Cosmological implications of modified gravity induced by quantum metric fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xing; Harko, Tiberiu; Liang, Shi-Dong
2016-08-01
We investigate the cosmological implications of modified gravities induced by the quantum fluctuations of the gravitational metric. If the metric can be decomposed as the sum of the classical and of a fluctuating part, of quantum origin, then the corresponding Einstein quantum gravity generates at the classical level modified gravity models with a non-minimal coupling between geometry and matter. As a first step in our study, after assuming that the expectation value of the quantum correction can be generally expressed in terms of an arbitrary second order tensor constructed from the metric and from the thermodynamic quantities characterizing the matter content of the Universe, we derive the (classical) gravitational field equations in their general form. We analyze in detail the cosmological models obtained by assuming that the quantum correction tensor is given by the coupling of a scalar field and of a scalar function to the metric tensor, and by a term proportional to the matter energy-momentum tensor. For each considered model we obtain the gravitational field equations, and the generalized Friedmann equations for the case of a flat homogeneous and isotropic geometry. In some of these models the divergence of the matter energy-momentum tensor is non-zero, indicating a process of matter creation, which corresponds to an irreversible energy flow from the gravitational field to the matter fluid, and which is direct consequence of the non-minimal curvature-matter coupling. The cosmological evolution equations of these modified gravity models induced by the quantum fluctuations of the metric are investigated in detail by using both analytical and numerical methods, and it is shown that a large variety of cosmological models can be constructed, which, depending on the numerical values of the model parameters, can exhibit both accelerating and decelerating behaviors.
Testing Quantum Gravity Induced Nonlocality via Optomechanical Quantum Oscillators.
Belenchia, Alessio; Benincasa, Dionigi M T; Liberati, Stefano; Marin, Francesco; Marino, Francesco; Ortolan, Antonello
2016-04-22
Several quantum gravity scenarios lead to physics below the Planck scale characterized by nonlocal, Lorentz invariant equations of motion. We show that such nonlocal effective field theories lead to a modified Schrödinger evolution in the nonrelativistic limit. In particular, the nonlocal evolution of optomechanical quantum oscillators is characterized by a spontaneous periodic squeezing that cannot be generated by environmental effects. We discuss constraints on the nonlocality obtained by past experiments, and show how future experiments (already under construction) will either see such effects or otherwise cast severe bounds on the nonlocality scale (well beyond the current limits set by the Large Hadron Collider). This paves the way for table top, high precision experiments on massive quantum objects as a promising new avenue for testing some quantum gravity phenomenology. PMID:27152787
Testing Quantum Gravity Induced Nonlocality via Optomechanical Quantum Oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belenchia, Alessio; Benincasa, Dionigi M. T.; Liberati, Stefano; Marin, Francesco; Marino, Francesco; Ortolan, Antonello
2016-04-01
Several quantum gravity scenarios lead to physics below the Planck scale characterized by nonlocal, Lorentz invariant equations of motion. We show that such nonlocal effective field theories lead to a modified Schrödinger evolution in the nonrelativistic limit. In particular, the nonlocal evolution of optomechanical quantum oscillators is characterized by a spontaneous periodic squeezing that cannot be generated by environmental effects. We discuss constraints on the nonlocality obtained by past experiments, and show how future experiments (already under construction) will either see such effects or otherwise cast severe bounds on the nonlocality scale (well beyond the current limits set by the Large Hadron Collider). This paves the way for table top, high precision experiments on massive quantum objects as a promising new avenue for testing some quantum gravity phenomenology.
Quantum-gravity induced Lorentz violation and dynamical mass generation
Mavromatos, Nick E.
2011-01-15
In the eprint by Jean Alexandre [arXiv:1009.5834], a minimal extension of (3+1)-dimensional quantum electrodynamics has been proposed, which includes Lorentz violation (LV) in the form of higher-(spatial)-derivative isotropic terms in the gauge sector, suppressed by a mass scale M. The model can lead to dynamical mass generation for charged fermions. In this article, I elaborate further on this idea and I attempt to connect it to specific quantum-gravity models, inspired from string/brane theory. Specifically, in the first part of the article, I comment briefly on the gauge dependence of the dynamical mass generation in the approximations of J. Alexandre [arXiv:1009.5834.], and I propose a possible avenue for obtaining the true gauge-parameter-independent value of the mass by means of pinch technique argumentations. In the second part of the work, I embed the LV QED model into multibrane world scenarios with a view to provide a geometrical way of enhancing the dynamical mass to phenomenologically realistic values by means of bulk warp metric factors, in an (inverse) Randall-Sundrum hierarchy. Finally, in the third part of this paper, I demonstrate that such Lorentz-violating QED models may represent parts of a low-energy effective action (of Finsler-Born-Infeld type) of open strings propagating in quantum D0-particle stochastic space-time foam backgrounds, which are viewed as consistent quantum-gravity configurations. To capture correctly the quantum-fluctuating nature of the foam background, I replace the D0-recoil-velocity parts of this action by appropriate gradient operators in three-space, keeping the photon field part intact. This is consistent with the summation over world-sheet genera in the first-quantized string approach. I identify a class of quantum orderings which leads to the LV QED action of J. Alexandre, arXiv:1009.5834. In this way I argue, following the logic in that work, that the D-foam can lead to dynamically generated masses for charged
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viennot, David; Aubourg, Lucile
2016-02-01
We study a theoretical model of closed quasi-hermitian chain of spins which exhibits quantum analogues of chimera states, i.e. long life classical states for which a part of an oscillator chain presents an ordered dynamics whereas another part presents a disordered dynamics. For the quantum analogue, the chimera behaviour deals with the entanglement between the spins of the chain. We discuss the entanglement properties, quantum chaos, quantum disorder and semi-classical similarity of our quantum chimera system. The quantum chimera concept is novel and induces new perspectives concerning the entanglement of multipartite systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lance, Andrew M.; Symul, Thomas; Bowen, Warwick P.; Sanders, Barry C.; Lam, Ping Koy
2004-05-01
We demonstrate a multipartite protocol that utilizes entanglement to securely distribute and reconstruct a quantum state. A secret quantum state is encoded into a tripartite entangled state and distributed to three players. By collaborating together, a majority of the players can reconstruct the state, whilst the remaining player obtains nothing. This (2,3) threshold quantum state sharing scheme is characterized in terms of fidelity (F), signal transfer (T) and reconstruction noise (V). We demonstrate a fidelity averaged over all reconstruction permutations of 0.73 +/- 0.04, a level achievable only using quantum resources.
Tripartite quantum state sharing.
Lance, Andrew M; Symul, Thomas; Bowen, Warwick P; Sanders, Barry C; Lam, Ping Koy
2004-04-30
We demonstrate a multipartite protocol to securely distribute and reconstruct a quantum state. A secret quantum state is encoded into a tripartite entangled state and distributed to three players. By collaborating, any two of the three players can reconstruct the state, while individual players obtain nothing. We characterize this (2,3) threshold quantum state sharing scheme in terms of fidelity, signal transfer, and reconstruction noise. We demonstrate a fidelity averaged over all reconstruction permutations of 0.73+/-0.04, a level achievable only using quantum resources. PMID:15169193
Tripartite Quantum State Sharing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lance, Andrew M.; Symul, Thomas; Bowen, Warwick P.; Sanders, Barry C.; Lam, Ping Koy
2004-04-01
We demonstrate a multipartite protocol to securely distribute and reconstruct a quantum state. A secret quantum state is encoded into a tripartite entangled state and distributed to three players. By collaborating, any two of the three players can reconstruct the state, while individual players obtain nothing. We characterize this (2,3) threshold quantum state sharing scheme in terms of fidelity, signal transfer, and reconstruction noise. We demonstrate a fidelity averaged over all reconstruction permutations of 0.73±0.04, a level achievable only using quantum resources.
Quantum correlations and distinguishability of quantum states
Spehner, Dominique
2014-07-15
A survey of various concepts in quantum information is given, with a main emphasis on the distinguishability of quantum states and quantum correlations. Covered topics include generalized and least square measurements, state discrimination, quantum relative entropies, the Bures distance on the set of quantum states, the quantum Fisher information, the quantum Chernoff bound, bipartite entanglement, the quantum discord, and geometrical measures of quantum correlations. The article is intended both for physicists interested not only by collections of results but also by the mathematical methods justifying them, and for mathematicians looking for an up-to-date introductory course on these subjects, which are mainly developed in the physics literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bengtsson, Ingemar; Zyczkowski, Karol
2006-05-01
Quantum information theory is at the frontiers of physics, mathematics and information science, offering a variety of solutions that are impossible using classical theory. This book provides an introduction to the key concepts used in processing quantum information and reveals that quantum mechanics is a generalisation of classical probability theory. After a gentle introduction to the necessary mathematics the authors describe the geometry of quantum state spaces. Focusing on finite dimensional Hilbert spaces, they discuss the statistical distance measures and entropies used in quantum theory. The final part of the book is devoted to quantum entanglement - a non-intuitive phenomenon discovered by Schrödinger, which has become a key resource for quantum computation. This richly-illustrated book is useful to a broad audience of graduates and researchers interested in quantum information theory. Exercises follow each chapter, with hints and answers supplied. The first book to focus on the geometry of quantum states Stresses the similarities and differences between classical and quantum theory Uses a non-technical style and numerous figures to make the book accessible to non-specialists
Interpreting quantum discord through quantum state merging
Madhok, Vaibhav; Datta, Animesh
2011-03-15
We present an operational interpretation of quantum discord based on the quantum state merging protocol. Quantum discord is the markup in the cost of quantum communication in the process of quantum state merging, if one discards relevant prior information. Our interpretation has an intuitive explanation based on the strong subadditivity of von Neumann entropy. We use our result to provide operational interpretations of other quantities like the local purity and quantum deficit. Finally, we discuss in brief some instances where our interpretation is valid in the single-copy scenario.
Bidirectional Quantum States Sharing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Jia-Yin; Bai, Ming-qiang; Mo, Zhi-Wen
2016-05-01
With the help of the shared entanglement and LOCC, multidirectional quantum states sharing is considered. We first put forward a protocol for implementing four-party bidirectional states sharing (BQSS) by using eight-qubit cluster state as quantum channel. In order to extend BQSS, we generalize this protocol from four sharers to multi-sharers utilizing two multi-qubit GHZ-type states as channel, and propose two multi-party BQSS schemes. On the other hand, we generalize the three schemes from two senders to multi-senders with multi GHZ-type states of multi-qubit as quantum channel, and give a multidirectional quantum states sharing protocol. In our schemes, all receivers can reconstruct the original unknown single-qubit state if and only if all sharers can cooperate. Only Pauli operations, Bell-state measurement and single-qubit measurement are used in our schemes, so these schemes are easily realized in physical experiment and their successful probabilities are all one.
Quantum signatures of chimera states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bastidas, V. M.; Omelchenko, I.; Zakharova, A.; Schöll, E.; Brandes, T.
2015-12-01
Chimera states are complex spatiotemporal patterns in networks of identical oscillators, characterized by the coexistence of synchronized and desynchronized dynamics. Here we propose to extend the phenomenon of chimera states to the quantum regime, and uncover intriguing quantum signatures of these states. We calculate the quantum fluctuations about semiclassical trajectories and demonstrate that chimera states in the quantum regime can be characterized by bosonic squeezing, weighted quantum correlations, and measures of mutual information. Our findings reveal the relation of chimera states to quantum information theory, and give promising directions for experimental realization of chimera states in quantum systems.
Pfaffian States: Quantum Computation
Shrivastava, Keshav N.
2009-09-14
The Pfaffian determinant is sometimes used to multiply the Laughlin's wave function at the half filled Landau level. The square of the Pfaffian gives the ordinary determinant. We find that the Pfaffian wave function leads to four times larger energies and two times faster time. By the same logic, the Pfaffian breaks the supersymmetry of the Dirac equation. By using the spin properties and the Landau levels, we correctly interpret the state with 5/2 filling. The quantum numbers which represent the state vectors are now products of n (Landau level quantum number), l(orbital angular momentum quantum number and the spin, s |n, l, s>. In a circuit, the noise measures the resistivity and hence the charge. The Pfaffian velocity is different from that of the single-particle states and hence it has important consequences in the measurement of the charge of the quasiparticles.
Realizing Controllable Quantum States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takayanagi, Hideaki; Nitta, Junsaku
1. Entanglement in solid states. Orbital entanglement and violation of bell inequalities in mesoscopic conductors / M. Büttiker, P. Samuelsson and E. V. Sukhoruk. Teleportation of electron spins with normal and superconducting dots / O. Sauret, D. Feinberg and T. Martin. Entangled state analysis for one-dimensional quantum spin system: singularity at critical point / A. Kawaguchi and K. Shimizu. Detecting crossed Andreev reflection by cross-current correlations / G. Bignon et al. Current correlations and transmission probabilities for a Y-shaped diffusive conductor / S. K. Yip -- 2. Mesoscopic electronics. Quantum bistability, structural transformation, and spontaneous persistent currents in mesoscopic Aharonov-Bohm loops / I. O. Kulik. Many-body effects on tunneling of electrons in magnetic-field-induced quasi one-dimensional systems in quantum wells / T. Kubo and Y. Tokura. Electron transport in 2DEG narrow channel under gradient magnetic field / M. Hara et al. Transport properties of a quantum wire with a side-coupled quantum dot / M. Yamaguchi et al. Photoconductivity- and magneto-transport studies of single InAs quantum wires / A. Wirthmann et al. Thermoelectric transports in charge-density-wave systems / H. Yoshimoto and S. Kurihara -- 3. Mesoscopic superconductivity. Parity-restricted persistent currents in SNS nanorings / A. D. Zaikin and S. V. Sharov. Large energy dependence of current noise in superconductingh/normal metal junctions / F. Pistolesi and M. Houzet. Generation of photon number states and their superpositions using a superconducting qubit in a microcavity / Yu-Xi Liu, L. F. Wei and F. Nori. Andreev interferometry for pumped currents / F. Taddei, M. Governale and R. Fazio. Suppression of Cooper-pair breaking against high magnetic fields in carbon nanotubes / J. Haruyama et al. Impact of the transport supercurrent on the Josephson effect / S. N. Shevchenko. Josephson current through spin-polarized Luttinger liquid / N. Yokoshi and S. Kurihara
Quantum state and quantum entanglement protection using quantum measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Shuchao; Li, Ying; Wang, Xiangbin; Kwek, Leong Chuan; Yu, Zongwen; Zou, Wenjie
2015-03-01
The time evolution of some quantum states can be slowed down or even stopped under frequent measurements. This is the usual quantum Zeno effect. Here we report an operator quantum Zeno effect, in which the evolution of some physical observables is slowed down through measurements even though thequantum state changes randomly with time. Based on the operator quantum Zeno effect, we show how we can protect quantum information from decoherence with two-qubit measurements, realizable with noisy two-qubit interactions. Besides, we report the quantum entanglement protection using weak measurement and measurement reversal scheme. Exposed in the nonzero temperature environment, a quantum system can both lose and gain excitations by interacting with the environment. In this work, we show how to optimally protect quantum states and quantum entanglement in such a situation based on measurement reversal from weak measurement. In particular, we present explicit formulas of protection. We find that this scheme can circumvent the entanglement sudden death in certain conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Engelsen, Nils; Hosten, Onur; Krishnakumar, Rajiv; Kasevich, Mark
2016-05-01
The standard quantum limit (SQL) for quantum metrology has been surpassed by as much as a factor of 100 using entangled states. However, in order to utilize these states, highly engineered, low-noise state readout is required. Here we present a new method to bypass this requirement in a wide variety of physical systems. We implement the protocol experimentally in a system using the clock states of 5 ×105 87 Rb atoms. Through a nonlinear, optical cavity-mediated interaction we generate spin squeezed states. A small microwave rotation followed by an additional optical cavity interaction stage allow us to exploit the full sensitivity of the squeezed states with a fluorescence detection system. Though the technical noise floor of our fluorescence detection is 15dB above the SQL, we show metrology at 8dB below the SQL. This is the first time squeezed states prepared in a cavity are read out by fluorescence imaging. The method described can be used in any system with a suitable nonlinear interaction.
State Ensembles and Quantum Entropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kak, Subhash
2016-06-01
This paper considers quantum communication involving an ensemble of states. Apart from the von Neumann entropy, it considers other measures one of which may be useful in obtaining information about an unknown pure state and another that may be useful in quantum games. It is shown that under certain conditions in a two-party quantum game, the receiver of the states can increase the entropy by adding another pure state.
Entangled states in quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruža, Jānis
2010-01-01
In some circles of quantum physicists, a view is maintained that the nonseparability of quantum systems-i.e., the entanglement-is a characteristic feature of quantum mechanics. According to this view, the entanglement plays a crucial role in the solution of quantum measurement problem, the origin of the “classicality” from the quantum physics, the explanation of the EPR paradox by a nonlocal character of the quantum world. Besides, the entanglement is regarded as a cornerstone of such modern disciplines as quantum computation, quantum cryptography, quantum information, etc. At the same time, entangled states are well known and widely used in various physics areas. In particular, this notion is widely used in nuclear, atomic, molecular, solid state physics, in scattering and decay theories as well as in other disciplines, where one has to deal with many-body quantum systems. One of the methods, how to construct the basis states of a composite many-body quantum system, is the so-called genealogical decomposition method. Genealogical decomposition allows one to construct recurrently by particle number the basis states of a composite quantum system from the basis states of its forming subsystems. These coupled states have a structure typical for entangled states. If a composite system is stable, the internal structure of its forming basis states does not manifest itself in measurements. However, if a composite system is unstable and decays onto its forming subsystems, then the measurables are the quantum numbers, associated with these subsystems. In such a case, the entangled state has a dynamical origin, determined by the Hamiltonian of the corresponding decay process. Possible correlations between the quantum numbers of resulting subsystems are determined by the symmetries-conservation laws of corresponding dynamical variables, and not by the quantum entanglement feature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bohnet-Waldraff, Fabian; Braun, D.; Giraud, O.
2016-01-01
We investigate quantumness of spin-1 states, defined as the Hilbert-Schmidt distance to the convex hull of spin coherent states. We derive its analytic expression in the case of pure states as a function of the smallest eigenvalue of the Bloch matrix and give explicitly the closest classical state for an arbitrary pure state. Numerical evidence is given that the exact formula for pure states provides an upper bound on the quantumness of mixed states. Due to the connection between quantumness and entanglement we obtain new insights into the geometry of symmetric entangled states.
Navigation between quantum states by quantum mirrors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanov, P. A.; Torosov, B. T.; Vitanov, N. V.
2007-01-01
We introduce a technique that allows one to connect any two arbitrary (pure or mixed) superposition states of an N -state quantum system. The proposed solution to this inverse quantum mechanical problem is analytical, exact, and very compact. The technique uses standard and generalized quantum Householder reflections (QHRs), which require external pulses of precise areas and frequencies. We show that any two pure states can be linked by just a single generalized QHR. The transfer between any two mixed states with the same dynamic invariants (e.g., the same density matrix eigenvalues) requires in general N QHRs. Moreover, we propose recipes for synthesis of arbitrary preselected mixed states using a combination of QHRs and incoherent processes (pure dephasing or spontaneous emission).
Gravity-induced stresses in finite slopes
Savage, W.Z.
1994-01-01
An exact solution for gravity-induced stresses in finite elastic slopes is presented. This solution, which is applied for gravity-induced stresses in 15, 30, 45 and 90?? finite slopes, has application in pit-slope design, compares favorably with published finite element results for this problem and satisfies the conditions that shear and normal stresses vanish on the ground surface. The solution predicts that horizontal stresses are compressive along the top of the slopes (zero in the case of the 90?? slope) and tensile away from the bottom of the slopes, effects which are caused by downward movement and near-surface horizontal extension in front of the slope in response to gravity loading caused by the additional material associated with the finite slope. ?? 1994.
Continuous-variable quantum-state sharing via quantum disentanglement
Lance, Andrew M.; Symul, Thomas; Lam, Ping Koy; Bowen, Warwick P.; Sanders, Barry C.; Tyc, Tomas; Ralph, T.C.
2005-03-01
Quantum-state sharing is a protocol where perfect reconstruction of quantum states is achieved with incomplete or partial information in a multipartite quantum network. Quantum-state sharing allows for secure communication in a quantum network where partial information is lost or acquired by malicious parties. This protocol utilizes entanglement for the secret-state distribution and a class of 'quantum disentangling' protocols for the state reconstruction. We demonstrate a quantum-state sharing protocol in which a tripartite entangled state is used to encode and distribute a secret state to three players. Any two of these players can collaborate to reconstruct the secret state, while individual players obtain no information. We investigate a number of quantum disentangling processes and experimentally demonstrate quantum-state reconstruction using two of these protocols. We experimentally measure a fidelity, averaged over all reconstruction permutations, of F=0.73{+-}0.02. A result achievable only by using quantum resources.
Quantum coherence of steered states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Xueyuan; Milne, Antony; Zhang, Boyang; Fan, Heng
2016-01-01
Lying at the heart of quantum mechanics, coherence has recently been studied as a key resource in quantum information theory. Quantum steering, a fundamental notion originally considered by Schödinger, has also recently received much attention. When Alice and Bob share a correlated quantum system, Alice can perform a local measurement to ‘steer’ Bob’s reduced state. We introduce the maximal steered coherence as a measure describing the extent to which steering can remotely create coherence; more precisely, we find the maximal coherence of Bob’s steered state in the eigenbasis of his original reduced state, where maximization is performed over all positive-operator valued measurements for Alice. We prove that maximal steered coherence vanishes for quantum-classical states whilst reaching a maximum for pure entangled states with full Schmidt rank. Although invariant under local unitary operations, maximal steered coherence may be increased when Bob performs a channel. For a two-qubit state we find that Bob’s channel can increase maximal steered coherence if and only if it is neither unital nor semi-classical, which coincides with the condition for increasing discord. Our results show that the power of steering for coherence generation, though related to discord, is distinct from existing measures of quantum correlation.
Quantum coherence of steered states
Hu, Xueyuan; Milne, Antony; Zhang, Boyang; Fan, Heng
2016-01-01
Lying at the heart of quantum mechanics, coherence has recently been studied as a key resource in quantum information theory. Quantum steering, a fundamental notion originally considered by Schödinger, has also recently received much attention. When Alice and Bob share a correlated quantum system, Alice can perform a local measurement to ‘steer’ Bob’s reduced state. We introduce the maximal steered coherence as a measure describing the extent to which steering can remotely create coherence; more precisely, we find the maximal coherence of Bob’s steered state in the eigenbasis of his original reduced state, where maximization is performed over all positive-operator valued measurements for Alice. We prove that maximal steered coherence vanishes for quantum-classical states whilst reaching a maximum for pure entangled states with full Schmidt rank. Although invariant under local unitary operations, maximal steered coherence may be increased when Bob performs a channel. For a two-qubit state we find that Bob’s channel can increase maximal steered coherence if and only if it is neither unital nor semi-classical, which coincides with the condition for increasing discord. Our results show that the power of steering for coherence generation, though related to discord, is distinct from existing measures of quantum correlation. PMID:26781214
Canonical Thermal Pure Quantum State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sugiura, Sho; Shimizu, Akira
2013-07-01
A thermal equilibrium state of a quantum many-body system can be represented by a typical pure state, which we call a thermal pure quantum (TPQ) state. We construct the canonical TPQ state, which corresponds to the canonical ensemble of the conventional statistical mechanics. It is related to the microcanonical TPQ state, which corresponds to the microcanonical ensemble, by simple analytic transformations. Both TPQ states give identical thermodynamic results, if both ensembles do, in the thermodynamic limit. The TPQ states corresponding to other ensembles can also be constructed. We have thus established the TPQ formulation of statistical mechanics, according to which all quantities of statistical-mechanical interest are obtained from a single realization of any TPQ state. We also show that it has great advantages in practical applications. As an illustration, we study the spin-1/2 kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet.
Quantum coherent states in cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ziaeepour, Houri
2015-07-01
Coherent states consist of superposition of infinite number of particles and do not have a classical analogue. We study their evolution in a FLRW cosmology and show that only when full quantum corrections are considered, they may survive the expansion of the Universe and form a global condensate. This state of matter can be the origin of accelerating expansion of the Universe, generally called dark energy, and inflation in the early universe. Additionally, such a quantum pool may be the ultimate environment for decoherenceat shorter distances. If dark energy is a quantum coherent state, its dominant contribution to the total energy of the Universe at present provides a low entropy state which may be necessary as an initial condition for a new Big Bang in the framework of bouncing cosmology models.
Conclusive exclusion of quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Jain, Rahul; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Perry, Christopher
2014-02-01
In the task of quantum state exclusion, we consider a quantum system prepared in a state chosen from a known set. The aim is to perform a measurement on the system which can conclusively rule that a subset of the possible preparation procedures cannot have taken place. We ask what conditions the set of states must obey in order for this to be possible and how well we can complete the task when it is not. The task of quantum state discrimination forms a subclass of this set of problems. Within this paper, we formulate the general problem as a semidefinite program (SDP), enabling us to derive sufficient and necessary conditions for a measurement to be optimal. Furthermore, we obtain a necessary condition on the set of states for exclusion to be achievable with certainty, and we give a construction for a lower bound on the probability of error. This task of conclusively excluding states has gained importance in the context of the foundations of quantum mechanics due to a result from Pusey, Barrett, and Rudolph (PBR). Motivated by this, we use our SDP to derive a bound on how well a class of hidden variable models can perform at a particular task, proving an analog of Tsirelson's bound for the PBR experiment and the optimality of a measurement given by PBR in the process. We also introduce variations of conclusive exclusion, including unambiguous state exclusion, and state exclusion with worst-case error.
Product-State Approximations to Quantum States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Harrow, Aram W.
2016-02-01
We show that for any many-body quantum state there exists an unentangled quantum state such that most of the two-body reduced density matrices are close to those of the original state. This is a statement about the monogamy of entanglement, which cannot be shared without limit in the same way as classical correlation. Our main application is to Hamiltonians that are sums of two-body terms. For such Hamiltonians we show that there exist product states with energy that is close to the ground-state energy whenever the interaction graph of the Hamiltonian has high degree. This proves the validity of mean-field theory and gives an explicitly bounded approximation error. If we allow states that are entangled within small clusters of systems but product across clusters then good approximations exist when the Hamiltonian satisfies one or more of the following properties: (1) high degree, (2) small expansion, or (3) a ground state where the blocks in the partition have sublinear entanglement. Previously this was known only in the case of small expansion or in the regime where the entanglement was close to zero. Our approximations allow an extensive error in energy, which is the scale considered by the quantum PCP (probabilistically checkable proof) and NLTS (no low-energy trivial-state) conjectures. Thus our results put restrictions on the possible Hamiltonians that could be used for a possible proof of the qPCP or NLTS conjectures. By contrast the classical PCP constructions are often based on constraint graphs with high degree. Likewise we show that the parallel repetition that is possible with classical constraint satisfaction problems cannot also be possible for quantum Hamiltonians, unless qPCP is false. The main technical tool behind our results is a collection of new classical and quantum de Finetti theorems which do not make any symmetry assumptions on the underlying states.
Quantum state transfer via Bloch oscillations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tamascelli, Dario; Olivares, Stefano; Rossotti, Stefano; Osellame, Roberto; Paris, Matteo G. A.
2016-05-01
The realization of reliable quantum channels, able to transfer a quantum state with high fidelity, is a fundamental step in the construction of scalable quantum devices. In this paper we describe a transmission scheme based on the genuinely quantum effect known as Bloch oscillations. The proposed protocol makes it possible to carry a quantum state over different distances with a minimal engineering of the transmission medium and can be implemented and verified on current quantum technology hardware.
Quantum state transfer via Bloch oscillations.
Tamascelli, Dario; Olivares, Stefano; Rossotti, Stefano; Osellame, Roberto; Paris, Matteo G A
2016-01-01
The realization of reliable quantum channels, able to transfer a quantum state with high fidelity, is a fundamental step in the construction of scalable quantum devices. In this paper we describe a transmission scheme based on the genuinely quantum effect known as Bloch oscillations. The proposed protocol makes it possible to carry a quantum state over different distances with a minimal engineering of the transmission medium and can be implemented and verified on current quantum technology hardware. PMID:27189630
Quantum state transfer via Bloch oscillations
Tamascelli, Dario; Olivares, Stefano; Rossotti, Stefano; Osellame, Roberto; Paris, Matteo G. A.
2016-01-01
The realization of reliable quantum channels, able to transfer a quantum state with high fidelity, is a fundamental step in the construction of scalable quantum devices. In this paper we describe a transmission scheme based on the genuinely quantum effect known as Bloch oscillations. The proposed protocol makes it possible to carry a quantum state over different distances with a minimal engineering of the transmission medium and can be implemented and verified on current quantum technology hardware. PMID:27189630
Gravity-Induced Gene Expression in Plants.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sederoff, Heike; Heber, Steffen; Howard, Brian; Myburg-Nichols, Henrietta; Hammond, Rebecca; Salinas-Mondragon, Raul; Brown, Christopher S.
Plants sense changes in their orientation towards the vector of gravity and respond with directional growth. Several metabolites in the signal transduction cascade have been identified. However, very little is known about the interaction between these sensing and signal transduction events and even less is known about their role in the differential growth response. Gravity induced changes in transcript abundance have been identified in Arabidopsis whole seedlings and root apices (Moseyko et al. 2002; Kimbrough et al. 2004). Gravity induced transcript abundance changes can be observed within less than 1 min after stimulation (Salinas-Mondragon et al. 2005). Gene expression however requires not only transcription but also translation of the mRNA. Translation can only occur when mRNA is associated with ribosomes, even though not all mRNA associated with ribosomes is actively translated. To approximate translational capacity we quantified whole genome transcript abundances in corn stem pulvini during the first hour after gravity stimulation in total and poly-ribosomal fractions. As in Arabidopsis root apices, transcript abundances of several clusters of genes responded to gravity stimulation. The vast majority of these transcripts were also found to associate with polyribosomes in the same temporal and quantitative pattern. These genes are transcriptionally regulated by gravity stimulation, but do not exhibit translational regulation. However, a small group of genes showed increased transcriptional regulation after gravity stimulation, but no association with polysomes. These transcripts likely are translationally repressed. The mechanism of translational repression for these transcripts is unknown. Based on the hypothesis that the genes essential for gravitropic responses should be expressed in most or all species, we compared the temporal gravity induced expression pattern of all orthologs identified between maize and Arabidopsis. A small group of genes showed high
Partially entangled states bridge in quantum teleportation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Xiao-Fei; Yu, Xu-Tao; Shi, Li-Hui; Zhang, Zai-Chen
2014-10-01
The traditional method for information transfer in a quantum communication system using partially entangled state resource is quantum distillation or direct teleportation. In order to reduce the waiting time cost in hop-by-hop transmission and execute independently in each node, we propose a quantum bridging method with partially entangled states to teleport quantum states from source node to destination node. We also prove that the designed specific quantum bridging circuit is feasible for partially entangled states teleportation across multiple intermediate nodes. Compared to two traditional ways, our partially entanglement quantum bridging method uses simpler logic gates, has better security, and can be used in less quantum resource situation.
Entanglement for All Quantum States
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de la Torre, A. C.; Goyeneche, D.; Leitao, L.
2010-01-01
It is shown that a state that is factorizable in the Hilbert space corresponding to some choice of degrees of freedom becomes entangled for a different choice of degrees of freedom. Therefore, entanglement is not a special case but is ubiquitous in quantum systems. Simple examples are calculated and a general proof is provided. The physical…
Entropy of quantum states: Ambiguities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balachandran, A. P.; de Queiroz, A. R.; Vaidya, S.
2013-10-01
The von Neumann entropy of a generic quantum state is not unique unless the state can be uniquely decomposed as a sum of extremal or pure states. As pointed out to us by Sorkin, this happens if the GNS representation (of the algebra of observables in some quantum state) is reducible, and some representations in the decomposition occur with non-trivial degeneracy. This non-unique entropy can occur at zero temperature. We will argue elsewhere in detail that the degeneracies in the GNS representation can be interpreted as an emergent broken gauge symmetry, and play an important role in the analysis of emergent entropy due to non-Abelian anomalies. Finally, we establish the analogue of an H -theorem for this entropy by showing that its evolution is Markovian, determined by a stochastic matrix.
Quantum state of the multiverse
Robles-Perez, Salvador; Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F.
2010-04-15
A third quantization formalism is applied to a simplified multiverse scenario. A well-defined quantum state of the multiverse is obtained which agrees with standard boundary condition proposals. These states are found to be squeezed, and related to accelerating universes: they share similar properties to those obtained previously by Grishchuk and Siderov. We also comment on related works that have criticized the third quantization approach.
Mizel, Ari
2004-07-01
Ground-state quantum computers mimic quantum-mechanical time evolution within the amplitudes of a time-independent quantum state. We explore the principles that constrain this mimicking. A no-cloning argument is found to impose strong restrictions. It is shown, however, that there is flexibility that can be exploited using quantum teleportation methods to improve ground-state quantum computer design.
Distinguishability of generic quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Puchała, Zbigniew; Pawela, Łukasz; Życzkowski, Karol
2016-06-01
Properties of random mixed states of dimension N distributed uniformly with respect to the Hilbert-Schmidt measure are investigated. We show that for large N , due to the concentration of measure, the trace distance between two random states tends to a fixed number D ˜=1 /4 +1 /π , which yields the Helstrom bound on their distinguishability. To arrive at this result, we apply free random calculus and derive the symmetrized Marchenko-Pastur distribution, which is shown to describe numerical data for the model of coupled quantum kicked tops. Asymptotic value for the root fidelity between two random states, √{F }=3/4 , can serve as a universal reference value for further theoretical and experimental studies. Analogous results for quantum relative entropy and Chernoff quantity provide other bounds on the distinguishablity of both states in a multiple measurement setup due to the quantum Sanov theorem. We study also mean entropy of coherence of random pure and mixed states and entanglement of a generic mixed state of a bipartite system.
Quantum State Engineering Via Coherent-State Superpositions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Janszky, Jozsef; Adam, P.; Szabo, S.; Domokos, P.
1996-01-01
The quantum interference between the two parts of the optical Schrodinger-cat state makes possible to construct a wide class of quantum states via discrete superpositions of coherent states. Even a small number of coherent states can approximate the given quantum states at a high accuracy when the distance between the coherent states is optimized, e. g. nearly perfect Fock state can be constructed by discrete superpositions of n + 1 coherent states lying in the vicinity of the vacuum state.
Entanglement for all quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de la Torre, A. C.; Goyeneche, D.; Leitao, L.
2010-03-01
It is shown that a state that is factorizable in the Hilbert space corresponding to some choice of degrees of freedom becomes entangled for a different choice of degrees of freedom. Therefore, entanglement is not a special case but is ubiquitous in quantum systems. Simple examples are calculated and a general proof is provided. The physical relevance of the change of tensor product structure is mentioned.
Creating a Superposition of Unknown Quantum States.
Oszmaniec, Michał; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Wójcik, Antoni
2016-03-18
The superposition principle is one of the landmarks of quantum mechanics. The importance of quantum superpositions provokes questions about the limitations that quantum mechanics itself imposes on the possibility of their generation. In this work, we systematically study the problem of the creation of superpositions of unknown quantum states. First, we prove a no-go theorem that forbids the existence of a universal probabilistic quantum protocol producing a superposition of two unknown quantum states. Second, we provide an explicit probabilistic protocol generating a superposition of two unknown states, each having a fixed overlap with the known referential pure state. The protocol can be applied to generate coherent superposition of results of independent runs of subroutines in a quantum computer. Moreover, in the context of quantum optics it can be used to efficiently generate highly nonclassical states or non-Gaussian states. PMID:27035290
Creating a Superposition of Unknown Quantum States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oszmaniec, Michał; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Wójcik, Antoni
2016-03-01
The superposition principle is one of the landmarks of quantum mechanics. The importance of quantum superpositions provokes questions about the limitations that quantum mechanics itself imposes on the possibility of their generation. In this work, we systematically study the problem of the creation of superpositions of unknown quantum states. First, we prove a no-go theorem that forbids the existence of a universal probabilistic quantum protocol producing a superposition of two unknown quantum states. Second, we provide an explicit probabilistic protocol generating a superposition of two unknown states, each having a fixed overlap with the known referential pure state. The protocol can be applied to generate coherent superposition of results of independent runs of subroutines in a quantum computer. Moreover, in the context of quantum optics it can be used to efficiently generate highly nonclassical states or non-Gaussian states.
Geometry of Gaussian quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Link, Valentin; Strunz, Walter T.
2015-07-01
We study the Hilbert-Schmidt measure on the manifold of mixed Gaussian states in multi-mode continuous variable quantum systems. An analytical expression for the Hilbert-Schmidt volume element is derived. Its corresponding probability measure can be used to study typical properties of Gaussian states. It turns out that although the manifold of Gaussian states is unbounded, an ensemble of Gaussian states distributed according to this measure still has a normalizable distribution of symplectic eigenvalues, from which unitarily invariant properties can be obtained. By contrast, we find that for an ensemble of one-mode Gaussian states based on the Bures measure the corresponding distribution cannot be normalized. As important applications, we determine the distribution and the mean value of von Neumann entropy and purity for the Hilbert-Schmidt measure.
Quantum amplification and quantum optical tapping with squeezed states and correlated quantum states
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ou, Z. Y.; Pereira, S. F.; Kimble, H. J.
1994-01-01
Quantum fluctuations in a nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier (NOPA) are investigated experimentally with a squeezed state coupled into the internal idler mode of the NOPA. Reductions of the inherent quantum noise of the amplifier are observed with a minimum noise level 0.7 dB below the usual noise level of the amplifier with its idler mode in a vacuum state. With two correlated quantum fields as the amplifier's inputs and proper adjustment of the gain of the amplifier, it is shown that the amplifier's intrinsic quantum noise can be completely suppressed so that noise-free amplification is achieved. It is also shown that the NOPA, when coupled to either a squeezed state or a nonclassically correlated state, can realize quantum tapping of optical information.
Entangled States, Holography and Quantum Surfaces
Chapline, G F
2003-08-13
Starting with an elementary discussion of quantum holography, we show that entangled quantum states of qubits provide a ''local'' representation of the global geometry and topology of quantum Riemann surfaces. This representation may play an important role in both mathematics and physics. Indeed, the simplest way to represent the fundamental objects in a ''theory of everything'' may be as muti-qubit entangled states.
Multi-state Quantum Teleportation via One Entanglement State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Ying; Zeng, Gui-Hua; Moon Ho, Lee
2008-08-01
A multi-sender-controlled quantum teleportation scheme is proposed to teleport several secret quantum states from different senders to a distance receiver based on only one Einstein Podolsky Rosen (EPR) pair with controlled-NOT (CNOT) gates. In the present scheme, several secret single-qubit quantum states are encoded into a multi-qubit entangled quantum state. Two communication modes, i.e., the detecting mode and the message mode, are employed so that the eavesdropping can be detected easily and the teleported message may be recovered efficiently. It has an advantage over teleporting several different quantum states for one scheme run with more efficiency than the previous quantum teleportation schemes.
