross 308 broiler chicks were divided into 42 groups 4 balanced for body weight and fed 7 diets in a completely randomized design (6 groups/diet) from day 1 to 21 of age. The diets were a corn-soybean meal basal diet, and the corn-soybean meal basal diet to which monosodium phosphate, brown- or yellow-seeded pea was added at the expense of cornstarch to supply 0.5% or 1% total phosphorus. Monosodium phosphate was included as a reference, and hence the estimated bioavailability of P in pea cultivars was relative to that in the monosodium phosphate. Birds and feed were weighed weekly and on d 21 they were killed to obtain tibia. The brown-seeded pea contained 23.4% crude protein, 0.47% P, whereas the yellow-seeded pea contained 24.3% crude protein and 0.38% P. Increasing dietary P supply improved (p<0.05) chick body weight gain and tibia ash and bone density. The estimated relative bioavailability of p values for brown- and yellow-seeded peas obtained using final body weight, average daily gain, tibia ash, and bone mineral density were 31.5% and 36.2%, 35.6% and 37.3%, 23.0% and 5.60%, and 40.3% and 30.3%, respectively. The estimated relative bioavailability of p values for brown- and yellow-seeded peas did not differ within each of the response criteria measured in this study. In conclusion, the relative bioavailability of P in pea did not differ depending on the cultivar (brown- vs yellow-seed). However, the relative bioavailability of P in pea may vary depending on the response criterion used to measure the bioavailability. PMID:26950872

  14. Yellow pea fiber improves glycemia and reduces Clostridium leptum in diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Eslinger, Amanda J; Eller, Lindsay K; Reimer, Raylene A

    2014-08-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the impact of functional fibers on gut microbiota and metabolic health, but some less well-studied fibers and/or fractions of foods known to be high in fiber still warrant examination. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of yellow pea-derived fractions varying in fiber and protein content on metabolic parameters and gut microbiota in diet-induced obese rats. We hypothesized that the yellow pea fiber (PF) fraction would improve glycemia and alter gut microbiota. Rats were randomized to 1 of 5 isoenergetic dietary treatments for 6 weeks: (1) control; (2) oligofructose (OFS); (3) yellow PF; (4) yellow pea flour (PFL); or (5) yellow pea starch (PS). Glycemia, plasma gut hormones, body composition, hepatic triglyceride content, gut microbiota, and messenger RNA expression of genes related to hepatic fat metabolism were examined. Pea flour attenuated weight gain compared with control, PF, and PS (P < .05). Pea flour, PS, and OFS had significantly lower final percent body fat compared with control. Oligofructose but not the pea fraction diets reduced food intake compared with control (P < .05). Pea fiber resulted in lower fasting glucose and glucose area under the curve compared with control. Changes in gut microbiota were fraction specific and included a decrease in Firmicutes (percent) for OFS, PF, and PFL compared with control (P < .05). The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was reduced with OFS, PF, and PFL when compared with PS (P < .05). Taken together, this work suggests that yellow pea-derived fractions are able to distinctly modulate metabolic parameters and gut microbiota in obese rats. PMID:25156790

  15. Bioavailability of Phosphorus in Two Cultivars of Pea for Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Woyengo, T. A.; Emiola, I. A.; Kim, I. H.; Nyachoti, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to determine the relative bioavailability of phosphorus (P) in peas for 21-day old broiler chickens using slope-ratio assay. One hundred and sixty eight male Ross 308 broiler chicks were divided into 42 groups 4 balanced for body weight and fed 7 diets in a completely randomized design (6 groups/diet) from day 1 to 21 of age. The diets were a corn-soybean meal basal diet, and the corn-soybean meal basal diet to which monosodium phosphate, brown- or yellow-seeded pea was added at the expense of cornstarch to supply 0.5% or 1% total phosphorus. Monosodium phosphate was included as a reference, and hence the estimated bioavailability of P in pea cultivars was relative to that in the monosodium phosphate. Birds and feed were weighed weekly and on d 21 they were killed to obtain tibia. The brown-seeded pea contained 23.4% crude protein, 0.47% P, whereas the yellow-seeded pea contained 24.3% crude protein and 0.38% P. Increasing dietary P supply improved (p<0.05) chick body weight gain and tibia ash and bone density. The estimated relative bioavailability of p values for brown- and yellow-seeded peas obtained using final body weight, average daily gain, tibia ash, and bone mineral density were 31.5% and 36.2%, 35.6% and 37.3%, 23.0% and 5.60%, and 40.3% and 30.3%, respectively. The estimated relative bioavailability of p values for brown- and yellow-seeded peas did not differ within each of the response criteria measured in this study. In conclusion, the relative bioavailability of P in pea did not differ depending on the cultivar (brown- vs yellow-seed). However, the relative bioavailability of P in pea may vary depending on the response criterion used to measure the bioavailability. PMID:26950872

  16. Thunderstorm asthma due to grass pollen.

    PubMed

    Suphioglu, C

    1998-08-01

    It is widely known and accepted that grass pollen is a major outdoor cause of hay fever. Moreover, grass pollen is also responsible for triggering allergic asthma, gaining impetus as a result of the 1987/1989 Melbourne and 1994 London thunderstorm-associated asthma epidemics. However, grass pollen is too large to gain access into the lower airways to trigger the asthmatic response and micronic particles <5 micro m are required to trigger the response. We have successfully shown that ryegrass pollen ruptures upon contact with water, releasing about 700 starch granules which not only contain the major allergen Lol p 5, but have been shown to trigger both in vitro and in vivo IgE-mediated responses. Furthermore, starch granules have been isolated from the Melbourne atmosphere with 50-fold increase following rainfall. Free grass pollen allergen molecules have been recently shown to interact with other particles including diesel exhaust carbon particles, providing a further transport mechanism for allergens to gain access into lower airways. In this review, implication and evidence for grass pollen as a trigger of thunderstorm-associated asthma is presented. Such information is critical and mandatory for patient education and training in their allergen avoidance programs. More importantly, patients with serum IgE to group 5 allergens are at high risk of allergic asthma, especially those not protected by medication. Therefore, a system to determine the total atmospheric allergen load and devising of an effective asthma risk forecast is urgently needed and is subject to current investigation. PMID:9693274

  17. Thermochemical characterization of pigeon pea stalk for its efficient utilization as an energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Katyal, S.K.; Iyer, P.V.R.

    2000-05-01

    Pigeon pea stalk is a widely available biomass species in India. In this article the potential use of pigeon pea stalk as a fuel source through thermochemical conversion methods such as combustion, gasification, and pyrolysis has been investigated through experimentation using a thermogravimetric analyzer and pilot-plant-scale equipment. It has been proposed that pigeon pea stalks can be effectively utilized in two ways. The first is to pyrolyze the material to produce value-added products such as char, tar, and fuel gas. The second alternative is to partially pyrolyze the material to remove tar-forming volatiles, followed by gasification of reactive char to generate producer gas.

  18. Grafting and gibberellin effects on the growth of tall and dwarf peas.

    PubMed

    Lockard, R G; Grunwald, C

    1970-02-01

    Tall peas var. Alaska and dwarf peas var. Progress No. 9 were grafted onto their own roots or reciprocally grafted to determine the rootstock effect on the growth of the stem. In all cases the grafted stems grew the same as their ungrafted controls regardless of which rootstock they were grown on. When similarly grafted plants were supplied with gibberellic acid, good graft unions did not inhibit its translocation. This evidence supports the thesis that the mechanism controlling stem growth in peas is located in the stem and that the roots have no direct control over this mechanism. PMID:16657295

  19. Heat Shock Proteins in Association with Heat Tolerance in Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Zhan, Chenyang; Huang, Bingru

    2011-01-01

    The grass family Poaceae includes annual species cultivated as major grain crops and perennial species cultivated as forage or turf grasses. Heat stress is a primary factor limiting growth and productivity of cool-season grass species and is becoming a more significant problem in the context of global warming. Plants have developed various mechanisms in heat-stress adaptation, including changes in protein metabolism such as the induction of heat shock proteins (HSPs). This paper summarizes the structure and function of major HSPs, recent research progress on the association of HSPs with grass tolerance to heat stress, and incorporation of HSPs in heat-tolerant grass breeding. PMID:22084689

  20. A technique for collection of exudate from pea seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, S. D.; Cohen, J. D.; Bandurski, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), at concentrations higher than 1.0 millimolar, is phytotoxic to etiolated seedlings of Pisum sativum. Substantial vascular exudation from pea epicotyls could be obtained without tissue damage at 0.5 millimolar EDTA if the solution was buffered at pH 7.5 with sodium N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid. Treated seedlings exuded 950 micrograms (leucine equivalents) of ninhydrin-positive material per day and 870 micrograms (glucose equivalents) of anthrone-positive material per day. Amino acid analysis showed the exudate to have glutamine as the major amido nitrogen containing compound and sucrose was shown to be the major sugar. Radiolabeled tryptophan and sucrose applied to cotyledons were transferred through the epicotyl and into the collection medium. The pH profile for exudation shows half maximal exudation at pH 7.2, indicating the promotion of exudation by EDTA is probably not due simply to Ca2+ chelation.

  1. Coupling of solute transport and cell expansion in pea stems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalstig, J. G.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    As cells expand and are displaced through the elongation zone of the epicotyl of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. var Alaska) seedlings, there is little net dilution of the cell sap, implying a coordination between cell expansion and solute uptake from the phloem. Using [14C] sucrose as a phloem tracer (applied to the hypogeous cotyledons), the pattern of label accumulation along the stem closely matched the growth rate pattern: high accumulation in the growing zone, little accumulation in nongrowing regions. Several results suggest that a major portion of phloem contents enters elongating cells through the symplast. We propose that the coordination between phloem transport and cell expansion is accomplished via regulatory pathways affecting both plasmodesmata conductivity and cell expansion.

  2. Phloem unloading and cell expansion in pea stems

    SciTech Connect

    Schmalstig, J.G.; Cosgrove, D.J. )

    1989-04-01

    Phloem unloading into elongating stems of dark-grown pea seedlings was greater in regions with higher relative growth rates. Phloem transport was monitored over 1 h by measuring accumulation of radiolabel from {sup 14}C-sucrose added between the cotyledons. The apical hook and plumule and 8 mm of the growing region of an intact plant were sealed in a pressure chamber and the pressure was raised to stop elongation. Phloem unloading was inhibited in the pressurized zone of elongation and accelerated in the apical hook and plumule, with the result that the magnitude of phloem transport into the stem was unchanged. The results demonstrate a coupling between cell expansion and phloem unloading.

  3. Effects of Simulated Microgravity on Thermotolerance of Pea Seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozeko, L.

    2008-06-01

    A coordinated plant response to simulated microgravity (clinorotation) and heat stress was analyzed. 5-d pea seedlings grown on a horizontal clinostat or in the stationary conditions were exposed to different heat treatments (mild, severe and severe after pretreatment). Temperature-dependent quantitative changes in the heat stress response were revealed in the clinorotated seedlings comparatively to the stationary grown ones: less growth activity, an increase in the production of high levels of heat shock proteins Hsp70 and Hsp90, a higher extent of the membrane damage. Thus, clinorotated seedlings were more sensitive to heat stress. The data suggest that clinorotation may influence distinct functions, including Hsps synthesis and protection of membrane integrity, that affect plant growth activity and thermotolerance as a result.

  4. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient ( b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  5. Photosynthetic carbon metabolism of a marine grass.

    PubMed

    Benedict, C R; Scott, J R

    1976-06-01

    The delta(13)C value of a tropical marine grass Thalassia testudinum is -9.04 per thousand. This value is similar to the delta(13)C value of terrestrial tropical grasses. The delta(13)C values of the organic acid fraction, the amino acid fraction, the sugar fraction, malic acid, and glucose are: -11.2 per thousand, -13.1 per thousand, -10.1 per thousand, -11.1 per thousand, and -11.5 per thousand, respectively. The delta(13)C values of malic acid and glucose of Thalassia are similar to the delta(13)C values of these intermediates in sorghum leaves and attest to the presence of the photosynthetic C(4)-dicarboxylic acid pathway in this marine grass. The inorganic HCO(3) (-) for the growth of the grass fluctuates between -6.7 to -2.7 per thousand during the day. If CO(2) fixation in Thalassia is catalyzed by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (which would result in a -3 per thousand fractionation between HCO(3) (-) and malic acid), the predicted delta(13)C value for Thalassia would be -9.7 to -5.7 per thousand. This range is close to the observed range of -12.6 to -7.8 per thousand for Thalassia and agree with the operation of the C(4)-dicarboxylic acid pathway in this plant. The early products of the fixation of HCO(3) (-) in the leaf sections are malic acid and aspartic acid which are similar to the early products of CO(2) fixation in C(4) terrestrial plants.Electron microscopy of the leaves of Thalassia reveal thick walled epidermal cells exceedingly rich in mitochondria and C(3)-type chloroplasts. The mesophyll cells have many different shapes and surround air lacunae which contain O(2) and CO(2). The mesophyll cells are highly vacuolated and the parietal cytoplasm contains an occasional chloroplast. This chloroplast contains grana but the lamellar system is not as developed as the system in epidermal chloroplasts. Extensive phloem tissue is present but the xylem elements are reduced in this aquatic grass. The vascular tissue is not surrounded by bundle sheath cells

  6. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature.

    PubMed

    Savage, M J

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient (b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  7. Xyloglucan galactosyl- and fucosyltransferase activities from pea epicotyl microsomes.

    PubMed

    Faïk, A; Chileshe, C; Sterling, J; Maclachlan, G

    1997-05-01

    Microsomal membranes from growing tissue of pea (Pisum sativum L.) epicotyls were incubated with the substrate UDP-[14C]galactose (Gal) with or without tamarind seed xyloglucan (XG) as a potential galactosyl acceptor. Added tamarind seed XG enhanced incorporation of [14C]Gal into high-molecular-weight products (eluted from columns of Sepharose CL-6B in the void volume) that were trichloroacetic acid-soluble but insoluble in 67% ethanol. These products were hydrolyzed by cellulase to fragments comparable in size to XG subunit oligosaccharides. XG-dependent galactosyltransferase activity could be solubilized, along with XG fucosyltransferase, by the detergent 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)-dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate. When this enzyme was incubated with tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed XG or nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus L.) seed XG that had been partially degalactosylated with an XG-specific beta-galactosidase, the rates of Gal transfer increased and fucose transfer decreased compared with controls with native XG. The reaction products were hydrolyzed by cellulase to 14C fragments that were analyzed by gel-filtration and high-performance liquid chromatography fractionation with pulsed amperometric detection. The major components were XG subunits, namely one of the two possible monogalactosyl octasaccharides (-XXLG-) and digalactosyl nonasaccharide (-XLLG-), whether the predominant octasaccharide in the acceptor was XXLG (as in tamarind seed XG) or XLXG (as in nasturtium seed XG). It is concluded that the first xylosylglucose from the reducing end of the subunits was the Gal acceptor locus preferred by the solubilized pea transferase. These observations are incorporated into a model for the biosynthesis of cell wall XGs. PMID:9159950

  8. Gibberellin Concentration and Transport in Genetic Lines of Pea 1

    PubMed Central

    Proebsting, William M.; Hedden, Peter; Lewis, Mervyn J.; Croker, Stephen J.; Proebsting, Lena N.

    1992-01-01

    Effects of the Na and Le loci on gibberellin (GA) content and transport in pea (Pisum sativum L.) shoots were studied. GA1, GA8, GA17, GA19, GA20, GA29, GA44, GA8 catabolite, and GA29 catabolite were identified by full-scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in extracts of expanding and fully expanded tissues of line C79-338 (Na Le). Quantification of GAs by gas chromatography-single-ion monitoring using deuterated internal standards in lines differing at the Na and Le alleles showed that na reduced the contents of GA19, GA20, and GA29 on average to <3% and of GA1 and GA8 to <30% of those in corresponding Na lines. In expanding tissues from Na le lines, GA1 and GA8 concentrations were reduced to approximately 10 and 2%, respectively, and GA29 content increased 2- to 3-fold compared with those in Na Le plants. There was a close correlation between stem length and the concentrations of GA1 or GA8 in shoot apices in all six genotypes investigated. In na/Na grafts, internode length and GA1 concentration of nana scions were normalized, the GA20 content increased slightly, but GA19 levels were unaffected. Movement of labeled GAs applied to leaves on Na rootstocks indicated that GA19 was transported poorly to apices of na scions compared with GA20 and GA1. Our evidence suggests that GA20 is the major transported GA in peas. Images Figure 2 PMID:16653128

  9. Wrinkled Peas and White-Eyed Fruit Flies: The Molecular Basis of Two Classical Genetic Traits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilfoile, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on bridging the gap between classical and molecular genetics for two traits: wrinkled seeds in garden peas and white eye color in fruit flies. Discusses the molecular details of the underlying basis of these traits. Contains 15 references. (JRH)

  10. Effect of Root-Zone Moisture Variations on Growth of Lettuce and Pea Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilieva, Iliana; Ivanova, Tania

    2008-06-01

    Variations in substrate moisture lead to changes in water and oxygen availability to plant roots. Ground experiments were carried out in the laboratory prototype of SVET-2 Space Greenhouse to study the effect of variation of root-zone moisture conditions on growth of lettuce and pea plants. The effect of transient increase (for 1 day) and drastic increase (waterlogging for 10 days) of substrate moisture was studied with 16-day old pea and 21-day old lettuce plants respectively. Pea height and fresh biomass accumulation were not affected by transient substrate moisture increase. Net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of pea plants showed fast response to substrate moisture variation, while chlorophyll content did not change. Drastic change of substrate moisture suppressed lettuce Pn, chlorophyll biosynthesis and plant growth. These parameters slowly recovered after termination of waterlogging treatment but lettuce yield was greatly affected. The results showed that the most sensitive physiological parameter to substrate moisture variations is photosynthesis.

  11. The economic impact of longer range weather information on the production of peas in Wisconsin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, K. R.; Torkelson, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    The extent of benefits which will be realized in the pea industry as a result of improved long range weather forecasts are outlined. Particular attention was given to planting and harvesting operations.

  12. Selenium bioavailability from naturally produced high-selenium peas and oats in selenium-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lin; Johnson, LuAnn K

    2011-06-01

    This study determined the bioavailability of selenium (Se) from yellow peas and oats harvested from the high-Se soil of South Dakota, United States. The Se concentrations were 13.5 ± 0.2 and 2.5 ± 0.1 mg/kg (dry weight) for peas and oats, respectively. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were depleted of Se by feeding them a 30% Torula yeast-based diet (4.1 μg Se/kg) for 56 days, and then they were replenished with Se for an additional 50 days by feeding them the same diet supplemented with 20, 30, or 40 μg Se/kg from peas or oats, respectively. Selenium bioavailability was determined on the basis of the restoration of Se-dependent enzyme activities and tissue Se concentrations in Se-depleted rats, comparing those responses for yellow peas and oats to those for l-selenomethionine (SeMet; used as a reference) by using a slope-ratio method. Dietary supplementation with peas or oats resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in glutathione peroxidase activities in blood and liver and in thioredoxin reductase activity in liver. Supplementation with peas or oats resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in Se concentrations of plasma, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, and kidneys. The overall bioavailability was approximately 88% for Se from yellow peas and 92% from oats, compared to SeMet. It was concluded that Se from naturally produced high-Se yellow peas or oats is highly bioavailable in this model and that these high-Se foods may be a good dietary source of Se. PMID:21553810

  13. Effectiveness of rhizobacteria containing ACC deaminase for growth promotion of peas (Pisum sativum) under drought conditions.

    PubMed

    Zahir, Z A; Munir, A; Asghar, H N; Shaharoona, B; Arshad, M

    2008-05-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to assess the effectiveness of rhizobacteria containing 1-aminocyclopropane- 1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase for growth promotion of peas under drought conditions. Ten rhizobacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of different crops (peas, wheat, and maize) were screened for their growth promoting ability in peas under axenic condition. Three rhizobacterial isolates, Pseudomonas fluorescens biotype G (ACC-5), P. fluorescens (ACC-14), and P. putida biotype A (Q-7), were selected for pot trial on the basis of their source, ACC deaminase activity, root colonization, and growth promoting activity under axenic conditions. Inoculated and uninoculated (control) seeds of pea cultivar 2000 were sown in pots (4 seeds/pot) at different soil moisture levels (25, 50, 75, and 100% of field capacity). Results revealed that decreasing the soil moisture levels from 100 to 25% of field capacity significantly decreased the growth of peas. However, inoculation of peas with rhizobacteria containing ACC deaminase significantly decreased the "drought stress imposed effects" on growth of peas, although with variable efficacy at different moisture levels. At the lowest soil moisture level (25% field capacity), rhizobacterial isolate Pseudomonas fluorescens biotype G (ACC-5) was found to be more promising compared with the other isolates, as it caused maximum increases in fresh weight, dry weight, root length, shoot length, number of leaves per plant, and water use efficiency on fresh and dry weight basis (45, 150, 92, 45, 140, 46, and 147%, respectively) compared with respective uninoculated controls. It is highly likely that rhizobacteria containing ACC deaminase might have decreased the drought-stress induced ethylene in inoculated plants, which resulted in better growth of plants even at low moisture levels. Therefore, inoculation with rhizobacteria containing ACC deaminase could be helpful in eliminating the inhibitory effects of drought stress on the

  14. Assessing the effects of architectural variations on light partitioning within virtual wheat–pea mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Barillot, Romain; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Abraham J.; Fournier, Christian; Huynh, Pierre; Combes, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Predicting light partitioning in crop mixtures is a critical step in improving the productivity of such complex systems, and light interception has been shown to be closely linked to plant architecture. The aim of the present work was to analyse the relationships between plant architecture and light partitioning within wheat–pea (Triticum aestivum–Pisum sativum) mixtures. An existing model for wheat was utilized and a new model for pea morphogenesis was developed. Both models were then used to assess the effects of architectural variations in light partitioning. Methods First, a deterministic model (L-Pea) was developed in order to obtain dynamic reconstructions of pea architecture. The L-Pea model is based on L-systems formalism and consists of modules for ‘vegetative development’ and ‘organ extension’. A tripartite simulator was then built up from pea and wheat models interfaced with a radiative transfer model. Architectural parameters from both plant models, selected on the basis of their contribution to leaf area index (LAI), height and leaf geometry, were then modified in order to generate contrasting architectures of wheat and pea. Key results By scaling down the analysis to the organ level, it could be shown that the number of branches/tillers and length of internodes significantly determined the partitioning of light within mixtures. Temporal relationships between light partitioning and the LAI and height of the different species showed that light capture was mainly related to the architectural traits involved in plant LAI during the early stages of development, and in plant height during the onset of interspecific competition. Conclusions In silico experiments enabled the study of the intrinsic effects of architectural parameters on the partitioning of light in crop mixtures of wheat and pea. The findings show that plant architecture is an important criterion for the identification/breeding of plant ideotypes, particularly

  15. Molecular diversity of native rhizobia trapped by five field pea genotypes in Indian soils.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, K; Dudeja, S S; Yadav, R K

    2011-02-01

    Five pea cultivars; HFP 4, HVP 3-5, HFP 9426, Jayanti and Hariyal, being grown in CCS Haryana Agricultural University farm were used to isolate native rhizobia. Selected 54 rhizobia, from all cultivars, were authenticated as rhizobia by plant infectivity test. Along with nodulation, symbiotic effectiveness in terms of symbiotic ratios showed wide range of effectiveness of pea rhizobia from 1.11 to 5.0. DNA of all the 54 rhizobia was extracted and amplified by PCR, using ERIC and 16S rDNA primers. Dendrogram based on ERIC profiles of these 54 rhizobia showed the formation of 13 subclusters at 80% level of similarity. Dendrogram based on RFLP of 16S rDNA by three restriction endonucleases; Msp I, Csp 6I and Rsa I; also formed 13 subclusters at 80% level of similarity. However, positioning of subclusters was different from that of ERIC based dendrogram. Majority of the isolates i.e. 64.8% by ERIC profiles and 44.4% by RFLP of 16S rDNA formed one cluster. Isolates from same nodule were not 100% similar. Considering each cluster representing a rhizobial genotype, both techniques used to assess molecular diversity indicated the presence of 13 genotypes of field pea rhizobia in CCS Haryana Agricultural University farm soil. Two pea rhizobial genotypes were able to nodulate all the five pea cultivars. Furthermore, high strain richness index (0.43-0.5) of field pea rhizobia was observed by both the techniques. PMID:20806252

  16. Changes in the germination process and growth of pea in effect of laser seed irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podleśna, Anna; Gładyszewska, Bożena; Podleśny, Janusz; Zgrajka, Wojciech

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pre-sowing helium-neon (He-Ne) laser irradiation of pea seeds on changes in seed biochemical processes, germination rate, seedling emergence, growth rate, and yield. The first experimental factor was exposure to laser radiation: D0 - no irradiation, D3 - three exposures, D5 - five exposures, and the harvest dates were the second factor. Pre-sowing treatment of pea seeds with He-Ne laser light increased the concentrations of amylolytic enzymes and the content of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in pea seeds and seedlings. The exposure of seeds to He-Ne laser light improved the germination rate and uniformity and modified growth stages, which caused acceleration of flowering and ripening of pea plants. Laser light stimulation improved the morphological characteristics of plants by increasing plant height and leaf surface area. Irradiation improved the yield of vegetative and reproductive organs of pea, although the effects varied at the different growth stages. The increase in the seed yield resulted from a higher number of pods and seeds per plant, whereas no significant changes were observed in the number of seeds per pod. Both radiation doses exerted similarly stimulating effects on pea growth, development, and yield.

  17. Requirements for non-food applications of pea proteins. A review.

    PubMed

    De Graaf, L A; Harmsen, P F; Vereijken, J M; Mönikes, M

    2001-10-01

    So far, limited research is performed on technical applications of pea proteins and no applications have yet been reported. At ATO, three technical applications were investigated: surfactants, films, and microspheres as encapsulation matrices. Pea protein hydrolysates are surfactants with good emulsifying and foaming properties. By variation of enzyme type and degree of hydrolysis, the surfactant properties can be tailored toward specific applications. Pea protein films could be prepared by casting from dispersions at pH 7 and 10, and by compression moulding at 140 degrees C. Opposite to many other proteins, pea protein films combine strength (5-7.5 MPa) with high elongation at break (150%). A protein isolate derived from peas was applied as matrix material for the microencapsulation of beta-carotene, intended for cosmetic applications. Supercritical CO2 technology appeared to be a promising encapsulation technique for beta-carotene in porous pea protein microspheres. Advantages of this method are that no organic solvents are used, and that encapsulation is achieved under mild conditions, thereby preventing the sensitive beta-carotene from degradation. PMID:11712244

  18. PEAS V1.0: a package for elementary analysis of SNP data.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuhua; Gupta, Sanchit; Jin, Li

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a software package named PEAS to facilitate analyses of large data sets of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for population genetics and molecular phylogenetics studies. PEAS reads SNP data in various formats as input and is versatile in data formatting; using PEAS, it is easy to create input files for many popular packages, such as STRUCTURE, frappe, Arlequin, Haploview, LDhat, PLINK, EIGENSOFT, PHASE, fastPHASE, MEGA and PHYLIP. In addition, PEAS fills up several analysis gaps in currently available computer programs in population genetics and molecular phylogenetics. Notably, (i) It calculates genetic distance matrices with bootstrapping for both individuals and populations from genome-wide high-density SNP data, and the output can be streamlined to MEGA and PHYLIP programs for further processing; (ii) It calculates genetic distances from STRUCTURE output and generates MEGA file to reconstruct component trees; (iii) It provides tools to conduct haplotype sharing analysis for phylogenetic studies based on high-density SNP data. To our knowledge, these analyses are not available in any other computer program. PEAS for Windows is freely available for academic users from http://www.picb.ac.cn/~xushua/index.files/Download_PEAS.htm. PMID:21565121

  19. Oxidative processes in soybean and pea seeds: effect of light, temperature, and water content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vertucci, C. W.; Leopold, A. C.

    1987-01-01

    Oxidative processes are probable determinants of longevity of seeds in storage. Measurements of actual oxygen uptake rates were made for soybean and pea seeds as a comparison of short and long lived seeds when light, temperature, and moisture contents were varied. In both peas and soybeans, the oxygen uptake was depressed at low temperatures (<16 degrees C) and low water contents (< 0.25 gram H2O per gram dry weight). Apparent activation energies under these conditions are very high, while apparent activation energies of seeds at higher water contents and at temperatures greater than 22 degrees C are much less. Light enhances the level of oxygen uptake in pea, but reduces the level of oxygen uptake in soybean. The complexities of the interactions of oxygen uptake with environmental conditions in soybean compared to pea suggest that oxidative processes occur in soybean at low water contents, but are essentially absent in pea. It is suggested that the additional oxidative processes in soybean with moisture contents between 0.10 and 0.24 gram per gram may contribute to the poorer longevity of soybean seed compared to pea seed.

