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Sample records for grass pea lathyrus

  1. Effects of Planting Date on Biomass Production by Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grass pea is a cool-season legume commonly grown for human consumption and livestock feed in Asia and East Africa. A better understanding of the agronomic importance of planting date and the influence of photoperiod may lead to improved management strategies for cultivation of grass pea in the sout...

  2. Fermentation of seeds of Teff (Eragrostis teff), grass-pea (Lathyrus sativus), and their mixtures: aspects of nutrition and food safety.

    PubMed

    Yigzaw, Yirgalem; Gorton, Lo; Solomon, Theodoros; Akalu, Girma

    2004-03-10

    Fermentation of pure teff (Eragrostis teff), pure grass-pea (Lathyrus sativus), and their mixtures, 9:1 and 8:2 (teff/grass-pea) has been done at two temperatures (room temperature and 35 degrees C) in duplicate using the strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, for bacterial fermentation, and Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oligosporus in succession for solid-state fungal fermentation as inocula. In addition, the natural or spontaneous and back-slopping methods of bacterial fermentation have been done on the above four substrate groups. The pH and essential amino acid profiles of the different fermentation processes were compared. The back-slopping in teff at a temperature of 35 degrees C gave the sharpest pH drop. All fermentations done at 35 degrees C showed a steeper slope in their pH versus time plot compared to their room temperature counterpart. Fungal fermentation gave an improved amino acid profile for the essential ones in all of the substrate groups, except in pure grass-pea. Fermented teff/grass-pea (8:2) in this fungal fermentation has been found to be quite comparable in essential amino acid profile to an ideal reference protein recommended for children of 2-5 years of age. None of the bacterial fermentations produced a net change in their essential amino acid profile in any of the substrate groups investigated. Solid state fungal fermentation on pure grass-pea using the fungal strains R. oligosporous and A. oryzae in succession has shown that the neurotoxin beta-N-oxalyl-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid (beta-ODAP) in grass-pea has been removed by 80% on average for the high-toxin variety and by up to 97% for the low-toxin variety as determined by an improved chromatographic method with bioelectrochemical detection coupled on-line with refractive index detection. PMID:14995115

  3. The effect of germination on antioxidant and nutritional parameters of protein isolates from grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) seeds.

    PubMed

    Starzyńska-Janiszewska, A; Stodolak, B; Mickowska, B

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this research was to study the antioxidant and nutritional (selected objects) properties of protein isolates obtained from grass pea seedlings as compared with soaked and raw seeds. Two percent extract of isolate from 5-day-old seedlings showed the highest total antioxidant activity (25%) and the ability to chelate Fe²+ (2.35 mg/g d.m.) as compared with other isolates. Protein isolates from grass pea seeds had on average 89% total protein, 87% in vitro protein bioavailability, about 5574 TIU/g (d.m.) (trypsin inhibitors activity) and did not contain ODAP. Germination of seeds for 5 days considerably improved the in vitro bioavailability of isolates, by 12%, and profile of sulfur amino acids by 42%, in comparison with isolates obtained from the raw seeds. Isolates from 5-day-old grass pea seedlings had the best antioxidant properties and improved nutritional parameters (as compared with raw seeds), which makes them worthy of being considered as a potential food additive. PMID:21339123

  4. Effect of maturity stage on the content of ash components in raw and preserved grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Lisiewska, Zofia; Korus, Anna; Kmiecik, Waldemar; Gebczyński, Piotr

    2006-01-01

    The grains of grass pea cultivar krab of dry matter content at the level of 26-40 g/100 g were used in the production of preserves by freezing and canning in air tight containers. The content of ash and its alkalinity and of potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron, total phosphorus, and phytic phosphorus was determined in raw and blanched material, in frozen products stored for six months and then cooked to consumption consistency, and in sterilized canned products after the same storage period. With the increasing degree of maturity the content of all the above constituents calculated per 100 g fresh matter, increased. Blanching considerably reduced the level of ash and its alkalinity, of potassium, and of phytic phosphorus. The cooking of frozen seeds and the sterilization in salty brine caused a reduction of the components analysed except for the content of ash, its alkalinity, and of calcium. In comparison with canned sterilized preserves in cooked frozen grains a higher content of all the mineral components was determined. PMID:16849113

  5. Effect of different levels of raw and heated grass pea seed (Lathyrus sativus) on nutrient digestibility, intestinal villus morphology and growth performance of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Riasi, A; Mahdavi, A H; Bayat, E

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate chemical composition and effect of different levels (0%, 10% and 20%) of raw grass pea (RGP) and heat-treated (120 °C for 30 min) grass pea seed (HGP) on nutrient digestibility, dressing percentage, relative internal organ weights, intestinal villous morphology and broiler chicks' performance. A total number of 200 day-old male chicks were raised under similar condition for 10 days. On day 11, chicks were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments and four replicates of 10 birds each. The result of chemical analysis indicated that Iranian grass pea seed has low levels of total and condensed tannin, and it may be considered as a good source of protein (36.1%) and energy (17.09 kJ GE/g). Heat treatment reduced (p < 0.05) the total and condensed tannin to 21% and 78% respectively. Grass peas seed had higher levels of nitrogen-free extract, P, Na, Mg and Zn than soya bean meal. The apparent digestibility of gross energy and lipid was affected (p < 0.01) by the treatment diets, and it was the lowest after feeding 20% of HGP (p < 0.05). The relative weight of breast and pancreas (p < 0.05) was affected by treatments. Percentage weight of breast and pancreas increased (p < 0.05) after feeding high levels (20%) of RGP and HGP. Substitution of 20% of RGP and HGP increased the duodenal crypt depth (p < 0.05); however, it had no suppressive effect on villus height as the absorptive surface of intestine. The feed conversion ratio was not affected by the treatments in the total experimental period. This study showed that, although the high level of grass pea seed caused a remarkable increase in the relative weight of pancreas and decreased the apparent digestibility of gross energy and lipid, it had beneficial effect on breast relative weight. It seems that heat processing is not effective method for improving quality of Iranian grass pea seed. PMID:25846572

  6. Effect of freezing and canning on the content of selected vitamins and pigments in seeds of two grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) cultivars at the not fully mature stage.

    PubMed

    Korus, Anna; Lisiewska, Zofia; Kmiecik, Waldemar

    2002-08-01

    Seeds of the grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) cultivars Derek and Krab, with a dry matter content of about 33%, were used for freezing and for canning. The content of vitamins C, B1, and B2 and of carotenoids, beta-carotene, and chlorophylls was determined in raw and blanched material, in frozen products after 6-month storage before and after cooking to consumption consistency, and in canned products after 6-month storage. In comparison with the cultivar Krab, raw seeds of Derek contained 45% more vitamin C, 14% more total chlorophylls, 13% less thiamine (vitamin B1), and 7% less riboflavin (vitamin B2). The level of carotenoids was similar. Blanching of seeds led to a statistically significant decrease only in the content of vitamin C. Freezing and frozen storage significantly lowered the level of vitamin C and chlorophylls. The cooking of frozen seeds and the production of canned products and their storage resulted in a statistically verified reduction in the content of components analysed in all the samples. Greater losses were found in products prepared from seeds of the cv. Krab. After cooking, frozen seeds contained more of all the analysed components than the canned products. PMID:12224416

  7. Grass pea consumption & present scenario of neurolathyrism in Maharashtra State of India

    PubMed Central

    Khandare, Arjun L.; Babu, J.J; Ankulu, M.; Aparna, N.; Shirfule, Amol; Rao, G. Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Neurolathyrism is a non progressive motor neuron disorder engendered by the prolonged over-consumption of Lathyrus sativus (grass pea) seeds which contain a neurotoxic amino acid, β-N oxalyl- L-α, β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP). It is characterized by spastic paraparesis in the hind limbs. The present study was conducted in 105 households (HHs) of Gondia district in Maharashtra, India, where grass pea is cultivated and consumed to assess the health implication of its consumption. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 105 HHS in five villages and grass pea samples were collected for β-ODAP estimation. Amino acid analysis was also done, neurolathyrism cases were identified by snowball sampling method and neurological examination was carried out. Results: The study revealed that 61 per cent of population was consuming this pulse as a part of diet. β-ODAP concentration in grass pea was high in Bora village (1254.5 ± 528.21 mg %) and less in Malgaon village (413.6±415.79 mg %). The nutritional status of the people was within the normal range (BMI 18± 3.40 kg/m2) in the surveyed households. Consumption of grass pea was observed to be less than 25g. Conclusions: The cases of neurolathyrism declined in all the studied villages due to reduced β-ODAP exposure through Lathyrus sativus consumption, however, the grass pea was cultivated and consumed in Gondia district of Maharashtra State. PMID:25222783

  8. Leaf Rolling and Stem Fasciation in Grass Pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) Mutant Are Mediated through Glutathione-Dependent Cellular and Metabolic Changes and Associated with a Metabolic Diversion through Cysteine during Phenotypic Reversal

    PubMed Central

    Talukdar, Dibyendu; Talukdar, Tulika

    2014-01-01

    A Lathyrus sativus L. mutant isolated in ethylmethane sulfonate-treated M2 progeny of mother variety BioL-212 and designated as rlfL-1 was characterized by inwardly rolled-leaf and stem and bud fasciations. The mutant exhibited karyomorphological peculiarities in both mitosis and meiosis with origin of aneuploidy. The mitosis was vigorous with high frequency of divisional cells and their quick turnover presumably steered cell proliferations. Significant transcriptional upregulations of cysteine and glutathione synthesis and concomitant stimulations of glutathione-mediated antioxidant defense helped rlfL-1 mutant to maintain balanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolisms, as deduced by ROS-imaging study. Glutathione synthesis was shut down in buthionine sulfoximine- (BSO-) treated mother plant and mutant, and leaf-rolling and stems/buds fasciations in the mutant were reversed, accompanied by normalization of mitotic cell division process. Antioxidant defense was downregulated under low glutathione-redox but cysteine-desulfurations and photorespiratory glycolate oxidase transcripts were markedly overexpressed, preventing cysteine overaccumulation but resulted in excess H2O2 in BSO-treated mutant. This led to oxidative damage in proliferating cells, manifested by severe necrosis in rolled-leaf and fasciated stems. Results indicated vital role of glutathione in maintaining abnormal proliferations in plant organs, and its deficiency triggered phenotypic reversal through metabolic diversions of cysteine and concomitant cellular and metabolic modulations. PMID:24987684

  9. Improving nutritional quality and fungal tolerance in soya bean and grass pea by expressing an oxalate decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinay; Chattopadhyay, Arnab; Ghosh, Sumit; Irfan, Mohammad; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Datta, Asis

    2016-06-01

    Soya bean (Glycine max) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) seeds are important sources of dietary proteins; however, they also contain antinutritional metabolite oxalic acid (OA). Excess dietary intake of OA leads to nephrolithiasis due to the formation of calcium oxalate crystals in kidneys. Besides, OA is also a known precursor of β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP), a neurotoxin found in grass pea. Here, we report the reduction in OA level in soya bean (up to 73%) and grass pea (up to 75%) seeds by constitutive and/or seed-specific expression of an oxalate-degrading enzyme, oxalate decarboxylase (FvOXDC) of Flammulina velutipes. In addition, β-ODAP level of grass pea seeds was also reduced up to 73%. Reduced OA content was interrelated with the associated increase in seeds micronutrients such as calcium, iron and zinc. Moreover, constitutive expression of FvOXDC led to improved tolerance to the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum that requires OA during host colonization. Importantly, FvOXDC-expressing soya bean and grass pea plants were similar to the wild type with respect to the morphology and photosynthetic rates, and seed protein pool remained unaltered as revealed by the comparative proteomic analysis. Taken together, these results demonstrated improved seed quality and tolerance to the fungal pathogen in two important legume crops, by the expression of an oxalate-degrading enzyme. PMID:26798990

  10. Comparative morpho-physiological and biochemical responses of lentil and grass pea genotypes under water stress

    PubMed Central

    Talukdar, Dibyendu

    2013-01-01

    Background: Both lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) in the family Fabaceae are two important cool-season food legumes, often experiencing water stress conditions during growth and maturity. Objective: The present study was undertaken to ascertain the response of these two crops under different water stress regimes. Materials and Methods: Different morpho-physiological and biochemical parameters were studied in a pot experiment under controlled environmental conditions. Along with control (proper irrigation, 0 stress), three sets of plants were subjected to mild (6 d), moderate (13 d) and severe (20 d) water stress by withholding irrigation at the appropriate time. Results: Compared with control, plant growth traits and seed yield components reduced significantly in both crops with increasing period of water stress, resulting in lowering of dry mass with more severe effect on lentil compared with grass pea. Foliar Relative Water Content (RWC) (%), K+/Na+ ratio, chlorophyll (chl) a, chl a/b ratio, stomatal conductance and net photosynthetic rate declined considerably in both crops under water stress. Leaf-free proline level increased significantly in both crops, but it decreased markedly in nodules of lentil and remained unchanged in grass pea. Nodulation was also affected due to water stress. The impairment in growth traits and physio-biochemical parameters under water stress was manifested in reduction of drought tolerance efficiency of both crops. Conclusion: Impact of water stress was more severe on lentil compared with grass pea, and modulation of growth traits signified necessity of a detailed strategy in breeding of food legumes under water stress. PMID:24082740

  11. Lathyrus sativus transcriptome resistance response to Ascochyta lathyri investigated by deepSuperSAGE analysis

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Nuno F.; Krezdorn, Nicolas; Rotter, Björn; Winter, Peter; Rubiales, Diego; Vaz Patto, Maria C.

    2015-01-01

    Lathyrus sativus (grass pea) is a temperate grain legume crop with a great potential for expansion in dry areas or zones that are becoming more drought-prone. It is also recognized as a potential source of resistance to several important diseases in legumes, such as ascochyta blight. Nevertheless, the lack of detailed genomic and/or transcriptomic information hampers further exploitation of grass pea resistance-related genes in precision breeding. To elucidate the pathways differentially regulated during ascochyta-grass pea interaction and to identify resistance candidate genes, we compared the early response of the leaf gene expression profile of a resistant L. sativus genotype to Ascochyta lathyri infection with a non-inoculated control sample from the same genotype employing deepSuperSAGE. This analysis generated 14.387 UniTags of which 95.7% mapped to a reference grass pea/rust interaction transcriptome. From the total mapped UniTags, 738 were significantly differentially expressed between control and inoculated leaves. The results indicate that several gene classes acting in different phases of the plant/pathogen interaction are involved in the L. sativus response to A. lathyri infection. Most notably a clear up-regulation of defense-related genes involved in and/or regulated by the ethylene pathway was observed. There was also evidence of alterations in cell wall metabolism indicated by overexpression of cellulose synthase and lignin biosynthesis genes. This first genome-wide overview of the gene expression profile of the L. sativus response to ascochyta infection delivered a valuable set of candidate resistance genes for future use in precision breeding. PMID:25852725

  12. Pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of gene technology methods for plants has allowed novel genes to be introduced, where natural variation is lacking, irrespective of hybridization barriers. Pea, an important agricultural crop worldwide, lacks certain genes for disease resistance and would benefit from introduction of nov...

  13. Simple Detection Methods for Antinutritive Factor β-ODAP Present in Lathyrus sativus L. by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography and Thin Layer Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Bidisha; Mitra, Joy; Chakraborty, Saikat; Bhattacharyya, Jagannath; Chakraborty, Anirban; Sen, Soumitra Kumar; Neerathilingam, Muniasamy

    2015-01-01

    Lathyrus sativus L. (Grass pea) is the source for cheap and nutritious food choice in drought and famine susceptible zones in greater part of North India and Africa. The non-protein amino acid β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP) has been known for decades for its potent neurotoxic effect, causing irreversible neurodegenerative disease “neurolathyrism”, present in both seed and leaf of Lathyrus sativus L. and other species in varying proportions. It is crucial to establish a rapid as well as reliable detection methodology for β-ODAP content in various Lathyrus plants. Currently available HPLC based methods involve multi-step derivatization of the sample. To overcome this, we have developed β-ODAP analysis method by HPLC without any prior derivatization. This method is statistically significant in the range of 2 to 100μg/ml and exhibited linear response with r2 > 0.99. Limit of detection and quantitation of the later method was determined to be 5.56 μg/ml and 16.86 μg/ml, respectively. In addition to this, a TLC based method has also been developed. The limit of detection of β-ODAP is 0.6μg and for its substrate, L-1,2-diaminopropionic acid is 5μg. Both HPLC and TLC methods were validated by conducting in-vitro bioconversion test to detect the presence of biocatalyst in plant extract. This method is economical, rapid and simple. PMID:26524073

  14. Rhizobium anhuiense as the predominant microsymbionts of Lathyrus maritimus along the Shandong Peninsula seashore line.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Wang, En Tao; Liu, Yajing; Li, Xiangyue; Yu, Bing; Ren, Chenggang; Liu, Wei; Li, Yunzhao; Xie, Zhihong

    2016-09-01

    Beach pea [Lathyrus maritimus Bigelow, or Lathyrus japonicus subsp. maritimus (L.) P.W. Ball] is a wild legume distributed on the seashore line, and the rhizobia nodulating with this plant have been reported only rarely. In order to reveal the diversity of beach pea rhizobia on the seashore line of Shandong Peninsula, China, a total of 124 bacterial strains were isolated from the root nodules of beach pea plants collected from five sites. All the isolates were divided into five recA types after screening by recA gene sequence analysis and they consisted of Rhizobium anhuiense covering 122 symbiotic isolates in three recA types, as well as two single isolates Rhizobium sp. and Rhizobium lusitanum representing distinct recA types. The recA genotype III of R. anhuiense (103 isolates) represented by strain YIC11270 was dominant at all five sampling sites. Identical symbiotic genes (nodC and nifH) were detected in the three recA genotypes of R. anhuiense isolates that were closely related to those of the pea and faba rhizobia. This study clarified that R. anhuiense was the main symbiont for beach pea rhizobia on the seashore line of Shandong Peninsula. The low level genetic diversity of beach pea rhizobia revealed by both MLSA and the symbiotic genes might be related to the strong selection pressure produced by the saline-alkaline environment and the host plants. PMID:27480059

  15. Oviposition Preference of Pea Weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. Among Host and Non-host Plants and its Implication for Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Mendesil, Esayas; Rämert, Birgitta; Marttila, Salla; Hillbur, Ylva; Anderson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. is a major insect pest of field pea, Pisum sativum L. worldwide and current control practices mainly depend on the use of chemical insecticides that can cause adverse effects on environment and human health. Insecticides are also unaffordable by many small-scale farmers in developing countries, which highlights the need for investigating plant resistance traits and to develop alternative pest management strategies. The aim of this study was to determine oviposition preference of pea weevil among P. sativum genotypes with different level of resistance (Adet, 32410-1 and 235899-1) and the non-host leguminous plants wild pea (Pisum fulvum Sibth. et Sm.) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.), in no-choice and dual-choice tests. Pod thickness and micromorphological traits of the pods were also examined. In the no-choice tests significantly more eggs were laid on the susceptible genotype Adet than on the other genotypes. Very few eggs were laid on P. fulvum and L. sativus. In the dual-choice experiments Adet was preferred by the females for oviposition. Furthermore, combinations of Adet with either 235899-1 or non-host plants significantly reduced the total number of eggs laid by the weevil in the dual-choice tests. Female pea weevils were also found to discriminate between host and non-host plants during oviposition. The neoplasm (Np) formation on 235899-1 pods was negatively correlated with oviposition by pea weevil. Pod wall thickness and trichomes might have influenced oviposition preference of the weevils. These results on oviposition behavior of the weevils can be used in developing alternative pest management strategies such as trap cropping using highly attractive genotype and intercropping with the non-host plants. PMID:26779220

  16. Oviposition Preference of Pea Weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. Among Host and Non-host Plants and its Implication for Pest Management.

    PubMed

    Mendesil, Esayas; Rämert, Birgitta; Marttila, Salla; Hillbur, Ylva; Anderson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. is a major insect pest of field pea, Pisum sativum L. worldwide and current control practices mainly depend on the use of chemical insecticides that can cause adverse effects on environment and human health. Insecticides are also unaffordable by many small-scale farmers in developing countries, which highlights the need for investigating plant resistance traits and to develop alternative pest management strategies. The aim of this study was to determine oviposition preference of pea weevil among P. sativum genotypes with different level of resistance (Adet, 32410-1 and 235899-1) and the non-host leguminous plants wild pea (Pisum fulvum Sibth. et Sm.) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.), in no-choice and dual-choice tests. Pod thickness and micromorphological traits of the pods were also examined. In the no-choice tests significantly more eggs were laid on the susceptible genotype Adet than on the other genotypes. Very few eggs were laid on P. fulvum and L. sativus. In the dual-choice experiments Adet was preferred by the females for oviposition. Furthermore, combinations of Adet with either 235899-1 or non-host plants significantly reduced the total number of eggs laid by the weevil in the dual-choice tests. Female pea weevils were also found to discriminate between host and non-host plants during oviposition. The neoplasm (Np) formation on 235899-1 pods was negatively correlated with oviposition by pea weevil. Pod wall thickness and trichomes might have influenced oviposition preference of the weevils. These results on oviposition behavior of the weevils can be used in developing alternative pest management strategies such as trap cropping using highly attractive genotype and intercropping with the non-host plants. PMID:26779220

  17. Olfactory cues from different plant species in host selection by female pea moths.

    PubMed

    Thöming, Gunda; Norli, Hans Ragnar

    2015-03-01

    In herbivorous insects specialized on few plant species, attraction to host odor may be mediated by volatiles common to all host species, by specific compounds, or combinations of both. The pea moth Cydia nigricana is an important pest of the pea. Volatile signatures of four host plant species were studied to identify compounds involved in pea moth host selection and to improve previously reported attractive volatile blends. P. sativum and alternative Fabaceae host species were compared regarding female attraction, oviposition, and larval performance. Pea moth females were strongly attracted to the sweet pea Lathyrus odoratus, but larval performance on that species was moderate. Chemical analyses of sweet pea odor and electrophysiological responses of moth antennae led to identification of seven sweet-pea-specific compounds and ten compounds common to all tested host species. Blends of these specific and common cues were highly attractive to mated pea moth females in wind tunnel and field experiments. PMID:25675276

  18. Genotypic and phenotypic diversity of rhizobia isolated from Lathyrus japonicus indigenous to Japan.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Seishiro; Kondo, Tetsuya; Prévost, Danielle; Nakata, Sayuri; Kajita, Tadashi; Ito, Motomi

    2010-11-01

    Sixty-one rhizobial strains from Lathyrus japonicus nodules growing on the seashore in Japan were characterized and compared to two strains from Canada. The PCR-based method was used to identify test strains with novel taxonomic markers that were designed to discriminate between all known Lathyrus rhizobia. Three genomic groups (I, II, and III) were finally identified using RAPD, RFLP, and phylogenetic analyses. Strains in genomic group I (related to Rhizobium leguminosarum) were divided into two subgroups (Ia and Ib) and subgroup Ia was related to biovar viciae. Strains in subgroup Ib, which were all isolated from Japanese sea pea, belonged to a distinct group from other rhizobial groups in the recA phylogeny and PCR-based grouping, and were more tolerant to salt than the isolate from an inland legume. Test strains in genomic groups II and III belonged to a single clade with the reference strains of R. pisi, R. etli, and R. phaseoli in the 16S rRNA phylogeny. The PCR-based method and phylogenetic analysis of recA revealed that genomic group II was related to R. pisi. The analyses also showed that genomic group III harbored a mixed chromosomal sequence of different genomic groups, suggesting a recent horizontal gene transfer between diverse rhizobia. Although two Canadian strains belonged to subgroup Ia, molecular and physiological analyses showed the divergence between Canadian and Japanese strains. Phylogenetic analysis of nod genes divided the rhizobial strains into several groups that reflected the host range of rhizobia. Symbiosis between dispersing legumes and rhizobia at seashore is discussed. PMID:20851546

  19. Moisture dependent physical properties of lathyrus.

    PubMed

    Kenghe, Rajendra Narayan; Nimkar, Prabhakar Manohar; Shirkole, Shivanand Shankarrao

    2013-10-01

    The moisture dependent physical properties of different lathyrus varieties namely NLK-40, Pratik and Ratan were studied at moisture content of 7.33 to 30.29, 6.75 to 29.95 and 7.90 to 30.90% (d.b.), respectively. The grain size, thousand grain weight, angle of repose, grain volume and surface area were found increased linearly. The grain size was found increased from 4.43 to 4.70, 4.96 to 5.32 and 5.08 to 5.49 mm. Thousand grain weight was found increased from 64.6 to 103.5, 69.1 to 105.3 and 85.3 to 125.6 g. The angle repose was increased from 28.3 to 35.4, 29.5 to 35.8 and 26.9 to 33.5°. The grain volume was increased from 9.13 to 10.38,11.73 to 13.24 and 12.22 to 14.15 mm(3) whereas, surface area increased from 54.78 to 62.29, 70.38 to 79.45 and 73.31 to 84.88 mm(2),respectively with the corresponding increase in moisture content, for NLK-40, Pratik and Ratan. The sphericity and porosity increased initially and then found decreased with increase in further moisture content. The bulk density values decreased linearly from 827.5 to 697.2, 851.3 to 726.3 and 856.0 to 727.4 kg/m(3). The true density values were found decreased from 1288.3 to 1074.3, 1324.0 to 1118.4 and 1277.7 to 1102.5 kg/m(3), respectively for these varieties with the corresponding increase in moisture content. PMID:24425992

  20. Effect of whole-crop pea (Pisum sativum L.) silages differing in condensed tannin content as a substitute for grass silage and soybean meal on the performance, metabolism, and carcass characteristics of lambs.