Multiple Multi-Qubit Quantum States Sharing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Hua-Wang; Dai, Yue-Wei
2016-04-01
A multiple multi-qubit quantum states sharing scheme is proposed, in which the dealer can share multiple multi-qubit quantum states among the participants through only one distribution and one recovery. The dealer encodes the secret quantum states into a special entangled state, and then distributes the particles of the entangled state to the participants. The participants perform the single-particle measurements on their particles, and can cooperate to recover the multiple multi-qubit quantum states. Compared to the existing schemes, our scheme is more efficient and more flexible in practice.
Li Zhenni; Jin Jiasen; Yu Changshui
2011-01-15
We present schemes for a type of one-parameter bipartite quantum state to probe quantum entanglement, quantum discord, the classical correlation, and the quantum state based on cavity QED. It is shown that our detection does not influence all these measured quantities. We also discuss how the spontaneous emission introduced by our probe atom influences our detection.
Bound states in continuum: Quantum dots in a quantum well
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prodanović, Nikola; Milanović, Vitomir; Ikonić, Zoran; Indjin, Dragan; Harrison, Paul
2013-11-01
We report on the existence of a bound state in the continuum (BIC) of quantum rods (QR). QRs are novel elongated InGaAs quantum dot nanostructures embedded in the shallower InGaAs quantum well. BIC appears as an excited confined dot state and energetically above the bottom of a well subband continuum. We prove that high height-to-diameter QR aspect ratio and the presence of a quantum well are indispensable conditions for accommodating the BIC. QRs are unique semiconductor nanostructures, exhibiting this mathematical curiosity predicted 83 years ago by Wigner and von Neumann.
Quantum optics. Quantum harmonic oscillator state synthesis by reservoir engineering.
Kienzler, D; Lo, H-Y; Keitch, B; de Clercq, L; Leupold, F; Lindenfelser, F; Marinelli, M; Negnevitsky, V; Home, J P
2015-01-01
The robust generation of quantum states in the presence of decoherence is a primary challenge for explorations of quantum mechanics at larger scales. Using the mechanical motion of a single trapped ion, we utilize reservoir engineering to generate squeezed, coherent, and displaced-squeezed states as steady states in the presence of noise. We verify the created state by generating two-state correlated spin-motion Rabi oscillations, resulting in high-contrast measurements. For both cooling and measurement, we use spin-oscillator couplings that provide transitions between oscillator states in an engineered Fock state basis. Our approach should facilitate studies of entanglement, quantum computation, and open-system quantum simulations in a wide range of physical systems. PMID:25525161
Gravitational quantum states of Antihydrogen
Voronin, A. Yu.; Froelich, P.; Nesvizhevsky, V. V.
2011-03-15
We present a theoretical study of the motion of the antihydrogen atom (H) in the gravitational field of Earth above a material surface. We predict that the H atom, falling in the gravitational field of Earth above a material surface, would settle into long-lived quantum states. We point out a method of measuring the difference in the energy of H in such states. The method allows for spectroscopy of gravitational levels based on atom-interferometric principles. We analyze the general feasibility of performing experiments of this kind. We point out that such experiments provide a method of measuring the gravitational force (Mg) acting on H and that they might be of interest in the context of testing the weak equivalence principle for antimatter.
Quantum secret sharing with qudit graph states
Keet, Adrian; Fortescue, Ben; Sanders, Barry C.; Markham, Damian
2010-12-15
We present a unified formalism for threshold quantum secret sharing using graph states of systems with prime dimension. We construct protocols for three varieties of secret sharing: with classical and quantum secrets shared between parties over both classical and quantum channels.
Quantum state engineering in hybrid open quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joshi, Chaitanya; Larson, Jonas; Spiller, Timothy P.
2016-04-01
We investigate a possibility to generate nonclassical states in light-matter coupled noisy quantum systems, namely, the anisotropic Rabi and Dicke models. In these hybrid quantum systems, a competing influence of coherent internal dynamics and environment-induced dissipation drives the system into nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). Explicitly, for the anisotropic Rabi model, the steady state is given by an incoherent mixture of two states of opposite parities, but as each parity state displays light-matter entanglement, we also find that the full state is entangled. Furthermore, as a natural extension of the anisotropic Rabi model to an infinite spin subsystem, we next explored the NESS of the anisotropic Dicke model. The NESS of this linearized Dicke model is also an inseparable state of light and matter. With an aim to enrich the dynamics beyond the sustainable entanglement found for the NESS of these hybrid quantum systems, we also propose to combine an all-optical feedback strategy for quantum state protection and for establishing quantum control in these systems. Our present work further elucidates the relevance of such hybrid open quantum systems for potential applications in quantum architectures.
Quantum gambling using two nonorthogonal states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hwang, Won Young; Ahn, Doyeol; Hwang, Sung Woo
2001-12-01
We give a (remote) quantum-gambling scheme that makes use of the fact that quantum nonorthogonal states cannot be distinguished with certainty. In the proposed scheme, two participants Alice and Bob can be regarded as playing a game of making guesses on identities of quantum states that are in one of two given nonorthogonal states: if Bob makes a correct (an incorrect) guess on the identity of a quantum state that Alice has sent, he wins (loses). It is shown that the proposed scheme is secure against the nonentanglement attack. It can also be shown heuristically that the scheme is secure in the case of the entanglement attack.
Spectral presheaves as quantum state spaces.
Döring, Andreas
2015-08-01
For each quantum system described by an operator algebra [Formula: see text] of physical quantities, we provide a (generalized) state space, notwithstanding the Kochen-Specker theorem. This quantum state space is the spectral presheaf [Formula: see text]. We formulate the time evolution of quantum systems in terms of Hamiltonian flows on this generalized space and explain how the structure of the spectral presheaf [Formula: see text] geometrically mirrors the double role played by self-adjoint operators in quantum theory, as quantum random variables and as generators of time evolution. PMID:26124247
Mapping quantum state dynamics in spontaneous emission.
Naghiloo, M; Foroozani, N; Tan, D; Jadbabaie, A; Murch, K W
2016-01-01
The evolution of a quantum state undergoing radiative decay depends on how its emission is detected. If the emission is detected in the form of energy quanta, the evolution is characterized by a quantum jump to a lower energy state. In contrast, detection of the wave nature of the emitted radiation leads to different dynamics. Here, we investigate the diffusive dynamics of a superconducting artificial atom under continuous homodyne detection of its spontaneous emission. Using quantum state tomography, we characterize the correlation between the detected homodyne signal and the emitter's state, and map out the conditional back-action of homodyne measurement. By tracking the diffusive quantum trajectories of the state as it decays, we characterize selective stochastic excitation induced by the choice of measurement basis. Our results demonstrate dramatic differences from the quantum jump evolution associated with photodetection and highlight how continuous field detection can be harnessed to control quantum evolution. PMID:27167893
Mapping quantum state dynamics in spontaneous emission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naghiloo, M.; Foroozani, N.; Tan, D.; Jadbabaie, A.; Murch, K. W.
2016-05-01
The evolution of a quantum state undergoing radiative decay depends on how its emission is detected. If the emission is detected in the form of energy quanta, the evolution is characterized by a quantum jump to a lower energy state. In contrast, detection of the wave nature of the emitted radiation leads to different dynamics. Here, we investigate the diffusive dynamics of a superconducting artificial atom under continuous homodyne detection of its spontaneous emission. Using quantum state tomography, we characterize the correlation between the detected homodyne signal and the emitter's state, and map out the conditional back-action of homodyne measurement. By tracking the diffusive quantum trajectories of the state as it decays, we characterize selective stochastic excitation induced by the choice of measurement basis. Our results demonstrate dramatic differences from the quantum jump evolution associated with photodetection and highlight how continuous field detection can be harnessed to control quantum evolution.
Nonlocality of orthogonal product basis quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Gao, Fei; Tian, Guo-Jing; Cao, Tian-Qing; Wen, Qiao-Yan
2014-08-01
In this paper, we mainly study the local indistinguishability of mutually orthogonal product basis quantum states in the high-dimensional quantum systems. In the Hilbert space of 3⊗3, Walgate and Hardy [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 147901 (2002), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.89.147901] presented a very simple proof for nonlocality of nine orthogonal product basis quantum states which are given by Bennett et al. [Phys. Rev. A 59, 1070 (1999), 10.1103/PhysRevA.59.1070]. In the quantum system of d⊗d, where d is odd, we construct d2 orthogonal product basis quantum states and prove these states are locally indistinguishable. Then we are able to construct some locally indistinguishable product basis quantum states in the multipartite systems. All these results reveal the phenomenon of "nonlocality without entanglement."
Mapping quantum state dynamics in spontaneous emission
Naghiloo, M.; Foroozani, N.; Tan, D.; Jadbabaie, A.; Murch, K. W.
2016-01-01
The evolution of a quantum state undergoing radiative decay depends on how its emission is detected. If the emission is detected in the form of energy quanta, the evolution is characterized by a quantum jump to a lower energy state. In contrast, detection of the wave nature of the emitted radiation leads to different dynamics. Here, we investigate the diffusive dynamics of a superconducting artificial atom under continuous homodyne detection of its spontaneous emission. Using quantum state tomography, we characterize the correlation between the detected homodyne signal and the emitter's state, and map out the conditional back-action of homodyne measurement. By tracking the diffusive quantum trajectories of the state as it decays, we characterize selective stochastic excitation induced by the choice of measurement basis. Our results demonstrate dramatic differences from the quantum jump evolution associated with photodetection and highlight how continuous field detection can be harnessed to control quantum evolution. PMID:27167893
Quantum key distribution with a reference quantum state
Molotkov, S. N.
2011-11-15
A new quantum key distribution protocol stable at arbitrary losses in a quantum communication channel has been proposed. For the stability of the protocol, it is of fundamental importance that changes in states associated with losses in the communication channel (in the absence of the eavesdropper) are included in measurements.
Quantum Conditional Mutual Information, Reconstructed States, and State Redistribution.
Brandão, Fernando G S L; Harrow, Aram W; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Strelchuk, Sergii
2015-07-31
We give two strengthenings of an inequality for the quantum conditional mutual information of a tripartite quantum state recently proved by Fawzi and Renner, connecting it with the ability to reconstruct the state from its bipartite reductions. Namely, we show that the conditional mutual information is an upper bound on the regularized relative entropy distance between the quantum state and its reconstructed version. It is also an upper bound for the measured relative entropy distance of the state to its reconstructed version. The main ingredient of the proof is the fact that the conditional mutual information is the optimal quantum communication rate in the task of state redistribution. PMID:26274402
All entangled quantum states are nonlocal.
Buscemi, Francesco
2012-05-18
Departing from the usual paradigm of local operations and classical communication adopted in entanglement theory, we study here the interconversion of quantum states by means of local operations and shared randomness. A set of necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of such a transformation between two given quantum states is given in terms of the payoff they yield in a suitable class of nonlocal games. It is shown that, as a consequence of our result, such a class of nonlocal games is able to witness quantum entanglement, however weak, and reveal nonlocality in any entangled quantum state. An example illustrating this fact is provided. PMID:23003127
Quantum states for Heisenberg limited interferometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uys, Hermann; Meystre, Pierre
2007-06-01
An important aspect of quantum metrology is the engineering of quantum states with which to achieve Heisenberg limited measurement precision. In this limit the measurement uncertainty is inversely proportional to the number of interfering particles, N, a 1/√N improvement over the standad quantum limit. We have used numerical global optimization strategies to systematically search for quantum interferometer input states that achieve Heisenberg limited uncertainty in estimates of the interferometer phase shift. We compare the performance of candidates so obtained with that of non-classical states already known to yield Heisenberg limited uncertainty.
Robust quantum receivers for coherent state discrimination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Becerra, Francisco Elohim
2014-05-01
Quantum state discrimination is a central task for quantum information and is a fundamental problem in quantum mechanics. Nonorthogonal states, such as coherent states which have intrinsic quantum noise, cannot be discriminated with total certainty because of their intrinsic overlap. This nonorthogonality is at the heart of quantum key distribution for ensuring absolute secure communications between a transmitter and a receiver, and can enable many quantum information protocols based on coherent states. At the same time, while coherent states are used for communications because of their robustness to loss and simplicity of generation and detection, their nonorthogonality inherently produces errors in the process of decoding the information. The minimum error probability in the discrimination of nonorthogonal coherent states measured by an ideal lossless and noiseless conventional receiver is given by the standard quantum limit (SQL). This limit sets strict bounds on the ultimate performance of coherent communications and many coherent-state-based quantum information protocols. However, measurement strategies based on the quantum properties of these states can allow for better measurements that surpass the SQL and approach the ultimate measurement limits allowed by quantum mechanics. These measurement strategies can allow for optimally extracting information encoded in these states for coherent and quantum communications. We present the demonstration of a receiver based on adaptive measurements and single-photon counting that unconditionally discriminates multiple nonorthogonal coherent states below the SQL. We also discuss the potential of photon-number-resolving detection to provide robustness and high sensitivity under realistic conditions for an adaptive coherent receiver with detectors with finite photon-number resolution.
Finding a New Home for Quantum States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fuchs, Christopher A.; Appleby, D. Marcus; Zhu, Huangjun
2015-03-01
In the Quantum Bayesian interpretation of quantum mechanics, or QBism as it has come to be called, a significant effort has been made to find a good representation of quantum states, quantum measurement operators, and quantum time-evolution maps, all directly in terms of probabilities and conditional probabilities. The proposed means for doing this has involved a particularly interesting kind of fiducial quantum measurement called a symmetric informationally complete (SIC) measurement. If such objects exist for all finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces, then QBism will have all that it wants. But this suggests a natural follow-on question: Whether one might turn the tables and take the new formalism so developed as a foundation for quantum theory to begin with? This talk with describe a few recently discovered features of quantum theory when seen from this point of view.
Improved quantum state transfer via quantum partially collapsing measurements
Man, Zhong-Xiao; Ba An, Nguyen; Xia, Yun-Jie
2014-10-15
In this work, we present a general scheme to improve quantum state transfer (QST) by taking advantage of quantum partially collapsing measurements. The scheme consists of a weak measurement performed at the initial time on the qubit encoding the state of concern and a subsequent quantum reversal measurement at a desired time on the destined qubit. We determine the strength q{sub r} of the post quantum reversal measurement as a function of the strength p of the prior weak measurement and the evolution time t so that near-perfect QST can be achieved by choosing p close enough to 1, with a finite success probability, regardless of the evolution time and the distance over which the QST takes place. The merit of our scheme is twofold: it not only improves QST, but also suppresses the energy dissipation, if any. - Highlights: • A scheme using weak/reversal measurements is devised to improve quantum state transfer. • It can suppress dissipation allowing optimal quantum state transfer in open system. • Explicit condition for achieving near-perfect quantum state transfer is established. • Applications to spin chain and cavity array are considered in detail.
Secret Sharing of a Quantum State.
Lu, He; Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Luo-Kan; Li, Zheng-Da; Liu, Chang; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Ma, Xiongfeng; Chen, Yu-Ao; Pan, Jian-Wei
2016-07-15
Secret sharing of a quantum state, or quantum secret sharing, in which a dealer wants to share a certain amount of quantum information with a few players, has wide applications in quantum information. The critical criterion in a threshold secret sharing scheme is confidentiality: with less than the designated number of players, no information can be recovered. Furthermore, in a quantum scenario, one additional critical criterion exists: the capability of sharing entangled and unknown quantum information. Here, by employing a six-photon entangled state, we demonstrate a quantum threshold scheme, where the shared quantum secrecy can be efficiently reconstructed with a state fidelity as high as 93%. By observing that any one or two parties cannot recover the secrecy, we show that our scheme meets the confidentiality criterion. Meanwhile, we also demonstrate that entangled quantum information can be shared and recovered via our setting, which shows that our implemented scheme is fully quantum. Moreover, our experimental setup can be treated as a decoding circuit of the five-qubit quantum error-correcting code with two erasure errors. PMID:27472103
Secret Sharing of a Quantum State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, He; Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Luo-Kan; Li, Zheng-Da; Liu, Chang; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Ma, Xiongfeng; Chen, Yu-Ao; Pan, Jian-Wei
2016-07-01
Secret sharing of a quantum state, or quantum secret sharing, in which a dealer wants to share a certain amount of quantum information with a few players, has wide applications in quantum information. The critical criterion in a threshold secret sharing scheme is confidentiality: with less than the designated number of players, no information can be recovered. Furthermore, in a quantum scenario, one additional critical criterion exists: the capability of sharing entangled and unknown quantum information. Here, by employing a six-photon entangled state, we demonstrate a quantum threshold scheme, where the shared quantum secrecy can be efficiently reconstructed with a state fidelity as high as 93%. By observing that any one or two parties cannot recover the secrecy, we show that our scheme meets the confidentiality criterion. Meanwhile, we also demonstrate that entangled quantum information can be shared and recovered via our setting, which shows that our implemented scheme is fully quantum. Moreover, our experimental setup can be treated as a decoding circuit of the five-qubit quantum error-correcting code with two erasure errors.
Matrix product states for quantum metrology.
Jarzyna, Marcin; Demkowicz-Dobrzański, Rafał
2013-06-14
We demonstrate that the optimal states in lossy quantum interferometry may be efficiently simulated using low rank matrix product states. We argue that this should be expected in all realistic quantum metrological protocols with uncorrelated noise and is related to the elusive nature of the Heisenberg precision scaling in the asymptotic limit of a large number of probes. PMID:25165900
Optimal conclusive teleportation of quantum states
Roa, L.; Delgado, A.; Fuentes-Guridi, I.
2003-08-01
Quantum teleportation of qudits is revisited. In particular, we analyze the case where the quantum channel corresponds to a nonmaximally entangled state and show that the success of the protocol is directly related to the problem of distinguishing nonorthogonal quantum states. The teleportation channel can be seen as a coherent superposition of two channels, one of them being a maximally entangled state, thus leading to perfect teleportation, and the other, corresponding to a nonmaximally entangled state living in a subspace of the d-dimensional Hilbert space. The second channel leads to a teleported state with reduced fidelity. We calculate the average fidelity of the process and show its optimality.
Parametric separation of symmetric pure quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Solís-Prosser, M. A.; Delgado, A.; Jiménez, O.; Neves, L.
2016-01-01
Quantum state separation is a probabilistic map that transforms a given set of pure states into another set of more distinguishable ones. Here we investigate such a map acting onto uniparametric families of symmetric linearly dependent or independent quantum states. We obtained analytical solutions for the success probability of the maps—which is shown to be optimal—as well as explicit constructions in terms of positive operator valued measures. Our results can be used for state discrimination strategies interpolating continuously between minimum-error and unambiguous (or maximum-confidence) discrimination, which, in turn, have many applications in quantum information protocols. As an example, we show that quantum teleportation through a nonmaximally entangled quantum channel can be accomplished with higher probability than the one provided by unambiguous (or maximum-confidence) discrimination and with higher fidelity than the one achievable by minimum-error discrimination. Finally, an optical network is proposed for implementing parametric state separation.
Quantum pump in quantum spin Hall edge states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Fang
2016-09-01
We present a theory for quantum pump in a quantum spin Hall bar with two quantum point contacts (QPCs). The pump currents can be generated by applying harmonically modulating gate voltages at QPCs. The phase difference between the gate voltages introduces an effective gauge field, which breaks the time-reversal symmetry and generates pump currents. The pump currents display very different pump frequency dependence for weak and strong e-e interaction. These unique properties are induced by the helical feature of the edge states, and therefore can be used to detect and control edge state transport.
Entanglement and Coherence in Quantum State Merging.
Streltsov, A; Chitambar, E; Rana, S; Bera, M N; Winter, A; Lewenstein, M
2016-06-17
Understanding the resource consumption in distributed scenarios is one of the main goals of quantum information theory. A prominent example for such a scenario is the task of quantum state merging, where two parties aim to merge their tripartite quantum state parts. In standard quantum state merging, entanglement is considered to be an expensive resource, while local quantum operations can be performed at no additional cost. However, recent developments show that some local operations could be more expensive than others: it is reasonable to distinguish between local incoherent operations and local operations which can create coherence. This idea leads us to the task of incoherent quantum state merging, where one of the parties has free access to local incoherent operations only. In this case the resources of the process are quantified by pairs of entanglement and coherence. Here, we develop tools for studying this process and apply them to several relevant scenarios. While quantum state merging can lead to a gain of entanglement, our results imply that no merging procedure can gain entanglement and coherence at the same time. We also provide a general lower bound on the entanglement-coherence sum and show that the bound is tight for all pure states. Our results also lead to an incoherent version of Schumacher compression: in this case the compression rate is equal to the von Neumann entropy of the diagonal elements of the corresponding quantum state. PMID:27367369
Entanglement and Coherence in Quantum State Merging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Streltsov, A.; Chitambar, E.; Rana, S.; Bera, M. N.; Winter, A.; Lewenstein, M.
2016-06-01
Understanding the resource consumption in distributed scenarios is one of the main goals of quantum information theory. A prominent example for such a scenario is the task of quantum state merging, where two parties aim to merge their tripartite quantum state parts. In standard quantum state merging, entanglement is considered to be an expensive resource, while local quantum operations can be performed at no additional cost. However, recent developments show that some local operations could be more expensive than others: it is reasonable to distinguish between local incoherent operations and local operations which can create coherence. This idea leads us to the task of incoherent quantum state merging, where one of the parties has free access to local incoherent operations only. In this case the resources of the process are quantified by pairs of entanglement and coherence. Here, we develop tools for studying this process and apply them to several relevant scenarios. While quantum state merging can lead to a gain of entanglement, our results imply that no merging procedure can gain entanglement and coherence at the same time. We also provide a general lower bound on the entanglement-coherence sum and show that the bound is tight for all pure states. Our results also lead to an incoherent version of Schumacher compression: in this case the compression rate is equal to the von Neumann entropy of the diagonal elements of the corresponding quantum state.
Quantum states prepared by realistic entanglement swapping
Scherer, Artur; Howard, Regina B.; Sanders, Barry C.; Tittel, Wolfgang
2009-12-15
Entanglement swapping between photon pairs is a fundamental building block in schemes using quantum relays or quantum repeaters to overcome the range limits of long-distance quantum key distribution. We develop a closed-form solution for the actual quantum states prepared by realistic entanglement swapping, which takes into account experimental deficiencies due to inefficient detectors, detector dark counts, and multiphoton-pair contributions of parametric down-conversion sources. We investigate how the entanglement present in the final state of the remaining modes is affected by the real-world imperfections. To test the predictions of our theory, comparison with previously published experimental entanglement swapping is provided.
Engineering arbitrary pure and mixed quantum states
Pechen, Alexander
2011-10-15
Controlled manipulation by atomic- and molecular-scale quantum systems has attracted a lot of research attention in recent years. A fundamental problem is to provide deterministic methods for controlled engineering of arbitrary quantum states. This work proposes a deterministic method for engineering arbitrary pure and mixed states of a wide class of quantum systems. The method exploits a special combination of incoherent and coherent controls (incoherent and coherent radiation) and has two properties which are specifically important for manipulating by quantum systems: it realizes the strongest possible degree of their state control, complete density matrix controllability, meaning the ability to steer arbitrary pure and mixed initial states into any desired pure or mixed final state, and it is all-to-one, such that each particular control transfers all initial system states into one target state.
Entropy for quantum pure states and quantum H theorem.
Han, Xizhi; Wu, Biao
2015-06-01
We construct a complete set of Wannier functions that are localized at both given positions and momenta. This allows us to introduce the quantum phase space, onto which a quantum pure state can be mapped unitarily. Using its probability distribution in quantum phase space, we define an entropy for a quantum pure state. We prove an inequality regarding the long-time behavior of our entropy's fluctuation. For a typical initial state, this inequality indicates that our entropy can relax dynamically to a maximized value and stay there most of time with small fluctuations. This result echoes the quantum H theorem proved by von Neumann [Zeitschrift für Physik 57, 30 (1929)]. Our entropy is different from the standard von Neumann entropy, which is always zero for quantum pure states. According to our definition, a system always has bigger entropy than its subsystem even when the system is described by a pure state. As the construction of the Wannier basis can be implemented numerically, the dynamical evolution of our entropy is illustrated with an example. PMID:26172660
Entropy for quantum pure states and quantum H theorem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Xizhi; Wu, Biao
2015-06-01
We construct a complete set of Wannier functions that are localized at both given positions and momenta. This allows us to introduce the quantum phase space, onto which a quantum pure state can be mapped unitarily. Using its probability distribution in quantum phase space, we define an entropy for a quantum pure state. We prove an inequality regarding the long-time behavior of our entropy's fluctuation. For a typical initial state, this inequality indicates that our entropy can relax dynamically to a maximized value and stay there most of time with small fluctuations. This result echoes the quantum H theorem proved by von Neumann [Zeitschrift für Physik 57, 30 (1929), 10.1007/BF01339852]. Our entropy is different from the standard von Neumann entropy, which is always zero for quantum pure states. According to our definition, a system always has bigger entropy than its subsystem even when the system is described by a pure state. As the construction of the Wannier basis can be implemented numerically, the dynamical evolution of our entropy is illustrated with an example.
Reliable quantum certification of photonic state preparations
Aolita, Leandro; Gogolin, Christian; Kliesch, Martin; Eisert, Jens
2015-01-01
Quantum technologies promise a variety of exciting applications. Even though impressive progress has been achieved recently, a major bottleneck currently is the lack of practical certification techniques. The challenge consists of ensuring that classically intractable quantum devices perform as expected. Here we present an experimentally friendly and reliable certification tool for photonic quantum technologies: an efficient certification test for experimental preparations of multimode pure Gaussian states, pure non-Gaussian states generated by linear-optical circuits with Fock-basis states of constant boson number as inputs, and pure states generated from the latter class by post-selecting with Fock-basis measurements on ancillary modes. Only classical computing capabilities and homodyne or hetorodyne detection are required. Minimal assumptions are made on the noise or experimental capabilities of the preparation. The method constitutes a step forward in many-body quantum certification, which is ultimately about testing quantum mechanics at large scales. PMID:26577800
Gaussian state for the bouncing quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mielczarek, Jakub; Piechocki, Włodzimierz
2012-10-01
We present results concerning propagation of the Gaussian state across the cosmological quantum bounce. The reduced phase space quantization of loop quantum cosmology is applied to the Friedman-Robertson-Walker universe with a free massless scalar field. Evolution of quantum moments of the canonical variables is investigated. The covariance turns out to be a monotonic function so it may be used as an evolution parameter having quantum origin. We show that for the Gaussian state the Universe is least quantum at the bounce. We propose explanation of this counter-intuitive feature using the entropy of squeezing. The obtained time dependence of entropy is in agreement with qualitative predictions based on von Neumann entropy for mixed states. We show that, for the considered Gaussian state, semiclassicality is preserved across the bounce, so there is no cosmic forgetfulness.
Authentication Protocol using Quantum Superposition States
Kanamori, Yoshito; Yoo, Seong-Moo; Gregory, Don A.; Sheldon, Frederick T
2009-01-01
When it became known that quantum computers could break the RSA (named for its creators - Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman) encryption algorithm within a polynomial-time, quantum cryptography began to be actively studied. Other classical cryptographic algorithms are only secure when malicious users do not have sufficient computational power to break security within a practical amount of time. Recently, many quantum authentication protocols sharing quantum entangled particles between communicators have been proposed, providing unconditional security. An issue caused by sharing quantum entangled particles is that it may not be simple to apply these protocols to authenticate a specific user in a group of many users. An authentication protocol using quantum superposition states instead of quantum entangled particles is proposed. The random number shared between a sender and a receiver can be used for classical encryption after the authentication has succeeded. The proposed protocol can be implemented with the current technologies we introduce in this paper.
Secure quantum key distribution using squeezed states
Gottesman, Daniel; Preskill, John
2001-02-01
We prove the security of a quantum key distribution scheme based on transmission of squeezed quantum states of a harmonic oscillator. Our proof employs quantum error-correcting codes that encode a finite-dimensional quantum system in the infinite-dimensional Hilbert space of an oscillator, and protect against errors that shift the canonical variables p and q. If the noise in the quantum channel is weak, squeezing signal states by 2.51 dB (a squeeze factor e{sup r}=1.34) is sufficient in principle to ensure the security of a protocol that is suitably enhanced by classical error correction and privacy amplification. Secure key distribution can be achieved over distances comparable to the attenuation length of the quantum channel.
Collective field theory for quantum Hall states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laskin, M.; Can, T.; Wiegmann, P.
2015-12-01
We develop a collective field theory for fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states. We show that in the leading approximation for a large number of particles, the properties of Laughlin states are captured by a Gaussian free field theory with a background charge. Gradient corrections to the Gaussian field theory arise from the covariant ultraviolet regularization of the theory, which produces the gravitational anomaly. These corrections are described by a theory closely related to the Liouville theory of quantum gravity. The field theory simplifies the computation of correlation functions in FQH states and makes manifest the effect of quantum anomalies.
Invariant measures on multimode quantum Gaussian states
Lupo, C.; Mancini, S.; De Pasquale, A.; Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Pascazio, S.
2012-12-15
We derive the invariant measure on the manifold of multimode quantum Gaussian states, induced by the Haar measure on the group of Gaussian unitary transformations. To this end, by introducing a bipartition of the system in two disjoint subsystems, we use a parameterization highlighting the role of nonlocal degrees of freedom-the symplectic eigenvalues-which characterize quantum entanglement across the given bipartition. A finite measure is then obtained by imposing a physically motivated energy constraint. By averaging over the local degrees of freedom we finally derive the invariant distribution of the symplectic eigenvalues in some cases of particular interest for applications in quantum optics and quantum information.
Individual Atoms in their Quantum Ground State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwartz, Eyal; Sompet, Pimonpan; Fung, Yin Hsien; Andersen, Mikkel F.
2016-05-01
An ultimate control of pure quantum states is an excellent platform for various quantum science and engineering. In this work, we perform quantum manipulation of individual Rubidium atoms in a tightly focus optical tweezer in order to cool them into their vibrational ground state via Raman sideband cooling. Our experimental scheme involves a combination of Raman sideband transitions and optical pumping of the atoms that couples two magnetic field sublevels indifferent to magnetic noise thus providing a much longer atomic coherence time compared to previous cooling schemes. By installing most of the atoms in their ground state, we managed to achieve two-dimensional cooling on the way to create a full nil entropy quantum state of single atoms and single molecules. We acknowledge the Marsden Fund, CORE and DWC for their support.
Fractional Quantum Hall States in a Ge Quantum Well
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mironov, O. A.; d'Ambrumenil, N.; Dobbie, A.; Leadley, D. R.; Suslov, A. V.; Green, E.
2016-04-01
Measurements of the Hall and dissipative conductivity of a strained Ge quantum well on a SiGe /(001 )Si substrate in the quantum Hall regime are reported. We analyze the results in terms of thermally activated quantum tunneling of carriers from one internal edge state to another across saddle points in the long-range impurity potential. This shows that the gaps for different filling fractions closely follow the dependence predicted by theory. We also find that the estimates of the separation of the edge states at the saddle are in line with the expectations of an electrostatic model in the lowest spin-polarized Landau level (LL), but not in the spin-reversed LL where the density of quasiparticle states is not high enough to accommodate the carriers required.
Fractional Quantum Hall States in a Ge Quantum Well.
Mironov, O A; d'Ambrumenil, N; Dobbie, A; Leadley, D R; Suslov, A V; Green, E
2016-04-29
Measurements of the Hall and dissipative conductivity of a strained Ge quantum well on a SiGe/(001)Si substrate in the quantum Hall regime are reported. We analyze the results in terms of thermally activated quantum tunneling of carriers from one internal edge state to another across saddle points in the long-range impurity potential. This shows that the gaps for different filling fractions closely follow the dependence predicted by theory. We also find that the estimates of the separation of the edge states at the saddle are in line with the expectations of an electrostatic model in the lowest spin-polarized Landau level (LL), but not in the spin-reversed LL where the density of quasiparticle states is not high enough to accommodate the carriers required. PMID:27176531
Intrinsic quantum correlations of weak coherent states for quantum communication
Sua Yongmeng; Scanlon, Erin; Beaulieu, Travis; Bollen, Viktor; Lee, Kim Fook
2011-03-15
Intrinsic quantum correlations of weak coherent states are observed between two parties through a novel detection scheme, which can be used as a supplement to the existence decoy-state Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol and the differential phase-shift quantum key distribution (DPS-QKD) protocol. In a proof-of-principle experiment, we generate bipartite correlations of weak coherent states using weak local oscillator fields in two spatially separated balanced homodyne detections. We employ a nonlinearity of postmeasurement method to obtain the bipartite correlations from two single-field interferences at individual homodyne measurements. This scheme is then used to demonstrate bits correlations between two parties over a distance of 10 km through a transmission fiber. We believe that the scheme can add another physical layer of security to these protocols for quantum key distribution.
On the ground state of quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cacciatori, S.; Preparata, G.; Rovelli, S.; Spagnolatti, I.; Xue, S.-S.
1998-05-01
In order to gain insight into the possible ground state of quantized Einstein's gravity, we have devised a variational calculation of the energy of the quantum gravitational field in an open space, as measured by an asymptotic observer living in an asymptotically flat space-time. We find that for quantum gravity (QG) it is energetically favourable to perform its quantum fluctuations not upon flat space-time but around a ``gas'' of wormholes, whose size is the Planck length ap (ap~=10-33 cm). As a result, assuming such configuration to be a good approximation to the true ground state of quantum gravity, space-time, the arena of physical reality, turns out to be well described by Wheeler's Quantum Foam and adequately modeled by a space-time lattice with lattice constant ap, the Planck lattice. All rights reserved
Quantum state sharing using linear optical elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Yan; Song, Jie; Song, He-Shan
2008-10-01
Motivated by protocols [G. Gordon, G. Rigolin, Phys. Rev. A 73 (2006) 062316] and [N.B. An, G. Mahler, Phys. Lett. A 365 (2007) 70], we propose a linear optical protocol for quantum state sharing of polarization entangled state in terms optical elements. Our protocol can realize a near-complete quantum state sharing of polarization entangled state with arbitrary coefficients, and it is possible to achieve unity fidelity transfer of the state if the parties collaborate. This protocol can also be generalized to the multi-party system.
LOCC indistinguishable orthogonal product quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiaoqian; Tan, Xiaoqing; Weng, Jian; Li, Yongjun
2016-07-01
We construct two families of orthogonal product quantum states that cannot be exactly distinguished by local operation and classical communication (LOCC) in the quantum system of 2k+i ⊗ 2l+j (i, j ∈ {0, 1} and i ≥ j ) and 3k+i ⊗ 3l+j (i, j ∈ {0, 1, 2}). And we also give the tiling structure of these two families of quantum product states where the quantum states are unextendible in the first family but are extendible in the second family. Our construction in the quantum system of 3k+i ⊗ 3l+j is more generalized than the other construction such as Wang et al.’s construction and Zhang et al.’s construction, because it contains the quantum system of not only 2k ⊗ 2l and 2k+1 ⊗ 2l but also 2k ⊗ 2l+1 and 2k+1 ⊗ 2l+1. We calculate the non-commutativity to quantify the quantumness of a quantum ensemble for judging the local indistinguishability. We give a general method to judge the indistinguishability of orthogonal product states for our two constructions in this paper. We also extend the dimension of the quantum system of 2k ⊗ 2l in Wang et al.’s paper. Our work is a necessary complement to understand the phenomenon of quantum nonlocality without entanglement.
LOCC indistinguishable orthogonal product quantum states
Zhang, Xiaoqian; Tan, Xiaoqing; Weng, Jian; Li, Yongjun
2016-01-01
We construct two families of orthogonal product quantum states that cannot be exactly distinguished by local operation and classical communication (LOCC) in the quantum system of 2k+i ⊗ 2l+j (i, j ∈ {0, 1} and i ≥ j ) and 3k+i ⊗ 3l+j (i, j ∈ {0, 1, 2}). And we also give the tiling structure of these two families of quantum product states where the quantum states are unextendible in the first family but are extendible in the second family. Our construction in the quantum system of 3k+i ⊗ 3l+j is more generalized than the other construction such as Wang et al.’s construction and Zhang et al.’s construction, because it contains the quantum system of not only 2k ⊗ 2l and 2k+1 ⊗ 2l but also 2k ⊗ 2l+1 and 2k+1 ⊗ 2l+1. We calculate the non-commutativity to quantify the quantumness of a quantum ensemble for judging the local indistinguishability. We give a general method to judge the indistinguishability of orthogonal product states for our two constructions in this paper. We also extend the dimension of the quantum system of 2k ⊗ 2l in Wang et al.’s paper. Our work is a necessary complement to understand the phenomenon of quantum nonlocality without entanglement. PMID:27377310
LOCC indistinguishable orthogonal product quantum states.
Zhang, Xiaoqian; Tan, Xiaoqing; Weng, Jian; Li, Yongjun
2016-01-01
We construct two families of orthogonal product quantum states that cannot be exactly distinguished by local operation and classical communication (LOCC) in the quantum system of (2k+i) ⊗ (2l+j) (i, j ∈ {0, 1} and i ≥ j ) and (3k+i) ⊗ (3l+j) (i, j ∈ {0, 1, 2}). And we also give the tiling structure of these two families of quantum product states where the quantum states are unextendible in the first family but are extendible in the second family. Our construction in the quantum system of (3k+i) ⊗ (3l+j) is more generalized than the other construction such as Wang et al.'s construction and Zhang et al.'s construction, because it contains the quantum system of not only (2k) ⊗ (2l) and (2k+1) ⊗ (2l) but also (2k) ⊗ (2l+1) and (2k+1) ⊗ (2l+1). We calculate the non-commutativity to quantify the quantumness of a quantum ensemble for judging the local indistinguishability. We give a general method to judge the indistinguishability of orthogonal product states for our two constructions in this paper. We also extend the dimension of the quantum system of (2k) ⊗ (2l) in Wang et al.'s paper. Our work is a necessary complement to understand the phenomenon of quantum nonlocality without entanglement. PMID:27377310
Quantum information. Unconditional quantum teleportation between distant solid-state quantum bits.
Pfaff, W; Hensen, B J; Bernien, H; van Dam, S B; Blok, M S; Taminiau, T H; Tiggelman, M J; Schouten, R N; Markham, M; Twitchen, D J; Hanson, R
2014-08-01
Realizing robust quantum information transfer between long-lived qubit registers is a key challenge for quantum information science and technology. Here we demonstrate unconditional teleportation of arbitrary quantum states between diamond spin qubits separated by 3 meters. We prepare the teleporter through photon-mediated heralded entanglement between two distant electron spins and subsequently encode the source qubit in a single nuclear spin. By realizing a fully deterministic Bell-state measurement combined with real-time feed-forward, quantum teleportation is achieved upon each attempt with an average state fidelity exceeding the classical limit. These results establish diamond spin qubits as a prime candidate for the realization of quantum networks for quantum communication and network-based quantum computing. PMID:25082696
Private database queries using one quantum state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yu-Guang; Zhang, Ming-Ou; Yang, Rui
2015-03-01
A novel private database query protocol with only one quantum state is proposed. The database owner Bob sends only one quantum state to the user Alice. The proposed protocol combines the idea of semiquantum key distribution and private query. It can be implemented in the situation where not all the parties can afford expensive quantum resources and operations. So our proposal is more practical in use. We also prove that the proposed protocol is secure in terms of the user security and the database security.