  20. Nutritional assessment in vitro and in vivo of raw and extruded peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Alonso, R; Grant, G; Dewey, P; Marzo, F

    2000-06-01

    The effects of extrusion cooking on the nutritional properties of Pisum sativum L. have been evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The treatment greatly elevated protein and starch digestibility in vitro. Also, the amounts of intact starch diminished while total free sugars increased. In addition, the levels of antinutritional factors, such as protease inhibitors and lectins, were greatly decreased. Concentrations of methionine and cystine were low in raw peas and were further reduced by extrusion treatment. The nutritional performance of rats fed extruded pea diets for 15 days was no better than that of rats given raw pea diet. This was due to the overriding effects of amino acid deficiencies in the diets. Weight gains by rats fed extruded pea diets supplemented with amino acids were, however, much higher than those achieved by rats fed supplemented raw pea diets. Food transformation index and protein efficiency ratio values were also greatly improved. Extrusion treatment did therefore significantly improve the nutritional quality of peas. PMID:10888538

  1. Evaluation of Legumes Common to the Pacific Northwest as Hosts for the Pea Cyst Nematode, Heterodera goettingiana.

    PubMed

    Tedford, E C; Inglis, D A

    1999-06-01

    Seventeen leguminous species common to the Pacific Northwest were evaluated as potential hosts of the pea cyst nematode, Heterodera goettingiana, in both greenhouse and field experiments. In all experiments, juveniles of H. goettingiana penetrated roots of these 17 species with the exception of greenhouse-grown chickpea. Nematodes molted and developed into swollen third-stage or fourth-stage juveniles in many of the plants, but cyst development occurred only in the field on green pea, edible dry pea, and faba bean. More H. goettingiana cysts developed on fava bean than on green pea or edible dry pea. In H. goettingiana-infested soils, cropping sequences that include fava bean and pea should be avoided. However, certain legumes, such as winter vetch, may have the potential of serving as trap crops for H. goettingiana in this region. PMID:19270885

  2. Transfer of Cs-137 from grass and wilted grass silage to milk of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vreman, K; van der Struijs, T D; van den Hoek, J; Berende, P L; Goedhart, P W

    1989-09-01

    Deposition of radiocaesium from the Chernobyl reactor accident on the Netherlands made it possible to collect contaminated fresh grass and first cut wilted grass silage. These contaminated roughages were used in transfer experiments with lactating dairy cows to determine transfer coefficients and half-lives for Cs-137 in milk. The experimental design was based on three consecutive periods: a preliminary period to determine the background concentration of the isotope in milk, a contamination period to determine the magnitude of accumulation and finally a depletion period to measure the rate at which the activity concentration of Cs-137 in milk declined after continuous feeding. The average transfer coefficient (Fmilk) for cows fed on contaminated dried grass under steady-state conditions was 0.002 d/kg and for cows fed on slightly contaminated second cut fresh grass 0.006 d/kg. The highest transfer coefficients were obtained for cows fed on contaminated grass silage for 119 days, which also included the dry period of about two months. For the first five days after calving the Fmilk values varied from 0.0066 to 0.0091 d/kg. There were no significant differences in transfer coefficients between cows in early lactation (third month of lactation), cows in late lactation (the last month of the lactation period) and cows fed on both contaminated grass silage and uncontaminated maize silage simultaneously. Half-life values for the rate of decline of the isotope in milk during the depletion period were estimated on the basis of a mathematical model with two exponential components. These components were characterized by half-lives of 0.5 to 3.5 days and 10 to 46 days. PMID:2814441

  3. Transcriptome sequencing of field pea and faba bean for discovery and validation of SSR genetic markers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba L.) are cool-season grain legume species that provide rich sources of food for humans and fodder for livestock. To date, both species have been relative 'genomic orphans' due to limited availability of genetic and genomic information. A significant enrichment of genomic resources is consequently required in order to understand the genetic architecture of important agronomic traits, and to support germplasm enhancement, genetic diversity, population structure and demographic studies. Results cDNA samples obtained from various tissue types of specific field pea and faba bean genotypes were sequenced using 454 Roche GS FLX Titanium technology. A total of 720,324 and 304,680 reads for field pea and faba bean, respectively, were de novo assembled to generate sets of 70,682 and 60,440 unigenes. Consensus sequences were compared against the genome of the model legume species Medicago truncatula Gaertn., as well as that of the more distantly related, but better-characterised genome of Arabidopsis thaliana L.. In comparison to M. truncatula coding sequences, 11,737 and 10,179 unique hits were obtained from field pea and faba bean. Totals of 22,057 field pea and 18,052 faba bean unigenes were subsequently annotated from GenBank. Comparison to the genome of soybean (Glycine max L.) resulted in 19,451 unique hits for field pea and 16,497 unique hits for faba bean, corresponding to c. 35% and 30% of the known gene space, respectively. Simple sequence repeat (SSR)-containing expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified from consensus sequences, and totals of 2,397 and 802 primer pairs were designed for field pea and faba bean. Subsets of 96 EST-SSR markers were screened for validation across modest panels of field pea and faba bean cultivars, as well as related non-domesticated species. For field pea, 86 primer pairs successfully obtained amplification products from one or more template genotypes, of which 59

  4. Effect of cadmium on growth, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition and metal accumulation of bana grass and vetiver grass.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xingfeng; Gao, Bo; Xia, Hanping

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the differential effects of Cd contamination on the growth, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition and Cd accumulation of bana grass (Pennisetum americanum × Pennisetum purpureum) and vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides). Bana grass accumulated 48-453 and 25-208 mg kg(-1) in plant roots and shoots, respectively, at 15-100 mg kg(-1) soil Cd concentration, while vetiver grass accumulated 167-396 and 0.13-9.0 mg kg(-1). These results indicated that bana grass was a Cd accumulator while vetiver grass was a Cd excluder. The ratio of root to shoot biomass was significantly increased in vetiver grass, while it was unchanged in bana grass by Cd pollution. This suggests that excluders may allocate more energy to roots than shoots under Cd pollution compared to un-contaminated condition, while accumulators may allocate equal proportions of energy to roots and shoots. For bana grass, soil Cd pollution significantly decreased the concentration of Fe and Mn in roots as well as the translocation factors of Zn and K. For vetiver grass, soil Cd pollution significantly decreased the concentration of Fe in roots and had no influence on the translocation factors of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mg, K and Ca. Soil Cd pollution showed no significant effect on chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rates in either of the grasses. The water content and leaf transpiration rate were significantly increased by Cd pollution in bana grass, while they were unchanged in vetiver grass. The results indicated that the energy allocation and mineral nutrition characteristics may aid in screening suitable plant species for phytoremediation. PMID:24836884

  5. Fatty acid biosynthesis by a particulate preparation from germinating pea

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Paul; Harwood, John L.

    1977-01-01

    1. Fatty acid synthesis was studied in microsomal preparations from germinating pea (Pisum sativum). 2. The preparations synthesized a mixture of saturated fatty acids up to a chain length of C24 from [14C]malonyl-CoA. 3. Whereas hexadecanoic acid was made de novo, octadecanoic acid and icosanoic acid were synthesized by elongation. 4. The products formed during [14C]malonyl-CoA incubation were analysed, and unesterified fatty acids and polar lipids were found to be major products. [14C]Palmitic acid represented a high percentage of the acyl-carrier protein esters, whereas 14C-labelled very-long-chain fatty acids were mainly present as unesterified fatty acids. CoA esters were minor products. 5. The addition of exogenous lipids to the incubation system usually resulted in stimulation of [14C]malonyl-CoA incorporation into fatty acids. The greatest stimulation was obtained with dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine. Both exogenous palmitic acid and dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine increased the amount of [14C]-stearic acid synthesized, relative to [14C]palmitic acid. Addition of stearic acid increased the amount of [14C]icosanoic acid formed. 6. [14C]Stearic acid was elongated more effectively to icosanoic acid than [14C]stearoyl-CoA, and its conversion was not decreased by addition of unlabelled stearoyl-CoA. 7. Incorporation of [14C]malonyl-CoA into fatty acids was markedly decreased by iodoacetamide and 5,5′-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid). Palmitate elongation was sensitive to arsenite addition, and stearate elongation to the presence of Triton X-100 or fluoride. The action of fluoride was not, apparently, due to chelation. 8. The microsomal preparations differed from soluble fractions from germinating pea in (a) synthesizing very-long-chain fatty acids, (b) not utilizing exogenous palmitate–acyl-carrier protein as a substrate for palmitate elongation and (c) having fatty acid synthesis stimulated by the addition of certain complex lipids. PMID:579600

  6. Mitochondrial ultrastructure and tissue respiration of pea leaves under clinorotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brykov, Vasyl

    2016-07-01

    Respiration is essential for growth, maintenance, and carbon balance of all plant cells. Mitochondrial respiration in plants provides energy for biosynthesis, and its balance with photosynthesis determines the rate of plant biomass accumulation (production). Mitochondria are not only the energetic organelles in a cell but they play an essential regulatory role in many basic cellular processes. As plants adapt to real and simulated microgravity, it is very important to understand the state of mitochondria in these conditions. Disturbance of respiratory metabolism can significantly affect the productivity of plants in long-term space flights. We have established earlier that the rate of respiration in root apices of pea etiolated seedlings rose after 7 days of clinorotation. These data indicate the oxygen increased requirement by root apices under clinorotation, that confirms the necessity of sufficient substrate aeration in space greenhouses to provide normal respiratory metabolism and supply of energy for root growth. In etiolated seedlings, substrate supply of mitochondria occurs at the expense of the mobilization of cotyledon nutrients. A goal of our work was to study the ultrastructure and respiration of mitochondria in pea leaves after 12 days of clinorotation during (2 rpm/min). Plants grew at a light level of 180 μµmol m ^{-2} s ^{-1} PAR and a photoperiod of 16 h light/4 h dark. It was showed an essential increase in the mitochondrion area on 53% in palisade parenchyma cells at the sections. Such phenomenon can not be described as swelling of mitochondria, since enlarged mitochondria contained a more quantity of crista 1.76 times. In addition, the cristae total area per organelle also increased in comparison with that in control. An increase in a size of mitochondria in the experimental conditions is supposed to occur by a partial alteration of the chondriom. Thus, a size of 49% mitochondria in control was 0.1 - 0.3 μµm ^{2}, whereas only 26

  7. The fishes of Pea Ridge National Military Park, Arkansas, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Justus, B.G.; Petersen, James C.

    2005-01-01

    A fish inventory was conducted at Pea Ridge National Military Park, Arkansas, during base-flow conditions in September 2003. Six sites including four streams and two ponds were sampled using conventional electrofishing equipment (a seine also was used at one site). There were 653 individuals collected comprising 18 species (plus 1 hybrid) and 15 genera. The number of species collected at the four stream sites ranged from 1 16. Most fish species collected generally are associated with small streams in the Ozark Plateaus. The two most common species were the banded sculpin and the southern redbelly dace. Three species and a sunfish hybrid were collected from the quarry pond. No fish were collected from the unnamed pond. A preliminary expected species list incorrectly listed 42 species because of incorrect species range or habitat requirements. One species not on the original list was added to the revised list. Upon revising this list, the inventory yielded 18 the 40 species (45 percent) and 1 hybrid. No previous fish inventories have been completed for park but some observations can be made relative to species distributions. There were only five fish species collected in three headwater streams, and it is unlikely that many other species would occur in these three streams because of constraints imposed on the fish community by stream size. Little Sugar Creek, a medium-sized stream, had the most species collected, and it is likely that additional species would be collected from this stream if additional sampling were to occur. Distribution records indicate that all 18 species occur in the general area. Although no species collected in this study are federallylisted threatened or endangered species, three species collected at Pea Ridge National Military Park may be of some special interest to National Park Service managers and others. Two the species collected (cardinal shiner and stippled darter) are endemic to the Ozark Plateaus; both are rather common in certain

  8. Effect of an extruded pea or rice diet on postprandial insulin and cardiovascular responses in dogs.

    PubMed

    Adolphe, J L; Drew, M D; Silver, T I; Fouhse, J; Childs, H; Weber, L P

    2015-08-01

    Peas are increasing in popularity as a source of carbohydrate, protein and fibre in extruded canine diets. The aim of this study was to test the health effects of two canine diets with identical macronutrient profiles, but containing either yellow field peas or white rice as the carbohydrate source on metabolism, cardiovascular outcomes and adiposity. First, the acute glycemic, insulinemic and cardiovascular responses to the pea- or rice-based diets were determined in normal weight beagles (n = 7 dogs). The glycemic index did not differ between the pea diet (56 ± 12) and rice diet (63 ± 9). Next, obese beagles (n = 9) were fed the yellow field pea diet or white rice diet ad libitum for 12 weeks in a crossover study. Adiposity (measured using computed tomography), metabolic (oral glucose tolerance test, plasma leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein) and cardiovascular assessments (echocardiography and blood pressure) were performed before and after each crossover study period. After 12 weeks on each diet, peak insulin (p = 0.05) and area under the curve (AUC) for insulin after a 10 g oral glucose tolerance test (p = 0.05) were lower with the pea than the rice diet. Diet did not show a significant effect on body weight, fat distribution, cardiovascular variables, adiponectin or leptin. In conclusion, a diet containing yellow field peas reduced the postprandial insulin response after glucose challenge in dogs despite continued obesity, indicating improved metabolic health. PMID:25475789

  9. Protective Effects of Ultramicronized Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA-um) in Myocardial Ischaemia and Reperfusion Injury in VIVO.

    PubMed

    Di Paola, Rosanna; Cordaro, Marika; Crupi, Rosalia; Siracusa, Rosalba; Campolo, Michela; Bruschetta, Giuseppe; Fusco, Roberta; Pugliatti, Pietro; Esposito, Emanuela; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2016-08-01

    Myocardial infarction is the leading cause of death, occurs after prolonged ischemia of the coronary arteries. Restore blood flow is the first intervention help against heart attack. However, reperfusion of the arteries leads to ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R). The fatty acid amide palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenous compound widely present in living organisms, with analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study evaluated the effect of ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide (PEA-um) treatment on the inflammatory process associated with myocardial I/R. Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury was induced by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 30 min followed by 2 h of reperfusion. PEA-um, was administered (10 mg/kg) 15 min after ischemia and 1 h after reperfusion. In this study, we demonstrated that PEA-um treatment reduces myocardial tissue injury, neutrophil infiltration, adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, P-selectin) expression, proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β) production, nitrotyrosine and PAR formation, nuclear factor kB expression, and apoptosis (Fas-L, Bcl-2) activation. In addition to study whether the protective effect of PEA-um on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury is also related to the activation of PPAR-α, in a separate set of experiments it has been performed myocardial I/R in PPARα mice. Genetic ablation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α in PPAR-αKO mice exacerbated Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury when compared with PPAR-αWT mice. PEA-um induced cardioprotection in PPAR-α wild-type mice, but the same effect cannot be observed in PPAR-αKO mice. Our results have clearly shown a modulation of the inflammatory process, associated with myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury, following administration of PEA-um. PMID:26844976

  10. Nitrous oxide emissions from crop rotations including wheat, oilseed rape and dry peas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeuffroy, M. H.; Baranger, E.; Carrouée, B.; de Chezelles, E.; Gosme, M.; Hénault, C.; Schneider, A.; Cellier, P.

    2013-03-01

    Approximately 65% of anthropogenic emissions of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas (GHG), originate from soils at a global scale, and particularly after N fertilisation of the main crops in Europe. Thanks to their capacity to fix atmospheric N2 through biological fixation, legumes can reduce N fertilizer use, and possibly N2O emissions. Nevertheless, the decomposition of crop organic matter during the crop cycle and residue decomposition, and possibly the N fixation process itself, could lead to N2O emissions. The objective of this study was to quantify N2O emissions from a dry pea crop (Pisum sativum, harvested at maturity) and from the subsequent crops in comparison with N2O emissions from wheat and oilseed rape crops, fertilized or not, in various rotations. A field experiment was conducted over 4 consecutive years to compare the emissions during the pea crop, in comparison with those during the wheat (fertilized or not) or oilseed rape crops, and after the pea crop, in comparison with other preceding crops. N2O fluxes were measured using static chambers. In spite of low N2O fluxes, mainly due to the site's soil characteristics, fluxes during the crop were significantly lower for pea and unfertilized wheat than for fertilized wheat and oilseed rape. The effect of the preceding crop was not significant, while soil mineral N at harvest was higher after the pea crop. These results should be confirmed over a wider range of soil types. Nevertheless, they demonstrate the absence of N2O emissions linked to the symbiotic N fixation process, and allow us to estimate the decrease in N2O emissions by 20-25% through including one pea crop in a three-year rotation. On a larger scale, this reduction of GHG emissions at field level has to be added to the decrease due to the reduced production and transport of the N fertilizer not applied to the pea crop.

  11. The supernumerary chromosome of Nectria haematococca that carries pea-pathogenicity-related genes also carries a trait for pea rhizosphere competitiveness.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Carres, M; White, G; Tsuchiya, D; Taga, M; VanEtten, H D

    2008-06-01

    Fungi are found in a wide range of environments, and the ecological and host diversity of the fungus Nectria haematococca has been shown to be due in part to unique genes on different supernumerary chromosomes. These chromosomes have been called "conditionally dispensable" (CD) since they are not needed for axenic growth but are important for expanding the host range of individual isolates. From a biological perspective, the CD chromosomes can be compared to bacterial plasmids that carry unique genes that can define the habits of these microorganisms. The current study establishes that the N. haematococca PDA1-CD chromosome, which contains the genes for pea pathogenicity (PEP cluster) on pea roots, also carries a gene(s) for the utilization of homoserine, a compound found in large amounts in pea root exudates. Competition studies demonstrate that an isolate that lacks the PEP cluster but carries a portion of the CD chromosome which includes the homoserine utilization (HUT) gene(s) is more competitive in the pea rhizosphere than an isolate without the CD chromosome. PMID:18408061

  12. Early inflorescence development in the grasses (Poaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Kellogg, Elizabeth A.; Camara, Paulo E. A. S.; Rudall, Paula J.; Ladd, Philip; Malcomber, Simon T.; Whipple, Clinton J.; Doust, Andrew N.

    2013-01-01

    The shoot apical meristem of grasses produces the primary branches of the inflorescence, controlling inflorescence architecture and hence seed production. Whereas leaves are produced in a distichous pattern, with the primordia separated from each other by an angle of 180°, inflorescence branches are produced in a spiral in most species. The morphology and developmental genetics of the shift in phyllotaxis have been studied extensively in maize and rice. However, in wheat, Brachypodium, and oats, all in the grass subfamily Pooideae, the change in phyllotaxis does not occur; primary inflorescence branches are produced distichously. It is unknown whether the distichous inflorescence originated at the base of Pooideae, or whether it appeared several times independently. In this study, we show that Brachyelytrum, the genus sister to all other Pooideae has spiral phyllotaxis in the inflorescence, but that in the remaining 3000+ species of Pooideae, the phyllotaxis is two-ranked. These two-ranked inflorescences are not perfectly symmetrical, and have a clear “front” and “back;” this developmental axis has never been described in the literature and it is unclear what establishes its polarity. Strictly distichous inflorescences appear somewhat later in the evolution of the subfamily. Two-ranked inflorescences also appear in a few grass outgroups and sporadically elsewhere in the family, but unlike in Pooideae do not generally correlate with a major radiation of species. After production of branches, the inflorescence meristem may be converted to a spikelet meristem or may simply abort; this developmental decision appears to be independent of the branching pattern. PMID:23898335

  13. Microwave Scattering Model for Grass Blade Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiles, James M.; Sarabandi, Kamal; Ulaby, Fawwaz T.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, the electromagnetic scattering solution for a grass blade with complex cross-section geometry is considered. It is assumed that the blade cross section is electrically small, but its length is large compared to the incident wavelength. In a recent study it has been shown that the scattering solution for such problems, in the form of a polarizability tensor, can be obtained using the low-frequency approximation in conjunction with the method of moments. In addition, the study shows that the relationship between the polarizability tensor of a dielectric cylinder and its dielectric constant can be approximated by a simple algebraic expression. The results of this study are used to show that this algebraic approximation is valid also for cylinders with cross sections the shape of grass blades, providing that proper values am selected for each of three constants appearing in the expression. These constants are dependent on cylinder shape, and if the relationship between the constants and the three parameters describing a grass blade shape can be determined, an algebraic approximation relating polarizability tensor to blade shape, as well as dielectric constant, can be formed. Since the elements of the polarizability tensor are dependent on only these parameters, this algebraic approximation can replace the cumbersome method of moments model. A conjugate gradient method is then implemented to correctly determine the three constants of the algebraic approximation for each blade shape. A third-order polynomial fit to the data is then determined for each constant, thus providing a complete analytic replacement to the numerical (moment method) scattering model. Comparisons of this approximation to the numerical model show an average error of less than 3%.

  14. Ethylene-Induced Lateral Expansion in Etiolated Pea Stems 1

    PubMed Central

    Eisinger, William; Croner, Lisa J.; Taiz, Lincoln

    1983-01-01

    Treatment of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) internode tissue with ethylene gas inhibits elongation and induces lateral expansion. Precise kinetics of the induction of this altered mode of growth of excised internode segments were recorded using a double laser optical monitoring device. Inhibition of elongation and promotion of lateral expansion began after about 1 hour of treatment and achieved a maximum by 3 hours. Similar induction kinetics were observed after treating internodes with colchicine and 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile, an inhibitor of cellulose synthesis. In sealed flask experiments, ethylene had no detectable effect on incorporation of label from [14C]glucose into any of the classical pectin, hemicellulose, or cellulose wall fractions. Ethylene inhibited fresh weight increase (total cell expansion) of both excised internode segments (in sealed flasks) and intact seedlings. Ethylene treatment resulted in an increase in cell sap osmolality in those tissues (intact and excised) which are inhibited by the gas. A model for ethylene-induced inhibition of elongation and induction of lateral expansion is presented. PMID:16663229

  15. Ethylene-Induced Lateral Expansion in Etiolated Pea Stems 1

    PubMed Central

    Taiz, Lincoln; Rayle, David L.; Eisinger, William

    1983-01-01

    Ethylene-induced inhibition of elongation and promotion of lateral expansion in the stems of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. var Alaska) seedlings is not associated with any alteration of auxin-stimulated proton extrusion. Indeed, lateral expansion in response to ethylene apparently requires an acidified wall since it is prevented by strong neutral buffers and by the ATPase inhibitor orthovanadate. Ethylene treatment reduces the capacity of live and frozen-thawed sections to extend in the longitudinal direction in response to acid. The effect of ethylene on lateral acid growth capacity is more complicated. Ethylene-treated internodes do not exhibit acid-induced lateral expansion. Ethylene-treated segments which have been frozen-thawed do show an enhanced capacity to extend in the transverse direction at acid pH, but only when the inner tissues have been removed by coring. We conclude that two of the factors which control the directionality of expansion during ethylene treatment are a decrease in the sensitivity of the walls to acid longitudinally and an increase in the sensitivity of the outer cortical parenchyma walls to acid in the transverse direction. PMID:16663230

  16. Two types of ammonium uncoupling in pea chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Opanasenko, V K; Vasyukhina, L A; Naydov, I A

    2010-06-01

    The effect of ammonium on ATP synthesis, electron transfer, and light-induced uptake of hydrogen ions in pea chloroplasts was studied. It is shown that the dependence of these reactions on ammonium concentration could be due to effects of two different uncoupling processes. The first process is induced by low ammonium concentrations (<0.2 mM); the second one is observed in the NH(4)Cl concentration interval of 0.5-5.0 mM. The first type of uncoupling is stimulated by palmitic acid or by N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, while the second is stimulated by chloroplast thylakoid swelling caused by energy-dependent osmotic gradients. In the presence of the fluorescent dye sulforhodamine B, which does not penetrate through the cell membrane, this swelling causes the dye to enter the lumens. It is supposed that ammonium activates two different routes of cation leakage from the lumen. The first route involves channel proteins, while the second is a mechanosensitive pore that opens in response to osmotic gradients. PMID:20636271

  17. Purification and properties of a pea chloroplast DNA polymerase

    PubMed Central

    McKown, R. L.; Tewari, K. K.

    1984-01-01

    A DNA polymerase has been purified >3,000-fold from the chloroplasts of pea plants by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, phosphocellulose, single-stranded DNA-agarose, and sedimentation in a glycerol gradient. Electrophoretic analysis on polyacrylamide gels in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate indicates that the final fraction contained a single discernible protein band of 90,000 daltons. Gel filtration on Sephacryl S-200 and glycerol gradient sedimentation under nondenaturing conditions demonstrate that the chloroplast DNA polymerase has a native molecular mass of approximately 87,000 daltons. The purified polymerase lacks any associated nuclease activity. The enzyme activity is inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide (74% at 1.0 mM) and ethidium bromide (90% at 0.23 mM) and is resistant to aphidicolin. The purified enzyme is totally dependent on the presence of added DNA, has an absolute requirement for Mg2+ (12 mM optimal), is stimulated by K+ (120 mM optimal), and requires all four deoxynucleoside triphosphates for maximum activity. Native DNA which has been degraded to a limited extent with DNase I is the most efficient template. Images PMID:16593454

  18. Characterization of superoxide production by isolated pea thylakoids

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, S.; Osmond, B. )

    1991-05-01

    During photosynthesis chloroplasts univalently reduce molecular oxygen to superoxide through autoxidations in the electron transport chain. Cytochrome c reduction was used to assay superoxide production in illuminate pea thylakoids under a variety of conditions. Superoxide dismutase was found to inhibit the reaction by 80%, indicating that cytochrome c reduction is primarily mediated by superoxide. This was further supported by the observation that the highest rates of cytochrome c reduction occurred in the presence of methyl viologen, an autoxidizable redox carrier that accepts electrons from photosystem I. The reaction was fully suppressed by DCMU, demonstrating a requirement for electron transport. In the presence of the plastoquinone antagonist DBMIB the rate of cytochrome c reduction increased substantially. This indicates that under conditions where electron transport to photosystem I is blocked, autoxidation reactions can occur on the reducing side of photosystem II to maintain Q{sub A} in the oxidized state. Superoxide production at sites other than the reducing side of photosystem I may thus represent an important pathway for dissipating excess excitation energy.

  19. Formation of putative chloroplast cytochromes in isolated developing pea chloroplasts

    SciTech Connect

    Thaver, S.S.; Bhava, D.; Castelfranco, P.A.

    1986-04-01

    In addition to chlorophyll-protein complexes, other proteins were labeled when isolated developing pea chloroplasts were incubated with (/sup 14/C)-5-aminolevulinic acid (/sup 14/C)-ALA. The major labeled band (M/sub r/ = 43 kDa by LDS-PAGE) was labeled even in the presence of chloramphenicol. Heme-dependent peroxidase activity (as detected by the tetramethyl benzidine-H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ stain) was not visibly associated with this band. The radioactive band was stable to heat, 5% HCl in acetone, and was absent if the incubation with (/sup 14/C)-5-aminolevulinic acid was carried out in the presence of N-methyl protoporphyrin IX dimethyl ester (a specific inhibitor of ferrochelatase). Organic solvent extraction procedures for the enrichment of cytochrome f from chloroplast membranes also extracted this unknown labeled product. It was concluded that this labeled product was probably a c-type cytochrome. The effect of exogenous iron, iron chelators, gabaculine (an inhibitor of ALA synthesis) and other incubation conditions upon the in vitro formation of putative chloroplast cytochromes will be discussed.

  20. Photoreversible changes in pH of pea phytochrome solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Tokutomi, S.; Yamamoto, K.T.; Miyoshi, Y.; Furuya, M.

    1982-02-01

    Phytochrome is a chromoprotein that serves as the photoreceptor for a variety of photomorphogenic responses in plants. Phytochrome was isolated from etiolated pea seedlings. Photoinduced pH changes of an unbuffered solution of the phytochrome were monitored with a semimicrocombination pH electrode at pH 6.5. Red-light irradiation increased the pH of the medium. This alkalinization was reversed by a subsequent far-red-light irradiation. The magnitude and direction of the red-light-induced pH changes was dependent on the pH of the photocrome solution, and the maximum alkalinization was observed at pH 6.0, where the number of protons taken up per phytochrome monomer was 0.18. These results suggest that phytochrome is a multifunctional protein composed of a chromophoric domain and a hydrophobic domain. It is probable that the hydrophobic domain is responsible for the photoinduced change of hydrophobicity of phytochrome and that the ionizable groups responsible for the photoinduced pH changes are localized in the chromophoric domain. (JMT)

  1. Gibberellic Acid effects on greening in pea seedlings.

    PubMed

    Mathis, J N; Bradburne, J A; Dupree, M A

    1989-09-01

    The effect of gibberellic acid (GA) on light-induced greening of etiolated pea plants (Pisum sativum [L.] cultivars Alaska and Progress) was characterized. Progress, a GA-deficient dwarf of Alaska, was found to accumulate chlorophyll and light harvesting chlorophyll protein associated with photosystem II (LHC-II) more rapidly than Alaska, Alaska treated with GA, or Progress treated with GA. A slightly lower chlorophyll content was noted after 24 hours of light induced greening for Alaska treated with GA relative to untreated Alaska. GA-treated Progress, Alaska, and GA-treated Alaska all gave essentially identical patterns for LHC-II accumulation. Similar patterns of LHC-II mRNA induction were found in all four treatments indicating that differences in mRNA induction did not cause differences in LHC-II accumulation. Chlorophyll and LHC-II accumulation in each treatment followed the same patterns of accumulation and a significant correlation (at the 0.01 level of significance) was found between chlorophyll and LHC-II content. Since Progress treated with GA accumulated LHC-II and chlorophyll in a manner similar to that of Alaska, it is clear that GA alters the process of greening either directly or indirectly. PMID:16666994

  2. Strigolactones suppress adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis and pea.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Amanda; Mason, Michael Glenn; De Cuyper, Carolien; Brewer, Philip B; Herold, Silvia; Agusti, Javier; Geelen, Danny; Greb, Thomas; Goormachtig, Sofie; Beeckman, Tom; Beveridge, Christine Anne

    2012-04-01

    Adventitious root formation is essential for the propagation of many commercially important plant species and involves the formation of roots from nonroot tissues such as stems or leaves. Here, we demonstrate that the plant hormone strigolactone suppresses adventitious root formation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and pea (Pisum sativum). Strigolactone-deficient and response mutants of both species have enhanced adventitious rooting. CYCLIN B1 expression, an early marker for the initiation of adventitious root primordia in Arabidopsis, is enhanced in more axillary growth2 (max2), a strigolactone response mutant, suggesting that strigolactones restrain the number of adventitious roots by inhibiting the very first formative divisions of the founder cells. Strigolactones and cytokinins appear to act independently to suppress adventitious rooting, as cytokinin mutants are strigolactone responsive and strigolactone mutants are cytokinin responsive. In contrast, the interaction between the strigolactone and auxin signaling pathways in regulating adventitious rooting appears to be more complex. Strigolactone can at least partially revert the stimulatory effect of auxin on adventitious rooting, and auxin can further increase the number of adventitious roots in max mutants. We present a model depicting the interaction of strigolactones, cytokinins, and auxin in regulating adventitious root formation. PMID:22323776

  3. The Propagation of Slow Wave Potentials in Pea Epicotyls.

    PubMed Central

    Stahlberg, R.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1997-01-01

    Slow wave potentials are considered to be electric long-distance signals specific for plants, although there are conflicting ideas about a chemical, electrical, or hydraulic mode of propagation. These ideas were tested by comparing the propagation of hydraulic and electric signals in epicotyls of pea (Pisum sativum L). A hydraulic signal in the form of a defined step increase in xylem pressure (Px) was applied to the root of intact seedlings and propagated nearly instantly through the epicotyl axis while its amplitude decreased with distance from the pressure chamber. This decremental propagation was caused by a leaky xylem and created an axial Px gradient in the epicotyl. Simultaneously along the epicotyl surface, depolarizations appeared with lag times that increased acropetally with distance from the pressure chamber from 5 s to 3 min. When measured at a constant distance, the lag times increased as the size of the applied pressure steps decreased. We conclude that the Px gradient in the epicotyl caused local depolarizations with acropetally increasing lag times, which have the appearance of an electric signal propagating with a rate of 20 to 30 mm min-1. This static description of the slow wave potentials challenges its traditional classification as a propagating electric signal. PMID:12223601

  4. Adenine nucleotides as allosteric effectors of PEA seed glutamine synthetase

    SciTech Connect

    Unkefer, P.J.; Knight, T.J.

    1986-05-01

    The energy charge in the plant cell has been proposed as a regulator of glutamine synthetase (GS) activity. The authors have shown that 2.1 moles of ..gamma..(/sup 32/P)-ATP were bound/mole subunits of purified pea seed GS during complete inactivation with methionine sulfoximine. Since GS has one active site per subunit, the second binding site provides the potential for allosteric regulation of GS by adenine nucleotides. The authors have investigated the inhibition of the ATP-dependent synthetic activity by ADP and AMP. ADP and AMP cannot completely inhibit GS; but ATP does overcome the inhibition by ADP and AMP as shown by plots of % inhibition vs inhibitor concentration. This indicates that inhibition of GS by ADP or AMP is not completely due to competitive inhibition. In the absence of ADP or AMP, double reciprocal plots for ATP are linear below 10 mM; however, in the presence of either ADP or AMP these pots are curvilinear downwards. The ratio of Vm/asymptote is less than 1. The Hill number for ATP in the absence of ADP or AMP is 0.93 but decreases with increasing ADP or AMP to a value of 0.28 with 10 mM ADP. These data are consistent with negative cooperativity by ADP and AMP. Thus, as the ADP/ATP or AMP/ATP ratios are increased GS activity decreases. This is consistent with regulation of GS activity by energy charge in planta.

  5. The effect of seeds on GA metabolism in pea pericarp

    SciTech Connect

    Ozga, J.A.; Brenner, M.L. )

    1990-05-01

    To determine the effect of seeds on GA metabolism in pea (Pisum sativum) pericarp tissue, a method was developed that allowed access to the seeds while maintaining pericarp growth. Pericarp tissue of ovaries (3 DAA) was split down the across from the seeds, and seeds were removed. After 24 h. ({sup 14}C)-GA{sub 12} was applied to the inside surface of the pericarp of opened ovaries with or without seeds and to intact ovaries (control). Pericarp tissue was harvested 24 h after ({sup 14}C)-GA{sub 12} application, extracted and chromatographed on C18 HPLC. Wounding (opening ovaries) reduced accumulation of ({sup 14}C)-GA{sub 20}. Notably, removal of seeds significantly decreased ({sup 14}C)-GA{sub 20} accumulation when compared to the wounded controls. ({sup 14}C)-GA{sub 53} was present int he highest amount in the control ovaries attached to the plant, 1.5 {plus minus} 1.0% was found in opened ovaries with seeds and none was detected in ovaries without seeds. Metabolism of ({sup 14}C)-GA{sub 12} was similar in ovaries attached or removed from the plant. Application of GA{sub 3} (2.5 {mu}g/ml) to the ovaries in each treatment did not affect ({sup 14}C)-GA{sub 12} metabolism. These results suggest that the presence of seeds may stimulate GA metabolism in the pericarp.

  6. Perennial grass dominance: creating a resilient plant community in an exotic annual grass invaded rangeland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Millions of hectares of western rangelands have been invaded by the exotic and invasive annual grass, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum). Cheatgrass provides a fine-textured, early maturing fuel that has increased the chance, rate, spread and season of wildfire to public and private lands throughout the ...