    PubMed

    Hart, K J; Sinclair, L A; Wilkinson, R G; Huntington, J A

    2011-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of inclusion of whole-crop pea (WCP) silages, differing in condensed tannin content, as a substitute for grass silage (GS) and soybean meal on lamb metabolism, performance, plasma metabolites, digestibility, and carcass characteristics. In both experiments lambs were offered either solely GS or a 50:50 mix on a DM basis of GS with either low-tannin (LTPS) or high-tannin (HTPS) pea silage ad libitum. Each forage mix was fed with either 400 g/d of low-protein (LP) concentrate or 400 g/d of LP with an additional 200 g/d of pelletized soybean meal (HP), resulting in 6 dietary treatments. Experiment 1 examined the effects of the diets on metabolism, digestibility, and N balance using 6 lambs in 4 periods of 21 d in an incomplete crossover design. Experiment 2 used 48 lambs and examined the effects of the diets on ADG, plasma metabolites, and carcass characteristics over 56 d. Both experiments were analyzed using a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. In Exp. 1, lambs offered the LTPS diets had a greater (P < 0.05) digestibility of DM and OM than those offered the GS diets. Lambs offered the WCP silages had an increased (P < 0.05) N intake, N output, and digestibility of GE compared with those offered GS. Mean N digestibility was greatest (P < 0.05) in lambs offered LTPS. Lambs offered HP diets had increased (P < 0.001) digestibility of DM, OM, GE and N, and N- intake, output, retention, and digestibility compared with those offered the LP diets. In Exp. 2, there was no effect (P > 0.05) of forage type on intake, slaughter BW, or feed conversion efficiency (FCE). However, lambs offered the LTPS had a greater (P < 0.05) ADG than those offered the GS diets. Feeding diets containing HP increased (P < 0.001) total DMI, slaughter BW, ADG, and FCE. Lambs offered the WCP had a greater (P < 0.05) plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and urea concentration compared with those offered the GS diets. Feeding lambs HP diets

  1. Molecular phylogeny of Lathyrus species: insights from sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers.

    PubMed

    Marghali, S; Touati, A; Gharbi, M; Sdouga, D; Trifi-Farah, N

    2016-01-01

    Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers were used to evaluate the intra- and interspecific variation among 40 Lathyrus genotypes (four species) (Fabaceae). Ten SRAP primer combinations resulted in a total of 94 bands, and they exhibited high interspecific variability. The genetic differentiation among Lathyrus, estimated using AMOVA, was highly significant. The results indicated that 58% of the total genetic variation existed among species, and 42% of the differentiation was within species. This was explained by the high level of genome conservation of these species as well as the recent and slow evolution of this genus. These results were confirmed by the topology of the neighbor-joining cladogram and the results of the principal coordinate analysis. Our data support previous results based on seed protein diversity. These results make SRAP markers choice markers for the study of functional polymorphism that is directly related to the transcriptomic data. The SRAP markers used in this study provide an accurate picture of the population structure within Lathyrus germplasm, which is critically important information for the design of genetic diversity and structure analyses. Moreover, further extensive studies are necessary to fully examine other Lathyrus species and tests that adopt the SRAP technique to enrich the Lathyrus library for next-generation sequencing, thus providing a potent protocol for the study of polymorphism. PMID:27051021

  2. Lathyrus cicera copper amine oxidase reactions with tryptamine.

    PubMed

    Pietrangeli, Paola; Bellelli, Andrea; Fattibene, Paola; Mondovì, Bruno; Morpurgo, Laura

    2012-04-01

    Lathyrus cicera copper amine oxidase (LCAO) rapidly formed the typical Cu(I)-TPQ semiquinone UV-visible spectrum, identical to that formed by other substrates, upon O(2) exhaustion by turnover with excess tryptamine. A new band at 630 nm formed more slowly, with intensity dependent on aldehyde and H(2)O(2) concentrations. On prolonged incubation, all bands decayed in parallel, together with loss of enzymatic activity. The blue color disappeared on addition of KCN, a Cu(I) stabilizing agent, while the intensity of the radical visible bands increased. This shows that the 630 nm absorbing species is a Cu(II) derivative, as confirmed by the unchanged intensity of the EPR spectrum of the frozen blue solution from that of the native protein. Rapid kinetics experiments showed that this species derives from a reduced form of the protein, plus aldehyde and H(2)O(2) and that it is not in dynamic equilibrium with the radical. Given the similar population of the semiquinone radical with all substrates, it is possible that the reaction with aldehyde and H(2)O(2) occurs in all cases although substrates lacking the indole group only produce the Cu(I)-semiquinone band. The radical participation to the catalytic activity is demonstrated by the observation that its relative population (controlled by the pH) parallels changes in the reoxidation rate constant, while the 630 nm absorbing species is implied in the inactivation process, which depends on H(2)O(2) and aldehyde concentration. The results of the paper are consistent with half-of-the-site reactivity, i.e. the two subunits of LCAO are kinetically and spectroscopically distinct from each other. PMID:22369770

  3. Unexpected Irregular Monoterpene "Yomogi Alcohol" in the Volatiles of the Lathyrus L. species (Leguminosae) of Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Polatoğlu, Kaan; Arsal, Seniha; Demirci, Betül; Can Başer, Kemal Hüsnü

    2016-01-01

    Lathyrus species including L. ochrus and L. sativus are known for their food, feed and horticultural uses. Despite their widespread uses and cultivation, there is limited information on their chemistry. Previously, only the essential oil composition of L. rotundifolius, L. vernus and volatiles of L. odoratus have been reported. In the present research, volatiles of seven Lathyrus L. species, namely, L. aphaca, L. ochrus, L. cicera, L. sativus, L. gorgonei, L. saxatilis and L. blepharicarpos var. cyprius were analyzed by SPME GC-MS for the first time. Plant materials were collected from five different locations in Cyprus (February-March 2012). The main components of L. aphaca volatiles from four locations were yomogi alcohol 26.1-16.5%, camphor 21.6-10.1%, tetradecane 14.3-0%; L. cicera from five locations were yomogi alcohol 20.3-3.0%, camphor 18.7-2.0%; L. gorgonei from two locations were yomogi alcohol 24.5-13.1%, camphor 17.1-9.0% and L. sativus was yomogi alcohol 11.4%, camphor 9.0%. Yomogi alcohol was not present as the major compound in L. ochrus (2-methyl butanoic acid 7.2%), L. saxatilis (hexanal 7.7%) and L. blepharicarpos var. cyprius ((Z)-3-hexenal 8.6%) volatiles. The volatiles of the Lathyrus species were also compared with each other quantitative and qualitatively using AHC analysis to find out differences among the species. The irregular monoterpene yomogi alcohol is reported from the Lathyrus and the Leguminosae family for the first time. The existence of yomogi alcohol in Lathyrus volatiles points out that the irregular monoterpenes are not restricted solely to Asteraceae family. PMID:26876676

  4. Grass allergy

    MedlinePlus

    Although the grass itself may not be harmful, fertilizers, insecticides , and herbicides applied to the grass can ... with a chemical of any sort such as fertilizer, insecticide, or herbicide, find out the product name ...

  5. Effect of blend moisture and extrusion temperature on physical properties of everlasting pea-wheat extrudates.

    PubMed

    Zarzycki, P; Kasprzak, M; Rzedzicki, Z; Sobota, A; Wirkijowska, A; Sykut-Domańska, E

    2015-10-01

    The effect of everlasting pea in combination with wheat on physical properties and microstructure of extrudates were studied. The share of everlasting pea (Lathyrus sativus) was variable, at 35, 50 and 65 %, respectively. The everlasting pea-wheat mixtures were moistened to the required level (18, 21, and 24 %), homogenized, conditioned and extruded in twin-screw extruder with counter-rotating conical screws. All of the obtained extrudates were characterised by a slow degree of radial expansion and high specific density. The Pearson correlation analysis indicated a statistically significant linear Pearson correlation (p < 0.05) between chemical compositions of the blends and physical properties of the extrudates. The expansion ratio increased as the concentration of the fibers and proteins increased, while specific density and hardness decreased. Inverse relationship was observed for crude fat. The microstructure of the extrudates was determined by both the moisture of the blend and the process temperature. The differences observed in the size, number of air cells and in the cell wall shapes and thickness indicate possibilities of the modification of physical properties of everlasting pea-wheat extrudates. The extrudates produced from everlasting pea-wheat blends (50:50) at higher barrel temperature (110/140/180/170/130 °C) were characterised by more numerous air cells of smaller diameters. Increasing moisture content of extruded blends results in extrudates with a higher porosity. No significant effect was shown in the chemical compositions on the level of metal contamination in the extrudates. The application of a counter-rotating twin-screw extrusion-cooker in the study permitted the production of compact, hard everlasting pea-wheat extrudates for use in vegetarian lunch dishes. PMID:26396414

  6. Intracellular Localization of the Neurotoxin 2,4-Diaminobutyric Acid in Lathyrus sylvestris L. Leaf Tissue.

    PubMed

    Foster, J G; Cress, W D; Wright, S F; Hess, J L

    1987-04-01

    The intracellular distribution of the neurotoxin 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DABA) in mature leaves of the perennial legume Lathyrus sylvestris L. var ;Lathco' (flatpea) was determined using subcellular fractions from mesophyll protoplasts. Chloroplasts contained about 15% of the cellular DABA. At least 75% of the DABA was vacuolar, based on the assumptions that each protoplast contained a single vacuole and that acid phosphatase occurred exclusively in the vacuole. DABA was not detectable in peroxisomal and mitochondrial fractions. Because the vacuole is not a major site of amino acid synthesis, this distribution implicates synthesis of DABA within chloroplasts with subsequent transport to and storage within the vacuoles of the mesophyll cells. PMID:16665360

  7. Large-scale microsatellite development in grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.), an orphan legume of the arid areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L., 2n = 14), a member of the family Leguminosae, holds great agronomic potential as grain and forage legume crop in the arid areas for its superb resilience to abiotic stresses such as drought, flood and salinity. The crop could not make much progress through conventional...

  8. Pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pea belongs to the Leguminosae plant family, the third largest flowering plant family with 800 genera and over 18,000 species. Tribe Fabeae is considered one of the youngest groups in the legumes and Bayesian molecular clock and ancestral range analysis suggest a crown age of 23 – 16 Mya, in the mi...

  9. Attraction of pea moth Cydia nigricana to pea flower volatiles.

    PubMed

    Thöming, Gunda; Knudsen, Geir K

    2014-04-01

    The pea moth Cydia nigricana causes major crop losses in pea (Pisum sativum) production. We investigated attraction of C. nigricana females to synthetic pea flower volatiles in a wind tunnel and in the field. We performed electroantennogram analysis on 27 previously identified pea plant volatiles, which confirmed antennal responses to nine of the compounds identified in pea flowers. A dose-dependent response was found to eight of the compounds. Various blends of the nine pea flower volatiles eliciting antennal responses were subsequently studied in a wind tunnel. A four-compound blend comprising hexan-1-ol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-β-ocimene and (E)-β-ocimene was equally attractive to mated C. nigricana females as the full pea flower mimic blend. We conducted wind-tunnel tests on different blends of these four pea flower compounds mixed with a headspace sample of non-flowering pea plants. By considering the effects of such green leaf background odour, we were able to identify (Z)- and (E)-β-ocimene as fundamental for host location by the pea moths, and hexan-1-ol and (E)-2-hexen-1-ol as being of secondary importance in that context. In the field, the two isomers of β-ocimene resulted in trap catches similar to those obtained with the full pea flower mimic and the four-compound blend, which clearly demonstrated the prime significance of the β-ocimenes as attractants of C. nigricana. The high level of the trap catches of female C. nigricana noted in this first field experiment gives a first indication of the potential use of such artificial kairomones in pea moth control. PMID:24508043

  10. Underutilized Grasses.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial warm-season grasses have been recognized for having several properties, such as high rates of net photosynthesis, energy and labor savings, and reduced soil and nutrient losses that make them better suited for biofuel production than many annual crops. Prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinat...

  11. Purification, identification and preliminary crystallographic studies of an allergenic protein from Lathyrus sativus

    SciTech Connect

    Qureshi, Insaf A.; Sethi, Dhruv K.; Salunke, Dinakar M.

    2006-09-01

    A 24 kDa protein was purified from the seeds of L. sativus by ammonium sulfate fractionation and ion-exchange chromatography. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A 24 kDa protein was purified from the seeds of Lathyrus sativus by ammonium sulfate fractionation and ion-exchange chromatography. The N-terminal amino-acid sequence showed significant homology with the 2S albumin class of seed storage proteins. The protein showed 85% sequence homology with the seed albumin of Pisum sativum within the 40 N-terminal residues. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 43.5, b = 82.7, c = 153.4 Å.

  12. Epigenetic Histone Marks of Extended Meta-Polycentric Centromeres of Lathyrus and Pisum Chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Pavel; Schubert, Veit; Fuková, Iva; Manning, Jasper E; Houben, Andreas; Macas, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Species of the legume genera Lathyrus and Pisum possess chromosomes that exhibit a unique structure of their centromeric regions, which is clearly apparent during metaphase by the formation of extended primary constrictions which span up to a third of the length of the chromosome. In addition, these species express two different variants of the CenH3 protein which are co-localized in multiple domains along the poleward surface of the primary constrictions. Here, we show that the constrictions represent a distinct type of chromatin differing from the chromosome arms. In metaphase, histone phosphorylation patterns including H3S10ph, H3S28ph, and H3T3ph were observed along the entire constriction, in a way similar to holocentric chromosomes. On the other hand, distribution of phosphorylated H2AT120 was different from that previously reported from either, holocentric and monocentric chromosomes, occurring at chromatin surrounding but not overlapping CenH3 domains. Since some of these phosphorylations play a role in chromatid cohesion, it can be assumed that they facilitate correct chromosome segregation by ensuring that multiple separate CenH3 domains present on the same chromatid are oriented toward the same pole. The constrictions also displayed distinct patterns of histone methylation marks, being enriched in H3K9me2 and depleted in H3K4me3 and H3K27me2 compared to the chromosome arms. Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy revealed that although both CenH3 protein variants are present in all CenH3 domains detected on metaphase chromosomes, they are only partially co-localized while there are chromatin subdomains which are mostly made of only one CenH3 variant. Taken together, these data revealed specific features of extended primary constrictions of Lathyrus and Pisum and support the idea that they may represent an intermediate stage between monocentric and holocentric chromosomes. PMID:26973677

  13. Epigenetic Histone Marks of Extended Meta-Polycentric Centromeres of Lathyrus and Pisum Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Pavel; Schubert, Veit; Fuková, Iva; Manning, Jasper E.; Houben, Andreas; Macas, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Species of the legume genera Lathyrus and Pisum possess chromosomes that exhibit a unique structure of their centromeric regions, which is clearly apparent during metaphase by the formation of extended primary constrictions which span up to a third of the length of the chromosome. In addition, these species express two different variants of the CenH3 protein which are co-localized in multiple domains along the poleward surface of the primary constrictions. Here, we show that the constrictions represent a distinct type of chromatin differing from the chromosome arms. In metaphase, histone phosphorylation patterns including H3S10ph, H3S28ph, and H3T3ph were observed along the entire constriction, in a way similar to holocentric chromosomes. On the other hand, distribution of phosphorylated H2AT120 was different from that previously reported from either, holocentric and monocentric chromosomes, occurring at chromatin surrounding but not overlapping CenH3 domains. Since some of these phosphorylations play a role in chromatid cohesion, it can be assumed that they facilitate correct chromosome segregation by ensuring that multiple separate CenH3 domains present on the same chromatid are oriented toward the same pole. The constrictions also displayed distinct patterns of histone methylation marks, being enriched in H3K9me2 and depleted in H3K4me3 and H3K27me2 compared to the chromosome arms. Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy revealed that although both CenH3 protein variants are present in all CenH3 domains detected on metaphase chromosomes, they are only partially co-localized while there are chromatin subdomains which are mostly made of only one CenH3 variant. Taken together, these data revealed specific features of extended primary constrictions of Lathyrus and Pisum and support the idea that they may represent an intermediate stage between monocentric and holocentric chromosomes. PMID:26973677

  14. Lathyrus diversity: available resources with relevance to crop improvement – L. sativus and L. cicera as case studies

    PubMed Central

    Vaz Patto, M. C.; Rubiales, D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Lathyrus genus includes 160 species, some of which have economic importance as food, fodder and ornamental crops (mainly L. sativus, L. cicera and L. odoratus, respectively) and are cultivated in >1·5 Mha worldwide. However, in spite of their well-recognized robustness and potential as a source of calories and protein for populations in drought-prone and marginal areas, cultivation is in decline and there is a high risk of genetic erosion. Scope In this review, current and past taxonomic treatments of the Lathyrus genus are assessed and its current status is examined together with future prospects for germplasm conservation, characterization and utilization. A particular emphasis is placed on the importance of diversity analysis for breeding of L. sativus and L. cicera. Conclusions Efforts for improvement of L. sativus and L. cicera should concentrate on the development of publicly available joint core collections, and on high-resolution genotyping. This will be critical for permitting decentralized phenotyping. Such a co-ordinated international effort should result in more efficient and faster breeding approaches, which are particularly needed for these neglected, underutilized Lathyrus species. PMID:24623333

  15. 29 CFR 780.139 - Pea vining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pea vining. 780.139 Section 780.139 Labor Regulations... âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.139 Pea vining. Vining employees of a pea vinery located on a farm, who vine only the peas grown on that particular farm, are engaged in agriculture. If...

  16. 29 CFR 780.139 - Pea vining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pea vining. 780.139 Section 780.139 Labor Regulations... âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.139 Pea vining. Vining employees of a pea vinery located on a farm, who vine only the peas grown on that particular farm, are engaged in agriculture. If...

  17. 29 CFR 780.139 - Pea vining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pea vining. 780.139 Section 780.139 Labor Regulations... âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.139 Pea vining. Vining employees of a pea vinery located on a farm, who vine only the peas grown on that particular farm, are engaged in agriculture. If...

  18. 29 CFR 780.139 - Pea vining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pea vining. 780.139 Section 780.139 Labor Regulations... âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.139 Pea vining. Vining employees of a pea vinery located on a farm, who vine only the peas grown on that particular farm, are engaged in agriculture. If...

  19. 29 CFR 780.139 - Pea vining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pea vining. 780.139 Section 780.139 Labor Regulations... âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.139 Pea vining. Vining employees of a pea vinery located on a farm, who vine only the peas grown on that particular farm, are engaged in agriculture. If...

  20. Grass Lignocellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akin, Danny E.

    Grass lignocelluloses are limited in bioconversion by aromatic constituents, which include both lignins and phenolic acids esters. Histochemistry, ultraviolet absorption microspectrophotometry, and response to microorganisms and specific enzymes have been used to determine the significance of aromatics toward recalcitrance. Coniferyl lignin appears to be the most effective limitation to biodegradation, existing in xylem cells of vascular tissues; cell walls with syringyl lignin, for example, leaf sclerenchyma, are less recalcitrant. Esterified phenolic acids, i.e., ferulic and p-coumaric acids, often constitute a major chemical limitation in nonlignified cell walls to biodegradation in grasses, especially warm-season species. Methods to improve biodegradability through modification of aromatics include: plant breeding, use of lignin-degrading white-rot fungi, and addition of esterases. Plant breeding for new cultivars has been especially effective for nutritionally improved forages, for example, bermudagrasses. In laboratory studies, selective white-rot fungi that lack cellulases delignified the lignocellulosic materials and improved fermentation of residual carbohydrates. Phenolic acid esterases released p-coumaric and ferulic acids for potential coproducts, improved the available sugars for fermentation, and improved biodegradation. The separation and removal of the aromatic components for coproducts, while enhancing the availability of sugars for bioconversion, could improve the economics of bioconversion.

  1. Clarification on Host Range of Didymella pinodes the Causal Agent of Pea Ascochyta Blight.

    PubMed

    Barilli, Eleonora; Cobos, Maria José; Rubiales, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Didymella pinodes is the principal causal agent of ascochyta blight, one of the most important fungal diseases of pea (Pisum sativum) worldwide. Understanding its host specificity has crucial implications in epidemiology and management; however, this has not been clearly delineated yet. In this study we attempt to clarify the host range of D. pinodes and to compare it with that of other close Didymella spp. D. pinodes was very virulent on pea accessions, although differences in virulence were identified among isolates. On the contrary, studied isolates of D. fabae, D. rabiei, and D. lentil showed a reduced ability to infect pea not causing macroscopically visible symptoms on any of the pea accessions tested. D. pinodes isolates were also infective to some extend on almost all species tested including species such as Hedysarum coronarium, Lathyrus sativus, Lupinus albus, Medicago spp., Trifolium spp., Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vicia articulata which were not mentioned before as hosts of D. pinodes. On the contrary, D. lentil and D. rabiei were more specific, infecting only lentil and chickpea, respectively. D. fabae was intermediate, infecting mainly faba bean, but also slightly other species such as Glycine max, Phaseolus vulgaris, Trifolium spp., Vicia sativa, and V. articulata. DNA sequence analysis of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) was performed to confirm identity of the isolates studies and to determine phylogenetic relationship among the Didymella species, revealing the presence of two clearly distinct clades. Clade one was represented by two supported subclusters including D. fabae isolates as well as D. rabiei with D. lentil isolates. Clade two was the largest and included all the D. pinodes isolates as well as Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella. Genetic distance between D. pinodes and the other Didymella spp. isolates was not correlated with overall differences in pathogenicity. Based on evidences presented here, D

  2. Clarification on Host Range of Didymella pinodes the Causal Agent of Pea Ascochyta Blight

    PubMed Central

    Barilli, Eleonora; Cobos, Maria José; Rubiales, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Didymella pinodes is the principal causal agent of ascochyta blight, one of the most important fungal diseases of pea (Pisum sativum) worldwide. Understanding its host specificity has crucial implications in epidemiology and management; however, this has not been clearly delineated yet. In this study we attempt to clarify the host range of D. pinodes and to compare it with that of other close Didymella spp. D. pinodes was very virulent on pea accessions, although differences in virulence were identified among isolates. On the contrary, studied isolates of D. fabae, D. rabiei, and D. lentil showed a reduced ability to infect pea not causing macroscopically visible symptoms on any of the pea accessions tested. D. pinodes isolates were also infective to some extend on almost all species tested including species such as Hedysarum coronarium, Lathyrus sativus, Lupinus albus, Medicago spp., Trifolium spp., Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vicia articulata which were not mentioned before as hosts of D. pinodes. On the contrary, D. lentil and D. rabiei were more specific, infecting only lentil and chickpea, respectively. D. fabae was intermediate, infecting mainly faba bean, but also slightly other species such as Glycine max, Phaseolus vulgaris, Trifolium spp., Vicia sativa, and V. articulata. DNA sequence analysis of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) was performed to confirm identity of the isolates studies and to determine phylogenetic relationship among the Didymella species, revealing the presence of two clearly distinct clades. Clade one was represented by two supported subclusters including D. fabae isolates as well as D. rabiei with D. lentil isolates. Clade two was the largest and included all the D. pinodes isolates as well as Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella. Genetic distance between D. pinodes and the other Didymella spp. isolates was not correlated with overall differences in pathogenicity. Based on evidences presented here, D

  3. HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n) profiling of phenolic compounds from Lathyrus cicera L. seeds.

    PubMed

    Ferreres, F; Magalhães, S C Q; Gil-Izquierdo, A; Valentão, P; Cabrita, A R J; Fonseca, A J M; Andrade, P B

    2017-01-01

    Lathyrus cicera L. seeds are of interest for food and feed purposes. Despite the recognized antioxidant activity of the seeds, arising from the phenolic fraction, their phenolic compounds have not been studied in depth yet. Therefore, to determine the phenolics profile of these seeds, a target analysis was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode-array detection and electrospray ionization/ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n)). Thirty-seven glycosylated flavonoids were identified for the first time in the seeds of this species and, according to their MS fragmentation, clustered in flavonol-3-O-di-/tri-glycosides-7-O-rhamnosides and other flavonol-glycosides, and flavonol-3-O-(cinnamoyl)glycoside-7-O-rhamnosides, flavonol-3-O-(dihydrophaseoyl, cinnamoyl)glycoside-7-O-rhamnosides and flavonol-3-O-(malonyl)glycoside-7-O-rhamnosides. Glycosides of kaempferol were the main flavonoids found (10 non-acylated and 21 acylated), followed by those of quercetin (3) and those of isorhamnetin, apigenin and luteolin (1). The most abundant flavonols were identified as kaempferol-3-O-(2-hexosyl)hexoside-7-O-rhamnosides. The methodology used allowed to increase the knowledge on a relevant phytochemical class of seeds from L. cicera. PMID:27507525

  4. Lessons from neurolathyrism: A disease of the past & the future of Lathyrus sativus (Khesari dal)

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Surya S.; Rao, S.L.N.

    2013-01-01

    Neurolathyrism is past history in India since Lathyrus sativus (khesari dal) is no longer used as a staple. A consensus has evolved that khesari dal is harmless as part of a normal diet. L-ODAP (β-N-oxalyl-l-α-diamino propionic acid) the neurotoxic amino acid, from this pulse, is detoxified in humans but not in animals but still no laboratory animal is susceptible to it under acceptable feeding regimens. L-ODAP is an activator of protein kinase C and consequential crucial downstream effects such as stabilization of hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) could be extremely conducive to humans under a variety of situations. ODAP is gradually finding a place in several patents for this reason. Homoarginine the second amino acid from L. sativus can be a better substrate for endogenous generation of nitric oxide, a crucial signaling molecule associated with the cardiovasculature and control of hypertension. These features could make L. sativus a prized commodity as a functional food for the general cardiovasculature and overcome hypoxic events and is set to change the entire perception of this pulse and neurolathyrism. PMID:24056554

  5. 78 FR 63160 - United States Standards for Feed Peas, Split Peas, and Lentils

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... Peas, and Lentils AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA ACTION: Notice... Peas, and Lentils under the Agriculture Marketing Act (AMA) of 1946. To ensure that the standards and... current U.S. Standards for Feed Peas, Split Peas, and Lentils are meeting the needs in today's...

  6. Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B.

    1998-12-31

    The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat.

  7. PEAS AND PARTICLES, TEACHER'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1966

    THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE IS DESIGNED FOR USE WITH AN ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY UNIT ON "PEAS AND PARTICLES" WHICH DEALS WITH LARGE NUMBERS AND ESTIMATIONS. ITS PURPOSE IS TO GIVE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN AN UNDERSTANDING OF WHAT LARGE NUMBERS MEAN THROUGH INFORMAL ACTIVITIES INVOLVING FAMILIAR OBJECTS. THE MATERIAL HAS BEEN FOUND SUITABLE FOR GRADES…

  8. Sustained antidepressant effect of PEA replacement.

    PubMed

    Sabelli, H; Fink, P; Fawcett, J; Tom, C

    1996-01-01

    Phenylethylamine (PEA), an endogenous neuroamine, increases attention and activity in animals and has been shown to relieve depression in 60% of depressed patients. It has been proposed that PEA deficit may be the cause of a common form of depressive illness. Fourteen patients with major depressive episodes that responded to PEA treatment (10-60 mg orally per day, with 10 mg/day selegiline to prevent rapid PEA destruction) were reexamined 20 to 50 weeks later. The antidepressant response had been maintained in 12 patients. Effective dosage did not change with time. There were no apparent side effects. PEA produces sustained relief of depression in a significant number of patients, including some unresponsive to the standard treatments. PEA improves mood as rapidly as amphetamine but does not produce tolerance. PMID:9081552

  9. QTL may explain a tolerance response to Pea enation mosaic virus in pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV) is a serious disease of fresh market and dry pea in the Pacific Northwest region of the U.S. The dominant En gene confers resistance to PEMV in pea, however, only a limited number of available cultivars contain the gene. While some cultivars have been reported with ...