Fidelity between Gaussian mixed states with quantum state quadrature variances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hai-Long, Zhang; Chun, Zhou; Jian-Hong, Shi; Wan-Su, Bao
2016-04-01
In this paper, from the original definition of fidelity in a pure state, we first give a well-defined expansion fidelity between two Gaussian mixed states. It is related to the variances of output and input states in quantum information processing. It is convenient to quantify the quantum teleportation (quantum clone) experiment since the variances of the input (output) state are measurable. Furthermore, we also give a conclusion that the fidelity of a pure input state is smaller than the fidelity of a mixed input state in the same quantum information processing. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB338002) and the Foundation of Science and Technology on Information Assurance Laboratory (Grant No. KJ-14-001).
Quantum state transfer in optomechanical arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Moraes Neto, G. D.; Andrade, F. M.; Montenegro, V.; Bose, S.
2016-06-01
Quantum state transfer between distant nodes is at the heart of quantum processing and quantum networking. Stimulated by this, we propose a scheme where one can achieve quantum state transfer with a high fidelity between sites in a cavity quantum optomechanical network. In our lattice, each individual site is composed of a localized mechanical mode which interacts with a laser-driven cavity mode via radiation pressure, while photons hop between neighboring sites. After diagonalization of the Hamiltonian of each cell, we show that the system can be reduced to an effective Hamiltonian of two decoupled bosonic chains, and therefore we can apply the well-known results in quantum state transfer together with an additional condition on the transfer times. In fact, we show that our transfer protocol works for any arbitrary joint quantum state of a mechanical and an optical mode. Finally, in order to analyze a more realistic scenario we take into account the effects of independent thermal reservoirs for each site. By solving the standard master equation within the Born-Markov approximation, we reassure both the effective model and the feasibility of our protocol.
Entanglement and the shareability of quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doherty, Andrew C.
2014-10-01
This brief review discusses the problem of determining whether a given quantum state is separable or entangled. I describe an established approach to this problem that is based on the monogamy of entanglement, which is the observation that a pair of quantum systems that are strongly entangled must be uncorrelated with the rest of the world. Unentangled states on the other hand involve correlations that can be shared with many other parties. Checking whether a given quantum state is shareable involves constructing certain symmetric quantum state extensions and I discuss how to do this using a class of optimizations known as semidefinite programs. An attractive feature of this approach is that it generates explicit entanglement witnesses that can be measured to demonstrate the entanglement experimentally. In recent years analysis of this approach has greatly increased our understanding of the complexity of determining whether a given quantum state is entangled and this review aims to give a unified discussion of these developments. Specifically, I describe how to use finite quantum de Finetti theorems to prove that highly shareable states are nearly separable and use these results to understand the computational complexity of the problem. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’.
Classical and Quantum-Mechanical State Reconstruction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Khanna, F. C.; Mello, P. A.; Revzen, M.
2012-01-01
The aim of this paper is to present the subject of state reconstruction in classical and in quantum physics, a subject that deals with the experimentally acquired information that allows the determination of the physical state of a system. Our first purpose is to explain a method for retrieving a classical state in phase space, similar to that…
Quantum superreplication of states and gates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiribella, Giulio; Yang, Yuxiang
2016-06-01
Although the no-cloning theorem forbids perfect replication of quantum information, it is sometimes possible to produce large numbers of replicas with vanishingly small error. This phenomenon, known as quantum superreplication, can occur for both quantum states and quantum gates. The aim of this paper is to review the central features of quantum superreplication and provide a unified view of existing results. The paper also includes new results. In particular, we show that when quantum superreplication can be achieved, it can be achieved through estimation up to an error of size O(M/ N 2), where N and M are the number of input and output copies, respectively. Quantum strategies still offer an advantage for superreplication in that they allow for exponentially faster reduction of the error. Using the relation with estimation, we provide i) an alternative proof of the optimality of Heisenberg scaling in quantum metrology, ii) a strategy for estimating arbitrary unitary gates with a mean square error scaling as log N/ N 2, and iii) a protocol that generates O(N 2) nearly perfect copies of a generic pure state U |0> while using the corresponding gate U only N times. Finally, we point out that superreplication can be achieved using interactions among k systems, provided that k is large compared to M 2/ N 2.
Extracting work from quantum states of radiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolář, M.; Ryabov, A.; Filip, R.
2016-06-01
Quantum optomechanics opens a possibility to mediate a physical connection between quantum optics and classical thermodynamics. We propose and theoretically analyze a one-way chain starting from various quantum states of radiation. In the chain, the radiation state is first ideally swapped to a sufficiently large mechanical oscillator (membrane). Then the membrane mechanically pushes a classical almost massless piston, which is pressing a gas in a small container. As a result, we observe strongly nonlinear and nonmonotonic transfer of the energy stored in classical and quantum uncertainty of radiation to mechanical work. The amount of work and even its sign depend strongly on the uncertainty of the radiation state. Our theoretical prediction would stimulate an experimental proposal for such optomechanical connection to thermodynamics.
Quantum states with strong positive partial transpose
Chruscinski, Dariusz; Jurkowski, Jacek; Kossakowski, Andrzej
2008-02-15
We construct a large class of bipartite M x N quantum states which defines a proper subset of states with positive partial transposes (PPTs). Any state from this class has PPT but the positivity of its partial transposition is recognized with respect to canonical factorization of the original density operator. We propose to call elements from this class states with strong positive partial transposes (SPPTs). We conjecture that all SPPT states are separable.
Sequential quantum teleportation of optical coherent states
Yonezawa, Hidehiro; Furusawa, Akira; Loock, Peter van
2007-09-15
We demonstrate a sequence of two quantum teleportations of optical coherent states, combining two high-fidelity teleporters for continuous variables. In our experiment, the individual teleportation fidelities are evaluated as F{sub 1}=0.70{+-}0.02 and F{sub 2}=0.75{+-}0.02, while the fidelity between the input and the sequentially teleported states is determined as F{sup (2)}=0.57{+-}0.02. This still exceeds the optimal fidelity of one half for classical teleportation of arbitrary coherent states and almost attains the value of the first (unsequential) quantum teleportation experiment with optical coherent states.
Nonclassical depth of a quantum state
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Ching Tsung
1992-01-01
A measure is defined for how nonclassical a quantum state is, with values ranging from 0 to 1. When it is applied to the photon-number states, the calculated value is 1, the maximum possible. For squeezed states, it is a monotonically increasing function of the squeeze parameter with values varying from 0 to 1/2. The physical meaning of the nonclassical depth is found to be just the number of thermal photons necessary to ruin the nonclassical nature of the quantum state.
Quantum states for Heisenberg-limited interferometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uys, H.; Meystre, P.
2007-07-01
The phase sensitivity of interferometers is limited by the so-called Heisenberg limit, which states that the optimum phase sensitivity is inversely proportional to the number of interfering particles N , a 1/N improvement over the standard quantum limit. We have used simulated annealing, a global optimization strategy, to systematically search for quantum interferometer input states that approach the Heisenberg-limited uncertainty in estimates of the interferometer phase shift. We compare the performance of these states to that of other nonclassical states already known to yield Heisenberg-limited uncertainty.
Quantum State Transfer Using the Four-Ion Cluste State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Jianfei; Ge, Baojun; Wang, Dongxin
2016-06-01
We demonstrate that a four-ion cluster state can be used to realize the quantum state transfer in the ion-trap systems. The scheme does not involve Bell-state measurement and is insensitive to both the initial motional state and heating.
Bounds for state-dependent quantum cloning
Han Yongjian; Zhang Yongsheng; Guo Guangcan
2002-11-01
Due to the no-cloning theorem, the unknown quantum state can only be cloned approximately or exactly with some probability. There are two types of cloners: universal and state-dependent cloner. The optimal universal cloner has been found and can be viewed as a special state-dependent quantum cloner that has no information about the states. In this paper, we investigate the state-dependent cloning when the state set contains more than two states. We get some bounds of the global fidelity for these processes. This method is not dependent on the number of the states contained in the state set. It is also independent of the numbers of copying.
Reconstructing quantum states from local data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holzaepfel, Milan; Cramer, Marcus; Datta, Nilanjana; Plenio, Martin
Quantum spin chains are systems of extreme complexity, in the sense that the number of parameters that fully characterize the state of a quantum spin chain grows exponentially with the number of spins. Yet, physically relevant subsets of all quantum states can be well-approximated by a small number of parameters using well-known methods such as Matrix Product States (MPS). The structure of such states can guarantee reconstruction of the state from the measurement of a small number of simple observables, merely growing linearly with the number of spins. We compare two classes of quantum states which admit efficient reconstruction from incomplete, local information: States which have vanishing conditional mutual information, and the recently introduced class of states with non-decreasing operator Schmidt rank under partial traces which includes generic Matrix Product Operators (MPO). It is well-known that Rényi entropies can be used to characterize the bond dimension of a pure MPS, i.e. the number of parameters required to describe the state. For mixed MPOs, no similar relation is known. Our comparison provides a first relation between the mutual information and the bond dimension of an MPO representation of a mixed state.
Quantum Fidelity for Arbitrary Gaussian States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banchi, Leonardo; Braunstein, Samuel L.; Pirandola, Stefano
2015-12-01
We derive a computable analytical formula for the quantum fidelity between two arbitrary multimode Gaussian states which is simply expressed in terms of their first- and second-order statistical moments. We also show how such a formula can be written in terms of symplectic invariants and used to derive closed forms for a variety of basic quantities and tools, such as the Bures metric, the quantum Fisher information, and various fidelity-based bounds. Our result can be used to extend the study of continuous-variable protocols, such as quantum teleportation and cloning, beyond the current one-mode or two-mode analyses, and paves the way to solve general problems in quantum metrology and quantum hypothesis testing with arbitrary multimode Gaussian resources.
Quantum Fidelity for Arbitrary Gaussian States.
Banchi, Leonardo; Braunstein, Samuel L; Pirandola, Stefano
2015-12-31
We derive a computable analytical formula for the quantum fidelity between two arbitrary multimode Gaussian states which is simply expressed in terms of their first- and second-order statistical moments. We also show how such a formula can be written in terms of symplectic invariants and used to derive closed forms for a variety of basic quantities and tools, such as the Bures metric, the quantum Fisher information, and various fidelity-based bounds. Our result can be used to extend the study of continuous-variable protocols, such as quantum teleportation and cloning, beyond the current one-mode or two-mode analyses, and paves the way to solve general problems in quantum metrology and quantum hypothesis testing with arbitrary multimode Gaussian resources. PMID:26764978
Entangled exciton states in quantum dot molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bayer, Manfred
2002-03-01
Currently there is strong interest in quantum information processing(See, for example, The Physics of Quantum Information, eds. D. Bouwmeester, A. Ekert and A. Zeilinger (Springer, Berlin, 2000).) in a solid state environment. Many approaches mimic atomic physics concepts in which semiconductor quantum dots are implemented as artificial atoms. An essential building block of a quantum processor is a gate which entangles the states of two quantum bits. Recently a pair of vertically aligned quantum dots has been suggested as optically driven quantum gate(P. Hawrylak, S. Fafard, and Z. R. Wasilewski, Cond. Matter News 7, 16 (1999).)(M. Bayer, P. Hawrylak, K. Hinzer, S. Fafard, M. Korkusinski, Z.R. Wasilewski, O. Stern, and A. Forchel, Science 291, 451 (2001).): The quantum bits are individual carriers either on dot zero or dot one. The different dot indices play the same role as a "spin", therefore we call them "isospin". Quantum mechanical tunneling between the dots rotates the isospin and leads to superposition of these states. The quantum gate is built when two different particles, an electron and a hole, are created optically. The two particles form entangled isospin states. Here we present spectrocsopic studies of single self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dot molecules that support the feasibility of this proposal. The evolution of the excitonic recombination spectrum with varying separation between the dots allows us to demonstrate coherent tunneling of carriers across the separating barrier and the formation of entangled exciton states: Due to the coupling between the dots the exciton states show a splitting that increases with decreasing barrier width. For barrier widths below 5 nm it exceeds the thermal energy at room temperature. For a given barrier width, we find only small variations of the tunneling induced splitting demonstrating a good homogeneity within a molecule ensemble. The entanglement may be controlled by application of electromagnetic field. For
Effective pure states for bulk quantum computation
Knill, E.; Chuang, I.; Laflamme, R.
1997-11-01
In bulk quantum computation one can manipulate a large number of indistinguishable quantum computers by parallel unitary operations and measure expectation values of certain observables with limited sensitivity. The initial state of each computer in the ensemble is known but not pure. Methods for obtaining effective pure input states by a series of manipulations have been described by Gershenfeld and Chuang (logical labeling) and Corey et al. (spatial averaging) for the case of quantum computation with nuclear magnetic resonance. We give a different technique called temporal averaging. This method is based on classical randomization, requires no ancilla qubits and can be implemented in nuclear magnetic resonance without using gradient fields. We introduce several temporal averaging algorithms suitable for both high temperature and low temperature bulk quantum computing and analyze the signal to noise behavior of each.
Galois algebras of squeezed quantum phase states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planat, Michel; Saniga, Metod
2005-12-01
Coding, transmission and recovery of quantum states with high security and efficiency, and with as low fluctuations as possible, is the main goal of quantum information protocols and their proper technical implementations. The paper deals with this topic, focusing on the quantum states related to Galois algebras. We first review the constructions of complete sets of mutually unbiased bases in a Hilbert space of dimension q = pm, with p being a prime and m a positive integer, employing the properties of Galois fields Fq (for p>2) and/or Galois rings of characteristic four R4m (for p = 2). We then discuss the Gauss sums and their role in describing quantum phase fluctuations. Finally, we examine an intricate connection between the concepts of mutual unbiasedness and maximal entanglement.
Chiral Thermoelectrics with Quantum Hall Edge States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sánchez, Rafael; Sothmann, Björn; Jordan, Andrew N.
2015-04-01
The thermoelectric properties of a three-terminal quantum Hall conductor are investigated. We identify a contribution to the thermoelectric response that relies on the chirality of the carrier motion rather than on spatial asymmetries. The Onsager matrix becomes maximally asymmetric with configurations where either the Seebeck or the Peltier coefficients are zero while the other one remains finite. Reversing the magnetic field direction exchanges these effects, which originate from the chiral nature of the quantum Hall edge states. The possibility to generate spin-polarized currents in quantum spin Hall samples is discussed.
Quantum communication with macroscopically bright nonclassical states.
Usenko, Vladyslav C; Ruppert, Laszlo; Filip, Radim
2015-11-30
We analyze homodyne detection of macroscopically bright multimode nonclassical states of light and propose their application in quantum communication. We observe that the homodyne detection is sensitive to a mode-matching of the bright light to the highly intense local oscillator. Unmatched bright modes of light result in additional noise which technically limits detection of Gaussian entanglement at macroscopic level. When the mode-matching is sufficient, we show that multimode quantum key distribution with bright beams is feasible. It finally merges the quantum communication with classical optical technology of visible beams of light. PMID:26698776
Unstable states in quantum theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuksa, V. I.
2014-05-01
Various approaches to the problem of describing unstable particles are reviewed. Fundamental problems that arise in quantum field description of these particles and the ways of their solution are considered. Among them, there is an approach related to the notion of the smeared (continuous) mass, which originates from the finite lifetime of unstable particles. The quantum field model of unstable particles with smeared mass, which is built upon two basic axiomatic elements, is considered in detail. The basic processes with unstable particles (decay and scattering) are considered within the framework of the model and the formalism for describing physical characteristics of those processes is developed. The model is successfully applied to describing the processes of pair and triple boson production at the linear collider, top quark pair production, and certain hadronic decays. Based on this model, the factorization method is developed, which allows a description of complicated and multistep scattering and decay processes with unstable particles to be considerably simplified.
Quantum state estimation with informationally overcomplete measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Huangjun
2014-07-01
We study informationally overcomplete measurements for quantum state estimation so as to clarify their tomographic significance as compared with minimal informationally complete measurements. We show that informationally overcomplete measurements can improve the tomographic efficiency significantly over minimal measurements when the states of interest have high purities. Nevertheless, the efficiency is still too limited to be satisfactory with respect to figures of merit based on monotone Riemannian metrics, such as the Bures metric and quantum Chernoff metric. In this way, we also pinpoint the limitation of nonadaptive measurements and motivate the study of more sophisticated measurement schemes. In the course of our study, we introduce the best linear unbiased estimator and show that it is equally efficient as the maximum likelihood estimator in the large sample limit. This estimator may significantly outperform the canonical linear estimator for states with high purities. It is expected to play an important role in experimental designs and adaptive quantum state tomography besides its significance to the current study.
Quantum wormhole states and local supersymmetry
Alty, L.J.; D'Eath, P.D. ); Dowker, H.F. )
1992-11-15
The existence of quantum wormhole states is studied in a minisuperspace model with local supersymmetry, where supergravity is coupled to a massless multiplet consisting of a spin-1/2 and complex scalar field. The geometry is taken to be that of a {ital k}=+1 Friedmann universe, the other fields being subject to a suitable homogeneous ansatz. An integral expression is found for the wormhole ground state, and the other quantum wormhole states can be found from it by simple differential operations. The effective mass of the scalar-spin-1/2 multiplet remains zero when wormhole effects are included.
Quantum secret sharing using product states
Hsu, L.-Y.; Li, C.-M.
2005-02-01
This study proposes quantum secret sharing protocols using product states. The first two protocols adopt the quantum key distribution protocol using product states [Guo et al.Phys. Rev. A 64, 042301 (2001)]. In these two protocols, the sender does not reveal any information about the qutrits until confirming that each receiver has received a qutrit. This study also considers the security and some possible eavesdropping strategies. In the third proposed protocol, three-level Bell states are exploited for qutrit preparation via nonlocality swapping.
Classical codes in quantum state space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Howard, Mark
2015-12-01
We present a construction of Hermitian operators and quantum states labelled by strings from a finite field. The distance between these operators or states is then simply related (typically, proportional) to the Hamming distance between their corresponding strings. This allows a straightforward application of classical coding theory to find arrangements of operators or states with a given distance distribution. Using the simplex or extended Reed-Solomon code in our construction recovers the discrete Wigner function, which has important applications in quantum information theory.
Quantum state sharing against the controller's cheating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Run-hua; Zhong, Hong; Huang, Liu-sheng
2013-08-01
Most existing QSTS schemes are equivalent to the controlled teleportation, in which a designated agent (i.e., the recoverer) can recover the teleported state with the help of the controllers. However, the controller may attempt to cheat the recoverer during the phase of recovering the secret state. How can we detect this cheating? In this paper, we considered the problem of detecting the controller's cheating in Quantum State Sharing, and further proposed an effective Quantum State Sharing scheme against the controller's cheating. We cleverly use Quantum Secret Sharing, Multiple Quantum States Sharing and decoy-particle techniques. In our scheme, via a previously shared entanglement state Alice can teleport multiple arbitrary multi-qubit states to Bob with the help of Charlie. Furthermore, by the classical information shared previously, Alice and Bob can check whether there is any cheating of Charlie. In addition, our scheme only needs to perform Bell-state and single-particle measurements, and to apply C-NOT gate and other single-particle unitary operations. With the present techniques, it is feasible to implement these necessary measurements and operations.
Spacetime states and covariant quantum theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reisenberger, Michael; Rovelli, Carlo
2002-06-01
In its usual presentation, classical mechanics appears to give time a very special role. But it is well known that mechanics can be formulated so as to treat the time variable on the same footing as the other variables in the extended configuration space. Such covariant formulations are natural for relativistic gravitational systems, where general covariance conflicts with the notion of a preferred physical-time variable. The standard presentation of quantum mechanics, in turn, again gives time a very special role, raising well known difficulties for quantum gravity. Is there a covariant form of (canonical) quantum mechanics? We observe that the preferred role of time in quantum theory is the consequence of an idealization: that measurements are instantaneous. Canonical quantum theory can be given a covariant form by dropping this idealization. States prepared by noninstantaneous measurements are described by ``spacetime smeared states.'' The theory can be formulated in terms of these states, without making any reference to a special time variable. The quantum dynamics is expressed in terms of the propagator, an object covariantly defined on the extended configuration space.
Entanglement of multipartite quantum states and the generalized quantum search
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gingrich, Robert Michael
2002-09-01
In chapter 2 various parameterizations for the orbits under local unitary transformations of three-qubit pure states are analyzed. It is shown that the entanglement monotones of any multipartite pure state uniquely determine the orbit of that state. It follows that there must be an entanglement monotone for three-qubit pure states which depends on the Kempe invariant defined in [1]. A form for such an entanglement monotone is proposed. A theorem is proved that significantly reduces the number of entanglement monotones that must be looked at to find the maximal probability of transforming one multipartite state to another. In chapter 3 Grover's unstructured quantum search algorithm is generalized to use an arbitrary starting superposition and an arbitrary unitary matrix. A formula for the probability of the generalized Grover's algorithm succeeding after n iterations is derived. This formula is used to determine the optimal strategy for using the unstructured quantum search algorithm. The speedup obtained illustrates that a hybrid use of quantum computing and classical computing techniques can yield a performance that is better than either alone. The analysis is extended to the case of a society of k quantum searches acting in parallel. In chapter 4 the positive map Gamma : rho → (Trrho) - rho is introduced as a separability criterion. Any separable state is mapped by the tensor product of Gamma and the identity in to a non-negative operator, which provides a necessary condition for separability. If Gamma acts on a two-dimensional subsystem, then it is equivalent to partial transposition and therefore also sufficient for 2 x 2 and 2 x 3 systems. Finally, a connection between this map for two qubits and complex conjugation in the "magic" basis [2] is displayed.
Coin state properties in quantum walks
Andrade, R. F. S.
2013-01-01
Recent experimental advances have measured individual coin components in discrete time quantum walks, which have not received the due attention in most theoretical studies on the theme. Here is presented a detailed investigation of the properties of M, the difference between square modulus of coin states of discrete quantum walks on a linear chain. Local expectation values are obtained in terms of real and imaginary parts of the Fourier transformed wave function. A simple expression is found for the average difference between coin states in terms of an angle θ gauging the coin operator and its initial state. These results are corroborated by numerical integration of dynamical equations in real space. The local dependence is characterized both by large and short period modulations. The richness of revealed patterns suggests that the amount of information stored and retrieved from quantum walks is significantly enhanced if M is taken into account. PMID:23756358
Distillation of local purity from quantum states
Devetak, I.
2005-06-15
Recently Horodecki et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 100402 (2003)] introduced an important quantum information processing paradigm, in which two parties sharing many copies of the same bipartite quantum state distill local pure states by means of local unitary operations assisted by a one-way (two-way) completely dephasing channel. Local pure states are a valuable resource from a thermodynamical point of view, since they allow thermal energy to be converted into work by local quantum heat engines. We give a simple information-theoretical characterization of the one-way distillable local purity, which turns out to be closely related to a previously known operational measure of classical correlations, the one-way distillable common randomness.
Theory of Nematic Fractional Quantum Hall States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
You, Yizhi; Cho, Gil Young; Fradkin, Eduardo
2014-10-01
We derive an effective field theory for the isotropic-nematic quantum phase transition of fractional quantum Hall states. We demonstrate that for a system with an isotropic background the low-energy effective theory of the nematic order parameter has z =2 dynamical scaling exponent, due to a Berry phase term of the order parameter, which is related to the nondissipative Hall viscosity. Employing the composite fermion theory with a quadrupolar interaction between electrons, we show that a sufficiently attractive quadrupolar interaction triggers a phase transition from the isotropic fractional quantum Hall fluid into a nematic fractional quantum Hall phase. By investigating the spectrum of collective excitations, we demonstrate that the mass gap of the Girvin-MacDonald-Platzman mode collapses at the isotropic-nematic quantum phase transition. On the other hand, Laughlin quasiparticles and the Kohn collective mode remain gapped at this quantum phase transition, and Kohn's theorem is satisfied. The leading couplings between the nematic order parameter and the gauge fields include a term of the same form as the Wen-Zee term. A disclination of the nematic order parameter carries an unquantized electric charge. We also discuss the relation between nematic degrees of freedom and the geometrical response of the fractional quantum Hall fluid.
An Arbitrated Quantum Signature with Bell States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Feng; Qin, Su-Juan; Huang, Wei
2014-05-01
Entanglement is the main resource in quantum communication. The main aims of the arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) scheme are to present an application of the entanglement in cryptology and to prove the possibility of the quantum signature. More specifically, the main function of quantum entangled states in the existing AQS schemes is to assist the signatory to transfer quantum states to the receiver. However, teleportation and the Leung quantum one-time pad (L-QOTP) algorithm are not enough to design a secure AQS scheme. For example, Pauli operations commute or anticommute with each other, which makes the implementation of attacks easily from the aspects of forgery and disavowal. To conquer this shortcoming, we construct an improved AQS scheme using a new QOTP algorithm. This scheme has three advantages: it randomly uses the Hadamard operation in the new QOTP to resist attacks by using the anticommutativity of nontrivial Pauli operators and it preserves almost all merits in the existing AQS schemes; even in the process of handling disputes, no party has chance to change the message and its signature without being discovered; the receiver can verify the integrity of the signature and discover the disavow of the signatory even in the last step of verification.
Quantum Correlations in Mixed-State Metrology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Modi, Kavan; Cable, Hugo; Williamson, Mark; Vedral, Vlatko
2011-10-01
We analyze the effects of quantum correlations, such as entanglement and discord, on the efficiency of phase estimation by studying four quantum circuits that can be readily implemented using NMR techniques. These circuits define a standard strategy of repeated single-qubit measurements, a classical strategy where only classical correlations are allowed, and two quantum strategies where nonclassical correlations are allowed. In addition to counting space (number of qubits) and time (number of gates) requirements, we introduce mixedness as a key constraint of the experiment. We compare the efficiency of the four strategies as a function of the mixedness parameter. We find that the quantum strategy gives N enhancement over the standard strategy for the same amount of mixedness. This result applies even for highly mixed states that have nonclassical correlations but no entanglement.
Communication: Fully coherent quantum state hopping
Martens, Craig C.
2015-10-14
In this paper, we describe a new and fully coherent stochastic surface hopping method for simulating mixed quantum-classical systems. We illustrate the approach on the simple but unforgiving problem of quantum evolution of a two-state quantum system in the limit of unperturbed pure state dynamics and for dissipative evolution in the presence of both stationary and nonstationary random environments. We formulate our approach in the Liouville representation and describe the density matrix elements by ensembles of trajectories. Population dynamics are represented by stochastic surface hops for trajectories representing diagonal density matrix elements. These are combined with an unconventional coherent stochastic hopping algorithm for trajectories representing off-diagonal quantum coherences. The latter generalizes the binary (0,1) “probability” of a trajectory to be associated with a given state to allow integers that can be negative or greater than unity in magnitude. Unlike existing surface hopping methods, the dynamics of the ensembles are fully entangled, correctly capturing the coherent and nonlocal structure of quantum mechanics.
Effective pure states for bulk quantum computation
Knill, E.; Chuang, I.; Laflamme, R.
1998-05-01
In bulk quantum computation one can manipulate a large number of indistinguishable quantum computers by parallel unitary operations and measure expectation values of certain observables with limited sensitivity. The initial state of each computer in the ensemble is known but not pure. Methods for obtaining effective pure input states by a series of manipulations have been described by Gershenfeld and Chuang (logical labeling) [Science {bold 275}, 350 (1997)] and Cory {ital et al.} (spatial averaging) [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA {bold 94}, 1634 (1997)] for the case of quantum computation with nuclear magnetic resonance. We give a different technique called temporal averaging. This method is based on classical randomization, requires no ancilla quantum bits, and can be implemented in nuclear magnetic resonance without using gradient fields. We introduce several temporal averaging algorithms suitable for both high-temperature and low-temperature bulk quantum computing and analyze the signal-to-noise behavior of each. Most of these algorithms require only a constant multiple of the number of experiments needed by the other methods for creating effective pure states. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}
Communication: Fully coherent quantum state hopping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martens, Craig C.
2015-10-01
In this paper, we describe a new and fully coherent stochastic surface hopping method for simulating mixed quantum-classical systems. We illustrate the approach on the simple but unforgiving problem of quantum evolution of a two-state quantum system in the limit of unperturbed pure state dynamics and for dissipative evolution in the presence of both stationary and nonstationary random environments. We formulate our approach in the Liouville representation and describe the density matrix elements by ensembles of trajectories. Population dynamics are represented by stochastic surface hops for trajectories representing diagonal density matrix elements. These are combined with an unconventional coherent stochastic hopping algorithm for trajectories representing off-diagonal quantum coherences. The latter generalizes the binary (0,1) "probability" of a trajectory to be associated with a given state to allow integers that can be negative or greater than unity in magnitude. Unlike existing surface hopping methods, the dynamics of the ensembles are fully entangled, correctly capturing the coherent and nonlocal structure of quantum mechanics.
Entanglement purification of unknown quantum states
Brun, Todd A.; Caves, Carlton M.; Schack, Ru''diger
2001-04-01
A concern has been expressed that ''the Jaynes principle can produce fake entanglement'' [R. Horodecki , Phys. Rev. A 59, 1799 (1999)]. In this paper we discuss the general problem of distilling maximally entangled states from N copies of a bipartite quantum system about which only partial information is known, for instance, in the form of a given expectation value. We point out that there is indeed a problem with applying the Jaynes principle of maximum entropy to more than one copy of a system, but the nature of this problem is classical and was discussed extensively by Jaynes. Under the additional assumption that the state {rho}{sup (N)} of the N copies of the quantum system is exchangeable, one can write down a simple general expression for {rho}{sup (N)}. By measuring one or more of the subsystems, one can gain information and update the state estimate for the remaining subsystems with the quantum version of the Bayes rule. Using this rule, we show how to modify two standard entanglement purification protocols, one-way hashing and recurrence, so that they can be applied to exchangeable states. We thus give an explicit algorithm for distilling entanglement from an unknown or partially known quantum state.
Shortcut to nonadiabatic quantum state transmission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhao-Ming; Bishop, C. Allen; Jing, Jun; Gu, Yong-Jian; Garcia, Christian; Wu, Lian-Ao
2016-06-01
Techniques for accelerating the evolutionary processes associated with an adiabatic passage have recently been developed. Given that the context for which these speeding-up protocols, such as the shortcut to adiabaticity, have been formulated, their presentation rests on the assumption of the validity of the quantum adiabatic theorem. We investigate here the possibility of extending these methods to a regime in which the adiabatic theorem cannot be applied. Using a spin chain model and a typical nonadiabatic quantum communication protocol, we determine and compare certain indicative aspects of state transfer, such as the fidelity measure of quality and communication latency, associated with both normal and pulse-assisted transmission. The fidelity is found to be effectively enhanced by increasing the pulse strength or pulse duration, indicating a shortcut to nonadiabatic quantum state transmission. Numerical calculations also reveal the inherent reliability and fault tolerance of this method.
Angle states in quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de la Torre, A. C.; Iguain, J. L.
1998-12-01
Angle states and angle operators are defined for a system with arbitrary angular momentum. They provide a reasonable formalization of the concept of angle provided that we accept that the angular orientation is quantized. The angle operator is the generator of boosts in angular momentum and is, almost everywhere, linearly related to the logarithm of the shift operator. Angle states for fermions and bosons behave differently under parity transformation.
Authenticated Quantum Dialogue Based on Bell States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Ching-Ying; Yang, Chun-Wei; Hwang, Tzonelih
2015-03-01
This work proposes an authenticated quantum dialogue (AQD) based on Bell states, allowing two communicants to perform mutual authentication and secure bidirectional communications simultaneously via public classical channels. Compared with the other AQDs, the proposed protocol is free from information leakage and is secure under several well-known attacks.
Quantum gambling using three nonorthogonal states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hwang, Won-Young; Matsumoto, Keiji
2002-11-01
We provide a quantum gambling protocol using three (symmetric) nonorthogonal states. The bias of the proposed protocol is less than that of previous ones, making it more practical. We show that the proposed scheme is secure against nonentanglement attacks. The security of the proposed scheme against entanglement attacks is shown heuristically.
Fractional quantum Hall states of Rydberg polaritons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maghrebi, Mohammad F.; Yao, Norman Y.; Hafezi, Mohammad; Pohl, Thomas; Firstenberg, Ofer; Gorshkov, Alexey V.
2015-03-01
We propose a scheme for realizing fractional quantum Hall states of light. In our scheme, photons of two polarizations are coupled to different atomic Rydberg states to form two flavors of Rydberg polaritons that behave as an effective spin. An array of optical cavity modes overlapping with the atomic cloud enables the realization of an effective spin-1 /2 lattice. We show that the dipolar interaction between such polaritons, inherited from the Rydberg states, can be exploited to create a flat, topological band for a single spin-flip excitation. At half filling, this gives rise to a photonic (or polaritonic) fractional Chern insulator—a lattice-based, fractional quantum Hall state of light.
Controlled teleportation of a 3-dimensional bipartite quantum state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Hai-Jing; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Song, He-Shan
2008-07-01
A controlled teleportation scheme of an unknown 3-dimensional (3D) two-particle quantum state is proposed, where a 3D Bell state and 3D GHZ state function as the quantum channel. This teleportation scheme can be directly generalized to teleport an unknown d-dimensional bipartite quantum state.
Compressibility of Quantum Mixed-State Signals
Koashi, Masato; Imoto, Nobuyuki
2001-07-02
We present a formula that determines the optimal number of qubits per message that allows asymptotically faithful compression of the quantum information carried by an ensemble of mixed states. The set of mixed states determines a decomposition of the Hilbert space into the redundant part and the irreducible part. After removing the redundancy, the optimal compression rate is shown to be given by the von Neumann entropy of the reduced ensemble.
Efficient quantum optical state engineering and applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCusker, Kevin T.
Over a century after the modern prediction of the existence of individual particles of light by Albert Einstein, a reliable source of this simple quantum state of one photon does not exist. While common light sources such as a light bulb, LED, or laser can produce a pulse of light with an average of one photon, there is (currently) no way of knowing the number of photons in that pulse without first absorbing (and thereby destroying) them. Spontaneous parametric down-conversion, a process in which one high-energy photon splits into two lower-energy photons, allows us to prepare a single-photon state by detecting one of the photons, which then heralds the existence of its twin. This process has been the workhorse of quantum optics, allowing demonstrations of a myriad of quantum processes and protocols, such as entanglement, cryptography, superdense coding, teleportation, and simple quantum computing demonstrations. All of these processes would benefit from better engineering of the underlying down-conversion process, but despite significant effort (both theoretical and experimental), optimization of this process is ongoing. The focus of this work is to optimize certain aspects of a down-conversion source, and then use this tool in novel experiments not otherwise feasible. Specifically, the goal is to optimize the heralding efficiency of the down-conversion photons, i.e., the probability that if one photon is detected, the other photon is also detected. This source is then applied to two experiments (a single-photon source, and a quantum cryptography implementation), and the detailed theory of an additional application (a source of Fock states and path-entangled states, called N00N states) is discussed, along with some other possible applications.
Measuring polynomial invariants of multiparty quantum states
Leifer, M.S.; Linden, N.; Winter, A.
2004-05-01
We present networks for directly estimating the polynomial invariants of multiparty quantum states under local transformations. The structure of these networks is closely related to the structure of the invariants themselves and this lends a physical interpretation to these otherwise abstract mathematical quantities. Specifically, our networks estimate the invariants under local unitary (LU) transformations and under stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC). Our networks can estimate the LU invariants for multiparty states, where each party can have a Hilbert space of arbitrary dimension and the SLOCC invariants for multiqubit states. We analyze the statistical efficiency of our networks compared to methods based on estimating the state coefficients and calculating the invariants.
Quantum state transfer in double-quantum-well devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jakumeit, Jurgen; Tutt, Marcel; Pavlidis, Dimitris
1994-01-01
A Monte Carlo simulation of double-quantum-well (DQW) devices is presented in view of analyzing the quantum state transfer (QST) effect. Different structures, based on the AlGaAs/GaAs system, were simulated at 77 and 300 K and optimized in terms of electron transfer and device speed. The analysis revealed the dominant role of the impurity scattering for the QST. Different approaches were used for the optimization of QST devices and basic physical limitations were found in the electron transfer between the QWs. The maximum transfer of electrons from a high to a low mobility well was at best 20%. Negative differential resistance is hampered by the almost linear rather than threshold dependent relation of electron transfer on electric field. By optimizing the doping profile the operation frequency limit could be extended to 260 GHz.
Quantum Random Walks with General Particle States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belton, Alexander C. R.
2014-06-01
A convergence theorem is obtained for quantum random walks with particles in an arbitrary normal state. This unifies and extends previous work on repeated-interactions models, including that of Attal and Pautrat (Ann Henri Poincaré 7:59-104 2006) and Belton (J Lond Math Soc 81:412-434, 2010; Commun Math Phys 300:317-329, 2010). When the random-walk generator acts by ampliation and either multiplication or conjugation by a unitary operator, it is shown that the quantum stochastic cocycle which arises in the limit is driven by a unitary process.
Discrimination of physical states in quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shingu-Yano, Mayumi; Shibata, Fumiaki
2001-04-01
Quantum mechanical relaxation and decoherence processes are studied from a view point of discrimination problem of physical states. This is based on an information statistical mechanical method, where concept of a probability density and an entropy is to be generalized. We use a quasi-probability density of Q-function (Husimi function) and the corresponding entropy (Wehrl-Lieb entropy) and apply the method to a Brownian motion of an oscillator and a non-linear spin relaxation process. Our main concern lies in obtaining a discrimination probability Pd as a function of time and temperature. Quantum mechanical fluctuation causes profound effects than the thermal fluctuation.
Quantum nondemolition measurement of the Werner state
Jin Jiasen; Yu Changshui; Pei Pei; Song Heshan
2010-10-15
We propose a theoretical scheme of quantum nondemolition measurement of two-qubit Werner state. We discuss our scheme with the two qubits restricted in a local place and then extend the scheme to the case in which two qubits are separated. We also consider the experimental realization of our scheme based on cavity quantum electrodynamics. It is very interesting that our scheme is robust against the dissipative effects introduced by the probe process. We also give a brief interpretation of our scheme finally.
Random unitary maps for quantum state reconstruction
Merkel, Seth T.; Riofrio, Carlos A.; Deutsch, Ivan H.; Flammia, Steven T.
2010-03-15
We study the possibility of performing quantum state reconstruction from a measurement record that is obtained as a sequence of expectation values of a Hermitian operator evolving under repeated application of a single random unitary map, U{sub 0}. We show that while this single-parameter orbit in operator space is not informationally complete, it can be used to yield surprisingly high-fidelity reconstruction. For a d-dimensional Hilbert space with the initial observable in su(d), the measurement record lacks information about a matrix subspace of dimension {>=}d-2 out of the total dimension d{sup 2}-1. We determine the conditions on U{sub 0} such that the bound is saturated, and show they are achieved by almost all pseudorandom unitary matrices. When we further impose the constraint that the physical density matrix must be positive, we obtain even higher fidelity than that predicted from the missing subspace. With prior knowledge that the state is pure, the reconstruction will be perfect (in the limit of vanishing noise) and for arbitrary mixed states, the fidelity is over 0.96, even for small d, and reaching F>0.99 for d>9. We also study the implementation of this protocol based on the relationship between random matrices and quantum chaos. We show that the Floquet operator of the quantum kicked top provides a means of generating the required type of measurement record, with implications on the relationship between quantum chaos and information gain.