  7. Insights into the Antiviral Immunity against Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Reovirus (GCRV) in Grass Carp

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Global fish production from aquaculture has rapidly grown over the past decades, and grass carp shares the largest portion. However, hemorrhagic disease caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) results in tremendous loss of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) industry. During the past years, development of molecular biology and cellular biology technologies has promoted significant advances in the understanding of the pathogen and the immune system. Immunoprophylaxis based on stimulation of the immune system of fish has also got some achievements. In this review, authors summarize the recent progresses in basic researches on GCRV; viral nucleic acid sensors, high-mobility group box proteins (HMGBs); pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and retinoic acid inducible gene I- (RIG-I-) like receptors (RLRs); antiviral immune responses induced by PRRs-mediated signaling cascades of type I interferon (IFN-I) and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) activation. The present review also notices the potential applications of molecule genetic markers. Additionally, authors discuss the current preventive and therapeutic strategies (vaccines, RNAi, and prevention medicine) and highlight the importance of innate immunity in long term control for grass carp hemorrhagic disease. PMID:25759845

  8. NUTRALYS® pea protein: characterization of in vitro gastric digestion and in vivo gastrointestinal peptide responses relevant to satiety

    PubMed Central

    Overduin, Joost; Guérin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Wils, Daniel; Lambers, Tim T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pea protein (from Pisum sativum) is under consideration as a sustainable, satiety-inducing food ingredient. Objective In the current study, pea-protein-induced physiological signals relevant to satiety were characterized in vitro via gastric digestion kinetics and in vivo by monitoring post-meal gastrointestinal hormonal responses in rats. Design Under in vitro simulated gastric conditions, the digestion of NUTRALYS® pea protein was compared to that of two dairy proteins, slow-digestible casein and fast-digestible whey. In vivo, blood glucose and gastrointestinal hormonal (insulin, ghrelin, cholecystokinin [CCK], glucagon-like peptide 1 [GLP-1], and peptide YY [PYY]) responses were monitored in nine male Wistar rats following isocaloric (11 kcal) meals containing 35 energy% of either NUTRALYS® pea protein, whey protein, or carbohydrate (non-protein). Results In vitro, pea protein transiently aggregated into particles, whereas casein formed a more enduring protein network and whey protein remained dissolved. Pea-protein particle size ranged from 50 to 500 µm, well below the 2 mm threshold for gastric retention in humans. In vivo, pea-protein and whey-protein meals induced comparable responses for CCK, GLP-1, and PYY, that is, the anorexigenic hormones. Pea protein induced weaker initial, but equal 3-h integrated ghrelin and insulin responses than whey protein, possibly due to the slower gastric breakdown of pea protein observed in vitro. Two hours after meals, CCK levels were more elevated in the case of protein meals compared to that of non-protein meals. Conclusions These results indicate that 1) pea protein transiently aggregates in the stomach and has an intermediately fast intestinal bioavailability in between that of whey and casein; 2) pea-protein- and dairy-protein-containing meals were comparably efficacious in triggering gastrointestinal satiety signals. PMID:25882536

  9. Purification and characterization of ornithine transcarbamylase from pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slocum, R. D.; Richardson, D. P.

    1991-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum) ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) was purified to homogeneity from leaf homogenates in a single-step procedure, using delta-N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-ornithine-Sepharose 6B affinity chromatography. The 1581-fold purified OTC enzyme exhibited a specific activity of 139 micromoles citrulline per minute per milligram of protein at 37 degrees C, pH 8.5. Pea OTC represents approximately 0.05% of the total soluble protein in the leaf. The molecular weight of the native enzyme was approximately 108,200, as estimated by Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration chromatography. The purified protein ran as a single molecular weight band of 36,500 in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These results suggest that the pea OTC is a trimer of identical subunits. The overall amino acid composition of pea OTC is similar to that found in other eukaryotic and prokaryotic OTCs, but the number of arginine residues is approximately twofold higher. The increased number of arginine residues probably accounts for the observed isoelectric point of 7.6 for the pea enzyme, which is considerably more basic than isoelectric point values that have been reported for other OTCs.

  10. Transcriptional activation of the parsley chalcone synthase promoter in heterologous pea and yeast systems.

    PubMed

    Kalbin; Strid; Frohnmeyer

    1999-11-01

    Introduction by electroporation of different parsley (Petroselinum crispum) CHS-promoter/beta-glucuronidase(GUS)-reporter constructs into pea (Pisum sativum L.) protoplasts leads to a high constitutive GUS-expression and to the loss of the light-inducibility seen in the homologous parsley protoplast system. These results indicate that Unit 1 of the parsley CHS-promoter is only partly responsible for the GUS-expression detected. Instead, additional cis-elements, which are located downstream within 100 bp from the transcriptional start site, mediate the de-repression in pea protoplasts. In contrast, in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells, the GUS expression from the heterologous CHS/GUS construct is controlled by elements between Unit 1 and -100 bp. In both pea and yeast cells, transcription factors different from those regulating UV-responsiveness in parsley, are probably mediating the constitutive expression from the heterologous construct. The results with pea protoplasts imply that protoplastation of pea leaf cells itself induces de-repression as a result of stress to the protoplasts. This notion was strengthened by the finding that mRNA levels of the endogenous chalcone synthase were drastically increased as the result of the protoplastation procedure. PMID:10580282

  11. An Evaluation of the Pea Pod System for Assessing Body Composition of Moderately Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Forsum, Elisabet; Olhager, Elisabeth; Törnqvist, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: Assessing the quality of growth in premature infants is important in order to be able to provide them with optimal nutrition. The Pea Pod device, based on air displacement plethysmography, is able to assess body composition of infants. However, this method has not been sufficiently evaluated in premature infants; (2) Methods: In 14 infants in an age range of 3–7 days, born after 32–35 completed weeks of gestation, body weight, body volume, fat-free mass density (predicted by the Pea Pod software), and total body water (isotope dilution) were assessed. Reference estimates of fat-free mass density and body composition were obtained using a three-component model; (3) Results: Fat-free mass density values, predicted using Pea Pod, were biased but not significantly (p > 0.05) different from reference estimates. Body fat (%), assessed using Pea Pod, was not significantly different from reference estimates. The biological variability of fat-free mass density was 0.55% of the average value (1.0627 g/mL); (4) Conclusion: The results indicate that the Pea Pod system is accurate for groups of newborn, moderately premature infants. However, more studies where this system is used for premature infants are needed, and we provide suggestions regarding how to develop this area. PMID:27110820

  12. Detection of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) in pea field in Iran.

    PubMed

    Esfandiari, N; Kohi Habibi, M; Mosahebi, G H; Mozafari, J

    2005-01-01

    During the spring and summer, in 2003-2004, pea viruses were identified in twenty pea fields of Tehran. Some leaf samples were collected randomly from pea fields of Tehran. Samples were tested by Double Antibody Sandwich Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (DAS-ELISA) technique using polyclonal antiserum of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), AS-0001, DSMZ, Braunschweig, Germany). The samples were extracted in 0.1 M Phosphate buffer pH 7 to 7.5 and inoculated on Chenopodium amaranticolor, Chenopodium quina, Phaseolus valgaris, Vicia faba, Vignia unguiculata. Pea cultivars were infected by AMV, causing mild mosaic, translucent veins and a diffuse green-yellow of tender parts and spots may also was involved necrosis of tissue. Infected plants grow slowly and malformed pods produce fewer ovules. In Chenopodium amranticolor, C. quina chlorotic and necrotic flecks, and Vicia faba systemic mosaic had produced. Phaselous vulgaris and Viginia unguiculata are good assay hosts for strains that produce local lesions after 3-5 days in these plants. Back inoculated on Pisum sativum and Vicia faba and tested with DAS-ELISA that had been confirmed the results. This is the first report of AMV on pea from Iran. PMID:16637206

  13. Salinity tolerance of foxtail barley (Hordeum jubatum) and desirable pasture grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse studies were conducted to determine the relative salinity tolerance of foxtail barley and seven desirable pasture grasses. Grass species were reed canarygrass, timothy, altai wildrye, tall fescue, tall wheatgrass, orchardgrass, creeping meadow foxtail, and foxtail barley. Grasses were e...

  14. Influence of pea protein aggregates on the structure and stability of pea protein/soybean polysaccharide complex emulsions.

    PubMed

    Yin, Baoru; Zhang, Rujing; Yao, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The applications of plant proteins in the food and beverage industry have been hampered by their precipitation in acidic solution. In this study, pea protein isolate (PPI) with poor dispersibility in acidic solution was used to form complexes with soybean soluble polysaccharide (SSPS), and the effects of PPI aggregates on the structure and stability of PPI/SSPS complex emulsions were investigated. Under acidic conditions, high pressure homogenization disrupts the PPI aggregates and the electrostatic attraction between PPI and SSPS facilitates the formation of dispersible PPI/SSPS complexes. The PPI/SSPS complex emulsions prepared from the PPI containing aggregates prove to possess similar droplet structure and similar stability compared with the PPI/SSPS emulsions produced from the PPI in which the aggregates have been previously removed by centrifugation. The oil droplets are protected by PPI/SSPS complex interfacial films and SSPS surfaces. The emulsions show long-term stability against pH and NaCl concentration changes. This study demonstrates that PPI aggregates can also be used to produce stable complex emulsions, which may promote the applications of plant proteins in the food and beverage industry. PMID:25803397

  15. Genetic control and identification of QTLs associated with visual quality traits of field pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Ubayasena, Lasantha; Bett, Kirstin; Tar'an, Bunyamin; Warkentin, Thomas

    2011-04-01

    Visual quality of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) is one of the most important determinants of the market value of the harvested crop. Seed coat color, seed shape, and seed dimpling are the major components of visual seed quality of field pea and are considered as important breeding objectives. The objectives of this research were to study the genetics and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed coat color, seed shape, and seed dimpling of green and yellow field peas. Two recombinant inbred line populations (RILs) consisting of 120 and 90 lines of F(5)-derived F(7) (F(5:7)) yellow pea (P. sativum 'Alfetta' × P. sativum 'CDC Bronco') and green pea (P. sativum 'Orb' × P. sativum 'CDC Striker'), respectively, were evaluated over two years at two locations in Saskatchewan, Canada. Quantitative inheritance with polygenic control and transgressive segregation were observed for all visual quality traits studied. All 90 RILs of the green pea population and 92 selected RILs from the yellow pea population were screened using AFLP and SSR markers and two linkage maps were developed. Nine QTLs controlling yellow seed lightness, 3 for yellow seed greenness, 15 for seed shape, and 9 for seed dimpling were detected. Among them, five QTLs located on LG II, LG IV, and LG VII were consistent in at least two environments. The QTLs and their associated markers will be useful tools to assist pea breeding programs attempting to pyramid positive alleles for the traits. PMID:21491970

  16. Identification of QTL controlling high levels of partial resistance to Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi in pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium root rot is a common biotic restraint on pea yields worldwide and genetic resistance is the most feasible method for improving pea production. This study was conducted to discover quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling genetic partial resistance to Fusarium root rot caused by Fusarium s...

  17. Application of a detached leaf assay to evaluate resistance to Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella in pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella contributes to the Ascochyta blight complex of pea. Fall-sown peas are exposed to cool moist conditions in the spring which are favorable for development of the disease. Thirty-five registered cultivars, and breeding lines were evaluated for disease development based...

  18. Sensory and nutritional quality of split peas (Pisum sativum) stored up to 34 y in residential storage.

    PubMed

    Chapman, J S; Jefferies, L K; Pike, O A

    2010-04-01

    The sensory and nutritional quality of split peas stored up to 34 y was determined. Nine samples of split peas representing 5 retail brands packaged in Nr 10 cans and stored at room temperature were obtained from donors. Duplicate cans of a fresh sample of split peas were purchased as controls. Can head space oxygen ranged from 0.255% to 20.1%. Water activity of the raw split peas ranged from 0.41 to 0.56. The green color of the raw split peas decreased over time as shown by increasing CIE a* values. Flavor, appearance, texture, and overall liking hedonic scores (9-point scale) of split-pea soup made from each sample ranged from 3.7 to 6.7 and decreased over time. Hedonic scores for appearance were correlated with the decrease in raw product green color (r(2)= 0.65). Hedonic scores for soup texture declined over time, which corresponded with increasing hardness of the cooked peas as measured by a TA.XT2 texture analyzer. All samples were judged to be acceptable in an emergency situation by over 75% of sensory panelists. Available thiamin was significantly lower in older samples while riboflavin remained unchanged. The results indicate that split pea quality declines over time, but the product maintains sufficient sensory acceptance to be considered for potential use in emergency storage and other applications where minimal stock rotation is a common practice. PMID:20492313

  19. In vitro inhibition of ETEC K88 adhesion by pea hulls and of LT enterotoxin binding by faba bean hulls.

    PubMed

    Becker, P M; van der Meulen, J; Jansman, A J M; van Wikselaar, P G

    2012-12-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) expressing K88 (F4) adhesins are associated with post-weaning diarrhoea in piglets. Different grain fractions from pea (Pisum sativum) and faba bean (Vicia faba) were tested in vitro for their capacity to counteract aetiological factors, which contribute to the development of diarrhoea. In detail, adhesion of E. coli O149:K91:K88ac (ETEC K88ac) to grain legume products, intended to impair the colonization of the host, was studied as well as interference with receptor binding of the pathogen's heat-labile enterotoxin LT, intended to reduce toxin-inflicted gut cell damage. When comparing different pea and faba bean products tested for their binding capacity of ETEC K88ac, especially pea hulls, but also whole pea meal, starch-enriched and protein-enriched pea meal, and digestion-resistant pea hull and meal fractions showed a higher binding of ETEC K88ac than faba bean products. In contrast to the ETEC K88ac adhesion results, bean hulls proved more effective than pea hulls in preventing GM1 receptor binding of LT. Previous small intestinal segment perfusion experiments we performed with ETEC K88ac-challenged piglets indicated that both pea and bean hulls have the potential for successful application in diarrhoea prophylaxis and treatment, which is in agreement with and refined by our detection of their different modes of functioning. PMID:21929729

  20. High-throughput development of SSR markers from pea (Pisum sativum L.) based on next generation sequencing of a purified Chinese commercial variety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important food legume globally, and is the plant species that J.G. Mendel used to lay the foundation of modern genetics. However, genomics resources of pea are limited comparing to other crop species. Application of marker assisted selection (MAS) in pea breeding has lag...

  1. Large-scale evaluation of pea (Pisum sativum L.) germplasm for cold tolerance in the open field during winter in Qingdao.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a cool season crop, pea (Pisum sativum L.) can tolerate frost at the vegetative stage but has yield loss when freezing stress occurs at reproductive stage. Cold tolerance improvement of pea varieties is important for the stable yield and the expansion of winter pea planting area. Under the natura...

  2. Weed suppression by grasses for orchard floor management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit trees in orchards of the mid-Atlantic region are often planted in vegetation-free rows alternating with grass travel alleys. The tree rows can be maintained vegetation-free by herbicides or tillage but soil degradation or tree injury can result from these practices. Grasses that suppress wee...

  3. Evaluating Pasture Grasses: Fescues and Other Freaks of Nature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.) has excellent potential for grazing-based dairy and beef systems in Wisconsin, but producer awareness of this temperate grass is lacking. Previous research established that its intake potential is comparable or superior to other pasture grasses, and winter-ha...

  4. Regional collaborative research on cold tolerance of exotic biofuel grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cold tolerance is a selectable trait for many exotic grasses, even those of tropical or subtropical origin. We are conducting cold tolerance assessments on an array of perennial biofuel grasses at Booneville, AR. In study one (published), we reported that two sugarcane clones (US84-1028 and US84-1...

  5. Genome Sequencing and Analysis of the Model grass Brachypodium distachyon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Ehrhartoideae (rice), the Panicoideae (maize, sorghum, sugar cane and millet), and the Pooideae (wheat, barley and cool season forage grasses) provide the bulk of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the genome...

  6. Field drying rate differences among three cool-season grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conserving cool-season grasses as silage or hay remains a challenge due to the time required for curing and the unpredictability of weather. We compared the drying rates of three grasses with differing yield potential, morphology, and physical characteristics. Inflorescence-stage meadow fescue, orch...

  7. Narrow grass hedge effects on nutrient transport following compost application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of stiff-stemmed grass hedges can be a valuable soil conservation measure. A study was conducted to measure the effectiveness of a narrow grass hedge, planted on the contour along the hillslope, in reducing runoff nutrient transport from plots with a range of soil nutrient values. Composted ...

  8. Two-dimensional flow patterns near contour grass hedges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grass hedges are narrow strips of stiff-stemmed vegetation used to control erosion and sediment delivery. When planted on the contour, the hydraulic resistance of the vegetation slows runoff, creates ponding, and promotes sediment deposition. In addition, when tillage is performed between grass he...

  9. Cellulosic ethanol production from warm-season perennial grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Warm-season (C4) perennial grasses are able to produce large quantities of biomass, and will play a key role in bioenergy production, particularly in areas with long warm growing seasons. Several different grass species have been studied as candidate bioenergy crops for the Southeast USA, and each ...

  10. Molecular understandings on 'the never thirsty' and apomictic Cenchrus grass.

    PubMed

    Syamaladevi, Divya P; Meena, S S; Nagar, R P

    2016-03-01

    The genus Cenchrus comprises around 25 species of 'bristle clade' grasses. Cenchrus ciliaris (buffel grass) is a hardy, perennial range grass that survives in poor sandy soils and limiting soil moisture conditions and, due to the very same reasons, this grass is one of the most prevalent fodder grasses of the arid and semi-arid regions. Most of the germplasms of Cenchrus produce seeds asexually through the process of apomeiosis. Therefore, the lack of sufficient sexual lines has hindered the crop improvement efforts in Cenchrus being confined to simple selection methods. Many attempts have been initiated in buffel grass to investigate the various molecular aspects such as genomic signatures of different species and genotypes, molecular basis of abiotic stress tolerance and reproductive performance. Even though it is an important fodder crop, molecular investigations in Cenchrus lack focus and the molecular information available on this grass is scanty. Cenchrus is a very good gene source for abiotic stress tolerance and apomixis studies. Biotechnological interventions in Cenchrus can help in crop improvement in Cenchrus as well as other crops through transgenic technology or marker assisted selection. To date no consolidated review on biotechnological interventions in Cenchrus grass has been published. Therefore we provide a thorough and in depth review on molecular research in Cenchrus focusing on molecular signatures of evolution, tolerance to abiotic stress and apomictic reproductive mechanism. PMID:26601981

  11. Grazing invasive annual grasses: the green and brown guide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasion of rangeland by annual grasses has become one of the most serious and catastrophic problems in the western United States. Annual grasses displace desired plants and create monocultures that do not provide adequate plant cover for the entire year. Using the ecologically-based invasive plant ...

  12. GRASS CARP AS A POTENTIAL CONTROL AGENT FOR CATTAILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Replicate ponds were stocked with grass carp in May 1982 and a fence exclosure placed in each pond to assess the effects of this herbivorous fish on the cattail community. Stocking rate of grass carp four individuals oer pond each membership 18-23 cm in total length. In August 19...

  13. Weed suppression by grasses for orchard floor management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit trees in orchards of the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. are often planted in vegetation-free rows alternating with grass travel alleys. The tree rows can be maintained vegetation-free by herbicides or tillage, but soil degradation or tree injury can result. Grass that is managed to suppress...

  14. Genome Sequencing and Analysis of the Model Grass Brachypodium Distachyon.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Ehrhartoideae (rice), the Panicoideae (maize, sorghum, sugar cane and millet), and the Pooideae (wheat, barley and cool season forage grasses) provide the basis of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the compl...

  15. Studies on phytohemagglutinins. XXVII. A study of the pea lectin binding site.

    PubMed

    Cermáková, M; Entlicher, G; Kocourek, J

    1976-02-20

    Under defined mild conditions the reaction of the pea lectin with 2-nitrophenylsulfenyl chloride results in sulfenylation of only 2 of the 10 tryptophan residues of the lectin molecule with simultaneous loss of biological activity. Both sulfenylated tryptophan residues belong to the two heavy subunits of the lectin. Enzymic hydrolysis and separation of the tryptic peptides yields only one homogeneous yellow peptide containing the modified tryptophan residue. The isolated peptide has the following sequence (NPS, nitrophenylsulfenyl): HAsp-Val-Val-Pro-Glu-(2-NPS-Trp)-Val-ArgOH. The octapeptide is either directly a part of the pea lectin binding site or it plays an important role in maintaining the tertiary structure of the binding site. According to the amino acid composition and amino acid sequence, the octapeptide isolated from the pea lectin is almost identical with that part of the peptide chain of concanavalin A near to which the location of the sugar binding site is supposed to be. PMID:1252454

  16. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of urease from pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan)

    SciTech Connect

    Balasubramanian, Anuradha; Ponnuraj, Karthe

    2008-07-01

    Urease from pigeon pea was purified and crystallized and X-ray diffraction data were collected at 2.5 Å resolution. Urease is a seed protein that is common to most Leguminosae. It also occurs in many bacteria, fungi and several species of yeast. Urease catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide, thus allowing organisms to use exogenous and internally generated urea as a nitrogen source. Urease from pigeon pea seeds has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity using a series of steps involving ammonium sulfate fractionation, acid precipitation, ion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography techniques. The pigeon pea urease was crystallized and the resulting crystals diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution. The crystals belong to the rhombohedral space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 176.29, c = 346.44 Å.

  17. Immunological and biochemical evidence for nuclear localization of annexin in peas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, G. B.; Dauwalder, M.; Roux, S. J.

    1998-01-01

    Immunofluorescent localization of annexins using an anti-pea annexin polyclonal antibody (anti-p35) in pea (Pisum sativum) leaf and stem epidermal peels showed staining of the nuclei and the cell periphery. Nuclear staining was also seen in cell teases prepared from pea plumules. The amount of nuclear stain was reduced both by fixation time and by dehydration and organic solvent treatment. Observation with confocal microscopy demonstrated that the anti-p35 stain was diffusely distributed throughout the nuclear structure. Immunoblots of purified nuclei, nuclear envelope matrix, nucleolar, and chromatin fractions showed a cross-reactive protein band of 35 kDa. These data are the first to show annexins localized in plant cell nuclei where they may play a role in nuclear function.

  18. Native Grass Community Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Ryon, Michael G; Parr, Patricia Dreyer; Cohen, Kari

    2007-06-01

    Land managers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory in East Tennessee are restoring native warm-season grasses and wildflowers to various sites across the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Some of the numerous benefits to planting native grasses and forbs include improved habitat quality for wildlife, improved aesthetic values, lower long-term maintenance costs, and compliance with Executive Order 13112 (Clinton 1999). Challenges to restoring native plants on the ORR include the need to gain experience in establishing and maintaining these communities and the potentially greater up-front costs of getting native grasses established. The goals of the native grass program are generally outlined on a fiscal-year basis. An overview of some of the issues associated with the successful and cost-effective establishment and maintenance of native grass and wildflower stands on the ORR is presented in this report.

  19. Green Pea Galaxies Reveal Secrets of Lyα Escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huan; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Gronke, Max; Rhoads, James E.; Jaskot, Anne; Zheng, Zhenya; Dijkstra, Mark; Wang, JunXian

    2016-01-01

    In star-forming galaxies, a lot of Lyα photons were generated in HII regions surrounding massive stars. The escape of Lyα photons from galaxies is a key issue in studying high redshift galaxies and probing cosmic reionization with Lyα. To understand Lyα escape, it is valuable to study high quality Lyα profiles in Lyα emitters. However, such studies are rare due to the faintness of high-z Lyα emitters and the lack of local analogs with high Lyα equivalent width. Here we show that "Green Pea" galaxies are the best local analogs of high-z Lyα emitters and their high quality Lyα profiles demonstrate low HI column density is the key to Lyα escape. The Lyα escape fraction shows correlations with the ratio of Lyα blue peak velocity to Hα line width, the normalized flux density at valley of Lyα profile, and a few other features of Lyα profiles. We compared the Lyα profiles with outflowing HI shell radiative transfer model and found that the best-fit HI column density is anti-correlated with the Lyα escape fraction. We also found an anti-correlation between Lyα escape fraction and galactic metallicity. Our results support that LAEs with high Lyα escape fraction have low metallicity, low HI column density, and mild HI gas outflow.

  20. Social Aggregation in Pea Aphids: Experiment and Random Walk Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Nilsen, Christa; Paige, John; Warner, Olivia; Mayhew, Benjamin; Sutley, Ryan; Lam, Matthew; Bernoff, Andrew J.; Topaz, Chad M.

    2013-01-01

    From bird flocks to fish schools and ungulate herds to insect swarms, social biological aggregations are found across the natural world. An ongoing challenge in the mathematical modeling of aggregations is to strengthen the connection between models and biological data by quantifying the rules that individuals follow. We model aggregation of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Specifically, we conduct experiments to track the motion of aphids walking in a featureless circular arena in order to deduce individual-level rules. We observe that each aphid transitions stochastically between a moving and a stationary state. Moving aphids follow a correlated random walk. The probabilities of motion state transitions, as well as the random walk parameters, depend strongly on distance to an aphid's nearest neighbor. For large nearest neighbor distances, when an aphid is essentially isolated, its motion is ballistic with aphids moving faster, turning less, and being less likely to stop. In contrast, for short nearest neighbor distances, aphids move more slowly, turn more, and are more likely to become stationary; this behavior constitutes an aggregation mechanism. From the experimental data, we estimate the state transition probabilities and correlated random walk parameters as a function of nearest neighbor distance. With the individual-level model established, we assess whether it reproduces the macroscopic patterns of movement at the group level. To do so, we consider three distributions, namely distance to nearest neighbor, angle to nearest neighbor, and percentage of population moving at any given time. For each of these three distributions, we compare our experimental data to the output of numerical simulations of our nearest neighbor model, and of a control model in which aphids do not interact socially. Our stochastic, social nearest neighbor model reproduces salient features of the experimental data that are not captured by the control. PMID:24376691

  1. The genomewide transcriptional response underlying the pea aphid wing polyphenism.

    PubMed

    Vellichirammal, Neetha N; Madayiputhiya, Nandakumar; Brisson, Jennifer A

    2016-09-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is a key life history strategy used by many plants and animals living in heterogeneous environments. A multitude of studies have investigated the costs and limits of plasticity, as well as the conditions under which it evolves. Much less well understood are the molecular genetic mechanisms that enable an organism to sense its environment and respond in a plastic manner. The pea aphid wing polyphenism is a compelling laboratory model to study these mechanisms. In this polyphenism, environmental stressors like high density cause asexual, viviparous adult female aphids to change the development of their embryos from wingless to winged morphs. The life history trade-offs between the two morphs have been intensively studied, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain largely unknown. We therefore performed a genomewide study of the maternal transcriptome at two time points with and without a crowding stress to discover the maternal molecular changes that lead to the development of winged vs. wingless offspring. We observed significant transcriptional changes in genes associated with odorant binding, neurotransmitter transport, hormonal activity and chromatin remodelling in the maternal transcriptome. We also found that titres of serotonin, dopamine and octopamine were higher in solitary compared to crowded aphids. We use these results to posit a model for how maternal signals inform a developing embryo to be winged or wingless. Our findings add significant insights into the identity of the molecular mechanisms that underlie environmentally induced morph determination and suggest a possible role for biogenic amine regulation in polyphenisms generally. PMID:27393739

  2. Social aggregation in pea aphids: experiment and random walk modeling.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Christa; Paige, John; Warner, Olivia; Mayhew, Benjamin; Sutley, Ryan; Lam, Matthew; Bernoff, Andrew J; Topaz, Chad M

    2013-01-01

    From bird flocks to fish schools and ungulate herds to insect swarms, social biological aggregations are found across the natural world. An ongoing challenge in the mathematical modeling of aggregations is to strengthen the connection between models and biological data by quantifying the rules that individuals follow. We model aggregation of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Specifically, we conduct experiments to track the motion of aphids walking in a featureless circular arena in order to deduce individual-level rules. We observe that each aphid transitions stochastically between a moving and a stationary state. Moving aphids follow a correlated random walk. The probabilities of motion state transitions, as well as the random walk parameters, depend strongly on distance to an aphid's nearest neighbor. For large nearest neighbor distances, when an aphid is essentially isolated, its motion is ballistic with aphids moving faster, turning less, and being less likely to stop. In contrast, for short nearest neighbor distances, aphids move more slowly, turn more, and are more likely to become stationary; this behavior constitutes an aggregation mechanism. From the experimental data, we estimate the state transition probabilities and correlated random walk parameters as a function of nearest neighbor distance. With the individual-level model established, we assess whether it reproduces the macroscopic patterns of movement at the group level. To do so, we consider three distributions, namely distance to nearest neighbor, angle to nearest neighbor, and percentage of population moving at any given time. For each of these three distributions, we compare our experimental data to the output of numerical simulations of our nearest neighbor model, and of a control model in which aphids do not interact socially. Our stochastic, social nearest neighbor model reproduces salient features of the experimental data that are not captured by the control. PMID:24376691

  3. Effect of extrusion on the nutritional value of peas for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hejdysz, Marcin; Kaczmarek, Sebastian Andrzej; Rutkowski, Andrzej

    2016-10-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the nutritional value of five samples of raw and extruded pea seeds (Pisum sativum L., Tarachalska cv.) from different experimental fields. The study included 150 male 1-day-old Ross 308 chickens, which were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments (50 replications each) and kept in individual cages. From days 1 to 16, all birds received only the basal diets. From days 17 to 21, the control group received still the basal diet, but for the two other groups, 20% of basal diet was replaced by raw or extruded peas. Furthermore, the groups receiving raw or extruded peas were divided into five subgroups of 10 animals each, where the diets contained one of the five pea samples of the same cultivar grown at different locations, respectively. On days 19 and 20, excreta were individually collected, and then all chickens were sacrificed and ileal digesta were sampled for determination of ileal digestibility, which was calculated by the difference method. Extrusion of pea seeds decreased the contents of crude fibre, acid and neutral detergent fibre, trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA), phytic P and resistant starch (RS) (p ≤ 0.05), but increased the contents of apparent metabolisable energy (AMEN) by approximately 2.25 MJ/kg dry matter (DM). Furthermore, extrusion improved the DM and crude protein digestibility significantly by about 21.3% and 11.6%, respectively. Similar results were observed for the digestibility of all analysed amino acids. In conclusion, extrusion markedly influenced the chemical composition of peas, reduced their contents of phytic P, TIA and RS and consequently had a positive impact on nutrient digestibility and AMEN values. PMID:27434309

  4. Pea (Pisum sativum) seed production as an assay for reproductive effects due to herbicides.

    PubMed

    Olszyk, David; Pfleeger, Thomas; Lee, E Henry; Plocher, Milton

    2009-09-01

    Even though herbicide drift can affect plant reproduction, current plant testing protocols emphasize effects on vegetative growth. In this study, we determined whether a short-growing season plant can indicate potential effects of herbicides on seed production. Pea (Pisum sativum cv. Dakota) plants were grown in mineral soil in pots under greenhouse conditions. Plants were treated with a variety of herbicides (dicamba, clopyralid, glufosinate, glyphosate, 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, primisulfuron, or sulfometuron) at below standard field application rates applied at a vegetative stage of growth (approximately 14 d after emergence) or at flowering (approximately 20 d after emergence). Pea seed production was greatly reduced by sulfometuron at the minimum concentration used (0.001 x field application rate), with an effective concentration producing a 25% reduction in seed dry weight of 0.00007 x field application rate. Primisulfuron and glyphosate had a 25% reduction in seed dry weight for seed dry weight of 0.0035 and 0.0096 x field application rate, respectively. Clopyralid and dicamba reduced pea seed dry weight at a 25% reduction in seed dry weight of approximately 0.07 x field application rate. Glufosinate only reduced pea seed weight in one experiment, with a 25% reduction in seed dry weight of 0.07 and 0.008 x field application rate at vegetative growth and flowering stages, respectively. Pea seed dry weight was not affected by 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid. Plant developmental stage had no consistent effect on herbicide responses. Reduced seed production occurred with some herbicides (especially acetolactate synthase inhibitors), which caused little or no reduction in plant height or shoot biomass and little visible injury. Thus, pea may be a model species to indicate seed reproductive responses to herbicides, with seed production obtained by extending plant growth for usually only 7 d longer than the period usually used in the vegetative vigor

  5. Grass Lignin Acylation: p-Coumaroyl Transferase Activity and Cell Wall Characteristics of C3 and C4 Grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasses have always been a predominate source of nutritional energy for livestock systems around the world. Species belonging to the C3 and C4 grass types have recently been championed as feedstock sources for bioenergy production. Their ultimate use would be as a source of carbohydrate for fermenta...