  10. Growth parameters of vegetable pigeon pea cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigeon pea is an important crop in the dry regions of eastern Kenya, due to its drought tolerance and high protein content; however, farmer’s yield is limiting. Ojwang et al. (HortTech Vol 26 (1), 2016) evaluated twelve pigeon pea cultivars for flowering, plant height, branches, pod length and yield...

  11. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen peas. 158.170 Section 158.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FROZEN VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Frozen Vegetables § 158.170 Frozen peas. (a) Identity—(1) Product...

  12. Yield potential of pigeon pea cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yield potential of twelve vegetable pigeon pea (Cajanus cajun) cultivars was evaluated at two locations in eastern Kenya during 2012 and 2013 cropping years. Pigeon pea pod numbers, seeds per pod, seed mass, grain yield and shelling percentage were quantified in three replicated plots, arranged in a...

  13. Pea amyloplast DNA is qualitatively similar to pea chloroplast DNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaynor, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Amyloplast DNA (apDNA), when subjected to digestion with restriction endonucleases, yields patterns nearly identical to that of DNA from mature pea chloroplasts (ctDNA). Southern transfers of apDNA and ctDNA, probed with the large subunit (LS) gene of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco), shows hybridization to the expected restriction fragments for both apDNA and ctDNA. However, Northern transfers of total RNA from chloroplasts and amyloplasts, probed again with the LS gene of Rubisco, shows that no detectable LS meggage is found in amyloplasts although LS expression in mature chloroplasts is high. Likewise, two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of etiolated gravisensitive pea tissue shows that both large and small subunits of Rubisco are conspicuously absent; however, in greening tissue these two constitute the major soluble proteins. These findings suggest that although the informational content of these two organelle types is equivalent, gene expression is quite different and is presumably under nuclear control.

  14. Pests in Ornamental Grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ornamental perennial grasses are becoming increasingly popular in the landscape due to their beauty and ease of care. Although few pest problems are encountered in ornamental grasses, they are not immune to insects and disease. Two lined spittlebugs (Prosapia bicincta) can cause damage to ornament...

  15. 21 CFR 155.172 - Canned dry peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned dry peas. 155.172 Section 155.172 Food and... peas. (a) Identity. Canned dry peas conforms to the definition and standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients, prescribed for canned peas by §...

  16. 21 CFR 155.172 - Canned dry peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned dry peas. 155.172 Section 155.172 Food and... peas. (a) Identity. Canned dry peas conforms to the definition and standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients, prescribed for canned peas by §...

  17. 21 CFR 155.172 - Canned dry peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned dry peas. 155.172 Section 155.172 Food and... peas. (a) Identity. Canned dry peas conforms to the definition and standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients, prescribed for canned peas by §...

  18. 21 CFR 155.172 - Canned dry peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned dry peas. 155.172 Section 155.172 Food and... peas. (a) Identity. Canned dry peas conforms to the definition and standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients, prescribed for canned peas by §...

  19. 21 CFR 155.172 - Canned dry peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned dry peas. 155.172 Section 155.172 Food and... peas. (a) Identity. Canned dry peas conforms to the definition and standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients, prescribed for canned peas by §...

  20. Pea Aphid Outbreaks and Virus Epidemics on Peas in the U.S. Pacific Northwest: Histories, Mysteries, and Challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pea aphid adversely affects the health and vigor of peas in the U.S. Pacific Northwest by sucking sap from leaves, stems, and pods and by transmitting four different pathogenic viruses. In eastern Washington, field peas are devastated by pea aphid feeding damage and legume viruses during periodi...

  1. Occurrence of viruses infecting pea in Iran.

    PubMed

    Esfandiari, N; Kohi-Habibi, M; Mosahebi, Gh

    2006-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the incidence of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV), Broad bean wilt virus-1 (BBWV), Pea leafroll virus (PLRV), Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV), Pea seed borne mosaic virus (PSbMV), Potato virus x(PVX), Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) on pea (Pisum sativum) in Iran. A Total of 1276 random and 684 symptomatic pea samples were collected during the spring and summer of 2002-2004 in Tehran province of Iran, where pea is grown, and tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using specific polyclonal antibodies. Serological diagnoses were confirmed by electron microscopy and host range studies. Incidence of viruses in decreasing order was PVX (69%), ToMV (59%), PSbMV (36.6%), BBWV-1 (26.1%), BYMV (20.3%), AMV (17.77%), TSWV (12.6%), PEMV (10.9%), PLRV (6.78%). In this survey, natural occurrence of AMV, BBWV-1, PSbMV, TSWV, PVX and ToMV was reported for the first time on the pea in Iran. PMID:17390891

  2. DPPH scavenging, PRAP activities and essential oil composition of edible Lathyrus ochrus L. (Cyprus Vetch, Luvana) from Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Polatoğlu, Kaan; Arsal, Seniha; Demirci, Betül; Başer, Kemal Hüsnü Can

    2015-01-01

    The essential oil of the aerial parts of edible Lathyrus ochrus L. was investigated by simultaneous GC, GC/MS analyses under the same conditions. Trace amount of oil (0.01> mL) obtained by hydro distillation of 200 g fresh plants was trapped in 1 mL n-hexane. Twenty components were detected representing 91.55 ± 0.56 % of the oil. The main components were phytol 49.39 ± 0.44 %, hexadecanoic acid 20.64 ± 0.89 % and pentacosane 4.20 ± 0.09 %. Essential oil solution (1% oil: n-hexane) afforded similar DPPH scavenging activity (9.28 ± 1.30 %) when compared with positive controls α-tocopherol (9.74 ± 0.21 %) and BHT (7.79 ± 0.26 %) at the same concentrations. Antioxidant activity of the oil was determined using a new HPTLC-PRAP assay. The oil afforded two fold higher reducing activity of phosphomolybdenum complex (594.85 ± 5.14 AU) when compared with positive controls α- tocopherol (271.10 ± 2.86 AU) and BHT (210.53 ± 1.81 AU) at the same concentration. PMID:25757435

  3. Grass Rooting the System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Janice E.

    1976-01-01

    Suggests a taxonomy of the grass roots movement and gives a general descriptive over view of the 60 groups studied with respect to origin, constituency, size, funding, issues, and ideology. (Author/AM)

  4. GRASS GIS Vector Processing: Towards GRASS 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, Markus; Landa, Martin; Petrasova, Anna; Petras, Vaclav; Chemin, Yann; Neteler, Markus

    2014-05-01

    The upcoming GRASS GIS 7 release improves not only raster processing and general design but the vector processing in the first place. GRASS GIS, as a topological GIS, recognizes that the topology plays the key role in the vector processing and analysis. Topology ensures that adjacent geographic components in a single vector map are related. In contrast to non-topological GIS, a border common to two areas exists only once and is shared between the two areas. Topological representation of vector data helps to produce and maintain vector maps with clean geometry as well as enables the user to perform certain analyses that can not be conducted with non-topological or spaghetti data. Non-topological vector data are automatically converted to a topological representation upon import. Further more, various cleaning tools exist to remove non-trivial topological errors. In the upcoming GRASS GIS 7 release the vector library was particularly improved to make it faster and more efficient with an improved internal vector file format. This new topological format reduces memory and disk space requirements, leading to a generally faster processing. Opening an existing vector requires less memory providing additionally support for large files. The new spatial index performs queries faster (compared to GRASS GIS 6 more than 10 times for large vectors). As a new option the user can select a file-based version of the spatial index for large vector data. All topological cleaning tools have been optimized with regard to processing speed, robustness, and system requirements. The topological engine comes with a new prototype for direct read/write support of Simple Features API/OGR. Additionally vector data can be directly exchanged with topological PostGIS 2 databases. Considering the wide spread usage of ESRI Shapefile, a non-topological format for vector data exchange, it is particularly advantageous that GRASS GIS 7 offers advanced cleaning tools. For power users and programmers, the

  5. Antifungal Hydrolases in Pea Tissue 1

    PubMed Central

    Mauch, Felix; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Boller, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    Chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase purified from pea pods acted synergistically in the degradation of fungal cell walls. The antifungal potential of the two enzymes was studied directly by adding protein preparations to paper discs placed on agar plates containing germinated fungal spores. Protein extracts from pea pods infected with Fusarium solani f.sp. phaseoli, which contained high activities of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, inhibited growth of 15 out of 18 fungi tested. Protein extracts from uninfected pea pods, which contained low activities of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, did not inhibit fungal growth. Purified chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, tested individually, did not inhibit growth of most of the test fungi. Only Trichoderma viride was inhibited by chitinase alone, and only Fusarium solani f.sp. pisi was inhibited by β-1,3-glucanase alone. However, combinations of purified chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase inhibited all fungi tested as effectively as crude protein extracts containing the same enzyme activities. The pea pathogen, Fusarium solani f.sp. pisi, and the nonpathogen of peas, Fusarium solani f.sp. phaseoli, were similarly strongly inhibited by chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, indicating that the differential pathogenicity of the two fungi is not due to differential sensitivity to the pea enzymes. Inhibition of fungal growth was caused by the lysis of the hyphal tips. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:16666407

  6. Peas in a Pod: Environment and Ionization in Green Pea Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, Heather; Jaskot, Anne; Drew, Patrick; Pare, Dylan; Griffin, Jon; Petersen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Green Peas are extreme, highly ionized, starburst galaxies with strong [OIII] 5007 emission. Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we present statistics on the environment of Green Peas and investigate its effects on their ionized gas properties. Although most dwarf starburst galaxies are in low-density environments, we identify a sample of Green Peas in dense environments. Emission line observations with the WIYN 0.9-meter telescope at Kitt Peak reveal that one cluster Green Pea is more highly ionized in the direction of the cluster center. Ram pressure stripping likely generates this ionization gradient. We explore the role of the environment in enhancing star formation rates and ionization, and we compare the nebular properties of Green Peas in high-density environments to those in low-density environments.

  7. Pea Plants Show Risk Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Dener, Efrat; Kacelnik, Alex; Shemesh, Hagai

    2016-07-11

    Sensitivity to variability in resources has been documented in humans, primates, birds, and social insects, but the fit between empirical results and the predictions of risk sensitivity theory (RST), which aims to explain this sensitivity in adaptive terms, is weak [1]. RST predicts that agents should switch between risk proneness and risk aversion depending on state and circumstances, especially according to the richness of the least variable option [2]. Unrealistic assumptions about agents' information processing mechanisms and poor knowledge of the extent to which variability imposes specific selection in nature are strong candidates to explain the gap between theory and data. RST's rationale also applies to plants, where it has not hitherto been tested. Given the differences between animals' and plants' information processing mechanisms, such tests should help unravel the conflicts between theory and data. Measuring root growth allocation by split-root pea plants, we show that they favor variability when mean nutrient levels are low and the opposite when they are high, supporting the most widespread RST prediction. However, the combination of non-linear effects of nitrogen availability at local and systemic levels may explain some of these effects as a consequence of mechanisms not necessarily evolved to cope with variance [3, 4]. This resembles animal examples in which properties of perception and learning cause risk sensitivity even though they are not risk adaptations [5]. PMID:27374342

  8. 1. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ISLAND. REMAINS OF SEA WALL VISIBLE IN FOREGROUND AND RIGHT OF IMAGE. - Fort Delaware, Sea Wall, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  9. Immunofluorescence detection of pea protein in meat products.

    PubMed

    Petrášová, Michaela; Pospiech, Matej; Tremlová, Bohuslava; Javůrková, Zdeňka

    2016-08-01

    In this study we developed an immunofluorescence method to detect pea protein in meat products. Pea protein has a high nutritional value but in sensitive individuals it may be responsible for causing allergic reactions. We produced model meat products with various additions of pea protein and flour; the detection limit (LOD) of the method for pea flour was 0.5% addition, and for pea protein it was 0.001% addition. The repeatabilities and reproducibilities for samples both positive and negative for pea protein were all 100%. In a blind test with model products and commercial samples, there was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) between the declared concentrations of pea protein and flour and the immunofluorescence method results. Sensitivity was 1.06 and specificity was 1.00. These results show that the immunofluorescence method is suitable for the detection of pea protein in meat products. PMID:27441410

  10. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ISLAND. REMAINS OF SEA WALL VISIBLE IN FOREGROUND AND RIGHT OF IMAGE - Fort Delaware, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  11. Pea weevil damage and chemical characteristics of pea cultivars determining their resistance to Bruchus pisorum L.

    PubMed

    Nikolova, I

    2016-04-01

    Bruchus pisorum (L.) is one of the most intractable pest problems of cultivated pea in Europe. Development of resistant cultivars is very important to environmental protection and would solve this problem to a great extent. Therefore, the resistance of five spring pea cultivars was studied to B. pisorum: Glyans, Modus; Kamerton and Svit and Pleven 4 based on the weevil damage and chemical composition of seeds. The seeds were classified as three types: healthy seeds (type one), damaged seeds with parasitoid emergence holes (type two) and damaged seeds with bruchid emergence holes (type three). From visibly damaged pea seeds by pea weevil B. pisorum was isolated the parasitoid Triaspis thoracica Curtis (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). Modus, followed by Glyans was outlined as resistant cultivars against the pea weevil. They had the lowest total damaged seed degree, loss in weight of damaged seeds (type two and type three) and values of susceptibility coefficients. A strong negative relationship (r = -0.838) between the weight of type one seeds and the proportion of type three seeds was found. Cultivars with lower protein and phosphorus (P) content had a lower level of damage. The crude protein, crude fiber and P content in damaged seeds significantly or no significantly were increased as compared with the healthy seeds due to weevil damage. The P content had the highest significant influence on pea weevil infestation. Use of chemical markers for resistance to the creation of new pea cultivars can be effective method for defense and control against B. pisorum. PMID:26837535

  12. 7 CFR 457.137 - Green pea crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Green pea crop insurance provisions. 457.137 Section 457.137 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.137 Green pea crop insurance provisions. The Green Pea Crop...

  13. Possible causes of dry pea synergy to corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry pea improves corn yield and tolerance to weed interference compared with soybean, spring wheat, or canola as preceding crops. To understand this synergy between dry pea and corn, we examined growth and nutrient concentration of corn following dry pea or soybean in sequence. Each corn plot was ...

  14. Identification of Resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorium in Peas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White mold, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, can be a serious disease in irrigated and dryland peas in the Pacific Northwest and is considered a serious potential threat to the expanding pea production in the Midwest of the United States. Due to poor economic returns to pea growers, expensive fo...

  15. 78 FR 68410 - United States Standards for Whole Dry Peas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... for Whole Dry Peas. The proposal would establish an additional color grading factor requirement for the Whole Dry Peas class ``Smooth Yellow Dry Peas'' and establish a definition for ``fair color yellow..., grade, and packaging and recommend and demonstrate such standards in order to encourage uniformity...

  16. Potential alternative hosts for a powdery mildew on pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery mildew of pea (Pisum sativum) is an important disease in the field and in the greenhouse. The most widely documented powdery mildew on pea is Erysiphe pisi, but E. trifolii and E. baeumleri have also been reported. From greenhouse-grown peas, we obtained powdery mildew samples with rDNA ITS ...

  17. LIGNIN ACYLATION IN GRASSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acylation of lignin during growth and development is a commonly found among some plant species. Grasses form unique acylated lignins involving p-coumarate (pCA). In corn rind tissue, it is exclusively attached to the gamma-carbon of lignin monomers, with a strong preference (over 90%) for attachment...

  18. Evidence that QTL may be involved in a tolerance response to Pea enation mosaic virus in pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV) is a serious disease of fresh market and dry pea in the Pacific Northwest region of the U.S. The En gene confers resistance to PEMV in pea, however a limited number of available cultivars contain the gene, and sources of tolerance have not been reported. In 2007, ad...

  19. Registration of Pea Germplasm Partially Resistant to Aphanomyces Root Rot for Breeding Fresh or Freezer Pea and Dry Pea Types

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven F8 derived breeding lines, 846-07, 847-08, 847-22, 847-45, 847-50, 847-53 and 847-68, of green pea (Pisum sativum, L.) were selected from a recombinant inbred line population that was developed by the USDA ARS in 2002. These lines are unique as they combine high levels of tolerance to Aphanom...

  20. Polyvinyl polypyrrolidone attenuates genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles synthesized via green route, tested in Lathyrus sativus L. root bioassay.

    PubMed

    Panda, Kamal K; Achary, V Mohan M; Phaomie, Ganngam; Sahu, Hrushi K; Parinandi, Narasimham L; Panda, Brahma B

    2016-08-01

    The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized extracellularly from silver nitrate (AgNO3) using kernel extract from ripe mango Mengifera indica L. under four different reaction conditions of the synthesis media such as the (i) absence of the reducing agent, trisodium citrate (AgNPI), (ii) presence of the reducing agent (AgNPII), (iii) presence of the cleansing agent, polyvinyl polypyrrolidone, PVPP (AgNPIII), and (iv) presence of the capping agent, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, PVP (AgNPIV). The synthesis of the AgNPs was monitored by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The AgNPs were characterised by the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and small-angle X-ray scattering. Functional groups on the AgNPs were established by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The AgNPs (AgNPI, AgNPII, AgNPIII and AgNPIV) were spherical in shape with the diameters and size distribution-widths of 14.0±5.4, 19.2±6.6, 18.8±6.6 and 44.6±13.2nm, respectively. Genotoxicity of the AgNPs at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100mgL(-1) was determined by the Lathyrus sativus L. root bioassay and several endpoint assays including the generation of reactive oxygen species and cell death, lipid peroxidation, mitotic index, chromosome aberrations (CA), micronucleus formation (MN), and DNA damage as determined by the Comet assay. The dose-dependent induction of genotoxicity of the silver ion (Ag(+)) and AgNPs was in the order Ag(+)>AgNPII>AgNPI>AgNPIV>AgNPIII that corresponded with their relative potencies of induction of DNA damage and oxidative stress. Furthermore, the findings underscored the CA and MN endpoint-based genotoxicity assay which demonstrated the genotoxicity of AgNPs at concentrations (≤10mgL(-1)) lower than that (≥10mgL(-1)) tested in the Comet assay. This study demonstrated the protective action of PVPP against the genotoxicity of AgNPIII which was independent of the size of the AgNPs in the L. sativus L. root bioassay

  1. Review of the health benefits of peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Dahl, Wendy J; Foster, Lauren M; Tyler, Robert T

    2012-08-01

    Pulses, including peas, have long been important components of the human diet due to their content of starch, protein and other nutrients. More recently, the health benefits other than nutrition associated with pulse consumption have attracted much interest. The focus of the present review paper is the demonstrated and potential health benefits associated with the consumption of peas, Pisum sativum L., specifically green and yellow cotyledon dry peas, also known as smooth peas or field peas. These health benefits derive mainly from the concentration and properties of starch, protein, fibre, vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals in peas. Fibre from the seed coat and the cell walls of the cotyledon contributes to gastrointestinal function and health, and reduces the digestibility of starch in peas. The intermediate amylose content of pea starch also contributes to its lower glycaemic index and reduced starch digestibility. Pea protein, when hydrolysed, may yield peptides with bioactivities, including angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor activity and antioxidant activity. The vitamin and mineral contents of peas may play important roles in the prevention of deficiency-related diseases, specifically those related to deficiencies of Se or folate. Peas contain a variety of phytochemicals once thought of only as antinutritive factors. These include polyphenolics, in coloured seed coat types in particular, which may have antioxidant and anticarcinogenic activity, saponins which may exhibit hypocholesterolaemic and anticarcinogenic activity, and galactose oligosaccharides which may exert beneficial prebiotic effects in the large intestine. PMID:22916813

  2. Attacking invasive grasses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2015-01-01

    In grasslands fire may play a role in the plant invasion process, both by creating disturbances that potentially favour non-native invasions and as a possible tool for controlling alien invasions. Havill et al. (Applied Vegetation Science, 18, 2015, this issue) determine how native and non-native species respond to different fire regimes as a first step in understanding the potential control of invasive grasses.

  3. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen peas. 158.170 Section 158.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FROZEN VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Frozen Vegetables § 158.170 Frozen...

  4. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen peas. 158.170 Section 158.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FROZEN VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Frozen Vegetables § 158.170 Frozen...

  5. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen peas. 158.170 Section 158.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FROZEN VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Frozen Vegetables § 158.170 Frozen...

  6. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen peas. 158.170 Section 158.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FROZEN VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Frozen Vegetables § 158.170 Frozen...

  7. CEI-PEA Alert, Summer 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Educational Innovation - Public Education Association, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The "CEI-PEA Alert" is an advocacy newsletter that deals with topics of interest to all concerned with the New York City public schools. This issue includes: (1) Practical Skills & High Academic Standards: Career Technical Education; (2) Parents: Help Your Children Gain "Soft Skills" for the Workforce; (3) Culinary Arts Motivate High School…

  8. CEI-PEA Alert, Fall 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Educational Innovation - Public Education Association, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The "CEI-PEA Alert" is an advocacy newsletter that deals with topics of interest to all concerned with the New York City public schools. This issue includes: (1) Chancellor Joel I. Klein Announces New Accountability System for NYC Schools; (2) Students Achieve Record-High Scores!; (3) Use Data to Help Your Child Improve Performance; (4) Are…

  9. Iron bioavailability in low phytate pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds have high nutritional value but also contain potential anti-nutritional factors, such as phytate and polyphenols. Phytate can store up to 80% of the phosphorus in seeds. In the seed and during digestion it can complex minerals such as iron and zinc and make them un...

  10. Response of Pea Varieties to Damage Degree of Pea Weevil, Bruchus pisorum L.

    PubMed Central

    Nikolova, Ivelina Mitkova

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the response of five pea varieties (Pisum sativum L.) to damage degree of Bruchus pisorum: Glyans, Modus, Kamerton, and Svit (Ukrainian cultivars) and Pleven 4 (Bulgarian cultivar). The seeds were classified into three types: healthy seeds (type 1), damaged seeds with parasitoid emergence hole (type 2), and damaged seeds with bruchid emergence hole (type 3) and they were sown. It was found that the weight of 1000 seeds did not affect the field germination of the pea varieties. Healthy and damaged seeds with parasitoid emergence holes (first and second seed types) provide a very good opportunity for growth and development while plants from damaged seeds with bruchid emergence holes had poor germination and vigor and low productivity. These seeds cannot provide the creation of well-garnished seeding and stable crop yields. Among tested varieties, the Ukrainian variety Glyans had considerably higher seed weight, field germination, and index germination and weak egg-laying activity of B. pisorum compared to others. Use of spring pea cultivars that are weakly preferred by the pea weevil in breeding programs would reduce losses due to pea weevil and provide an environmentally safer option to its control. PMID:27042379

  11. Genotoxicological Evaluation of NUTRALYS Pea Protein Isolate.

    PubMed

    Aouatif, Chentouf; Looten, Ph; Parvathi, M V S; Raja Ganesh, S; Paranthaman, V

    2013-01-01

    NUTRALYS Pea Protein Isolate, a protein supplement, is a high-quality source of protein which is primarily emulsifying functional protein. We evaluated the genotoxic potential of NUTRALYS isolated from dry yellow pea, using three established genotoxicity tests (AMES test in vitro chromosomal aberration test, and in vivo micronucleus test) employing OECD guidelines under GLP conditions. In the bacterial reverse mutation test, NUTRALYS did not show positive responses in strains detecting point and frame shift mutations. In the chromosomal aberration test, NUTRALYS did not induce chromosome aberrations in the presence and absence of metabolic activation. In the bone marrow micronucleus test, NUTRALYS did not induce significant increases of micronucleated immature (polychromatic) erythrocytes in bone marrow of test animals. PMID:23762639

  12. PERENNIAL WARM-SEASON GRASSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Warm-season grasses and can be used to augment the forage supply for grazing livestock operations in the northeastern U.S. Much of what is known about warm season grass production and management in the northeastern US was obtained from a soil conservation or wildlife habitat perspective. Warm-seas...

  13. Ornamental Landscape Grasses. Slide Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Still, Steven M.; Adams, Denise W.

    This slide script to accompany the slide series, Ornamental Landscape Grasses, contains photographs of the 167 slides and accompanying narrative text intended for use in the study and identification of commercially important ornamental grasses and grasslike plants. Narrative text is provided for slides of 62 different perennial and annual species…

  14. Genomic Tools in Pea Breeding Programs: Status and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Tayeh, Nadim; Aubert, Grégoire; Pilet-Nayel, Marie-Laure; Lejeune-Hénaut, Isabelle; Warkentin, Thomas D; Burstin, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an annual cool-season legume and one of the oldest domesticated crops. Dry pea seeds contain 22-25% protein, complex starch and fiber constituents, and a rich array of vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals which make them a valuable source for human consumption and livestock feed. Dry pea ranks third to common bean and chickpea as the most widely grown pulse in the world with more than 11 million tons produced in 2013. Pea breeding has achieved great success since the time of Mendel's experiments in the mid-1800s. However, several traits still require significant improvement for better yield stability in a larger growing area. Key breeding objectives in pea include improving biotic and abiotic stress resistance and enhancing yield components and seed quality. Taking advantage of the diversity present in the pea genepool, many mapping populations have been constructed in the last decades and efforts have been deployed to identify loci involved in the control of target traits and further introgress them into elite breeding materials. Pea now benefits from next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies that are paving the way for genome-wide association studies and genomic selection approaches. This review covers the significant development and deployment of genomic tools for pea breeding in recent years. Future prospects are discussed especially in light of current progress toward deciphering the pea genome. PMID:26640470

  15. Genomic Tools in Pea Breeding Programs: Status and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Tayeh, Nadim; Aubert, Grégoire; Pilet-Nayel, Marie-Laure; Lejeune-Hénaut, Isabelle; Warkentin, Thomas D.; Burstin, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an annual cool-season legume and one of the oldest domesticated crops. Dry pea seeds contain 22–25% protein, complex starch and fiber constituents, and a rich array of vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals which make them a valuable source for human consumption and livestock feed. Dry pea ranks third to common bean and chickpea as the most widely grown pulse in the world with more than 11 million tons produced in 2013. Pea breeding has achieved great success since the time of Mendel's experiments in the mid-1800s. However, several traits still require significant improvement for better yield stability in a larger growing area. Key breeding objectives in pea include improving biotic and abiotic stress resistance and enhancing yield components and seed quality. Taking advantage of the diversity present in the pea genepool, many mapping populations have been constructed in the last decades and efforts have been deployed to identify loci involved in the control of target traits and further introgress them into elite breeding materials. Pea now benefits from next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies that are paving the way for genome-wide association studies and genomic selection approaches. This review covers the significant development and deployment of genomic tools for pea breeding in recent years. Future prospects are discussed especially in light of current progress toward deciphering the pea genome. PMID:26640470

  16. Effect of cowpea and pea inocula on cool-season grasses.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizobium or Bradyrhizobium bacteria, which form nitrogen fixing nodules on the legume plant roots, also produce plant growth, or other compounds that may inhibit pathogenic bacteria. Non-legume crops, such as corn and rice, inoculated with these bacteria have shown greater plant growth as compared ...