Two electronic states in spherical quantum nanolayer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aghekyan, N. G.; Kazaryan, E. M.; Kostanyan, A. A.; Sarkisyan, H. A.
2010-10-01
In this paper two electronic states in spherical quantum nanolayer are discussed. The Coulomb interaction between the electrons is discussed as perturbation. For confinement potential of the nanolayer the three-dimensional radial analog of Smorodinsky-Winternitz potential is considered. The problem is discussed within the frameworks of Russell-Saunders coupling scheme, thus, the spin-orbit interaction is considered weak. Therefore the eigenfunctions of the system is represented as a multiplication of its coordinate wave function and spin wave function. For this system the analogue of helium atom theory is represented. The eigenfunctions and energy states are obtained for one and two electron cases in the spherical quantum nanolayer. For the spherical nanolayer the dependence of perturbation energy, unperturbed system energy and the total energy for the ground state upon the inner radius is represented when the outer radius is fixed.
Gravity-induced stresses in stratified rock masses
Amadei, B.; Swolfs, H.S.; Savage, W.Z.
1988-01-01
This paper presents closed-form solutions for the stress field induced by gravity in anisotropic and stratified rock masses. These rocks are assumed to be laterally restrained. The rock mass consists of finite mechanical units, each unit being modeled as a homogeneous, transversely isotropic or isotropic linearly elastic material. The following results are found. The nature of the gravity induced stress field in a stratified rock mass depends on the elastic properties of each rock unit and how these properties vary with depth. It is thermodynamically admissible for the induced horizontal stress component in a given stratified rock mass to exceed the vertical stress component in certain units and to be smaller in other units; this is not possible for the classical unstratified isotropic solution. Examples are presented to explore the nature of the gravity induced stress field in stratified rock masses. It is found that a decrease in rock mass anisotropy and a stiffening of rock masses with depth can generate stress distributions comparable to empirical hyperbolic distributions previously proposed in the literature. ?? 1988 Springer-Verlag.
Probabilistic coding of quantum states
Grudka, Andrzej; Wojcik, Antoni; Czechlewski, Mikolaj
2006-07-15
We discuss the properties of probabilistic coding of two qubits to one qutrit and generalize the scheme to higher dimensions. We show that the protocol preserves the entanglement between the qubits to be encoded and the environment and can also be applied to mixed states. We present a protocol that enables encoding of n qudits to one qudit of dimension smaller than the Hilbert space of the original system and then allows probabilistic but error-free decoding of any subset of k qudits. We give a formula for the probability of successful decoding.
A geometric approach to quantum state separation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bagan, E.; Yerokhin, V.; Shehu, A.; Feldman, E.; Bergou, J. A.
2015-12-01
Probabilistic quantum state transformations can be characterized by the degree of state separation they provide. This, in turn, sets limits on the success rate of these transformations. We consider optimum state separation of two known pure states in the general case where the known states have arbitrary a priori probabilities. The problem is formulated from a geometric perspective and shown to be equivalent to the problem of finding tangent curves within two families of conics that represent the unitarity constraints and the objective functions to be optimized, respectively. We present the corresponding analytical solutions in various forms. In the limit of perfect state separation, which is equivalent to unambiguous state discrimination, the solution exhibits a phenomenon analogous to a second order symmetry breaking phase transition. We also propose a linear optics implementation of separation which is based on the dual rail representation of qubits and single-photon multiport interferometry.
GENERAL: Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution with Odd Coherent State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Shi-Hai; Gao, Ming; Dai, Hong-Yi; Chen, Ping-Xing; Li, Cheng-Zu
2008-07-01
We propose a decoy state quantum key distribution scheme with odd coherent state which follows sub-Poissonian distributed photon count and has low probability of the multi-photon event and vacuum event in each pulse. The numerical calculations show that our scheme can improve efficiently the key generation rate and secure communication distance. Furthermore, only one decoy state is necessary to approach to the perfect asymptotic limit with infinite decoy states in our scheme, but at least two decoy states are needed in other scheme.
Sharing the Quantum State and the Classical Information Simultaneously
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Huawang; Dai, Yuewei
2016-04-01
An efficient quantum secret sharing scheme is proposed, in which the quantum state and the classical information can be shared simultaneously through only one distribution. The dealer uses the operations of quantum-controlled-not and Hadamard gate to encode the secret quantum state and classical information, and the participants use the single-particle measurements to recover the original quantum state and classical information. Compared to the existing schemes, our scheme is more efficient when the quantum state and the classical information need to be shared simultaneously.
Sharing the Quantum State and the Classical Information Simultaneously
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Huawang; Dai, Yuewei
2016-08-01
An efficient quantum secret sharing scheme is proposed, in which the quantum state and the classical information can be shared simultaneously through only one distribution. The dealer uses the operations of quantum-controlled-not and Hadamard gate to encode the secret quantum state and classical information, and the participants use the single-particle measurements to recover the original quantum state and classical information. Compared to the existing schemes, our scheme is more efficient when the quantum state and the classical information need to be shared simultaneously.
Remote State Preparation for Quantum Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ber, Ran; Zohar, Erez
2016-07-01
Remote state preparation is generation of a desired state by a remote observer. In spite of causality, it is well known, according to the Reeh-Schlieder theorem, that it is possible for relativistic quantum field theories, and a "physical" process achieving this task, involving superoscillatory functions, has recently been introduced. In this work we deal with non-relativistic fields, and show that remote state preparation is also possible for them, hence obtaining a Reeh-Schlieder-like result for general fields. Interestingly, in the nonrelativistic case, the process may rely on completely different resources than the ones used in the relativistic case.
Control aspects of quantum computing using pure and mixed states
Schulte-Herbrüggen, Thomas; Marx, Raimund; Fahmy, Amr; Kauffman, Louis; Lomonaco, Samuel; Khaneja, Navin; Glaser, Steffen J.
2012-01-01
Steering quantum dynamics such that the target states solve classically hard problems is paramount to quantum simulation and computation. And beyond, quantum control is also essential to pave the way to quantum technologies. Here, important control techniques are reviewed and presented in a unified frame covering quantum computational gate synthesis and spectroscopic state transfer alike. We emphasize that it does not matter whether the quantum states of interest are pure or not. While pure states underly the design of quantum circuits, ensemble mixtures of quantum states can be exploited in a more recent class of algorithms: it is illustrated by characterizing the Jones polynomial in order to distinguish between different (classes of) knots. Further applications include Josephson elements, cavity grids, ion traps and nitrogen vacancy centres in scenarios of closed as well as open quantum systems. PMID:22946034
Experimental demonstration of graph-state quantum secret sharing.
Bell, B A; Markham, D; Herrera-Martí, D A; Marin, A; Wadsworth, W J; Rarity, J G; Tame, M S
2014-01-01
Quantum communication and computing offer many new opportunities for information processing in a connected world. Networks using quantum resources with tailor-made entanglement structures have been proposed for a variety of tasks, including distributing, sharing and processing information. Recently, a class of states known as graph states has emerged, providing versatile quantum resources for such networking tasks. Here we report an experimental demonstration of graph state-based quantum secret sharing--an important primitive for a quantum network with applications ranging from secure money transfer to multiparty quantum computation. We use an all-optical setup, encoding quantum information into photons representing a five-qubit graph state. We find that one can reliably encode, distribute and share quantum information amongst four parties, with various access structures based on the complex connectivity of the graph. Our results show that graph states are a promising approach for realising sophisticated multi-layered communication protocols in quantum networks. PMID:25413490
Experimental demonstration of graph-state quantum secret sharing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bell, B. A.; Markham, D.; Herrera-Martí, D. A.; Marin, A.; Wadsworth, W. J.; Rarity, J. G.; Tame, M. S.
2014-11-01
Quantum communication and computing offer many new opportunities for information processing in a connected world. Networks using quantum resources with tailor-made entanglement structures have been proposed for a variety of tasks, including distributing, sharing and processing information. Recently, a class of states known as graph states has emerged, providing versatile quantum resources for such networking tasks. Here we report an experimental demonstration of graph state-based quantum secret sharing—an important primitive for a quantum network with applications ranging from secure money transfer to multiparty quantum computation. We use an all-optical setup, encoding quantum information into photons representing a five-qubit graph state. We find that one can reliably encode, distribute and share quantum information amongst four parties, with various access structures based on the complex connectivity of the graph. Our results show that graph states are a promising approach for realising sophisticated multi-layered communication protocols in quantum networks.
Quantum entangled supercorrelated states in the Jaynes-Cummings model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajagopal, A. K.; Jensen, K. L.; Cummings, F. W.
1999-08-01
The regions of independent quantum states, maximally classically correlated states, and purely quantum entangled (supercorrelated) states described in a recent formulation of quantum information theory by Cerf and Adami are explored here numerically in the parameter space of the well-known exactly soluble Jaynes-Cummings model for equilibrium and nonequilibrium time-dependent ensembles.
Quantum metrology with imperfect states and detectors
Datta, Animesh; Zhang Lijian; Thomas-Peter, Nicholas; Smith, Brian J.; Walmsley, Ian A.; Dorner, Uwe
2011-06-15
Quantum enhancements of precision in metrology can be compromised by system imperfections. These may be mitigated by appropriate optimization of the input state to render it robust, at the expense of making the state difficult to prepare. In this paper, we identify the major sources of imperfection of an optical sensor: input state preparation inefficiency, sensor losses, and detector inefficiency. The second of these has received much attention; we show that it is the least damaging to surpassing the standard quantum limit in a optical interferometric sensor. Further, we show that photonic states that can be prepared in the laboratory using feasible resources allow a measurement strategy using photon-number-resolving detectors that not only attain the Heisenberg limit for phase estimation in the absence of losses, but also deliver close to the maximum possible precision in realistic scenarios including losses and inefficiencies. In particular, we give bounds for the tradeoff between the three sources of imperfection that will allow true quantum-enhanced optical metrology
Mavromatos, Nick E.; Sarkar, Sarben; Meregaglia, Anselmo; Sakharov, Alexander S.
2008-03-01
Quantum decoherence, the evolution of pure states into mixed states, may be a feature of quantum-gravity models. In most cases, such models lead to fewer neutrinos of all active flavors being detected in a long-baseline experiment as compared to three-flavor standard neutrino oscillations. We discuss the potential of the CNGS and J-PARC beams in constraining models of quantum-gravity induced decoherence using neutrino oscillations as a probe. We use as much as possible model-independent parametrizations, even though they are motivated by specific microscopic models, for fits to the expected experimental data which yield bounds on quantum-gravity decoherence parameters.
Quantum state of the black hole interior
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brustein, Ram; Medved, A. J. M.
2015-08-01
If a black hole (BH) is initially in an approximately pure state and it evaporates by a unitary process, then the emitted radiation will be in a highly quantum state. As the purifier of this radiation, the state of the BH interior must also be in some highly quantum state. So that, within the interior region, the mean-field approximation cannot be valid and the state of the BH cannot be described by some semiclassical metric. On this basis, we model the state of the BH interior as a collection of a large number of excitations that are packed into closely spaced but single-occupancy energy levels; a sort-of "Fermi sea" of all light-enough particles. This highly quantum state is surrounded by a semiclassical region that lies close to the horizon and has a non-vanishing energy density. It is shown that such a state looks like a BH from the outside and decays via gravitational pair production in the near-horizon region at a rate that agrees with the Hawking rate. We also consider the fate of a classical object that has passed through to the BH interior and show that, once it has crossed over the near-horizon threshold, the object meets its demise extremely fast. This result cannot be attributed to a "firewall", as the trauma to the in-falling object only begins after it has passed through the near-horizon region and enters a region where semiclassical spacetime ends but the energy density is still parametrically smaller than Planckian.
Extreme Violation of Local Realism in Quantum Hypergraph States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gachechiladze, Mariami; Budroni, Costantino; Gühne, Otfried
2016-02-01
Hypergraph states form a family of multiparticle quantum states that generalizes the well-known concept of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, cluster states, and more broadly graph states. We study the nonlocal properties of quantum hypergraph states. We demonstrate that the correlations in hypergraph states can be used to derive various types of nonlocality proofs, including Hardy-type arguments and Bell inequalities for genuine multiparticle nonlocality. Moreover, we show that hypergraph states allow for an exponentially increasing violation of local realism which is robust against loss of particles. Our results suggest that certain classes of hypergraph states are novel resources for quantum metrology and measurement-based quantum computation.
Ancilla-approximable quantum state transformations
Blass, Andreas; Gurevich, Yuri
2015-04-15
We consider the transformations of quantum states obtainable by a process of the following sort. Combine the given input state with a specially prepared initial state of an auxiliary system. Apply a unitary transformation to the combined system. Measure the state of the auxiliary subsystem. If (and only if) it is in a specified final state, consider the process successful, and take the resulting state of the original (principal) system as the result of the process. We review known information about exact realization of transformations by such a process. Then we present results about approximate realization of finite partial transformations. We not only consider primarily the issue of approximation to within a specified positive ε, but also address the question of arbitrarily close approximation.
Growing quantum states with topological order
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Letscher, Fabian; Grusdt, Fabian; Fleischhauer, Michael
2015-05-01
We discuss a protocol for growing states with topological order in interacting many-body systems using a sequence of flux quanta and particle insertion. We first consider a simple toy model, the superlattice Bose-Hubbard model, to explain all required ingredients. Our protocol is then applied to fractional quantum Hall systems in both, continuum and lattice. We investigate in particular how the fidelity, with which a topologically ordered state can be grown, scales with increasing particle number N . For small systems, exact diagonalization methods are used. To treat large systems with many particles, we introduce an effective model based on the composite fermion description of the fractional quantum Hall effect. This model also allows to take into account the effects of dispersive bands and edges in the system, which will be discussed in detail.
Quantum critical state in a magnetic quasicrystal.
Deguchi, Kazuhiko; Matsukawa, Shuya; Sato, Noriaki K; Hattori, Taisuke; Ishida, Kenji; Takakura, Hiroyuki; Ishimasa, Tsutomu
2012-12-01
Quasicrystals are metallic alloys that possess long-range, aperiodic structures with diffraction symmetries forbidden to conventional crystals. Since the discovery of quasicrystals by Schechtman et al. in 1984, there has been considerable progress in resolving their geometric structure. For example, it is well known that the golden ratio of mathematics and art occurs over and over again in their crystal structure. However, the characteristic properties of the electronic states--whether they are extended as in periodic crystals or localized as in amorphous materials--are still unresolved. Here we report the first observation of quantum (T = 0) critical phenomena of the Au-Al-Yb quasicrystal--the magnetic susceptibility and the electronic specific heat coefficient arising from strongly correlated 4f electrons of the Yb atoms diverge as T→0. Furthermore, we observe that this quantum critical phenomenon is robust against hydrostatic pressure. By contrast, there is no such divergence in a crystalline approximant, a phase whose composition is close to that of the quasicrystal and whose unit cell has atomic decorations (that is, icosahedral clusters of atoms) that look like the quasicrystal. These results clearly indicate that the quantum criticality is associated with the unique electronic state of the quasicrystal, that is, a spatially confined critical state. Finally we discuss the possibility that there is a general law underlying the conventional crystals and the quasicrystals. PMID:23042414
Arbitrated quantum signature scheme based on cluster states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yu-Guang; Lei, He; Liu, Zhi-Chao; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min
2016-03-01
Cluster states can be exploited for some tasks such as topological one-way computation, quantum error correction, teleportation and dense coding. In this paper, we investigate and propose an arbitrated quantum signature scheme with cluster states. The cluster states are used for quantum key distribution and quantum signature. The proposed scheme can achieve an efficiency of 100 %. Finally, we also discuss its security against various attacks.
Extremal quantum correlations: Experimental study with two-qubit states
Chiuri, A.; Mataloni, P.; Vallone, G.
2011-08-15
We explore experimentally the space of two-qubit quantum-correlated mixed states, including frontier states as defined by the use of quantum discord and von Neumann entropy. Our experimental setup is flexible enough to allow for high-quality generation of a vast variety of states. We address quantitatively the relation between quantum discord and a recently suggested alternative measure of quantum correlations.
Arbitrated quantum signature scheme based on cluster states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yu-Guang; Lei, He; Liu, Zhi-Chao; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min
2016-06-01
Cluster states can be exploited for some tasks such as topological one-way computation, quantum error correction, teleportation and dense coding. In this paper, we investigate and propose an arbitrated quantum signature scheme with cluster states. The cluster states are used for quantum key distribution and quantum signature. The proposed scheme can achieve an efficiency of 100 %. Finally, we also discuss its security against various attacks.
Quantum information processing with narrow band two-photon state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Yajun
Application of quantum sources in communication and information processing are believed to bring a new revolution to the on-going information age. The generation of applicable quantum sources such as single photon state and two-photon state, appears to be one of the most difficult in experimental quantum optics. Spontaneous Parametric Down-Conversion (PDC) is known to generate two-photon state, but bandwidth problem makes it less applicable in quantum information processing. The aim of this work is to generate a narrow band two-photon state and apply it to quantum information processing. We start by developing a cavity enhanced PDC device to narrow the bandwidth of the two-photon state. Direct measurement of the bandwidth of the generated state has been made and the quantum theory of such a device has been investigated. An application of this narrow band two-photon state is to generate anti-bunched photons for quantum cryptography, based on the quantum interference between the two-photon state and a coherent state. The feasibility of this scheme for pulsed pump is also investigated. When applying the concept of mode locking in lasers to a two-photon state, we have mode-locked two-photon state which exhibits a comb-like correlation function and may be used for engineering of quantum states in time domain. Other applications such as demonstration of single photon nonlocality, nonlinear sign gate in quantum computation, and direct measurement of quantum beating, will also be addressed.
Channel capacities versus entanglement measures in multiparty quantum states
Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal
2010-01-15
For quantum states of two subsystems, highly entangled states have a higher capacity of transmitting classical as well as quantum information, and vice versa. We show that this is no more the case in general: Quantum capacities of multiaccess channels, motivated by communication in quantum networks, do not have any relation with genuine multiparty entanglement measures. Importantly, the statement is demonstrated for arbitrary multipartite entanglement measures. Along with revealing the structural richness of multiaccess channels, this gives us a tool to classify multiparty quantum states from the perspective of its usefulness in quantum networks, which cannot be visualized by any genuine multiparty entanglement measure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verma, Vikram; Prakash, Hari
2016-04-01
We explicitly present precise and simple protocols for standard quantum teleportation and controlled quantum teleportation of an arbitrary N-qubit information state and analyse the case of perfect teleportation using general quantum channels and measurement bases. We find condition on resource quantum channel and Bell states for achieving perfect quantum teleportation. We also find the unitary transformation required to be done by Bob for perfect quantum teleportation and discuss the connection with others related works. We also discuss how perfect controlled quantum teleportation demands a correct choice of the measurement basis of additional party.
Quantum nonlocality of multipartite orthogonal product states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Guang-Bao; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Qin, Su-Juan; Yang, Ying-Hui; Gao, Fei
2016-03-01
Local distinguishability of orthogonal quantum states is an area of active research in quantum information theory. However, most of the relevant results are about local distinguishability in bipartite Hilbert space and very little is known about the multipartite case. In this paper we present a generic method to construct a completable n -partite (n ≥3 ) product basis with only 2 n members, which exhibits nonlocality without entanglement with n parties, each holding a system of any finite dimension. We give an effective proof of the nonlocality of the completable multipartite product basis. In addition, we construct another incomplete multipartite product basis with a smaller number of members that cannot be distinguished by local operations and classical communication in a d1⊗d2⊗⋯⊗dn quantum system, where n ≥3 and di≥2 for i =1 ,2 ,...,n . The results can lead to a better understanding of the phenomenon of nonlocality without entanglement in any multipartite quantum system.
Spontaneous recoherence of quantum states after decoherence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Ponte, M. A.; Cacheffo, A.; Villas-Bôas, C. J.; Mizrahi, S. S.; Moussa, M. H. Y.
2010-09-01
In this work, we identify the set of time-dependent pure states building the statistical mixture to which a system, initially in a pure state, is driven by the reservoir. This set of time-dependent pure states, composing what we term a pure basis, are those that diagonalize the reduced density operator of the system. Next, we show that the evolution of the pure-basis states reveals an interesting phenomenon as the system, after decoherence, evolves toward the equilibrium: the spontaneous recoherence of quantum states. Around our defined recoherence time, the statistical mixture associated with a special kind of initial states termed even-symmetric, spontaneously undergoes a recoherence process, by which the initial state of the system emerges from the mixture except for its reduced excitation drained into the reservoir. This phenomenon reveals that the reservoir only shuffle the original information carried out by the initial state of the system instead of erasing it. Moreover, as the spontaneously recohered state occurs only for asymptotic time, we also present a protocol to extract it from the mixture through specific projective measurements. The password to retrieve the original information stems is the knowledge of both the initial state itself and the associated pure basis. A definition of the decoherence time of an N-state superposition is also presented.
Gravity-induced stresses near a vertical cliff
Savage, W.Z.
1993-01-01
The exact solution for gravity-induced stresses beneath a vertical cliff presented here has application to the design of cut slopes in rock, compares favorably with published photoelastic and finite-element results for this problem, and satisfies the condition that shear and normal stresses vanish on the ground surface, except at the bottom corner where stress concentrations exist. The solution predicts that horizontal stresses are tensile away from the bottom of the cliff-effects caused by movement below the cliff in response to the gravity loading of the cliff. Also, it is shown that along the top of the cliff normal stresses reduce to those predicted for laterally constrained flat-lying topography. ?? 1993.
Quantum correlation exists in any non-product state
Guo, Yu; Wu, Shengjun
2014-01-01
Simultaneous existence of correlation in complementary bases is a fundamental feature of quantum correlation, and we show that this characteristic is present in any non-product bipartite state. We propose a measure via mutually unbiased bases to study this feature of quantum correlation, and compare it with other measures of quantum correlation for several families of bipartite states. PMID:25434458
Maximally polarized states for quantum light fields
Sanchez-Soto, Luis L.; Yustas, Eulogio C.; Bjoerk, Gunnar; Klimov, Andrei B.
2007-10-15
The degree of polarization of a quantum field can be defined as its distance to an appropriate set of states. When we take unpolarized states as this reference set, the states optimizing this degree for a fixed average number of photons N present a fairly symmetric, parabolic photon statistic, with a variance scaling as N{sup 2}. Although no standard optical process yields such a statistic, we show that, to an excellent approximation, a highly squeezed vacuum can be taken as maximally polarized. We also consider the distance of a field to the set of its SU(2) transformed, finding that certain linear superpositions of SU(2) coherent states make this degree to be unity.
Exotic Quantum States of Rashba Bosons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sedrakyan, Tigran; Kamenev, Alex; Glazman, Leonid
2013-03-01
The recently discovered spin-orbit coupled boson systems are remarkable for their capacity to explore physics that may not be revealed in any other way. The spin-orbit couplings, which can be artificially engineered in cold-atom experiments, in many instances lead to single-particle dispersion relations exhibiting multiple minima or even degenerate manifold of minimal energy states. It is entirely the effect of collisions (i.e. boson-boson interactions) which lifts this degeneracy and leads to an amazing variety of completely new quantum many-body states. This talk describes a theoretical discovery of a novel phase of matter that realizes for Rashba spin-orbit coupled bosons, where, at low densities, bosons essentially redress themselves and behave as fermions. This state is a composite fermion state with a Chern-Simons gauge field and filling factor one.
Geometric Adiabatic Transport in Quantum Hall States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klevtsov, S.; Wiegmann, P.
2015-08-01
We argue that in addition to the Hall conductance and the nondissipative component of the viscous tensor, there exists a third independent transport coefficient, which is precisely quantized. It takes constant values along quantum Hall plateaus. We show that the new coefficient is the Chern number of a vector bundle over moduli space of surfaces of genus 2 or higher and therefore cannot change continuously along the plateau. As such, it does not transpire on a sphere or a torus. In the linear response theory, this coefficient determines intensive forces exerted on electronic fluid by adiabatic deformations of geometry and represents the effect of the gravitational anomaly. We also present the method of computing the transport coefficients for quantum Hall states.
Geometric Adiabatic Transport in Quantum Hall States.
Klevtsov, S; Wiegmann, P
2015-08-21
We argue that in addition to the Hall conductance and the nondissipative component of the viscous tensor, there exists a third independent transport coefficient, which is precisely quantized. It takes constant values along quantum Hall plateaus. We show that the new coefficient is the Chern number of a vector bundle over moduli space of surfaces of genus 2 or higher and therefore cannot change continuously along the plateau. As such, it does not transpire on a sphere or a torus. In the linear response theory, this coefficient determines intensive forces exerted on electronic fluid by adiabatic deformations of geometry and represents the effect of the gravitational anomaly. We also present the method of computing the transport coefficients for quantum Hall states. PMID:26340197
d-Dimensional quantum state sharing with adversary structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Huawang; Dai, Yuewei
2016-04-01
A quantum secret sharing scheme with adversary structure is proposed. In the proposed scheme, the secret is a d-dimensional quantum state. The dealer can distribute the private keys according to the adversary structure and encode the quantum state through the d-dimensional Pauli unitary operation. The legitimate participants perform the unitary operations on the encrypted quantum state according to their private keys and recover the original quantum state. Compared to the existing QSS schemes, our scheme can be more efficient when only the adversary structure is given.
Quantum Teleportation of Three and Four-Qubit State Using Multi-qubit Cluster States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yuan-hua; Li, Xiao-lan; Nie, Li-ping; Sang, Ming-huang
2016-03-01
We provide various schemes for quantum teleportation by using the four and five qubit cluster states. Explicit protocols for the perfect quantum teleportation of three and four qubit states are illustrated. It is found that the four-qubit cluster state can be used for perfect quantum teleportation of a special form of three-qubit state and the five-qubit cluster state can be used for perfect quantum teleportation of a special form of four-qubit state.
Scheme for teleportation of quantum states onto a mechanical resonator.
Mancini, Stefano; Vitali, David; Tombesi, Paolo
2003-04-01
We propose an experimentally feasible scheme to teleport an unkown quantum state onto the vibrational degree of freedom of a macroscopic mirror. The quantum channel between the two parties is established by exploiting radiation pressure effects. PMID:12689325
Quasibound states in semiconductor quantum well structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rihani, Samir; Page, Hideaki; Beere, Harvey E.
2010-02-01
We present a study on quasibound states in multiple quantum well structures using a finite element model (FEM). The FEM is implemented for solving the effective mass Schrödinger equation in arbitrary layered semiconductor nanostructures with an arbitrary applied potential. The model also includes nonparabolicity effects by using an energy dependent effective mass, where the resulting nonlinear eigenvalue problem was solved using an iterative approach. We focus on quasibound/continuum states above the barrier potential and show that such states can be determined using cyclic boundary conditions. This new method enables the determination of both bound and quasibound states simultaneously, making it more efficient than other methods where different boundary conditions have to be used in extracting the relevant states. Furthermore, the new method lifted the problem of quasibound state divergence commonly seen with many other methods of calculation. Hence enabling accurate determination of dipole matrix elements involving both bound and quasibound states. Such calculations are vital in the design of intersubband optoelectronic devices and reveal the interesting properties of quasibound states above the potential barriers.
A method of enciphering quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azuma, Hiroo; Ban, Masashi
2001-04-01
In this paper, we propose a method of enciphering quantum states of two-state systems (qubits) for sending them in secrecy without entangled qubits shared by two legitimate users (Alice and Bob). This method has the following two properties. First, even if an eavesdropper (Eve) steals qubits, she can extract information from them with only a certain probability at most. Second, Alice and Bob can confirm that the qubits are transmitted between them correctly by measuring a signature. If Eve measures m qubits one by one from n enciphered qubits and sends alternative ones (the intercept/resend attack), the probability that Alice and Bob do not notice Eve's action is equal to (3/4)m or less. Passwords for decryption and the signature are given by classical binary strings and they are disclosed through a public channel. Enciphering classical information by this method is equivalent to the one-time pad method with distributing a classical key (random binary string) by the BB84 protocol. If Eve takes away qubits, Alice and Bob lose the original quantum information. If we apply our method to a state in iteration, Eve's success probability decreases exponentially. We cannot examine security against the case that Eve makes an attack using entanglement. This remains to be solved in the future.
Witnessing Quantum Coherence: from solid-state to biological systems
Li, Che-Ming; Lambert, Neill; Chen, Yueh-Nan; Chen, Guang-Yin; Nori, Franco
2012-01-01
Quantum coherence is one of the primary non-classical features of quantum systems. While protocols such as the Leggett-Garg inequality (LGI) and quantum tomography can be used to test for the existence of quantum coherence and dynamics in a given system, unambiguously detecting inherent “quantumness” still faces serious obstacles in terms of experimental feasibility and efficiency, particularly in complex systems. Here we introduce two “quantum witnesses” to efficiently verify quantum coherence and dynamics in the time domain, without the expense and burden of non-invasive measurements or full tomographic processes. Using several physical examples, including quantum transport in solid-state nanostructures and in biological organisms, we show that these quantum witnesses are robust and have a much finer resolution in their detection window than the LGI has. These robust quantum indicators may assist in reducing the experimental overhead in unambiguously verifying quantum coherence in complex systems. PMID:23185690
Toward Practical Solid-State Based Quantum Memories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heshami, Khabat
Quantum information processing promises to have transformative impacts on information and communication science and technology. Photonic implementation of quantum information processing is among successful candidates for implementation of quantum computation and is an essential part of quantum communication. Linear optical quantum computation, specifically the KLM scheme [1], and quantum repeaters [2, 3] are prominent candidates for practical photonic quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication. Quantum memories for photons are key elements for any practical implementation of these schemes. Practical quantum memories require theoretical and experimental investigations into quantum memory protocols and physical systems for implementations. The present thesis is focused on studying new approaches toward practical solid-state based quantum memories. First, I present a proposal for a new quantum memory protocol called the controllable-dipole quantum memory [4]. It represents a protocol, in a two-level system, without any optical control that is shown to be equivalent to the Raman type-quantum memory. Then I include our studies on the quantum memory based on the refractive index modulation of the host medium [5]. It is shown that it can resemble the gradient echo quantum memory without a spatial gradient in the external field. These two protocols can be implemented in rare-earth doped crystals. With regards to using new physical systems, I present a proposal based on nitrogen vacancy centers [6]. This may pave the way toward micron-scale on-chip quantum memories that may contribute to the implementation of integrated quantum photonics. Finally, I studied the precision requirements for the spin echo technique [7]. This technique is necessary to extend the storage time in solid-state quantum memories, in which the coherence times are limited by spin inhomogeneous broadening.
State-independent purity and fidelity of quantum operations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kong, Fan-Zhen; Zong, Xiao-Lan; Yang, Ming; Cao, Zhuo-Liang
2016-04-01
The purity and fidelity of quantum operations are of great importance in characterizing the quality of quantum operations. The currently available definitions of the purity and fidelity of quantum operations are based on the average over all possible input pure quantum states, i.e. they are state-dependent (SD). In this paper, without resorting to quantum states, we define the state-independent (SI) purity and fidelity of a general quantum operation (evolution) in virtue of a new density matrix formalism for quantum operations, which is extended from the quantum state level to quantum operation level. The SI purity and fidelity gain more intrinsic physical properties of quantum operations than state-dependent ones, such as the purity of a one-qubit amplitude damping channel (with damping rate 1) is 1/2, which is in line with the fact that the channel is still a nonunitary operation described by two Kraus operators rather than a unitary one. But the state-dependent Haar average purity is 1 in this case. So the SI purity and fidelity proposed here can help the experimentalists to exactly quantify the implementation quality of an operation. As a byproduct, a new measure of the operator entanglement is proposed for a quantum evolution (unitary or nonunitary) in terms of the linear entropy of its density matrix on the orthonormal operator bases (OOBs) in Hilbert-Schmidt space.
Geometric defects in quantum Hall states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gromov, Andrey
2016-08-01
We describe a geometric (or gravitational) analog of the Laughlin quasiholes in fractional quantum Hall states. Analogously to the quasiholes, these defects can be constructed by an insertion of an appropriate vertex operator into the conformal block representation of a trial wave function; however, unlike the quasiholes these defects are extrinsic and do not correspond to true excitations of the quantum fluid. We construct a wave function in the presence of such defects and explain how to assign an electric charge and a spin to each defect and calculate the adiabatic, non-Abelian statistics of the defects. The defects turn out to be equivalent to the genons in that their adiabatic exchange statistics can be described in terms of representations of the mapping class group of an appropriate higher genus Riemann surface. We present a general construction that, in principle, makes it possible to calculate the statistics of Zn genons for any "parent" topological phase. We illustrate the construction on the example of the Laughlin state and perform an explicit calculation of the braiding matrices. In addition to non-Abelian statistics, geometric defects possess a universal Abelian overall phase, determined by the gravitational anomaly.
An impurity-induced gap system as a quantum data bus for quantum state transfer
Chen, Bing; Li, Yong; Song, Z.; Sun, C.-P.
2014-09-15
We introduce a tight-binding chain with a single impurity to act as a quantum data bus for perfect quantum state transfer. Our proposal is based on the weak coupling limit of the two outermost quantum dots to the data bus, which is a gapped system induced by the impurity. By connecting two quantum dots to two sites of the data bus, the system can accomplish a high-fidelity and long-distance quantum state transfer. Numerical simulations for finite system show that the numerical and analytical results of the effective coupling strength agree well with each other. Moreover, we study the robustness of this quantum communication protocol in the presence of disorder in the couplings between the nearest-neighbor quantum dots. We find that the gap of the system plays an important role in robust quantum state transfer.
Geometric Aspects of Quantum Hall States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gromov, Andrey
Explanation of the quantization of the Hall conductance at low temperatures in strong magnetic field is one of the greatest accomplishments of theoretical physics of the end of the 20th century. Since the publication of the Laughlin's charge pumping argument condensed matter theorists have come a long way to topological insulators, classification of noninteracting (and sometimes interacting) topological phases of matter, non-abelian statistics, Majorana zero modes in topological superconductors and topological quantum computation---the framework for "error-free'' quantum computation. While topology was very important in these developments, geometry has largely been neglected. We explore the role of space-time symmetries in topological phases of matter. Such symmetries are responsible for the conservation of energy, momentum and angular momentum. We will show that if these symmetries are maintained (at least on average) then in addition to Hall conductance there are other, in principle, measurable transport coefficients that are quantized and sensitive to topological phase transition. Among these coefficients are non-dissipative viscosity of quantum fluids, known as Hall viscosity; thermal Hall conductance, and a recently discovered coefficient---orbital spin variance. All of these coefficients can be computed as linear responses to variations of geometry of a physical sample. We will show how to compute these coefficients for a variety of abelian and non-abelian quantum Hall states using various analytical tools: from RPA-type perturbation theory to non-abelian Chern-Simons-Witten effective topological quantum field theory. We will explain how non-Riemannian geometry known as Newton-Cartan (NC) geometry arises in the computation of momentum and energy transport in non-relativistic gapped systems. We use this geometry to derive a number of thermodynamic relations and stress the non-relativistic nature of condensed matter systems. NC geometry is also useful in the
Quantum state of wormholes and path integral
Garay, L.J. )
1991-08-15
The quantum state of a wormhole can be represented by a path integral over all asymptotically Euclidean four-geometries and all matter fields which have prescribed values, the arguments of the wave function, on a three-surface {ital S} which divides the spacetime manifold into two disconnected parts. The ground-state wave function is picked out by requiring that there be no matter excitations in the asymptotic region. Once the path integrals over the lapse and shift functions are evaluated, the requirement that the spacetime be asymptotically Euclidean can be accomplished by fixing the asymptotic gravitational momentum in the remaining path integral. It is claimed that no wave function exists which corresponds to asymptotic field configurations such that the effective gravitational constant is negative in the asymptotic region. The wormhole wave functions are worked out in minisuperspace models with massless minimal and conformal scalar fields.
Boundary Effective Action for Quantum Hall States.
Gromov, Andrey; Jensen, Kristan; Abanov, Alexander G
2016-03-25
We consider quantum Hall states on a space with boundary, focusing on the aspects of the edge physics which are completely determined by the symmetries of the problem. There are four distinct terms of Chern-Simons type that appear in the low-energy effective action of the state. Two of these protect gapless edge modes. They describe Hall conductance and, with some provisions, thermal Hall conductance. The remaining two, including the Wen-Zee term, which contributes to the Hall viscosity, do not protect gapless edge modes but are instead related to the local boundary response fixed by symmetries. We highlight some basic features of this response. It follows that the coefficient of the Wen-Zee term can change across an interface without closing a gap or breaking a symmetry. PMID:27058090
Boundary Effective Action for Quantum Hall States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gromov, Andrey; Jensen, Kristan; Abanov, Alexander G.
2016-03-01
We consider quantum Hall states on a space with boundary, focusing on the aspects of the edge physics which are completely determined by the symmetries of the problem. There are four distinct terms of Chern-Simons type that appear in the low-energy effective action of the state. Two of these protect gapless edge modes. They describe Hall conductance and, with some provisions, thermal Hall conductance. The remaining two, including the Wen-Zee term, which contributes to the Hall viscosity, do not protect gapless edge modes but are instead related to the local boundary response fixed by symmetries. We highlight some basic features of this response. It follows that the coefficient of the Wen-Zee term can change across an interface without closing a gap or breaking a symmetry.
Confinement of Fractional Quantum Hall States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Willett, Robert; Manfra, Michael; West, Ken; Pfeiffer, Loren
2008-03-01
Confinement of small-gapped fractional quantum Hall states facilitates quasiparticle manipulation and is an important step towards quasiparticle interference measurements. Demonstrated here is conduction through top gate defined, narrow channels in high density, ultra-high mobility heterostructures. Transport evidence for the persistence of a correlated state at filling fraction 5/3 is shown in channels of 2μm length but gated to near 0.3μm in width. The methods employed to achieve this confinement hold promise for interference devices proposed for studying potential non-Abelian statistics at filling fraction 5/2. R.L. Willett, M.J. Manfra, L.N. Pfeiffer, K.W. West, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 052105 (2007).
Quantifying asymmetry of quantum states using entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toloui, Borzu
2013-03-01
For open systems, symmetric dynamics do not always lead to conservation laws. We show that, for a dynamic symmetry associated with a compact Lie group, one can derive new selection rules from entanglement theory. These selection rules apply to both closed and open systems as well as reversible and irreversible time evolutions. Our approach is based on an embedding of the system's Hilbert space into a tensor product of two Hilbert spaces allowing for the symmetric dynamics to be simulated with local operations. The entanglement of the embedded states determines which transformations are forbidden because of the symmetry. In fact, every bipartite entanglement monotone can be used to quantify the asymmetry of the initial states. Moreover, where the dynamics is reversible, each of these monotones becomes a new conserved quantity. This research has been supported by the Institute for Quantum Information Science (IQIS) at the University of Calgary, Alberta Innovates, NSERC, General Dynamics Canada, and MITACS.