  6. Occurrence of Ditylenchus weischeri and Not D. dipsaci in Field Pea Harvest Samples and Cirsium arvense in the Canadian Prairies.

    PubMed

    Tenuta, Mario; Madani, Mehrdad; Briar, Shabeg; Molina, Oscar; Gulden, Robert; Subbotin, Sergei A

    2014-12-01

    The stem nematode, a parasite of the herbaceous perennial weed, Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. and identified as Ditylenchus dipsaci (Kühn) Filipjev, was reported in the Canadian prairies in 1979. Recently, D. weischeri Chizhov parasitizing Cirsium arvense was described in Russia, and it has been shown that this species is not an agricultural pest. In this study, we examined Ditylenchus species found in field pea (Pisum sativum L.) grain harvest samples in 2009 and 2010 and from C. arvense shoots in pea fields in the Saskatchewan, Alberta, and Manitoba provinces. Samples from 538 fields (mainly yellow pea) were provided by 151 growers throughout the main pea-growing area of the Canadian prairies. Of the samples collected, 2% were positive for Ditylenchus. The population density of the nematode ranged between 4 and 1,500 nematodes kg(-1) pea harvest sample and related to presence of C. arvense seeds. Positive samples occurred in 2009 but not in 2010 and were from throughout the pea-growing area of the Canadian prairies and not related to cropping history. C. arvense collected from yellow pea fields in Saskatchewan and Manitoba, but not Alberta, were infested with Ditylenchus. Morphological and molecular (ITS-PCR-RFLP) traits indicated that this species belongs to D. weischeri. The results indicated the stem nematode found in yellow pea grain is D. weischeri which resided with C. arvense seeds and debris to pea samples. Unlike D. dipsaci, D. weischeri is not a nematode pest of economic importance; therefore, its presence in the pea harvest samples was not a concern. PMID:25580031

  7. Occurrence of Ditylenchus weischeri and Not D. dipsaci in Field Pea Harvest Samples and Cirsium arvense in the Canadian Prairies

    PubMed Central

    Tenuta, Mario; Madani, Mehrdad; Briar, Shabeg; Molina, Oscar; Gulden, Robert; Subbotin, Sergei A.

    2014-01-01

    The stem nematode, a parasite of the herbaceous perennial weed, Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. and identified as Ditylenchus dipsaci (Kühn) Filipjev, was reported in the Canadian prairies in 1979. Recently, D. weischeri Chizhov parasitizing Cirsium arvense was described in Russia, and it has been shown that this species is not an agricultural pest. In this study, we examined Ditylenchus species found in field pea (Pisum sativum L.) grain harvest samples in 2009 and 2010 and from C. arvense shoots in pea fields in the Saskatchewan, Alberta, and Manitoba provinces. Samples from 538 fields (mainly yellow pea) were provided by 151 growers throughout the main pea-growing area of the Canadian prairies. Of the samples collected, 2% were positive for Ditylenchus. The population density of the nematode ranged between 4 and 1,500 nematodes kg-1 pea harvest sample and related to presence of C. arvense seeds. Positive samples occurred in 2009 but not in 2010 and were from throughout the pea-growing area of the Canadian prairies and not related to cropping history. C. arvense collected from yellow pea fields in Saskatchewan and Manitoba, but not Alberta, were infested with Ditylenchus. Morphological and molecular (ITS-PCR-RFLP) traits indicated that this species belongs to D. weischeri. The results indicated the stem nematode found in yellow pea grain is D. weischeri which resided with C. arvense seeds and debris to pea samples. Unlike D. dipsaci, D. weischeri is not a nematode pest of economic importance; therefore, its presence in the pea harvest samples was not a concern. PMID:25580031

  8. Size measuring techniques as tool to monitor pea proteins intramolecular crosslinking by transglutaminase treatment.

    PubMed

    Djoullah, Attaf; Krechiche, Ghali; Husson, Florence; Saurel, Rémi

    2016-01-01

    In this work, techniques for monitoring the intramolecular transglutaminase cross-links of pea proteins, based on protein size determination, were developed. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis profiles of transglutaminase-treated low concentration (0.01% w/w) pea albumin samples, compared to the untreated one (control), showed a higher electrophoretic migration of the major albumin fraction band (26 kDa), reflecting a decrease in protein size. This protein size decrease was confirmed, after DEAE column purification, by dynamic light scattering (DLS) where the hydrodynamic radius of treated samples appears to be reduced compared to the control one. PMID:26212961

  9. Effects of hormonal priming on seed germination of pigeon pea under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Sneideris, Larissa C; Gavassi, Marina A; Campos, Marcelo L; D'Amico-Damião, Victor; Carvalho, Rogério F

    2015-09-01

    In this work we investigated whether priming with auxin, cytokinin, gibberellin, abscisic acid and ethylene, alters the physiological responses of seeds of pigeon pea germinated under water and cadmium stress. Seeds treated with water or non-treated seeds were used as control. Although compared to non-treated seeds we found that the hormone treatments improve the germination of pigeon pea under cadmium stress, however, these treatments did not differ from water. However, we also observed a trend of tolerance to the effects of cadmium in the presence of ethylene, suggesting that the use of this hormone may be an efficient method to overcome seed germination under metal stress. PMID:26221985

  10. Nitrous oxide emissions from crop rotations including wheat, rapeseed and dry pea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeuffroy, M. H.; Baranger, E.; Carrouée, B.; de Chezelles, E.; Gosme, M.; Hénault, C.; Schneider, A.; Cellier, P.

    2012-07-01

    Approximately 65% of anthropogenic emissions of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas, originate from soils at global scale, and particularly after N fertilisation of the main crops in Europe. Thanks to their capacity to fix atmospheric N2 through biological fixation, legumes allow to reduce N fertilizer use, and possibly N2O emission. Nevertheless, the decomposition of crop organic matter during the crop cycle and during the residue decomposition, and possibly the N fixation process itself, could lead to N2O emissions. The objective of this study was to quantify N2O emissions from a dry pea crop (Pisum sativum, harvested at maturity) and from the subsequent crops in comparison with N2O emissions from wheat and oilseed-rape crops, fertilized or not, in various rotations. A field experiment was conducted during 4 consecutive years, aiming at comparing the emissions during the pea crop, in comparison with those during the wheat (fertilized or not) or oilseed rape crops, and after the pea crop, in comparison with other preceding crops. N2O fluxes were measured using static chambers. In spite of low N2O fluxes, mainly linked with the site soil characteristics, fluxes during the crop were significantly lower for pea and unfertilized wheat than for fertilized wheat and oilseed rape. The effect of the preceding crop was not significant, while soil mineral N at harvest was higher after pea. These results, combined with the emission reduction allowed by the production and transport of the N fertiliser not applied on the pea crop, should be confirmed in a larger range of soil types. Nevertheless, they demonstrate the absence of N2O emission linked to the symbiotic N fixation process, and allow us to estimate the decrease of N2O emissions to 20-25% by including one pea crop in a three-year rotation. At a larger scale, this reduction of GHG emissions at field level has to be cumulated with the reduction of GHG emissions linked with the lower level of production and transport of the N

  11. Resolution of grass canopy biomass classes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.

    1977-01-01

    Analysis of variance methods has been applied to in situ grassland spectral reflectance data in order to determine the classes or levels of total wet biomass that can be resolved spectrally by a single narrow band measurement. Ground-truth clipping of blue grama grass plots was performed immediately following spectral reflectance measurements at 91 wavelength intervals which were 0.005 microns apart over the spectral range from 0.350 to 0.800 microns. It was found that the photographic infrared region of 0.750 to 0.800 microns could be used to distinguish three classes or levels of total wet biomass. Four or five classes, particularly at higher biomass levels, could not be distinguished by this technique.

  12. Summer Dormancy in Perennial Temperate Grasses

    PubMed Central

    VOLAIRE, FLORENCE; NORTON, MARK

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Dormancy has been extensively studied in plants which experience severe winter conditions but much less so in perennial herbaceous plants that must survive summer drought. This paper reviews the current knowledge on summer dormancy in both native and cultivated perennial temperate grasses originating from the Mediterranean Basin, and presents a unified terminology to describe this trait. • Scope Under severe drought, it is difficult to separate the responses by which plants avoid and tolerate dehydration from those associated with the expression of summer dormancy. Consequently, this type of endogenous (endo-) dormancy can be tested only in plants that are not subjected to moisture deficit. Summer dormancy can be defined by four criteria, one of which is considered optional: (1) reduction or cessation of leaf production and expansion; (2) senescence of mature foliage; (3) dehydration of surviving organs; and (4, optional) formation of resting organs. The proposed terminology recognizes two levels of summer dormancy: (a) complete dormancy, when cessation of growth is associated with full senescence of foliage and induced dehydration of leaf bases; and (b) incomplete dormancy, when leaf growth is partially inhibited and is associated with moderate levels of foliage senescence. Summer dormancy is expressed under increasing photoperiod and temperature. It is under hormonal control and usually associated with flowering and a reduction in metabolic activity in meristematic tissues. Dehydration tolerance and dormancy are independent phenomena and differ from the adaptations of resurrection plants. • Conclusions Summer dormancy has been correlated with superior survival after severe and repeated summer drought in a large range of perennial grasses. In the face of increasing aridity, this trait could be used in the development of cultivars that are able to meet agronomic and environmental goals. It is therefore important to have a better

  13. Gramene, a tool for grass genomics.

    PubMed

    Ware, Doreen H; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Ni, Junjian; Yap, Immanuel V; Pan, Xioakang; Clark, Ken Y; Teytelman, Leonid; Schmidt, Steven C; Zhao, Wei; Chang, Kuan; Cartinhour, Sam; Stein, Lincoln D; McCouch, Susan R

    2002-12-01

    Gramene (http://www.gramene.org) is a comparative genome mapping database for grasses and a community resource for rice (Oryza sativa). It combines a semi-automatically generated database of cereal genomic and expressed sequence tag sequences, genetic maps, map relations, and publications, with a curated database of rice mutants (genes and alleles), molecular markers, and proteins. Gramene curators read and extract detailed information from published sources, summarize that information in a structured format, and establish links to related objects both inside and outside the database, providing seamless connections between independent sources of information. Genetic, physical, and sequence-based maps of rice serve as the fundamental organizing units and provide a common denominator for moving across species and genera within the grass family. Comparative maps of rice, maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), barley (Hordeum vulgare), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and oat (Avena sativa) are anchored by a set of curated correspondences. In addition to sequence-based mappings found in comparative maps and rice genome displays, Gramene makes extensive use of controlled vocabularies to describe specific biological attributes in ways that permit users to query those domains and make comparisons across taxonomic groups. Proteins are annotated for functional significance using gene ontology terms that have been adopted by numerous model species databases. Genetic variants including phenotypes are annotated using plant ontology terms common to all plants and trait ontology terms that are specific to rice. In this paper, we present a brief overview of the search tools available to the plant research community in Gramene. PMID:12481044

  14. Seasonal appearance of grass pollen allergen in natural, pauci-micronic aerosol of various size fractions. Relationship with airborne grass pollen concentration.

    PubMed

    Spieksma, F T; Nikkels, B H; Dijkman, J H

    1995-03-01

    In a study during the 1993 grass pollen season at Leiden, the relationship between atmospheric pollen allergen carried by five size fractions of pauci-micronic (few microns) particles and the grass pollen count was investigated. Sampling was carried out on dry days, and atmospheric pollen allergen in the particle fractions was assessed by a RAST-inhibition assay while grass pollen quantities were measured with a volumetric pollen trap. It appears that the atmospheric presence of grass pollen allergen in all size fractions is restricted mainly to the period of presence of grass pollen grains. Before and after the grass pollen season atmospheric grass pollen allergen quantities are generally very low. It is concluded that a routinely performed grass pollen count is a reliable measurement for the estimation of the amount of atmospheric grass pollen allergen, also in the pauci-micronic particle fraction. PMID:7788570

  15. Stability theory for the synchronized waving of marine grass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ravi; Mahadevan, Amala; Mandre, Shreyas; Mahadevan, L. M.

    2014-11-01

    Synchronized waving of grass blades in the presence of fluid flow has been observed in cases such as wheat field in wind, marine grass in tidal currents. The synchronous motion can have important environmental and ecological impact via mixing of fluid due to waving. When the hydrodynamic and elastic time scales are well separated, this waving is thought to be due to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability resulting from an inflection point in the flow profile. We find that the inflection point is located near the tip of grass canopy. We extend the Orr-Sommerfeld equation for the stability of a shear flow to include a continuum mean-field approximation for the vegetation, thus capturing the essential ingredients for flow instability leading to coherent waving. Our linear stability analysis shows that the flow in presence of grass become unstable not only through a mechanism of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability but also through shear instability of flow above grass. We also find that flow with low submergence ratio of grass becomes unstable due to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability whereas flow high submergence ratio becomes unstable due to shear instability of flow above the grass. Numerical results demonstrating these instability mechanism will also be presented.

  16. Epichloë grass endophytes in sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, Miia; Saikkonen, Kari; Helander, Marjo; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Wäli, Piippa R

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to create new solutions for sustainable agricultural practices that circumvent the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides and increase the resilience of agricultural systems to environmental change. Beneficial microbial symbionts of plants are expected to play an important role in integrated pest management schemes over the coming decades. Epichloë endophytes, symbiotic fungi of many grass species, can protect plants against several stressors, and could therefore help to increase the productivity of forage grasses and the hardiness of turf grasses while reducing the use of synthetic pesticides. Indeed, Epichloë endophytes have successfully been developed and commercialized for agricultural use in the USA, Australia and New Zealand. Many of the host grass species originate from Europe, which is a biodiversity hotspot for both grasses and endophytes. However, intentional use of endophyte-enhanced grasses in Europe is virtually non-existent. We suggest that the diversity of European Epichloë endophytes and their host grasses should be exploited for the development of sustainable agricultural, horticultural and landscaping practices, and potentially for bioremediation and bioenergy purposes, and for environmental improvement. PMID:27249195

  17. Glucomannan synthesis in pea epicotyls: the mannose and glucose transferases.

    PubMed

    Piro, G; Zuppa, A; Dalessandro, G; Northcote, D H

    1993-01-01

    Membrane fractions and digitonin-solubilized enzymes prepared from stem segments isolated from the third internode of etiolated pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) catalyzed the synthesis of a beta-1,4-[14C]mannan from GDP-D-[U-14C]-mannose, a mixed beta-1,3- and beta-1,4-[14C]glucan from GDP-D-[U-14C]-glucose and a beta-1,4-[14C]-glucomannan from both GDP-D-[U-14C]mannose and GDP-D-[U-14C]glucose. The kinetics of the membrane-bound and soluble mannan and glucan synthases were determined. The effects of ions, chelators, inhibitors of lipid-linked saccharides, polyamines, polyols, nucleotides, nucleoside-diphosphate sugars, acetyl-CoA, group-specific chemical probes, phospholipases and detergents on the membrane-bound mannan and glucan synthases were investigated. The beta-glucan synthase had different properties from other preparations which bring about the synthesis of beta-1,3-glucans (callose) and mixed beta-1,3- and beta-1,4- glucans and which use UDP-D-glucose as substrate. It also differed from xyloglucan synthase because in the presence of several concentrations of UDP-D-xylose in addition to GDP-D-glucose no xyloglucan was formed. Using either the membrane-bound or the soluble mannan synthase, GDP-D-glucose acted competitively in the presence of GDP-D-mannose to inhibit the incorporation of mannose into the polymer. This was not due to an inhibition of the transferase activity but was a result of the incorporation of glucose residues from GDP-D-glucose into a glucomannan. The kinetics and the composition of the synthesized glucomannan depended on the ratio of the concentrations of GDP-D-glucose and GDP-D-mannose that were available. Our data indicated that a single enzyme has an active centre that can use both GDP-D-mannose and GDP-D-glucose to bring about the synthesis of the heteropolysaccharide. PMID:7685647

  18. A novel plasmid pEA68 of Erwinia amylovora and the description of a new family of plasmids.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Emadeldeen; Blom, Jochen; Bultreys, Alain; Ivanović, Milan; Obradović, Aleksa; van Doorn, Joop; Bergsma-Vlami, Maria; Maes, Martine; Willems, Anne; Duffy, Brion; Stockwell, Virginia O; Smits, Theo H M; Puławska, Joanna

    2014-12-01

    Recent genome analysis of Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight disease on Rosaceae, has shown that the chromosome is highly conserved among strains and that plasmids are the principal source of genomic diversity. A new circular plasmid, pEA68, was found in E. amylovora strain 692 (LMG 28361), isolated in Poland from Sorbus (mountain ash) with fire blight symptoms. Annotation of the 68,763-bp IncFIIa-type plasmid revealed that it contains 79 predicted CDS, among which two operons (tra, pil) are associated with mobility. The plasmid is maintained stably in E. amylovora and does not possess genes associated with antibiotic resistance or known virulence genes. Curing E. amylovora strain 692 of pEA68 did not influence its virulence in apple shoots nor amylovoran synthesis. Of 488 strains of E. amylovora from seventeen countries, pEA68 was only found in two additional strains from Belgium. Although the spread of pEA68 is currently limited to Europe, pEA68 comprises, together with pEA72 and pEA78 both found in North America, a new plasmid family that spans two continents. PMID:25178659

  19. Ecological Factors Influencing Pea Aphid Outbreaks in the U.S. Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A long term data set involving 26 years of ambient temperature data and pea aphid population cycles in grain legumes in the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW), and presented in an invited chaper for a book on global warming and aphid biodiversity, shows that outbreaks of this aphid and subsequent crop los...

  20. Impact of rolling and phosphorous acid on root rot of dry peas in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rolling soil after planting is standard in dry pea production areas in the Pacific Northwest but can increase compaction resulting in increase of root rot by oomycetes and other pathogens. Phosphorous acid has been used to manage oomycete pathogens, therefore, the impact of not rolling soil after s...

  1. Sweet Corn, Southern Pea, and Watermelon Yields following Winter Annual Grazing across Tillage Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable grower income may be supplemented by winter annual grazing of stockers, but excess soil compaction can decrease vegetable yields. We initiated a study to determine the optimal tillage system for sweet corn (Zea mays, L.) cv. ‘Silver Queen’, southern pea (Vigna unguiculata L.) cv. ‘Pinkeye...

  2. A highly infective plant-associated bacterium influences reproductive rates in pea aphids

    PubMed Central

    Hendry, Tory A.; Clark, Kelley J.; Baltrus, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum, have the potential to increase reproduction as a defence against pathogens, though how frequently this occurs or how infection with live pathogens influences this response is not well understood. Here we determine the minimum infective dose of an environmentally common bacterium and possible aphid pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, to determine the likelihood of pathogenic effects to pea aphids. Additionally, we used P. syringae infection to investigate how live pathogens may alter reproductive rates. We found that oral bacterial exposure decreased subsequent survival of aphids in a dose-dependent manner and we estimate that ingestion of less than 10 bacterial cells is sufficient to increase aphid mortality. Pathogen dose was positively related to aphid reproduction. Aphids exposed to low bacterial doses showed decreased, although statistically indistinguishable, fecundity compared to controls. Aphids exposed to high doses reproduced significantly more than low dose treatments and also more, but not significantly so, than controls. These results are consistent with previous studies suggesting that pea aphids may use fecundity compensation as a response to pathogens. Consequently, even low levels of exposure to a common plant-associated bacterium may therefore have significant effects on pea aphid survival and reproduction. PMID:26998321

  3. Candidate genes associated with QTL controlling resistance to fusarium root rot in pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium root rot (FRR) of pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a serious pathogen in the USA and Europe and genetic resistance offers an effective and economical control for this pathogen. Fusarium root rot is caused by the fungus pathogen (Haematonectria haematococca (Berk. & Broome) (Anamorph): Fusarium sol...

  4. Pea embryonic tissues show common responses to the replication of a wide range of viruses.

    PubMed

    Escaler, M; Aranda, M A; Thomas, C L; Maule, A J

    2000-02-15

    The response of pea embryonic tissues to the replication of a range of different viruses was investigated using in situ hybridization to analyze changes in the expression of two host genes, heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) and lipoxygenase (lox1). Excised pea embryos were infected using microprojectile bombardment with a nonseed transmissible strain of Pea seed-borne mosaic potyvirus, or with Pea early browning tobravirus (PEBV), White Clover mosaic potexvirus, or Beet curly top geminivirus. Collectively, these examples represent families of viruses with differing genomic features, differing numbers of genomic components and differing replication strategies. In all cases, there was an induction of hsp70 associated with virus replication and, in most cases, a downregulation of lox1. Hence, either each virus has a direct inducer of these common responses or the induction is indirectly the result of a generic feature of virus infection. By exploiting the bipartite nature of the PEBV genome, the coat protein gene and genes involved in vector transmission were excluded as potential inducers. PMID:10662627

  5. Emulsifying and foaming properties of commercial yellow pea (Pisum sativum L.) seed flours.

    PubMed

    Aluko, Rotimi E; Mofolasayo, Olawunmi A; Watts, Beverley M

    2009-10-28

    Commercial yellow pea seed flours prepared by a patented wet-milling process and pea protein isolate (PPI) were analyzed for emulsifying and foaming properties at pH 3.0, 5.0, and 7.0 and compared to soybean protein isolate (SPI). PPI and SPI formed emulsions with significantly smaller (p < 0.05) oil droplet sizes, 16-30 and 23-54 microm, respectively, than flours that primarily contained fiber such as Centara III and IV, or those that consisted mainly of starch: Centu-tex, Uptake 80 and Accu-gel. PPI was a better emulsifier than SPI at pH 7.0, and a better foaming agent at pH 3.0 and pH 7.0, although foaming capacity varied with sample concentration. Centu-tex and Uptake 80 have exactly the same chemical composition, but the latter has a much smaller flour particle size range, and had significantly smaller (p < 0.05) emulsion oil droplets. Incorporation of pea starch into SPI emulsions produced a synergistic effect that led to significant increases (p < 0.05) in emulsification capacity (reduced emulsion oil droplet size) when compared to SPI or starch alone. These results showed that PPI had generally significantly higher (p < 0.05) emulsion and foam forming properties than SPI, and that pea starch could be used to improve the quality of SPI-stabilized food emulsions. PMID:20560631

  6. Selling the Postwar PEA: James L. Hymes, Jr.'s Interpretations of Progressive Education Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Charlotte J.

    2004-01-01

    The Progressive Education Association (PEA) emphasized the responsibilities of teachers as citizens within a democracy. Teachers could and should create miniature democracies within each of their classrooms, educating boys and girls on the virtues of such a society. Education for a better democracy was a descendant of George S. Counts' stronger…

  7. Analysis of the state of posttranslational calmodulin methylation in developing pea plants. [Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Sukheung; Roberts, D.M. )

    1990-07-01

    A specific calmodulin-N-methyltransferase was used in a radiometric assay to analyze the degree of methylation of lysine-115 in pea (Pisum sativum) plants. Calmodulin was isolated from dissected segments of developing roots of young etiolated and green pea plants and was tested for its ability to be methylated by incubation with the calmodulin methyltransferase in the presence of ({sup 3}H)methyl-S-adenosylmethionine. By this approach, the presence of unmethylated calmodulins were demonstrated in pea tissues, and the levels of methylation varied depending on the developmental state of the tissue tested. Calmodulin methylation levels were lower in apical root segments of both etiolated and green plants, and in the young lateral roots compared with the mature, differentiated root tissues. The incorporation of methyl groups into these calmodulin samples appears to be specific for position 115 since site-directed mutants of calmodulin with substitutions at this position competitively inhibited methyl group incorporation. The present findings, combined with previous data showing differences in the ability of methylated and unmethylated calmodulins to activate pea NAD kinase raise the possibility that posttranslational methylation of calmodulin could be another mechanism for regulating calmodulin activity.

  8. Sources of High-Energy Emission in the Green Pea Galaxies: New Constraints from Magellan Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Derek Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The recently discovered Green Pea galaxies display extreme starburst activity and may be some of the only possible Lyman continuum emitting galaxies at low redshift. Green Peas are characterized by their unusually high [O III]/[O II] ratios, similar to the ratios observed in high-redshift galaxies. In addition, the presence of the high-energy He II 4686 line shows that the Green Peas are highly ionized. However, the origin of the He II emission in the Green Peas, and many other starburst galaxies, is still an open question. We analyze IMACS and MagE spectra from the Magellan telescopes in order to evaluate the most probable cause of this He II emission. We also analyze other properties like dust content, temperature and density, and kinematic components. Our IMACS spectra show no Wolf-Rayet (WR) features. We set upper limits on the WR populations in our sample and conclude that Wolf-Rayet stars are not a likely candidate for the He II emission. With deeper MagE spectra we investigate energetic shocks as a possible source of the He II, and move one step closer to uncovering the origin of high-energy photons in these unique starbursts.

  9. The Pea Seedling as a Model of Normal and Abnormal Morphogenesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurkdjian, Armen; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Describes several simple and inexpensive experiments designed to facilitate the study of normal and abnormal morphogenesis in the biology laboratory. Seedlings of the common garden pea are used in the experiments, and abnormal morphogenesis (tumors) are induced by a virulent strain of the crown-gall organism, Agrobacterium tumefaciens. (JR)

  10. 7 CFR 201.56-6 - Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-6 Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae). Kinds of seed: Alfalfa, alyceclover, asparagusbean..., asparagusbean, and cowpea. (1) General description. (i) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. (ii) Food...

  11. 7 CFR 201.56-6 - Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-6 Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae). Kinds of seed: Alfalfa, alyceclover, asparagusbean..., asparagusbean, and cowpea. (1) General description. (i) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. (ii) Food...

  12. 7 CFR 201.56-6 - Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-6 Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae). Kinds of seed: Alfalfa, alyceclover, asparagusbean..., asparagusbean, and cowpea. (1) General description. (i) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. (ii) Food...

  13. 7 CFR 201.56-6 - Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-6 Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae). Kinds of seed: Alfalfa, alyceclover, asparagusbean..., asparagusbean, and cowpea. (1) General description. (i) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. (ii) Food...

  14. 7 CFR 201.56-6 - Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-6 Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae). Kinds of seed: Alfalfa, alyceclover, asparagusbean..., asparagusbean, and cowpea. (1) General description. (i) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. (ii) Food...

  15. Assessment of organic seed treatments to manage seed and root rot on peas, 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five biological and seventeen non-biological seed treatment, were evaluated in a commercial organic field (silt loam soil) in Moses Lake, WA to manage seed and root rot of processed peas. The soil from the field site had a mean of 456 colonies of Pythium per gram of soil. Emergence o...

  16. GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF FINISHING HOGS CONSUMING 'DUN' OR 'WHITE' FIELD PEAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty commercial cross barrows and gilts (initial BW = 74.5 ± 16.4 kg) were used in a completely randomized design experiment to examine the effects of two varieties of field peas on growth performance and carcass characteristics of finishing hogs. Hogs were weighed, randomly assigned to pens (10 pi...

  17. Mapping QTL for Fusarium wilt Race 2 partial resistance in pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. pisi (Fop) is present in pea production regions worldwide, and causes a vascular wilt resulting in significant crop losses. Four races of Fop have been identified and resistance to each reportedly conferred by an individual single dominant gene. Fnw confers resistance to Fop...

  18. Evidence against an effect of plant hormones on thermal denaturation of pea nucleoprotein.

    PubMed

    Spiker, S; Chalkley, R

    1972-12-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) nucleohistone and chromatin which had been treated both in vivo and in vitro with indoleacetic acid and gibberellic acid were thermally denatured in low and high ionic strength media. Contrary to previous reports, the hormones had no effect on thermal denaturation profiles. The previously observed biphasic nature of the profiles obtained at high ionic strength is explained. PMID:24482277

  19. Diazotroph community structure and abundance in wheat-fallow and wheat-pea crop rotations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological input of nitrogen (N) from the atmosphere either through free-living diazotrophs or legume-associated rhizobia can help alleviate fertilizer use in agricultural systems. In this study, we investigated the effect of N fertilizer and winter pea (Pisum sativum L.) crop on the diversity and a...

  20. Taxonomic complexity of powdery mildew pathogens found on lentil and pea in the US Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classification of powdery mildews found on lentil and pea in greenhouse and field production conditions in the US Pacific Northwest was investigated using morphological and molecular characters. Isolates collected from lentil plants grown in the greenhouse or field displayed morphologies in substant...

  1. Effect of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties of stored pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) flour

    PubMed Central

    Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Akanbi, Charles T

    2013-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation at various doses (5, 10, 15, 20 kGy) was observed on pigeon pea flour stored for 3 months on proximate composition, functional properties, and peroxide value. Sensory evaluation was also carried out on bean cake (moinmoin) made from nonirradiated and irradiated pigeon pea flour. The results showed that stored gamma-irradiated samples had significantly lower (P < 0.05) value of protein and little or no effect on moisture content. There were slight decreases in crude fiber and ash content of the irradiated samples compared with the control sample. The result of functional properties of the irradiated flours showed slight increase in water absorption capacity, swelling capacity and bulk density. The peroxide value of crude oil increased significantly with dose increases for the period of storage. The sensory evaluation of moinmoin samples prepared from irradiated pigeon pea flour showed no significant difference from the moinmoin sample prepared from nonirradiated flour. It can be concluded that gamma irradiation can extend the shelf life of pigeon pea flour. PMID:24804044

  2. Inheritance patterns of secondary symbionts during sexual reproduction of pea aphid biotypes.

    PubMed

    Peccoud, Jean; Bonhomme, Joël; Mahéo, Frédérique; de la Huerta, Manon; Cosson, Olivier; Simon, Jean-Christophe

    2014-06-01

    Herbivorous insects frequently harbor bacterial symbionts that affect their ecology and evolution. Aphids host the obligatory endosymbiont Buchnera, which is required for reproduction, together with facultative symbionts whose frequencies vary across aphid populations. These maternally transmitted secondary symbionts have been particularly studied in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, which harbors at least 8 distinct bacterial species (not counting Buchnera) having environmentally dependent effects on host fitness. In particular, these symbiont species are associated with pea aphid populations feeding on specific plants. Although they are maternally inherited, these bacteria are occasionally transferred across insect lineages. One mechanism of such nonmaternal transfer is paternal transmission to the progeny during sexual reproduction. To date, transmission of secondary symbionts during sexual reproduction of aphids has been investigated in only a handful of aphid lineages and 3 symbiont species. To better characterize this process, we investigated inheritance patterns of 7 symbiont species during sexual reproduction of pea aphids through a crossing experiment involving 49 clones belonging to 9 host-specialized biotypes, and 117 crosses. Symbiont species in the progeny were detected with diagnostic qualitative PCR at the fundatrix stage hatching from eggs and in later parthenogenetic generations. We found no confirmed case of paternal transmission of symbionts to the progeny, and we observed that maternal transmission of a particular symbiont species (Serratia symbiotica) was quite inefficient. We discuss these observations in respect to the ecology of the pea aphid. PMID:24382700

  3. Predation Determines Different Selective Pressure on Pea Aphid Host Races in a Complex Agricultural Mosaic

    PubMed Central

    Balog, Adalbert; Schmitz, Oswald J.