  17. How does pea architecture influence light sharing in virtual wheat–pea mixtures? A simulation study based on pea genotypes with contrasting architectures

    PubMed Central

    Barillot, Romain; Combes, Didier; Chevalier, Valérie; Fournier, Christian; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Abraham J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Light interception is a key factor driving the functioning of wheat–pea intercrops. The sharing of light is related to the canopy structure, which results from the architectural parameters of the mixed species. In the present study, we characterized six contrasting pea genotypes and identified architectural parameters whose range of variability leads to various levels of light sharing within virtual wheat–pea mixtures. Methodology Virtual plants were derived from magnetic digitizations performed during the growing cycle in a greenhouse experiment. Plant mock-ups were used as inputs of a radiative transfer model in order to estimate light interception in virtual wheat–pea mixtures. The turbid medium approach, extended to well-mixed canopies, was used as a framework for assessing the effects of leaf area index (LAI) and mean leaf inclination on light sharing. Principal results Three groups of pea genotypes were distinguished: (i) early and leafy cultivars, (ii) late semi-leafless cultivars and (iii) low-development semi-leafless cultivars. Within open canopies, light sharing was well described by the turbid medium approach and was therefore determined by the architectural parameters that composed LAI and foliage inclination. When canopy closure started, the turbid medium approach was unable to properly infer light partitioning because of the vertical structure of the canopy. This was related to the architectural parameters that determine the height of pea genotypes. Light capture was therefore affected by the development of leaflets, number of branches and phytomers, as well as internode length. Conclusions This study provides information on pea architecture and identifies parameters whose variability can be used to drive light sharing within wheat–pea mixtures. These results could be used to build up the architecture of pea ideotypes adapted to multi-specific stands towards light competition. PMID:23240074

  18. Additional pea EST-SSR markers for comparative mapping in pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The availability of a large set of molecular markers is an excellent resource for both applied and basic research for any organism. The current consensus molecular map of pea is 1,430 cM and contains 239 simple sequence repeat markers. The goal was to identify and test unique gene-based simple sequ...

  19. Plant characteristics and growth parameters of vegetable pigeon pea cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigeon pea is an important crop in dry land and semi-arid regions and is a supplementary source of dietary protein for the resource-constrained farmers. The aim of this research was to evaluate growth parameters of twelve vegetable pigeon pea genotypes at two locations in Eastern Kenya. The number o...

  20. Chapter 8. Genetic Adjustment to Changing Climates: Pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peas are adapted to cool, semi-arid to sub-humid growing conditions and although they are widely grown throughout the world, the best performance is realized in the cool, relatively dry areas of the mid-latitudes. The literature to date on the potential effects of climate change specifically on pea ...

  1. 7 CFR 457.137 - Green pea crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... additional levels of coverage, as specified in 7 CFR part 400, subpart T, and pay an additional premium, you... canned or frozen and sold for human consumption. Harvest. Combining (vining) of the peas. Nurse crop... green peas for human consumption, that possesses all licenses and permits for processing green...

  2. 7 CFR 457.137 - Green pea crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... additional levels of coverage, as specified in 7 CFR part 400, subpart T, and pay an additional premium, you... canned or frozen and sold for human consumption. Harvest. Combining (vining) of the peas. Nurse crop... green peas for human consumption, that possesses all licenses and permits for processing green...

  3. Development of genetic resources for association mapping in pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A previous study of the allelic diversity of the USDA pea core collection resequenced ten loci of 32 diverse pea germplasm accessions from which SNP assays were designed for Agpl1, AspS2, Cwi1, DRR206c, PPlike, PsAS2, SOD9, Thaumatin1, PsLD, and Viola2 (Aubert et al. 2006; Gilpin et al 1997; Hecht ...

  4. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) in the genomics era

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) was the original model organism for Mendel´s discovery of the laws of inheritance, making it the foundation of modern plant genetics. However, subsequent progress in pea genomics has lagged behind many other plant species, largely as a consequence of its low multiplication rat...

  5. 7 CFR 457.137 - Green pea crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... timely planted acreage. If you have limited or additional levels of coverage, as specified in 7 CFR part... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Green pea crop insurance provisions. 457.137 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.137 Green pea crop...

  6. 7 CFR 457.137 - Green pea crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... timely planted acreage. If you have limited or additional levels of coverage, as specified in 7 CFR part... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Green pea crop insurance provisions. 457.137 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.137 Green pea crop...

  7. Grass fungal endophytes and uses thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Craven, Kelly

    2015-03-10

    The invention provides isolated fungal endophytes and synthetic combinations thereof with host grass plants. Methods for inoculating grass plant with the endophytes, for propagating the grass-endophyte combinations, and for producing feeds and biofuels from grass-endophyte combinations are also provided.

  8. Ethylene effects in pea stem tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Steen, D.A.; Chadwick, A.V.

    1981-01-01

    The marked effects of ethylene on pea stem growth have been investigated. Low temperatures and colchicine, both known microtubule depolymerization agents, reverse the effects of ethylene in straight growth tests. Low temperature (6 C) also profoundly reduces the effects of gas in terms of swelling, hook curvature, and horizontal mutation. Deuterium oxide, an agent capable of rigidifying microtubular structure, mimics the effects of ethylene. Electron microscopy shows that microtubule orientation is strikingly altered by ethylene. These findings indicate that some of the ethylene responses may be due to a stabilizing effect on microtubules in plant cells.

  9. Assessment of organic seed treatments in a pea disease nursery to manage seed and root rot on peas, 2008.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-one organic seed treatments consisting of biological, non-biological and a combination of each were evaluated in a pea root rot field nursery in Prosser, WA for their potential to manage seed and root rot pathogens of processed peas. Non-treated seed and a commercial seed treatment (Capta...

  10. Pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum (L.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), resistance in Pisum sativum x P. fulvum interspecific crosses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum (L.), is one of the most intractable pest problems of cultivated pea, Pisum sativum L., in the world. This study investigated the transfer of pea weevil resistance from two accessions (PI 595946, PI 343955) of wild pea, Pisum fulvum Sibth. & Sm., to interspecific pop...

  11. Glycolate transporter of the pea chloroplast envelope

    SciTech Connect

    Howitz, K.T.

    1985-01-01

    The discovery of a glycolate transporter in the pea (Pisum sativum) chloroplast envelope is described. Several novel silicone oil centrifugation methods were developed to resolve the initial rate kinetics of (/sup 14/C)glycolate transport by isolated, intact pea chloroplasts. Chloroplast glycolate transport was found to be carrier mediated. Transport rates saturated with increasing glycolate concentration. N-Ethylmaleimide (NEM) pretreatment of chloroplasts inhibited transport, an inhibition prevented by glycolate. Glycolate distributed across the envelope in a way which equalized stromal and medium glycolic acid concentrations, limiting possible transport mechanisms to facilitated glycolic acid diffusion, proton symport or hydroxyl antiport. The effects of stomal and medium pH's on the K/sub m/ and V/sub max/ fit the predictions of mobile carrier kinetic models of hydroxyl antiport or proton symport (H/sup +/ binds first). The carrier mediated transport was fast enough to be consistent with in vivo rates of photorespiration. The 2-hydroxymonocarboxylates, glycerate, lactate and glyoxylate are competitive inhibitors of chloroplast glycolate uptake. Glyoxylate, D-lactate and D-glycerate cause glycolate counterflow, indicating that they are also substrates of the glycolate carrier. This finding was confirmed for D-glycerate by studies on glycolate effects on (1-/sup 14/C)D-glycerate transport.

  12. Glycerolipid biosynthesis in isolated pea root plastids

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Lingru; Sparace, S.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Plastids have been isolated from germinating pea (Pisum sativum L.) roots by differential centrifugation and purified on Percoll gradients. Marker enzymes (NADPH: cytochrome c reductase, fumarase and fatty acid synthesis) indicate that greater than 50% of the plastids are recovered essentially free from mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum contamination. Fatty acids synthesized from ({sup 14}C)acetate by Percoll-purified plastids are primarily 16:0, 16:1 and 18:1. ({sup 14}C)Acetate-labelled fatty acids and ({sup 14}C)glycerol-3-phosphate are both readily incorporated into glycerolipid. Approximately 12% of the total activity for glycerolipid biosynthesis from glycerol-3-phosphate is recovered in the purified plastid fraction. Glycerolipids synthesized from these precursors are primarily TAG, DAG, PE, PG, PC, PI and PA. Acyl-CoA's also accumulate when acetate is the precursor.

  13. Ozone stress proteins in pea plants

    SciTech Connect

    Beckett, P.; Mozley, D.; Price, A.; Hetherington, A.; Lea, P. )

    1989-04-01

    21 day old pea plants were fumigated with 200, 100, 50 and 0 ppb ozone (8 hrs/day) for 5 days. Soluble proteins were extracted from the first 6 leaves and analyzed by 1D SDS PAGE. Polypeptides were visualized after coomassie blue staining. With respect to controls, fumigation resulted in a dose dependent decrease in staining intensity of several polypeptides (of approximate M.W. 94, 54, 35 kD). However, treatment with 200 ppb ozone resulted in the appearance of a polypeptide with a molecular weight of circa 32 kD. This polypeptide was absent from control (0 ppb ozone) plants. Currently, we are (1) purifying the c32kD polypeptide, (2) studying the temporal aspects of the synthesis of this polypeptide and (3) investigating whether this represents a general response to pollutant gases.

  14. Protein methylation reactions in intact pea chloroplasts

    SciTech Connect

    Niemi, K.J. )

    1989-04-01

    Post-translational protein methylation was investigated in Pisum sativum chloroplasts. Intact pea chloroplasts were incubated with ({sup 3}H-methyl)-S-adenosylmethionine under various conditions. The chloroplasts were then separated into stromal and thylakoid fractions and analyzed for radioactivity transferred to protein. Light enhanced the magnitude of labeling in both fractions. One thylakoid polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 43 kDa was labeled only in the light. Several other thylakoid and stromal proteins were labeled in both light and dark-labeling conditions. Both base-labile methylation, carboxy-methylesters and base-stable groups, N-methylations were found. Further characterization of the methyl-transfer reactions will be presented.

  15. [Characteristic of one-paired pea virus].

    PubMed

    Kakareka, N N; Kozlovskaia, Z N; Volkov, Iu G

    2010-01-01

    The new virus isolated from Vicia unijuga A.Br. with filament particles with size 1000-1200 x 10-12 nm is revealed. A thermal inactivation point is 55 degrees C; dilution end point - 10(-5)-10(-6) longevity in vitro in broad bean sap--less than one day. It is transferred by aphids and by pea, bean and broad bean seeds. The plants of Fabaceae, Solanaceae and Chenopodiaceae fam. were affected by this virus isolate. The virus yield was 40-50 mg per 100 g of leaves. The ratio of absorption E260/E280 corresponded to 1.4-1.5. The molecular mass of a core protein of the virus was 34 kD. The virus has a high immunogenic properties--titer is 1:256000 (indirect method of ELISA). It is presumably identified as a member of Closteroviridae. PMID:20695230

  16. Multiple molecular forms of glutamine synthetase in pea seeds.

    PubMed

    Antonyuk, L P; Pushkin, A V; Vorobyeva, L M; Solovjeva, N A; Evstigneeva, Z G; Kretovich, W L

    1982-08-20

    Multiple molecular forms of glutamine synthetase (GS, EC 6.3.1.2) have been studied in pea seeds of different varieties. The number of GS molecular forms in the seeds proved to be related to their colour. Two GS forms in the green seeds have been found and only one of them in the yellow seeds. Green seeds had chlorophyll content amounted to 0.4% of the total pigment content in the leaves. Chloroplasts, somewhat smaller than those in pea leaves of the same variety, have been isolated from green seeds. The presence of the second GS form in the pea green seeds we relate to the chloroplasts. By electrophoretic mobility both forms of GS from the green seeds are not identical to the chloroplast GS and the cytosol GS of leaves. Thus, we believe pea plant to contain, at least, four GS forms. PMID:6127624

  17. Modeling growth of Clostridium perfringens in pea soup during cooling.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Aarieke E I; Beumer, Rijkel R; Zwietering, Marcel H

    2005-02-01

    Clostridium perfringens is a pathogen that mainly causes food poisoning outbreaks when large quantities of food are prepared. Therefore, a model was developed to predict the effect of different cooling procedures on the growth of this pathogen during cooling of food: Dutch pea soup. First, a growth rate model based on interpretable parameters was used to predict growth during linear cooling of pea soup. Second, a temperature model for cooling pea soup was constructed by fitting the model to experimental data published earlier. This cooling model was used to estimate the effect of various cooling environments on average cooling times, taking into account the effect of stirring and product volume. The growth model systematically overestimated growth of C. perfringens during cooling in air, but this effect was limited to less than 0.5 log N/ml and this was considered to be acceptable for practical purposes. It was demonstrated that the growth model for C. perfringens combined with the cooling model for pea soup could be used to sufficiently predict growth of C. perfringens in different volume sizes of pea soup during cooling in air as well as the effect of stirring, different cooling temperatures, and various cooling environments on the growth of C. perfringens in pea soup. Although fine-tuning may be needed to eliminate inaccuracies, it was concluded that the combined model could be a useful tool for designing good manufacturing practices (GMP) procedures. PMID:15787757

  18. The Lathyrus excitotoxin beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid is a substrate of the L-cystine/L-glutamate exchanger system xc-.

    PubMed

    Warren, Brady A; Patel, Sarjubhai A; Nunn, Peter B; Bridges, Richard J

    2004-10-15

    Beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha-beta-diaminopropionic acid (beta-L-ODAP) is an unusual amino acid present in seeds of plants from the Lathyrus genus that is generally accepted as the causative agent underlying the motor neuron degeneration and spastic paraparesis in human neurolathyrism. Much of the neuropathology produced by beta-L-ODAP appears to be a direct consequence of its structural similarities to the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate and its ability to induce excitotoxicity as an agonist of non-NMDA receptors. Its actions within the CNS are, however, not limited to non-NMDA receptors, raising the likely possibility that the anatomical and cellular specificity of the neuronal damage observed in neurolathyrism may result from the cumulative activity of beta-L-ODAP at multiple sites. Accumulating evidence suggests that system xc-, a transporter that mediates the exchange of L-cystine and L-glutamate, is one such site. In the present work, two distinct approaches were used to define the interactions of beta-L-ODAP with system xc-: Traditional radiolabel-uptake assays were employed to quantify inhibitory activity, while fluorometrically coupled assays that follow the exchange-induced efflux of L-glutamate were used to assess substrate activity. In addition to confirming that beta-L-ODAP is an effective competitive inhibitor of system xc-, we report that the compound exhibits a substrate activity comparable to that of the endogenous substrate L-cystine. The ability of system xc- to transport and accumulate beta-L-ODAP identifies additional variables that could influence its toxicity within the CNS, including the ability to limit its access to EAA receptors by clearing the excitotoxin from the extracellular synaptic environment, as well as serving as a point of entry through which beta-L-ODAP could have increased access to intracellular targets. PMID:15476861

  19. Chemicals Reduce Need To Mow Grass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrys, Brooks; Farley, Max; Gast, Larry J.

    1993-01-01

    Brief report discusses use of herbicides Roundup(R), Campaign(R), and Oust(R) to retard growth of Argentine bahia grass. Herbicide applied by use of spraying apparatus pulled by tractor. "Chemical mowing" keeps grass at "freshly mowed" height with less mechanical mowing. Applied to grass on shoulders of roads, reducing time spent on mowing.

  20. VARIABILITY OF GRASS LIGNIN ACYLATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasses are being championed as biomass sources for bioenergy production. Their ultimate use would be as a source of carbohydrate for fermentation to ethanol, conversion to oils via pyrolysis, or direct conversion to energy through combustion. In the latter case, increasing lignin content would enha...

  1. Grass pollen allergens globally: the contribution of subtropical grasses to burden of allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Davies, J M

    2014-06-01

    Grass pollens of the temperate (Pooideae) subfamily and subtropical subfamilies of grasses are major aeroallergen sources worldwide. The subtropical Chloridoideae (e.g. Cynodon dactylon; Bermuda grass) and Panicoideae (e.g. Paspalum notatum; Bahia grass) species are abundant in parts of Africa, India, Asia, Australia and the Americas, where a large and increasing proportion of the world's population abide. These grasses are phylogenetically and ecologically distinct from temperate grasses. With the advent of global warming, it is conceivable that the geographic distribution of subtropical grasses and the contribution of their pollen to the burden of allergic rhinitis and asthma will increase. This review aims to provide a comprehensive synthesis of the current global knowledge of (i) regional variation in allergic sensitivity to subtropical grass pollens, (ii) molecular allergenic components of subtropical grass pollens and (iii) allergic responses to subtropical grass pollen allergens in relevant populations. Patients from subtropical regions of the world show higher allergic sensitivity to grass pollens of Chloridoideae and Panicoideae grasses, than to temperate grass pollens. The group 1 allergens are amongst the allergen components of subtropical grass pollens, but the group 5 allergens, by which temperate grass pollen extracts are standardized for allergen content, appear to be absent from both subfamilies of subtropical grasses. Whilst there are shared allergenic components and antigenic determinants, there are additional clinically relevant subfamily-specific differences, at T- and B-cell levels, between pollen allergens of subtropical and temperate grasses. Differential immune recognition of subtropical grass pollens is likely to impact upon the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy of patients who are primarily sensitized to subtropical grass pollens. The literature reviewed herein highlights the clinical need to standardize allergen preparations for both

  2. Videographic enhancement of GRASS imagery: Recent advances

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.G.

    1992-06-01

    The Geographic Resource Analysis Support System (GRASS), a geographic information system, has been fielded at approximately 50 US Army training installations as a land-management decision-making tool. Use of the GRASS geographic information system involves the production of numerous digital maps of environmental parameters, such as elevation, soils, hydrography, etc. A recently emerging technology called computer videographics can be used to graphically enhance GRASS images, thereby creating new ways to visualize GRASS analysis results. The project described in this report explored the enhancement of GRASS images through the use of videographic technology. General image quality of videographically enhanced GRASS images was improved through the use of high-resolution imagery and improved software. Several new types of geographic data visualizations were developed, including three-dimensional shaded-relief maps of GRASS data, overlay of GRASS images with satellite images, and integration of computer-aided-design imagery with GRASS images. GRASS images were successfully enhanced using Macintosh hardware and software, rather than the DOS-based equipment used previously. Images scanned with a document scanner were incorporated into GRASS imagery, and enhanced images were output in an S-VHS high-resolution video format.

  3. UV induced visual cues in grasses

    PubMed Central

    Baby, Sabulal; Johnson, Anil John; Govindan, Balaji; Lukose, Sujith; Gopakumar, Bhaskaran; Koshy, Konnath Chacko

    2013-01-01

    Grasses are traditionally considered as wind pollinated, however, field observations confirmed frequent insect visits to grass flowers, suggesting insect pollination. Fruit and seed predators inflict heavy losses to cereals and millets during their growth, maturation and storage. The actual factors guiding insects and predators to grass flowers, fruits and seeds are not clear. Here, we report attractive blue fluorescence emissions on grass floral parts such as glumes, lemma, palea, lodicules, staminal filaments, pollens and fruits in ultraviolet (UV) 366 nm, whereas the stigmatic portions were not blue, but red fluorescent. We characterized the blue fluorescent constituent in grass reproductive structures as ferulic acid (FA). Fluorescence spectra of blue-emitting grass floral, seed extracts and isolated FA on excitation at 366 nm showed their emissions at 420–460 nm. We propose these FA-based blue fluorescence emissions in grass reproductive structures as visual cues that attract pollinators, predators and even pests towards them. PMID:24061408

  4. Protein import into isolated pea root leucoplasts

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chiung-Chih; Li, Hsou-min

    2015-01-01

    Leucoplasts are important organelles for the synthesis and storage of starch, lipids and proteins. However, molecular mechanism of protein import into leucoplasts and how it differs from that of import into chloroplasts remain unknown. We used pea seedlings for both chloroplast and leucoplast isolations to compare within the same species. We further optimized the isolation and import conditions to improve import efficiency and to permit a quantitative comparison between the two plastid types. The authenticity of the import was verified using a mitochondrial precursor protein. Our results show that, when normalized to Toc75, most translocon proteins are less abundant in leucoplasts than in chloroplasts. A precursor shown to prefer the receptor Toc132 indeed had relatively more similar import efficiencies between chloroplasts and leucoplasts compared to precursors that prefer Toc159. Furthermore we found two precursors that exhibited very high import efficiency into leucoplasts. Their transit peptides may be candidates for delivering transgenic proteins into leucoplasts and for analyzing motifs important for leucoplast import. PMID:26388889

  5. Auxin influences strigolactones in pea mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Foo, E

    2013-03-15

    Hormone interactions are essential for the control of many developmental processes, including intracellular symbioses. The interaction between auxin and the new plant hormone strigolactone in the regulation of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis was examined in one of the few auxin deficient mutants available in a mycorrhizal species, the auxin-deficient bsh mutant of pea (Pisum sativum). Mycorrhizal colonisation with the fungus Glomus intraradices was significantly reduced in the low auxin bsh mutant. The bsh mutant also exhibited a reduction in strigolactone exudation and the expression of a key strigolactone biosynthesis gene (PsCCD8). Strigolactone exudation was also reduced in wild type plants when the auxin content was reduced by stem girdling. Low strigolactone levels appear to be at least partially responsible for the reduced colonisation of the bsh mutant, as application of the synthetic strigolactone GR24 could partially rescue the mycorrhizal phenotype of bsh mutants. Data presented here indicates root auxin content was correlated with strigolactone exudation in both mutant and wild type plants. Mutant studies suggest that auxin may regulate early events in the formation of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis by controlling strigolactone levels, both in the rhizosphere and possibly during early root colonisation. PMID:23219475

  6. Nitrite Uptake into Intact Pea Chloroplasts 1

    PubMed Central

    Brunswick, Pamela; Cresswell, Christopher F.

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between net nitrite uptake and its reduction in intact pea chloroplasts was investigated employing electron transport regulators, uncouplers, and photophosphorylation inhibitors. Observations confirmed the dependence of nitrite uptake on stromal pH and nitrite reduction but also suggested a partial dependance upon PSI phosphorylation. It was also suggested that ammonia stimulates nitrogen assimilation in the dark by association with stromal protons. Inhibition of nitrite uptake by N-ethylmaleimide and dinitrofluorobenzene could not be completely attributed to their inhibition of carbon dioxide fixation. Other protein binding reagents which inhibited photosynthesis showed no effect on nitrite uptake, except for p-chlormercuribenzoate which stimulated nitrite uptake. The results with N-ethylmaleimide and dinitrofluorobenzene tended to support the proposed presence of a protein permeation channel for nitrite uptake in addition to HNO2 penetration. On the basis of a lack of effect by known anion uptake inhibitors, it was concluded that the nitrite uptake mechanism was distinct from that of phosphate and chloride/sulfate transport. PMID:16665917

  7. Fatty acid biosynthesis in pea root plastids

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, R.J.; Sparace, S.A. )

    1989-04-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis from (1-{sup 14}C)acetate was optimized in plastids isolated from primary root tips of 7-day-old germinating pea seeds. Fatty acid synthesis was maximum at approximately 80 nmoles/hr/mg protein in the presence of 200 {mu}M acetate, 0.5 mM each of NADH, NADPH and CoA, 6 mM each of ATP and MgCl{sub 2}, 1 mM each of the MnCl{sub 2} and glycerol-3-phosphate, 15 mM KHCO{sub 3}, and 0.1M Bis-tris-propane, pH 8.0 incubated at 35C. At the standard incubation temperature of 25C, fatty acid synthesis was linear from up to 6 hours with 80 to 100 {mu}g/mL plastid protein. ATP and CoA were absolute requirements, whereas KHCO{sub 3}, divalent cations and reduced nucleotides all improved activity by 80 to 85%. Mg{sup 2+} and NADH were the preferred cation and nucleotide, respectively. Dithiothreitol and detergents were generally inhibitory. The radioactive products of fatty acid biosynthesis were approximately 33% 16:0, 10% 18:0 and 56% 18:1 and generally did not vary with increasing concentrations of each cofactor.

  8. Protein methylation in pea chloroplasts. [Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Niemi, K.J.; Adler, J.; Selman, B.R. )

    1990-07-01

    The methylation of chloroplast proteins has been investigated by incubating intact pea (Pisum sativum) chloroplasts with ({sup 3}H-methyl)-S-adenosylmethionine. Incubation in the light increases the amount of methylation in both the thylakoid and stromal fractions. Numerous thylakoid proteins serve as substrates for the methyltransfer reactions. Three of these thylakoid proteins are methylated to a significantly greater extent in the light than in the dark. The primary stromal polypeptide methylated is the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. One other stromal polypeptide is also methylated much more in the light than in the dark. Two distinct types of protein methylation occur. One methylinkage is stable to basic conditions whereas a second type is base labile. The base-stable linkage is indicative of N-methylation of amino acid residues while base-lability is suggestive of carboxymethylation of amino acid residues. Labeling in the light increases the percentage of methylation that is base labile in the thylakoid fraction while no difference is observed in the amount of base-labile methylations in light-labeled and dark-labeled stromal proteins. Also suggestive of carboxymethylation is the detection of volatile ({sup 3}H)methyl radioactivity which increases during the labeling period and is greater in chloroplasts labeled in the light as opposed to being labeled in the dark; this implies in vivo turnover of the ({sup 3}H)methyl group.