Global quantum correlations in tripartite nonorthogonal states and monogamy properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daoud, M.; Ahl Laamara, R.; Essaber, R.; Kaydi, W.
2014-06-01
A global measure of quantum correlations for tripartite nonorthogonal states is presented. It is introduced as the overall average of the pairwise correlations existing in all possible partitions. The explicit expressions for the global measure are derived for squared concurrence, entanglement of formation, quantum discord and its geometric variant. As illustration, we consider even and odd three-mode Schrödinger cat states based on Glauber coherent states. We also discuss limitations to sharing quantum correlations known as monogamy relations.
Concrete Representation and Separability Criteria for Symmetric Quantum State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Chang'e.; Tao, Yuanhong; Zhang, Jun; Li, Linsong; Nan, Hua
2014-09-01
Using the typical generators of the special unitary groups S U(2), the concrete representation of symmetric quantum state is established, then the relations satisfied by those coefficients in the representation are presented. Based on the representation of density matrix, the PPT criterion and CCNR criterion are proved to be equivalent on judging the separability of symmetric quantum states. Moreover, it is showed that the matrix Γ ρ of symmetric quantum state only has five efficient entries, thus the calculation of ∥Γ ρ ∥ is simplified. Finally, the quantitative expressions of real symmetric quantum state under the ∥Γ ρ ∥ separability criterion are obtained.
Information Divergence and Distance Measures for Quantum States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Nan; Zhang, Zhaozhi
2015-02-01
Both information divergence and distance are measures of closeness of two quantum states which are widely used in the theory of information processing and quantum cryptography. For example, the quantum relative entropy and trace distance are well known. Here we introduce a number of new quantum information divergence and distance measures into the literature and discuss their relations and properties. We also propose a method to analyze the properties and relations of various distance and pseudo-distance measures.
Quantum pattern recognition with liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neigovzen, Rodion; Neves, Jorge L.; Sollacher, Rudolf; Glaser, Steffen J.
2009-04-01
A quantum pattern recognition scheme is presented, which combines the idea of a classic Hopfield neural network with adiabatic quantum computation. Both the input and the memorized patterns are represented by means of the problem Hamiltonian. In contrast to classic neural networks, the algorithm can return a quantum superposition of multiple recognized patterns. A proof of principle for the algorithm for two qubits is provided using a liquid-state NMR quantum computer.
Multiple-state quantum Otto engine, 1D box system
Latifah, E.; Purwanto, A.
2014-03-24
Quantum heat engines produce work using quantum matter as their working substance. We studied adiabatic and isochoric processes and defined the general force according to quantum system. The processes and general force are used to evaluate a quantum Otto engine based on multiple-state of one dimensional box system and calculate the efficiency. As a result, the efficiency depends on the ratio of initial and final width of system under adiabatic processes.
Correlated states of a quantum oscillator acted by short pulses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Manko, O. V.
1993-01-01
Correlated squeezed states for a quantum oscillator are constructed based on the method of quantum integrals of motion. The quantum oscillator is acted upon by short duration pulses. Three delta-kickings of frequency are used to model the pulses' dependence upon the time aspects of the frequency of the oscillator. Additionally, the correlation coefficient and quantum variances of operations of coordinates and momenta are written in explicit form.
Preparing ground states of quantum many-body systems on a quantum computer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poulin, David
2009-03-01
The simulation of quantum many-body systems is a notoriously hard problem in condensed matter physics, but it could easily be handled by a quantum computer [4,1]. There is however one catch: while a quantum computer can naturally implement the dynamics of a quantum system --- i.e. solve Schr"odinger's equation --- there was until now no general method to initialize the computer in a low-energy state of the simulated system. We present a quantum algorithm [5] that can prepare the ground state and thermal states of a quantum many-body system in a time proportional to the square-root of its Hilbert space dimension. This is the same scaling as required by the best known algorithm to prepare the ground state of a classical many-body system on a quantum computer [3,2]. This provides strong evidence that for a quantum computer, preparing the ground state of a quantum system is in the worst case no more difficult than preparing the ground state of a classical system. 1 D. Aharonov and A. Ta-Shma, Adiabatic quantum state generation and statistical zero knowledge, Proc. 35th Annual ACM Symp. on Theo. Comp., (2003), p. 20. F. Barahona, On the computational complexity of ising spin glass models, J. Phys. A. Math. Gen., 15 (1982), p. 3241. C. H. Bennett, E. Bernstein, G. Brassard, and U. Vazirani, Strengths and weaknessess of quantum computing, SIAM J. Comput., 26 (1997), pp. 1510--1523, quant-ph/9701001. S. Lloyd, Universal quantum simulators, Science, 273 (1996), pp. 1073--1078. D. Poulin and P. Wocjan, Preparing ground states of quantum many-body systems on a quantum computer, 2008, arXiv:0809.2705.
Fundamental Bounds in Measurements for Estimating Quantum States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lim, Hyang-Tag; Ra, Young-Sik; Hong, Kang-Hee; Lee, Seung-Woo; Kim, Yoon-Ho
2014-07-01
Quantum measurement unavoidably disturbs the state of a quantum system if any information about the system is extracted. Recently, the concept of reversing quantum measurement has been introduced and has attracted much attention. Numerous efforts have thus been devoted to understanding the fundamental relation of the amount of information obtained by measurement to either state disturbance or reversibility. Here, we experimentally prove the trade-off relations in quantum measurement with respect to both state disturbance and reversibility. By demonstrating the quantitative bound of the trade-off relations, we realize an optimal measurement for estimating quantum systems with minimum disturbance and maximum reversibility. Our results offer fundamental insights on quantum measurement and practical guidelines for implementing various quantum information protocols.
Information and entropic characteristics of photon and qudit quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Man'ko, Margarita A.
2010-09-01
The probability distribution determining the quantum states of photons and qudits are reviewed. Shannon, Rényi and Tsallis entropies associated with the probability distributions are discussed. Shannon information associated with quantum states in the probability representation is considered. Known inequalities for the classical joint probability distributions determining quantum states of multipartite systems are discussed in detail and the relationship to the inequalities known for quantum von Neumann entropy of the states is presented. Properties of subadditivity and strong subadditivity of the von Neumann entropy of two-partite and multipartite qudit states are considered in view of the subadditivity and strong subadditivity properties of Shannon entropies associated with classical joint probability distributions determining the multiqudit quantum states. The new entropic uncertainty relationships for optical tomograms are suggested as a test for accuracy of the homodyne reconstructing the photon state.
New Formulation of Statistical Mechanics Using Thermal Pure Quantum States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sugiura, Sho; Shimizu, Akira
2014-03-01
We formulate statistical mechanics based on a pure quantum state, which we call a "thermal pure quantum (TPQ) state". A single TPQ state gives not only equilibrium values of mechanical variables, such as magnetization and correlation functions, but also those of genuine thermodynamic variables and thermodynamic functions, such as entropy and free energy. Among many possible TPQ states, we discuss the canonical TPQ state, the TPQ state whose temperature is specified. In the TPQ formulation of statistical mechanics, thermal fluctuations are completely included in quantum-mechanical fluctuations. As a consequence, TPQ states have much larger quantum entanglement than the equilibrium density operators of the ensemble formulation. We also show that the TPQ formulation is very useful in practical computations, by applying the formulation to a frustrated two-dimensional quantum spin system.
Optimal error regions for quantum state estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shang, Jiangwei; Khoon Ng, Hui; Sehrawat, Arun; Li, Xikun; Englert, Berthold-Georg
2013-12-01
An estimator is a state that represents one's best guess of the actual state of the quantum system for the given data. Such estimators are points in the state space. To be statistically meaningful, they have to be endowed with error regions, the generalization of error bars beyond one dimension. As opposed to standard ad hoc constructions of error regions, we introduce the maximum-likelihood region—the region of largest likelihood among all regions of the same size—as the natural counterpart of the popular maximum-likelihood estimator. Here, the size of a region is its prior probability. A related concept is the smallest credible region—the smallest region with pre-chosen posterior probability. In both cases, the optimal error region has constant likelihood on its boundary. This surprisingly simple characterization permits concise reporting of the error regions, even in high-dimensional problems. For illustration, we identify optimal error regions for single-qubit and two-qubit states from computer-generated data that simulate incomplete tomography with few measured copies.
Cavity State Reservoir Engineering in Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holland, Eric T.
Engineered quantum systems are poised to revolutionize information science in the near future. A persistent challenge in applied quantum technology is creating controllable, quantum interactions while preventing information loss to the environment, decoherence. In this thesis, we realize mesoscopic superconducting circuits whose macroscopic collective degrees of freedom, such as voltages and currents, behave quantum mechanically. We couple these mesoscopic devices to microwave cavities forming a cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) architecture comprised entirely of circuit elements. This application of cavity QED is dubbed Circuit QED and is an interdisciplinary field seated at the intersection of electrical engineering, superconductivity, quantum optics, and quantum information science. Two popular methods for taming active quantum systems in the presence of decoherence are discrete feedback conditioned on an ancillary system or quantum reservoir engineering. Quantum reservoir engineering maintains a desired subset of a Hilbert space through a combination of drives and designed entropy evacuation. Circuit QED provides a favorable platform for investigating quantum reservoir engineering proposals. A major advancement of this thesis is the development of a quantum reservoir engineering protocol which maintains the quantum state of a microwave cavity in the presence of decoherence. This thesis synthesizes strongly coupled, coherent devices whose solutions to its driven, dissipative Hamiltonian are predicted a priori. This work lays the foundation for future advancements in cavity centered quantum reservoir engineering protocols realizing hardware efficient circuit QED designs.
Quantum speed limits for Bell-diagonal states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Wei; Jiang, Ke-Xia; Zhang, Ying-Jie; Xia, Yun-Jie
2015-12-01
The lower bounds of the evolution time between two distinguishable states of a system, defined as quantum speed limit time, can characterize the maximal speed of quantum computers and communication channels. We study the quantum speed limit time between the composite quantum states and their target states in the presence of nondissipative decoherence. For the initial states with maximally mixed marginals, we obtain the exact expressions of the quantum speed limit time which mainly depend on the parameters of the initial states and the decoherence channels. Furthermore, by calculating the quantum speed limit time for the time-dependent states started from a class of initial states, we discover that the quantum speed limit time gradually decreases in time, and the decay rate of the quantum speed limit time would show a sudden change at a certain critical time. Interestingly, at the same critical time, the composite system dynamics would exhibit a sudden transition from classical decoherence to quantum decoherence. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61178012 and 11304179), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant Nos. 20123705120002 and 20133705110001), the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province of China (Grant No. ZR2014AP009), and the Scientific Research Foundation of Qufu Normal University.
Quantum Steganography via Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger GHZ4 State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
A. El, Allati; M. B. Ould, Medeni; Hassouni, Y.
2012-04-01
A quantum steganography communication scheme via Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger GHZ4 state is constructed to investigate the possibility of remotely transferred hidden information. Moreover, the multipartite entangled states are become a hectic topic due to its important applications and deep effects on aspects of quantum information. Then, the scheme consists of sharing the correlation of four particle GHZ4 states between the legitimate users. After insuring the security of the quantum channel, they begin to hide the secret information in the cover of message. Comparing the scheme with the previous quantum steganographies, capacity and imperceptibility of hidden message are good. The security of the present scheme against many attacks is also discussed.
Quantum-classical equivalence and ground-state factorization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abouie, Jahanfar; Sepehrinia, Reza
2016-02-01
We have performed an analytical study of quantum-classical equivalence for quantum XY-spin chains with arbitrary interactions to explore the classical counterpart of the factorizing magnetic fields that drive the system into a separable ground state. We demonstrate that the factorizing line in the parameter space of a quantum model is equivalent to the so-called natural boundary that emerges in mapping the quantum XY-model onto the two-dimensional classical Ising model. As a result, we show that the quantum systems with the non-factorizable ground state could not be mapped onto the classical Ising model. Based on the presented correspondence we suggest a promising method for obtaining the factorizing field of quantum systems through the commutation of the quantum Hamiltonian and the transfer matrix of the classical model.
Semiquantum-key distribution using less than four quantum states
Zou Xiangfu; Qiu Daowen; Li Lvzhou; Wu Lihua; Li Lvjun
2009-05-15
Recently Boyer et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 140501 (2007)] suggested the idea of semiquantum key distribution (SQKD) in which Bob is classical and they also proposed a semiquantum key distribution protocol (BKM2007). To discuss the security of the BKM2007 protocol, they proved that their protocol is completely robust. This means that nonzero information acquired by Eve on the information string implies the nonzero probability that the legitimate participants can find errors on the bits tested by this protocol. The BKM2007 protocol uses four quantum states to distribute a secret key. In this paper, we simplify their protocol by using less than four quantum states. In detail, we present five different SQKD protocols in which Alice sends three quantum states, two quantum states, and one quantum state, respectively. Also, we prove that all the five protocols are completely robust. In particular, we invent two completely robust SQKD protocols in which Alice sends only one quantum state. Alice uses a register in one SQKD protocol, but she does not use any register in the other. The information bit proportion of the SQKD protocol in which Alice sends only one quantum state but uses a register is the double as that in the BKM2007 protocol. Furthermore, the information bit rate of the SQKD protocol in which Alice sends only one quantum state and does not use any register is not lower than that of the BKM2007 protocol.
The epistemic view of quantum states and the ether
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marchildon, L.
2006-06-01
The idea that the wave function represents information, or knowledge, rather than the state of a microscopic object has been held to solve foundational problems of quantum mechanics. Realist interpretation schemes, like Bohmian trajectories, have been compared to the ether in prerelativistic theories. I argue that the comparison is inadequate, and that the epistemic view of quantum states begs the question of interpretation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jun; Lu, Dawei; Luo, Zhihuang; Laflamme, Raymond; Peng, Xinhua; Du, Jiangfeng
2016-07-01
Precisely characterizing and controlling realistic quantum systems under noises is a challenging frontier in quantum sciences and technologies. In developing reliable controls for open quantum systems, one is often confronted with the problem of the lack of knowledge on the system controllability. The purpose of this paper is to give a numerical approach to this problem, that is, to approximately compute the reachable set of states for coherently controlled quantum Markovian systems. The approximation consists of setting both upper and lower bounds for system's reachable region of states. Furthermore, we apply our reachability analysis to the control of the relaxation dynamics of a two-qubit nuclear magnetic resonance spin system. We implement some experimental tasks of quantum state engineering in this open system at a near optimal performance in view of purity: e.g., increasing polarization and preparing pseudopure states. These results demonstrate the usefulness of our theory and show interesting and promising applications of environment-assisted quantum dynamics.
Quantum Teamwork for Unconditional Multiparty Communication with Gaussian States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jing; Adesso, Gerardo; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi
2009-08-01
We demonstrate the capability of continuous variable Gaussian states to communicate multipartite quantum information. A quantum teamwork protocol is presented according to which an arbitrary possibly entangled multimode state can be faithfully teleported between two teams each comprising many cooperative users. We prove that N-mode Gaussian weighted graph states exist for arbitrary N that enable unconditional quantum teamwork implementations for any arrangement of the teams. These perfect continuous variable maximally multipartite entangled resources are typical among pure Gaussian states and are unaffected by the entanglement frustration occurring in multiqubit states.
Analytic expressions of quantum correlations in qutrit Werner states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Biaoliang; Liu, Yimin; Chen, Jianlan; Liu, Xiansong; Zhang, Zhanjun
2013-07-01
Quantum correlations in qutrit Werner states are extensively investigated with five popular methods, namely, original quantum discord (OQD) (Ollivier and Zurek in Phys Rev Lett 88:017901, 2001), measurement-induced disturbance (MID) (Luo in Phys Rev A 77:022301, 2008), ameliorated MID (AMID) (Girolami et al. in J Phys A Math Theor 44:352002, 2011), relative entropy (RE) (Modi et al. in Phys Rev Lett 104:080501, 2010) and geometric discord (GD) (Dakić et al. in Phys Rev Lett 105:190502, 2010). Two different analytic expressions of quantum correlations are derived. Quantum correlations captured by the former four methods are same and bigger than those obtained via the GD method. Nonetheless, they all qualitatively characterize quantum correlations in the concerned states. Moreover, as same as the qubit case, there exist quantum correlations in separable qutrit Werner states, too.
Experimental Implementation of a Quantum Optical State Comparison Amplifier
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donaldson, Ross J.; Collins, Robert J.; Eleftheriadou, Electra; Barnett, Stephen M.; Jeffers, John; Buller, Gerald S.
2015-03-01
We present an experimental demonstration of a practical nondeterministic quantum optical amplification scheme that employs two mature technologies, state comparison and photon subtraction, to achieve amplification of known sets of coherent states with high fidelity. The amplifier uses coherent states as a resource rather than single photons, which allows for a relatively simple light source, such as a diode laser, providing an increased rate of amplification. The amplifier is not restricted to low amplitude states. With respect to the two key parameters, fidelity and the amplified state production rate, we demonstrate significant improvements over previous experimental implementations, without the requirement of complex photonic components. Such a system may form the basis of trusted quantum repeaters in nonentanglement-based quantum communications systems with known phase alphabets, such as quantum key distribution or quantum digital signatures.
The impact of quantum dot filling on dual-band optical transitions via intermediate quantum states
Wu, Jiang; Passmore, Brandon; Manasreh, M. O.
2015-08-28
InAs/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors with different doping levels were investigated to understand the effect of quantum dot filling on both intraband and interband optical transitions. The electron filling of self-assembled InAs quantum dots was varied by direct doping of quantum dots with different concentrations. Photoresponse in the near infrared and middle wavelength infrared spectral region was observed from samples with low quantum dot filling. Although undoped quantum dots were favored for interband transitions with the absence of a second optical excitation in the near infrared region, doped quantum dots were preferred to improve intraband transitions in the middle wavelength infrared region. As a result, partial filling of quantum dot was required, to the extent of maintaining a low dark current, to enhance the dual-band photoresponse through the confined electron states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peřinová, Vlasta; Lukš, Antonín
2015-06-01
The SU(2) group is used in two different fields of quantum optics, the quantum polarization and quantum interferometry. Quantum degrees of polarization may be based on distances of a polarization state from the set of unpolarized states. The maximum polarization is achieved in the case where the state is pure and then the distribution of the photon-number sums is optimized. In quantum interferometry, the SU(2) intelligent states have also the property that the Fisher measure of information is equal to the inverse minimum detectable phase shift on the usual simplifying condition. Previously, the optimization of the Fisher information under a constraint was studied. Now, in the framework of constraint optimization, states similar to the SU(2) intelligent states are treated.
Faithful conditional quantum state transfer between weakly coupled qubits
Miková, M.; Straka, I.; Mičuda, M.; Krčmarský, V.; Dušek, M.; Ježek, M.; Fiurášek, J.; Filip, R.
2016-01-01
One of the strengths of quantum information theory is that it can treat quantum states without referring to their particular physical representation. In principle, quantum states can be therefore fully swapped between various quantum systems by their mutual interaction and this quantum state transfer is crucial for many quantum communication and information processing tasks. In practice, however, the achievable interaction time and strength are often limited by decoherence. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate a procedure for faithful quantum state transfer between two weakly interacting qubits. Our scheme enables a probabilistic yet perfect unidirectional transfer of an arbitrary unknown state of a source qubit onto a target qubit prepared initially in a known state. The transfer is achieved by a combination of a suitable measurement of the source qubit and quantum filtering on the target qubit depending on the outcome of measurement on the source qubit. We experimentally verify feasibility and robustness of the transfer using a linear optical setup with qubits encoded into polarization states of single photons. PMID:27562544
Faithful conditional quantum state transfer between weakly coupled qubits.
Miková, M; Straka, I; Mičuda, M; Krčmarský, V; Dušek, M; Ježek, M; Fiurášek, J; Filip, R
2016-01-01
One of the strengths of quantum information theory is that it can treat quantum states without referring to their particular physical representation. In principle, quantum states can be therefore fully swapped between various quantum systems by their mutual interaction and this quantum state transfer is crucial for many quantum communication and information processing tasks. In practice, however, the achievable interaction time and strength are often limited by decoherence. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate a procedure for faithful quantum state transfer between two weakly interacting qubits. Our scheme enables a probabilistic yet perfect unidirectional transfer of an arbitrary unknown state of a source qubit onto a target qubit prepared initially in a known state. The transfer is achieved by a combination of a suitable measurement of the source qubit and quantum filtering on the target qubit depending on the outcome of measurement on the source qubit. We experimentally verify feasibility and robustness of the transfer using a linear optical setup with qubits encoded into polarization states of single photons. PMID:27562544
Complex Wavelet Transform of the Two-mode Quantum States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Jun; Zhou, Jun; Yuan, Hao; He, Rui; Fan, Hong-Yi
2016-08-01
By employing the bipartite entangled state representation and the technique of integration within an ordered product of operators, the classical complex wavelet transform of a complex signal function can be recast to a matrix element of the squeezing-displacing operator U 2( μ, σ) between the mother wavelet vector < ψ| and the two-mode quantum state vector | f> to be transformed. < ψ| U 2( μ, σ)| f> can be considered as the spectrum for analyzing the two-mode quantum state | f>. In this way, for some typical two-mode quantum states, such as two-mode coherent state and two-mode Fock state, we derive the complex wavelet transform spectrum and carry out the numerical calculation. This kind of wavelet-transform spectrum can be used to recognize quantum states.
Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment via pre- and post-selected quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yan-Bing; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Li, Zi-Chen; Qin, Su-Juan; Yang, Ya-Tao
2014-01-01
Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment is a most important and realizable quantum bit commitment (QBC) protocol. By taking advantage of quantum mechanism, it can achieve higher security than classical bit commitment. In this paper, we propose a QBC schemes based on pre- and post-selected quantum states. The analysis indicates that both of the two participants' cheat strategies will be detected with non-zero probability. And the protocol can be implemented with today's technology as a long-term quantum memory is not needed.
Optimal dynamics for quantum-state and entanglement transfer through homogeneous quantum systems
Banchi, L.; Apollaro, T. J. G.; Cuccoli, A.; Vaia, R.; Verrucchi, P.
2010-11-15
The capability of faithfully transmit quantum states and entanglement through quantum channels is one of the key requirements for the development of quantum devices. Different solutions have been proposed to accomplish such a challenging task, which, however, require either an ad hoc engineering of the internal interactions of the physical system acting as the channel or specific initialization procedures. Here we show that optimal dynamics for efficient quantum-state and entanglement transfer can be attained in generic quantum systems with homogeneous interactions by tuning the coupling between the system and the two attached qubits. We devise a general procedure to determine the optimal coupling, and we explicitly implement it in the case of a channel consisting of a spin-(1/2)XY chain. The quality of quantum-state and entanglement transfer is found to be very good and, remarkably, almost independent of the channel length.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, KeJia; Zhang, Long; Song, TingTing; Yang, YingHui
2016-06-01
In this paper, we propose certain different design ideas on a novel topic in quantum cryptography — quantum operation sharing (QOS). Following these unique ideas, three QOS schemes, the "HIEC" (The scheme whose messages are hidden in the entanglement correlation), "HIAO" (The scheme whose messages are hidden with the assistant operations) and "HIMB" (The scheme whose messages are hidden in the selected measurement basis), have been presented to share the single-qubit operations determinately on target states in a remote node. These schemes only require Bell states as quantum resources. Therefore, they can be directly applied in quantum networks, since Bell states are considered the basic quantum channels in quantum networks. Furthermore, after analyse on the security and resource consumptions, the task of QOS can be achieved securely and effectively in these schemes.
Tripartite Quantum Controlled Teleportation via Seven-Qubit Cluster State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Wei; Zha, Xin-Wei; Qi, Jian-Xia
2016-09-01
In this paper, a theoretical scheme for tripartite quantum controlled teleportation is presented using the entanglement property of seven-qubit cluster state. This means that Alice wants to transmit a entangled state of particle a to Bob, Charlie wants to transmit a entangled state of particle b to David and Edison wants to transmit a entangled state of particle c to Ford via the control of the supervisor. In the end, we compared the aspects of quantum resource consumption, operation complexity, classical resource consumption, quantum information bits transmitted, success probability and efficiency with other schemes.
Quantum teleportation of composite systems via mixed entangled states
Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Sanders, Barry C.
2006-09-15
We analyze quantum teleportation for composite systems, specifically for concatenated teleporation (decomposing a large composite state into smaller states of dimension commensurate with the channel) and partial teleportation (teleporting one component of a larger quantum state). We obtain an exact expression for teleportation fidelity that depends solely on the dimension and singlet fraction for the entanglement channel and entanglement (measures by I concurrence) for the state; in fact quantum teleportation for composite systems provides an operational interpretation for I concurrence. In addition we obtain tight bounds on teleportation fidelity and prove that the average fidelity approaches the lower bound of teleportation fidelity in the high-dimension limit.
Tripartite Quantum Controlled Teleportation via Seven-Qubit Cluster State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Wei; Zha, Xin-Wei; Qi, Jian-Xia
2016-04-01
In this paper, a theoretical scheme for tripartite quantum controlled teleportation is presented using the entanglement property of seven-qubit cluster state. This means that Alice wants to transmit a entangled state of particle a to Bob, Charlie wants to transmit a entangled state of particle b to David and Edison wants to transmit a entangled state of particle c to Ford via the control of the supervisor. In the end, we compared the aspects of quantum resource consumption, operation complexity, classical resource consumption, quantum information bits transmitted, success probability and efficiency with other schemes.
Quantum uncertainty of mixed states based on skew information
Luo Shunlong
2006-02-15
The uncertainty of a mixed state has two quite different origins: classical mixing and quantum randomness. While the classical aspect (mixedness) is significantly quantified by the von Neumann entropy, it seems that we still do not have a well accepted measure of quantum uncertainty. In terms of the skew information introduced by Wigner and Yanase in 1963 in the context of quantum measurements, we will propose an intrinsic measure for synthesizing quantum uncertainty of a mixed state and investigate its fundamental properties. We illustrate how it arises naturally from a naive hidden-variable approach to entanglement and how it exhibits a simple relation to the notion of negativity, which is an entanglement monotone introduced quite recently. We further show that it has a dramatic nonextensive feature resembling the probability law relating operations of two events. This measure of quantum uncertainty provides an alternative quantity complementary to the von Neumann entropy for studying mixedness and quantum correlations.
Nonclassical properties and quantum resources of hierarchical photonic superposition states
Volkoff, T. J.
2015-11-15
We motivate and introduce a class of “hierarchical” quantum superposition states of N coupled quantum oscillators. Unlike other well-known multimode photonic Schrödinger-cat states such as entangled coherent states, the hierarchical superposition states are characterized as two-branch superpositions of tensor products of single-mode Schrödinger-cat states. In addition to analyzing the photon statistics and quasiprobability distributions of prominent examples of these nonclassical states, we consider their usefulness for highprecision quantum metrology of nonlinear optical Hamiltonians and quantify their mode entanglement. We propose two methods for generating hierarchical superpositions in N = 2 coupled microwave cavities, exploiting currently existing quantum optical technology for generating entanglement between spatially separated electromagnetic field modes.
Quantum metrology with spin cat states under dissipation
Huang, Jiahao; Qin, Xizhou; Zhong, Honghua; Ke, Yongguan; Lee, Chaohong
2015-01-01
Quantum metrology aims to yield higher measurement precisions via quantum techniques such as entanglement. It is of great importance for both fundamental sciences and practical technologies, from testing equivalence principle to designing high-precision atomic clocks. However, due to environment effects, highly entangled states become fragile and the achieved precisions may even be worse than the standard quantum limit (SQL). Here we present a high-precision measurement scheme via spin cat states (a kind of non-Gaussian entangled states in superposition of two quasi-orthogonal spin coherent states) under dissipation. In comparison to maximally entangled states, spin cat states with modest entanglement are more robust against losses and their achievable precisions may still beat the SQL. Even if the detector is imperfect, the achieved precisions of the parity measurement are higher than the ones of the population measurement. Our scheme provides a realizable way to achieve high-precision measurements via dissipative quantum systems of Bose atoms. PMID:26647821
Quantum metrology with spin cat states under dissipation.
Huang, Jiahao; Qin, Xizhou; Zhong, Honghua; Ke, Yongguan; Lee, Chaohong
2015-01-01
Quantum metrology aims to yield higher measurement precisions via quantum techniques such as entanglement. It is of great importance for both fundamental sciences and practical technologies, from testing equivalence principle to designing high-precision atomic clocks. However, due to environment effects, highly entangled states become fragile and the achieved precisions may even be worse than the standard quantum limit (SQL). Here we present a high-precision measurement scheme via spin cat states (a kind of non-Gaussian entangled states in superposition of two quasi-orthogonal spin coherent states) under dissipation. In comparison to maximally entangled states, spin cat states with modest entanglement are more robust against losses and their achievable precisions may still beat the SQL. Even if the detector is imperfect, the achieved precisions of the parity measurement are higher than the ones of the population measurement. Our scheme provides a realizable way to achieve high-precision measurements via dissipative quantum systems of Bose atoms. PMID:26647821
Cluster State Quantum Computation and the Repeat-Until Scheme
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwek, L. C.
Cluster state computation or the one way quantum computation (1WQC) relies on an initially highly entangled state (called a cluster state) and an appropriate sequence of single qubit measurements along different directions, together with feed-forward based on the measurement results, to realize a quantum computation process. The final result of the computation is obtained by measuring the last remaining qubits in the computational basis. In this short tutorial on cluster state quantum computation, we will also describe the basic ideas of a cluster state and proceed to describe how a single qubit operation can be done on a cluster state. Recently, we proposed a repeat-until-success (RUS) scheme that could effectively be used to realize one-way quantum computer on a hybrid system of photons and atoms. We will briefly describe this RUS scheme and show how it can be used to entangled two distant stationary qubits.
Quantum metrology with spin cat states under dissipation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Jiahao; Qin, Xizhou; Zhong, Honghua; Ke, Yongguan; Lee, Chaohong
2015-12-01
Quantum metrology aims to yield higher measurement precisions via quantum techniques such as entanglement. It is of great importance for both fundamental sciences and practical technologies, from testing equivalence principle to designing high-precision atomic clocks. However, due to environment effects, highly entangled states become fragile and the achieved precisions may even be worse than the standard quantum limit (SQL). Here we present a high-precision measurement scheme via spin cat states (a kind of non-Gaussian entangled states in superposition of two quasi-orthogonal spin coherent states) under dissipation. In comparison to maximally entangled states, spin cat states with modest entanglement are more robust against losses and their achievable precisions may still beat the SQL. Even if the detector is imperfect, the achieved precisions of the parity measurement are higher than the ones of the population measurement. Our scheme provides a realizable way to achieve high-precision measurements via dissipative quantum systems of Bose atoms.
Symmetry-protected topologically ordered states for universal quantum computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poulsen Nautrup, Hendrik; Wei, Tzu-Chieh
Measurement-based quantum computation (MBQC) is a model for quantum information processing utilizing only local measurements on suitably entangled resource states for the implementation of quantum gates. A complete characterization for universal resource states is still missing. It has been shown that symmetry-protected topological order (SPTO) in one dimension can be exploited for the protection of certain quantum gates in MBQC. Here we investigate whether any 2D nontrivial SPTO states can serve as resource for MBQC. In particular, we show that the nontrivial SPTO ground state of the CZX model on the square lattice by Chen et al. [Phys. Rev. B 84, 235141 (2011)] can be reduced to a 2D cluster state by local measurement, hence a universal resource state. Such ground states have been generalized to qudits with symmetry action described by three cocycles of a finite group G of order d and shown to exhibit nontrivial SPTO. We also extend these to arbitary lattices and show that the generalized two-dimensional plaquette states on arbitrary lattices exhibit nontrivial SPTO in terms of symmetry fractionalization and that they are universal resource states for quantum computation. SPTO states therefore can provide a new playground for measurement-based quantum computation. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation.
Dynamics of open bosonic quantum systems in coherent state representation
Dalvit, D. A. R.; Berman, G. P.; Vishik, M.
2006-01-15
We consider the problem of decoherence and relaxation of open bosonic quantum systems from a perspective alternative to the standard master equation or quantum trajectories approaches. Our method is based on the dynamics of expectation values of observables evaluated in a coherent state representation. We examine a model of a quantum nonlinear oscillator with a density-density interaction with a collection of environmental oscillators at finite temperature. We derive the exact solution for dynamics of observables and demonstrate a consistent perturbation approach.
Geometric Phase for Adiabatic Evolutions of General Quantum States
Wu, Biao; Liu, Jie; Niu, Qian; Singh, David J
2005-01-01
The concept of a geometric phase (Berry's phase) is generalized to the case of noneigenstates, which is applicable to both linear and nonlinear quantum systems. This is particularly important to nonlinear quantum systems, where, due to the lack of the superposition principle, the adiabatic evolution of a general state cannot be described in terms of eigenstates. For linear quantum systems, our new geometric phase reduces to a statistical average of Berry's phases. Our results are demonstrated with a nonlinear two-level model.
Understanding squeezing of quantum states with the Wigner function
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Royer, Antoine
1994-01-01
The Wigner function is argued to be the only natural phase space function evolving classically under quadratic Hamiltonians with time-dependent bilinear part. This is used to understand graphically how certain quadratic time-dependent Hamiltonians induce squeezing of quantum states. The Wigner representation is also used to generalize Ehrenfest's theorem to the quantum uncertainties. This makes it possible to deduce features of the quantum evolution, such as squeezing, from the classical evolution, whatever the Hamiltonian.
Efficient quantum state transfer in an engineered chain of quantum bits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sandberg, Martin; Knill, Emanuel; Kapit, Eliot; Vissers, Michael R.; Pappas, David P.
2016-03-01
We present a method of performing quantum state transfer in a chain of superconducting quantum bits. Our protocol is based on engineering the energy levels of the qubits in the chain and tuning them all simultaneously with an external flux bias. The system is designed to allow sequential adiabatic state transfers, resulting in on-demand quantum state transfer from one end of the chain to the other. Numerical simulations of the master equation using realistic parameters for capacitive nearest-neighbor coupling, energy relaxation, and dephasing show that fast, high-fidelity state transfer should be feasible using this method.
Ground state of the universe in quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorobey, Natalia; Lukyanenko, Alexander
2016-01-01
We find a physical state of a closed universe with the minimal excitation of the universe expansion energy in quantum gravity. It is an analog of the vacuum state of the ordinary quantum field theory in the Minkowsky space, but in our approach an energy of space of a closed universe together with the energy of its matter content are minimized. This ground state is chosen among an enlarged set of physical states, compared with the ordinary covariant quantum gravity. In our approach, physical states are determined by weak constraints: quantum mechanical averages of gravitational constraint operators equal zero. As a result, they appear to be non-static in such a modification of quantum gravity. Quantum dynamics of the universe is described by Schrödinger equation with a cosmic time determined by weak gravitational constraints. In order to obtain the observed megascopic universe with the inflation stage just after its quantum beginning, a lot of the energy in the form of the inflaton scalar field condensate is prescribed to the initial state. Parameters of the initial state for a homogeneous model of the universe are calculated.
Spin Charge Separation in the Quantum Spin Hall State
Qi, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2010-03-19
The quantum spin Hall state is a topologically non-trivial insulator state protected by the time reversal symmetry. We show that such a state always leads to spin-charge separation in the presence of a {pi} flux. Our result is generally valid for any interacting system. We present a proposal to experimentally observe the phenomenon of spin-charge separation in the recently discovered quantum spin Hall system.
Quantum Teleportation of High-dimensional Atomic Momenta State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qurban, Misbah; Abbas, Tasawar; Rameez-ul-Islam; Ikram, Manzoor
2016-06-01
Atomic momenta states of the neutral atoms are known to be decoherence resistant and therefore present a viable solution for most of the quantum information tasks including the quantum teleportation. We present a systematic protocol for the teleportation of high-dimensional quantized momenta atomic states to the field state inside the cavities by applying standard cavity QED techniques. The proposal can be executed under prevailing experimental scenario.
Steady state quantum discord for circularly accelerated atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Jiawei; Yu, Hongwei
2015-12-01
We study, in the framework of open quantum systems, the dynamics of quantum entanglement and quantum discord of two mutually independent circularly accelerated two-level atoms in interaction with a bath of fluctuating massless scalar fields in the Minkowski vacuum. We assume that the two atoms rotate synchronically with their separation perpendicular to the rotating plane. The time evolution of the quantum entanglement and quantum discord of the two-atom system is investigated. For a maximally entangled initial state, the entanglement measured by concurrence diminishes to zero within a finite time, while the quantum discord can either decrease monotonically to an asymptotic value or diminish to zero at first and then followed by a revival depending on whether the initial state is antisymmetric or symmetric. When both of the two atoms are initially excited, the generation of quantum entanglement shows a delayed feature, while quantum discord is created immediately. Remarkably, the quantum discord for such a circularly accelerated two-atom system takes a nonvanishing value in the steady state, and this is distinct from what happens in both the linear acceleration case and the case of static atoms immersed in a thermal bath.
The collapse of quantum states: A new interpretation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malin, Shimon
1993-06-01
The collapse of quantum states is analyzed in terms of a breakdown into two generic phases: Phase I, in which the field of potentialities that the quantum state represents undergoes a discontinuous and unpredictable change into one of the base states which corresponds to the measurement performed, and phase II, in which a transition from the level of potentialities to the level of actualities takes place. Phase I is discussed in relation to a comment about collapse, made by Dirac in conversation with the author, “Nature makes a choice.” An analysis of phase II leads to the suggestion that it occurs only through and as an act of experience. This postulate is shown to elucidate basic questions regarding the interpretation of quantum mechanics, such as the elusive demarcation line between the classical and quantum domains, and the controversy of the ontological vs. epistemological interpretation of quantum mechanics.
Quantum communication with coherent states and linear optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Lütkenhaus, Norbert
2014-10-01
We introduce a general mapping for encoding quantum communication protocols involving pure states of multiple qubits, unitary transformations, and projective measurements into another set of protocols that employ a coherent state of light in a linear combination of optical modes, linear-optics transformations, and measurements with single-photon threshold detectors. This provides a general framework for transforming protocols in quantum communication into a form in which they can be implemented with current technology. We explore the similarity between properties of the original qubit protocols and the coherent-state protocols obtained from the mapping and make use of the mapping to construct additional protocols in the context of quantum communication complexity and quantum digital signatures. Our results have the potential of bringing a wide class of quantum communication protocols closer to their experimental demonstration.
Robust quantum state recovery from amplitude damping within a mixed states framework
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shahrokh Esfahani, Saeideh; Liao, Zeyang; Zubairy, M. Suhail
2016-08-01
Due to interaction with the environment, a quantum state is subjected to decoherence which becomes one of the major problems in many quantum systems. Amplitude damping is one of the most important decoherence processes. Here, we show that general two-qubit mixed states undergoing amplitude damping can be almost completely restored using a reversal procedure. This reversal procedure through CNOT and Hadamard gates could also protect the entanglement of two-qubit mixed states from general amplitude damping. We also propose a robust recovery scheme to protect the quantum states when the decay parameters or the input quantum states are not completely known.