    2013-01-01

    Field assessments were conducted to examine the interplay between host plant and predation in complex agricultural mosaic on pea aphid clover and alfalfa races. In one experiment, we examined the relative fitness on clover race (CR) and alfalfa race (AR) pea aphids on broad bean, red clover and alfalfa alone. But because clover is typically grown in a more complex agricultural mosaic with alfalfa and broad bean, a second experiment was conducted to assess the fitness consequences under predation in a more complex agricultural field setting that also included potential apparent competition with AR pea aphids. In a third experiment we tested for the effect of differential host race density on the fitness of the other host race mediated by a predator effect. CR pea aphids always had fitness losses when on broad bean (had lower fitness on broad bean relative to red clover) and fitness benefits when on red clover (higher fitness on red clover relative to broad bean), whether or not in apparent competition with alfalfa race aphids on bean and alfalfa. AR suffered fitness loss on both alfalfa and bean in apparent competition with CR on clover. Therefore we can conclude that the predation rate between host races was highly asymmetrical. The complexity of the agricultural mosaic thus can influence prey selection by predators on different host plants. These may have evolutionary consequences through context dependent fitness benefits on particular host plants. PMID:23409081

  4. Predation determines different selective pressure on pea aphid host races in a complex agricultural mosaic.

    PubMed

    Balog, Adalbert; Schmitz, Oswald J

    2013-01-01

    Field assessments were conducted to examine the interplay between host plant and predation in complex agricultural mosaic on pea aphid clover and alfalfa races. In one experiment, we examined the relative fitness on clover race (CR) and alfalfa race (AR) pea aphids on broad bean, red clover and alfalfa alone. But because clover is typically grown in a more complex agricultural mosaic with alfalfa and broad bean, a second experiment was conducted to assess the fitness consequences under predation in a more complex agricultural field setting that also included potential apparent competition with AR pea aphids. In a third experiment we tested for the effect of differential host race density on the fitness of the other host race mediated by a predator effect. CR pea aphids always had fitness losses when on broad bean (had lower fitness on broad bean relative to red clover) and fitness benefits when on red clover (higher fitness on red clover relative to broad bean), whether or not in apparent competition with alfalfa race aphids on bean and alfalfa. AR suffered fitness loss on both alfalfa and bean in apparent competition with CR on clover. Therefore we can conclude that the predation rate between host races was highly asymmetrical. The complexity of the agricultural mosaic thus can influence prey selection by predators on different host plants. These may have evolutionary consequences through context dependent fitness benefits on particular host plants. PMID:23409081

  5. Validation of quantitative method for azoxystrobin residues in green beans and peas.

    PubMed

    Abdelraheem, Ehab M H; Hassan, Sayed M; Arief, Mohamed M H; Mohammad, Somaia G

    2015-09-01

    This study presents a method validation for extraction and quantitative analysis of azoxystrobin residues in green beans and peas using HPLC-UV and the results confirmed by GC-MS. The employed method involved initial extraction with acetonitrile after the addition of salts (magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride), followed by a cleanup step by activated neutral carbon. Validation parameters; linearity, matrix effect, LOQ, specificity, trueness and repeatability precision were attained. The spiking levels for the trueness and the precision experiments were (0.1, 0.5, 3 mg/kg). For HPLC-UV analysis, mean recoveries ranged between 83.69% to 91.58% and 81.99% to 107.85% for green beans and peas, respectively. For GC-MS analysis, mean recoveries ranged from 76.29% to 94.56% and 80.77% to 100.91% for green beans and peas, respectively. According to these results, the method has been proven to be efficient for extraction and determination of azoxystrobin residues in green beans and peas. PMID:25842334

  6. A highly infective plant-associated bacterium influences reproductive rates in pea aphids.

    PubMed

    Hendry, Tory A; Clark, Kelley J; Baltrus, David A

    2016-02-01

    Pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum, have the potential to increase reproduction as a defence against pathogens, though how frequently this occurs or how infection with live pathogens influences this response is not well understood. Here we determine the minimum infective dose of an environmentally common bacterium and possible aphid pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, to determine the likelihood of pathogenic effects to pea aphids. Additionally, we used P. syringae infection to investigate how live pathogens may alter reproductive rates. We found that oral bacterial exposure decreased subsequent survival of aphids in a dose-dependent manner and we estimate that ingestion of less than 10 bacterial cells is sufficient to increase aphid mortality. Pathogen dose was positively related to aphid reproduction. Aphids exposed to low bacterial doses showed decreased, although statistically indistinguishable, fecundity compared to controls. Aphids exposed to high doses reproduced significantly more than low dose treatments and also more, but not significantly so, than controls. These results are consistent with previous studies suggesting that pea aphids may use fecundity compensation as a response to pathogens. Consequently, even low levels of exposure to a common plant-associated bacterium may therefore have significant effects on pea aphid survival and reproduction. PMID:26998321

  7. Identification of novel sources of resistance to Pea enation mosaic virus in chickpea germplasm.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) can be seriously affected by Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV) in the Pacific Northwest of the USA and other areas of the world when viruliferous aphid populations are high. Use of pesticides to manage PEMV vector transmission is ineffective and PEMV-resistant chickpeas hav...

  8. MicroRNA-132 targets PEA-15 and suppresses the progression of astrocytoma in vitro.

    PubMed

    Geng, Fei; Wu, Jian-Lin; Lu, Gui-Feng; Liang, Zhi-Ping; Duan, Zhuo-Li; Gu, Xi

    2016-09-01

    Gliomas are highly malignant tumors, the most common of which are astrocytomas. A growing number of studies suggest that dysregulation of miRNAs is a frequent event contributing to the pathogenesis of gliomas. In this study, we found that over-expression of miR-132 inhibited cell proliferation and migration and triggered apoptosis, while knockdown of miR-132 showed opposite effects. PEA-15 was identified as a direct target of miR-132. Reintroduction of PEA-15 without 3'UTR region reversed the inhibitory effects of miR-132 on cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis. MiR-132 was inversely correlated with the PEA-15 expression. CREB (cAMP response element binding protein) and KLF (Krüppel-like factor 8) were conformed as transcription factors of miR-132, which bidirectionally regulate the expression of miR-132. Our study suggests that miR-132 is an important tumor suppressor of astrocytoma progression by targeting PEA-15, while CREB and KLF can modulate the expression of miR-132, thus providing new insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying astrocytoma progression in vitro. PMID:27294355

  9. UPTAKE OF CADMIUM FROM PHOSPHATE FERTILIZERS BY PEAS, RADISHES, AND LETTUCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cadium uptake from phosphate fertilizers by radish (Raphanus sativa) lettuce (Latuca sativa) and garden peas (Pisum satium) was investigated in the greenhouse. Fertilizer in all treatments was applied at the rate of 100 P/g soil to pots containing 4kg soil. When reagent grade mon...

  10. Characterization of Five Fungal Endophytes Producing Cajaninstilbene Acid Isolated from Pigeon Pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.

    PubMed Central

    Zu, Yuan Gang; Fu, Yu Jie; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Efferth, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Five fungal endophytes (K4, K5, K6, K9, K14) producing Cajaninstilbene acid (CSA, 3-hydroxy-4-prenyl-5-methoxystilbene-2-carboxylic acid) were isolated from the roots of pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]. CSA is responsible for the prominent pharmacological activities in pigeon pea. The amount of CSA in culture solution varied among the five fungal endophytes. K4 produced the highest levels of CSA (1037.13 µg/L) among the endophytes tested after incubation for five days. Both morphological characteristics and molecular methods were used for species identification of fungal endophytes. The five endophytic isolates were characterized by analyzing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rRNA and β-tubulin genes. The K4, K5, K9 and K14 strains isolated from pigeon pea roots were found to be closely related to the species Fusarium oxysporum. K6 was identified as Neonectria macrodidym. The present study is the first report on the isolation and identification of fungal endophytes producing CSA in pigeon pea. The study also provides a scientific base for large scale production of CSA. PMID:22102911

  11. Metabolic Transformation of Mevalonic Acid by an Enzyme System from Peas 1

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, C. J.; Bonner, J.; Haagen-Smit, A. J.; Nimmo, C. C.

    1966-01-01

    En enzyme system has been found in peas which converts mevalonic acid to isoprenoid compounds. Among the intermediates in such conversion are mevalonic acid-5-phosphate and pyrophosphate, isopentenyl pyrophosphate and dimethylallylpyrophosphate. Among the products formed by the system are the pyrophosphates of geraniol, farnesol, nerolidol and higher isoprenoid alcohols. PMID:16656233

  12. Morphometric and genetics properties of pea crops grown in space greenhouse Lada"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinskikh, M.; Sychev, V.; Podolsky, I.; Gostimsky, S.; Bingham, G.

    Results of the experiments with higher plants performed in greenhouse Svet aboard the MIR space station in 1996-1999 made it evident that the main biological characteristics of plants growth development reproduction and metabolism did not undergo modifications in consequence of microgravity It was shown that at least two ontogenetic cycles of plants could pass in the normal way in this environment However the initial experimental data was insufficient for fiducial conclusions on the delayed effects of cultivating a sequence of plant generations on the background of spaceflight factors Hence these investigations are given precedence in the space life sciences research programs In the period from March 2003 to April 2005 we fulfilled five experimental cultivations of genetically marked dwarf pea species in greenhouse Lada installed in the Russian segment of the International space station The purpose of this series of experiments was to make morphologic and genetic analysis of pea plants grown in successive generations According to our results pea growth and development over the full cycle of ontogenesis from seed to seed taking place in space greenhouse Lada were not different as compared with the ground control plants In addition four successive pea crops gathered in space flight did not loose their reproductive functions and formed viable seeds Genetic analysis of the plants grown from the space and ground seeds produced by the first to fourth successive crops was performed using the methods of

  13. Swee'Pea and Other Playground Legends: Tales of Drugs, Violence and Basketball.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenti, John; Naclerio, Ron

    This biography chronicles the life of Lloyd "Swee'pea" Daniels, considered one of the finest basketball players ever to come out of New York City. The book also serves as a sociological expose of the dark side of collegiate and professional sports, in its description of a youngster chasing the dream of playing basketball, but finally finding…

  14. Evaluation of pea accessions and commercial cultivars for Fusarium Root Rot resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium root rot caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (Fsp) can result in major yield losses in pea (Pisum sativum L.). Currently no fungicides effectively manage this disease. Previous studies evaluated the Pisum germplasm collection for resistance to Fsp, however, evaluations of commercial marke...

  15. A heat shock transcription factor in pea is differentially controlled by heat and virus replication.

    PubMed

    Aranda, M A; Escaler, M; Thomas, C L; Maule, A J

    1999-10-01

    Since some heat-inducible genes [heat shock (hs) genes] can be induced by virus infection in pea [e.g. Hsp70; Aranda et al. 1996, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 93, 15289-15293], we have investigated the effect that heat and virus replication may have on the expression of a heat-shock transcription factor gene (Hsf). We have characterized what appears to be the only member of the Hsf family in pea, PsHsfA. Similar to Hsp70, PsHsfA is heat-inducible in vegetative and embryonic tissues, which is concordant with the presence of heat shock elements (HSEs) and stress responsive elements (STREs) on its promoter sequence. The expression of PsHsfA during virus replication was studied in pea cotyledons and leaves, and compared to that of Hsp70. In situ hybridization experiments showed that whereas Hsp70 is induced, there is no detectable increased accumulation of PsHsfA RNA associated with the replication of pea seed-borne mosaic potyvirus (PSbMV). These experiments indicate that there is a selective control of virus-induced hs gene expression, and suggest that different regulatory pathways control hs gene expression during heat shock and virus replication. PMID:10571875

  16. An Inquiry-Infused Introductory Biology Laboratory That Integrates Mendel's Pea Phenotypes with Molecular Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kudish, Philip; Schlag, Erin; Kaplinsky, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    We developed a multi-week laboratory in which college-level introductory biology students investigate Mendel's stem length phenotype in peas. Students collect, analyze and interpret convergent evidence from molecular and physiological techniques. In weeks 1 and 2, students treat control and experimental plants with Gibberellic Acid (GA) to…

  17. [The intensity of respiration in pea and corn seedlings under high-altitude hypoxia].

    PubMed

    Astafurova, T P; Ageev, B G; Sapozhnikova, V A; Ponomarev, Iu N; Zaĭtseva, T A; Zotnikova, A P

    1996-01-01

    Dynamics of CO2 gas-exchange and enzymatic activity of the respiratory metabolism of pea (Pisum sativum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings during hypobaric hypoxia simulating the altitude of 5000 m above the sea level was studied. In the 48-hour chamber experiment (total barometric pressure is 54 kPa, partial O2 pressure is 11 kPa), the relative intensity of CO2 emission was found to increase and be essentially higher for pea than maize. Periodic reactions with small upward spikes and time offset were recorded in the pea plants. The initial increase of CO2 emission velocity by maize rapidly reached the level of saturation and since then remained constant. High velocity of the main catabolic ways and carboxylating activity in maize seedlings was the effect of hypoxic stress. Utilisation of respiratory substrates by pea seedlings was blocked at the Krebs cycle level, whereas glycolysis and oxidizing pentose phosphate pathways were activated. Weak activity of the carboxylate system does not provide refixation of endogenous carbon dioxide, excessive quantities of which invade the environment. PMID:8963291

  18. Seed and 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid regulation of gibberellin metabolism in pea pericarp.

    PubMed Central

    van Huizen, R; Ozga, J A; Reinecke, D M; Twitchin, B; Mander, L N

    1995-01-01

    In this study, we investigated seed and auxin regulation of gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis in pea (Pisum sativum L.) pericarp tissue in situ, specifically the conversion of [14C]GA19 to [14C]GA20. [14C]GA19 metabolism was monitored in pericarp with seeds, deseeded pericarp, and deseeded pericarp treated with 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid (4-CI-IAA). Pericarp with seeds and deseeded pericarp treated with 4-CI-IAA continued to convert [14C]GA19 to [14C]GA20 throughout the incubation period (2-24 h). However, seed removal resulted in minimal or no accumulation of [14C]GA20 in pericarp tissue. [14C]GA29 was also identified as a product of [14C]GA19 metabolism in pea pericarp. The ratio of [14C]GA29 to [14C]GA20 was significantly higher in deseeded pericarp (with or without exogenous 4-CI-IAA) than in pericarp with seeds. Therefore, conversion of [14C]GA20 to [14C]GA29 may also be seed regulated in pea fruit. These data support the hypothesis that the conversion of GA19 to GA20 in pea pericarp is seed regulated and that the auxin 4-CI-IAA can substitute for the seeds in the stimulation of pericarp growth and the conversion of GA19 to GA20. PMID:8539289

  19. Cultivar preference and sensory evaluation of vegetable pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) in Eastern Kenya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preference and acceptability of twelve vegetable pigeon pea genotypes of medium maturity was evaluated in Eastern Kenya based on six seed cultivar parameters of color, appearance, taste, odor, tenderness and overall seed acceptability. The sensory characteristics were scored by consumers and farmers...

  20. Pea (Pisum sativum) Seed Production as an Assay for Reproductive Effects Due to Herbicides.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Even though herbicide drift can affect plant reproduction, current plant testing protocols emphasize effects on vegetative growth. In this study, we determined whether a short–growing season plant can indicate potential effects of herbicides on seed production. Pea (Pisum sativum...

  1. Transcriptional profiling of the pea shoot apical meristem reveals processes underlying its function and maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chui E; Bhalla, Prem L; Ottenhof, Harald; Singh, Mohan B

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite the importance of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) in plant development and organ formation, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling its function is limited. Genomic tools have the potential to unravel the molecular mysteries of the SAM, and legume systems are increasingly being used in plant-development studies owing to their unique characteristics such as nitrogen fixation, secondary metabolism, and pod development. Garden pea (Pisum sativum) is a well-established classic model species for genetics studies that has been used since the Mendel era. In addition, the availability of a plethora of developmental mutants makes pea an ideal crop legume for genomics studies. This study aims to utilise genomics tools in isolating genes that play potential roles in the regulation of SAM activity. Results In order to identify genes that are differentially expressed in the SAM, we generated 2735 ESTs from three cDNA libraries derived from freshly micro-dissected SAMs from 10-day-old garden peas (Pisum sativum cv Torsdag). Custom-designed oligonucleotide arrays were used to compare the transcriptional profiles of pea SAMs and non-meristematic tissues. A total of 184 and 175 transcripts were significantly up- or down-regulated in the pea SAM, respectively. As expected, close to 61% of the transcripts down-regulated in the SAM were found in the public database, whereas sequences from the same source only comprised 12% of the genes that were expressed at higher levels in the SAM. This highlights the under-representation of transcripts from the meristematic tissues in the current public pea protein database, and demonstrates the utility of our SAM EST collection as an essential genetic resource for revealing further information on the regulation of this developmental process. In addition to unknowns, many of the up-regulated transcripts are known to encode products associated with cell division and proliferation, epigenetic regulation, auxin

  2. The Effects of Light and Temperature on Biotin Synthesis in Pea Sprouts.

    PubMed

    Kamiyama, Shin; Ohnuki, Risa; Moriki, Aoi; Abe, Megumi; Ishiguro, Mariko; Sone, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    Biotin is an essential micronutrient, and is a cofactor for several carboxylases that are involved in the metabolism of glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids. Because plant cells can synthesize their own biotin, a wide variety of plant-based foods contains significant amounts of biotin; however, the influence of environmental conditions on the biotin content in plants remains largely unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of different cultivation conditions on the biotin content and biotin synthesis in pea sprouts (Pisum sativum). In the experiment, the pea sprouts were removed from their cotyledons and cultivated by hydroponics under five different lighting and temperature conditions (control [25ºC, 12-h light/12-h dark cycle], low light [25ºC, 4-h light/20-h dark cycle], dark [25ºC, 24 h dark], low temperature [12ºC, 12-h light/12-h dark cycle], and cold [6ºC, 12-h light/12-h dark cycle]) for 10 d. Compared to the biotin content of pea sprouts under the control conditions, the biotin contents of pea sprouts under the low-light, dark, and cold conditions had significantly decreased. The dark group showed the lowest biotin content among the groups. Expression of the biotin synthase gene (bio2) was also significantly decreased under the dark and cold conditions compared to the control condition, in a manner similar to that observed for the biotin content. No significant differences in the adenosine triphosphate content were observed among the groups. These results indicate that environmental conditions such as light and temperature modulate the biotin content of pea plant tissues by regulating the expression of biotin synthase. PMID:27117847

  3. Automorphosis and auxin polar transport of etiolated pea seedlings under microgravity conditions.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Tomoki; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Ueda, Junichi

    2004-11-01

    On STS-95 space experiment, etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) seedlings showed automorphosis and activities of auxin polar transport in epicotyls were substantially suppressed. These results together with the fact that inhibitors of auxin polar transport induced automorphosis-like growth and development strongly suggested that there are close relationships between automorphosis and auxin polar transport in etiolated pea seedlings. In order to know how gravistimuli control auxin polar transport at molecular levels, we isolated novel cDNAs of PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 encoding putative auxin efflux and influx carriers from etiolated pea seedlings. Significantly high levels in homology were found on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences among PsPIN2, PsPIN1 (accession no. AY222857) and AtPINs, and between PsAUX1 and AtAUX1. Exogenously applied auxin substantially enhanced the expression of PsAUX1 and PsPIN2 as well as PsPIN1. Simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-dimensional clinostat remarkably increased gene expression of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 in the hook and the 1st internode of pea epicotyls, while the increase of expression of PsPIN2 in both organs was not so much. These results suggest that PsPINs and PsAUX1 are auxin-inducible genes, and the expression of PsPINs and PsAUX1 is under the control of gravistimulation. A possible role of these genes in regulating auxin transport relevant to automorphosis of etiolated pea seedlings is also discussed. PMID:15858337

  4. Barnyard grasses were processed with rice around 10000 years ago.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Fuller, Dorian Q; Huan, Xiujia; Perry, Linda; Li, Quan; Li, Zhao; Zhang, Jianping; Ma, Zhikun; Zhuang, Yijie; Jiang, Leping; Ge, Yong; Lu, Houyuan

    2015-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is regarded as the only grass that was selected for cultivation and eventual domestication in the Yangtze basin of China. Although both macro-fossils and micro-fossils of rice have been recovered from the Early Neolithic site of Shangshan, dating to more than 10,000 years before present (BP), we report evidence of phytolith and starch microfossils taken from stone tools, both for grinding and cutting, and cultural layers, that indicating barnyard grass (Echinochloa spp.) was a major subsistence resource, alongside smaller quantities of acorn starches (Lithocarpus/Quercus sensu lato) and water chestnuts (Trapa). This evidence suggests that early managed wetland environments were initially harvested for multiple grain species including barnyard grasses as well as rice, and indicate that the emergence of rice as the favoured cultivated grass and ultimately the key domesticate of the Yangtze basin was a protracted process. PMID:26536839

  5. Genome sequencing and analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    2010-02-11

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Ehrhartoideae, Panicoideae and Pooideae, provide the bulk of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), which is, to our knowledge, the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes shows a precise history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grasses, and establishes a template for analysis of the large genomes of economically important pooid grasses such as wheat. The high-quality genome sequence, coupled with ease of cultivation and transformation, small size and rapid life cycle, will help Brachypodium reach its potential as an important model system for developing new energy and food crops. PMID:20148030

  6. Genome sequencing and analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaohan; Kalluri, Udaya C; Tuskan, Gerald A

    2010-01-01

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Ehrhartoideae, Panicoideae and Pooideae, provide the bulk of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), which is, to our knowledge, the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes shows a precise history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grasses, and establishes a template for analysis of the large genomes of economically important pooid grasses such as wheat. The high-quality genome sequence, coupled with ease of cultivation and transformation, small size and rapid life cycle, will help Brachypodium reach its potential as an important model system for developing new energy and food crops.

  7. Mineral transfer in a legume/grass association

    SciTech Connect

    Habben, J.E.; Blevins, D.G.

    1986-04-01

    Previous pasture research has indicated that in a legume/grass association the grass has a higher concentration of specific minerals than grass grown alone. The purpose of this study was to determine if a deeply rooted legume could transfer minerals to an associated shallow rooted grass plant via their root systems. A greenhouse study was conducted using alfalfa and maize plants grown in a double tube design. Plants were established such that the top tube contained both alfalfa and maize roots while the bottom tube contained only the alfalfa roots. Alfalfa roots in the lower tube were exposed to 1 mCi of one of three different isotopes (/sup 32/P, /sup 86/Rb and /sup 45/Ca) over a 40 day period. Under these conditions, radioactive analysis of maize tissue showed a significant transfer of /sup 86/Rb and /sup 32/P.

  8. Microwave backscattering and emission model for grass canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saatchi, Sasan S.; Lang, Roger H.; Levine, David M.

    1991-01-01

    A two-layer model is developed that treats the grass canopy as a collection of randomly oriented elliptical dielectric discs over a layer of thatch with underlying soil surface. The distorted Born approximation in conjunction with the Peake formulation is used to calculate the backscattering coefficient and the emissivity from the canopy. Two particular features of this model which are unique for grass canopies are the variation of the canopy structure and the presence of the thatch layer. The basic parameters in the model such as the size and orientation of grass blades, dielectric constant of soil and vegetation, and thickness and water content of the thatch layer have been obtained from ground truth data. To interpret the available experimental observations of grasslands, numerical results from both passive and active models at L-band (1.4 GHz) are generated and various scattering and emission properties of the grass canopies are discussed.

  9. How Many Blades of Grass Are on a Football Field?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Christina M.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the use of a problem-based instructional task in an elementary classroom. After estimating the number of blades of grass on a football field, students write letters to explain the results of their research.

  10. Gravity Perception and Response in Shoots of Cereal Grasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, P. B.; Song, I.; Bluncson, C.

    1985-01-01

    Two components of the gravitropic curvature response in cereal grass pulvini are studied. These two components are gravity perception and mechanism of response following the transduction phase. The effects of gravity, time lag, protein synthesis and enzyme production are included.

  11. Foreword to farming with grass: Achieving sustainable mixed agricultural landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Farming with Grass conference was developed to bring together diverse stakeholders in grassland environments to (a) help assess the current condition of agriculture, (b) consider alternative production scenarios for grassland agricultural ecosystems, (c) identify key issues hindering the develop...

  12. 6. WORKERS COLLECTING SAGO PONDWEED, RED TOP GRASS, LEAFY PONDWEED, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. WORKERS COLLECTING SAGO PONDWEED, RED TOP GRASS, LEAFY PONDWEED, WATER MILFOIL, AND OTHER AQUATIC PLANTS FOR TRANSPLANTING FROM A COULEE SIX MILES AWAY FROM THE REFUGE - Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge Dams, Souris River Basin, Foxholm, Surrey (England), ND

  13. INFECTIVITY OF METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE IN GRASS SHRIMP EMBRYOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developing embryos of the estuarine grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, were exposed to Metarhizium anisopliae conidiospores. Attachment of conidiospores was often followed by germination and outgrowth on embryo surface. Penetration of the embryonic envelopes by M. anisopliae allow...

  14. Barnyard grasses were processed with rice around 10000 years ago

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Fuller, Dorian Q; Huan, Xiujia; Perry, Linda; Li, Quan; Li, Zhao; Zhang, Jianping; Ma, Zhikun; Zhuang, Yijie; Jiang, Leping; Ge, Yong; Lu, Houyuan

    2015-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is regarded as the only grass that was selected for cultivation and eventual domestication in the Yangtze basin of China. Although both macro-fossils and micro-fossils of rice have been recovered from the Early Neolithic site of Shangshan, dating to more than 10,000 years before present (BP), we report evidence of phytolith and starch microfossils taken from stone tools, both for grinding and cutting, and cultural layers, that indicating barnyard grass (Echinochloa spp.) was a major subsistence resource, alongside smaller quantities of acorn starches (Lithocarpus/Quercus sensu lato) and water chestnuts (Trapa). This evidence suggests that early managed wetland environments were initially harvested for multiple grain species including barnyard grasses as well as rice, and indicate that the emergence of rice as the favoured cultivated grass and ultimately the key domesticate of the Yangtze basin was a protracted process. PMID:26536839

  15. Female homogamety in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) determined by gynogenesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Jon G.

    1976-01-01

    Gynogenesis occurred in eggs of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) treated with X-irradiated milt from goldfish (Carassius auratus). Gynogenetic offspring were females, which indicates functional female homogamety in grass carp. Five of these gynogenetic fish were used as an egg source for a second generation of artificially gynogenetic fish. The percentage yield in this second generation was about the same as in the first, which suggests that the tendency to become diploid is not strongly heritable

  16. The potential of cellulosic ethanol production from grasses in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wongwatanapaiboon, Jinaporn; Kangvansaichol, Kunn; Burapatana, Vorakan; Inochanon, Ratanavalee; Winayanuwattikun, Pakorn; Yongvanich, Tikamporn; Chulalaksananukul, Warawut

    2012-01-01

    The grasses in Thailand were analyzed for the potentiality as the alternative energy crops for cellulosic ethanol production by biological process. The average percentage composition of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the samples of 18 types of grasses from various provinces was determined as 31.85-38.51, 31.13-42.61, and 3.10-5.64, respectively. The samples were initially pretreated with alkaline peroxide followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate the enzymatic saccharification. The total reducing sugars in most grasses ranging from 500-600 mg/g grasses (70-80% yield) were obtained. Subsequently, 11 types of grasses were selected as feedstocks for the ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF). The enzymes, cellulase and xylanase, were utilized for hydrolysis and the yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis, were applied for cofermentation at 35 °C for 7 days. From the results, the highest yield of ethanol, 1.14 g/L or 0.14 g/g substrate equivalent to 32.72% of the theoretical values was obtained from Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass. When the yields of dry matter were included in the calculations, Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass gave the yield of ethanol at 1,091.84 L/ha/year, whereas the leaves of dwarf napier grass showed the maximum yield of 2,720.55 L/ha/year (0.98 g/L or 0.12 g/g substrate equivalent to 30.60% of the theoretical values). PMID:23097596

  17. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Grasses in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Wongwatanapaiboon, Jinaporn; Kangvansaichol, Kunn; Burapatana, Vorakan; Inochanon, Ratanavalee; Winayanuwattikun, Pakorn; Yongvanich, Tikamporn; Chulalaksananukul, Warawut

    2012-01-01

    The grasses in Thailand were analyzed for the potentiality as the alternative energy crops for cellulosic ethanol production by biological process. The average percentage composition of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the samples of 18 types of grasses from various provinces was determined as 31.85–38.51, 31.13–42.61, and 3.10–5.64, respectively. The samples were initially pretreated with alkaline peroxide followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate the enzymatic saccharification. The total reducing sugars in most grasses ranging from 500–600 mg/g grasses (70–80% yield) were obtained. Subsequently, 11 types of grasses were selected as feedstocks for the ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF). The enzymes, cellulase and xylanase, were utilized for hydrolysis and the yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis, were applied for cofermentation at 35°C for 7 days. From the results, the highest yield of ethanol, 1.14 g/L or 0.14 g/g substrate equivalent to 32.72% of the theoretical values was obtained from Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass. When the yields of dry matter were included in the calculations, Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass gave the yield of ethanol at 1,091.84 L/ha/year, whereas the leaves of dwarf napier grass showed the maximum yield of 2,720.55 L/ha/year (0.98 g/L or 0.12 g/g substrate equivalent to 30.60% of the theoretical values). PMID:23097596

  18. Architectural Evolution and its Implications for Domestication in Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Doust, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Background The cereal crops domesticated from grasses provide a large percentage of the calories consumed by humans. Domestication and breeding in individual cereals has historically occurred in isolation, although this is rapidly changing with comparative genomics of the sequenced or soon-to-be sequenced genomes of rice, sorghum, maize and Brachypodium. Genetic information transferred through genomic comparisons is helping our understanding of genetically less tractable crops such as the hexaploid wheats and polyploid sugarcane, as well as the approx. 10 000 species of wild grasses. In turn, phylogenetic analysis helps put our knowledge of the morphology of cereal crops into an evolutionary context. Grass Architecture Domestication often involves a change in the pattern and timing of branching, which affects both vegetative and inflorescence architecture, and ultimately yield. Cereal grasses exhibit two main forms of vegetative architecture: the pooid and erhartoid cereals such as wheat and rice have multiple basal tillers, while panicoid cereals such as maize, sorghum and the millets have few tillers or even only a single main stem. These differences are reflected in the differences between the wild species of pooid and some erhartoid grasses, which emphasize basal branching over axillary branching, and the panicoid grasses, where axillary branching is more frequently found. A combination of phylogenetic and genomic analysis is beginning to reveal the similarities and differences between different cereal crops, and relate these to the diversity of wild grasses to which they are related. Recent work on genes controlling branching emphasizes that developmental genetics needs to be viewed in both an evolutionary and ecological framework, if it is to be useful in understanding how morphology evolves. Increasingly, exploring the phylogenetic context of the crop grasses will suggest new ways to identify and create combinations of morphological traits that will best

  19. Sonoran Desert ecosystem transformation by a C4 grass without the grass/fire cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsson, Aaryn D.; Betancourt, Julio; McClaran, Mitchel P.; Marsh, Stuart E.

    2012-01-01

    Aim Biological invasions facilitate ecosystem transformation by altering the structure and function, diversity, dominance and disturbance regimes. A classic case is the grass–fire cycle in which grass invasion increases the frequency, scale and/or intensity of wildfires and promotes the continued invasion of invasive grasses. Despite wide acceptance of the grass–fire cycle, questions linger about the relative roles that interspecific plant competition and fire play in ecosystem transformations. Location Sonoran Desert Arizona Upland of the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, USA. Methods We measured species cover, density and saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) size structure along gradients of Pennisetum ciliare invasion at 10 unburned/ungrazed P. ciliare patches. Regression models quantified differences in diversity, cover and density with respect to P. ciliare cover, and residence time and a Fisher's exact test detected demographic changes in saguaro populations. Because P. ciliare may have initially invaded locations that were both more invasible and less diverse, we ran analyses with and without the plots in which initial infestations were located. Results Richness and diversity decreased with P. ciliare cover as did cover and density of most dominant species. Richness and diversity declined with increasing time since invasion, suggesting an ongoing transformation. The proportion of old-to-young Carnegiea gigantea was significantly lower in plots with dominant P. ciliare cover. Main conclusions Rich desert scrub (15–25 species per plot) was transformed into depauperate grassland (2–5 species per plot) within 20 years following P. ciliare invasion without changes to the fire regime. While the onset of a grass–fire cycle may drive ecosystem change in the later stages and larger scales of grass invasions of arid lands, competition by P. ciliare can drive small-scale transformations earlier in the invasion. Linking competition-induced transformation rates with

  20. Variations in Km(CO2) of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate Carboxylase among Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Yeoh, Hock-Hin; Badger, Murray R.; Watson, Leslie

    1980-01-01

    A survey of the Km(CO2) values of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase from 60 grass species shows that enzyme from C3 grasses consistently exhibits lower Km(CO2) than does that from C4 grasses. Systematically ordered variation in Km(CO2) of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylases from C3 and C4 grasses is also apparent and, among C4 grasses, this shows some correlation with C4 types. PMID:16661586

  1. Chemical composition of biomass from tall perennial tropical grasses

    SciTech Connect

    Prine, G.M.; Stricker, J.A.; Anderson, D.L.