  9. Redistribution of annexin in gravistimulated pea plumules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, G. B.; Rafati, D. S.; Bolton, R. J.; Dauwalder, M.; Roux, S. J.

    2000-01-01

    We used immunocytochemistry to investigate the effects of gravistimulation on annexin localization in etiolated pea plumule shoots. In longitudinal sections, an asymmetric annexin immunostaining pattern was observed in a defined group of cells located just basipetal to apical meristems at the main shoot apex and at all of the axillary buds, an area classically referred to as the leaf gap. The pattern was observed using both protein-A-purified anti-annexin and affinity-purified anti-annexin antibodies for the immunostaining. A subset of the cells with the annexin staining also showed an unusually high level of periodic acid Schiff (PAS) staining in their cell walls. Prior to gravistimulation, the highest concentration of annexin was oriented toward the direction of gravity along the apical end of these immunostained cells. In contrast, both at 15 and 30 min after gravistimulation, the annexin immunostain became more evenly distributed all around the cell and more distinctly cell peripheral. The asymmetry along the lower wall of these cells was no longer evident. In accord with current models of annexin action, we interpret the results to indicate that annexin-mediated secretion in the leaf gap area is preferentially toward the apical meristem prior to gravistimulation, and that gravistimulation results in a redirection of this secretion. These data are to our knowledge the first to show a correlation between the vector of gravity and the distribution of annexins in the cells of flowering plants. c 2000 Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS.

  10. Genome Sequence of the Pea Aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Aphids are important agricultural pests and also biological models for studies of insect-plant interactions, symbiosis, virus vectoring, and the developmental causes of extreme phenotypic plasticity. Here we present the 464 Mb draft genome assembly of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. This first published whole genome sequence of a basal hemimetabolous insect provides an outgroup to the multiple published genomes of holometabolous insects. Pea aphids are host-plant specialists, they can reproduce both sexually and asexually, and they have coevolved with an obligate bacterial symbiont. Here we highlight findings from whole genome analysis that may be related to these unusual biological features. These findings include discovery of extensive gene duplication in more than 2000 gene families as well as loss of evolutionarily conserved genes. Gene family expansions relative to other published genomes include genes involved in chromatin modification, miRNA synthesis, and sugar transport. Gene losses include genes central to the IMD immune pathway, selenoprotein utilization, purine salvage, and the entire urea cycle. The pea aphid genome reveals that only a limited number of genes have been acquired from bacteria; thus the reduced gene count of Buchnera does not reflect gene transfer to the host genome. The inventory of metabolic genes in the pea aphid genome suggests that there is extensive metabolite exchange between the aphid and Buchnera, including sharing of amino acid biosynthesis between the aphid and Buchnera. The pea aphid genome provides a foundation for post-genomic studies of fundamental biological questions and applied agricultural problems. PMID:20186266

  11. [Effect of gibberellic acid on RNA synthesis in dwarf peas].

    PubMed

    Kilev, S N; Kholodar', A V; Chekurov, V M; Mertvetsov, N P

    1982-04-01

    The effect of gibberellic acid (GA) on total RNA and polysomal poly-[A]+-RNA synthesis in epicotylia and embryos of dwarf pea of two varieties differing in their physiological sensitivity to GA was studied. It was found that incubation with GA increases the accumulation of total RNA in pea epicotylia, var. "Pioner" and "Polzunok". The maximal stimulation of RNA accumulation makes up to 40% for the low sensitivity variety "Polzunok" and 150% for the highly sensitive variety "Pioner". GA increases the synthesis of polysomal poly (A)+-mRNA in 5-year-old pea sprouts and that of newly synthesized poly (A)+-mRNA in epicotylian polysomes of both varieties 5, 24, 48 and 72 hrs after incubation with GA. GA at concentrations of 10(-6) and 10(-5) stimulates the incorporation of [3H]uridine into polysomal mRNA during the first 1--3 hours after treatment and enhances the accumulation of newly synthesized mRNA in pea embryonic polyribosomes. The stimulating effect is directly proportional to the dose of the hormone. The mechanisms of GA effect on the transcription and translation in pea plant cells are discussed. PMID:6177351

  12. Differences in weed seedling emergence is not involved in pea synergism to corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have observed the dry pea is synergistic to corn and improves its tolerance to weeds. We are examining various aspects of this interaction between dry pea and corn to understand this natural benefit. This study compared the impact of soybean and dry pea on corn growth and tolerance to foxtail m...

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-45 - Shelled garden peas from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CFR 319.56-45 and have been inspected and found free of pests.” (Approved by the Office of Management... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shelled garden peas from Kenya. 319.56-45 Section 319... Shelled garden peas from Kenya. Garden peas (Pisum sativum) may be imported into the continental...

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-45 - Shelled garden peas from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR 319.56-45 and have been inspected and found free of pests.” (Approved by the Office of Management... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shelled garden peas from Kenya. 319.56-45 Section 319... Shelled garden peas from Kenya. Garden peas (Pisum sativum) may be imported into the continental...

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-45 - Shelled garden peas from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CFR 319.56-45 and have been inspected and found free of pests.” (Approved by the Office of Management... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shelled garden peas from Kenya. 319.56-45 Section 319... Shelled garden peas from Kenya. Garden peas (Pisum sativum) may be imported into the continental...

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-45 - Shelled garden peas from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CFR 319.56-45 and have been inspected and found free of pests.” (Approved by the Office of Management... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shelled garden peas from Kenya. 319.56-45 Section 319... Shelled garden peas from Kenya. Garden peas (Pisum sativum) may be imported into the continental...

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-45 - Shelled garden peas from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CFR 319.56-45 and have been inspected and found free of pests.” (Approved by the Office of Management... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shelled garden peas from Kenya. 319.56-45 Section 319... Shelled garden peas from Kenya. Garden peas (Pisum sativum) may be imported into the continental...

  18. 76 FR 21712 - Notice of Availability for Final PEA and Draft FONSI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Availability for Final PEA and Draft FONSI AGENCY: Department of the Navy... of the Navy announces the availability of, the Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA) and... appropriate. Dates and Addresses: The waiting period for the Final PEA and FONSI will end 30 days...

  19. The International Pea Genome Sequencing Project: Sequencing and Assembly Progresses Updates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The International Consortium for the Pea Genome Sequencing (ICPG) includes scientists from six countries around the world. Its aim is to provide a high quality reference of the pea genome to the scientific community as well as to the pea breeder community. The consortium proposed a strategy that int...

  20. Resistance of Peas to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in the Pisum Core Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White mold, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, can be a major disease of irrigated and dryland peas. Management of white mold in peas is challenging because foliar fungicides are cost prohibiting to many pea growers, sclerotia survive for long periods of time limiting the effectiveness of crop rot...

  1. Geographic pattern of genetic diversity in the genus Pisum, with inferences about pea domestication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have analysed genetic diversity of common pea (Pisum sativum L.) focusing on wild pea and exploiting biogeographic information. Phylogenetic markers (trnSG and ITS) along with 35,647 genome-wide DARTseq generated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and PeaGene 13.2k SNP Illumina assays reveale...

  2. Bean [alpha]-Amylase Inhibitor Confers Resistance to the Pea Weevil (Bruchus pisorum) in Transgenic Peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, H. E.; Gollasch, S.; Moore, A.; Tabe, L. M.; Craig, S.; Hardie, D. C.; Chrispeels, M. J.; Spencer, D.; Higgins, TJV.

    1995-01-01

    Bruchid larvae cause major losses of grain legume crops through-out the world. Some bruchid species, such as the cowpea weevil and the azuki bean weevil, are pests that damage stored seeds. Others, such as the pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum), attack the crop growing in the field. We transferred the cDNA encoding the [alpha]-amylase inhibitor ([alpha]-AI) found in the seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) into pea (Pisum sativum) using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Expression was driven by the promoter of phytohemagglutinin, another bean seed protein. The [alpha]-amylase inhibitor gene was stably expressed in the transgenic pea seeds at least to the T5 seed generation, and [alpha]-AI accumulated in the seeds up to 3% of soluble protein. This level is somewhat higher than that normally found in beans, which contain 1 to 2% [alpha]-AI. In the T5 seed generation the development of pea weevil larvae was blocked at an early stage. Seed damage was minimal and seed yield was not significantly reduced in the transgenic plants. These results confirm the feasibility of protecting other grain legumes such as lentils, mungbean, groundnuts, and chickpeas against a variety of bruchids using the same approach. Although [alpha]-AI also inhibits human [alpha]-amylase, cooked peas should not have a negative impact on human energy metabolism. PMID:12228429

  3. Preparation and characterization of films from pea protein.

    PubMed

    Viroben, G; Barbot, J; Mouloungui, Z; Guéguen, J

    2000-04-01

    The conditions for protein film preparation from an alkaline dispersion of a pea protein isolate were investigated in the presence of polyols as plasticizers. Mechanical and barrier properties of resulting films were studied as a function of protein dispersion conditions, protein and plasticizer concentrations and ratios, chain length of the plasticizer, and pH and composition of the alkaline medium. Neither the mode of protein hydration nor the pea isolate origin had a significant effect on the mechanical properties of pea protein films. However, increasing the plasticizer chain length induced slightly higher surface hydrophobicity but poor mechanical properties. Addition of monoglycerides to film-forming solution allowed a significant improvement of the films during aging. Both tensile strength and surface hydrophobicity increased when ammonium hydroxide was used as protein dispersing agent instead of sodium hydroxide. PMID:10775350

  4. Gibberellin-auxin interaction in pea stem elongation.

    PubMed

    Ockerse, R; Galston, A W

    1967-01-01

    Joint application of gibberellic acid and indole-3-acetic acid to excised stem sections, terminal cuttings, and decapitated plants of a green dwarf pea results in a markedly synergistic growth response to these hormones. Synergism in green tall pea stem sections is comparatively small, although growth is kinetically indistinguishable from similarly treated dwarf sections.Gibberellin-induced growth does not appear to be mediated through its effect on auxin synthesis, since gibberellin pretreatment of dwarf cuttings fails to elicit an enhanced tryptophan-induced growth response of sections, whereas auxin-induced growth is strongly enhanced. Also, tryptophan-gibberellin synergism is not significant in sections and cuttings of green dwarf peas, while auxin-gibberellin synergism is.Administration of gibberellic acid prior to indole-3-acetic acid results in greatly increased growth. In reversed order, the application fails to produce any synergistic interaction. This indicates that gibberellin action must precede auxin action in growth regulation. PMID:16656484

  5. Protein Methylation in Pea Chloroplasts 1

    PubMed Central

    Niemi, Kevin J.; Adler, Julius; Selman, Bruce R.

    1990-01-01

    The methylation of chloroplast proteins has been investigated by incubating intact pea (Pisum sativum) chloroplasts with [3H-methyl]-S-adenosylmethionine. Incubation in the light increases the amount of methylation in both the thylakoid and stromal fractions. Numerous thylakoid proteins serve as substrates for the methyltransfer reactions. Three of these thylakoid proteins are methylated to a significantly greater extent in the light than in the dark. One is a polypeptide with a molecular mass of 64 kD, a second has an Mr of 48 kD, and the third has a molecular mass of less than 10 kD. The primary stromal polypeptide methylated is the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. One other stromal polypeptide, having a molecular mass of 24 kD, is also methylated much more in the light than in the dark. Two distinct types of protein methylation occur. One methyl-linkage is stable to basic conditions whereas a second type is base labile. The base-stable linkage is indicative of N-methylation of amino acid residues while base-lability is suggestive of carboxymethylation of amino acid residues. Labeling in the light increases the percentage of methylation that is base labile in the thylakoid fraction while no difference is observed in the amount of base-labile methylations in light-labeled and dark-labeled stromal proteins. Also suggestive of carboxymethylation is the detection of volatile [3H]methyl radioactivity which increases during the labeling period and is greater in chloroplasts labeled in the light as opposed to being labeled in the dark; this implies in vivo turnover of the [3H]methyl group. Images Figure 1 PMID:16667584

  6. Characterization of two brassinosteroid C-6 oxidase genes in pea.

    PubMed

    Jager, Corinne E; Symons, Gregory M; Nomura, Takahito; Yamada, Yumiko; Smith, Jennifer J; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Kamiya, Yuji; Weller, James L; Yokota, Takao; Reid, James B

    2007-04-01

    C-6 oxidation genes play a key role in the regulation of biologically active brassinosteroid (BR) levels in the plant. They control BR activation, which involves the C-6 oxidation of 6-deoxocastasterone (6-DeoxoCS) to castasterone (CS) and in some cases the further conversion of CS to brassinolide (BL). C-6 oxidation is controlled by the CYP85A family of cytochrome P450s, and to date, two CYP85As have been isolated in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), two in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), one in rice (Oryza sativa), and one in grape (Vitis vinifera). We have now isolated two CYP85As (CYP85A1 and CYP85A6) from pea (Pisum sativum). However, unlike Arabidopsis and tomato, which both contain one BR C-6 oxidase that converts 6-DeoxoCS to CS and one BR C-6 Baeyer-Villiger oxidase that converts 6-DeoxoCS right through to BL, the two BR C-6 oxidases in pea both act principally to convert 6-DeoxoCS to CS. The isolation of these two BR C-6 oxidation genes in pea highlights the species-specific differences associated with C-6 oxidation. In addition, we have isolated a novel BR-deficient mutant, lke, which blocks the function of one of these two BR C-6 oxidases (CYP85A6). The lke mutant exhibits a phenotype intermediate between wild-type plants and previously characterized pea BR mutants (lk, lka, and lkb) and contains reduced levels of CS and increased levels of 6-DeoxoCS. To date, lke is the only mutant identified in pea that blocks the latter steps of BR biosynthesis and it will therefore provide an excellent tool to further examine the regulation of BR biosynthesis and the relative biological activities of CS and BL in pea. PMID:17322341

  7. The pea seedling mitochondrial Nε-lysine acetylome.

    PubMed

    Smith-Hammond, Colin L; Hoyos, Elizabeth; Miernyk, Ján A

    2014-11-01

    Posttranslational lysine acetylation is believed to occur in all taxa and to affect thousands of proteins. In contrast to the hundreds of mitochondrial proteins reported to be lysine-acetylated in non-plant species, only a handful have been reported from the plant taxa previously examined. To investigate whether this reflects a biologically significant difference or merely a peculiarity of the samples thus far examined, we immunoenriched and analyzed acetylated peptides from highly purified pea seedling mitochondria using mass spectrometry. Our results indicate that a multitude of mitochondrial proteins, involved in a variety of processes, are acetylated in pea seedlings. PMID:24780491

  8. Comparative Transcriptomic Analyses of Vegetable and Grain Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Seed Development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Na; Zhang, Guwen; Xu, Shengchun; Mao, Weihua; Hu, Qizan; Gong, Yaming

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating pea seed developmental process is extremely important for pea breeding. In this study, we used high-throughput RNA-Seq and bioinformatics analyses to examine the changes in gene expression during seed development in vegetable pea and grain pea, and compare the gene expression profiles of these two pea types. RNA-Seq generated 18.7 G of raw data, which were then de novo assembled into 77,273 unigenes with a mean length of 930 bp. Our results illustrate that transcriptional control during pea seed development is a highly coordinated process. There were 459 and 801 genes differentially expressed at early and late seed maturation stages between vegetable pea and grain pea, respectively. Soluble sugar and starch metabolism related genes were significantly activated during the development of pea seeds coinciding with the onset of accumulation of sugar and starch in the seeds. A comparative analysis of genes involved in sugar and starch biosynthesis in vegetable pea (high seed soluble sugar and low starch) and grain pea (high seed starch and low soluble sugar) revealed that differential expression of related genes at late development stages results in a negative correlation between soluble sugar and starch biosynthetic flux in vegetable and grain pea seeds. RNA-Seq data was validated by using real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis for 30 randomly selected genes. To our knowledge, this work represents the first report of seed development transcriptomics in pea. The obtained results provide a foundation to support future efforts to unravel the underlying mechanisms that control the developmental biology of pea seeds, and serve as a valuable resource for improving pea breeding. PMID:26635856

  9. Symbiotic grasses: A review of basic biology of forage grass fungal endophytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungal endophytes associated with grasses are the fundamental reason for the basic successes of several pasture grasses, notable tall fescues, and perennial ryegrass. Tall fescue and perennial ryegrass fungal endophytes, Neotyphodium coenophialum and N. lolii, respectively, and their relatives ...

  10. Water use and yields of no-till managed dryland grasspea and yellow pea under different planting configurations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasspea (GP) (Lathyrus sativus) is a drought-tolerant legume that can be grown for forage and grain. It has potential value to be used as a nitrogen-fixing crop in dryland rotations with non-legume grain crops. However, the agronomics of GP for the Central Great Plains region have not been investi...

  11. L-band radar scattering from grass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chauhan, N.; O'Neill, P.; Le Vine, D.; Lang, R.; Khadr, N.

    1992-01-01

    A radar system based on a network analyzer has been developed to study the backscatter from vegetation. The radar is operated at L-band. Radar measurements of a grass field were made in 1991. The radar returns from the grass were measured at three incidence angles. Ground truth and canopy parameters such as blade and stem dimensions, moisture content of the grass and the soil, and blade and stem density, were measured. These parameters are used in a distorted Born approximation model to compute the backscatter coefficients from the grass layer. The model results are compared with the radar data.

  12. Enhancing Neoplasm Expression in Field Pea (Pisum sativum) via Intercropping and Its Significance to Pea Weevil (Bruchus pisorum) Management

    PubMed Central

    Teshome, Abel; Bryngelsson, Tomas; Mendesil, Esayas; Marttila, Salla; Geleta, Mulatu

    2016-01-01

    Neoplasm formation, a non-meristematic tissue growth on young field pea (Pisum sativum L.) pods is triggered in the absence of UV light and/or in response to oviposition by pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.). This trait is expressed in some genotypes [neoplastic (Np) genotypes] of P. sativum and has the capacity to obstruct pea weevil larval entry into developing seeds. In the present study, 26% of the tested accessions depicted the trait when grown under greenhouse conditions. However, UV light inhibits full expression of this trait and subsequently it is inconspicuous at the field level. In order to investigate UV light impact on the expression of neoplasm, particular Np genotypes were subjected to UV lamp light exposure in the greenhouse and sunlight at the field level. Under these different growing conditions, the highest mean percentage of Np pods was in the control chamber in the greenhouse (36%) whereas in single and double UV lamp chambers, the percentage dropped to 10 and 15%, respectively. Furthermore, when the same Np genotypes were grown in the field, the percentage of Np pods dropped significantly (7%). In order to enhance Np expression at the field level, intercropping of Np genotypes with sorghum was investigated. As result, the percentage of Np pods was threefold in intercropped Np genotypes as compared to those without intercropping. Therefore, intercropping Np genotypes with other crops such as sorghum and maize can facilitate neoplasm formation, which in turn can minimize the success rate of pea weevil larvae entry into developing seeds. Greenhouse artificial infestation experiments showed that pea weevil damage in Np genotypes is lower in comparison to wild type genotypes. Therefore, promoting Np formation under field conditions via intercropping can serve as part of an integrated pea weevil management strategy especially for small scale farming systems. PMID:27242855

  13. Enhancing Neoplasm Expression in Field Pea (Pisum sativum) via Intercropping and Its Significance to Pea Weevil (Bruchus pisorum) Management.

    PubMed

    Teshome, Abel; Bryngelsson, Tomas; Mendesil, Esayas; Marttila, Salla; Geleta, Mulatu

    2016-01-01

    Neoplasm formation, a non-meristematic tissue growth on young field pea (Pisum sativum L.) pods is triggered in the absence of UV light and/or in response to oviposition by pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.). This trait is expressed in some genotypes [neoplastic (Np) genotypes] of P. sativum and has the capacity to obstruct pea weevil larval entry into developing seeds. In the present study, 26% of the tested accessions depicted the trait when grown under greenhouse conditions. However, UV light inhibits full expression of this trait and subsequently it is inconspicuous at the field level. In order to investigate UV light impact on the expression of neoplasm, particular Np genotypes were subjected to UV lamp light exposure in the greenhouse and sunlight at the field level. Under these different growing conditions, the highest mean percentage of Np pods was in the control chamber in the greenhouse (36%) whereas in single and double UV lamp chambers, the percentage dropped to 10 and 15%, respectively. Furthermore, when the same Np genotypes were grown in the field, the percentage of Np pods dropped significantly (7%). In order to enhance Np expression at the field level, intercropping of Np genotypes with sorghum was investigated. As result, the percentage of Np pods was threefold in intercropped Np genotypes as compared to those without intercropping. Therefore, intercropping Np genotypes with other crops such as sorghum and maize can facilitate neoplasm formation, which in turn can minimize the success rate of pea weevil larvae entry into developing seeds. Greenhouse artificial infestation experiments showed that pea weevil damage in Np genotypes is lower in comparison to wild type genotypes. Therefore, promoting Np formation under field conditions via intercropping can serve as part of an integrated pea weevil management strategy especially for small scale farming systems. PMID:27242855

  14. Checklist of Serengeti Ecosystem Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Ficinski, Paweł; Vorontsova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We present the first taxonomic checklist of the Poaceae species of the Serengeti, Tanzania. A review of the literature and herbarium specimens recorded 200 species of grasses, in line with similar studies in other parts of East Africa. The checklist is supported by a total of 939 herbarium collections. Full georeferenced collection data is made available alongside a summary checklist in pdf format. More than a quarter of the species are known from a single collection highlighting the need for further research, especially concerning the rare species and their distribution. PMID:27226761

  15. Checklist of Serengeti Ecosystem Grasses.

    PubMed

    Williams, Emma Victoria; Elia Ntandu, John; Ficinski, Paweł; Vorontsova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    We present the first taxonomic checklist of the Poaceae species of the Serengeti, Tanzania. A review of the literature and herbarium specimens recorded 200 species of grasses, in line with similar studies in other parts of East Africa. The checklist is supported by a total of 939 herbarium collections. Full georeferenced collection data is made available alongside a summary checklist in pdf format. More than a quarter of the species are known from a single collection highlighting the need for further research, especially concerning the rare species and their distribution. PMID:27226761

  16. 7 CFR 457.140 - Dry pea crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... timely planted acreage. If you have additional levels of coverage as specified in 7 CFR part 400, subpart...) Fall-planted dry peas more than 25 days after the final planting date for the corresponding spring... section 3 of the Basic Provisions, in counties with both a fall and spring sales closing date for...

  17. 7 CFR 457.140 - Dry pea crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... timely planted acreage. If you have additional levels of coverage as specified in 7 CFR part 400, subpart...) Fall-planted dry peas more than 25 days after the final planting date for the corresponding spring... section 3 of the Basic Provisions, in counties with both a fall and spring sales closing date for...

  18. Effect of cooling on Clostridium perfringens in pea soup.

    PubMed

    de Jong, A E I; Rombouts, F M; Beumer, R R

    2004-02-01

    Foods associated with Clostridium perfringens outbreaks are usually abused after cooking. Because of their short generation times, C. perfringens spores and cells can grow out to high levels during improper cooling. Therefore, the potential of C. perfringens to multiply in Dutch pea soup during different cooling times was investigated. Tubes of preheated pea soup (50 degrees C) were inoculated with cocktails of cells or heat-activated spores of this pathogen. The tubes were linearly cooled to 15 degrees C in time spans of 3, 5, 7.5, and 10 h and were subsequently stored in a refrigerator at 3 or 7 degrees C for up to 84 h. Cell numbers increased by 1-log cycle during the 3-h cooling period and reached their maximum after 10 h of cooling. Subsequent refrigeration hardly reduced cell numbers. Cooling of 3.75 liters of pea soup in an open pan showed that this amount of pea soup cooled from 50 to 15 degrees C in 5 h, which will allow a more than 10-fold increase in cell numbers. These findings emphasize the need of good hygienic practices and quick cooling of heated foods after preparation. PMID:14968969

  19. Seed Effects on Gibberellin Metabolism in Pea Pericarp 12

    PubMed Central

    Ozga, Jocelyn A.; Brenner, Mark L.; Reinecke, Dennis M.

    1992-01-01

    Pea fruit (Pisum sativum L.) is a model system for studying the effect of seeds on fruit growth in order to understand coordination of organ development. The metabolism of 14C-labeled gibberellin A12 (GA12) by pea pericarp was followed using a method that allows access to the seeds while maintaining pericarp growth in situ. Identification and quantitation of GAs in pea pericarp was accomplished by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry following extensive purification of the putative GAs. Here we report for the first time that the metabolism of [14C]GA12 to [14C]GA19 and [14C]GA20 occurs in pericarp of seeded pea fruit. Removal of seeds from the pericarp inhibited the conversion of radiolabeled GA19 to GA20 and caused the accumulation of radiolabeled and endogenous GA19. Deseeded pericarp contained no detectable GA20, GA1, or GA8, whereas pericarp with seeds contained endogenous and radiolabeled GA20 and endogenous GA1. These data strongly suggest that seeds are required for normal GA biosynthesis in the pericarp, specifically the conversion of GA19 to GA20. PMID:16653006

  20. Pea (Pisum sp.) genetic resources, its analysis and exploration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pea is important temperate region pulse, with feed, fodder and vegetable uses. Originated and domesticated in Middle East and Mediterranean, it formed important dietary components of early civilizations. Although Pisum is a small genus with two or three species, it is very diverse and structured, r...

  1. Diversity of Rhizobium leguminosarum from pea fields in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizobia-mediated biological nitrogen (N) fixation in legumes contributes to yield potential in these crops and also provides residual fertilizer to subsequent cereals. Our objectives were to collect isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum from several pea fields in Washington, examine genetic diversity...

  2. Marker-assisted selection for powdery mildew in pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe pisi Syd. is an important pathogen of pea (Pisum sativum L.) worldwide. It causes significant yield loss and reduced crop quality when present in epidemic proportion. Genetic resistance is controlled by two recessive alleles, er-1 and er-2. Availability of co-domin...