Distinct quantum states can be compatible with a single state of reality.
Lewis, Peter G; Jennings, David; Barrett, Jonathan; Rudolph, Terry
2012-10-12
Perhaps the quantum state represents information about reality, and not reality directly. Wave function collapse is then possibly no more mysterious than a Bayesian update of a probability distribution given new data. We consider models for quantum systems with measurement outcomes determined by an underlying physical state of the system but where several quantum states are consistent with a single underlying state-i.e., probability distributions for distinct quantum states overlap. Significantly, we demonstrate by example that additional assumptions are always necessary to rule out such a model. PMID:23102280
Measuring bipartite quantum correlations of an unknown state.
Silva, I A; Girolami, D; Auccaise, R; Sarthour, R S; Oliveira, I S; Bonagamba, T J; deAzevedo, E R; Soares-Pinto, D O; Adesso, G
2013-04-01
We report the experimental measurement of bipartite quantum correlations of an unknown two-qubit state. Using a liquid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance setup and employing geometric discord, we evaluate the quantum correlations of a state without resorting to prior knowledge of its density matrix. The method is applicable to any 2 ⊗ d system and provides, in terms of number of measurements required, an advantage over full state tomography scaling with the dimension d of the unmeasured subsystem. The negativity of quantumness is measured as well for reference. We also observe the phenomenon of sudden transition of quantum correlations when local phase and amplitude damping channels are applied to the state. PMID:25166969
Statistical distance and the geometry of quantum states
Braunstein, S.L.; Caves, C.M. )
1994-05-30
By finding measurements that optimally resolve neighboring quantum states, we use statistical distinguishability to define a natural Riemannian metric on the space of quantum-mechanical density operators and to formulate uncertainty principles that are more general and more stringent than standard uncertainty principles.
Photodissociation of ultracold diatomic strontium molecules with quantum state control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McDonald, M.; McGuyer, B. H.; Apfelbeck, F.; Lee, C.-H.; Majewska, I.; Moszynski, R.; Zelevinsky, T.
2016-07-01
Chemical reactions at ultracold temperatures are expected to be dominated by quantum mechanical effects. Although progress towards ultracold chemistry has been made through atomic photoassociation, Feshbach resonances and bimolecular collisions, these approaches have been limited by imperfect quantum state selectivity. In particular, attaining complete control of the ground or excited continuum quantum states has remained a challenge. Here we achieve this control using photodissociation, an approach that encodes a wealth of information in the angular distribution of outgoing fragments. By photodissociating ultracold 88Sr2 molecules with full control of the low-energy continuum, we access the quantum regime of ultracold chemistry, observing resonant and nonresonant barrier tunnelling, matter–wave interference of reaction products and forbidden reaction pathways. Our results illustrate the failure of the traditional quasiclassical model of photodissociation and instead are accurately described by a quantum mechanical model. The experimental ability to produce well-defined quantum continuum states at low energies will enable high-precision studies of long-range molecular potentials for which accurate quantum chemistry models are unavailable, and may serve as a source of entangled states and coherent matter waves for a wide range of experiments in quantum optics.
Photodissociation of ultracold diatomic strontium molecules with quantum state control.
McDonald, M; McGuyer, B H; Apfelbeck, F; Lee, C-H; Majewska, I; Moszynski, R; Zelevinsky, T
2016-07-01
Chemical reactions at ultracold temperatures are expected to be dominated by quantum mechanical effects. Although progress towards ultracold chemistry has been made through atomic photoassociation, Feshbach resonances and bimolecular collisions, these approaches have been limited by imperfect quantum state selectivity. In particular, attaining complete control of the ground or excited continuum quantum states has remained a challenge. Here we achieve this control using photodissociation, an approach that encodes a wealth of information in the angular distribution of outgoing fragments. By photodissociating ultracold (88)Sr2 molecules with full control of the low-energy continuum, we access the quantum regime of ultracold chemistry, observing resonant and nonresonant barrier tunnelling, matter-wave interference of reaction products and forbidden reaction pathways. Our results illustrate the failure of the traditional quasiclassical model of photodissociation and instead are accurately described by a quantum mechanical model. The experimental ability to produce well-defined quantum continuum states at low energies will enable high-precision studies of long-range molecular potentials for which accurate quantum chemistry models are unavailable, and may serve as a source of entangled states and coherent matter waves for a wide range of experiments in quantum optics. PMID:27383945
Quantum Discord of 2 n -Dimensional Bell-Diagonal States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jafarizadeh, M. A.; Karimi, N.; Amidi, D.; Zahir Olyaei, H.
2016-03-01
In this study, using the concept of relative entropy as a distance measure of correlations we investigate the important issue of evaluating quantum correlations such as entanglement, dissonance and classical correlations for 2 n -dimensional Bell-diagonal states. We provide an analytical technique, which describes how we find the closest classical states(CCS) and the closest separable states(CSS) for these states. Then analytical results are obtained for quantum discord of 2 n -dimensional Bell-diagonal states. As illustration, some special cases are examined. Finally, we investigate the additivity relation between the different correlations for the separable generalized Bloch sphere states.
Charge state hysteresis in semiconductor quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, C. H.; Rossi, A.; Lai, N. S.; Leon, R.; Lim, W. H.; Dzurak, A. S.
2014-11-01
Semiconductor quantum dots provide a two-dimensional analogy for real atoms and show promise for the implementation of scalable quantum computers. Here, we investigate the charge configurations in a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor double quantum dot tunnel coupled to a single reservoir of electrons. By operating the system in the few-electron regime, the stability diagram shows hysteretic tunnelling events that depend on the history of the dots charge occupancy. We present a model which accounts for the observed hysteretic behaviour by extending the established description for transport in double dots coupled to two reservoirs. We demonstrate that this type of device operates like a single-electron memory latch.
Charge state hysteresis in semiconductor quantum dots
Yang, C. H.; Rossi, A. Lai, N. S.; Leon, R.; Lim, W. H.; Dzurak, A. S.
2014-11-03
Semiconductor quantum dots provide a two-dimensional analogy for real atoms and show promise for the implementation of scalable quantum computers. Here, we investigate the charge configurations in a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor double quantum dot tunnel coupled to a single reservoir of electrons. By operating the system in the few-electron regime, the stability diagram shows hysteretic tunnelling events that depend on the history of the dots charge occupancy. We present a model which accounts for the observed hysteretic behaviour by extending the established description for transport in double dots coupled to two reservoirs. We demonstrate that this type of device operates like a single-electron memory latch.
Quantum probabilities of composite events in quantum measurements with multimode states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.
2013-10-01
The problem of defining quantum probabilities of composite events is considered. This problem is of great importance for the theory of quantum measurements and for quantum decision theory, which is a part of measurement theory. We show that the Lüders probability of consecutive measurements is a transition probability between two quantum states and that this probability cannot be treated as a quantum extension of the classical conditional probability. The Wigner distribution is shown to be a weighted transition probability that cannot be accepted as a quantum extension of the classical joint probability. We suggest the definition of quantum joint probabilities by introducing composite events in multichannel measurements. The notion of measurements under uncertainty is defined. We demonstrate that the necessary condition for mode interference is the entanglement of the composite prospect together with the entanglement of the composite statistical state. As an illustration, we consider an example of a quantum game. Special attention is paid to the application of the approach to systems with multimode states, such as atoms, molecules, quantum dots, or trapped Bose-condensed atoms with several coherent modes.
Quantum-classical correspondence in steady states of nonadiabatic systems
Fujii, Mikiya; Yamashita, Koichi
2015-12-31
We first present nonadiabatic path integral which is exact formulation of quantum dynamics in nonadiabatic systems. Then, by applying the stationary phase approximations to the nonadiabatic path integral, a semiclassical quantization condition, i.e., quantum-classical correspondence, for steady states of nonadiabatic systems is presented as a nonadiabatic trace formula. The present quantum-classical correspondence indicates that a set of primitive hopping periodic orbits, which are invariant under time evolution in the phase space of the slow degree of freedom, should be quantized. The semiclassical quantization is then applied to a simple nonadiabatic model and accurately reproduces exact quantum energy levels.
Two-state vector formalism and quantum interference
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hashmi, F. A.; Li, Fu; Zhu, Shi-Yao; Zubairy, M. Suhail
2016-08-01
We show that two-state vector formalism (TSVF), applied to quantum systems that make use of delicate interference effects, can lead to paradoxes. We consider a few schemes of nested Mach–Zehnder interferometers that make use of destructive interference. A particular interpretation of TSVF applied to these schemes makes predictions that are contradictory to quantum theory and can not always be verified. Our results suggest that TSVF might not be a suitable tool to describe quantum systems that make use of delicate quantum interference effects.
Information complementarity in multipartite quantum states and security in cryptography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bera, Anindita; Kumar, Asutosh; Rakshit, Debraj; Prabhu, R.; SenDe, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal
2016-03-01
We derive complementarity relations for arbitrary quantum states of multiparty systems of any number of parties and dimensions between the purity of a part of the system and several correlation quantities, including entanglement and other quantum correlations as well as classical and total correlations, of that part with the remainder of the system. We subsequently use such a complementarity relation between purity and quantum mutual information in the tripartite scenario to provide a bound on the secret key rate for individual attacks on a quantum key distribution protocol.
A secure quantum group signature scheme based on Bell states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Kejia; Song, Tingting; Zuo, Huijuan; Zhang, Weiwei
2013-04-01
In this paper, we propose a new secure quantum group signature with Bell states, which may have applications in e-payment system, e-government, e-business, etc. Compared with the recent quantum group signature protocols, our scheme is focused on the most general situation in practice, i.e. only the arbitrator is trusted and no intermediate information needs to be stored in the signing phase to ensure the security. Furthermore, our scheme has achieved all the characteristics of group signature—anonymity, verifiability, traceability, unforgetability and undeniability, by using some current developed quantum and classical technologies. Finally, a feasible security analysis model for quantum group signature is presented.
Manipulation of Entangled States for Quantum Information Processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bose, S.; Huelga, S. F.; Jonathan, D.; Knight, P. L.; Murao, M.; Plenio, M. B.; Vedral, V.
Entanglement manipulation, and especially Entanglement Swapping is at the heart of current work on quantum information processing, purification and quantum teleportation. We will discuss how it may be generalized to multiparticle systems and how this enables multi-user quantum cryptographic protocols to be developed. Our scheme allows us to establish multiparticle entanglement between particles which belong to distant users in a communication network through a prior distribution of Bell state singlets followed by local measurements. We compare our method for generating entanglement with existing schemes using simple quantum networks, and highlight the advantages and applications in cryptographic conferencing and in reading messages from more than one source through a single quantum measurement. We also discuss how entanglement leads to the idea of `telecloning', in which a teleportation-like protocol can be found which reproduces the output of an optimal quantum cloning machine.
Quantum state control of ultracold plasma fission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schulz-Weiling, M.; Grant, E. R.
2016-03-01
Double-resonant transitions excite nitric oxide in a seeded supersonic molecular beam, yielding a state-selected Rydberg gas that evolves to form an ultracold plasma. This plasma propagates in z with the molecular beam over a variable distance as great as 600 mm to strike an imaging detector, which records the charge distribution in the dimensions, x and y. The laser-crossed molecular beam excitation geometry convolutes an axial Gaussian distribution of NO about z with the Gaussian intensity distribution of the laser beam about x to create an ellipsoidal volume of Rydberg gas. Plasma images provide evidence for the relaxation of this Rydberg gas volume in an electron impact avalanche that breaks the ellipsoidal symmetry in x to form repelling plasma volumes. We find that the energy deposited in the recoil velocity of mass transport, V x depends systematically on the initially selected Rydberg gas principal quantum number, n 0, and the initial density of the Rydberg gas, ρ 0. These quantities combine to determine ρ e, the initial density of electrons formed by the prompt Penning ionization of closely spaced pairs of Rydberg molecules. Above a threshold density of Penning electrons, we find that V x depends linearly on ρ e. We argue that this bifurcation occurs as a consequence of the initial geometry of the Rydberg gas. Ambipolar electron expansion accelerates initially formed core ions. Resonant charge transfer redistributes this ion energy to the column of Rydberg molecules on the long axis of the ellipsoid. The equalized velocities in each direction give rise to a ±x streaming motion that concentrates density in opposing plasma volumes, causing the symmetric gas volume to split like a rotating liquid drop. Significantly, these dynamics reduce electron temperature with little decrease in the ion density or increase in the ion temperature. This appears to facilitate the formation of a strongly coupled plasma.
Quantum Entanglement and the Topological Order of Fractional Hall States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rezayi, Edward
2015-03-01
Fractional quantum Hall states or, more generally, topological phases of matter defy Landau classification based on order parameter and broken symmetry. Instead they have been characterized by their topological order. Quantum information concepts, such as quantum entanglement, appear to provide the most efficient method of detecting topological order solely from the knowledge of the ground state wave function. This talk will focus on real-space bi-partitioning of quantum Hall states and will present both exact diagonalization and quantum Monte Carlo studies of topological entanglement entropy in various geometries. Results on the torus for non-contractible cuts are quite rich and, through the use of minimum entropy states, yield the modular S-matrix and hence uniquely determine the topological order, as shown in recent literature. Concrete examples of minimum entropy states from known quantum Hall wave functions and their corresponding quantum numbers, used in exact diagonalizations, will be given. In collaboration with Clare Abreu and Raul Herrera. Supported by DOE Grant DE-SC0002140.
Trapping phenomenon of the parameter estimation in asymptotic quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berrada, K.
2016-09-01
In this paper, we study in detail the behavior of the precision of the parameter estimation in open quantum systems using the quantum Fisher information (QFI). In particular, we study the sensitivity of the estimation on a two-qubit system evolving under Kossakowski-type quantum dynamical semigroups of completely positive maps. In such an environment, the precision of the estimation can even persist asymptotically for different effects of the initial parameters. We find that the QFI can be resistant to the action of the environment with respect to the initial asymptotic states, and it can persist even in the asymptotic long-time regime. In addition, our results provide further evidence that the initial pure and separable mixed states of the input state may enhance quantum metrology. These features make quantum states in this kind of environment a good candidate for the implementation of different schemes of quantum optics and information with high precision. Finally, we show that this quantity may be proposed to detect the amount of the total quantum information that the whole state contains with respect to projective measurements.
Quantum Teleportation of A Four-qubit State by Using Six-qubit Cluster State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yuan-hua; Sang, Ming-huang; Wang, Xian-ping; Nie, Yi-you
2016-08-01
We propose a scheme for perfect quantum teleportation of a special form of four-qubit state by using a six-qubit cluster state as quantum channel. In our scheme, the sender only needs six-qubit von-Neumann projective measurements, and the receiver can reconstruct the original four-qubit state by applying the appropriate unitary operation.
Quantum Teleportation of A Four-qubit State by Using Six-qubit Cluster State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yuan-hua; Sang, Ming-huang; Wang, Xian-ping; Nie, Yi-you
2016-03-01
We propose a scheme for perfect quantum teleportation of a special form of four-qubit state by using a six-qubit cluster state as quantum channel. In our scheme, the sender only needs six-qubit von-Neumann projective measurements, and the receiver can reconstruct the original four-qubit state by applying the appropriate unitary operation.
Quantum correlations in Gaussian states via Gaussian channels: steering, entanglement, and discord
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhong-Xiao; Wang, Shuhao; Li, Qiting; Wang, Tie-Jun; Wang, Chuan
2016-06-01
Here we study the quantum steering, quantum entanglement, and quantum discord for Gaussian Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen states via Gaussian channels. And the sudden death phenomena for Gaussian steering and Gaussian entanglement are theoretically observed. We find that some Gaussian states have only one-way steering, which confirms the asymmetry of quantum steering. Also we investigate that the entangled Gaussian states without Gaussian steering and correlated Gaussian states own no Gaussian entanglement. Meanwhile, our results support the assumption that quantum entanglement is intermediate between quantum discord and quantum steering. Furthermore, we give experimental recipes for preparing quantum states with desired types of quantum correlations.
Device-independent tomography of multipartite quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pál, Károly F.; Vértesi, Tamás; Navascués, Miguel
2014-10-01
In the usual tomography of multipartite entangled quantum states one assumes that the measurement devices used in the laboratory are under perfect control of the experimenter. In this paper, using the so-called swap concept introduced recently, we show how one can remove this assumption in realistic experimental conditions and nevertheless be able to characterize the produced multipartite state based only on observed statistics. Such a black-box tomography of quantum states is termed self-testing. As a function of the magnitude of the Bell violation, we are able to self-test emblematic multipartite quantum states such as the three-qubit W state, the three- and four-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, and the four-qubit linear cluster state.
Quantum benchmarks for pure single-mode Gaussian states.
Chiribella, Giulio; Adesso, Gerardo
2014-01-10
Teleportation and storage of continuous variable states of light and atoms are essential building blocks for the realization of large-scale quantum networks. Rigorous validation of these implementations require identifying, and surpassing, benchmarks set by the most effective strategies attainable without the use of quantum resources. Such benchmarks have been established for special families of input states, like coherent states and particular subclasses of squeezed states. Here we solve the longstanding problem of defining quantum benchmarks for general pure Gaussian single-mode states with arbitrary phase, displacement, and squeezing, randomly sampled according to a realistic prior distribution. As a special case, we show that the fidelity benchmark for teleporting squeezed states with totally random phase and squeezing degree is 1/2, equal to the corresponding one for coherent states. We discuss the use of entangled resources to beat the benchmarks in experiments. PMID:24483875
Distinct Quantum States Can Be Compatible with a Single State of Reality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lewis, Peter; Jennings, David; Barrett, Jonathan; Rudolph, Terry
2013-03-01
Perhaps the quantum state represents information available to some agent or experimenter about reality, and not reality directly. This view is attractive because if quantum states represent only information, then wave function collapse is possibly no more mysterious than a Bayesian update of a probability distribution given new data. Several other ``puzzling'' features of quantum theory also follow naturally given this view. In order to explore this idea rigorously, we consider models for quantum systems with probabilities for measurement outcomes determined by some underlying physical state of the system, where the underlying state is not necessarily described by quantum theory. In our model, quantum states correspond to probability distributions over the underlying states so that the Born rule is recovered. More specifically, we consider models for quantum systems where several quantum states are consistent with a single underlying state-i.e., probability distributions for distinct quantum states overlap. Recent work shows that such a model is impossible (e.g. the PBR theorem (Nat. Phys. 8, p.474)). Significantly, our example demonstrates that non-trivial assumptions (beyond those required for a well-defined realistic model) are necessary for the PBR theorem and those like it. This work was supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, Leverhulme Foundation and The Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851
Quantum state transfer by time reversal in the continuum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Longhi, S.
2016-03-01
A method for high-fidelity quantum state transfer in a quantum network coupled to a continuum, based on time reversal in the continuum after decay, is theoretically suggested. Provided that the energy spectrum of the network is symmetric around a reference energy and symmetric energy states are coupled the same way to the common continuum, ideal perfect state transfer can be obtained after time reversal. In particular, it is shown that in a linear tight-binding chain a quantum state can be transformed into its mirror image with respect to the center of the chain after a controllable time. As compared to a quantum mirror image based on coherent transport in a static chain with properly tailored inhomogeneous hopping rates, our method does not require hopping rate engineering and is less sensitive to disorder for long transfer times.
Quantum key distribution session with 16-dimensional photonic states
Etcheverry, S.; Cañas, G.; Gómez, E. S.; Nogueira, W. A. T.; Saavedra, C.; Xavier, G. B.; Lima, G.
2013-01-01
The secure transfer of information is an important problem in modern telecommunications. Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides a solution to this problem by using individual quantum systems to generate correlated bits between remote parties, that can be used to extract a secret key. QKD with D-dimensional quantum channels provides security advantages that grow with increasing D. However, the vast majority of QKD implementations has been restricted to two dimensions. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of using higher dimensions for real-world quantum cryptography by performing, for the first time, a fully automated QKD session based on the BB84 protocol with 16-dimensional quantum states. Information is encoded in the single-photon transverse momentum and the required states are dynamically generated with programmable spatial light modulators. Our setup paves the way for future developments in the field of experimental high-dimensional QKD. PMID:23897033
Quantum key distribution session with 16-dimensional photonic states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Etcheverry, S.; Cañas, G.; Gómez, E. S.; Nogueira, W. A. T.; Saavedra, C.; Xavier, G. B.; Lima, G.
2013-07-01
The secure transfer of information is an important problem in modern telecommunications. Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides a solution to this problem by using individual quantum systems to generate correlated bits between remote parties, that can be used to extract a secret key. QKD with D-dimensional quantum channels provides security advantages that grow with increasing D. However, the vast majority of QKD implementations has been restricted to two dimensions. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of using higher dimensions for real-world quantum cryptography by performing, for the first time, a fully automated QKD session based on the BB84 protocol with 16-dimensional quantum states. Information is encoded in the single-photon transverse momentum and the required states are dynamically generated with programmable spatial light modulators. Our setup paves the way for future developments in the field of experimental high-dimensional QKD.
Quantum key distribution session with 16-dimensional photonic states.
Etcheverry, S; Cañas, G; Gómez, E S; Nogueira, W A T; Saavedra, C; Xavier, G B; Lima, G
2013-01-01
The secure transfer of information is an important problem in modern telecommunications. Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides a solution to this problem by using individual quantum systems to generate correlated bits between remote parties, that can be used to extract a secret key. QKD with D-dimensional quantum channels provides security advantages that grow with increasing D. However, the vast majority of QKD implementations has been restricted to two dimensions. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of using higher dimensions for real-world quantum cryptography by performing, for the first time, a fully automated QKD session based on the BB84 protocol with 16-dimensional quantum states. Information is encoded in the single-photon transverse momentum and the required states are dynamically generated with programmable spatial light modulators. Our setup paves the way for future developments in the field of experimental high-dimensional QKD. PMID:23897033
Experimental verification of quantum discord in continuous-variable states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosseini, S.; Rahimi-Keshari, S.; Haw, J. Y.; Assad, S. M.; Chrzanowski, H. M.; Janousek, J.; Symul, T.; Ralph, T. C.; Lam, P. K.
2014-01-01
We introduce a simple and efficient technique to verify quantum discord in unknown Gaussian states and a certain class of non-Gaussian states. We show that any separation in the peaks of the marginal distributions of one subsystem conditioned on two different outcomes of homodyne measurements performed on the other subsystem indicates correlation between the corresponding quadratures, and hence nonzero discord. We also apply this method to non-Gaussian states that are prepared by overlapping a statistical mixture of coherent and vacuum states on a beam splitter. We experimentally demonstrate this technique by verifying nonzero quantum discord in a bipartite Gaussian and certain non-Gaussian states.
Minimum-error discrimination of entangled quantum states
Lu, Y.; Coish, N.; Kaltenbaek, R.; Hamel, D. R.; Resch, K. J.; Croke, S.
2010-10-15
Strategies to optimally discriminate between quantum states are critical in quantum technologies. We present an experimental demonstration of minimum-error discrimination between entangled states, encoded in the polarization of pairs of photons. Although the optimal measurement involves projection onto entangled states, we use a result of J. Walgate et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4972 (2000)] to design an optical implementation employing only local polarization measurements and feed-forward, which performs at the Helstrom bound. Our scheme can achieve perfect discrimination of orthogonal states and minimum-error discrimination of nonorthogonal states. Our experimental results show a definite advantage over schemes not using feed-forward.
Deterministic controlled remote state preparation using partially entangled quantum channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Na; Quan, Dong Xiao; Yang, Hong; Pei, Chang Xing
2016-04-01
In this paper, we propose a novel scheme for deterministic controlled remote state preparation (CRSP) of arbitrary two-qubit states. Suitably chosen partially entangled state is used as the quantum channel. With proper projective measurements carried out by the sender and controller, the receiver can reconstruct the target state by means of appropriate unitary operation. Unit success probability can be achieved for arbitrary two-qubit states. Different from some previous CRSP schemes utilizing partially entangled channels, auxiliary qubit is not required in our scheme. We also show that the success probability is independent of the parameters of the partially entangled quantum channel.
Flexible quantum circuits using scalable continuous-variable cluster states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alexander, Rafael N.; Menicucci, Nicolas C.
2016-06-01
We show that measurement-based quantum computation on scalable continuous-variable (CV) cluster states admits more quantum-circuit flexibility and compactness than similar protocols for standard square-lattice CV cluster states. This advantage is a direct result of the macronode structure of these states—that is, a lattice structure in which each graph node actually consists of several physical modes. These extra modes provide additional measurement degrees of freedom at each graph location, which can be used to manipulate the flow and processing of quantum information more robustly and with additional flexibility that is not available on an ordinary lattice.
Bell operator and Gaussian squeezed states in noncommutative quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bastos, Catarina; Bernardini, Alex E.; Bertolami, Orfeu; Dias, Nuno Costa; Prata, João Nuno
2016-05-01
We examine putative corrections to the Bell operator due to the noncommutativity in the phase space. Starting from a Gaussian squeezed envelope whose time evolution is driven by commutative (standard quantum mechanics) and noncommutative dynamics, respectively, we conclude that although the time-evolving covariance matrix in the noncommutative case is different from the standard case, the squeezing parameter dominates and there are no noticeable noncommutative corrections to the Bell operator. This indicates that, at least for squeezed states, the privileged states to test Bell correlations, noncommutativity versions of quantum mechanics remain as nonlocal as quantum mechanics itself.
Bidirectional Quantum Teleportation by Using Five-qubit Cluster State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sang, Ming-huang
2016-03-01
We propose a scheme for bidirectional quantum teleportation by using a five-qubit cluster state. In our scheme, Alice can transmit an arbitrary two-qubit entangled state to Bob and at the same time Bob can teleport an arbitrary single-qubit state to Alice.
Salini, K.; Prabhu, R.; Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal
2014-09-15
Monogamy of quantum correlation measures puts restrictions on the sharability of quantum correlations in multiparty quantum states. Multiparty quantum states can satisfy or violate monogamy relations with respect to given quantum correlations. We show that all multiparty quantum states can be made monogamous with respect to all measures. More precisely, given any quantum correlation measure that is non-monogamic for a multiparty quantum state, it is always possible to find a monotonically increasing function of the measure that is monogamous for the same state. The statement holds for all quantum states, whether pure or mixed, in all finite dimensions and for an arbitrary number of parties. The monotonically increasing function of the quantum correlation measure satisfies all the properties that are expected for quantum correlations to follow. We illustrate the concepts by considering a thermodynamic measure of quantum correlation, called the quantum work deficit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salini, K.; Prabhu, R.; Sen(De), Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal
2014-09-01
Monogamy of quantum correlation measures puts restrictions on the sharability of quantum correlations in multiparty quantum states. Multiparty quantum states can satisfy or violate monogamy relations with respect to given quantum correlations. We show that all multiparty quantum states can be made monogamous with respect to all measures. More precisely, given any quantum correlation measure that is non-monogamic for a multiparty quantum state, it is always possible to find a monotonically increasing function of the measure that is monogamous for the same state. The statement holds for all quantum states, whether pure or mixed, in all finite dimensions and for an arbitrary number of parties. The monotonically increasing function of the quantum correlation measure satisfies all the properties that are expected for quantum correlations to follow. We illustrate the concepts by considering a thermodynamic measure of quantum correlation, called the quantum work deficit.
Generation of cluster states in optomechanical quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Houhou, Oussama; Aissaoui, Habib; Ferraro, Alessandro
2015-12-01
We consider an optomechanical quantum system composed of a single cavity mode interacting with N mechanical resonators. We propose a scheme for generating continuous-variable graph states of arbitrary size and shape, including the so-called cluster states for universal quantum computation. The main feature of this scheme is that, differently from previous approaches, the graph states are hosted in the mechanical degrees of freedom rather than in the radiative ones. Specifically, via a 2 N -tone drive, we engineer a linear Hamiltonian which is instrumental to dissipatively drive the system to the desired target state. The robustness of this scheme is assessed against finite interaction times and mechanical noise, confirming it as a valuable approach towards quantum state engineering for continuous-variable computation in a solid-state platform.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Zhi; Yao, Chunmei; Zou, Jian
2013-10-01
Using the weak measurement (WM) and quantum measurement reversal (QMR) approach, robust state transfer and entanglement distribution can be realized in the spin-(1)/(2) Heisenberg chain. We find that the ultrahigh fidelity and long distance of quantum state transfer with certain success probability can be obtained using proper WM and QMR, i.e., the average fidelity of a general pure state from 80% to almost 100%, which is almost size independent. We also find that the distance and quality of entanglement distribution for the Bell state and the general Werner mixed state can be obviously improved by the WM and QMR approach.
Optimal state discrimination and unstructured search in nonlinear quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Childs, Andrew M.; Young, Joshua
2016-02-01
Nonlinear variants of quantum mechanics can solve tasks that are impossible in standard quantum theory, such as perfectly distinguishing nonorthogonal states. Here we derive the optimal protocol for distinguishing two states of a qubit using the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, a model of nonlinear quantum mechanics that arises as an effective description of Bose-Einstein condensates. Using this protocol, we present an algorithm for unstructured search in the Gross-Pitaevskii model, obtaining an exponential improvement over a previous algorithm of Meyer and Wong. This result establishes a limitation on the effectiveness of the Gross-Pitaevskii approximation. More generally, we demonstrate similar behavior under a family of related nonlinearities, giving evidence that the ability to quickly discriminate nonorthogonal states and thereby solve unstructured search is a generic feature of nonlinear quantum mechanics.
Student ability to distinguish between superposition states and mixed states in quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Passante, Gina; Emigh, Paul J.; Shaffer, Peter S.
2015-12-01
Superposition gives rise to the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics and is therefore one of the concepts at the heart of quantum mechanics. Although we have found that many students can successfully use the idea of superposition to calculate the probabilities of different measurement outcomes, they are often unable to identify the experimental implications of a superposition state. In particular, they fail to recognize how a superposition state and a mixed state (sometimes called a "lack of knowledge" state) can produce different experimental results. We present data that suggest that superposition in quantum mechanics is a difficult concept for students enrolled in sophomore-, junior-, and graduate-level quantum mechanics courses. We illustrate how an interactive lecture tutorial can improve student understanding of quantum mechanical superposition. A longitudinal study suggests that the impact persists after an additional quarter of quantum mechanics instruction that does not specifically address these ideas.
Measuring the quantum state of a single system with minimum state disturbance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schlosshauer, Maximilian
2016-01-01
Conventionally, unknown quantum states are characterized using quantum-state tomography based on strong or weak measurements carried out on an ensemble of identically prepared systems. By contrast, the use of protective measurements offers the possibility of determining quantum states from a series of weak, long measurements performed on a single system. Because the fidelity of a protectively measured quantum state is determined by the amount of state disturbance incurred during each protective measurement, it is crucial that the initial quantum state of the system is disturbed as little as possible. Here we show how to systematically minimize the state disturbance in the course of a protective measurement, thus enabling the maximization of the fidelity of the quantum-state measurement. Our approach is based on a careful tuning of the time dependence of the measurement interaction and is shown to be dramatically more effective in reducing the state disturbance than the previously considered strategy of weakening the measurement strength and increasing the measurement time. We describe a method for designing the measurement interaction such that the state disturbance exhibits polynomial decay to arbitrary order in the inverse measurement time 1 /T . We also show how one can achieve even faster, subexponential decay, and we find that it represents the smallest possible state disturbance in a protective measurement. In this way, our results show how to optimally measure the state of a single quantum system using protective measurements.
Efficient computations of quantum canonical Gibbs state in phase space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bondar, Denys I.; Campos, Andre G.; Cabrera, Renan; Rabitz, Herschel A.
2016-06-01
The Gibbs canonical state, as a maximum entropy density matrix, represents a quantum system in equilibrium with a thermostat. This state plays an essential role in thermodynamics and serves as the initial condition for nonequilibrium dynamical simulations. We solve a long standing problem for computing the Gibbs state Wigner function with nearly machine accuracy by solving the Bloch equation directly in the phase space. Furthermore, the algorithms are provided yielding high quality Wigner distributions for pure stationary states as well as for Thomas-Fermi and Bose-Einstein distributions. The developed numerical methods furnish a long-sought efficient computation framework for nonequilibrium quantum simulations directly in the Wigner representation.
Parameter estimation using NOON states over a relativistic quantum channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosler, Dominic; Kok, Pieter
2013-11-01
We study the effect of the acceleration of the observer on a parameter estimation protocol using NOON states. An inertial observer, Alice, prepares a NOON state in Unruh modes of the quantum field, and sends it to an accelerated observer, Rob. We calculate the quantum Fisher information of the state received by Rob. We find the counterintuitive result that the single-rail encoding outperforms the dual rail. The NOON states have an optimal N for the maximum information extractable by Rob, given his acceleration. This optimal N decreases with increasing acceleration.
Engineering squeezed states of microwave radiation with circuit quantum electrodynamics
Li Pengbo; Li Fuli
2011-03-15
We introduce a squeezed state source for microwave radiation with tunable parameters in circuit quantum electrodynamics. We show that when a superconducting artificial multilevel atom interacting with a transmission line resonator is suitably driven by external classical fields, two-mode squeezed states of the cavity modes can be engineered in a controllable fashion from the vacuum state via adiabatic following of the ground state of the system. This scheme appears to be robust against decoherence and is realizable with present techniques in circuit quantum electrodynamics.
Minimized state complexity of quantum-encoded cryptic processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riechers, Paul M.; Mahoney, John R.; Aghamohammadi, Cina; Crutchfield, James P.
2016-05-01
The predictive information required for proper trajectory sampling of a stochastic process can be more efficiently transmitted via a quantum channel than a classical one. This recent discovery allows quantum information processing to drastically reduce the memory necessary to simulate complex classical stochastic processes. It also points to a new perspective on the intrinsic complexity that nature must employ in generating the processes we observe. The quantum advantage increases with codeword length: the length of process sequences used in constructing the quantum communication scheme. In analogy with the classical complexity measure, statistical complexity, we use this reduced communication cost as an entropic measure of state complexity in the quantum representation. Previously difficult to compute, the quantum advantage is expressed here in closed form using spectral decomposition. This allows for efficient numerical computation of the quantum-reduced state complexity at all encoding lengths, including infinite. Additionally, it makes clear how finite-codeword reduction in state complexity is controlled by the classical process's cryptic order, and it allows asymptotic analysis of infinite-cryptic-order processes.
Can different quantum state vectors correspond to the same physical state? An experimental test
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nigg, Daniel; Monz, Thomas; Schindler, Philipp; Martinez, Esteban A.; Hennrich, Markus; Blatt, Rainer; Pusey, Matthew F.; Rudolph, Terry; Barrett, Jonathan
2016-01-01
A century after the development of quantum theory, the interpretation of a quantum state is still discussed. If a physicist claims to have produced a system with a particular quantum state vector, does this represent directly a physical property of the system, or is the state vector merely a summary of the physicist’s information about the system? Assume that a state vector corresponds to a probability distribution over possible values of an unknown physical or ‘ontic’ state. Then, a recent no-go theorem shows that distinct state vectors with overlapping distributions lead to predictions different from quantum theory. We report an experimental test of these predictions using trapped ions. Within experimental error, the results confirm quantum theory. We analyse which kinds of models are ruled out.
Gaussian private quantum channel with squeezed coherent states.
Jeong, Kabgyun; Kim, Jaewan; Lee, Su-Yong
2015-01-01
While the objective of conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) is to secretly generate and share the classical bits concealed in the form of maximally mixed quantum states, that of private quantum channel (PQC) is to secretly transmit individual quantum states concealed in the form of maximally mixed states using shared one-time pad and it is called Gaussian private quantum channel (GPQC) when the scheme is in the regime of continuous variables. We propose a GPQC enhanced with squeezed coherent states (GPQCwSC), which is a generalization of GPQC with coherent states only (GPQCo) [Phys. Rev. A 72, 042313 (2005)]. We show that GPQCwSC beats the GPQCo for the upper bound on accessible information. As a subsidiary example, it is shown that the squeezed states take an advantage over the coherent states against a beam splitting attack in a continuous variable QKD. It is also shown that a squeezing operation can be approximated as a superposition of two different displacement operations in the small squeezing regime. PMID:26364893
Gaussian private quantum channel with squeezed coherent states
Jeong, Kabgyun; Kim, Jaewan; Lee, Su-Yong
2015-01-01
While the objective of conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) is to secretly generate and share the classical bits concealed in the form of maximally mixed quantum states, that of private quantum channel (PQC) is to secretly transmit individual quantum states concealed in the form of maximally mixed states using shared one-time pad and it is called Gaussian private quantum channel (GPQC) when the scheme is in the regime of continuous variables. We propose a GPQC enhanced with squeezed coherent states (GPQCwSC), which is a generalization of GPQC with coherent states only (GPQCo) [Phys. Rev. A 72, 042313 (2005)]. We show that GPQCwSC beats the GPQCo for the upper bound on accessible information. As a subsidiary example, it is shown that the squeezed states take an advantage over the coherent states against a beam splitting attack in a continuous variable QKD. It is also shown that a squeezing operation can be approximated as a superposition of two different displacement operations in the small squeezing regime. PMID:26364893
Gaussian private quantum channel with squeezed coherent states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeong, Kabgyun; Kim, Jaewan; Lee, Su-Yong
2015-09-01
While the objective of conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) is to secretly generate and share the classical bits concealed in the form of maximally mixed quantum states, that of private quantum channel (PQC) is to secretly transmit individual quantum states concealed in the form of maximally mixed states using shared one-time pad and it is called Gaussian private quantum channel (GPQC) when the scheme is in the regime of continuous variables. We propose a GPQC enhanced with squeezed coherent states (GPQCwSC), which is a generalization of GPQC with coherent states only (GPQCo) [Phys. Rev. A 72, 042313 (2005)]. We show that GPQCwSC beats the GPQCo for the upper bound on accessible information. As a subsidiary example, it is shown that the squeezed states take an advantage over the coherent states against a beam splitting attack in a continuous variable QKD. It is also shown that a squeezing operation can be approximated as a superposition of two different displacement operations in the small squeezing regime.
Single-Atom Gating of Quantum State Superpositions
Moon, Christopher
2010-04-28
The ultimate miniaturization of electronic devices will likely require local and coherent control of single electronic wavefunctions. Wavefunctions exist within both physical real space and an abstract state space with a simple geometric interpretation: this state space - or Hilbert space - is spanned by mutually orthogonal state vectors corresponding to the quantized degrees of freedom of the real-space system. Measurement of superpositions is akin to accessing the direction of a vector in Hilbert space, determining an angle of rotation equivalent to quantum phase. Here we show that an individual atom inside a designed quantum corral1 can control this angle, producing arbitrary coherent superpositions of spatial quantum states. Using scanning tunnelling microscopy and nanostructures assembled atom-by-atom we demonstrate how single spins and quantum mirages can be harnessed to image the superposition of two electronic states. We also present a straightforward method to determine the atom path enacting phase rotations between any desired state vectors. A single atom thus becomes a real-space handle for an abstract Hilbert space, providing a simple technique for coherent quantum state manipulation at the spatial limit of condensed matter.