    1995-11-01

    The tall perennial tropical grasses, elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.), sugarcane and energycane (Saccharum sp.) and erianthus (Erianthus arundenaceum (Retz) Jesw.) have given very high oven dry biomass yields in Florida and the warm Lower South USA. No good complete analyses of the chemical composition of these grasses for planning potential energy use was available. We sampled treatments of several tall grass demonstrations and experiments containing high-biomass yielding genotypes of the above tall grass crops at several locations in Florida over the two growing seasons, 1992 and 1993. These samples were analyzed for crude protein, NDF, ADF, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and IVDMD or IVOMD. The analysis for the above constituents are reported, along with biomass yields where available, for the tall grass accessions in the various demonstrations and experiments. Particular attention is given to values obtained from the high-yielding tall grasses grown on phosphatic clays in Polk County, FL, the area targeted by a NREL grant to help commercialize bioenergy use from these crops.

  2. Differential expression of two C-type lectins in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella and their response to grass carp reovirus.

    PubMed

    Ju, C S; He, L B; Pei, Y Y; Jiang, Y; Huang, R; Li, Y M; Liao, L J; Jang, S H; Wang, Y P

    2016-02-01

    The cDNAs of two C-type lectins in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, galactose-binding lectin (galbl) and mannose-binding lectin (mbl), were cloned and analysed in this study. Both of them exhibited the highest expression level in liver, whereas their expression pattern differed in early phase of embryonic development. Following exposure to grass carp reovirus (GCRV), the mRNA expression level of galbl and mbl was significantly up-regulated in liver and intestine. PMID:26643267

  3. The mobilization of defence mechanisms in the early stages of pea seed germination against Ascochyta pisi.

    PubMed

    Morkunas, Iwona; Formela, Magda; Marczak, Lukasz; Stobiecki, Maciej; Bednarski, Waldemar

    2013-02-01

    Ascochyta pisi is a necrotrophic pathogenic fungus, which mainly survives between seasons through infected seeds. Defence responses of pea embryo axes to A. pisi were investigated in the heterotrophic phase of seed germination and during the transition from the heterotrophic to the autotrophic phase. Germinated pea seeds, both non-inoculated and inoculated with A. pisi, were cultured in perlite for 96 h. Polarographic studies performed on intact embryo axes of germinating pea seeds infected with A. pisi showed a high respiratory intensity in time from 48 to 96 h after inoculation. Forty-eight-hour embryo axes of germinating pea seeds exhibited the highest respiration rate, which in infected axes was maintained at the following time points after inoculation. Moreover, at 72 and 96 h after inoculation, respiratory intensity was by 64% and 73% higher than in the control. Electron paramagnetic resonance analysis revealed a higher concentration of semiquinone free radicals with g values of g (||) = 2.0031 ± 0.0004 and g (⊥) = 2.0048 ± 0.0004 in infected axes than in the control. Generation of superoxide anion radical was also higher in infected axes than in the control but stronger at 72 and 96 h after inoculation. Starting from 72 h after infection, the level of Mn(2+) ions in infected axes decreased in relation to the control. At the same time, the highest activity of superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1) and catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) was observed in 72-h infected axes. In turn, the activity of peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) up to 72 h after infection was lower than in the control. In 48-h infected embryo axes, a very high level of pterocarpan pisatin was observed. Infection of germinating pea seeds with A. pisi restricted mainly the growth of the epicotyl, but did not inhibit the increase in length and fresh weight of root embryo axes versus cultivation time. These results indicate that in pea during the stages of seed germination and early seedling growth, protective

  4. Quality evaluation of stiff porridges prepared from Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) starch blends.

    PubMed

    Abu, Joseph Oneh; Enyinnaya, Chinma Chiemela; James, Samaila; Okeleke, Ezinne

    2012-06-01

    Quality attributes of stiff porridges prepared from Irish potato and pigeon pea starch blends were studied. Starches were extracted from Irish potato and pigeon pea using a wet extraction method. Various ratios of the starches were mixed and analyzed for chemical, functional and pasting properties. The starch blends were then prepared into stiff porridges for sensory evaluation using a 20-man sensory panel. Substitution of Irish potato starch with pigeon pea starch led to increases in protein (0.15 to 1.2%), fat (0.26 to 0.56%) and ash (0.30 to 0.69%) while the amylose content of the starch blends decreased (from 23.8 to 18.4%) respectively. Functional properties such as bulk density (0.75 to 0.60 g/cm(3)), water absorption capacity (3.1 to 2.6 g water/ g sample) and dispersibility (58.6 to 42.7%) decreased significantly (P < 0.05) at the highest concentration (50%) of pigeon pea starch respectively. Pasting properties such as peak, breakdown, final and setback viscosities increased with increasing levels of pigeon pea starch while peak time and pasting temperature decreased. The sensory attributes of stiff porridges were not adversely affected by pigeon pea starch inclusion. Therefore it should be possible to incorporate up to 50% of low digestible pigeon pea starch into Irish potato starch from legumes such as pigeon pea as alternatives to cassava starch in the preparation of stiff porridges. Such porridges made from Irish potato and legume starches could provide additional incentive for individuals requiring decreased and or slow starch digestibility such as diabetics. PMID:23729855

  5. Multilocus Sequence Typing Confirms Wild Birds as the Source of a Campylobacter Outbreak Associated with the Consumption of Raw Peas

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, Catherine; Santovenia, Monica; Pruckler, Janet; Stroika, Steven; Joyce, Kevin; Gardner, Tracie; Fields, Patricia I.; McLaughlin, Joe; Tauxe, Robert V.; Fitzgerald, Collette

    2014-01-01

    From August to September 2008, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) assisted the Alaska Division of Public Health with an outbreak investigation of campylobacteriosis occurring among the residents of Southcentral Alaska. During the investigation, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from human, raw pea, and wild bird fecal samples confirmed the epidemiologic link between illness and the consumption of raw peas contaminated by sandhill cranes for 15 of 43 epidemiologically linked human isolates. However, an association between the remaining epidemiologically linked human infections and the pea and wild bird isolates was not established. To better understand the molecular epidemiology of the outbreak, C. jejuni isolates (n = 130; 59 from humans, 40 from peas, and 31 from wild birds) were further characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Here we present the molecular evidence to demonstrate the association of many more human C. jejuni infections associated with the outbreak with raw peas and wild bird feces. Among all sequence types (STs) identified, 26 of 39 (67%) were novel and exclusive to the outbreak. Five clusters of overlapping STs (n = 32 isolates; 17 from humans, 2 from peas, and 13 from wild birds) were identified. In particular, cluster E (n = 7 isolates; ST-5049) consisted of isolates from humans, peas, and wild birds. Novel STs clustered closely with isolates typically associated with wild birds and the environment but distinct from lineages commonly seen in human infections. Novel STs and alleles recovered from human outbreak isolates allowed additional infections caused by these rare genotypes to be attributed to the contaminated raw peas. PMID:24837383

  6. Multilocus sequence typing confirms wild birds as the source of a Campylobacter outbreak associated with the consumption of raw peas.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Patrick S L; Xavier, Catherine; Santovenia, Monica; Pruckler, Janet; Stroika, Steven; Joyce, Kevin; Gardner, Tracie; Fields, Patricia I; McLaughlin, Joe; Tauxe, Robert V; Fitzgerald, Collette

    2014-08-01

    From August to September 2008, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) assisted the Alaska Division of Public Health with an outbreak investigation of campylobacteriosis occurring among the residents of Southcentral Alaska. During the investigation, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from human, raw pea, and wild bird fecal samples confirmed the epidemiologic link between illness and the consumption of raw peas contaminated by sandhill cranes for 15 of 43 epidemiologically linked human isolates. However, an association between the remaining epidemiologically linked human infections and the pea and wild bird isolates was not established. To better understand the molecular epidemiology of the outbreak, C. jejuni isolates (n=130; 59 from humans, 40 from peas, and 31 from wild birds) were further characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Here we present the molecular evidence to demonstrate the association of many more human C.jejuni infections associated with the outbreak with raw peas and wild bird feces. Among all sequence types (STs) identified, 26 of 39 (67%) were novel and exclusive to the outbreak. Five clusters of overlapping STs (n=32 isolates; 17 from humans, 2 from peas, and 13 from wild birds) were identified. In particular, cluster E (n=7 isolates; ST-5049) consisted of isolates from humans,peas, and wild birds. Novel STs clustered closely with isolates typically associated with wild birds and the environment but distinct from lineages commonly seen in human infections. Novel STs and alleles recovered from human outbreak isolates allowed additional infections caused by these rare genotypes to be attributed to the contaminated raw peas. PMID:24837383

  7. GRASS GIS: The first Open Source Temporal GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebbert, Sören; Leppelt, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    GRASS GIS is a full featured, general purpose Open Source geographic information system (GIS) with raster, 3D raster and vector processing support[1]. Recently, time was introduced as a new dimension that transformed GRASS GIS into the first Open Source temporal GIS with comprehensive spatio-temporal analysis, processing and visualization capabilities[2]. New spatio-temporal data types were introduced in GRASS GIS version 7, to manage raster, 3D raster and vector time series. These new data types are called space time datasets. They are designed to efficiently handle hundreds of thousands of time stamped raster, 3D raster and vector map layers of any size. Time stamps can be defined as time intervals or time instances in Gregorian calendar time or relative time. Space time datasets are simplifying the processing and analysis of large time series in GRASS GIS, since these new data types are used as input and output parameter in temporal modules. The handling of space time datasets is therefore equal to the handling of raster, 3D raster and vector map layers in GRASS GIS. A new dedicated Python library, the GRASS GIS Temporal Framework, was designed to implement the spatio-temporal data types and their management. The framework provides the functionality to efficiently handle hundreds of thousands of time stamped map layers and their spatio-temporal topological relations. The framework supports reasoning based on the temporal granularity of space time datasets as well as their temporal topology. It was designed in conjunction with the PyGRASS [3] library to support parallel processing of large datasets, that has a long tradition in GRASS GIS [4,5]. We will present a subset of more than 40 temporal modules that were implemented based on the GRASS GIS Temporal Framework, PyGRASS and the GRASS GIS Python scripting library. These modules provide a comprehensive temporal GIS tool set. The functionality range from space time dataset and time stamped map layer management

  8. Mycorrhizal fungi affect root stele tissue in grasses.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R. M.; Hetrick, B. A. D.; Wilson, G. W. T.; Environmental Research; Northern Iowa Univ.; Kansas State Univ.

    1997-01-01

    Although arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis was initially believed to have little or no impact on root morphology, we now recognize that subtle changes do occur and that these changes may be of considerable consequence to host growth and nutrition, as well as functional growth strategy. In examining the stele and root diameters of C3 and C4 grasses, C4 grasses were demonstrated to have a significantly larger proportion of their fibrous roots occupied by stele tissue than do C3 grasses. In fact, functional growth strategy (C3 versus C4) was observed to be a relatively good predictor of stele area. Mycorrhizal fungi also influenced the amount of stele tissue, but the effect was not the same for both C3 and C4 grasses. The stele area of all C4 grasses except for Sorghastrum nutans was greater in the presence of mycorrhizal colonization. Among the C3 grasses, only Bromus inermis showed a significant increase, although Elymus cinereus and Lolium perenne displayed significant decreases in response to arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization. Changes in the stele area of the plant species were closely related to their responsiveness to mycorrhizal symbiosis and might in part explain both beneficial and detrimental responses of plants to mycorrhizae. An increase in stele circumference induced by mycorrhizae would allow for greater uptake and passage of water and nutrients to the vascular cylinder, and growth depressions could be a direct outcome of reduced stele circumference. Thus, differences in stele circumference represent a possible mechanism for mycorrhizal impacts on host plants. These findings indicate that structural differences among grasses are related to different functional capabilities and further emphasize the need for better integration of comparative anatomy and morphology procedures in the study of mycorrhizal symbiosis.

  9. [Optimized Spectral Indices Based Estimation of Forage Grass Biomass].

    PubMed

    An, Hai-bo; Li, Fei; Zhao, Meng-li; Liu, Ya-jun

    2015-11-01

    As an important indicator of forage production, aboveground biomass will directly illustrate the growth of forage grass. Therefore, Real-time monitoring biomass of forage grass play a crucial role in performing suitable grazing and management in artificial and natural grassland. However, traditional sampling and measuring are time-consuming and labor-intensive. Recently, development of hyperspectral remote sensing provides the feasibility in timely and nondestructive deriving biomass of forage grass. In the present study, the main objectives were to explore the robustness of published and optimized spectral indices in estimating biomass of forage grass in natural and artificial pasture. The natural pasture with four grazing density (control, light grazing, moderate grazing and high grazing) was designed in desert steppe, and different forage cultivars with different N rate were conducted in artificial forage fields in Inner Mongolia. The canopy reflectance and biomass in each plot were measured during critical stages. The result showed that, due to the influence in canopy structure and biomass, the canopy reflectance have a great difference in different type of forage grass. The best performing spectral index varied in different species of forage grass with different treatments (R² = 0.00-0.69). The predictive ability of spectral indices decreased under low biomass of desert steppe, while red band based spectral indices lost sensitivity under moderate-high biomass of forage maize. When band combinations of simple ratio and normalized difference spectral indices were optimized in combined datasets of natural and artificial grassland, optimized spectral indices significant increased predictive ability and the model between biomass and optimized spectral indices had the highest R² (R² = 0.72) compared to published spectral indices. Sensitive analysis further confirmed that the optimized index had the lowest noise equivalent and were the best performing index in

  10. Functional properties of purified vicilins from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pea (Pisum sativum) and cowpea protein isolate.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Alessandra; Domont, Gilberto B; Pedrosa, Cristiana; Ferreira, Sérgio T

    2003-09-10

    The major storage globulins (vicilins) of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pea (Pisum sativum) seeds were purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, and a semipurified cowpea protein isolate (CPI) was prepared by isoelectric precipitation. Some of the functional properties of these proteins, including solubility, foaming, and emulsifying capacities, were investigated and compared. The solubility of purified cowpea vicilin was reduced at pH 5.0, increasing markedly below and above this value. Pea vicilin exhibited poor solubility between pH 5.0 and pH 6.0, and CPI was little soluble in the pH range from 4.0 to 6.0. At neutral pH, the emulsifying activity indexes (EAI) of purified pea vicilin and CPI were 194 and 291 m(2)/g, respectively, which compare quite favorably to EAIs of 110 and 133 m(2)/g for casein and albumin, respectively. Remarkably, purified cowpea vicilin exhibited an EAI of 490 m(2)/g, indicating a very high emulsifying activity. Purified cowpea and pea vicilins exhibited lower foaming capacities and foam stablity indexes (FSI) than CPI. FSI values of 80 and 260 min were obtained for purified pea and cowpea vicilin, respectively, whereas a FSI value of 380 min was obtained for CPI. These results are discussed in terms of the possible utilization of purified vicilins or protein isolates from pea and cowpea in the food processing industry. PMID:12952435

  11. Stamina pistilloida, the Pea ortholog of Fim and UFO, is required for normal development of flowers, inflorescences, and leaves.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S; Hofer, J; Murfet, I

    2001-01-01

    Isolation and characterization of two severe alleles at the Stamina pistilloida (Stp) locus reveals that Stp is involved in a wide range of developmental processes in the garden pea. The most severe allele, stp-4, results in flowers consisting almost entirely of sepals and carpels. Production of ectopic secondary flowers in stp-4 plants suggests that Stp is involved in specifying floral meristem identity in pea. The stp mutations also reduce the complexity of the compound pea leaf, and primary inflorescences often terminate prematurely in an aberrant sepaloid flower. In addition, stp mutants were shorter than their wild-type siblings due to a reduction in cell number in their internodes. Fewer cells were also found in the epidermis of the leaf rachis of stp mutants. Examination of the effects of stp-4 in double mutant combinations with af, tl, det, and veg2-2-mutations known to influence leaf, inflorescence, and flower development in pea-suggests that Stp function is independent of these genes. A synergistic interaction between weak mutant alleles at Stp and Uni indicated that these two genes act together, possibly to regulate primordial growth. Molecular analysis revealed that Stp is the pea homolog of the Antirrhinum gene Fimbriata (Fim) and of UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) from Arabidopsis. Differences between Fim/UFO and Stp mutant phenotypes and expression patterns suggest that expansion of Stp activity into the leaf was an important step during evolution of the compound leaf in the garden pea. PMID:11158527

  12. Auxin-cytokinin and auxin-gibberellin interactions during morphogenesis of the compound leaves of pea (Pisum sativum).

    PubMed

    DeMason, Darleen A

    2005-09-01

    A number of mutations that alter the form of the compound leaf in pea (Pisum sativum) has proven useful in elucidating the role that auxin might play in pea leaf development. The goals of this study were to determine if auxin application can rescue any of the pea leaf mutants and if gibberellic acid (GA) plays a role in leaf morphogenesis in pea. A tissue culture system was used to determine the effects of various auxins, GA or a GA biosynethesis inhibitor (paclobutrazol) on leaf development. The GA mutant, nana1 (na1) was analyzed. The uni-tac mutant was rescued by auxin and GA and rescue involved both a conversion of the terminal leaflet into a tendril and an addition of a pair of lateral tendrils. This rescue required the presence of cytokinin. The auxins tested varied in their effectiveness, although methyl-IAA worked best. The terminal tendrils of wildtype plantlets grown on paclobutrazol were converted into leaflets, stubs or were aborted. The number of lateral pinna pairs produced was reduced and leaf initiation was impaired. These abnormalities resembled those caused by auxin transport inhibitors and phenocopy the uni mutants. The na1 mutant shared some morphological features with the uni mutants; including, flowering late and producing leaves with fewer lateral pinna pairs. These results show that both auxin and GA play similar and significant roles in pea leaf development. Pea leaf morphogenesis might involve auxin regulation of GA biosynthesis and GA regulation of Uni expression. PMID:15809864

  13. Development of PEA-15 using a potent non-viral vector for therapeutic application in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yanan; Wu, Minqing; Xiao, Xiangsheng; Yang, Lu; Gao, Jie; Wei, Weidong; Lee, Jangsoon; Bartholomeusz, Chandra; Ueno, Naoto T.; Xie, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Advanced breast cancer requires systemic treatment, therefore developing an efficient and safe strategy is urgently needed. To ensure the success of target therapy, we have developed a breast cancer-specific construct (T-VISA) composed of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT; T) promoter and a versatile transgene amplification vector VISA (VP16-GAL4-WPRE integrated systemic amplifier) to target PEA-15 (Phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes) in advanced breast tumors. PEA-15 contains a death effector domain that sequesters extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in cytoplasm, thereby inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis. T-VISA-PEA-15 was found to be highly specific, selectively express PEA-15 in breast cancer cells, and induce cancer-cell killing in vitro and in vivo without affecting normal cells. Moreover, intravenously treatment with T-VISA-PEA-15 coupled with liposome nanoparticles attenuated tumor growth and prolonged survival in mice bearing advanced breast tumors. Importantly, there was virtually no severe toxicity when PEA-15 is expressed by our T-VISA system compared with cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. Thus, our findings demonstrate an effective cancer-targeted therapy that is worthy of development in clinical trials eradicating advanced breast cancer. PMID:25304382

  14. Validation of molecular markers associated with boron tolerance, powdery mildew resistance and salinity tolerance in field peas

    PubMed Central

    Javid, Muhammad; Rosewarne, Garry M.; Sudheesh, Shimna; Kant, Pragya; Leonforte, Antonio; Lombardi, Maria; Kennedy, Peter R.; Cogan, Noel O. I.; Slater, Anthony T.; Kaur, Sukhjiwan

    2015-01-01

    Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important grain legume consumed both as human food and animal feed. However, productivity in low rainfall regions can be significantly reduced by inferior soils containing high levels of boron and/or salinity. Furthermore, powdery mildew (PM) (Erysiphe pisi) disease also causes significant yield loss in warmer regions. Breeding for tolerance to these abiotic and biotic stresses are major aims for pea breeding programs and the application of molecular markers for these traits could greatly assist in developing improved germplasm at a faster rate. The current study reports the evaluation of a near diagnostic marker, PsMlo, associated with PM resistance and boron (B) tolerance as well as linked markers associated with salinity tolerance across a diverse set of pea germplasm. The PsMlo1 marker predicted the PM and B phenotypic responses with high levels of accuracy (>80%) across a wide range of field pea genotypes, hence offers the potential to be widely adapted in pea breeding programs. In contrast, linked markers for salinity tolerance were population specific; therefore, application of these markers would be suitable to relevant crosses within the program. Our results also suggest that there are possible new sources of salt tolerance present in field pea germplasm that could be further exploited. PMID:26579164

  15. Effect of Morphological Traits on Intake Characteristics of Four Grass Species Found in Temperate Biodiverse Pasture Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four grass species (meadow fescue (MF), Festuca pratensis; orchard grass (ORG), Dactylis glomerata, L.; quack grass (QG), Agropyron repens; and reed canary grass (RCG), Phalaris arundinacea) were sown in micro-sward boxes (79 cm x 47 cm x 11.5 cm) to investigate intake characteristics of four grass ...

  16. Immunogold Localization of Photosynthetic Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphatase in Pea Leaf Tissue 1

    PubMed Central

    Hermoso, Rosario; de Felipe, María R.; Vivó, Amparo; Chueca, Ana; Lázaro, Juan J.; Gorge, Julio L.

    1989-01-01

    An enriched IgG serum fraction obtained from rabbits immunized against pea chloroplast fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) was used, coupled to colloidal gold (15 nanometer particles) goat anti-rabbit IgG, to analyze by electron microscopy the location of photosynthetic FBPase in pea (Pisum sativum L.) leaf ultrathin sections. In accordance with earlier biochemical studies on distribution of FBPase activity, the enzyme was visualized both in the stromal space and bound to the chloroplast membranes. Some gold particles also appear in the cytoplasm, which can be related to the presence in the cytosol of a high molecular weight precursor of this nuclear coded enzyme. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:16666543

  17. Purification and characterization of pea seedling amine oxidase for crystallization studies.

    PubMed Central

    McGuirl, M A; McCahon, C D; McKeown, K A; Dooley, D M

    1994-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedling amine oxidase (EC 1.4.3.6) is the first amine oxidase to be crystallized that diffracts to atomic resolution (2.5 A). Extensive modifications of a published purification procedure were necessary to obtain protein that would give diffraction-quality crystals. Here we report the improved purification and also use this high-purity protein to reexamine some fundamental characteristics of pea seedling amine oxidase. The extinction coefficient at 280 nm (epsilon 1%(280)) and the molecular mass of the protein are investigated by a variety of techniques, yielding epsilon 1%(280) = 20 cm-1 and a mass 150 +/- 6 kD. In addition, the stoichiometry of the metal and organic cofactors, Cu(II) and 6-hydroxy dopa (Topa) quinone, respectively, is examined. The ratio of Cu(II):Topa:protein monomer is found to be 1:1:1. PMID:7824646

  18. Extrachromosomal DNA and cell differentiation in cultured pea roots (Pisum sativum)

    SciTech Connect

    Van't Hof, J.

    1986-01-01

    Histological, cytological and molecular analyses of DNA replication and differentiation and meristematic precursors of vascular parenchyma in cultured pea roots show that the initial steps in the transition from a dividing to a differentiated cell involve retardation of DNA replication in late S phase and production of extrachromosomal molecules by excision from late replicating chromosomal DNA. Portions of the extrachromosomal DNA are displaced by a strand displacement mechanism thereby producing free single-stranded molecules. That extrachromosomal molecules have rDNA reflects the fact that in pea roots replication of the ribosomal genes is maximal during late S phase (unpublished results). It is likely, therefore, that the excised late replicating DNA contains some rDNA sequences. 30 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Molecular characterization of [beta]-1,3-glucan synthase from pea tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Dhugga, K.S.; Ray, P.M. )

    1993-05-01

    By means of product entrapment, preparative isoelectric focusing, and glycerol gradient centrifugation in sequence, we have purified pea plasma membrane [beta]-1,3-glucan synthase activity down to two polypeptides of 55 and 70 kD. The N-termini of both these polypeptides are apparently blocked so they could not be sequenced directly. However, we obtained an amino acid sequence for a tryptic fragment of the 55 kD polypeptide. This sequence does not match any other known sequence in the database. We are currently trying to obtain amino acid sequences for other trypsin-generated peptides from the 55 and 70 kD polypeptides. Oligonucleotides corresponding to these peptide sequences will be used to screen a pea cDNA library in order to clone the coding sequences for these polypeptides. Further progress will be presented at the Meetings.

  20. Nitrogen deficiency hinders etioplast development in stems of dark-grown pea (Pisum sativum) shoot cultures.

    PubMed

    Kósa, Annamária; Preininger, Éva; Böddi, Béla

    2015-11-01

    The effects of nitrogen (N) deprivation were studied in etiolated pea plants (Pisum sativum cv. Zsuzsi) grown in shoot cultures. The average shoot lengths decreased and the stems significantly altered considering their pigment contents, 77 K fluorescence spectra and ultrastructural properties. The protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) content and the relative contribution of the 654-655 nm emitting flash-photoactive Pchlide form significantly decreased. The etioplast inner membrane structure characteristically changed: N deprivation correlated with a decrease in the size and number of prolamellar bodies (PLBs). These results show that N deficiency directly hinders the pigment production, as well as the synthesis of other etioplast inner membrane components in etiolated pea stems. PMID:25825156

  1. Amino acid composition and antioxidant properties of pea seed ( Pisum sativum L.) enzymatic protein hydrolysate fractions.

    PubMed

    Pownall, Trisha L; Udenigwe, Chibuike C; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2010-04-28

    The amino acid composition and antioxidant activities of peptide fractions obtained from HPLC separation of a pea protein hydrolysate (PPH) were studied. Thermolysin hydrolysis of pea protein isolate and ultrafiltration (3 kDa molecular weight cutoff membrane) yielded a PPH that was separated into five fractions (F1-F5) on a C(18) reverse phase HPLC column. The fractions that eluted later from the column (F3-F5) contained higher contents hydrophobic and aromatic amino acids when compared to fractions that eluted early or the original PPH. Fractions F3-F5 also exhibited the strongest radical scavenging and metal chelating activities; however, hydrophobic character did not seem to contribute to reducing power of the peptides. In comparison to glutathione, the peptide fractions had significantly higher (p < 0.05) ability to inhibit linoleic acid oxidation and chelate metals. In contrast, glutathione had significantly higher (p < 0.05) free radical scavenging properties than the peptide fractions. PMID:20359226

  2. Effect of Substrate Salinity on the Ability for Protein Synthesis in Pea Roots 1

    PubMed Central

    Kahane, I.; Poljakoff-Mayber, A.

    1968-01-01

    The effect of salinity on incorporation of amino acids into root tip protein is apparently of dual nature: in presence of salts the uptake is depressed and the normal metabolic pathways are disturbed. If the roots were grown at high salt concentration, uptake and incorporation are affected even if they are carried out in the absence of salt. NaCl and Na2SO4 affect uptake, incorporation, and metabolism of 14C leucine in different ways. There are also preliminary indications that in pea roots grown at different types of salinity, different proteins may be synthesized. Kinetin was found to inhibit incorporation of amino acids into non stressed and Na2SO4 stressed roots, but promotes uptake and incorporation of amino acids into protein in NaCl stressed tissue. It seems that there are some pronounced differences between the effects of NaCl and Na2SO4 salinities on the metabolism of pea root tissue. PMID:16656890

  3. Pea Albumin 1 Subunit b (PA1b), a Promising Bioinsecticide of Plant Origin

    PubMed Central

    Gressent, Frédéric; Da Silva, Pedro; Eyraud, Vanessa; Karaki, Lamis; Royer, Corinne

    2011-01-01

    PA1b (Pea Albumin 1, subunit b) is a peptide extract from pea seeds showing significant insecticidal activity against certain insects, such as cereal weevils (genus Sitophilus), the mosquitoes Culex pipiens and Aedes aegyptii, and certain species of aphids. PA1b has great potential for use on an industrial scale and for use in organic farming: it is extracted from a common plant; it is a peptide (and therefore suitable for transgenic applications); it can withstand many steps of extraction and purification without losing its activity; and it is present in a seed regularly consumed by humans and mammals without any known toxicity or allergenicity. The potential of this peptide to limit pest damage has stimulated research concerning its host range, its mechanism of action, its three-dimensional structure, the natural diversity of PA1b and its structure-function relationships. PMID:22295174

  4. Unveiling the Nature of the "Green Pea" Galaxies: Oxygen and Nitrogen Chemical Abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorín, R. O.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Vílchez, J. M.

    2011-07-01

    We present recent results on the oxygen and nitrogen chemical abundances in the extremely compact, low-mass starburst galaxies at redshifts 0.1-0.3 usually referred to as "green pea" galaxies. We show that they are metal-poor galaxies (~1/5 solar) with lower oxygen abundances than star-forming galaxies of similar mass and N/O ratios unusually high for galaxies of the same metallicity. Recent, rapid, and massive inflows of cold gas, possibly coupled with enriched outflows from supernova winds, are used to explain the results. This is consistent with the known "pea" galaxy properties and suggest that these rare objects are experiencing a short and extreme phase in their evolution.

  5. Influence of Cotyledons upon α-Amylase Activity in Pea Embryonic Axes

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Bill D.

    1979-01-01

    α-Amylase activity remained relatively low in the axes of intact etiolated pea seedlings; the activity was predominantly confined to the epicotyl. Starch accumulated slightly. When the cotyledons were removed and the axes cultured on medium containing no carbon source, the starch reserve in the axes disappeared within a few days. This was accompanied by a 10- to 15-fold increase in α-amylase activity, in the absence of additional epicotyl growth. The phenonemon was observed for axes throughout early growth, although the relative accumulation of α-amylase activity in cultured axes was less for older seedlings. This change was attributed to a reduced response by nongrowing tissues. There was no corresponding change in β-amylase activity. These observations, described for several varieties of peas, demonstrate the control of cotyledons upon the utilization of stored reserves within the axis, with α-amylase as a key enzyme. PMID:16660848

  6. Phytochrome regulates GTP-binding protein activity in the envelope of pea nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, G. B.; Memon, A. R.; Thompson, G. A. Jr; Roux, S. J.

    1993-01-01

    Three GTP-binding proteins with apparent molecular masses of 27, 28 and 30 kDa have been detected in isolated nuclei of etiolated pea plumules. After LDS-PAGE and transfer to nitrocellulose these proteins bind [32P]GTP in the presence of excess ATP, suggesting that they are monomeric G proteins. When nuclei are disrupted, three proteins co-purify with the nuclear envelope fraction and are highly enriched in this fraction. The level of [32P]GTP-binding for all three protein bands is significantly increased when harvested pea plumules are irradiated by red light, and this effect is reversed by far-red light. The results indicate that GTP-binding activity associated with the nuclear envelope of plant cells is photoreversibly regulated by the pigment phytochrome.