  3. Associations of wheat with pea can reduce aphid infestations.

    PubMed

    Lopes, T; Bodson, B; Francis, F

    2015-06-01

    Increasing plant diversity within crops can be beneficial for pest control. In this field study, the effects of two wheat and pea associations (mixed cropping and strip cropping) on aphid populations were compared with pure stands of both crops by observations on tillers and plants. Pea was more susceptible to infestations than wheat. As expected, the density of aphid colonies was significantly higher in pure stands during the main occurrence periods, compared with associations. Additionally, flying beneficials, such as not only aphidophagous adult ladybirds but also parasitoid, hoverfly and lacewing species that feed on aphids at the larval stage, were monitored using yellow pan traps. At specific times of the sampling season, ladybirds and hoverflies were significantly more abundant in the pure stand of pea and wheat, respectively, compared with associations. Few parasitoids and lacewings were trapped. This study showed that increasing plant diversity within crops by associating cultivated species can reduce aphid infestations, since host plants are more difficult to locate. However, additional methods are needed to attract more efficiently adult beneficials into wheat and pea associations. PMID:26013274

  4. A diagnostic guide for Fusarium Root Rot of pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium root rot, caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi, is a major root rot pathogen in pea production areas worldwide. Here we provide a diagnostic guide that describes: the taxonomy of the pathogen, signs and symptoms of the pathogen, host range, geographic distribution, methods used to isolate ...

  5. Yield Component Study of the USDA Pea Core Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cool season food legumes (peas, chickpeas, faba beans, and lentils) are excellent foods, low in fat and rich in protein, fiber, minerals and vitamins. Large-scale, cost-effective genome analysis techniques have been developed in plant model species (eg. Arabidopsis thaliana, Medicago truncatula) an...

  6. Unique aspects of the grass cell wall

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasses are amongst the most important crops worldwide, and the composition of their cell walls is critical for uses as food, feed, and energy crops. Grass cell walls differ dramatically from dicot cell walls in terms of the major structural polysaccharides present, how those polysaccharides are lin...

  7. Enhancing GRASS data communication with videographic technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.G. ); Gerdes, D.; Youngs, D. )

    1992-01-01

    Research at Argonne National Laboratory and the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory has shown that computer videographic technology can be used to assist visualization and communication of GIS-generated geographic information. Videographic tools can be used to make results of GRASS analyses clear to decision-makers and to public interest groups, as well as to help GRASS users visualize geographic data more easily. Useful videographic visualization tools include graphic overlay of GRASS layers onto panchromatic images, allowing landscape features to be associated with GIS classifications; draping of GIS layers onto terrain models to create shaded relief maps; and incorporation of photographic imagery into GIS graphics. Useful videographic communications capabilities include convenient, direct interface to video formats, allowing incorporation of live video into GRASS graphics and output of GRASS graphics to video; convenient output of high-quality slides and prints; and enhanced labeling and editing of GRASS images. Conversion of GRASS imagery to standard videographic file formats also facilitates incorporation of GRASS images into other software programs, such as database and work-processing packages.

  8. Enhancing GRASS data communication with videographic technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.G.; Gerdes, D.; Youngs, D.

    1992-07-01

    Research at Argonne National Laboratory and the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory has shown that computer videographic technology can be used to assist visualization and communication of GIS-generated geographic information. Videographic tools can be used to make results of GRASS analyses clear to decision-makers and to public interest groups, as well as to help GRASS users visualize geographic data more easily. Useful videographic visualization tools include graphic overlay of GRASS layers onto panchromatic images, allowing landscape features to be associated with GIS classifications; draping of GIS layers onto terrain models to create shaded relief maps; and incorporation of photographic imagery into GIS graphics. Useful videographic communications capabilities include convenient, direct interface to video formats, allowing incorporation of live video into GRASS graphics and output of GRASS graphics to video; convenient output of high-quality slides and prints; and enhanced labeling and editing of GRASS images. Conversion of GRASS imagery to standard videographic file formats also facilitates incorporation of GRASS images into other software programs, such as database and work-processing packages.

  9. Exploiting the Potential Differences in Pasture Grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperate grasses grown for pasture in Wisconsin exhibit a range of chemical and physical characteristics that influence their utilization by grazing cattle. Potential intake of all grasses declines with maturity due to decreasing cell wall digestiblity, but the leaves and stems of orchardgrass and...

  10. A Walk in the "Tall, Tall Grass"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaatz, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    This inquiry-based lesson was inspired by Denise Fleming's book entitled, "In the Tall, Tall Grass" (1991). The author used the book and a real study of prairie grasses to teach kindergartners how to make careful observations and record what they see. In addition, they learn how to "draw as scientists." Here the author describes her class's yearly…

  11. The Endophytic Niche and Grass Defense

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much research has been done on the interactive nature of the tall fescue grass and its fungal partner. This research has established that this very valuable forage, turf and conservation grass, which occupies 30 million plus acres in the south-eastern USA, is toxic to most livestock and wild animal...

  12. Abundances in "Green Pea" Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawley, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    He II λ4686 is identified in the spectra of nine of the original "Green Peas," a type of compact star-forming galaxy characterized by low mass; low metallicity; strong [O III] λλ4959, 5007; and redshifts in the range of ~0.1-0.4. Measured λ4686/Hβ ratios are roughly 1-2%, consistent with photoionization by Wolf-Rayet stars. Emission-line intensities are measured from Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectra for 71 Green Peas and are used to determine Te-based abundances of O, N, Ne, S, and He. Neon abundances confirm the mass-metallicity relation inferred from O/H. The N/O ratio is roughly constant with O/H, and the average N/O is evidence of a modest nitrogen enhancement compared with other low-metallicity galaxies. Nitrogen enrichment could be due to Wolf-Rayet stars or to intermediate-mass stars during a previous quiescent period. The Te-based abundances allow a reevaluation of some of the strong-line methods favored for estimating O/H or N/O in large spectroscopic surveys of star-forming galaxies. Photoionization by Wolf-Rayet stars raises questions about the validity of strong-line methods based on [N II]/Hα, [N II]/[O III], or [N II]/[S II], as those line ratios are known to be ionization-sensitive. Analysis of these measurements shows that ionization, low metallicity, and the small variation in important line ratios in the Green Pea spectra all affect the behavior of one or more of the N2, O3N2, N2O2 and N2S2 strong-line methods. The previous findings for trends in O/H and N/O in the Green Peas can be reproduced and the discrepancies can be explained. In particular, the reported increase of N/O with O/H appears to be a bias introduced by combining N2 with N2S2. N2O2 does not give valid results in the Green Peas, while N2 and N2S2 do, although the calibrations of the N2 and N2S2 methods based on Green Pea abundances are different from the existing calibrations based primarily on abundances in extragalactic H II regions and H II galaxies.

  13. Tropical grasses as a renewable energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, G.; Alexander, A.G.; Rios, C.; Garcia, M.

    1983-01-01

    Agronomists, evaluating tropical grasses from Saccharum and allied genera as potential renewable energy sources for boiler fuel and alcohol, emphasized (1) maximizing sugar cane's total biomass rather than sucrose production, (2) utilizing alternative tropical grasses during sugar cane's offseason for year-round fuel production, and (3) mechanizing production technologies for fibrous, thin-stemmed tropical grasses that are to be managed as solar-dried fuels and feedstocks. Based on the time required to maximize their dry matter yields, three categories of grasses have emerged as potential energy crops: short rotation (2-3 months) with Sordan 70A (a sorghum/sudan grass hybrid), intermediate rotation (4-6 months) with napier grass, and long rotation (12-18 months) with sugar cane. Total oven-dried matter is 50 tons/acre-yr (114 metric tons /hectare-yr) for sugar cane, 33 tons (74 metric tons) from napier grass harvested at 6-month intervals, and 21 tons (47 metric tons) from Sordan 70A harvested every 14 weeks.

  14. Evolution of Grasses and Grassland Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strömberg, Caroline A. E.

    2011-05-01

    The evolution and subsequent ecological expansion of grasses (Poaceae) since the Late Cretaceous have resulted in the establishment of one of Earth's dominant biomes, the temperate and tropical grasslands, at the expense of forests. In the past decades, several new approaches have been applied to the fossil record of grasses to elucidate the patterns and processes of this ecosystem transformation. The data indicate that the development of grassland ecosystems on most continents was a multistage process involving the Paleogene appearance of (C3 and C4) open-habitat grasses, the mid-late Cenozoic spread of C3 grass-dominated habitats, and, finally, the Late Neogene expansion of C4 grasses at tropical-subtropical latitudes. The evolution of herbivores adapted to grasslands did not necessarily coincide with the spread of open-habitat grasses. In addition, the timing of these evolutionary and ecological events varied between regions. Consequently, region-by-region investigations using both direct (plant fossils) and indirect (e.g., stable carbon isotopes, faunas) evidence are required for a full understanding of the tempo and mode of grass and grassland evolution.

  15. A role for the ETS domain transcription factor PEA3 in myogenic differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, J M; Dupont-Versteegden, E E; Davies, J D; Hassell, J A; Houlé, J D; Gurley, C M; Peterson, C A

    1997-01-01

    Activation of adult myoblasts called satellite cells during muscle degeneration is an important aspect of muscle regeneration. Satellite cells are believed to be the only myogenic stem cells in adult skeletal muscle and the source of regenerating muscle fibers. Upon activation, satellite cells proliferate, migrate to the site of degeneration, and become competent to fuse and differentiate. We show here that the transcription factor polyomavirus enhancer activator 3 (PEA3) is expressed in adult myoblasts in vitro when they are proliferative and during the early stages of differentiation. Overexpression of PEA3 accelerates differentiation, whereas blocking of PEA3 function delays myoblast fusion. PEA3 activates gene expression following binding to the ets motif most efficiently in conjunction with the transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2). In vivo, PEA3 is expressed in satellite cells only after muscle degeneration. Taken together, these results suggest that PEA3 is an important regulator of activated satellite cell function. PMID:9271430

  16. Developmental differences in posttranslational calmodulin methylation in pea plants

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Sukheung; Roberts, D.M. )

    1990-05-01

    A calmodulin-N-methyltransferase was used to analyze the degree of lysine-115 methylation of pea calmodulin. Calmodulin was isolated from segments of developing roots of young etiolated and green pea plants and was tested for its ability to be methylated by the calmodulin methyltransferase in the presence of {sup 3}H-methyl-S-adenosylmethionine. Calmodulin methylation levels were lower in apical root segments and in the young lateral roots compared with the mature, differentiated root tissues. The methylation of these calmodulin samples occurs specifically at lysine 115 since site-directed mutants of calmodulin with substitutions at this position were not methylated and competitively inhibited methylation. The present findings, combined with previous data showing differences in NAD kinase activation by methylated and unmethylated calmodulins, raise the possibility that posttranslational methylation could affect calmodulin action.

  17. Effect of presowing magnetic treatment on properties of pea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, M.; Haq, Z.; Jamil, Y.; Ahmad, M.

    2012-02-01

    The pea seeds were exposed to full-wave rectified sinusoidal magnetic fields. The effects of electromagnetic treatment on seedling growth and chlorophyll contents and have been investigated. Seed were sown after magnetic field treatment according to ISTA under controlled laboratory conditions. The magnetic filed treatment of seeds increased the growth significantly (P<0.05), while the increment in contents of chlorophyll have been found non significant (P<0.05). The shoot length, root length, root dry mass, shoot dry mass, fresh root mass and fresh shoot mass increased up to 140.5, 218.2, and 104, 263.6, 74.5, 91.3%, respectively. The result suggested that magnetic field could be used to enhance the growth in pea plant.

  18. Pulsed electro-acoustic (PEA) measurements of embedded charge distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennison, J. R.; Pearson, Lee H.

    2013-09-01

    Knowledge of the spatial distribution and evolution of embedded charge in thin dielectric materials has important applications in semiconductor, high-power electronic device, high-voltage DC power cable insulation, high-energy and plasma physics apparatus, and spacecraft industries. Knowing how, where, and how much charge accumulates and how it redistributes and dissipates can predict destructive charging effects. Pulsed Electro-acoustic (PEA) measurements— and two closely related methods, Pressure Wave Propagation (PWP) and Laser Intensity Modulation (LIMM)— nondestructively probe such internal charge distributions. We review the instrumentation, methods, theory and signal processing of simple PEA experiments, as well as the related PPW and LIMM methods. We emphasize system improvements required to achieve high spatial resolution for in vacuo measurements of thin dielectrics charged using electron beam injection.

  19. Isolation and study of the functional properties of pea proteins.

    PubMed

    Tömösközi, S; Lásztity, R; Haraszi, R; Baticz, O

    2001-10-01

    Proteins of pea seeds were isolated after defatting with hexane using alkaline (0.1 M sodium hydroxide) extraction and acid (HCl) precipitation. Concentrates were also prepared by hexane extraction and ethanolic extraction (pH = 5). Gross chemical composition amino acid content and functional properties (solubility profile, emulsifying--and foaming properties, water--and oil absorption) were studied. The results were compared with the same parameters of soy and lupin protein products. Although the majority of functional characteristics of isolates were lower in comparison to soy isolates, pea protein concentrate and isolate could be successfully used in bakery products for enrichment in protein and improvement of biological value. Their utilization as meat protein substitute in some Frankfurter type sausages is also possibly. PMID:11712241

  20. Genome sequence analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon: insights into grass genome evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Schulman, Al

    2009-08-09

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Erhardtoideae (rice), the Panicoideae (maize, sorghum, sugar cane and millet), and the Pooideae (wheat, barley and cool season forage grasses) provide the basis of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be completely sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes reveals a precise sequence- based history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grass family and identifies nested insertions of whole chromosomes into centromeric regions as a predominant mechanism driving chromosome evolution in the grasses. The relatively compact genome of Brachypodium is maintained by a balance of retroelement replication and loss. The complete genome sequence of Brachypodium, coupled to its exceptional promise as a model system for grass research, will support the development of new energy and food crops

  1. Distribution of N within Pea, Lupin, and Soybean Nodules.

    PubMed

    Kohl, D H; Reynolds, P H; Shearer, G

    1989-06-01

    The (15)N abundance of some, but not all, legume root nodules is significantly elevated compared to that of the whole plant. It seems probable that differences in (15)N enrichment reflect differences in the assimilatory pathway of fixed N. In that context, we have determined the distribution of naturally occurring (15)N in structural fractions of nodules from soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.), yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus), and pea (Pisum sativum) nodules and in chemical components from soybean nodules and to a lesser extent, pea and lupin nodules. None of the fractions of pea nodules (cortex, bacteriod, or host plant cytoplasm) was enriched in (15)N. The differences among bacteriods, cortex, and plant cytoplasm were smaller in lupin than in soybean nodules, but in both, bacteriods had the highest (15)N enrichment. In soybean nodules, the (15)N abundance of bacteriods and cortex was higher than plant cytoplasm, but all three fractions were more enriched in (15)N than the entire plant. Plant cytoplasm from soybean nodules was fractionated into protein-rich material, nonprotein alcohol precipitable material (NA), and a low molecular weight fraction. The N of the latter was further separated into N of ureides, nucleotides and free amino acids. Most of these components were either similar to or lower in (15)N abundance than the plant cytoplasm as a whole, but the NA fraction showed unusual (15)N enrichment. However, the percentage of nodule N in this fraction was small. NA fractions from yellow lupin and pea nodules and from soybean leaves were not enriched in (15)N. Nor was the NA fraction in ruptured bacteriods and cortical tissue of soybean nodules. Variation among soybean nodule fractions in the preponderance in protein of different amino acids was not large enough to explain the differences in (15)N abundances among them. A hypothesis, consistent with all known data, concerning the mechanism leading to the observed excess (15)N of lupin and soybean bacteriods is

  2. Effect of clinostating on photosynthetic apparatus of pea plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochubey, S. M.; Volovik, O. I.; Porubleva, L. V.; Shevchenko, V. V.

    The photosynthetic membrane composition and low temperature fluorescence spectra were analyzed for pea chloroplasts from control and clinostated plants. Clinorotation induces a decrease in the amount of the oligomeric form of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b complex (LHCII) and an increase of its monomeric form. Some changes in organization of photosystem 1 (PS1) complex were revealed as well. These changes are in accordance with the variations of fluorescence characteristics and photochemical activity.

  3. Green Pea Galaxies: Extreme, Optically-Thin Starbursts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaskot, Anne

    2013-10-01

    The high UV luminosities, compact sizes, and enormous ionization parameters of the Green Pea galaxies make them some of the most extreme starburst galaxies known. Most importantly, due to their unusual emission line ratios and high specific star formation rates, the Green Peas are the best candidates for escaping ionizing radiation in the nearby Universe. We propose to study four Green Peas with COS FUV spectra and ACS emission line imaging to constrain the Lyman continuum {LyC} escape fraction and determine the origin of high ionization emission in these galaxies. COS spectra will set strong limits on the LyC optical depth via the residual intensity in the CII 1335 line, while the NV 1240 line will constrain the stellar population's age and ionizing flux. We will also observe the starbursts with ACS ramp filters in [OII], [OIII], HeII, and H-beta to determine whether the nebular emission is consistent with a low LyC optical depth. The [OIII]/[OII] ratio map will reveal the ionization structure of the emitting gas. If the [OIII] emission is found to be more spatially extended than the [OII] in any regions, it will imply that the regions are most likely optically thin. If HeII is found to be spatially offset from the dominant nebular emission, then we infer the presence of shocks. Correcting for this shock contribution to the observed emission is critical to accurately evaluate the LyC optical depth. These observations will either reveal the Green Peas as a class of galaxies having substantial LyC escape fractions or demonstrate that even some of the most extreme galaxies in the nearby Universe are optically thick.

  4. Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase in Pea Root Nodules 1

    PubMed Central

    Appels, Michiel A.; Haaker, Huub

    1991-01-01

    Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (l-glutamate: oxaloacetate aminotransferase, EC 2.6.1.1 [GOT]), a key enzyme in the flow of carbon between the organic acid and amino acid pools in pea (Pisum sativum L.) root nodules, was studied. By ion exchange chromatography, the presence of two forms of GOT in the cytoplasm of pea root nodule cells was established. The major root nodule form was present in only a small quantity in the cytoplasm of root cells. Fractionation of root nodule cell extracts demonstrated that the increase in the GOT activity during nodule development was due to the increase of the activity in the cytoplasm of the plant cells, and not to an increase in activity in the plastids or in the mitochondria. The kinetic properties of the different cytoplasmic forms of GOT were studied. Some of the Km values differed, but calculations indicated that not the kinetic properties but a high concentration of the major root nodule form caused the observed increase in GOT activity in the pea root nodules. It was found that the reactions of the malate/aspartate shuttle are catalyzed by intact bacteroids, and that these reactions can support nitrogen fixation. It is proposed that the main function of the nodule-stimulated cytoplasmic form of GOT is participation in this shuttle. PMID:16668048

  5. Immunity and other defenses in pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent genomic analyses of arthropod defense mechanisms suggest conservation of key elements underlying responses to pathogens, parasites and stresses. At the center of pathogen-induced immune responses are signaling pathways triggered by the recognition of fungal, bacterial and viral signatures. These pathways result in the production of response molecules, such as antimicrobial peptides and lysozymes, which degrade or destroy invaders. Using the recently sequenced genome of the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum), we conducted the first extensive annotation of the immune and stress gene repertoire of a hemipterous insect, which is phylogenetically distantly related to previously characterized insects models. Results Strikingly, pea aphids appear to be missing genes present in insect genomes characterized to date and thought critical for recognition, signaling and killing of microbes. In line with results of gene annotation, experimental analyses designed to characterize immune response through the isolation of RNA transcripts and proteins from immune-challenged pea aphids uncovered few immune-related products. Gene expression studies, however, indicated some expression of immune and stress-related genes. Conclusions The absence of genes suspected to be essential for the insect immune response suggests that the traditional view of insect immunity may not be as broadly applicable as once thought. The limitations of the aphid immune system may be representative of a broad range of insects, or may be aphid specific. We suggest that several aspects of the aphid life style, such as their association with microbial symbionts, could facilitate survival without strong immune protection. PMID:20178569

  6. Auxin biosynthesis in pea: characterization of the tryptamine pathway.

    PubMed

    Quittenden, Laura J; Davies, Noel W; Smith, Jason A; Molesworth, Peter P; Tivendale, Nathan D; Ross, John J

    2009-11-01

    One pathway leading to the bioactive auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), is known as the tryptamine pathway, which is suggested to proceed in the sequence: tryptophan (Trp), tryptamine, N-hydroxytryptamine, indole-3-acetaldoxime, indole-3-acetaldehyde (IAAld), IAA. Recently, this pathway has been characterized by the YUCCA genes in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and their homologs in other species. YUCCA is thought to be responsible for the conversion of tryptamine to N-hydroxytryptamine. Here we complement the genetic findings with a compound-based approach in pea (Pisum sativum), detecting potential precursors by gas chromatography/tandem-mass spectrometry. In addition, we have synthesized deuterated forms of many of the intermediates involved, and have used them to quantify the endogenous compounds, and to investigate their metabolic fates. Trp, tryptamine, IAAld, indole-3-ethanol, and IAA were detected as endogenous constituents, whereas indole-3-acetaldoxime and one of its products, indole-3-acetonitrile, were not detected. Metabolism experiments indicated that the tryptamine pathway to IAA in pea roots proceeds in the sequence: Trp, tryptamine, IAAld, IAA, with indole-3-ethanol as a side-branch product of IAAld. N-hydroxytryptamine was not detected, but we cannot exclude that it is an intermediate between tryptamine and IAAld, nor can we rule out the possibility of a Trp-independent pathway operating in pea roots. PMID:19710233

  7. Mechanism of gibberellin-dependent stem elongation in peas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.; Sovonick-Dunford, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    Stem elongation in peas (Pisum sativum L.) is under partial control by gibberellins, yet the mechanism of such control is uncertain. In this study, we examined the cellular and physical properties that govern stem elongation, to determine how gibberellins influence pea stem growth. Stem elongation of etiolated seedlings was retarded with uniconozol, a gibberellin synthesis inhibitor, and the growth retardation was reversed by exogenous gibberellin. Using the pressure probe and vapor pressure osmometry, we found little effect of uniconozol and gibberellin on cell turgor pressure or osmotic pressure. In contrast, these treatments had major effects on in vivo stress relaxation, measured by turgor relaxation and pressure-block techniques. Uniconozol-treated plants exhibited reduced wall relaxation (both initial rate and total amount). The results show that growth retardation is effected via a reduction in the wall yield coefficient and an increase in the yield threshold. These effects were largely reversed by exogenous gibberellin. When we measured the mechanical characteristics of the wall by stress/strain (Instron) analysis, we found only minor effects of uniconozol and gibberellin on the plastic compliance. This observation indicates that these agents did not alter wall expansion through effects on the mechanical (viscoelastic) properties of the wall. Our results suggest that wall expansion in peas is better viewed as a chemorheological, rather than a viscoelastic, process.

  8. Green Pea Galaxies Reveal Secrets of Lyα Escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huan; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Gronke, Max; Rhoads, James E.; Dijkstra, Mark; Jaskot, Anne; Zheng, Zhenya; Wang, Junxian

    2016-04-01

    We analyze archival Lyα spectra of 12 “Green Pea” galaxies observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, model their Lyα profiles with radiative transfer models, and explore the dependence of the Lyα escape fraction on various properties. Green Pea galaxies are nearby compact starburst galaxies with [O iii] λ5007 equivalent widths (EWs) of hundreds of Å. All 12 Green Pea galaxies in our sample show Lyα lines in emission, with an Lyα EW distribution similar to high-redshift Lyα emitters. Combining the optical and UV spectra of Green Pea galaxies, we estimate their Lyα escape fractions and find correlations between Lyα escape fraction and kinematic features of Lyα profiles. The escape fraction of Lyα in these galaxies ranges from 1.4% to 67%. We also find that the Lyα escape fraction depends strongly on metallicity and moderately on dust extinction. We compare their high-quality Lyα profiles with single H i shell radiative transfer models and find that the Lyα escape fraction anticorrelates with the derived H i column densities. Single-shell models fit most Lyα profiles well, but not the ones with the highest escape fractions of Lyα. Our results suggest that low H i column density and low metallicity are essential for Lyα escape and make a galaxy an Lyα emitter.