Experimental demonstration of quantum teleportation of a squeezed state
Takei, Nobuyuki; Aoki, Takao; Yonezawa, Hidehiro; Furusawa, Akira; Koike, Satoshi; Yoshino, Ken-ichiro; Hiraoka, Takuji; Wakui, Kentaro; Mizuno, Jun; Takeoka, Masahiro; Ban, Masashi
2005-10-15
Quantum teleportation of a squeezed state is demonstrated experimentally. Due to some inevitable losses in experiments, a squeezed vacuum necessarily becomes a mixed state which is no longer a minimum uncertainty state. We establish an operational method of evaluation for quantum teleportation of such a state using fidelity and discuss the classical limit for the state. The measured fidelity for the input state is 0.85{+-}0.05, which is higher than the classical case of 0.73{+-}0.04. We also verify that the teleportation process operates properly for the nonclassical state input and its squeezed variance is certainly transferred through the process. We observe the smaller variance of the teleported squeezed state than that for the vacuum state input.
Quantum entanglement in states generated by bilocal group algebras
Hamma, Alioscia; Ionicioiu, Radu; Zanardi, Paolo
2005-07-15
Given a finite group G with a bilocal representation, we investigate the bipartite entanglement in the state constructed from the group algebra of G acting on a separable reference state. We find an upper bound for the von Neumann entropy for a bipartition (A,B) of a quantum system and conditions to saturate it. We show that these states can be interpreted as ground states of generic Hamiltonians or as the physical states in a quantum gauge theory and that under specific conditions their geometric entropy satisfies the entropic area law. If G is a group of spin flips acting on a set of qubits, these states are locally equivalent to 2-colorable (i.e., bipartite) graph states and they include Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger, cluster states, etc. Examples include an application to qudits and a calculation of the n-tangle for 2-colorable graph states.
Reducing collective quantum state rotation errors with reversible dephasing
Cox, Kevin C.; Norcia, Matthew A.; Weiner, Joshua M.; Bohnet, Justin G.; Thompson, James K.
2014-12-29
We demonstrate that reversible dephasing via inhomogeneous broadening can greatly reduce collective quantum state rotation errors, and observe the suppression of rotation errors by more than 21 dB in the context of collective population measurements of the spin states of an ensemble of 2.1×10{sup 5} laser cooled and trapped {sup 87}Rb atoms. The large reduction in rotation noise enables direct resolution of spin state populations 13(1) dB below the fundamental quantum projection noise limit. Further, the spin state measurement projects the system into an entangled state with 9.5(5) dB of directly observed spectroscopic enhancement (squeezing) relative to the standard quantum limit, whereas no enhancement would have been obtained without the suppression of rotation errors.
Discrete-time quantum walk approach to state transfer
Kurzynski, Pawel; Wojcik, Antoni
2011-06-15
We show that a quantum-state transfer, previously studied as a continuous-time process in networks of interacting spins, can be achieved within the model of discrete-time quantum walks with a position-dependent coin. We argue that, due to additional degrees of freedom, discrete-time quantum walks allow one to observe effects which cannot be observed in the corresponding continuous-time case. First, we study a discrete-time version of the engineered coupling protocol due to Christandl et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 187902 (2004)] and then we discuss the general idea of conversion between continuous-time quantum walks and discrete-time quantum walks.
Monogamy of quantum correlations in three-qubit pure states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sudha; Devi, A. R. Usha; Rajagopal, A. K.
2012-01-01
The limitation on the shareability of quantum entanglement over several parties, the so-called monogamy of entanglement, is an issue that has received considerable attention from the quantum information community over the last decade. A natural question of interest in this connection is whether monogamy of correlations is true for correlations other than entanglement. This issue is examined here by choosing quantum deficit, proposed by A. K. Rajagopal and R. W. Rendell [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.66.022104 66, 022104 (2002)], an operational measure of correlations. In addition to establishing the polygamous nature of the class of three-qubit symmetric pure states characterized by two distinct Majorana spinors (to which the W states belong), those with three distinct Majorana spinors [to which Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states belong] are shown to either obey or violate monogamy relations. While the generalized W states can be monogamous or polygamous, the generalized GHZ states exhibit monogamy with respect to quantum deficit. The issue of using monogamy conditions based on quantum deficit to witness the states belonging to stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC) inequivalent classes is discussed in light of these results.
Complete hyperentangled-Bell-state analysis for quantum communication
Sheng Yubo; Deng Fuguo; Long Guilu
2010-09-15
It is impossible to unambiguously distinguish the four Bell states in polarization, resorting to linear optical elements only. Recently, the hyperentangled Bell state, the simultaneous entanglement in more than one degree of freedom, has been used to assist in the complete Bell-state analysis of the four Bell states. However, if the additional degree of freedom is qubitlike, one can only distinguish 7 from the group of 16 states. Here we present a way to distinguish the hyperentangled Bell states completely with the help of cross-Kerr nonlinearity. Also, we discuss its application in the quantum teleportation of a particle in an unknown state in two different degrees of freedom and in the entanglement swapping of hyperentangled states. These applications will increase the channel capacity of long-distance quantum communication.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Jing-Wu; Zhao, Guan-Xiang; He, Xiong-Hui
2011-05-01
Recently, Peng et al. [2010 Eur. Phys. J. D 58 403] proposed to teleport an arbitrary two-qubit state with a family of four-qubit entangled states, which simultaneously include the tensor product of two Bell states, linear cluster state and Dicke-class state. This paper proposes to implement their scheme in cavity quantum electrodynamics and then presents a new family of four-qubit entangled state |Ω4>1234. It simultaneously includes all the well-known four-qubit entangled states which can be used to teleport an arbitrary two-qubit state. The distinct advantage of the scheme is that it only needs a single setup to prepare the whole family of four-qubit entangled states, which will be very convenient for experimental realization. After discussing the experimental condition in detail, we show the scheme may be feasible based on present technology in cavity quantum electrodynamics.
Absorbing State Phase Transition with Competing Quantum and Classical Fluctuations.
Marcuzzi, Matteo; Buchhold, Michael; Diehl, Sebastian; Lesanovsky, Igor
2016-06-17
Stochastic processes with absorbing states feature examples of nonequilibrium universal phenomena. While the classical regime has been thoroughly investigated in the past, relatively little is known about the behavior of these nonequilibrium systems in the presence of quantum fluctuations. Here, we theoretically address such a scenario in an open quantum spin model which, in its classical limit, undergoes a directed percolation phase transition. By mapping the problem to a nonequilibrium field theory, we show that the introduction of quantum fluctuations stemming from coherent, rather than statistical, spin flips alters the nature of the transition such that it becomes first order. In the intermediate regime, where classical and quantum dynamics compete on equal terms, we highlight the presence of a bicritical point with universal features different from the directed percolation class in a low dimension. We finally propose how this physics could be explored within gases of interacting atoms excited to Rydberg states. PMID:27367395
Absorbing State Phase Transition with Competing Quantum and Classical Fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marcuzzi, Matteo; Buchhold, Michael; Diehl, Sebastian; Lesanovsky, Igor
2016-06-01
Stochastic processes with absorbing states feature examples of nonequilibrium universal phenomena. While the classical regime has been thoroughly investigated in the past, relatively little is known about the behavior of these nonequilibrium systems in the presence of quantum fluctuations. Here, we theoretically address such a scenario in an open quantum spin model which, in its classical limit, undergoes a directed percolation phase transition. By mapping the problem to a nonequilibrium field theory, we show that the introduction of quantum fluctuations stemming from coherent, rather than statistical, spin flips alters the nature of the transition such that it becomes first order. In the intermediate regime, where classical and quantum dynamics compete on equal terms, we highlight the presence of a bicritical point with universal features different from the directed percolation class in a low dimension. We finally propose how this physics could be explored within gases of interacting atoms excited to Rydberg states.
Enhanced arbitrated quantum signature scheme using Bell states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Chao; Liu, Jian-Wei; Shang, Tao
2014-06-01
We investigate the existing arbitrated quantum signature schemes as well as their cryptanalysis, including intercept-resend attack and denial-of-service attack. By exploring the loopholes of these schemes, a malicious signatory may successfully disavow signed messages, or the receiver may actively negate the signature from the signatory without being detected. By modifying the existing schemes, we develop counter-measures to these attacks using Bell states. The newly proposed scheme puts forward the security of arbitrated quantum signature. Furthermore, several valuable topics are also presented for further research of the quantum signature scheme.
Electron states in semiconductor quantum dots
Dhayal, Suman S.; Ramaniah, Lavanya M.; Ruda, Harry E.; Nair, Selvakumar V.
2014-11-28
In this work, the electronic structures of quantum dots (QDs) of nine direct band gap semiconductor materials belonging to the group II-VI and III-V families are investigated, within the empirical tight-binding framework, in the effective bond orbital model. This methodology is shown to accurately describe these systems, yielding, at the same time, qualitative insights into their electronic properties. Various features of the bulk band structure such as band-gaps, band curvature, and band widths around symmetry points affect the quantum confinement of electrons and holes. These effects are identified and quantified. A comparison with experimental data yields good agreement with the calculations. These theoretical results would help quantify the optical response of QDs of these materials and provide useful input for applications.
Quantum Conditional Cloning of Continuous Variable Entangled States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, K.; Gao, J. R.
2014-12-01
We extend the technique of conditional preparation to a quantum cloning machine, and present a protocol of 1 -> 2 conditional cloning of squeezed state and entanglement states. It is shown that the entanglement degree of the cloned entangled states can be well preserved even when the fidelity between the input and output states is beyond the limit of 4/9. This scheme is practicable since only the linear elements of beam splitters, homodyne detections, optical modulations and electrical trigger system, are involved.
Deterministic nonclassicality for quantum-mechanical oscillators in thermal states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marek, Petr; Lachman, Lukáš; Slodička, Lukáš; Filip, Radim
2016-07-01
Quantum nonclassicality is the basic building stone for the vast majority of quantum information applications and methods of its generation are at the forefront of research. One of the obstacles any method needs to clear is the looming presence of decoherence and noise which act against the nonclassicality and often erase it completely. In this paper we show that nonclassical states of a quantum harmonic oscillator initially in thermal equilibrium states can be deterministically created by coupling it to a single two-level system. This can be achieved even in the absorption regime in which the two-level system is initially in the ground state. The method is resilient to noise and it may actually benefit from it, as witnessed by the systems with higher thermal energy producing more nonclassical states.
Quantum state engineering with circuit electromechanical three-body interactions.
Abdi, Mehdi; Pernpeintner, Matthias; Gross, Rudolf; Huebl, Hans; Hartmann, Michael J
2015-05-01
We propose a hybrid system with quantum mechanical three-body interactions between photons, phonons, and qubit excitations. These interactions take place in a circuit quantum electrodynamical architecture with a superconducting microwave resonator coupled to a transmon qubit whose shunt capacitance is free to mechanically oscillate. We show that this system design features a three-mode polariton-mechanical mode and a nonlinear transmon-mechanical mode interaction in the strong coupling regime. Together with the strong resonator-transmon interaction, these properties provide intriguing opportunities for manipulations of this hybrid quantum system. We show, in particular, the feasibility of cooling the mechanical motion down to its ground state and preparing various nonclassical states including mechanical Fock and cat states and hybrid tripartite entangled states. PMID:25978232
Quantum State Engineering with Circuit Electromechanical Three-Body Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdi, Mehdi; Pernpeintner, Matthias; Gross, Rudolf; Huebl, Hans; Hartmann, Michael J.
2015-05-01
We propose a hybrid system with quantum mechanical three-body interactions between photons, phonons, and qubit excitations. These interactions take place in a circuit quantum electrodynamical architecture with a superconducting microwave resonator coupled to a transmon qubit whose shunt capacitance is free to mechanically oscillate. We show that this system design features a three-mode polariton-mechanical mode and a nonlinear transmon-mechanical mode interaction in the strong coupling regime. Together with the strong resonator-transmon interaction, these properties provide intriguing opportunities for manipulations of this hybrid quantum system. We show, in particular, the feasibility of cooling the mechanical motion down to its ground state and preparing various nonclassical states including mechanical Fock and cat states and hybrid tripartite entangled states.
Dissipative Optomechanical Preparation of Macroscopic Quantum Superposition States.
Abdi, M; Degenfeld-Schonburg, P; Sameti, M; Navarrete-Benlloch, C; Hartmann, M J
2016-06-10
The transition from quantum to classical physics remains an intensely debated question even though it has been investigated for more than a century. Further clarifications could be obtained by preparing macroscopic objects in spatial quantum superpositions and proposals for generating such states for nanomechanical devices either in a transient or a probabilistic fashion have been put forward. Here, we introduce a method to deterministically obtain spatial superpositions of arbitrary lifetime via dissipative state preparation. In our approach, we engineer a double-well potential for the motion of the mechanical element and drive it towards the ground state, which shows the desired spatial superposition, via optomechanical sideband cooling. We propose a specific implementation based on a superconducting circuit coupled to the mechanical motion of a lithium-decorated monolayer graphene sheet, introduce a method to verify the mechanical state by coupling it to a superconducting qubit, and discuss its prospects for testing collapse models for the quantum to classical transition. PMID:27341233
Dissipative Optomechanical Preparation of Macroscopic Quantum Superposition States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdi, M.; Degenfeld-Schonburg, P.; Sameti, M.; Navarrete-Benlloch, C.; Hartmann, M. J.
2016-06-01
The transition from quantum to classical physics remains an intensely debated question even though it has been investigated for more than a century. Further clarifications could be obtained by preparing macroscopic objects in spatial quantum superpositions and proposals for generating such states for nanomechanical devices either in a transient or a probabilistic fashion have been put forward. Here, we introduce a method to deterministically obtain spatial superpositions of arbitrary lifetime via dissipative state preparation. In our approach, we engineer a double-well potential for the motion of the mechanical element and drive it towards the ground state, which shows the desired spatial superposition, via optomechanical sideband cooling. We propose a specific implementation based on a superconducting circuit coupled to the mechanical motion of a lithium-decorated monolayer graphene sheet, introduce a method to verify the mechanical state by coupling it to a superconducting qubit, and discuss its prospects for testing collapse models for the quantum to classical transition.
Control of Spin States in Triple Quantum Dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sachrajda, Andrew
2015-03-01
A brief review will be given on coherent behaviour in serial triple quantum dots in AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure related to multi-spin states. One series of experiments involves the application of coherent superpositions of multi-electron states to the transfer of single spins and two-spin states non-locally between edge quantum dots while maintaining the center quantum dot occupation fixed at one or zero electrons. A second series of experiments involves the identification of coherent leakage mechanisms away from targeted encoded three-spin states qubits. Finally, results will be shown which reveal an unexpected control of the gap at the S-T + anticrossing by taking advantage of different nuclear dynamic polarization pumping rates.
Autonomous quantum thermal machine for generating steady-state entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bohr Brask, Jonatan; Haack, Géraldine; Brunner, Nicolas; Huber, Marcus
2015-11-01
We discuss a simple quantum thermal machine for the generation of steady-state entanglement between two interacting qubits. The machine is autonomous in the sense that it uses only incoherent interactions with thermal baths, but no source of coherence or external control. By weakly coupling the qubits to thermal baths at different temperatures, inducing a heat current through the system, steady-state entanglement is generated far from thermal equilibrium. Finally, we discuss two possible implementations, using superconducting flux qubits or a semiconductor double quantum dot. Experimental prospects for steady-state entanglement are promising in both systems.
Universal nonequilibrium states at the fractional quantum Hall edge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levkivskyi, Ivan P.
2016-04-01
Integrability of electron dynamics in one dimension is manifested by the nonequilibrium stationary states. They emerge near a point contact coupling two quantum Hall edges with different chemical potentials. I use the nonequilibrium bosonization technique to show that the effective temperature of such states at the fractional quantum Hall edges has a universal linear dependence on the current through the contact. In contrast, the temperature at eventual equilibrium scales as the square root of the power dissipating at the point contact. I propose to use this distinction to detect these intriguing nonequilibrium states.
Irreducible Decompositions and Stationary States of Quantum Channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carbone, Raffaella; Pautrat, Yan
2016-06-01
For a quantum channel (completely positive, trace-preserving map), we prove a generalization to the infinite-dimensional case of a result by Baumgartner and Narnhofer [3]: this result is, in a probabilistic language, a decomposition of a general quantum channel into its irreducible recurrent components. More precisely, we prove that the positive recurrent subspace (i.e. the space supporting the invariant states) can be decomposed as the direct sum of supports of extremal invariant states; this decomposition is not unique, in general, but we can determine all the possible decompositions. This allows us to describe the full structure of invariant states.
Coherent States of Quantum Free Particle on the Spherical Space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dehdashti, Shahram; Roknizadeh, Rasoul; Mahdifar, Ali; Chen, Hongsheng
2016-01-01
In this paper, we study the quantum free particle on the spherical space by applying da costa approach for quantum particle on the curved space. We obtain the discrete energy eigenvalues and associated normalized eigenfunctions of the free particle on the sphere. In addition, we introduce the Gazeau-Klauder coherent states of free particle on the sphere. Then, the Gaussian coherent states is defined, which is used to describe the localized particle on the spherical space. Finally, we study the relation between the f-deformed coherent states and Gazeau-Klauder ones for this system.
Two Electron States in a Quantum Ring on a Sphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kazaryan, Eduard M.; Shahnazaryan, Vanik A.; Sarkisyan, Hayk A.
2014-02-01
Two electron states in a quantum ring on a spherical surface are discussed. The problem is discussed within the frameworks of Russell-Saunders coupling scheme, that is, the spin-orbit coupling is neglected. Treating Coulomb interaction as a perturbation, the energy correction for different states is calculated. The dependence of the Coulomb interaction energy on external polar boundary angle of quantum ring is obtained. In analogue with the helium atom the concept of states exchange time is introduced, and its dependence on geometrical parameters of the ring is shown.
Quantum state tomography with noninstantaneous measurements, imperfections, and decoherence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Six, P.; Campagne-Ibarcq, Ph.; Dotsenko, I.; Sarlette, A.; Huard, B.; Rouchon, P.
2016-01-01
Tomography of a quantum state is usually based on a positive-operator-valued measure (POVM) and on their experimental statistics. Among the available reconstructions, the maximum-likelihood (MaxLike) technique is an efficient one. We propose an extension of this technique when the measurement process cannot be simply described by an instantaneous POVM. Instead, the tomography relies on a set of quantum trajectories and their measurement records. This model includes the fact that, in practice, each measurement could be corrupted by imperfections and decoherence, and could also be associated with the record of continuous-time signals over a finite amount of time. The goal is then to retrieve the quantum state that was present at the start of this measurement process. The proposed extension relies on an explicit expression of the likelihood function via the effective matrices appearing in quantum smoothing and solutions of the adjoint quantum filter. It allows us to retrieve the initial quantum state as in standard MaxLike tomography, but where the traditional POVM operators are replaced by more general ones that depend on the measurement record of each trajectory. It also provides, aside from the MaxLike estimate of the quantum state, confidence intervals for any observable. Such confidence intervals are derived, as the MaxLike estimate, from an asymptotic expansion of multidimensional Laplace integrals appearing in Bayesian mean estimation. A validation is performed on two sets of experimental data: photon(s) trapped in a microwave cavity subject to quantum nondemolition measurements relying on Rydberg atoms, and heterodyne fluorescence measurements of a superconducting qubit.
Quantum State Sharing in the Driven CQED Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Li; Shao, Qing
2016-04-01
An experimentally feasible scheme to securely distribute and reconstruct a single-atom quantum state between two parties via a tripartite entangled state in cavity QED has been proposed. If they collaborate, both users can reconstruct and read the distributed secret information.
Optimal amount of entanglement to distinguish quantum states instantaneously
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Groisman, Berry; Strelchuk, Sergii
2015-11-01
We introduce an aspect of nonlocality which arises when the task of quantum states distinguishability is considered under local operations and shared entanglement in the absence of classical communication. We find the optimal amount of entanglement required to accomplish the task perfectly for sets of orthogonal states and argue that it quantifies information nonlocality.
Predictability sieve, pointer states, and the classicality of quantum trajectories
Dalvit, D. A. R.; Zurek, W. H.; Dziarmaga, J.
2005-12-15
We study various measures of classicality of the states of open quantum systems subject to decoherence. Classical states are expected to be stable in spite of decoherence, and are thought to leave conspicuous imprints on the environment. Here these expected features of environment-induced superselection are quantified using four different criteria: predictability sieve (which selects states that produce least entropy), purification time (which looks for states that are the easiest to find out from the imprint they leave on the environment), efficiency threshold (which finds states that can be deduced from measurements on a smallest fraction of the environment), and purity loss time (that looks for states for which it takes the longest to lose a set fraction of their initial purity). We show that when pointer states--the most predictable states of an open quantum system selected by the predictability sieve--are well defined, all four criteria agree that they are indeed the most classical states. We illustrate this with two examples: an underdamped harmonic oscillator, for which coherent states are unanimously chosen by all criteria, and a free particle undergoing quantum Brownian motion, for which most criteria select almost identical Gaussian states (although, in this case, the predictability sieve does not select well defined pointer states)
1D quantum simulation using a solid state platform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kirkendall, Megan; Irvin, Patrick; Huang, Mengchen; Levy, Jeremy; Lee, Hyungwoo; Eom, Chang-Beom
Understanding the properties of large quantum systems can be challenging both theoretically and numerically. One experimental approach-quantum simulation-involves mapping a quantum system of interest onto a physical system that is programmable and experimentally accessible. A tremendous amount of work has been performed with quantum simulators formed from optical lattices; by contrast, solid-state platforms have had only limited success. Our experimental approach to quantum simulation takes advantage of nanoscale control of a metal-insulator transition at the interface between two insulating complex oxide materials. This system naturally exhibits a wide variety of ground states (e.g., ferromagnetic, superconducting) and can be configured into a variety of complex geometries. We will describe initial experiments that explore the magnetotransport properties of one-dimensional superlattices with spatial periods as small as 4 nm, comparable to the Fermi wavelength. The results demonstrate the potential of this solid-state quantum simulation approach, and also provide empirical constraints for physical models that describe the underlying oxide material properties. We gratefully acknowledge financial support from AFOSR (FA9550-12-1- 0057 (JL), FA9550-10-1-0524 (JL) and FA9550-12-1-0342 (CBE)), ONR N00014-15-1-2847 (JL), and NSF DMR-1234096 (CBE).
Graphene quantum dots: localized states, edges and bilayer systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ensslin, Klaus
2014-03-01
Graphene quantum dots show Coulomb blockade, excited states and their orbital and spin properties have been investigated in high magnetic fields. Most quantum dots fabricated to date are fabricated with electron beam lithography and dry etching which generally leads to uncontrolled and probably rough edges. We demonstrate that devices with reduced bulk disorder fabricated on BN substrates display similar localized states as those fabricated on the more standard SiO2 substrates. For a highly symmetric quantum dot with short tunnel barriers the experimentally detected transport features can be explained by three localized states, 1 in the dot and 2 in the constrictions. A way to overcome edge roughness and the localized states related to this are bilayer devices where a band gap can be induced by suitable top and back gate voltages. By placing bilayer graphene between two BN layers high electronic quality can be achieved as documented by the observation of broken symmetry states in the quantum Hall regime. We discuss how this method can be exploited to achieve smoother and better tunable graphene quantum devices. This work was done in collaboration with D. Bischoff, P. Simonet, A. Varlet, Y. Tian, and T. Ihn.
Solving quantum ground-state problems with nuclear magnetic resonance.
Li, Zhaokai; Yung, Man-Hong; Chen, Hongwei; Lu, Dawei; Whitfield, James D; Peng, Xinhua; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Du, Jiangfeng
2011-01-01
Quantum ground-state problems are computationally hard problems for general many-body Hamiltonians; there is no classical or quantum algorithm known to be able to solve them efficiently. Nevertheless, if a trial wavefunction approximating the ground state is available, as often happens for many problems in physics and chemistry, a quantum computer could employ this trial wavefunction to project the ground state by means of the phase estimation algorithm (PEA). We performed an experimental realization of this idea by implementing a variational-wavefunction approach to solve the ground-state problem of the Heisenberg spin model with an NMR quantum simulator. Our iterative phase estimation procedure yields a high accuracy for the eigenenergies (to the 10⁻⁵ decimal digit). The ground-state fidelity was distilled to be more than 80%, and the singlet-to-triplet switching near the critical field is reliably captured. This result shows that quantum simulators can better leverage classical trial wave functions than classical computers. PMID:22355607
Imaging of Condensed Quantum States in the Quantum Hall Effect Regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oswald, Josef; Römer, Rudolf A.
It has been proposed already some time ago that Wigner crystallization in the tails of the Landau levels may play an important role in the quantum Hall regime. Here we use numerical simulations for modelling condensed quantum states and propose real space imaging of such highly correlated electron states by scanning gate microscopy (SGM). The ingredients for our modelling are a many particle model that combines a self-consistent Hartree-Fock calculation for the steady state with a non-equilibrium network model for the electron transport. If there exist condensed many particle quantum states in our electronic model system, our simulations demonstrate that the response pattern of the total sample current as a function of the SGM tip position delivers detailed information about the geometry of the underlying quantum state. For the case of a ring shaped dot potential in the few electron limit it is possible to find regimes with a rigid (condensed) charge distribution in the ring, where the SGM pattern corresponds to the probability density of the quantum states. The existence of the SGM image can be interpreted as the manifestation of an electron solid, since the pattern generation of the charge distribution requires certain stability against the moving tip potential.
Realization of Reliable Solid-State Quantum Memory for Photonic Polarization Qubit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Zong-Quan; Lin, Wei-Bin; Yang, Ming; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can
2012-05-01
Faithfully storing an unknown quantum light state is essential to advanced quantum communication and distributed quantum computation applications. The required quantum memory must have high fidelity to improve the performance of a quantum network. Here we report the reversible transfer of photonic polarization states into collective atomic excitation in a compact solid-state device. The quantum memory is based on an atomic frequency comb (AFC) in rare-earth ion-doped crystals. We obtain up to 0.999 process fidelity for the storage and retrieval process of single-photon-level coherent pulse. This reliable quantum memory is a crucial step toward quantum networks based on solid-state devices.
Quantum state tomography with incomplete data: Maximum entropy and variational quantum tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gonçalves, D. S.; Lavor, C.; Gomes-Ruggiero, M. A.; Cesário, A. T.; Vianna, R. O.; Maciel, T. O.
2013-05-01
Whenever we do not have an informationally complete set of measurements, the estimate of a quantum state cannot be uniquely determined. In this case, among the density matrices compatible with the available data, the one commonly preferred is the one which is the most uncommitted to the missing information. This is the purpose of the maximum entropy estimation (MaxEnt) and the variational quantum tomography (VQT). Here, we propose a variant of VQT and show its relationship with MaxEnt methods in quantum tomographies with an incomplete set of measurements. We prove their equivalence in the case of eigenbasis measurements, and through numerical simulations we stress their similar behavior. Hence, in the modified VQT formulation we have an estimate of a quantum state as unbiased as in MaxEnt and with the benefit that VQT can be more efficiently solved by means of linear semidefinite programs.
Quantum paradox of choice: More freedom makes summoning a quantum state harder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adlam, Emily; Kent, Adrian
2016-06-01
The properties of quantum information in space-time can be investigated by studying operational tasks, such as "summoning," in which an unknown quantum state is supplied at one point and a call is made at another for it to be returned at a third. Hayden and May [arXiv:1210.0913] recently proved necessary and sufficient conditions for guaranteeing successful return of a summoned state for finite sets of call and return points when there is a guarantee of at most one summons. We prove necessary and sufficient conditions when there may be several possible summonses and complying with any one constitutes success, and we demonstrate the existence of an apparent paradox: The extra freedom makes it strictly harder to complete the summoning task. This result has practical applications for distributed quantum computing and cryptography and implications for our understanding of relativistic quantum information and its localization in space-time.
High-efficiency tomographic reconstruction of quantum states by quantum nondemolition measurements
Huang, J. S.; Wei, L. F.; Oh, C. H.
2011-03-15
We propose a high-efficiency scheme to tomographically reconstruct an unknown quantum state by using a series of quantum nondemolition (QND) measurements. The proposed QND measurements of the qubits are implemented by probing the stationary transmissions through a driven dispersively coupled resonator. It is shown that only one kind of QND measurement is sufficient to determine all the diagonal elements of the density matrix of the detected quantum state. The remaining nondiagonal elements can be similarly determined by transferring them to the diagonal locations after a series of unitary operations. Compared with the tomographic reconstructions based on the usual destructive projective measurements (wherein one such measurement can determine only one diagonal element of the density matrix), the present reconstructive approach exhibits significantly high efficiency. Specifically, our generic proposal is demonstrated by the experimental circuit quantum electrodynamics systems with a few Josephson charge qubits.
Signatures of discrete breathers in coherent state quantum dynamics
Igumenshchev, Kirill; Ovchinnikov, Misha; Prezhdo, Oleg; Maniadis, Panagiotis
2013-02-07
In classical mechanics, discrete breathers (DBs) - a spatial time-periodic localization of energy - are predicted in a large variety of nonlinear systems. Motivated by a conceptual bridging of the DB phenomena in classical and quantum mechanical representations, we study their signatures in the dynamics of a quantum equivalent of a classical mechanical point in phase space - a coherent state. In contrast to the classical point that exhibits either delocalized or localized motion, the coherent state shows signatures of both localized and delocalized behavior. The transition from normal to local modes have different characteristics in quantum and classical perspectives. Here, we get an insight into the connection between classical and quantum perspectives by analyzing the decomposition of the coherent state into system's eigenstates, and analyzing the spacial distribution of the wave-function density within these eigenstates. We find that the delocalized and localized eigenvalue components of the coherent state are separated by a mixed region, where both kinds of behavior can be observed. Further analysis leads to the following observations. Considered as a function of coupling, energy eigenstates go through avoided crossings between tunneling and non-tunneling modes. The dominance of tunneling modes in the high nonlinearity region is compromised by the appearance of new types of modes - high order tunneling modes - that are similar to the tunneling modes but have attributes of non-tunneling modes. Certain types of excitations preferentially excite higher order tunneling modes, allowing one to study their properties. Since auto-correlation functions decrease quickly in highly nonlinear systems, short-time dynamics are sufficient for modeling quantum DBs. This work provides a foundation for implementing modern semi-classical methods to model quantum DBs, bridging classical and quantum mechanical signatures of DBs, and understanding spectroscopic experiments that
Complementarity of quantum correlations in cloning and deleting of quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sazim, Sk; Chakrabarty, Indranil; Datta, Annwesha; Pati, Arun K.
2015-06-01
We quantify the amount of correlation generated between two different output modes in imperfect cloning and deletion processes. We use three different measures of quantum correlations and investigate their role in determining the fidelity of cloning and deletion. We obtain a bound on the total correlation generated in the successive processes of cloning and deleting operations. This bound displays a different kind of complementary relationship between the quantum correlations required in generating a copy of a quantum state and the amount of correlation required to bring it back to the original state by deleting and vice versa. Our result shows that the better we clone (delete) a state, the more difficult it will be to bring the state back to its original form by the process of deleting (cloning).
Komnik, A; Saleur, H
2011-09-01
We verify the validity of the Cohen-Gallavotti fluctuation theorem for the strongly correlated problem of charge transfer through an impurity in a chiral Luttinger liquid, which is realizable experimentally as a quantum point contact in a fractional quantum Hall edge state device. This is accomplished via the development of an analytical method to calculate the full counting statistics of the problem in all the parameter regimes involving the temperature, the Hall voltage, and the gate voltage. PMID:21981487
Quantum gloves: Quantum states that encode as much as possible chirality and nothing else
Collins, D.; Diosi, L.; Gisin, N.; Massar, S.; Popescu, S.
2005-08-15
Communicating a physical quantity cannot be done using information only - i.e., using abstract cbits and/or qubits. Rather one needs appropriate physical realizations of cbits and/or qubits. We illustrate this by considering the problem of communicating chirality. We discuss in detail the physical resources this necessitates and introduce the natural concept of quantum gloves - i.e., rotationally invariant quantum states that encode as much as possible the concept of chirality and nothing more.
Generalized coherent states under deformed quantum mechanics with maximum momentum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ching, Chee Leong; Ng, Wei Khim
2013-10-01
Following the Gazeau-Klauder approach, we construct generalized coherent states (GCS) as the quantum simulator to examine the deformed quantum mechanics, which exhibits an intrinsic maximum momentum. We study deformed harmonic oscillators and compute their probability distribution and entropy of states exactly. Also, a particle in an infinite potential box is studied perturbatively. In particular, unlike usual quantum mechanics, the present deformed case increases the entropy of the Planck scale quantum optical system. Furthermore, for simplicity, we obtain the modified uncertainty principle (MUP) with the perturbative treatment up to leading order. MUP turns out to increase generally. However, for certain values of γ (a parameter of GCS), it is possible that the MUP will vanish and hence will exhibit the classical characteristic. This is interpreted as the manifestation of the intrinsic high-momentum cutoff at lower momentum in a perturbative treatment. Although the GCS saturates the minimal uncertainty in a simultaneous measurement of physical position and momentum operators, thus constituting the squeezed states, complete coherency is impossible in quantum gravitational physics. The Mandel Q number is calculated, and it is shown that the statistics can be Poissonian and super-/sub-Poissonian depending on γ. The equation of motion is studied, and both Ehrenfest’s theorem and the correspondence principle are recovered. Fractional revival times are obtained through the autocorrelation, and they indicate that the superposition of a classical-like subwave packet is natural in GCS. We also contrast our results with the string-motivated (Snyder) type of deformed quantum mechanics, which incorporates a minimum position uncertainty rather than a maximum momentum. With the advances of quantum optics technology, it might be possible to realize some of these distinguishing quantum-gravitational features within the domain of future experiments.
Improving ancilla states for quantum computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weinstein, Yaakov S.; Chai, Daniel; Xie, Newton
2016-04-01
We analyze the improvement in output state fidelity upon improving the construction accuracy of ancilla states. Specifically, we simulate gates and syndrome measurements on a single qubit of information encoded into the [[7,1,3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coelho, A. S.; Barbosa, F. A. S.; Cassemiro, K. N.; Martinelli, M.; Villar, A. S.; Nussenzveig, P.
2015-07-01
Gaussian quantum states hold special importance in the continuous variable regime. In quantum information science, the understanding and characterization of central resources such as entanglement may strongly rely on the knowledge of the Gaussian or non-Gaussian character of the quantum state. However, the quantum measurement associated with the spectral photocurrent of light modes consists of a mixture of quadrature observables. Within the framework of two recent papers [Phys. Rev. A 88, 052113 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.052113 and Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 200402 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.200402], we address here how the statistics of the spectral photocurrent relates to the character of the Wigner function describing those modes. We show that a Gaussian state can be misidentified as non-Gaussian and vice versa, a conclusion that forces the adoption of tacit a priori assumptions to perform quantum state reconstruction. We experimentally analyze the light beams generated by the optical parametric oscillator operating above threshold to show that the data strongly supports the generation of Gaussian states of the field, validating the use of necessary and sufficient criteria to characterize entanglement in this system.
Quantum Discord and Entanglement of Quasi-Werner States Based on Bipartite Entangled Coherent States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishra, Manoj K.; Maurya, Ajay K.; Prakash, Hari
2016-06-01
Present work is an attempt to compare quantum discord and quantum entanglement of quasi-Werner states formed with the four bipartite entangled coherent states (ECS) used recently for quantum teleportation of a qubit encoded in superposed coherent state. Out of these, the quasi-Werner states based on maximally ECS due to its invariant nature under local operation is independent of measurement basis and mean photon numbers, while for quasi-Werner states based on non-maximally ECS, it depends upon measurement basis as well as on mean photon number. However, for large mean photon numbers since non-maximally ECS becomes almost maximally entangled therefore dependence of quantum discord for non-maximally ECS based quasi-Werner states on the measurement basis disappears.
Local density of states in parabolic quantum corrals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trallero-Giner, C.; Ulloa, S. E.; López-Richard, V.
2004-03-01
Atomic manipulation and scanning tunnel microscope experiments on metal surfaces have shown that electronic states in a “quantum corral” can be locally monitored and used to analyze the nonlocal effects of perturbations. We study new corral geometries defined by families of confocal parabolas. General solutions of the Schrödinger equation for the interior problem with Dirichlet (hard wall) boundary conditions are found exactly in terms of zeroes of hypergeometric functions. We show that the Hilbert space of solutions is separated in subspaces with odd and even symmetry. We perform numerical evaluation of the zeroes and study the effects of the parabolic curvatures on the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the parabolic quantum corral. The evolution of the local density of states with energy as a function of parabolic corral geometry is also analyzed. We find that under suitable conditions, the distribution of state antinodes can be described as directed intensity beams, which could be used as “quantum beacons” in future generations of “quantum mirage” experiments or optical and acoustic analogs of quantum corrals for the state node distribution.
Robustness of asymmetry and coherence of quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piani, Marco; Cianciaruso, Marco; Bromley, Thomas R.; Napoli, Carmine; Johnston, Nathaniel; Adesso, Gerardo
2016-04-01
Quantum states may exhibit asymmetry with respect to the action of a given group. Such an asymmetry of states can be considered a resource in applications such as quantum metrology, and it is a concept that encompasses quantum coherence as a special case. We introduce explicitly and study the robustness of asymmetry, a quantifier of asymmetry of states that we prove to have many attractive properties, including efficient numerical computability via semidefinite programming and an operational interpretation in a channel discrimination context. We also introduce the notion of asymmetry witnesses, whose measurement in a laboratory detects the presence of asymmetry. We prove that properly constrained asymmetry witnesses provide lower bounds to the robustness of asymmetry, which is shown to be a directly measurable quantity itself. We then focus our attention on coherence witnesses and the robustness of coherence, for which we prove a number of additional results; these include an analysis of its specific relevance in phase discrimination and quantum metrology, an analytical calculation of its value for a relevant class of quantum states, and tight bounds that relate it to another previously defined coherence monotone.
Quantum error correction against photon loss using NOON states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergmann, Marcel; van Loock, Peter
2016-07-01
The so-called NOON states are quantum optical resources known to be useful especially for quantum lithography and metrology. At the same time, they are known to be very sensitive to photon losses and rather hard to produce experimentally. Concerning the former, here we present a scheme where NOON states are the elementary resources for building quantum error-correction codes against photon losses, thus demonstrating that such resources can also be useful to suppress the effect of loss. Our NOON code is an exact code that can be systematically extended from one-photon to higher-number losses. Its loss scaling depending on the codeword photon number is the same as for some existing, exact loss codes such as bosonic and quantum parity codes, but its codeword mode number is intermediate between that of the other codes. Another generalization of the NOON code is given for arbitrary logical qudits instead of logical qubits. While, in general, the final codewords are always obtainable from multimode NOON states through application of beam splitters, both codewords for the one-photon-loss qubit NOON code can be simply created from single-photon states with beam splitters. We give various examples and also discuss a potential application of our qudit code for quantum communication.