  7. Purification and characterization of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GAPDH) from pea seeds.

    PubMed

    Gani, Zahid; Boradia, Vishant Mahendra; Raghu Ram, Janaki; Suryavanshi, Prashant Mohan; Patil, Pravinkumar; Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Ranvir; Raje, Manoj; Raje, Chaaya Iyengar

    2016-11-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [GAPDH, NAD + oxidoreductase (phosphorylating) 1.2.1.12] catalyzes the conversion of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate coupled with the reduction of NAD(+) to NADH. In addition to its role in glycolysis, this enzyme has numerous alternate functions, in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In plants, additional functions have been reported from multiple species including Pisum sativum. A recent study has identified that GAPDH may play an important role in seed ageing and programmed cell death. Despite this the existing purification protocols are almost 40 years old, and only partial characterization of the enzyme has been reported. In the current study, we report a modified method for purification of enzymatically active pea seed GAPDH along with the characterization of the enzyme. Using 2D gel electrophoresis our study also demonstrates that pea seeds contain four isoforms of NAD(+) dependent GAPDH. PMID:27389468

  8. AphidBase: A centralized bioinformatic resource for annotation of the pea aphid genome

    PubMed Central

    Legeai, Fabrice; Shigenobu, Shuji; Gauthier, Jean-Pierre; Colbourne, John; Rispe, Claude; Collin, Olivier; Richards, Stephen; Wilson, Alex C. C.; Tagu, Denis

    2015-01-01

    AphidBase is a centralized bioinformatic resource that was developed to facilitate community annotation of the pea aphid genome by the International Aphid Genomics Consortium (IAGC). The AphidBase Information System designed to organize and distribute genomic data and annotations for a large international community was constructed using open source software tools from the Generic Model Organism Database (GMOD). The system includes Apollo and GBrowse utilities as well as a wiki, blast search capabilities and a full text search engine. AphidBase strongly supported community cooperation and coordination in the curation of gene models during community annotation of the pea aphid genome. AphidBase can be accessed at http://www.aphidbase.com. PMID:20482635

  9. Enhanced precipitation variability decreases grass- and increases shrub-productivity

    PubMed Central

    Gherardi, Laureano A.; Sala, Osvaldo E.

    2015-01-01

    Although projections of precipitation change indicate increases in variability, most studies of impacts of climate change on ecosystems focused on effects of changes in amount of precipitation, overlooking precipitation variability effects, especially at the interannual scale. Here, we present results from a 6-y field experiment, where we applied sequences of wet and dry years, increasing interannual precipitation coefficient of variation while maintaining a precipitation amount constant. Increased precipitation variability significantly reduced ecosystem primary production. Dominant plant-functional types showed opposite responses: perennial-grass productivity decreased by 81%, whereas shrub productivity increased by 67%. This pattern was explained by different nonlinear responses to precipitation. Grass productivity presented a saturating response to precipitation where dry years had a larger negative effect than the positive effects of wet years. In contrast, shrubs showed an increasing response to precipitation that resulted in an increase in average productivity with increasing precipitation variability. In addition, the effects of precipitation variation increased through time. We argue that the differential responses of grasses and shrubs to precipitation variability and the amplification of this phenomenon through time result from contrasting root distributions of grasses and shrubs and competitive interactions among plant types, confirmed by structural equation analysis. Under drought conditions, grasses reduce their abundance and their ability to absorb water that then is transferred to deep soil layers that are exclusively explored by shrubs. Our work addresses an understudied dimension of climate change that might lead to widespread shrub encroachment reducing the provisioning of ecosystem services to society. PMID:26417095

  10. Enhanced precipitation variability decreases grass- and increases shrub-productivity.

    PubMed

    Gherardi, Laureano A; Sala, Osvaldo E

    2015-10-13

    Although projections of precipitation change indicate increases in variability, most studies of impacts of climate change on ecosystems focused on effects of changes in amount of precipitation, overlooking precipitation variability effects, especially at the interannual scale. Here, we present results from a 6-y field experiment, where we applied sequences of wet and dry years, increasing interannual precipitation coefficient of variation while maintaining a precipitation amount constant. Increased precipitation variability significantly reduced ecosystem primary production. Dominant plant-functional types showed opposite responses: perennial-grass productivity decreased by 81%, whereas shrub productivity increased by 67%. This pattern was explained by different nonlinear responses to precipitation. Grass productivity presented a saturating response to precipitation where dry years had a larger negative effect than the positive effects of wet years. In contrast, shrubs showed an increasing response to precipitation that resulted in an increase in average productivity with increasing precipitation variability. In addition, the effects of precipitation variation increased through time. We argue that the differential responses of grasses and shrubs to precipitation variability and the amplification of this phenomenon through time result from contrasting root distributions of grasses and shrubs and competitive interactions among plant types, confirmed by structural equation analysis. Under drought conditions, grasses reduce their abundance and their ability to absorb water that then is transferred to deep soil layers that are exclusively explored by shrubs. Our work addresses an understudied dimension of climate change that might lead to widespread shrub encroachment reducing the provisioning of ecosystem services to society. PMID:26417095

  11. TILLING in forage grasses for gene discovery and breeding improvement.

    PubMed

    Manzanares, Chloe; Yates, Steven; Ruckle, Michael; Nay, Michelle; Studer, Bruno

    2016-09-25

    Mutation breeding has a long-standing history and in some major crop species, many of the most important cultivars have their origin in germplasm generated by mutation induction. For almost two decades, methods for TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) have been established in model plant species such as Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.), enabling the functional analysis of genes. Recent advances in mutation detection by second generation sequencing technology have brought its utility to major crop species. However, it has remained difficult to apply similar approaches in forage and turf grasses, mainly due to their outbreeding nature maintained by an efficient self-incompatibility system. Starting with a description of the extent to which traditional mutagenesis methods have contributed to crop yield increase in the past, this review focuses on technological approaches to implement TILLING-based strategies for the improvement of forage grass breeding through forward and reverse genetics. We present first results from TILLING in allogamous forage grasses for traits such as stress tolerance and evaluate prospects for rapid implementation of beneficial alleles to forage grass breeding. In conclusion, large-scale induced mutation resources, used for forward genetic screens, constitute a valuable tool to increase the genetic diversity for breeding and can be generated with relatively small investments in forage grasses. Furthermore, large libraries of sequenced mutations can be readily established, providing enhanced opportunities to discover mutations in genes controlling traits of agricultural importance and to study gene functions by reverse genetics. PMID:26924175

  12. Heavy metal levels of pasture grasses in metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luilo, G. B.; Othman, O. C.

    2003-05-01

    Urban agriculture is becoming an important lucrative activity in Dar es Salaam City even though the city is subject to traffic and industrial pollution pressures. Poor planning has left only limited spaces, particularly road reserves, for cultivation and foraging animals. While there is increasing road traffic no study bas been conducted determine levels of trace metals in pasture grasses. This study, therefore, reports on the levels of cadmium, manganese, lead and zinc of cynodon grasses in road vicinity in the city. Results show that the trace metal levels (ppm ± SDE) in Cynodon grass species were: Cd (0.24 ± 0.06-2.58 ± 0.15), Mn (41.5 ± 13.6-345.0 ± 124.3), Pb (1.15 ± 0.64-25.53 ± 1.29) and Zn (25.97 ± 3.69-95.36 ± 19.61). The mean levels of lead and zinc varied exponentially with distance off the road up to 15 m distance. Lead and zinc levels correlated with average daily traffic in the roads while cadmium and manganese did not. This suggests that lead and zinc in grasses owe their sources from the passing motor vehicles in agreement with other reported studies. It is recommended that pasture grasses in road vicinities must not be used for foraging dairy cattle and goats for public health reasons.

  13. Differences in grass pollen allergen exposure across Australia

    PubMed Central

    Beggs, Paul J.; Katelaris, Constance H.; Medek, Danielle; Johnston, Fay H.; Burton, Pamela K.; Campbell, Bradley; Jaggard, Alison K.; Vicendese, Don; Bowman, David M.J.S.; Godwin, Ian; Huete, Alfredo R.; Erbas, Bircan; Green, Brett J.; Newnham, Rewi M.; Newbigin, Ed; Haberle, Simon G.; Davies, Janet M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma are important chronic diseases posing serious public health issues in Australia with associated medical, economic, and societal burdens. Pollen are significant sources of clinically relevant outdoor aeroallergens, recognised as both a major trigger for, and cause of, allergic respiratory diseases. This study aimed to provide a national, and indeed international, perspective on the state of Australian pollen data using a large representative sample. Methods Atmospheric grass pollen concentration is examined over a number of years within the period 1995 to 2013 for Brisbane, Canberra, Darwin, Hobart, Melbourne, and Sydney, including determination of the ‘clinical’ grass pollen season and grass pollen peak. Results The results of this study describe, for the first time, a striking spatial and temporal variability in grass pollen seasons in Australia, with important implications for clinicians and public health professionals, and the Australian grass pollen-allergic community. Conclusions These results demonstrate that static pollen calendars are of limited utility and in some cases misleading. This study also highlights significant deficiencies and limitations in the existing Australian pollen monitoring and data. Implications Establishment of an Australian national pollen monitoring network would help facilitate advances in the clinical and public health management of the millions of Australians with asthma and allergic rhinitis. PMID:25648730

  14. Acute effects of pea protein and hull fibre alone and combined on blood glucose, appetite, and food intake in healthy young men--a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Smith, Christopher; Anderson, G Harvey

    2014-12-01

    Whether pulse components can be used as value-added ingredients in foods formulated for blood glucose (BG) and food intake (FI) control requires investigation. The objective of this study was to examine of the effects of pea components on FI at an ad libitum meal, as well as appetite and BG responses before and after the meal. In a repeated-measures crossover trial, men (n = 15) randomly consumed (i) pea hull fibre (7 g), (ii) pea protein (10 g), (iii) pea protein (10 g) plus hull fibre (7 g), (iv) yellow peas (406 g), and (v) control. Pea hull fibre and protein were served with tomato sauce and noodles, while yellow peas were served with tomato sauce. Control was noodles and tomato sauce. FI was measured at a pizza meal (135 min). Appetite and BG were measured pre-pizza (0-135 min) and post-pizza (155-215 min). Protein plus fibre and yellow peas led to lower pre-pizza BG area under the curve compared with fibre and control. At 30 min, BG was lower after protein plus fibre and yellow peas compared with fibre and control, whereas at 45 and 75 min, protein plus fibre and yellow peas led to lower BG compared with fibre (p < 0.05). Following the pizza meal (155 min), yellow peas led to lower BG compared with fibre (p < 0.05). No differences were observed in FI or appetite. This trial supports the use of pea components as value-added ingredients in foods designed to improve glycemic control. PMID:25302637

  15. Cellular and Subcellular Localization of Endogenous Nitric Oxide in Young and Senescent Pea Plants12

    PubMed Central

    Corpas, Francisco J.; Barroso, Juan B.; Carreras, Alfonso; Quirós, Miguel; León, Ana M.; Romero-Puertas, María C.; Esteban, Francisco J.; Valderrama, Raquel; Palma, José M.; Sandalio, Luisa M.; Gómez, Manuel; del Río, Luis A.

    2004-01-01

    The cellular and subcellular localization of endogenous nitric oxide (NO˙) in leaves from young and senescent pea (Pisum sativum) plants was studied. Confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis of pea leaf sections with the fluorescent probe 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate revealed that endogenous NO˙ was mainly present in vascular tissues (xylem and phloem). Green fluorescence spots were also detected in the epidermal cells, palisade and spongy mesophyll cells, and guard cells. In senescent leaves, NO˙ generation was clearly reduced in the vascular tissues. At the subcellular level, by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy with the spin trap Fe(MGD)2 and fluorometric analysis with 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate, NO˙ was found to be an endogenous metabolite of peroxisomes. The characteristic three-line electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of NO˙, with g = 2.05 and aN = 12.8 G, was detected in peroxisomes. By fluorometry, NO˙ was also found in these organelles, and the level measured of NO˙ was linearly dependent on the amount of peroxisomal protein. The enzymatic production of NO˙ from l-Arg (nitric oxide synthase [NOS]-like activity) was measured by ozone chemiluminiscence. The specific activity of peroxisomal NOS was 4.9 nmol NO˙ mg−1 protein min−1; was strictly dependent on NADPH, calmodulin, and BH4; and required calcium. In senescent pea leaves, the NOS-like activity of peroxisomes was down-regulated by 72%. It is proposed that peroxisomal NO˙ could be involved in the process of senescence of pea leaves. PMID:15347796

  16. The physiology of sterol nutrition in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    PubMed

    Bouvaine, Sophie; T Behmer, Spencer; Lin, George G; Faure, Marie-Line; Grebenok, Robert J; Douglas, Angela E

    2012-11-01

    The phloem sap of fava bean (Vicia faba) plants utilized by the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum contains three sterols, cholesterol, stigmasterol and sitosterol, in a 2:2:1 ratio. To investigate the nutritional value of these sterols, pea aphids were reared on chemically-defined diets containing each sterol at 0.1, 1 and 10μgml(-1) with a sterol-free diet as control. Larval growth rate and aphid lifespan did not vary significantly across the diets, indicating that sterol reserves can buffer some performance indices against a shortfall in dietary sterol over at least one generation. However, lifetime reproductive output was depressed in aphids on diets containing stigmasterol or no sterol, relative to diets supplemented with cholesterol or sitosterol. The cholesterol density of embryos in teneral adults was significantly higher than in the total body; and the number and biomass of embryos in aphids on diets with stigmasterol and no sterols were reduced relative to diets with cholesterol or sitosterol, indicating that the reproductive output of the pea aphid can be limited by the amount and composition of dietary sterol. In a complementary RNA-seq analysis of pea aphids reared on plants and diets with different sterol contents, 7.6% of the 17,417 detected gene transcripts were differentially expressed. Transcript abundance of genes with annotated function in sterol utilization did not vary significantly among treatments, suggesting that the metabolic response to dietary sterol may be mediated primarily at the level of enzyme function or metabolite concentration. PMID:22878342

  17. Chronic intake of fractionated yellow pea flour reduces postprandial energy expenditure and carbohydrate oxidation.

    PubMed

    Marinangeli, Christopher P F; Jones, Peter J H

    2011-12-01

    Effects of dietary fibers on human postprandial energetics remain undefined. The objective of the present study was to explore effects of whole yellow pea flour (WPF) and fractionated pea flour (FPF) on postprandial energy expenditure, substrate utilization, and hepatic triglyceride synthesis rate. Using a crossover-diet controlled design, 23 overweight men and women received muffins containing WPF, FPF, and white wheat flour (WF) for 28 days, followed by 28-day washout periods. Subjects received 50 g/day WPF and WF. Given that FPF is approximately 84% fiber, the amount of FPF administered to volunteers was equivalent to the amount of pea-derived fiber in the WPF treatment. Four weeks of FPF consumption reduced (P=.007) total postprandial energy expenditure (333.0±3.6 kcal/330 minutes) compared with WF (349.3±3.6 kcal/330 minutes). When values were normalized to the level of food energy consumed, FPF (4.6±0.3%) decreased (P=.018) the thermic effect of food (TEF) compared with WF (5.7±0.3%). Carbohydrate oxidation tended to be lower (P=.075) with FPF (44.7±2.1 g/330 minutes) versus WF (51.2±0.1.9 g/330 minutes). WPF had no effect on total energy expenditure, TEF, or carbohydrate oxidation. Only after 370 minutes was cumulative oxidation of [1-(13)C]palmitic acid higher (P=.045) in the WPF group (0.96±0.05%) compared with FPF (0.81±0.05%). Neither treatment had any effect on hepatic triglyceride synthesis rate. In conclusion, chronic ingestion of different fractions of yellow peas imposes distinctive effects on postprandial energy expenditure and substrate utilization. PMID:22145774

  18. Nature and origin of the calcium asymmetry-arising during gravitropic response in etiolated pea epicotyls

    SciTech Connect

    Migliaccio, F.; Galston, A.W.

    1987-10-01

    Seven day old etiolated pea epicotyls were loaded symmetrically with /sup 3/H-indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) or /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/, then subjected to 1.5 hours of 1g gravistimulation. Epidermal peels taken from top and bottom surfaces after 90 minutes showed an increase in IAA on the lower side and of Ca/sup 2 +/ on the upper side. Inhibitors of IAA movement (TIBA, 9-hydroxyfluorene carboxylic acid) block the development of both IAA and Ca/sup 2 +/ asymmetries, but substances known to interfere with normal Ca/sup 2 +/ transport do not significantly alter either IAA or Ca/sup 2 +/ asymmetries. These substances, however, are active in modifying both Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake and efflux through oat and pea leaf protoplast membranes. The authors conclude that the /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ fed to pea epicotyls occurs largely in the cell wall, and that auxin movement is primary and Ca/sup 2 +/ movement secondary in gravitropism. They hypothesize that apoplastic Ca/sup 2 +/ changes during the graviresponse because it is displaced by H/sup +/ secreted through auxin-induced proton release. This proposed mechanism is supported by localized pH experiments, in which filter paper soaked in various buffers was applied to one side of a carborundum-abraded epicotyls. Buffer at pH 3 increased calcium loss from the side to which it is applied, whereas pH 7 buffer decreases it. Moreover, 10 micromolar IAA and 1 micromolar fusicoccin, which promote H/sup +/ efflux, increase Ca/sup 2 +/ release from pea epicotyl segments, whereas cycloheximide, which inhibits H/sup +/ efflux, has the reverse effect.

  19. Osmotic properties of pea internodes in relation to growth and auxin action

    SciTech Connect

    Cosgrove, D.J.; Cleland, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The water transport properties of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) internodes were studied using both dynamic and steady-state methods to determine (a) whether water transport through the growing tissue limits the rate of cell enlargement, and (b) whether auxin stimulates growth in part by increasing the hydraulic conductance of the growing tissue. Measurements using the pressure probe technique showed that the hydraulic conductivity of cortical cell membranes was the same for both slowly growing and auxin-induced rapidly growing cells (membrane hydraulic conductivity, about 1.5 x 10/sup -5/ centimeters per second per bar). In a second technique which measured the rate of water movement through the entire pea internode, the half-time for radial water flow was about 60 seconds and was not altered by auxin application. These results indicate that auxin does not alter the hydraulic conductance of pea stem tissue, either at the cellular or the whole tissue level. When the growth rate was altered by various treatments, including decapitation, auxin application, cold temperature, and KCN treatment, the water potential was independent of the growth rate of the stem. We attribute the depression of the water potential in young pea stems to the presence of solutes in the cell wall free space of the tissue. From the results of these dynamic and steady-state experiments, we conclude that the internal gradient in water potential (from the xylem to the epidermis) needed to sustain cell enlargement is small (no greater than 0.5 bar). Thus, the hydraulic conductance of the tissue is sufficiently large that it does not control or limit the rate of cell enlargement. 30 references, 5 figures, 4 tables.

  20. [THE EFFECT OF ACID RAIN ON ULTRASTRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONAL PARAMETERS OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC APPARATUS OF PEA LEAVES].

    PubMed

    Polishchuk, A V; Vodka, M V; Belyavskaya, N A; Khomochkin, A P; Zolotareva, E K

    2016-01-01

    The effects of simulated acid rain (SAR) on the ultrastructure and functional parameters of the photosynthetic apparatus were studied using 14-day-old pea leaves as test system. Pea plants were sprayed with an aqueous solution containing NaNO₃(0.2 mM) and Na₂SO₄(0.2 mM) (pH 5.6, a control variant), or with the same solution, which was acidified to pH 2.5 (acid variant). Functional characteristics were determined by chlorophyll fluorescence analysis. Acid rain application caused reduction in the efficiency of the photosynthetic electron transport by 25%, which was accompanied by an increase by 85% in the quantum yield of thermal dissipation of excess light quanta. Ultrastructural changes in chloroplast were registered by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after two days of the SAR-treatment of pea leaves. In this case, the changes in the structure of grana, heterogeneity of thylakoids packaging in granum, namely, the increase of intra-thylakoid gaps and thickness of granal thylakoids compared to the control were found. The migration of protein complexes in thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts isolated from leaves treated with SAR was suppressed. It was shown also that carbonic anhydrase activity was inhibited in chloroplast preparations isolated from SAR-treated pea leaves. We proposed a hypothesis on the possible inactivation of thylakoid carbonic anhydrase under SAR and its involvement in the inhibition of photochemical activity of chloroplasts. The data obtained allows to suggest that acid rains negatively affect the photosynthetic apparatus disrupting the membrane system of chloroplast. PMID:27220252

  1. Response of wheat and pea seedlings on increase of bromine concentration in the growth medium.

    PubMed

    Shtangeeva, Irina; Niemelä, Matti; Perämäki, Paavo; Timofeev, Sergey

    2015-12-01

    Biogeochemical cycles of bromine (Br) and its quantitative requirements for different plant species are still studied poorly. There is a need to examine Br pathways in plants and evaluate the factors important for Br accumulation in a plant. In the present work, the effects of different Br compounds on an uptake of Br by two plant species (wheat and pea) that tolerate Br differently (pea is more sensitive to Br compared with wheat) have been studied. The growth medium was spiked with either KBr or NaBr at concentrations 0, 10, 50 and 100 mg/L. Elemental analysis of the plants was performed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and ICP-MS analytical techniques after leaching of the samples with tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide at mild temperature (60 °C). The experimental results have shown that wheat and pea seedlings can accumulate rather large amounts of Br. An increase of Br concentration in a plant was not always directly proportional to the variations in the Br concentration in the growth medium. In wheat, the greater part of Br was accumulated during first 7 days. In pea, the uptake of Br lasted until the end of the experiment. Certain differences in the ability of plants to accumulate Br were observed when the plants were grown in a medium spiked with different Br compounds. In most cases, Br accumulation was higher in the leaves of the plants grown in the medium spiked with KBr. The same tendency was observed for another halogen, chlorine (Cl). PMID:26233749

  2. Comparative study of the functional properties of three legume seed isolates: adzuki, pea and soy bean.

    PubMed

    Barac, Miroljub B; Pesic, Mirjana B; Stanojevic, Sladjana P; Kostic, Aleksandar Z; Bivolarevic, Vanja

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work was to compare functional properties including solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties of native and thermally treated adzuki, soy and pea protein isolates prepared under the same conditions. These functional properties were tested at four pH values: pH 3.0, pH 5.0, pH 7.0 and pH 8.0. The lowest solubility at all pH values were obtained for isolate of adzuki whereas isolates of soybean had the highest values at almost all pHs. Thermal treatment reduced solubility of soy and pea isolates at all pH values, whereas solubility of adzuki isolate was unchanged, except at pH 8. Native isolate of adzuki had the best emulsifying properties at pH 7.0 whereas at the other pH values some of native pea and soybean protein isolates were superior. After thermal treatment, depending on tested pH and selected variety all of three species could be a good emulsifier. Native soy protein isolates formed the most stable foams at all pHs. Thermal treatment significantly improved foaming properties of adzuki isolate, whereas reduced foaming capacity of soy and pea isolates, but could improve foam stability of these isolates at specific pH. Appropriate selection of legume seed as well as variety could have great importance in achievement of desirable functional properties of final products. All three tested species could find specific application in wide range of food products. PMID:25892775

  3. Genetic Variability in Nodulation and Root Growth Affects Nitrogen Fixation and Accumulation in Pea

    PubMed Central

    Bourion, Virginie; Laguerre, Gisele; Depret, Geraldine; Voisin, Anne-Sophie; Salon, Christophe; Duc, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Legume nitrogen is derived from two different sources, symbiotically fixed atmospheric N2 and soil N. The effect of genetic variability of root and nodule establishment on N acquisition and seed protein yield was investigated under field conditions in pea (Pisum sativum). In addition, these parameters were related to the variability in preference for rhizobial genotypes. Methods Five different spring pea lines (two hypernodulating mutants and three cultivars), previously identified in artificial conditions as contrasted for both root and nodule development, were characterized under field conditions. Root and nodule establishment was examined from the four-leaf stage up to the beginning of seed filling and was related to the patterns of shoot dry matter and nitrogen accumulation. The genetic structure of rhizobial populations associated with the pea lines was obtained by analysis of nodule samples. The fraction of nitrogen derived from symbiotic fixation was estimated at the beginning of seed filling and at physiological maturity, when seed protein content and yield were determined. Key Results The hypernodulating mutants established nodules earlier and maintained them longer than was the case for the three cultivars, whereas their root development and nitrogen accumulation were lower. The seed protein yield was higher in ‘Athos’ and ‘Austin’, the two cultivars with increased root development, consistent with their higher N absorption during seed filling. Conclusion The hypernodulating mutants did not accumulate more nitrogen, probably due to the C cost for nodulation being higher than for root development. Enhancing exogenous nitrogen supply at the end of the growth cycle, by increasing the potential for root N uptake from soil, seems a good option for improving pea seed filling. PMID:17670753

  4. Roles for auxin during morphogenesis of the compound leaves of pea ( Pisum sativum).

    PubMed

    DeMason, Darleen A; Chawla, Rekha

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the impact of the plant growth regulator auxin on the development of compound leaves in pea. Wildtype ( WT) plantlets, as well as those of two leaf mutants, acacia ( tl) and tendrilled acacia ( uni-tac) of pea ( Pisum sativum L.), were grown on media containing the auxin-transport inhibitors 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), N-(1-naphthyl)phthalamic acid (NPA), or the auxin antagonist, p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid (PCIB). The resulting plantlets were carefully analyzed morphologically, by scanning electron microscopy and for Uni gene expression using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Auxin transport was measured in WT leaf parts using [(14)C]indole-3-acetic acid. Relative Uni gene expression was determined in shoot tips of a range of leaf-form mutants. Morphological abnormalities were observed for all genotypes examined. The terminal tendrils on WT plants were converted to leaflets, stubs or were aborted. The number of pinna pairs produced on leaves was reduced, with the distal forms being eliminated before the proximal ones. Some leaves were converted to simple, including tri-and bilobed, forms. These treatments phenocopy the uni-tac and unifoliata ( uni) mutants of pea. In the most extreme situations, leaf blades were completely lost leaving only a pair of stipules or scale leaves. Polar auxin transport was basipetal for all leaf parts. Uni gene expression in shoot tips was significantly reduced in 60 microM NPA and TIBA. Uni mRNA was more abundant in tl, af and af tl and reduced in the uni mutants compared to WT. These results indicate that an auxin gradient plays fundamental roles in controlling morphogenesis in the compound leaves of pea and specifically it: (i). is the driving force for leaf growth and pinna determination; (ii). is necessary for pinna initiation; and (iii). controls subsequent pinna development. PMID:12942326

  5. The brassinosteroid growth response in pea is not mediated by changes in gibberellin content.

    PubMed

    Jager, Corinne E; Symons, Gregory M; Ross, John J; Smith, Jennifer J; Reid, James B

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this study was to increase our understanding of the relationship between brassinosteroids (BRs) and gibberellins (GAs) by examining the effects of BR deficiency on the GA biosynthesis pathway in several tissue types of pea (Pisum sativum L.). It was suggested recently that, in Arabidopsis, BRs act as positive regulators of GA 20-oxidation, a key step in GA biosynthesis [Bouquin et al. (2001) Plant Physiol 127:450-458]. However, this may not be the case in pea as GA20 levels were consistently higher in all shoot tissues of BR-deficient (lk and lkb) and BR-response (lka) mutants. The application of brassinolide (BL) to lkb plants reduced GA20 levels, and metabolism studies revealed a reduced conversion of GA19 to GA20 in epi-BL-treated lkb plants. These results indicate that BRs actually negatively regulate GA20 levels in pea. Although GA20 levels are affected by BR levels, this does not result in consistent changes in the level of the bioactive GA, GA1. Therefore, even though a clear interaction exists between endogenous BR levels and the level of GA20, this interaction may not be biologically significant. In addition to the effect of BRs on GA levels, the effect of altered GA1 levels on endogenous BR levels was examined. There was no significant difference in BR levels between the GA mutants and the wild type (wt), indicating that altered GA1 levels have no effect on BR levels in pea. It appears that the BR growth response is not mediated by changes in bioactive GA levels, thus providing further evidence that BRs are important regulators of stem elongation. PMID:15605238

  6. Predation drives stable coexistence ratios between red and green pea aphid morphs.

    PubMed

    Balog, A; Schmitz, O J

    2013-03-01

    We conducted field surveys and experiments to evaluate the hypothesis that predation is an important driving factor determining the degree of coexistence between red and green morphs of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Theory suggests that the different colour morphs are differentially susceptible to natural enemies and selection by predation which in turn leads to variable relative abundances of red and green morphs among host plants across landscapes. Our field surveys on pea and alfalfa revealed, however, that the colour morphs tended to coexist closely in a ratio of one red to three green aphids across fields with different host plant monocultures. Experimentation involving manipulation of the relative abundances of the two colour morphs on host plants pea and alfalfa with and without predator presence revealed that red morphs had higher or same fitness (per capita reproduction) than green morphs on both pea and alfalfa only when in the proportion of one red/three green proportion. Moreover, experimentation evaluating predator efficiency revealed that red morphs are safest from predation when in a 1 : 3 ratio with green morphs. These results suggest that in addition to predation selection effects, red morphs may behaviourally choose to associate with green morphs in a narrow 1 : 3 ratio to maximize their fitness. This evidence, along with existing published data on red and green morph anti-predator behaviour indicates that a 1 : 3 red and green morph coexistence ratio is driven by a balance between predation pressure and behavioural assorting by red morphs across landscapes. In this way predators may have ecological-evolutionary consequences for traits that affect the colour morphs' proportion and tolerances to selective pressure. PMID:23294477

  7. Remote sensing of St. Augustine Decline (SAD) disease. [spectral reflectance of healthy and diseased grass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odle, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory and field spectral reflectance measurements of healthy and infected St. Augustine grass were made using several different instruments. Spectral differences between healthy and infected grass occured in the visible and near infrared regions. Multiband and color infrared photographs were taken of healthy and diseased turf from ground-based platforms and low altitude aircraft. Qualitative (density slicing) and quantitative (transmission densitometry) analyses revealed distinct tonal differences between healthy and St. Augustine disease (SAD) infected grass. Similar experiments are described for determining if healthy and diseased grass can be distinguished from waterstressed grass and grass deficient in either nitrogen or iron.

  8. The enhancement of the nutritive value of peas for broiler chickens: an evaluation of micronization and dehulling processes.

    PubMed

    Igbasan, F A; Guenter, W

    1996-10-01

    The effects of dehulling and micronization (infrared heating) on the nutritive value of three cultivars (Impala, Radley, and Sirius) of peas (Pisum sativum) varying in coat color for broiler chickens were studied. Dehulling increased (P < or = 0.05) protein and starch contents and decreased (P < or = 0.05) fiber content of peas. Also, the concentrations of most amino acids slightly increased (P > or = 0.05). Micronization slightly changed (P > or = 0.05) the chemical composition of peas. Moisture, protein, fiber and phosphorus contents marginally decreased. The concentrations of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, isoleucine, lysine, cystine, threonine, and tyrosine decreased (P < or = 0.05), whereas that of methionine slightly increased (P > or = 0.05). Lysine concentration was decreased by 2.7%. The TMEn and average true AA availability values determined with adult cockerels were improved (P < or = 0.05) by micronization, but the availabilities of lysine were decreased by 11.3, 4.4, and 2.0% for Impala, Radley and Sirius, respectively. The decrease was significant (P < or = 0.05) for Impala and Radley but not significant for Sirius peas. Application of micronization resulted in a significant (P < or = 0.05) improvement in AMEn, apparent protein digestibility (APD), and starch digestibility. The increments ranged from 19.4 to 31.3, 8.5 to 33.6, and 12.2 to 22.3% for AMEn, APD, and starch digestibility, respectively. In contrast, dehulling had little or no effect on AMEn (3.0 and 4.9%), APD (-1.8 and -4.2%) and starch digestibility (2.0 and 1.3%) values of Impala (yellow-seeded) and Radley (green-seeded) peas but significantly (P < or = 0.05) improved the AMEn (24.1%), APD (26.8%), and starch digestibility (12.1%) values of Sirius (brown-seeded) peas. Chick performance was evaluated in a 2-wk trial. Birds fed micronized peas grew faster and had better feed conversion (P < or = 0.05) than birds fed untreated peas and the wheat-soybean control diet. Addition of lysine to

  9. ON THE OXYGEN AND NITROGEN CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES AND THE EVOLUTION OF THE 'GREEN PEA' GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Amorin, Ricardo O.; Perez-Montero, Enrique; Vilchez, J. M. E-mail: epm@iaa.e

    2010-06-01

    We have investigated the oxygen and nitrogen chemical abundances in extremely compact star-forming galaxies (SFGs) with redshifts between {approx}0.11 and 0.35, popularly referred to as 'green peas'. Direct and strong-line methods sensitive to the N/O ratio applied to their Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra reveal that these systems are genuine metal-poor galaxies, with mean oxygen abundances {approx}20% solar. At a given metallicity these galaxies display systematically large N/O ratios compared to normal galaxies, which can explain the strong difference between our metallicities measurements and previous ones. While their N/O ratios follow the relation with stellar mass of local SFGs in the SDSS, we find that the mass-metallicity relation of the 'green peas' is offset {approx_gt}0.3 dex to lower metallicities. We argue that recent interaction-induced inflow of gas, possibly coupled with a selective metal-rich gas loss, driven by supernova winds, may explain our findings and the known galaxy properties, namely high specific star formation rates, extreme compactness, and disturbed optical morphologies. The 'green pea' galaxy properties seem to be uncommon in the nearby universe, suggesting a short and extreme stage of their evolution. Therefore, these galaxies may allow us to study in great detail many processes, such as starburst activity and chemical enrichment, under physical conditions approaching those in galaxies at higher redshifts.