  9. Effective stabilization of CLA by microencapsulation in pea protein.

    PubMed

    Costa, A M M; Nunes, J C; Lima, B N B; Pedrosa, C; Calado, V; Torres, A G; Pierucci, A P T R

    2015-02-01

    CLA was microencapsulated by spray drying in ten varied wall systems (WS) consisting of pea protein isolate or pea protein concentrate (PPC) alone at varied core:WS ratios (1:2; 1:3 and 1:4), or blended with maltodextrin (M) and carboxymethylcellulose at a pea protein:carbohydrate ratio of 3:1. The physical-chemical properties of the CLA microparticles were characterised by core retention, microencapsulation efficiency (ME), particle size and moisture. CLA:M:PPC (1:1:3) showed the most promising results, thus we evaluated the effect of M addition in the WS on other physical-chemical characteristics and oxidative stability (CLA isomer profile, quantification of CLA and volatile compounds by SPME coupled with CG-MS) during two months of storage at room temperature, CLA:PPC (1:4) was selected for comparisons. CLA:M:PPC (1:1:3) microparticles demonstrated better morphology, solubility, dispersibility and higher glass-transition temperature values. M addition did not influence the oxidative stability of CLA, however its presence improved physical-chemical characteristics necessary for food applications. PMID:25172695

  10. Gravitropic response and circumnutation in pea (Pisum sativum) seedling roots.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Jeong; Kobayashi, Akie; Fujii, Nobuharu; Miyazawa, Yutaka; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2016-05-01

    Plant circumnutation is a helical movement of growing organs such as shoots and roots. Gravitropic response is hypothesized to act as an external oscillator in shoot circumnutation, although this is subject to debate. The relationship between circumnutational movement and gravitropic response in roots remains unknown. In this study, we analyzed circumnutation of agravitropic roots using the ageotropum pea (Pisum sativum) mutant, and compared it with that of wild-type (cv. Alaska) pea roots. We further examined the relationship of gravitropic response to circumnutation of Alaska seedling roots by removing the gravisensing tissue (the root cap) and by treating the roots with auxin transport inhibitors. Alaska roots displayed circumnutational movements with a period of approximately 150 min, whereas ageotropum roots did not exhibit distinct circumnutational movement. Removal of the root cap in Alaska roots reduced gravitropic response and circumnutational movements. Treatment of Alaska roots with auxin transport inhibitors, 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) and N-(1-naphthyl)phthalamic acid (NPA), dramatically reduced gravitropic response and circumnutational movements. These results suggest that a gravity-regulated auxin transport is involved in circumnutation of pea seedling roots. PMID:26565659

  11. Mechanism of gibberellin-dependent stem elongation in peas.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, D J; Sovonick-Dunford, S A

    1989-01-01

    Stem elongation in peas (Pisum sativum L.) is under partial control by gibberellins, yet the mechanism of such control is uncertain. In this study, we examined the cellular and physical properties that govern stem elongation, to determine how gibberellins influence pea stem growth. Stem elongation of etiolated seedlings was retarded with uniconozol, a gibberellin synthesis inhibitor, and the growth retardation was reversed by exogenous gibberellin. Using the pressure probe and vapor pressure osmometry, we found little effect of uniconozol and gibberellin on cell turgor pressure or osmotic pressure. In contrast, these treatments had major effects on in vivo stress relaxation, measured by turgor relaxation and pressure-block techniques. Uniconozol-treated plants exhibited reduced wall relaxation (both initial rate and total amount). The results show that growth retardation is effected via a reduction in the wall yield coefficient and an increase in the yield threshold. These effects were largely reversed by exogenous gibberellin. When we measured the mechanical characteristics of the wall by stress/strain (Instron) analysis, we found only minor effects of uniconozol and gibberellin on the plastic compliance. This observation indicates that these agents did not alter wall expansion through effects on the mechanical (viscoelastic) properties of the wall. Our results suggest that wall expansion in peas is better viewed as a chemorheological, rather than a viscoelastic, process. PMID:11537446

  12. Pre-fractionation strategies to resolve pea (Pisum sativum) sub-proteomes

    PubMed Central

    Meisrimler, Claudia-Nicole; Menckhoff, Ljiljana; Kukavica, Biljana M.; Lüthje, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Legumes are important crop plants and pea (Pisum sativum L.) has been investigated as a model with respect to several physiological aspects. The sequencing of the pea genome has not been completed. Therefore, proteomic approaches are currently limited. Nevertheless, the increasing numbers of available EST-databases as well as the high homology of the pea and medicago genome (Medicago truncatula Gaertner) allow the successful identification of proteins. Due to the un-sequenced pea genome, pre-fractionation approaches have been used in pea proteomic surveys in the past. Aside from a number of selective proteome studies on crude extracts and the chloroplast, few studies have targeted other components such as the pea secretome, an important sub-proteome of interest due to its role in abiotic and biotic stress processes. The secretome itself can be further divided into different sub-proteomes (plasma membrane, apoplast, cell wall proteins). Cell fractionation in combination with different gel-electrophoresis, chromatography methods and protein identification by mass spectrometry are important partners to gain insight into pea sub-proteomes, post-translational modifications and protein functions. Overall, pea proteomics needs to link numerous existing physiological and biochemical data to gain further insight into adaptation processes, which play important roles in field applications. Future developments and directions in pea proteomics are discussed. PMID:26539198

  13. Hypolipidemic effect of dietary pea proteins: Impact on genes regulating hepatic lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Rigamonti, Elena; Parolini, Cinzia; Marchesi, Marta; Diani, Erika; Brambilla, Stefano; Sirtori, Cesare R; Chiesa, Giulia

    2010-05-01

    Controversial data on the lipid-lowering effect of dietary pea proteins have been provided and the mechanisms behind this effect are not completely understood. The aim of the study was to evaluate a possible hypolipidemic activity of a pea protein isolate and to determine whether pea proteins could affect the hepatic lipid metabolism through regulation of genes involved in cholesterol and fatty acid homeostasis. Rats were fed Nath's hypercholesterolemic diets for 28 days, the protein sources being casein or a pea protein isolate from Pisum sativum. After 14 and 28 days of dietary treatment, rats fed pea proteins had markedly lower plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels than rats fed casein (p<0.05). Pea protein-fed rats displayed higher hepatic mRNA levels of LDL receptor versus those fed casein (p<0.05). Hepatic mRNA concentration of genes involved in fatty acids synthesis, such as fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase, was lower in pea protein-fed rats than in rats fed casein (p<0.05). In conclusion, the present study demonstrates a marked cholesterol and triglyceride-lowering activity of pea proteins in rats. Moreover, pea proteins appear to affect cellular lipid homeostasis by upregulating genes involved in hepatic cholesterol uptake and by downregulating fatty acid synthesis genes. PMID:20077421

  14. Temperate grass response to timing of grazing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing management has a significant impact on pasture growth. We determined how timing of grazing influences grass productivity, yield distribution, and persistence. Meadow fescue [Schedonorus pratensis (Huds.) P. Beauv.], orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), quackgrass [Elymus repens (L.) Gould...

  15. New Developments in Grasses for Pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New forage varieties with improved traits are an essential component of best management practices for livestock agriculture. This paper discusses new varieties of several cool-season forage grasses used for pasture production....

  16. Watching Grass Grow: Biology Explorations Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puttick, Gillian

    2002-01-01

    Describes an online biology course for science teachers in a master's degree program that focuses on the adaptation and natural selection of grass under environmental challenges. Provides experience with how biologists use questioning and investigation in their research. (YDS)

  17. Post senescent grass canopy remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Analysis of in situ collected spectral reflectance data from a dormant or senescent grass canopy showed a direct relationship existed between spectral reflectance and biomass for the 0.50-0.80 micron spectral region. The data, collected four weeks after the end of the growing season, indicated that post senescent remote sensing of grass canopy biomass is possible and helps to elucidate the spectral contribution of recently dead vegetation in mixed live/dead canopy situations.

  18. Molecular control of grass inflorescence development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dabing; Yuan, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    The grass family is one of the largest families in angiosperms and has evolved a characteristic inflorescence morphology, with complex branches and specialized spikelets. The origin and development of the highly divergent inflorescence architecture in grasses have recently received much attention. Increasing evidence has revealed that numerous factors, such as transcription factors and plant hormones, play key roles in determining reproductive meristem fate and inflorescence patterning in grasses. Moreover, some molecular switches that have been implicated in specifying inflorescence shapes contribute significantly to grain yields in cereals. Here, we review key genetic and molecular switches recently identified from two model grass species, rice (Oryza sativa) and maize (Zea mays), that regulate inflorescence morphology specification, including meristem identity, meristem size and maintenance, initiation and outgrowth of axillary meristems, and organogenesis. Furthermore, we summarize emerging networks of genes and pathways in grass inflorescence morphogenesis and emphasize their evolutionary divergence in comparison with the model eudicot Arabidopsis thaliana. We also discuss the agricultural application of genes controlling grass inflorescence development. PMID:24471834

  19. Genetic compatibility determines endophyte-grass combinations.

    PubMed

    Saikkonen, Kari; Wäli, Piippa R; Helander, Marjo

    2010-01-01

    Even highly mutually beneficial microbial-plant interactions, such as mycorrhizal- and rhizobial-plant exchanges, involve selfishness, cheating and power-struggles between the partners, which depending on prevailing selective pressures, lead to a continuum of interactions from antagonistic to mutualistic. Using manipulated grass-endophyte combinations in a five year common garden experiment, we show that grass genotypes and genetic mismatches constrain genetic combinations between the vertically (via host seeds) transmitted endophytes and the out-crossing host, thereby reducing infections in established grass populations. Infections were lost in both grass tillers and seedlings in F(1) and F(2) generations, respectively. Experimental plants were collected as seeds from two different environments, i.e., meadows and nearby riverbanks. Endophyte-related benefits to the host included an increased number of inflorescences, but only in meadow plants and not until the last growing season of the experiment. Our results illustrate the importance of genetic host specificity and trans-generational maternal effects on the genetic structure of a host population, which act as destabilizing forces in endophyte-grass symbioses. We propose that (1) genetic mismatches may act as a buffering mechanism against highly competitive endophyte-grass genotype combinations threatening the biodiversity of grassland communities and (2) these mismatches should be acknowledged, particularly in breeding programmes aimed at harnessing systemic and heritable endophytes to improve the agriculturally valuable characteristics of cultivars. PMID:20614034

  20. Madagascar's grasses and grasslands: anthropogenic or natural?

    PubMed Central

    Besnard, Guillaume; Forest, Félix; Malakasi, Panagiota; Moat, Justin; Clayton, W. Derek; Ficinski, Paweł; Savva, George M.; Nanjarisoa, Olinirina P.; Razanatsoa, Jacqueline; Randriatsara, Fetra O.; Kimeu, John M.; Luke, W. R. Quentin; Kayombo, Canisius; Linder, H. Peter

    2016-01-01

    Grasses, by their high productivity even under very low pCO2, their ability to survive repeated burning and to tolerate long dry seasons, have transformed the terrestrial biomes in the Neogene and Quaternary. The expansion of grasslands at the cost of biodiverse forest biomes in Madagascar is often postulated as a consequence of the Holocene settlement of the island by humans. However, we show that the Malagasy grass flora has many indications of being ancient with a long local evolutionary history, much predating the Holocene arrival of humans. First, the level of endemism in the Madagascar grass flora is well above the global average for large islands. Second, a survey of many of the more diverse areas indicates that there is a very high spatial and ecological turnover in the grass flora, indicating a high degree of niche specialization. We also find some evidence that there are both recently disturbed and natural stable grasslands: phylogenetic community assembly indicates that recently severely disturbed grasslands are phylogenetically clustered, whereas more undisturbed grasslands tend to be phylogenetically more evenly distributed. From this evidence, it is likely that grass communities existed in Madagascar long before human arrival and so were determined by climate, natural grazing and other natural factors. Humans introduced zebu cattle farming and increased fire frequency, and may have triggered an expansion of the grasslands. Grasses probably played the same role in the modification of the Malagasy environments as elsewhere in the tropics. PMID:26791612

  1. Madagascar's grasses and grasslands: anthropogenic or natural?

    PubMed

    Vorontsova, Maria S; Besnard, Guillaume; Forest, Félix; Malakasi, Panagiota; Moat, Justin; Clayton, W Derek; Ficinski, Paweł; Savva, George M; Nanjarisoa, Olinirina P; Razanatsoa, Jacqueline; Randriatsara, Fetra O; Kimeu, John M; Luke, W R Quentin; Kayombo, Canisius; Linder, H Peter

    2016-01-27

    Grasses, by their high productivity even under very low pCO2, their ability to survive repeated burning and to tolerate long dry seasons, have transformed the terrestrial biomes in the Neogene and Quaternary. The expansion of grasslands at the cost of biodiverse forest biomes in Madagascar is often postulated as a consequence of the Holocene settlement of the island by humans. However, we show that the Malagasy grass flora has many indications of being ancient with a long local evolutionary history, much predating the Holocene arrival of humans. First, the level of endemism in the Madagascar grass flora is well above the global average for large islands. Second, a survey of many of the more diverse areas indicates that there is a very high spatial and ecological turnover in the grass flora, indicating a high degree of niche specialization. We also find some evidence that there are both recently disturbed and natural stable grasslands: phylogenetic community assembly indicates that recently severely disturbed grasslands are phylogenetically clustered, whereas more undisturbed grasslands tend to be phylogenetically more evenly distributed. From this evidence, it is likely that grass communities existed in Madagascar long before human arrival and so were determined by climate, natural grazing and other natural factors. Humans introduced zebu cattle farming and increased fire frequency, and may have triggered an expansion of the grasslands. Grasses probably played the same role in the modification of the Malagasy environments as elsewhere in the tropics. PMID:26791612

  2. A peptide that binds the pea aphid gut impedes entry of Pea enation mosaic virus into the aphid hemocoel

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Sijun; Sivakumar, S.; Sparks, Wendy O.; Miller, W. Allen; Bonning, Bryony C.

    2010-05-25

    Development of ways to block virus transmission by aphids could lead to novel and broad-spectrum means of controlling plant viruses. Viruses in the Luteoviridae enhanced are obligately transmitted by aphids in a persistent manner that requires virion accumulation in the aphid hemocoel. To enter the hemocoel, the virion must bind and traverse the aphid gut epithelium. By screening a phage display library, we identified a 12-residue gut binding peptide (GBP3.1) that binds to the midgut and hindgut of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Binding was confirmed by labeling the aphid gut with a GBP3.1-green fluorescent protein fusion. GBP3.1 reduced uptake of Pea enation mosaic virus (Luteoviridae) from the pea aphid gut into the hemocoel. GBP3.1 also bound to the gut epithelia of the green peach aphid and the soybean aphid. These results suggest a novel strategy for inhibiting plant virus transmission by at least three major aphid pest species.

  3. THE ORIGIN AND OPTICAL DEPTH OF IONIZING RADIATION IN THE 'GREEN PEA' GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Jaskot, A. E.; Oey, M. S.

    2013-04-01

    Although Lyman-continuum (LyC) radiation from star-forming galaxies likely drove the reionization of the universe, observations of star-forming galaxies at low redshift generally indicate low LyC escape fractions. However, the extreme [O III]/[O II] ratios of the z = 0.1-0.3 Green Pea galaxies may be due to high escape fractions of ionizing radiation. To analyze the LyC optical depths and ionizing sources of these rare, compact starbursts, we compare nebular photoionization and stellar population models with observed emission lines in the Peas' Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra. We focus on the six most extreme Green Peas, the galaxies with the highest [O III]/[O II] ratios and the best candidates for escaping ionizing radiation. The Balmer line equivalent widths and He I {lambda}3819 emission in the extreme Peas support young ages of 3-5 Myr, and He II {lambda}4686 emission in five extreme Peas signals the presence of hard ionizing sources. Ionization by active galactic nuclei or high-mass X-ray binaries is inconsistent with the Peas' line ratios and ages. Although stacked spectra reveal no Wolf-Rayet (WR) features, we tentatively detect WR features in the SDSS spectra of three extreme Peas. Based on the Peas' ages and line ratios, we find that WR stars, chemically homogeneous O stars, or shocks could produce the observed He II emission. If hot stars are responsible, then the Peas' optical depths are ambiguous. However, accounting for emission from shocks lowers the inferred optical depth and suggests that the Peas may be optically thin. The Peas' ages likely optimize the escape of LyC radiation; they are old enough for supernovae and stellar winds to reshape the interstellar medium, but young enough to possess large numbers of UV-luminous O or WR stars.

  4. On the Quest of Cellular Functions of PEA-15 and the Therapeutic Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    Phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes, 15 KDa (PEA-15), a ubiquitously expressed small protein in all mammals, is known for decades for its potent interactions with various protein partners along distinct biological pathways. Most notable interacting partners of PEA-15 include extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, the Fas-associated death domain (FADD) protein involving in the formation of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC), and the phospholipase D1 (PLD1) affecting the insulin sensitivity. However, the actual cellular functions of PEA-15 are still mysterious, and the question why this protein is expressed in almost all cell and tissue types remains unanswered. Here we synthesize the most recent structural, biological, and clinical studies on PEA-15 with emphases on its anti-apoptotic, anti-proliferative, and anti-inflammative properties, and propose a converged protective role of PEA-15 that maintains the balance of death and survival in different cell types. Under conditions that this delicate balance is unsustainable, PEA-15 may become pathological and lead to various diseases, including cancers and diabetes. Targeting PEA-15 interactions, or the use of PEA-15 protein as therapeutics, may provide a wider window of opportunities to treat these diseases. PMID:26263999

  5. Deletion of PEA-15 in mice is associated with specific impairments of spatial learning abilities

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background PEA-15 is a phosphoprotein that binds and regulates ERK MAP kinase and RSK2 and is highly expressed throughout the brain. PEA-15 alters c-Fos and CREB-mediated transcription as a result of these interactions. To determine if PEA-15 contributes to the function of the nervous system we tested mice lacking PEA-15 in a series of experiments designed to measure learning, sensory/motor function, and stress reactivity. Results We report that PEA-15 null mice exhibited impaired learning in three distinct spatial tasks, while they exhibited normal fear conditioning, passive avoidance, egocentric navigation, and odor discrimination. PEA-15 null mice also had deficient forepaw strength and in limited instances, heightened stress reactivity and/or anxiety. However, these non-cognitive variables did not appear to account for the observed spatial learning impairments. The null mice maintained normal weight, pain sensitivity, and coordination when compared to wild type controls. Conclusion We found that PEA-15 null mice have spatial learning disabilities that are similar to those of mice where ERK or RSK2 function is impaired. We suggest PEA-15 may be an essential regulator of ERK-dependent spatial learning. PMID:19917132

  6. Association mapping of agronomic and quality traits in USDA pea single-plant collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Association mapping is an efficient approach for the identification of the molecular basis of agronomic traits in crop plants. For this purpose in pea (Pisum sativum L.), we genotyped and phenotyped individual lines of the single-plant derived core collection of the USDA pea single-plant (PSP) colle...

  7. Molecular evidence for lack of seed transmission of Pea enation mosaic virus in Pisum sativum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV) has never been definitively demonstrated to be seed transmitted and as such, has been a point of issue in movement of pea seed to other countries such as Australia and New Zealand. To determine whether the virus is seed-borne and the likelihood that it may be seed tr...

  8. PEA15 Regulates the DNA Damage-Induced Cell Cycle Checkpoint and Oncogene-Directed Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Arvindhan; Dogra, Shaillay Kumar; Liu, Alex Y.; Green, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of the DNA damage response and cell cycle progression is critical for maintaining genome integrity. Here, we report that in response to DNA damage, COPS5 deubiquitinates and stabilizes PEA15 in an ATM kinase-dependent manner. PEA15 expression oscillates throughout the cell cycle, and the loss of PEA15 accelerates cell cycle progression by activating CDK6 expression via the c-JUN transcription factor. Cells lacking PEA15 exhibit a DNA damage-induced G2/M checkpoint defect due to increased CDC25C activity and, consequentially, higher cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1)/cyclin B activity, and accordingly they have an increased rate of spontaneous mutagenesis. We find that oncogenic RAS inhibits PEA15 expression and that ectopic PEA15 expression blocks RAS-mediated transformation, which can be partially rescued by ectopic expression of CDK6. Finally, we show that PEA15 expression is downregulated in colon, breast, and lung cancer samples. Collectively, our results demonstrate that tumor suppressor PEA15 is a regulator of genome integrity and is an integral component of the DNA damage response pathway that regulates cell cycle progression, the DNA-damage-induced G2/M checkpoint, and cellular transformation. PMID:24710276

  9. PEA15 regulates the DNA damage-induced cell cycle checkpoint and oncogene-directed transformation.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Arvindhan; Dogra, Shaillay Kumar; Liu, Alex Y; Green, Michael R; Wajapeyee, Narendra

    2014-06-01

    Regulation of the DNA damage response and cell cycle progression is critical for maintaining genome integrity. Here, we report that in response to DNA damage, COPS5 deubiquitinates and stabilizes PEA15 in an ATM kinase-dependent manner. PEA15 expression oscillates throughout the cell cycle, and the loss of PEA15 accelerates cell cycle progression by activating CDK6 expression via the c-JUN transcription factor. Cells lacking PEA15 exhibit a DNA damage-induced G2/M checkpoint defect due to increased CDC25C activity and, consequentially, higher cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1)/cyclin B activity, and accordingly they have an increased rate of spontaneous mutagenesis. We find that oncogenic RAS inhibits PEA15 expression and that ectopic PEA15 expression blocks RAS-mediated transformation, which can be partially rescued by ectopic expression of CDK6. Finally, we show that PEA15 expression is downregulated in colon, breast, and lung cancer samples. Collectively, our results demonstrate that tumor suppressor PEA15 is a regulator of genome integrity and is an integral component of the DNA damage response pathway that regulates cell cycle progression, the DNA-damage-induced G2/M checkpoint, and cellular transformation. PMID:24710276

  10. Selenium bioavailability from naturally produced high-selenium peas and oats in selenium-deficient rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined the bioavailability of selenium (Se) from yellow peas and oats harvested from high-Se soil of South Dakota, United States. The Se concentrations of the peas and oats were 13.5 ± 0.2 and 2.5 ± 0.1 mg/kg, respectively. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were depleted of Se by feeding them...

  11. Screening of pea genotypes for resistance to root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 8, 2012.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani AG 8 is one of the major pathogens that causes pea root rot and stunting in the Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington. The disease is most severe in fields where wheat has been mono-cropped for a number of years or where cereal cover crops are incorporated just before pea seedin...

  12. Characterization of regenerated butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea L.) accessions for morphological, phenology, reproductive and potential nutraceutical, pharmaceutical trait utilization.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butterfly pea, Clitoria ternatea, has been used in Africa as a companion crop and in the United States as an ornamental. The USDA, ARS, PGRCU curates 28 butterfly pea accessions. Butterfly pea accessions were transplanted from about 30-day-old seedlings to the field in Griffin, GA, around 01 June ...

  13. Pea germplasm with partial resistance to sclerotinia sclerotiorum that extends the time required by the pathogen to infect host tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White mold, caused by the fungus S. sclerotiorum can be a serious disease on pea. Currently there are no pea genotypes with complete resistance to this pathogen. Selective wild pea genotypes from the Pisum Core Collection and cultivars were assessed for the time required by S. sclerotiorum to seve...

  14. Phylogenetic niche conservatism in C4 grasses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Edwards, Erika J; Freckleton, Robert P; Osborne, Colin P

    2012-11-01

    Photosynthetic pathway is used widely to discriminate plant functional types in studies of global change. However, independent evolutionary lineages of C(4) grasses with different variants of C(4) photosynthesis show different biogeographical relationships with mean annual precipitation, suggesting phylogenetic niche conservatism (PNC). To investigate how phylogeny and photosynthetic type differentiate C(4) grasses, we compiled a dataset of morphological and habitat information of 185 genera belonging to two monophyletic subfamilies, Chloridoideae and Panicoideae, which together account for 90 % of the world's C(4) grass species. We evaluated evolutionary variance and covariance of morphological and habitat traits. Strong phylogenetic signals were found in both morphological and habitat traits, arising mainly from the divergence of the two subfamilies. Genera in Chloridoideae had significantly smaller culm heights, leaf widths, 1,000-seed weights and stomata; they also appeared more in dry, open or saline habitats than those of Panicoideae. Controlling for phylogenetic structure showed significant covariation among morphological traits, supporting the hypothesis of phylogenetically independent scaling effects. However, associations between morphological and habitat traits showed limited phylogenetic covariance. Subfamily was a better explanation than photosynthetic type for the variance in most morphological traits. Morphology, habitat water availability, shading, and productivity are therefore all involved in the PNC of C(4) grass lineages. This study emphasized the importance of phylogenetic history in the ecology and biogeography of C(4) grasses, suggesting that divergent lineages need to be considered to fully understand the impacts of global change on plant distributions. PMID:22569558

  15. Formation of electric dipoles in pea stem tissue due to an electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Fatemeh; Farahani, Elham

    2016-07-01

    For examining the effect of an electrical field (DC) on pea seed, we exposed the pea seeds to electric fields with intensities 1, 4 and 7 kV/cm for 30, 230, 430 and 630 seconds. The tests were repeated three times, and each iteration had 5 seeds. Then, the seeds were moved to packaged plates. Finally, microscopic observation of the pea stem tissue showed that the application of a DC electrical field caused a deformation in the pea stem tissue. The results led us to examine the deformation of the tissue theoretically and to address that deformation as an electrostatic problem. In this regard, we modeled the pea stem based on the formation of electric dipoles. Then, theoretically, we calculated the force acting on each xylem section by coding, and the results were consistent with the experimental data.

  16. Physicochemical and bitterness properties of enzymatic pea protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Humiski, L M; Aluko, R E

    2007-10-01

    The effects of different proteolytic treatments on the physiochemical and bitterness properties of pea protein hydrolysates were investigated. A commercial pea protein isolate was digested using each of 5 different proteases to produce protein hydrolysates with varying properties. After 4 h of enzyme digestion, samples were clarified by centrifugation followed by desalting of the supernatant with a 1000 Da membrane; the retentates were then freeze-dried. Alcalase and Flavourzymetrade mark produced protein hydrolysates with significantly higher (P < 0.05) degree of hydrolysis when compared to the other proteases. Flavourzyme, papain, and alcalase produced hydrolysates that contained the highest levels of aromatic amino acids, while trypsin hydrolysate had the highest levels of lysine and arginine. Papain hydrolysate contained high molecular weight peptides (10 to 178 kDa) while hydrolysates from the other 4 proteases contained predominantly low molecular weight peptides (pea protein hydrolysates because of the low bitterness scores combined with a high level of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition and moderate free radical scavenging activity. PMID:17995627

  17. Bean α-amylase inhibitor 1 in transgenic peas (Pisum sativum) provides complete protection from pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum) under field conditions

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Roger L.; Schroeder, Hart E.; Bateman, Kaye S.; Chrispeels, Maarten J.; Armstrong, Eric; Higgins, Thomas J. V.

    2000-01-01

    Two α-amylase inhibitors, called αAI-1 and αAI-2, that share 78% amino acid sequence identity and have a differential specificity toward mammalian and insect α-amylases are present in different accessions of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Using greenhouse-grown transgenic peas (Pisum sativum), we have shown previously that expression of αAI-1 in pea seeds can provide complete protection against the pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum). Here, we report that αAI-1 also protects peas from the weevil under field conditions. The high degree of protection is explained by our finding that αAI-1 inhibits pea bruchid α-amylase by 80% over a broad pH range (pH 4.5–6.5). αAI-2, on the other hand, is a much less effective inhibitor of pea bruchid α-amylase, inhibiting the enzyme by only 40%, and only in the pH 4.0–4.5 range. Nevertheless, this inhibitor was still partially effective in protecting field-grown transgenic peas against pea weevils. The primary effect of αAI-2 appeared to be a delay in the maturation of the larvae. This contrasts with the effect of αAI-1, which results in larval mortality at the first or second instar. These results are discussed in relationship to the use of amylase inhibitors with different specificities to bring about protection of crops from their insect pests or to decrease insect pest populations below the economic injury level. PMID:10759552

  18. Southern Florida's River of Grass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Florida's Everglades is a region of broad, slow-moving sheets of water flowing southward over low-lying areas from Lake Okeechobeeto the Gulf of Mexico. In places this remarkable 'river of grass' is 80 kilometers wide. These images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer show the Everglades region on January 16, 2002. Each image covers an area measuring 191 kilometers x 205 kilometers. The data were captured during Terra orbit 11072.

    On the left is a natural color view acquired by MISR's nadir camera. A portion of Lake Okeechobee is visible at the top, to the right of image center. South of the lake, whose name derives from the Seminole word for 'big water,' an extensive region of farmland known as the Everglades Agricultural Area is recognizable by its many clustered squares. Over half of the sugar produced in United States is grown here. Urban areas along the east coast and in the northern part of the image extend to the boundaries of Big Cypress Swamp, situated north of Everglades National Park.

    The image on the right combines red-band data from the 46-degree backward, nadir and 46-degree forward-viewing camera angles to create a red, green, blue false-color composite. One of the interesting uses of the composite image is for detecting surface water. Wet surfaces appear blue in this rendition because sun glitter produces a greater signal at the forward camera's view angle. Wetlands visible in these images include a series of shallow impoundments called Water Conservation Areas which were built to speed water flow through the Everglades in times of drought. In parts of the Everglades, these levees and extensive systems such as the Miami and Tamiami Canals have altered the natural cycles of water flow. For example, the water volume of the Shark River Slough, a natural wetland which feeds Everglades National Park, is influenced by the Tamiami Canal. The unique and intrinsic value of the Everglades is now widely recognized, and efforts to restore

  19. Gibberellic acid stimulates acid invertase secretion in pea ovary protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Estruch, J J; Beltrán, J P

    1991-02-25

    Protoplasts purified from mesocarp of nonpollinated pea (Pisum sativum L.) ovaries released acid invertase to the incubation medium. The association of the acid invertase with microsomal fractions, and the sensitivity to energy-metabolism inhibitors and to tunicamycin, indicated the secretory nature of the release process. In the presence of GA3 (10 microM), the protoplasts increased their invertase secretion at about 60 min, this effect being counteracted by tunicamycin but not by cycloheximide. Subcellular fractionation of GA3-treated protoplasts showed that higher invertase secretion was the result of a promotion of invertase transfer from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi apparatus. PMID:2001743

  20. Cyanide-insensitive Respiration in Pea Cotyledons 1

    PubMed Central

    James, Terrance W.; Spencer, Mary S.

    1979-01-01

    Mitochondria isolated by a zonal procedure from the cotyledons of germinating peas possessed a cyanide-resistant respiration. This respiration was virtually absent in mitochondria isolated during the first 24 hours of germination but thereafter increased gradually until the 6th or 7th day of seedling development. At this time between 15 and 20% of the succinate oxidation was not inhibited by cyanide. The activity of the cyanide-resistant respiration was also determined in the absence of cyanide. Relationships among mitochondrial structure, cyanide-resistant respiration, and seedling development are discussed. PMID:16660982

  1. Porridge and peas: C. Stanton Hicks and Australian army rations.

    PubMed

    Collingham, Lizzie

    2009-09-01

    In 1942 Australian troops came back from fighting the Japanese in New Guinea exhausted and malnourished. The army rations of bully beef and biscuits were insufficiently rich in vitamins to sustain men in combat in tropical conditions. The nutritionist C. Stanton Hicks was one of a vast army of scientists who worked behind the scenes to maximize the war effort. He made it his mission to improve the army diet. He set up the Australian Army Catering Corps, invented combat ration packs and tried to introduce vitamin-rich foods into the soldiers' diet. Two of his more idiosyncratic innovations were wheat porridge and Tasmanian blue peas. PMID:19539373

  2. The pharmacokinetics of phenylethyl alcohol (PEA): safety evaluation comparisons in rats, rabbits, and humans.

    PubMed

    Politano, Valerie T; Diener, Robert M; Christian, Mildred S; Hawkins, David R; Ritacco, Gretchen; Api, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    The present studies were conducted to compare the dermal absorption, plasma pharmacokinetics, and excretion of phenylethyl alcohol (PEA) by pregnant and nonpregnant rats, rabbits, and humans. The PEA is a natural fragrance material that is widely used in perfumes, soaps, and lotions and is a major ingredient of natural rose oil. Following dermal (430, 700, or 1400 mg/kg body weight [bw]), gavage (430 mg/kg bw), or dietary (430 mg/kg bw) administration of PEA to rats, plasma concentrations of PEA were found to be low regardless of the route of administration. The plasma concentrations of phenylacetic acid (PAA, the major metabolite of PEA) greatly exceeded the concentrations of PEA and were highest after gavage, followed by dermal then dietary administration. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion were compared following topical application of ¹⁴C-labeled PEA to rats, rabbits, and humans (specific activities of dosing solutions: 58-580, 164, and 50 µCi/mL, respectively). In rabbits, the plasma concentration-time profile for PAA was markedly prolonged compared to rats or humans. In humans, only 7.6% of the applied dose of PEA was absorbed, versus 77% in rats and 50% in rabbits. Based on a human dermal systemic exposure of 0.3 mg/kg per day from the use of multiple consumer personal care products containing PEA, a rat dermal no observed adverse effect level of 70 mg/kg per day, and the percentage of dose absorbed in humans, the margin of safety exceeds 2600 concluding that, under normal fragrance use conditions, PEA is not a developmental toxicity hazard for humans. PMID:23385160

  3. Grass pollen immunotherapy: where are we now.

    PubMed

    Würtzen, Peter A; Gupta, Shashank; Brand, Stephanie; Andersen, Peter S

    2016-04-01

    During allergen immunotherapy (AIT), the allergic patient is exposed to the disease-inducing antigens (allergens) in order to induce clinical and immunological tolerance and obtain disease modification. Large trials of grass AIT with highly standardized subcutaneous and sublingual tablet vaccines have been conducted to document the clinical effect. Induction of blocking antibodies as well as changes in the balance between T-cell phenotypes, including induction of regulatory T-cell subtypes, have been demonstrated for both treatment types. These observations increase the understanding of the immunological mechanism behind the clinical effect and may make it possible to use the immunological changes as biomarkers of clinical effect. The current review describes the recent mechanistic findings for subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy/tablet treatment and discusses how the observed immunological changes translate into a scientific foundation for the observed clinical effects of grass pollen immunotherapy and lead to new treatment strategies for grass AIT. PMID:26973122

  4. Molecular biomarkers for grass pollen immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, Florin-Dan

    2014-01-01

    Grass pollen allergy represents a significant cause of allergic morbidity worldwide. Component-resolved diagnosis biomarkers are increasingly used in allergy practice in order to evaluate the sensitization to grass pollen allergens, allowing the clinician to confirm genuine sensitization to the corresponding allergen plant sources and supporting an accurate prescription of allergy immunotherapy (AIT), an important approach in many regions of the world with great plant biodiversity and/or where pollen seasons may overlap. The search for candidate predictive biomarkers for grass pollen immunotherapy (tolerogenic dendritic cells and regulatory T cells biomarkers, serum blocking antibodies biomarkers, especially functional ones, immune activation and immune tolerance soluble biomarkers and apoptosis biomarkers) opens new opportunities for the early detection of clinical responders for AIT, for the follow-up of these patients and for the development of new allergy vaccines. PMID:25237628

  5. Guidelines for growing perennial grasses for biofuel and bioproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Guidelines for growing perennial grasses for biofuel and bioproducts Rob Mitchell Abstract: Switchgrass, big bluestem, and warm-season grass mixtures provide numerous benefits. Existing field equipment, herbicides, and cultivar improvement promote rapid establishment in the planting year. These gra...

  6. Fluidity of pea root plasma membranes under altered gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klymchuk, D. O.; Baranenko, V. V.; Vorobyova, T. V.; Dubovoy, V. D.

    This investigation aims to determine whether clinorotation 2 rev min of pea Pisum sativum L seedlings induces the alterations in the physical-chemical properties of cellular membranes including the plasma membrane fluidity The last is an important regulator of functional activity of membrane enzymes The plasma membranes were isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning from roots of 6-day old pea seedlings The membrane fluidity was examined by fluorescence spectroscopy using pyrene probe The plasma membrane vesicles with known protein concentration were added to the incubation buffer to a final concentration of 50 mu g of protein per ml A small amount by 1 mu l of pyrene solution in 2-propanol was added to the incubation mixture to a final probe concentration 5 mu M at constant mixing Fluorescence spectra were measured using a Perkin-Elmer LS-50 spectrofluorometer Perkin-Elmer England Pyrene was excited at 337 nm and fluorescence intensity of monomers I M and excimers I E were measured at 393 and 470 nm respectively The I E I M ratios were 0 081 pm 0 003 and 0 072 pm 0 004 in preparations obtained from clinorotated and the control seedlings respectively This fact indicates that rotation on the clinostat increases the membrane fluidity Compared with controls clinorotated seedlings have also showed a reduced growth and a higher level of total unsaturated fatty acids determined by gas chromatography The factors that influence on the fluidity of membrane lipids in bilayer appear to be the

  7. [Protein complementation of defatted hazelnut flour with pea flour].

    PubMed

    Villarroel, M; Biolley, E; Ballester, D

    1990-09-01

    A great deal of research has been carried out to increase the availability of naturally-occurring proteins, or obtained from secondary products derived through industrial processes. As a result of the industrial exploitation of the native hazelnut (Gevuina avellana) in Chile, a defatted residue is obtained which eventually could be utilized as a human food. To determine the complementary potential capacity of the defatted hazelnut flour and pea flour, a study was carried out in weaning rats of the Wistar strain, as follows. The biological evaluation considered diet formulation with defatted hazelnut flour and pea flour in the 30:70, 50:50, 60:40 and 70:30 proportions, respectively. The NPR values obtained in this evaluation of the assay diets were: 3.4, 3.5, 3.9, 4.1 and 4.1, in comparison with 3.7 for casein. In percentage terms, the 4.1 NPR value was 11% higher than that obtained for casein. The maximum protein quality was observed when the two protein sources were mixed in the 60:40 and 70:30 (w/w) ratios. In regard to true digestibility, there were no significant differences among the experimental diets, but were lower than casein. The results of this study demonstrate that the defatted hazelnut flour constitutes an attractive nutritional alternative for the amino acid supplementation of cereal and legumes, the latter being of habitual consumption by the Chilean population. PMID:2134141

  8. [Pigment composition and photosynthetic activity of pea chlorophyll mutants].

    PubMed

    Ladygin, V G

    2003-01-01

    Pea chlorophyll mutants chlorotica 2004 and 2014 have been studied. The mutants differ from the initial form (pea cultivar Torsdag) in stem and leaf color (light green in the mutant 2004 and yellow-green in the mutant 2014), relative chlorophyll content (approximately 80 and 50%, respectively), and the composition of carotenoids: the mutant 2004 contains a significantly smaller amount of carotene but accumulates more lutein and violaxanthine; in the mutant 2014, the contents of all carotenoids are decreased proportionally to the decrease in chlorophyll content. It is shown that the rates of CO2 assimilation and oxygen production in the mutant chlorotica 2004 and 2014 plants are reduced. The quantum efficiency of photosynthesis in the mutants is 29-30% lower than in the control plants; in their hybrids, however, it is 1.5-2 higher. It is proposed that both the greater role of dark respiration in gas exchange and the reduced photosynthetic activity in chlorotica mutants are responsible for the decreased phytomass increment in these plants. On the basis of these results, the conclusion is drawn that the mutations chlorotica 2004 and 2014 affect the genes controlling the formation and functioning of various components of the photosynthetic apparatus. PMID:12942751

  9. Rare-earth occurrences in the Pea Ridge tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Vierrether, C.W.; Cornell, W.I.

    1993-01-01

    Tailings from the Pea Ridge iron mine contain significant amounts of apatite, which has rare-earth element values associated with it. In association with the recovery of rare-earth minerals as a secondary resource, the US Bureau of Mines conducted an investigation on the recoverability of the rare-earth minerals from the tailings. The mill tailings were subjected to a phosphate flotation to separate the apatite from other constituents. More than 70-pct recovery of the rare-earth values was achieved. Based on mineralogical characterization and prior analysis of rare-earth-bearing breccia pipe material at Pea Ridge, it is proposed that processing this phosphate concentrate on a vanner table would yield up to a 95-pct recovery of the rare earths in the concentrate, with the apatite reporting to the tailings. Intensive ore microscopy studies of the original tailings to the flotation products led to the identification of monazite, xenotime, and rare-earth-enriched apatite as the major rare-earth-bearing minerals in the tailings.

  10. Gibberellin metabolism in isolated pea fruit tissue and intact fruits

    SciTech Connect

    Maki, S.; Brenner, M.L. )

    1989-04-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) have been shown by others to be required for normal development of pea fruit. Whether the pericarp of the developing pea fruit produces GAs in situ is not known. To determine if the pericarp has the capacity to produce GAs during fruit growth, the metabolism of the first two committed GAs in the biosynthetic pathway, ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde and ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} was examined in tissue obtained from pollinated, parthenocarpic, and control fruit over 4 days from treatment. ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde was converted primarily to conjugates, including ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12}-aldehyde conjugate. ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} was converted to ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 53} in all tissue, but by day 4 only tissue from pollinated or parthenocarpic fruits showed sustained formation of ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 53}. When ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 12} is applied to 4-day-old fruits attached to the plants, the major product obtained after 24 hours is ({sup 14}C)GA{sub 20} (as identified by GC-MS). No transport to the developing seed was observed. These results indicate that the elongating fruit tissue has the capacity to produce GAs.

  11. Transient protein expression in three Pisum sativum (green pea) varieties.

    PubMed

    Green, Brian J; Fujiki, Masaaki; Mett, Valentina; Kaczmarczyk, Jon; Shamloul, Moneim; Musiychuk, Konstantin; Underkoffler, Susan; Yusibov, Vidadi; Mett, Vadim

    2009-02-01

    The expression of proteins in plants both transiently and via permanently transformed lines has been demonstrated by a number of groups. Transient plant expression systems, due to high expression levels and speed of production, show greater promise for the manufacturing of biopharmaceuticals when compared to permanent transformants. Expression vectors based on a tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) are the most commonly utilized and the primary plant used, Nicotiana benthamiana, has demonstrated the ability to express a wide range of proteins at levels amenable to purification. N. benthamiana has two limitations for its use; one is its relatively slow growth, and the other is its low biomass. To address these limitations we screened a number of legumes for transient protein expression. Using the alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and the cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) vectors, delivered via Agrobacterium, we were able to identify three Pisum sativum varieties that demonstrated protein expression transiently. Expression levels of 420 +/- 26.24 mg GFP/kgFW in the green pea variety speckled pea were achieved. We were also able to express three therapeutic proteins indicating promise for this system in the production of biopharmaceuticals. PMID:19156736

  12. Consumption of dry beans, peas, and lentils could improve diet quality in the US population.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Diane C; Lawrence, Frank R; Hartman, Terryl J; Curran, Julianne M

    2009-05-01

    The US Department of Agriculture's MyPyramid guidelines introduced a near doubling of the dietary recommendations for vegetables. These recommendations target specific subgroups of vegetables, including dry beans and peas. Dry beans and peas provide an array of nutrients and phytochemicals that have been shown to have beneficial health effects, yet consumption levels in the United States are quite low. Few studies have examined the influence of legume consumption on nutrient intakes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess nutrient and food group intakes of dry bean and pea consumers compared to nonconsumers. Dietary intake data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for adults aged > or =19 years was used. Results show that on any given day only 7.9% of adults are consuming dry beans and peas; Mexican Americans or other Hispanics are more likely to be consumers than nonconsumers. Consuming approximately (1/2) c dry beans or peas resulted in higher intakes of fiber, protein, folate, zinc, iron, and magnesium with lower intakes of saturated fat and total fat. These data support the specific recommendation for dry beans and peas as part of the overall vegetable recommendation. Increased consumption of dry beans and peas-economical and nutrient-rich foods-could improve the diet quality of Americans. PMID:19394480

  13. Genetically Modified α-Amylase Inhibitor Peas Are Not Specifically Allergenic in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dekan, Gerhard; Moore, Andrew E.; Higgins, T. J. V.; Epstein, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    Weevils can devastate food legumes in developing countries, but genetically modified peas (Pisum sativum), chickpeas and cowpeas expressing the gene for alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 (αAI) from the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) are completely protected from weevil destruction. αAI is seed-specific, accumulated at high levels and undergoes post-translational modification as it traverses the seed endomembrane system. This modification was thought to be responsible for the reported allergenicity in mice of the transgenic pea but not the bean. Here, we observed that transgenic αAI peas, chickpeas and cowpeas as well as non-transgenic beans were all allergenic in BALB/c mice. Even consuming non-transgenic peas lacking αAI led to an anti-αAI response due to a cross-reactive response to pea lectin. Our data demonstrate that αAI transgenic peas are not more allergenic than beans or non-transgenic peas in mice. This study illustrates the importance of repeat experiments in independent laboratories and the potential for unexpected cross-reactive allergic responses upon consumption of plant products in mice. PMID:23326368

  14. De Novo Assembly of the Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Nodule Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Zhukov, Vladimir A.; Zhernakov, Alexander I.; Kulaeva, Olga A.; Ershov, Nikita I.; Borisov, Alexey Y.; Tikhonovich, Igor A.

    2015-01-01

    The large size and complexity of the garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) genome hamper its sequencing and the discovery of pea gene resources. Although transcriptome sequencing provides extensive information about expressed genes, some tissue-specific transcripts can only be identified from particular organs under appropriate conditions. In this study, we performed RNA sequencing of polyadenylated transcripts from young pea nodules and root tips on an Illumina GAIIx system, followed by de novo transcriptome assembly using the Trinity program. We obtained more than 58,000 and 37,000 contigs from “Nodules” and “Root Tips” assemblies, respectively. The quality of the assemblies was assessed by comparison with pea expressed sequence tags and transcriptome sequencing project data available from NCBI website. The “Nodules” assembly was compared with the “Root Tips” assembly and with pea transcriptome sequencing data from projects indicating tissue specificity. As a result, approximately 13,000 nodule-specific contigs were found and annotated by alignment to known plant protein-coding sequences and by Gene Ontology searching. Of these, 581 sequences were found to possess full CDSs and could thus be considered as novel nodule-specific transcripts of pea. The information about pea nodule-specific gene sequences can be applied for gene-based markers creation, polymorphism studies, and real-time PCR. PMID:26688806

  15. Germinated Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan): a novel diet for lowering oxidative stress and hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Uchegbu, Nneka N; Ishiwu, Charles N

    2016-09-01

    This work studied the antioxidant activity of extract of germinated pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Germination was carried out in a dark chamber under room temperature (28°C). The total phenolic, 1,1,diphenyl-2-picrylhy-drazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase were done in vitro and blood glucose levels of the animal were investigated. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were analyzed spectrophotometrically. The total phenolic and DPPH scavenging activity increased by 30% and 63%, respectively, after germinating pigeon pea. Also after germination there was an increase in the inhibitory potential of pigeon pea extract against α-glucosidase compared with the nongerminated pigeon pea extract. There was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in fasting blood glucose level of alloxan-induced rats. Consumption of germinated pigeon pea extract gave rise to a reduced fasting blood glucose level in diabetic rats. On administration of germinated pigeon pea extract, LPO reduced drastically but there was an increase in the level of GSH. This study concluded that intake of germinated pigeon pea is a good dietary supplement for controlling hyperglycemia and LPO. PMID:27625782

  16. Genetically modified α-amylase inhibitor peas are not specifically allergenic in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Rui-Yun; Reiner, Daniela; Dekan, Gerhard; Moore, Andrew E; Higgins, T J V; Epstein, Michelle M

    2013-01-01

    Weevils can devastate food legumes in developing countries, but genetically modified peas (Pisum sativum), chickpeas and cowpeas expressing the gene for alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 (αAI) from the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) are completely protected from weevil destruction. αAI is seed-specific, accumulated at high levels and undergoes post-translational modification as it traverses the seed endomembrane system. This modification was thought to be responsible for the reported allergenicity in mice of the transgenic pea but not the bean. Here, we observed that transgenic αAI peas, chickpeas and cowpeas as well as non-transgenic beans were all allergenic in BALB/c mice. Even consuming non-transgenic peas lacking αAI led to an anti-αAI response due to a cross-reactive response to pea lectin. Our data demonstrate that αAI transgenic peas are not more allergenic than beans or non-transgenic peas in mice. This study illustrates the importance of repeat experiments in independent laboratories and the potential for unexpected cross-reactive allergic responses upon consumption of plant products in mice. PMID:23326368

  17. Native Grasses as a Management Alternative on Vegetated Closure Caps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwit, Charles; Collins, Beverly

    2008-06-01

    Capped waste sites often are vegetated with commercial turf grasses to increase evapotranspiration and prevent erosion and possible exposure of the barrier. Fertilizer, frequent watering, and mowing may be required to establish the turf grass and prevent invasion by trees and shrubs. Oldfield vegetation of grasses and forbs is a possible sustainable alternative to turf grass communities. To determine if oldfield vegetation can establish on caps, we (1) compared establishment of a dominant oldfield grass and a commercial turf grass under different combinations of new closure cap management: spring or summer planting and presence or absence of amendments to alleviate drought (watering, mulch) or increase soil fertility (fertilizer, lime, a nitrogen-fixing legume); (2) surveyed existing caps to determine if oldfield species establish naturally; and (3) performed a greenhouse experiment to compare growth of two native grasses under low and amended (added water, soil nutrients) conditions. Both the commercial grass and oldfield species established under new cap conditions; fertilizer, water, and mulch improved vegetation establishment in spring or summer, but legumes decreased grass cover. In the greenhouse, both native grasses grew best with amendments; however, substantial stem and root length were obtained with no fertilizer and only once-weekly watering. Existing vegetated caps supported planted grasses and naturally established oldfield species. Overall, the results indicate native grasses can establish on new caps and oldfields can serve as a management model; further work is needed to determine the management strategy to maintain herbaceous vegetation and slow woody species invasion.

  18. Native Warm Season Grasses in the National Plant Germplasm System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) warm-season grass collection which is maintained in Griffin, Georgia currently has over 7300 accessions of which less than ten percent of the collection can be classified as native grass material. This native grass material has been collected from dif...

  19. Isotopic signatures of vegetation change on northern mixed grass prairie

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    National analyses have shown invasion of northern mixed-grass prairie by nonnative grasses such as Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.). Invasion of native prairie by nonnative grasses may compromise ecosystem function and limit potential ecosystem services. Recent data from a long-term (100 year) ...

  20. A Tensile Strength of Bermuda Grass and Vetiver Grass in Terms of Root Reinforcement Ability Toward Soil Slope Stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noorasyikin, M. N.; Zainab, M.

    2016-07-01

    An examination on root characteristics and root properties has been implemented in this study. Two types of bioengineering were chose which are Vetiver grass and Bermuda grass as these grasses were widely applied for slope stabilization. The root samples were taken to the laboratory to investigate its classification, characteristics and strength. The root of both grasses was found grow with fibrous root matrix system. In terms of root anchorage, the root matrix system of Vetiver grass was exhibits more strengthen than the Bermuda grass. However, observation on root image from Scanning Electron Microscope test reveals that the root of Vetiver grass becomes non-porous as the moisture content reduced. Meanwhile, the root tensile strength of Bermuda grass was obtained acquired low value with higher percentage of moisture content, root morphology and bonding strength. The results indicated that the root tensile strength is mainly influence by percentage of moisture content and root morphology.

  1. Grassroots e-floras in the Poaceae: growing GrassBase and GrassWorld

    PubMed Central

    Vorontsova, Maria S.; Clayton, Derek; Simon, Bryan K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract GrassBase and GrassWorld are the largest structured descriptive datasets in plants, publishing descriptions of 11,290 species in the DELTA format. Twenty nine years of data compilation and maintenance have created a dataset which now underpins much of the Poaceae bioinformatics. GrassBase and GrassWorld can continue to grow productively if the proliferation of alternative classifications and datasets can be brought together into a consensus system. If the datasets are reconciled instead of diverging further apart a long term cumulative process can bring knowledge together for great future utility. This paper presents the Poaceae as the first and largest model system for e-taxonomy and the study of classification development in plants. The origin, development, and content of both datasets is described and key contributors are noted. The challenges of alternative classifications, data divergence, collaborative contribution mechanisms, and software are outlined. PMID:25941449

  2. Basin wildrye: the forgotten grass revisited

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Basin wildrye was once a very abundant and widely occurring species throughout the landscapes of northern Nevada. When Captain Simpson, of the topographical Engineers, explored the route for a wagon road across the central Great Basin he marveled at the grass in the valley bottoms that reached to h...

  3. Common Ground for Managing Invasive Annual Grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive annual grasses often reach their full biological potential in ecosystems of the western United States. This suggests that crucial ecosystem "checks and balances" are not functioning. In other words, invasion occurs because ecosystems have lost resistance to invasion, and invasive plants a...

  4. Challenging Cancer at the Grass Roots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casto, James E.

    1997-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute created the Appalachia Leadership Initiative on Cancer, composed of four similar projects that focus on increasing screening for cervical and breast cancer among low-income, older women. The program relies on community coalitions that develop innovative grass roots methods to spread the message about the importance of…

  5. Annual grass as supplements for beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research has shown when limit grazing cool-season annual grasses as a supplement in a complementary forage system, energy and CP supplementation are not required and hay requirements are reduced 23% for gestating beef cows. To further improve the sustainability of complementary forage systems, repla...

  6. Grass Woman Stories. Blackfeet Heritage Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ground, Mary

    During her lifetime Mary Ground, whose Indian name is Grass Woman, has experienced extreme changes in the life of Blackfeet Indians. Born in 1883, she remembers the travois and teepee days as well as the change to reservation life when the reservation was a fenced compound patrolled by the U.S. military. She has seen the decline in the use of…

  7. Project GRADS (Grass Roots Alternative Diploma Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Harold S.; Lucas, Geoffrey S.

    A project to develop grass roots alternative diploma study (Project GRADS) was undertaken for the purpose of formulating and implementing a multimodal, systems approach to preparing rural adults to pass the General Educational Development (GED) Tests. During the year-long, countywide program, GED programming was developed and delivered via the…

  8. Wheatgrass and Wildrye Grasses (Triticeae) (Book Chapter)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheatgrass and wildrye grasses are valued throughout the temperature regions of the world as forage and habitat for livestock and wildlife as well as for other qualities relating to aesthetics, soil stabilization, weed control, and watershed management in semiarid environments. These perennial gras...

  9. Grasses and Legumes: Genetics and Plant Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Humans have been breeding forage and turf species for over 100 years. This chapter explores the progress that has been made in improving grasses and legumes for human benefit and the evolution of breeding and selection systems that have brought about those changes....

  10. INTESPECIIC DIFFERENCES IN GRASS SEED IMBIBITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seeds from 12 grass species were studied relative to mode of wetting and time of exposure to water to document interspecific differences in imbibition characteristics. Imbibition causes seeds to become wet, and wet seeds are more detectable to consumers than dry seeds. Thus, ge...