  10. Comparing sizes of Lyα and UV emission of Green Pea galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huan; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Jiang, Tianxing; Wang, JunXian

    2016-06-01

    We studied the spatial profiles of Lyα and UV emission from 16 Green Pea galaxies with Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Green Pea galaxies are nearby analogs of high-z Lyα emitting galaxies. We extract the spatial profiles of Lyα emission from the 2D COS spectra of Green Peas. The Lyα emission shows more extended spatial profiles than the UV emissions in most galaxies in our sample. The intrinsic Lyα sizes (measured as the Full Width Half Maximum of intrinsic Lyα spatial profile) are about 2 to 5 times of the UV sizes (measured as the FWHM of UV image) in most cases. The Lyα emissions show large offsets from the UV emissions in three galaxies and double-horned spatial profile in one galaxy. We compare the spatial profiles of Lyα photons at different velocities and find a relation between Lyα velocity profile and spatial profile. These results suggest that most Lyα photons escape out of a galaxy through many resonant scatterings in the HI gas with low column density, instead of directly escaping through ionized holes in the interstellar medium.

  11. Structure-function relationships of the PEA3 group of Ets-related transcription factors.

    PubMed

    de Launoit, Y; Baert, J L; Chotteau, A; Monte, D; Defossez, P A; Coutte, L; Pelczar, H; Leenders, F

    1997-08-01

    The PEA3 group of transcription factors belongs to the Ets family and is composed of PEA3, ERM, and ER81, which are more than 95% identical within the DNA-binding domain--the ETS domain--and which demonstrate 50% aa identity overall. We present here a review of the current knowledge of these transcription factors, which possess functional domains responsible for DNA-binding, DNA-binding inhibition, and transactivation. Recent data suggest that these factors are targets for signaling cascades, such as the Ras-dependent ones, and thus may contribute first to the nuclear response to cell stimulation and second to Ras-induced cell transformation. The expression of the PEA3 group members in numerous developing murine organs, and, especially, in epithelial-mesenchymal interaction events, suggests a key role in murine organogenesis. Moreover, their expression in certain breast cancer cells suggests a possible involvement of these genes in the appearance, progression, and invasion of malignant cells. PMID:9259977

  12. Immunolocalization of PsNLEC-1, a lectin-like glycoprotein expressed in developing pea nodules.

    PubMed Central

    Dahiya, P; Kardailsky, I V; Brewin, N J

    1997-01-01

    The pea (Pisum sativum) nodule lectin gene PsNlec1 is a member of the legume lectin gene family that is strongly expressed in infected pea nodule tissue. A full-length cDNA sequence of PsNlec1 was expressed in Escherichia coli and a specific antiserum was generated from the purified protein. Immunoblotting of material from isolated symbiosomes revealed that the glycoprotein was present in two antigenic isoforms, PsNLEC-1A and PsNLEC-1B. The N-terminal sequence of isoform A showed homology to an eight-amino acid propeptide sequence previously identified from the cDNA sequence of isoform B. In nodule homogenates the antiserum recognized an additional fast-migrating band, PsNLEC-1C. Fractionation studies indicated that PsNLEC-1C was associated with a 100,000 g nodule membrane fraction, suggesting an association with cytoplasmic membrane or vesicles. Immunogold localization in pea nodule tissue sections demonstrated that the PsNLEC-1 antigen was present in the symbiosome compartment and also in the vacuole but revealed differences in distribution between infected host cells in different parts of the nodule. These data suggest that PsNLEC-1 is subject to posttranslational modification and that the various antigenic isoforms can be used to monitor membrane and vesicle targeting during symbiosome development. PMID:9414555

  13. Functional properties of pea (Pisum sativum, L.) protein isolates modified with chymosin.

    PubMed

    Barać, Miroljub; Cabrilo, Slavica; Pešić, Mirjana; Stanojević, Slađana; Pavlićević, Milica; Maćej, Ognjen; Ristić, Nikola

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of limited hydrolysis on functional properties, as well as on protein composition of laboratory-prepared pea protein isolates, were investigated. Pea protein isolates were hydrolyzed for either 15, 30 and 60 min with recombined chymosin (Maxiren). The effect of enzymatic action on solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties at different pH values (3.0; 5.0; 7.0 and 8.0) was monitored. Chymosin can be a very useful agent for improvement of functional properties of isolates. Action of this enzyme caused a low degree of hydrolysis (3.9-4.7%), but improved significantly functional properties of pea protein isolates (PPI), especially at lower pH values (3.0-5.0). At these pH values all hydrolysates had better solubility, emulsifying activity and foaming stability, while longer-treated samples (60 min) formed more stable emulsions at higher pH values (7.0, 8.0) than initial isolates. Also, regardless of pH value, all hydrolysates showed improved foaming ability. A moderate positive correlation between solubility and emulsifying activity index (EAI) (0.74) and negative correlation between solubility and foam stability (-0.60) as well as between foam stability (FS) and EAI (-0.77) were observed. Detected enhancement in functional properties was a result of partial hydrolysis of insoluble protein complexes. PMID:22272078

  14. Strigolactone acts downstream of auxin to regulate bud outgrowth in pea and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Philip B; Dun, Elizabeth A; Ferguson, Brett J; Rameau, Catherine; Beveridge, Christine A

    2009-05-01

    During the last century, two key hypotheses have been proposed to explain apical dominance in plants: auxin promotes the production of a second messenger that moves up into buds to repress their outgrowth, and auxin saturation in the stem inhibits auxin transport from buds, thereby inhibiting bud outgrowth. The recent discovery of strigolactone as the novel shoot-branching inhibitor allowed us to test its mode of action in relation to these hypotheses. We found that exogenously applied strigolactone inhibited bud outgrowth in pea (Pisum sativum) even when auxin was depleted after decapitation. We also found that strigolactone application reduced branching in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) auxin response mutants, suggesting that auxin may act through strigolactones to facilitate apical dominance. Moreover, strigolactone application to tiny buds of mutant or decapitated pea plants rapidly stopped outgrowth, in contrast to applying N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), an auxin transport inhibitor, which significantly slowed growth only after several days. Whereas strigolactone or NPA applied to growing buds reduced bud length, only NPA blocked auxin transport in the bud. Wild-type and strigolactone biosynthesis mutant pea and Arabidopsis shoots were capable of instantly transporting additional amounts of auxin in excess of endogenous levels, contrary to predictions of auxin transport models. These data suggest that strigolactone does not act primarily by affecting auxin transport from buds. Rather, the primary repressor of bud outgrowth appears to be the auxin-dependent production of strigolactones. PMID:19321710

  15. Evidence that the mature leaves contribute auxin to the immature tissues of pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Jager, Corinne E; Symons, Gregory M; Glancy, Naomi E; Reid, James B; Ross, John J

    2007-07-01

    In plants such as the garden pea (Pisum sativum L.), it is widely thought that the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is synthesised mainly in the immature tissues of the apical bud and then transported basipetally to other parts of the plant. Consistent with this belief are results showing that removal of the apical bud markedly reduces the IAA content in the stem. However, it has also been suggested that the mature leaves may synthesise substantial amounts of IAA, which enters the basipetal transport stream after being transported to the shoot apex in the phloem (Cambridge and Morris in Planta 99:583-588, 1996). To examine this theory, we defoliated pea plants and measured the effect on IAA content in the remaining shoot tissues. IAA levels were reduced in the internodes, and to a lesser extent in the apical bud, after defoliation, suggesting that mature leaves are indeed an important source of auxin for the shoot. Consistent with this idea, we have demonstrated that mature, fully expanded leaves are capable of de novo IAA synthesis. Furthermore, we report evidence for the presence of IAA in the phloem sap of pea. Together these results support those of Cambridge and Morris, suggesting that mature leaves are a source of the IAA in the basipetal transport stream. PMID:17308928

  16. [Enhanced Resistance of Pea Plants to Oxidative: Stress Caused by Paraquat during Colonization by Aerobic Methylobacteria].

    PubMed

    Agafonova, N V; Doronina, N Y; Trotsenko, Yu A

    2016-01-01

    The influence of colonization of the pea (Pisum sativum L.) by aerobic methylobacteria of five different species (Methylophilus flavus Ship, Methylobacterium extorquens G10, Methylobacillus arboreus Iva, Methylopila musalis MUSA, Methylopila turkiensis Sidel) on plant resistance to paraquat-induced stresses has been studied. The normal conditions of pea colonization by methylobacteria were characterized by a decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidases) and in the concentrations of endogenous H2O2, proline, and malonic dialdehyde, which is a product of lipid peroxidation and indicator of damage to plant cell membranes, and an increase in the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus (the content of chlorophylls a, b and carotenoids). In the presence of paraquat, the colonized plants had higher activities of antioxidant enzymes, stable photosynthetic indices, and a less intensive accumulation of the products of lipid peroxidation as compared to noncolonized plants. Thus, colonization by methylobacteria considerably increased the adaptive protection of pea plants to the paraquat-induced oxidative stress. PMID:27266250

  17. RADIO DETECTION OF GREEN PEAS: IMPLICATIONS FOR MAGNETIC FIELDS IN YOUNG GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborti, Sayan; Yadav, Naveen; Ray, Alak; Cardamone, Carolin

    2012-02-10

    Green Peas are a new class of young, emission line galaxies that were discovered by citizen volunteers in the Galaxy Zoo project. Their low stellar mass, low metallicity, and very high star formation rates make Green Peas the nearby (z {approx} 0.2) analogs of the Lyman break galaxies which account for the bulk of the star formation in the early universe (z {approx} 2-5). They thus provide accessible laboratories in the nearby universe for understanding star formation, supernova feedback, particle acceleration, and magnetic field amplification in early galaxies. We report the first direct radio detection of Green Peas with low frequency Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope observations and our stacking detection with archival Very Large Array FIRST data. We show that the radio emission implies that these extremely young galaxies already have magnetic fields ({approx}> 30 {mu}G) even larger than that of the Milky Way. This is at odds with the present understanding of magnetic field growth based on amplification of seed fields by dynamo action over a galaxy's lifetime. Our observations strongly favor models with pregalactic magnetic fields at {mu}G levels.

  18. Evidence against the involvement of ionically bound cell wall proteins in pea epicotyl growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melan, M. A.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    Ionically bound cell wall proteins were extracted from 7 day old etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Alaska) epicotyls with 3 molar LiCl. Polyclonal antiserum was raised in rabbits against the cell wall proteins. Growth assays showed that treatment of growing region segments (5-7 millimeters) of peas with either dialyzed serum, serum globulin fraction, affinity purified immunoglobulin, or papain-cleaved antibody fragments had no effect on growth. Immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed antibody binding to cell walls and penetration of the antibodies into the tissues. Western blot analysis, immunoassay results, and affinity chromatography utilizing Sepharose-bound antibodies confirmed recognition of the protein preparation by the antibodies. Experiments employing in vitro extension as a screening measure indicated no effect upon extension by antibodies, by 50 millimolar LiCl perfusion of the apoplast or by 3 molar LiCl extraction. Addition of cell wall protein to protease pretreated segments did not restore extension nor did addition of cell wall protein to untreated segments increase extension. It is concluded that, although evidence suggests that protein is responsible for the process of extension, the class(es) of proteins which are extracted from pea cell walls with 3 molar LiCl are probably not involved in this process.

  19. Keep on growing: building and patterning leaves in the grasses.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Michael W; Hake, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Monocot leaves have unique features that arise early in their development. Maturing leaves protectively enclose younger leaves and the meristem, the pool of founder cells from which a leaf emerges. Through the maturation process, proximal sheath and distal blade tissues differentiate and are separated by the ligule and auricle structures. Here we review current research focusing on the contribution of gene regulatory factors and phytohormones on the patterning and differentiation of monocot leaves primarily focusing on research in the grasses (Poaceae). The 10000 members of the grasses include the true grain cereals (wheat, rice, maize, etc.), biofuel crops such as sugarcane, pasture grasses, and bamboo. They are the most studied of the monocots due to their tremendous agricultural and agronomic importance. PMID:26751036

  20. Case report of chondroma in a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Mesbah, Mehrzad; Rezaie, Annahita; Tulaby Dezfuly, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is a herbivorous, freshwater fish species of the family Cyprinidae, and the only species of the genus Ctenopharyngodon. Neoplasms in fishes are generally less aggressive than neoplasms in mammals and are most commonly discrete, focal and benign neoplasms. A 3-year-old grass carp with a big mass on the vertebrae was referred to the clinic. According to the owner's statements, the fish had no signs of lethargy, ataxia and abnormal behaviors. The size of the mass was 7 × 6 × 6 cm. It cut hardly with audible sounds. The consistency of the mass was as hard as a cartilage. Microscopic examination revealed numerous irregular crests of hyaline cartilage beneath the skin. According to histopathologic characteristics, chondroma on the vertebrae of grass carp was diagnosed. PMID:27482364

  1. Case report of chondroma in a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    PubMed Central

    Mesbah, Mehrzad; Rezaie, Annahita; Tulaby Dezfuly, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is a herbivorous, freshwater fish species of the family Cyprinidae, and the only species of the genus Ctenopharyngodon. Neoplasms in fishes are generally less aggressive than neoplasms in mammals and are most commonly discrete, focal and benign neoplasms. A 3-year-old grass carp with a big mass on the vertebrae was referred to the clinic. According to the owner’s statements, the fish had no signs of lethargy, ataxia and abnormal behaviors. The size of the mass was 7 × 6 × 6 cm. It cut hardly with audible sounds. The consistency of the mass was as hard as a cartilage. Microscopic examination revealed numerous irregular crests of hyaline cartilage beneath the skin. According to histopathologic characteristics, chondroma on the vertebrae of grass carp was diagnosed. PMID:27482364

  2. Variations of Roughness Coefficients with Flow Depth of Grassed Swale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustaffa, N.; Ahmad, N. A.; Razi, M. A. M.

    2016-07-01

    Grassed swales are the best management practice (BMP), which has been widely used to reduce the peak flow, reduce water pollution through vegetated filtration, and improve the groundwater recharge. Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) is using the approach of grassed swales recommended by the Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia (DID) for reducing the risk of flooding and controlling the water pollution. This paper investigates the variations of roughness coefficients with the flow depth of grassed swales in the campus of UTHM. Fieldwork was carried out on the grassed swale to collect the hydraulic data, which including the levelling work, measuring the flow depth and flow velocity of the swale. The flow depth of swale was taken at three points divided along the width of swale and the flow velocity is captured three times at each of the point. The variations of roughness coefficients of grassed swales are presented in Manning's equation, and the results reveal that the n value increases with the increasing of flow depth. Manning's coefficient value found in this study is in the range of 0.110 to 0.756, which are higher than the value proposed by the Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia (MSMA). The relationships of flow depth and velocity at each section of the swale are portrayed in graphs, which show that the velocity increases with the decreasing of flow depth. The outcomes of this study can be concluded that the variation of Manning's coefficient value is influenced by the swale profile, flow depth, flow velocity, and as well as the vegetation used in the grassed swale concerned.

  3. Effect of micronized pea and enzyme supplementation on nutrient utilization and manure output in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Nyachoti, C M; Arntfield, S D; Guenter, W; Cenkowski, S; Opapeju, F O

    2006-08-01

    An experiment was done to determine manure output, N and P excretion, and apparent digestibilities of AA, CP, P, and DM in growing pigs fed barley-based diets containing micronized or raw peas with or without supplementation with enzyme containing primarily beta-glucanase and phytase (Biogal S+). Eight barrows (21.5 +/- 1.2 kg of initial BW) fitted with T-cannulas at the distal ileum were used in a 40-d trial and housed in metabolism cages. Pigs were assigned in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design to 4 experimental diets: 1) barley-raw peas control (BRP), 2) barley-micronized peas (BMP), 3) BRP plus enzyme, and 4) BMP plus enzyme (BMP+E). Pigs received 2.6 times maintenance energy requirements based on BW at the beginning of each experimental period. During each experimental period, pigs were acclimatized to their respective diets for 5 d followed by a 3-d period of total fecal and urine collection and another 2-d period of ileal digesta collection. Samples were analyzed for DM, AA (diets and digesta only), N, and P. Wet fecal output of BRP plus enzyme-fed pigs tended to be lower (P = 0.07) than the amount produced by BMP-fed pigs. The amounts of dry feces and urine produced were not different among treatments (P > 0.10). Supplementing the BRP and BMP diet with enzyme increased (P = 0.002) the daily P retained per pig. Pigs fed the enzyme-supplemented diets tended to have lower (P = 0.06) fecal P excretion and greater urinary P excretion (P = 0.001) compared with pigs fed the nonsupplemented diets, but total P excretion was not influenced by diet (P > 0.10). Pigs fed the BMP+E diet retained more (P = 0.006) N per day than pigs fed the BMP diet. However, N excretion was not influenced by dietary treatment (P > 0.10), although BMP+E-fed pigs excreted 13.2% less N in the feces compared with those fed the nonenzyme supplemented controls. Inclusion of micronized peas with or without enzyme supplementation did not affect urinary or fecal N excretion (P > 0

  4. Kinetic features of gravicurvature of pea (Pisum sativum) and cress (Lepidium sativum) roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polishchuk, O. V.

    The upper sides of roots oriented horizontally grow more rapidly than the lower sides, causing the root ultimately to grow downward; this phenomenon is known as positive gravitropism. This ability is based on implicit mechanism which is being extensively investigated. Elaborate analysis of kinetic features of gravicurvature may complement the investigation. Pea and cress roots have positive gravitropism as roots of majority of higher plants. Mainly we investigated dependence of gravicurvature angle on time of gravistimulation. Two-day-old seedlings of cress (Lepidium sativum L. cv. P896) and four-day-old pea ones (Pisum sativum L. cv. Damir-2) were placed on 1% agar medium in Petri dishes and turned on angle of gravistimulation. Then they were photographed at the same position each hour of gravistimulation. Photographs were analyzed with the help of Image Tool software program. Both pea and cress roots showed two phases of gravitropic response during gravistimulation for 6 hours when the initial angle of gravistimulation was 135 degrees. Two peaks of the rate of bending were observed. In cress roots, the first peak was much lower and the distance between the two peaks was greater than in pea roots. Curves of gravitropic bending of cress roots grown in agar had one or two inflections while in the case of roots grown on filter paper curves had no inflections. These data are in agreement with the effect of the external medium on the gravitropic curvature of rice roots reported by Staves et al. (1997). Our results may reflect the fact that at least two systems that contribute to gravicurvature may exist in roots. These systems may be ligand-receptor complexes that may be formed with different kinetics in two different regions of the root. The most probable ligand is auxin and the regions appear to be central elongation zone (CEZ) and distal elongation zone (DEZ), that were reported to be centers of tropic bending in roots. Thus, dependence of rate of root bending on

  5. Brachypodium distachyon: making hay with a wild grass.

    PubMed

    Opanowicz, Magdalena; Vain, Philippe; Draper, John; Parker, David; Doonan, John H

    2008-04-01

    Brachypodium distachyon is a wild grass with a short life cycle. Although it is related to small grain cereals such as wheat, its genome is only a fraction of the size. A draft genome sequence is currently available, and molecular and genetic tools have been developed for transformation, mutagenesis and gene mapping. Accessions collected from across its ancestral range show a surprising degree of phenotypic variation in many traits, including those implicated in domestication of the cereals. Thus, given its rapid cycling time and ease of cultivation, Brachypodium will be a useful model for investigating problems in grass biology. PMID:18343709

  6. An experimental study of flow around submerged grass vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Julia; Mandre, Shreyas; Singh, Ravi

    2014-11-01

    Mixing of fluids through submerged vegetation caused by tidal currents facilitate various environmental and ecological transport processes. This fluid-vegetation interaction is believed to result from a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability from an inflection point in the flow profile. Recent studies suggest that flow in presence of grass can also become unstable due to shear instability of flow above the grass. We devise a two-dimensional lab scale analog of the fluid-vegetation interaction using ABS plastic filaments immersed in a soap film. We employ PIV of the surrounding flow to gain an understanding of the role of instabilities in the flow.

  7. Relevance of a 5-grass sublingual tablet for immunotherapy of patients with grass pollen allergy in North America.

    PubMed

    Moingeon, Philippe; Cox, Linda

    2016-06-01

    Grass pollen allergy is common and clinically consequential in North America. While it is frequently treated with subcutaneous or sublingual immunotherapy, debate remains regarding whether allergen immunotherapy is best carried out using a single representative or multiple cross-reactive allergen(s). Patients are commonly exposed to pollens from multiple allergenic grass species belonging to the Pooideæ subfamily. Beyond the known IgE cross-reactivity, considerable molecular heterogeneity exists with respect to allergen content among grass species, with further evidence that these molecular variants can be detected by the patients' immune system. These observations provide a compelling scientific rationale for the use of mixed pollen allergen extracts to broaden the allergen repertoire, with the aim of reorienting inappropriate immune responses in allergic patients. PMID:26813047

  8. Cell wall composition throughout development for the model grass Brachypodium distachyon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperate perennial grasses are important worldwide as livestock nutritive energy sources and potential feedstock for lignocellulosic biofuel production. The annual temperate grass, Brachypodium distanchyon, has been championed as a useful model system to facilitate biological research in agricultur...

  9. Leaf Photosynthesis and Plant Competitive Success in a Mixed-grass Prairie: With Reference to Exotic Grasses Invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Dr. Xuejun; Patton, J.; Gu, Lianhong; Wang, J.; Patton, B.

    2014-11-26

    The widespread invasion of exotic cool-season grasses in mixed-grass rangeland is diminishing the hope of bringing back the natural native plant communities. However, ecophysiological mechanisms explaining the relative competitiveness of these invasive grasses over the native species generally are lacking. In this study, we used experimental data collected in south-central North Dakota, USA to address this issue. Photosynthetic potential was obtained from the net assimilation (A) vs. internal CO2 (Ci) response curves from plants grown in a greenhouse. Plant success was defined as the average frequency measured over 25 years (1988 to 2012) on overflow range sites across five levels of grazing intensity. In addition, estimated leaf area index of individual species under field conditions was used to indicate plant success. The correlation between photosynthetic potential based on A/Ci curves and plant frequency was negative. The correlation between leaf photosynthesis and plant success (defined as leaf area within a unit land area) was also negative, although statistically weak. These results suggest that the two cool-season grasses, Poa pratensis and Bromus inermis, do not rely on superior leaf-level photosynthesis for competitive success. Instead, some other traits, such as early and late-season growth, may be more important for them to gain dominance in the mixed-grass prairie. We propose that the negative photosynthesis-frequency relation as observed in this study results from a strong competition for limited soil nutrients in the mixed-grass prairie. In conclusion, it has implications for the stability and productivity of the grassland under various human disruptions influencing the soil nutrient status.

  10. Leaf Photosynthesis and Plant Competitive Success in a Mixed-grass Prairie: With Reference to Exotic Grasses Invasion

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dong, Dr. Xuejun; Patton, J.; Gu, Lianhong; Wang, J.; Patton, B.

    2014-11-26

    The widespread invasion of exotic cool-season grasses in mixed-grass rangeland is diminishing the hope of bringing back the natural native plant communities. However, ecophysiological mechanisms explaining the relative competitiveness of these invasive grasses over the native species generally are lacking. In this study, we used experimental data collected in south-central North Dakota, USA to address this issue. Photosynthetic potential was obtained from the net assimilation (A) vs. internal CO2 (Ci) response curves from plants grown in a greenhouse. Plant success was defined as the average frequency measured over 25 years (1988 to 2012) on overflow range sites across five levelsmore » of grazing intensity. In addition, estimated leaf area index of individual species under field conditions was used to indicate plant success. The correlation between photosynthetic potential based on A/Ci curves and plant frequency was negative. The correlation between leaf photosynthesis and plant success (defined as leaf area within a unit land area) was also negative, although statistically weak. These results suggest that the two cool-season grasses, Poa pratensis and Bromus inermis, do not rely on superior leaf-level photosynthesis for competitive success. Instead, some other traits, such as early and late-season growth, may be more important for them to gain dominance in the mixed-grass prairie. We propose that the negative photosynthesis-frequency relation as observed in this study results from a strong competition for limited soil nutrients in the mixed-grass prairie. In conclusion, it has implications for the stability and productivity of the grassland under various human disruptions influencing the soil nutrient status.« less

  11. High-yield expression of pea thioredoxin m and assessment of its efficiency in chloroplast fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activation.

    PubMed Central

    López Jaramillo, J; Chueca, A; Jacquot, J P; Hermoso, R; Lázaro, J J; Sahrawy, M; López Gorgé, J

    1997-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding pea (Pisum sativum L.) chloroplast thioredoxin (Trx) m and its transit peptide were isolated from a pea cDNA library. Its deduced amino acid sequence showed 70% homology with spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) Trx m and 25% homology with Trx f from pea and spinach. After subcloning in the Ndel-BamHI sites of pET-12a, the recombinant supplied 20 mg Trx m/L. Escherichia coli culture. This protein had 108 amino acids and was 12,000 D, which is identical to the pea leaf native protein. Unlike pea Trx f, pea Trx m showed a hyperbolic saturation of pea chloroplast fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase), with a Trx m/ FBPase molar saturation ratio of about 60, compared with 4 for the Trx f/FBPase quotient. Cross-experiments have shown the ability of pea Trx m to activate the spinach chloroplast FBPase, results that are in contrast with those in spinach found by P. Schürmann, K. Maeda, and A. Tsugita ([1981] Eur J Biochem 116: 37-45), who did not find Trx m efficiency in FBPase activation. This higher efficiency of pea Trx m could be related to the presence of four basic residues (arginine-37, lysine-70, arginine-74, and lysine-97) flanking the regulatory cluster; spinach Trx m lacks the positive charge corresponding to lysine-70 of pea Trx m. This has been confirmed by K70E mutagenesis of pea Trx m, which leads to a 50% decrease in FBPase activation. PMID:9276945

  12. Genes determining pathogenicity to pea are clustered on a supernumerary chromosome in the fungal plant pathogen Nectria haematococca.

    PubMed

    Han, Y; Liu, X; Benny, U; Kistler, H C; VanEtten, H D

    2001-02-01

    Three genes that contribute to the ability of the fungus Nectria haematococca to cause disease on pea plants have been identified. These pea pathogenicity (PEP) genes are within 25 kb of each other and are located on a supernumerary chromosome. Altogether, the PEP gene cluster contains six transcriptional units that are expressed during infection of pea tissue. The biochemical function of only one of the genes is known with certainty. This gene, PDA1, encodes a specific cytochrome P450 that confers resistance to pisatin, an antibiotic produced by pea plants. The three new PEP genes, in addition to PDA1, can independently increase the ability of the fungus to cause lesions on pea when added to an isolate lacking the supernumerary chromosome. Based on predicted amino acid sequences, functions for two of these three genes are hypothesized. The deduced amino acid sequence of another transcribed portion of the PEP cluster, as well as four other open reading frames in the cluster, have a high degree of similarity to known fungal transposases. Several of the features of the PEP cluster -- a cluster of pathogenicity genes, the presence of transposable elements, and differences in codon usage and GC content from other portions of the genome -- are shared by pathogenicity islands in pathogenic bacteria of plants and animals. PMID:11208022

  13. Foliar Application of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Increases Antifungal Compounds in Pea (Pisum sativum) Against Erysiphe pisi

    PubMed Central

    Bahadur, A.; Sarma, B. K.; Singh, D. P.; Singh, K. P.; Singh, A.

    2007-01-01

    Systemic effect of two plant growth-promoting rhizobacterial (PGPR) strains,viz., Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf4) and P. aeruginosa (Pag), was evaluated on pea (Pisum sativum) against the powdery mildew pathogen Erysiphe pisi. Foliar spray of the two PGPR strains was done on specific nodal leaves of pea and conidial germination of E. pisi was observed on other nodal leaves,distal to the treated ones. Conidial germination was reduced on distant leaves and at the same time,specific as well as total phenolic compounds increased in the leaves distal to those applied with PGPR strains,thereby indicating a positive correlation. The strains induced accumulation of phenolic compounds in pea leaves and the amount increased when such leaves were get inoculated with E. pisi conidia. Between the two strains, Pag was found to be more effective than Pf4 as its effect was more persistent in pea leaves. Foliar application of PGPR strains for the control of powdery mildew of pea is demonstrated in vitro while correlating it with the increased accumulation of plant phenolics. PMID:24015083

  14. Fate of Radioactive Gibberellin A1 in Maturing and Germinating Seeds of Peas and Japanese Morning Glory

    PubMed Central

    Barendse, Gerard W. M.; Kende, Hans; Lang, Anton

    1968-01-01

    Radioactive gibberellin A1 (3H-GA1) was injected into excised fruits of peas and Japanese morning glory. These were then grown in sterile culture to maturity and the label was followed in the seeds during further development and subsequent germination. During development of both pea and morning-glory seeds a large part of the radioactivity became associated with the aqueous fraction, while another part of the 3H-GA1 was converted into 2 new, acidic, biologically active compounds, designated X1 and X2. A relatively small part of the neutral compounds could be converted back to 3H-GA1, X1, and X2 by means of mild acid hydrolysis. During germination of pea and morning-glory seeds, part of the bound compounds was released in the form of 3H-GA1, X1 and X2 while, particularly during rapid seedling growth, a further conversion of 3H-GA1, mainly to X1, took place. In pea seedlings, growth during the first 2 to 3 days after imbibition was not affected by Amo-1618, an inhibitor of gibberellin biosynthesis. This, in conjunction with the findings on the interconversions between free and bound 3H-GA1 suggests that, at least in peas, early seedling growth may at least partly be regulated by gibberellins released from a bound form which was formed during seed development. PMID:16656845

  15. Dry Matter Intake and Digestion of Perennial and Annual Cool-Season Grasses by Sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excess perennial cool-season grass production can be harvested as hay for feeding later. Thus a series of experiments were conducted to estimate DMI and digestibility of perennial cool-season grasses relative to an annual cool-season grass harvested as either high moisture (HM) hay or field dried (F...

  16. Grass hosts of cereal aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) between wheat-cropping cycles in South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several grasses may serve as alternative hosts for cereal aphids during the interim between small-grain crops in South Dakota, but field studies to determine which grasses are important have not been undertaken. We sampled annual and perennial grasses for cereal aphids in 18 counties in South Dakot...

  17. Risk of exotic annual grass-fire cycle in Goose Creek milkvetch habitat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a concern that habitats surrounding Goose Creek milkvetch populations are at risk of exotic annual grass invasion leading to an exotic annual grass-fire cycle. We sampled plant community and site characteristics to evaluate the risk of these habitats developing an exotic annual grass-fire ...

  18. 26 CFR 56.4911-3 - Expenditures for direct and/or grass roots lobbying communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Expenditures for direct and/or grass roots....4911-3 Expenditures for direct and/or grass roots lobbying communications. (a) Definition of term... lobbying communication's costs is a direct lobbying expenditure, what portion is a grass roots...

  19. 26 CFR 56.4911-6 - Records of lobbying and grass roots expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Records of lobbying and grass roots... lobbying and grass roots expenditures. (a) Records of lobbying expenditures. An electing public charity... organization must keep a record include the following: (1) Expenditures for grass roots lobbying, as...

  20. 26 CFR 56.4911-6 - Records of lobbying and grass roots expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Records of lobbying and grass roots... lobbying and grass roots expenditures. (a) Records of lobbying expenditures. An electing public charity... organization must keep a record include the following: (1) Expenditures for grass roots lobbying, as...