Observation of Dressed Excitonic States in a Single Quantum Dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jundt, Gregor; Robledo, Lucio; Högele, Alexander; Fält, Stefan; Imamoǧlu, Atac
2008-05-01
We report the observation of dressed states of a quantum dot. The optically excited exciton and biexciton states of the quantum dot are coupled by a strong laser field and the resulting spectral signatures are measured using differential transmission of a probe field. We demonstrate that the anisotropic electron-hole exchange interaction induced splitting between the x- and y-polarized excitonic states can be completely erased by using the ac-Stark effect induced by the coupling field, without causing any appreciable broadening of the spectral lines. We also show that by varying the polarization and strength of a resonant coupling field, we can effectively change the polarization axis of the quantum dot.
Direct measurement of general quantum states using strong measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zou, Ping; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Song, Wei
2015-05-01
The direct state measurement (DSM) based on the weak measurement has the advantage of simplicity, versatility, and directness. However, the weak measurement will introduce an unavoidable error in the reconstructed quantum state. We modify the DSM by replacing the weak coupling between the system and the pointer by a strong one, and present two procedures for measuring quantum states, one of which can give the wave function or the density matrix directly. We can also measure the Dirac distribution of a discrete system directly. Furthermore, we propose quantum circuits for realizing these procedures, and the main body of the circuits consists of Toffoli gates. By numerical simulation, we find that our scheme can eliminate the biased error effectively.
Bell states and entanglement dynamics on two coupled quantum molecules
Oliveira, P.A.; Sanz, L.
2015-05-15
This work provides a complete description of entanglement properties between electrons inside coupled quantum molecules, nanoestructures which consist of two quantum dots. Each electron can tunnel between the two quantum dots inside the molecule, being also coupled by Coulomb interaction. First, it is shown that Bell states act as a natural basis for the description of this physical system, defining the characteristics of the energy spectrum and the eigenstates. Then, the entanglement properties of the eigenstates are discussed, shedding light on the roles of each physical parameters on experimental setup. Finally, a detailed analysis of the dynamics shows the path to generate states with a high degree of entanglement, as well as physical conditions associated with coherent oscillations between separable and Bell states.
Valley-orbit hybrid states in Si quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gamble, John; Friesen, Mark; Coppersmith, S. N.
2013-03-01
The conduction band for electrons in layered Si nanostructures oriented along (001) has two low-lying valleys. Most theoretical treatments assume that these valleys are decoupled from the long-wavelength physics of electron confinement. In this work, we show that even a minimal amount of disorder (a single atomic step at the quantum well interface) is sufficient to mix valley states and electron orbitals, causing a significant distortion of the long-wavelength electron envelope. For physically realistic electric fields and dot sizes, this valley-orbit coupling impacts all electronic states in Si quantum dots, implying that one must always consider valley-orbit hybrid states, rather than distinct valley and orbital degrees of freedom. We discuss the ramifications of our results on silicon quantum dot qubits. This work was supported in part by ARO (W911NF-08-1-0482) and NSF (DMR-0805045).
Physical realization of quantum teleportation for a nonmaximal entangled state
Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Asano, Masanari; Ohya, Masanori
2010-08-15
Recently, Kossakowski and Ohya (K-O) proposed a new teleportation scheme which enables perfect teleportation even for a nonmaximal entangled state [A. Kossakowski and M. Ohya, Infinite Dimensional Analysis Quantum Probability and Related Topics 10, 411 (2007)]. To discuss a physical realization of the K-O scheme, we propose a model based on quantum optics. In our model, we take a superposition of Schroedinger's cat states as an input state being sent from Alice to Bob, and their entangled state is generated by a photon number state through a beam splitter. When the average photon number for our input states is equal to half the number of photons into the beam splitter, our model has high fidelity.
Entanglement of quantum circular states of light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horoshko, D. B.; De Bièvre, S.; Kolobov, M. I.; Patera, G.
2016-06-01
We present a general approach to calculating the entanglement of formation for superpositions of two-mode coherent states, placed equidistantly on a circle in phase space. We show that in the particular case of rotationally invariant circular states the Schmidt decomposition of two modes, and therefore the value of their entanglement, are given by analytical expressions. We analyze the dependence of the entanglement on the radius of the circle and number of components in the superposition. We also show that the set of rotationally invariant circular states creates an orthonormal basis in the state space of the harmonic oscillator, and this basis is advantageous for representation of other circular states of light.
Grover's quantum search algorithm for an arbitrary initial mixed state
Biham, Eli; Kenigsberg, Dan
2002-12-01
The Grover quantum search algorithm is generalized to deal with an arbitrary mixed initial state. The probability to measure a marked state as a function of time is calculated, and found to depend strongly on the specific initial state. The form of the function, though, remains as it is in the case of initial pure state. We study the role of the von Neumann entropy of the initial state, and show that the entropy cannot be a measure for the usefulness of the algorithm. We give few examples and show that for some extremely mixed initial states (carrying high entropy), the generalized Grover algorithm is considerably faster than any classical algorithm.
Entanglement and quantum teleportation via decohered tripartite entangled states
Metwally, N.
2014-12-15
The entanglement behavior of two classes of multi-qubit system, GHZ and GHZ like states passing through a generalized amplitude damping channel is discussed. Despite this channel causes degradation of the entangled properties and consequently their abilities to perform quantum teleportation, one can always improve the lower values of the entanglement and the fidelity of the teleported state by controlling on Bell measurements, analyzer angle and channel’s strength. Using GHZ-like state within a generalized amplitude damping channel is much better than using the normal GHZ-state, where the decay rate of entanglement and the fidelity of the teleported states are smaller than those depicted for GHZ state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thapliyal, Kishore; Verma, Amit; Pathak, Anirban
2015-12-01
Recently, a large number of protocols for bidirectional controlled state teleportation (BCST) have been proposed using n-qubit entangled states (nin {5,6,7}) as quantum channel. Here, we propose a general method of selecting multiqubit (n>4) quantum channels suitable for BCST and show that all the channels used in the existing protocols of BCST can be obtained using the proposed method. Further, it is shown that the quantum channels used in the existing protocols of BCST form only a negligibly small subset of the set of all the quantum channels that can be constructed using the proposed method to implement BCST. It is also noted that all these quantum channels are also suitable for controlled bidirectional remote state preparation. Following the same logic, methods for selecting quantum channels for other controlled quantum communication tasks, such as controlled bidirectional joint remote state preparation and controlled quantum dialogue, are also provided.
Quantum secret sharing with continuous-variable cluster states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lau, Hoi-Kwan; Weedbrook, Christian
2013-10-01
We extend the formalism of cluster-state quantum secret sharing, as presented by Markham and Sanders [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.78.042309 78, 042309 (2008)] and Keet [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.82.062315 82, 062315 (2010)], to the continuous-variable regime. We show that both classical and quantum information can be shared by distributing continuous-variable cluster states through either public or private channels. We find that the adversary structure is completely denied from the secret if the cluster state is infinitely squeezed, but some secret information would be leaked if a realistic finitely squeezed state is employed. We suggest benchmarks to evaluate the security in the finitely squeezed cases. For the sharing of classical secrets, we borrow techniques from the continuous-variable quantum key distribution to compute the secret-sharing rate. For the sharing of quantum states, we estimate the amount of entanglement distilled for teleportation from each cluster state.
Fisher symmetry and the geometry of quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gross, Jonathan A.; Barnum, Howard; Caves, Carlton M.
The quantum Fisher information (QFI) is a valuable tool on account of the achievable lower bound it provides for single-parameter estimation. Due to the existence of incompatible quantum observables, however, the lower bound provided by the QFI cannot be saturated in the general multi-parameter case. A bound demonstrated by Gill and Massar (GM) captures some of the limitations that incompatibility imposes in the multi-parameter case. We further explore the structure of measurements allowed by quantum mechanics, identifying restrictions beyond those given by the QFI and GM bound. These additional restrictions give insight into the geometry of quantum state space and notions of measurement symmetry related to the QFI.
Playing Quantum Games with Disentanglement-Free State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weng, Guo-Fu; Yu, Yang
2016-01-01
We use a kind of disentanglement-free state to serve as the initial state shared by players and referee in quantum games. It is found that when two players choose some strategies the payoffs of the quantum games will not be affected by the external single-mode vacuum field and the various interactions present in the process. Furthermore, we show that for some games our scheme can be used to remove the dilemma in its corresponding classical game even with the presence of noises; meanwhile, one can find the solution to those games without disturbing the players’ payoffs.
Coherent state quantum key distribution based on entanglement sudden death
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaeger, Gregg; Simon, David; Sergienko, Alexander V.
2016-03-01
A method for quantum key distribution (QKD) using entangled coherent states is discussed which is designed to provide key distribution rates and transmission distances surpassing those of traditional entangled photon pair QKD by exploiting entanglement sudden death. The method uses entangled electromagnetic signal states of `macroscopic' average photon numbers rather than single photon or entangled photon pairs, which have inherently limited rate and distance performance as bearers of quantum key data. Accordingly, rather than relying specifically on Bell inequalities as do entangled photon pair-based methods, the security of this method is based on entanglement witnesses and related functions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Bing; Li, Yong
2016-04-01
Quantum state transfer (QST) is an important task in quantum information processing. In this study, we describe two approaches for the high-fidelity transfer of a quantum state between two opposite quantum dots attached to a multi-channel quantum network. First, we demonstrate that a high-efficiency QST can be achieved with the coherent time evolution of a quantum system without any external control. Second, we present an approach that uses an alternative mechanism for a high-fidelity QST. By adiabatically varying tunnel couplings, it is possible to implement the complete transmission of a quantum state based on this quantum mechanical mechanism.
Quantum Teleportation of a Three-qubit State using a Five-qubit Cluster State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zhong-min; Zhou, Lin
2014-12-01
Recently Muralidharan and Panigrahi (Phys. Rev. A 78, 062333 2008) had shown that using a five-qubit cluster state as quantum channel, it is possible to teleport an arbitrary single-qubit state and an arbitrary two-qubit state. In this paper, we investigate this channel for the teleportation of a special form of three-qubit state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greca, Ileana Maria; Freire, Olival
Teaching physics implies making choices. In the case of teaching quantum physics, besides an educational choice - the didactic strategy - another choice must be made, an epistemological one, concerning the interpretation of quantum theory itself. These two choices are closely connected. We have chosen a didactic strategy that privileges the phenomenological-conceptual approach, with emphasis upon quantum features of the systems, instead of searching for classical analogies. This choice has led us to present quantum theory associated with an orthodox, yet realistic, interpretation of the concept of quantum state, considered as the key concept of quantum theory, representing the physical reality of a system, independent of measurement processes. The results of the mplementation of this strategy, with three groups of engineering students, showed that more than a half of them attained a reasonable understanding of the basics of quantum mechanics (QM) for this level. In addition, a high degree of satisfaction was attained with the classes as 80% of the students of the experimental groups claimed to have liked it and to be interested in learning more about QM.
Quantum Information Splitting of Arbitrary Three-Qubit State by Using Seven-Qubit Entangled State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Dong-fen; Wang, Rui-jin; Zhang, Feng-li; Deng, Fu-hu
2015-06-01
In this paper, we propose a scheme of quantum information splitting arbitrary three-qubit state by using seven-qubit entangled as quantum channel. The sender Alice first performs Bell-state measurements (BSMs) on her qubits pairs respectively and tells her measurement outcome to authorizers Bob to reconstruct the original state, then Charlie should carries out single-qubit measurement (SQM) on his qubits. According to the results from Alice and Charlie, Bob can reconstruct the original state by applying an appropriate unitary operation. After analyzing, the method achieved the desired effect of quantum information splitting (QIS). We also realize the QIS of arbitrary three-qubit state in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED).
Realizing quantum advantage without entanglement in single-photon states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maldonado Trapp, Alejandra; Solano, Pablo; Hu, Anzi; Clark, Charles W.
2016-05-01
Quantum discord expresses quantum correlations beyond those associated with entanglement. Although it has been extensively studied theoretically, quantum discord has yet to become a standard tool in experimental studies of correlation. We propose a class of experiments in which quantum correlations are present in the absence of entanglement, and are best understood in terms of quantum discord.. These utilize X-states of two qubits, which correspond to the polarization and the optical path of a single photon within a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. We show how to produce states with diverse measures of discord and entanglement, including the case of discord without entanglement. With these states we show how a classical random variable K can be encoded by Alice and decoded by Bob. Using our previous results we analytically study the correlations between the spin and path qubits and its relation with the information about K that can be decoded by Bob using local measurements with or without two-qubit gate operations.
Matrix model for non-Abelian quantum Hall states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dorey, Nick; Tong, David; Turner, Carl
2016-08-01
We propose a matrix quantum mechanics for a class of non-Abelian quantum Hall states. The model describes electrons which carry an internal SU(p ) spin. The ground states of the matrix model include spin-singlet generalizations of the Moore-Read and Read-Rezayi states and, in general, lie in a class previously introduced by Blok and Wen. The effective action for these states is a U(p ) Chern-Simons theory. We show how the matrix model can be derived from quantization of the vortices in this Chern-Simons theory and how the matrix model ground states can be reconstructed as correlation functions in the boundary WZW model.
Perfect transfer of arbitrary states in quantum spin networks
Christandl, Matthias; Kay, Alastair; Datta, Nilanjana; Dorlas, Tony C.; Ekert, Artur; Landahl, Andrew J.
2005-03-01
We propose a class of qubit networks that admit perfect state transfer of any two-dimensional quantum state in a fixed period of time. We further show that such networks can distribute arbitrary entangled states between two distant parties, and can, by using such systems in parallel, transmit the higher-dimensional systems states across the network. Unlike many other schemes for quantum computation and communication, these networks do not require qubit couplings to be switched on and off. When restricted to N-qubit spin networks of identical qubit couplings, we show that 2 log{sub 3}N is the maximal perfect communication distance for hypercube geometries. Moreover, if one allows fixed but different couplings between the qubits then perfect state transfer can be achieved over arbitrarily long distances in a linear chain. This paper expands and extends the work done by Christandl et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 187902 (2004)
Experimental quantum cryptography scheme based on orthogonal states: preliminary results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avella, Alessio; Brida, Giorgio; Degiovanni, Ivo P.; Genovese, Marco; Gramegna, Marco; Traina, Paolo
2010-04-01
Since, in general, non-orthogonal states cannot be cloned, any eavesdropping attempt in a Quantum Communication scheme using non-orthogonal states as carriers of information introduces some errors in the transmission, leading to the possibility of detecting the spy. Usually, orthogonal states are not used in Quantum Cryptography schemes since they can be faithfully cloned without altering the transmitted data. Nevertheless, L. Goldberg and L. Vaidman [Phys. Rev. Lett. 75 (7), pp. 12391243, 1995] proposed a protocol in which, even if the data exchange is realized using two orthogonal states, any attempt to eavesdrop is detectable by the legal users. In this scheme the orthogonal states are superpositions of two localized wave packets which travel along separate channels, i.e. two different paths inside a balanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Here we present an experiment realizing this scheme.
Experimental quantum-cryptography scheme based on orthogonal states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avella, Alessio; Brida, Giorgio; Degiovanni, Ivo Pietro; Genovese, Marco; Gramegna, Marco; Traina, Paolo
2010-12-01
Since, in general, nonorthogonal states cannot be cloned, any eavesdropping attempt in a quantum-communication scheme using nonorthogonal states as carriers of information introduces some errors in the transmission, leading to the possibility of detecting the spy. Usually, orthogonal states are not used in quantum-cryptography schemes since they can be faithfully cloned without altering the transmitted data. Nevertheless, L. Goldberg and L. Vaidman [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.75.1239 75, 1239 (1995)] proposed a protocol in which, even if the data exchange is realized using two orthogonal states, any attempt to eavesdrop is detectable by the legal users. In this scheme the orthogonal states are superpositions of two localized wave packets traveling along separate channels. Here we present an experiment realizing this scheme.
Sequential state discrimination and requirement of quantum dissonance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pang, Chao-Qian; Zhang, Fu-Lin; Xu, Li-Fang; Liang, Mai-Lin; Chen, Jing-Ling
2013-11-01
We study the procedure for sequential unambiguous state discrimination. A qubit is prepared in one of two possible states and measured by two observers Bob and Charlie sequentially. A necessary condition for the state to be unambiguously discriminated by Charlie is the absence of entanglement between the principal qubit, prepared by Alice, and Bob's auxiliary system. In general, the procedure for both Bob and Charlie to recognize between two nonorthogonal states conclusively relies on the availability of quantum discord which is precisely the quantum dissonance when the entanglement is absent. In Bob's measurement, the left discord is positively correlated with the information extracted by Bob, and the right discord enhances the information left to Charlie. When their product achieves its maximum the probability for both Bob and Charlie to identify the state achieves its optimal value.
A search algorithm for quantum state engineering and metrology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knott, P. A.
2016-07-01
In this paper we present a search algorithm that finds useful optical quantum states which can be created with current technology. We apply the algorithm to the field of quantum metrology with the goal of finding states that can measure a phase shift to a high precision. Our algorithm efficiently produces a number of novel solutions: we find experimentally ready schemes to produce states that show significant improvements over the state-of-the-art, and can measure with a precision that beats the shot noise limit by over a factor of 4. Furthermore, these states demonstrate a robustness to moderate/high photon losses, and we present a conceptually simple measurement scheme that saturates the Cramér–Rao bound.
Experimental quantum-cryptography scheme based on orthogonal states
Avella, Alessio; Brida, Giorgio; Degiovanni, Ivo Pietro; Genovese, Marco; Gramegna, Marco; Traina, Paolo
2010-12-15
Since, in general, nonorthogonal states cannot be cloned, any eavesdropping attempt in a quantum-communication scheme using nonorthogonal states as carriers of information introduces some errors in the transmission, leading to the possibility of detecting the spy. Usually, orthogonal states are not used in quantum-cryptography schemes since they can be faithfully cloned without altering the transmitted data. Nevertheless, L. Goldberg and L. Vaidman [Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1239 (1995)] proposed a protocol in which, even if the data exchange is realized using two orthogonal states, any attempt to eavesdrop is detectable by the legal users. In this scheme the orthogonal states are superpositions of two localized wave packets traveling along separate channels. Here we present an experiment realizing this scheme.
Typical pure nonequilibrium steady states and irreversibility for quantum transport.
Monnai, Takaaki; Yuasa, Kazuya
2016-07-01
It is known that each single typical pure state in an energy shell of a large isolated quantum system well represents a thermal equilibrium state of the system. We show that such typicality holds also for nonequilibrium steady states (NESS's). We consider a small quantum system coupled to multiple infinite reservoirs. In the long run, the total system reaches a unique NESS. We identify a large Hilbert space from which pure states of the system are to be sampled randomly and show that the typical pure states well describe the NESS. We also point out that the irreversible relaxation to the unique NESS is important to the typicality of the pure NESS's. PMID:27575115
Quantum state discrimination bounds for finite sample size
Audenaert, Koenraad M. R.; Mosonyi, Milan; Verstraete, Frank
2012-12-15
In the problem of quantum state discrimination, one has to determine by measurements the state of a quantum system, based on the a priori side information that the true state is one of the two given and completely known states, {rho} or {sigma}. In general, it is not possible to decide the identity of the true state with certainty, and the optimal measurement strategy depends on whether the two possible errors (mistaking {rho} for {sigma}, or the other way around) are treated as of equal importance or not. Results on the quantum Chernoff and Hoeffding bounds and the quantum Stein's lemma show that, if several copies of the system are available then the optimal error probabilities decay exponentially in the number of copies, and the decay rate is given by a certain statistical distance between {rho} and {sigma} (the Chernoff distance, the Hoeffding distances, and the relative entropy, respectively). While these results provide a complete solution to the asymptotic problem, they are not completely satisfying from a practical point of view. Indeed, in realistic scenarios one has access only to finitely many copies of a system, and therefore it is desirable to have bounds on the error probabilities for finite sample size. In this paper we provide finite-size bounds on the so-called Stein errors, the Chernoff errors, the Hoeffding errors, and the mixed error probabilities related to the Chernoff and the Hoeffding errors.
Quantum State Cloning Using Deutschian Closed Timelike Curves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brun, Todd A.; Wilde, Mark M.; Winter, Andreas
2013-11-01
We show that it is possible to clone quantum states to arbitrary accuracy in the presence of a Deutschian closed timelike curve (D-CTC), with a fidelity converging to one in the limit as the dimension of the CTC system becomes large—thus resolving an open conjecture [Brun et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 210402 (2009)]. This result follows from a D-CTC-assisted scheme for producing perfect clones of a quantum state prepared in a known eigenbasis, and the fact that one can reconstruct an approximation of a quantum state from empirical estimates of the probabilities of an informationally complete measurement. Our results imply more generally that every continuous, but otherwise arbitrarily nonlinear map from states to states, can be implemented to arbitrary accuracy with D-CTCs. Furthermore, our results show that Deutsch’s model for closed timelike curves is in fact a classical model, in the sense that two arbitrary, distinct density operators are perfectly distinguishable (in the limit of a large closed timelike curve system); hence, in this model quantum mechanics becomes a classical theory in which each density operator is a distinct point in a classical phase space.
Analysis of optimal unambiguous discrimination of three pure quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ha, Donghoon; Kwon, Younghun
2015-06-01
We consider unambiguous discrimination of three pure quantum states. Necessary and sufficient conditions to decide which states should be detected for optimal measurement of unambiguous discrimination are provided in terms of inner products and the geometric phase Φ . We get the optimal measurement and the optimal failure probability when the optimal unambiguous discrimination does not require the detection of every given quantum state. When at least two quantum states are orthogonal to each other, we supply the optimal measurement and optimal failure probability in analytic form. When all three quantum states are not orthogonal to each other and Φ ≠0 , we find an analytic condition to determine the zero and nonzero elements for an optimal positive operator valued measure. We explain how to determine the solution in a geometric manner. Using the known solution of a case where the mutual inner products are real, we check the necessary and sufficient conditions when Φ =π and analyze the property of the singular point when Φ =0 and the relation between the optimal points.
Quantum tunneling between Chern states in a Topological Insulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Minhao; Wang, Wudi; Richardella, Anthony R.; Kandala, Abhinav; Li, Jian; Yazdani, Ali; Samarth, Nitin; Ong, N. P.
The tunneling of a macroscopic object through a barrier is a quintessentially quantum phenomenon important in field theory, low-temperature physics and quantum computing. Progress has been achieved in experiments on Josephson junctions, molecular magnets, and domain wall dynamics. However, a key feature - rapid expansion of the true vacuum triggered by a tunneling event is virtually unexplored. Here we report the detection of large jumps in the Hall resistance Ryx in a magnetized topological insulator which result from tunneling out of a metastable topological state. In the TI, the conducting electrons are confined to surface Dirac states. When magnetized, the TI enters the quantum anomalous Hall insulator state in which Ryx is strictly quantized. If the magnetic field is reversed, the sample is trapped in a metastable state. We find that, below 145 mK, Ryx exhibits abrupt jumps as large as one quantum unit on time-scales under 1 ms. If the temperature is raised, the escape rate is suppressed consistent with tunneling in the presence of dissipation. The jumps involve expansion of the thermodynamically stable state bubble over macroscopic lengths, but dissipation limits the final size. The results uncover novel effects of dissipation on macroscopic tunneling. We acknowledge support from DARPA SPAWAR (N66001-11-1-4110) and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundations (GBMF4539).
Discovery of competing 5/2 fractional quantum Hall states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Xi; Fu, Hailong; Wang, Pengjie; Shan, Pujia; Xiong, Lin; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken; Kastner, Marc
With an even denominator, ν = 5 / 2 fractional quantum Hall state (FQH) is different from most of the other FQH states. Some of its proposed wave functions may exhibit novel non-Abelian statistics, which is related to topological quantum computation. We carried out tunneling measurements within a quantum point contact (QPC) at the 5/2 state and we were able to match the QPC's density to the two-dimensional electron gas bulk density. Such a density match guarantees the uniform filling factor inside and outside the QPC. The interaction parameter g and the effective charge e* can be extracted through the weak tunneling theory. We found g and e* similar to what people believed to be the Abelian 331 state. By tuning the confinement, we observed another region where the experimental data agree well with the weak tunneling theory, which leads to e* =0.25 and g =0.52, implying non-Abelian wavefunctions such as anti-Pfaffian or U(1)×SU2(2). Our discovery suggests that there are competing 5/2 fractional quantum Hall ground states depending on the confinement. The work at PKU was funded by NSFC and NBRPC. The work at Princeton University was funded by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation through the EPiQS initiative Grant GBMF4420, and by the National Science Foundation MRSEC Grant DMR-1420541.
Speedup of quantum evolution of multiqubit entanglement states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ying-Jie; Han, Wei; Xia, Yun-Jie; Tian, Jian-Xiang; Fan, Heng
2016-06-01
As is well known, quantum speed limit time (QSLT) can be used to characterize the maximal speed of evolution of quantum systems. We mainly investigate the QSLT of generalized N-qubit GHZ-type states and W-type states in the amplitude-damping channels. It is shown that, in the case N qubits coupled with independent noise channels, the QSLT of the entangled GHZ-type state is closely related to the number of qubits in the small-scale system. And the larger entanglement of GHZ-type states can lead to the shorter QSLT of the evolution process. However, the QSLT of the W-type states are independent of the number of qubits and the initial entanglement. Furthermore, by considering only M qubits among the N-qubit system respectively interacting with their own noise channels, QSLTs for these two types states are shorter than in the case N qubits coupled with independent noise channels. We therefore reach the interesting result that the potential speedup of quantum evolution of a given N-qubit GHZ-type state or W-type state can be realized in the case the number of the applied noise channels satisfying M < N.
Speedup of quantum evolution of multiqubit entanglement states.
Zhang, Ying-Jie; Han, Wei; Xia, Yun-Jie; Tian, Jian-Xiang; Fan, Heng
2016-01-01
As is well known, quantum speed limit time (QSLT) can be used to characterize the maximal speed of evolution of quantum systems. We mainly investigate the QSLT of generalized N-qubit GHZ-type states and W-type states in the amplitude-damping channels. It is shown that, in the case N qubits coupled with independent noise channels, the QSLT of the entangled GHZ-type state is closely related to the number of qubits in the small-scale system. And the larger entanglement of GHZ-type states can lead to the shorter QSLT of the evolution process. However, the QSLT of the W-type states are independent of the number of qubits and the initial entanglement. Furthermore, by considering only M qubits among the N-qubit system respectively interacting with their own noise channels, QSLTs for these two types states are shorter than in the case N qubits coupled with independent noise channels. We therefore reach the interesting result that the potential speedup of quantum evolution of a given N-qubit GHZ-type state or W-type state can be realized in the case the number of the applied noise channels satisfying M < N. PMID:27283757
Speedup of quantum evolution of multiqubit entanglement states
Zhang, Ying-Jie; Han, Wei; Xia, Yun-Jie; Tian, Jian-Xiang; Fan, Heng
2016-01-01
As is well known, quantum speed limit time (QSLT) can be used to characterize the maximal speed of evolution of quantum systems. We mainly investigate the QSLT of generalized N-qubit GHZ-type states and W-type states in the amplitude-damping channels. It is shown that, in the case N qubits coupled with independent noise channels, the QSLT of the entangled GHZ-type state is closely related to the number of qubits in the small-scale system. And the larger entanglement of GHZ-type states can lead to the shorter QSLT of the evolution process. However, the QSLT of the W-type states are independent of the number of qubits and the initial entanglement. Furthermore, by considering only M qubits among the N-qubit system respectively interacting with their own noise channels, QSLTs for these two types states are shorter than in the case N qubits coupled with independent noise channels. We therefore reach the interesting result that the potential speedup of quantum evolution of a given N-qubit GHZ-type state or W-type state can be realized in the case the number of the applied noise channels satisfying M < N. PMID:27283757
Quantum nonlocality of four-qubit entangled states
Wu, Chunfeng; Yeo, Ye; Oh, C. H.; Kwek, L. C.
2007-03-15
We derive a Bell inequality for testing violation of local realism. Quantum nonlocality of several four-qubit states is investigated. These include the Greenberger-Zeilinger-Horne (GHZ) state, W state, linear cluster state, and the state |{chi}> that has recently been proposed in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 060502 (2006)]. The Bell inequality is optimally violated by |{chi}> but not violated by the GHZ state. The linear cluster state also violates the Bell inequality though not optimally. The state |{chi}> can thus be discriminated from the linear cluster state by using the inequality. Different aspects of four-partite entanglement are also studied by considering the usefulness of a family of four-qubit mixed states as resources for two-qubit teleportation. Our results generalize those in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 797 (1994)].
Nonadiabatic quantum state engineering driven by fast quench dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herrera, Marcela; Sarandy, Marcelo S.; Duzzioni, Eduardo I.; Serra, Roberto M.
2014-02-01
There are a number of tasks in quantum information science that exploit nontransitional adiabatic dynamics. Such a dynamics is bounded by the adiabatic theorem, which naturally imposes a speed limit in the evolution of quantum systems. Here, we investigate an approach for quantum state engineering exploiting a shortcut to the adiabatic evolution, which is based on rapid quenches in a continuous-time Hamiltonian evolution. In particular, this procedure is able to provide state preparation faster than the adiabatic brachistochrone. Remarkably, the evolution time in this approach is shown to be ultimately limited by its "thermodynamical cost," provided in terms of the average work rate (average power) of the quench process. We illustrate this result in a scenario that can be experimentally implemented in a nuclear magnetic resonance setup.
Quantum Bound States in a C-C60 System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adam, R. M.; Sofianos, S. A.
2015-03-01
We investigate the quantum mechanical system of a carbon "test atom" in the proximity of a C60 molecule, both inside and outside the fullerene "cage". Two sets of bound states are found to exist, a deeply bound set inside the cage and another weakly bound set outside it. Tunnelling between these regions is highly unlikely to happen because of the extreme height and width of the potential barrier. However, we predict that a layer of atoms could be adsorbed onto C60 by forming a quantum mechanical bound state, with the adsorbed atoms being concentrated above the "panels" of the buckyball, consistent with "bucky onions" observed experimentally. Until now analysis of such fullerene systems has been via classical mechanics, but a quantum approach reveals new insights.
Polarization State of Light Scattered from Quantum Plasmonic Dimer Antennas.
Yang, Longkun; Wang, Hancong; Fang, Yan; Li, Zhipeng
2016-01-26
Plasmonic antennas are able to concentrate and re-emit light in a controllable manner through strong coupling between metallic nanostructures. Only recently has it found that quantum mechanical effects can drastically change the coupling strength as the feature size approaches atomic scales. Here, we present a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the evolution of the resonance peak and its polarization state as the dimer-antenna gap narrows to subnanometer scale. We clearly can identify the classical plasmonic regime, a crossover regime where nonlocal screening plays an important role, and the quantum regime where a charge transfer plasmon appears due to interparticle electron tunneling. Moreover, as the gap decreases from tens of to a few nanometers, the bonding dipole mode tends to emit photons with increasing polarizability. When the gap narrows to quantum regime, a significant depolarization of the mode emission is observed due to the reduction of the charge density of coupled quantum plasmons. These results would be beneficial for the understanding of quantum effects on emitting-polarization of nanoantennas and the development of quantum-based photonic nanodevices. PMID:26700823
Arbitrated Quantum Signature Scheme with Continuous-Variable Coherent States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Ying; Feng, Yanyan; Huang, Dazu; Shi, Jinjing
2016-04-01
Motivated by the revealing features of the continuous-variable (CV) quantum cryptography, we suggest an arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) protocol with CV coherent states. It involves three participants, i.e., the signer Alice, the verifier Bob and the arbitrator Charlie who is trustworthy by Alice and Bob. Three phases initializing phase, signing phase and verifying phase are included in our protocol. The security of the signature scheme is guaranteed by the generation of the shared keys via the CV-based quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) and the implementation process of the CV-based quantum teleportation as well. Security analysis demonstrates that the signature can be neither forged by anyone nor disavowed by the receiver and signer. Moreover, the authenticity and integrality of the transmitted messages can be ensured. The paper shows that a potential high-speed quantum signature scheme with high detection efficiency and repetition rate can be realized when compared to the discrete-variable (DV) quantum signature scheme attributing to the well characteristics of CV-QKD.
Quantum state control of trapped Holmium atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hostetter, James; Yip, Christopher; Milner, William; Booth, Donald; Collett, Jeffrey; Saffman, Mark
2016-05-01
Neutral Holmium with its large number of hyperfine ground states provides a promising approach for collective encoding of a multi-qubit register. A prerequisite for collective encoding is the ability to prepare different states in the 128 state hyperfine ground manifold. We report progress towards optical pumping and control of the hyperfine Zeeman state of trapped Ho atoms. Atoms are transferred from a 410.5 nm MOT into a 455 nm optical dipole trap. The atoms can be optically pumped using light driving the ground 6s2 , F = 11 to 6 s 6 p ,F' = 11 transition together with a F = 10 to F' = 11 repumper. Microwave fields are then used to drive transitions to hyperfine levels with 4 <= F <= 11 . Work supported by NSF award PHY-1404357.
Vibrational memory in quantum localized states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ajili, Y.; Trabelsi, T.; Denis-Alpizar, O.; Stoecklin, T.; Császár, A. G.; Mogren Al-Mogren, M.; Francisco, J. S.; Hochlaf, M.
2016-05-01
The rovibrational eigenenergy set of molecular systems is a key feature needed to understand and model elementary chemical reactions. A unique class of molecular systems, represented by an 4A'' excited electronic state of the [H,S ,N ] - system comprising several distinct dipole-bound isomers, is found to contain both bent and linear minima separated by relatively small barriers. Full-dimensional nuclear-motion computations performed in Jacobi coordinates using three-dimensional potential energy surfaces describing the stable isomers and the related transition states yield rovibrational eigenstates located both below and above the barriers. The rovibrational wave functions are well localized, regardless of whether the state's energy is below or above the barriers. We also show that the states preserve the memory of the isomeric forms they "originate from," which is signature of a strong vibrational memory effect above isomerization barriers.
Dynamics and statistics of unstable quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sokolov, V. V.; Zelevinsky, V. G.
1989-11-01
The statistical theory of spectra formulated in terms of random matrices is extended to unstable states. The energies and widths of these states are treated as real and imaginary parts of complex eigenvalues for an effective non-hermitian hamiltonian. Eigenvalue statistics are investigated under simple assumptions. If the coupling through common decay channels is weak we obtain a Wigner distribution for the level spacings and a Porter-Thomas one for the widths, with the only exception for spacings less than widths where level repulsion fades out. Meanwhile in the complex energy plane the repulsion of eigenvalues is quadratic in accordance with the T-noninvariant character of decaying systems. In the opposite case of strong coupling with the continuum, k short-lived states are formed ( k is the number of open decay channels). These states accumulate almost the whole total width, the rest of the states becoming long-lived. Such a perestroika corresponds to separation of direct processes (a nuclear analogue of Dicke coherent superradiance). At small channel number, Ericson fluctuations of the cross sections are found to be suppressed. The one-channel case is considered in detail. The joint distribution of energies and widths is obtained. The average cross sections and density of unstable states are calculated.
Multilevel distillation of magic states for quantum computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, Cody
2013-04-01
We develop a procedure for distilling magic states used in universal quantum computing that requires substantially fewer initial resources than prior schemes. Our distillation circuit is based on a family of concatenated quantum codes that possess a transversal Hadamard operation, enabling each of these codes to distill the eigenstate of the Hadamard operator. A crucial result of this design is that low-fidelity magic states can be consumed to purify other high-fidelity magic states to even higher fidelity, which we call multilevel distillation. When distilling in the asymptotic regime of infidelity ɛ→0 for each input magic state, the number of input magic states consumed on average to yield an output state with infidelity O(ɛ2r) approaches 2r+1, which comes close to saturating the conjectured bound in another investigation [Bravyi and Haah, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.86.052329 86, 052329 (2012)]. We show numerically that there exist multilevel protocols such that the average number of magic states consumed to distill from error rate ɛin=0.01 to ɛout in the range 10-5-10-40 is about 14log10(1/ɛout)-40; the efficiency of multilevel distillation dominates all other reported protocols when distilling Hadamard magic states from initial infidelity 0.01 to any final infidelity below 10-7. These methods are an important advance for magic-state distillation circuits in high-performance quantum computing and provide insight into the limitations of nearly resource-optimal quantum error correction.
Test-state approach to the quantum search problem
Sehrawat, Arun; Nguyen, Le Huy; Englert, Berthold-Georg
2011-05-15
The search for 'a quantum needle in a quantum haystack' is a metaphor for the problem of finding out which one of a permissible set of unitary mappings - the oracles - is implemented by a given black box. Grover's algorithm solves this problem with quadratic speedup as compared with the analogous search for 'a classical needle in a classical haystack'. Since the outcome of Grover's algorithm is probabilistic - it gives the correct answer with high probability, not with certainty - the answer requires verification. For this purpose we introduce specific test states, one for each oracle. These test states can also be used to realize 'a classical search for the quantum needle' which is deterministic - it always gives a definite answer after a finite number of steps - and 3.41 times as fast as the purely classical search. Since the test-state search and Grover's algorithm look for the same quantum needle, the average number of oracle queries of the test-state search is the classical benchmark for Grover's algorithm.
Bond Length Dependence on Quantum States as Shown by Spectroscopy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lim, Kieran F.
2005-01-01
A discussion on how a spreadsheet simulation of linear-molecular spectra could be used to explore the dependence of rotational band spacing and contours on average bond lengths in the initial and final quantum states is presented. The simulation of hydrogen chloride IR, iodine UV-vis, and nitrogen UV-vis spectra clearly show whether the average…
Arbitrary unitary transformations on optical states using a quantum memory
Campbell, Geoff T.; Pinel, Olivier; Hosseini, Mahdi; Buchler, Ben C.; Lam, Ping Koy
2014-12-04
We show that optical memories arranged along an optical path can perform arbitrary unitary transformations on frequency domain optical states. The protocol offers favourable scaling and can be used with any quantum memory that uses an off-resonant Raman transition to reversibly transfer optical information to an atomic spin coherence.
The conditional entropy power inequality for Gaussian quantum states
Koenig, Robert
2015-02-15
We propose a generalization of the quantum entropy power inequality involving conditional entropies. For the special case of Gaussian states, we give a proof based on perturbation theory for symplectic spectra. We discuss some implications for entanglement-assisted classical communication over additive bosonic noise channels.
Local mapping of detector response for reliable quantum state estimation.
Cooper, Merlin; Karpiński, Michał; Smith, Brian J
2014-01-01
Improved measurement techniques are central to technological development and foundational scientific exploration. Quantum physics relies on detectors sensitive to non-classical features of systems, enabling precise tests of physical laws and quantum-enhanced technologies including precision measurement and secure communications. Accurate detector response calibration for quantum-scale inputs is key to future research and development in these cognate areas. To address this requirement, quantum detector tomography has been recently introduced. However, this technique becomes increasingly challenging as the complexity of the detector response and input space grow in a number of measurement outcomes and required probe states, leading to further demands on experiments and data analysis. Here we present an experimental implementation of a versatile, alternative characterization technique to address many-outcome quantum detectors that limits the input calibration region and does not involve numerical post processing. To demonstrate the applicability of this approach, the calibrated detector is subsequently used to estimate non-classical photon number states. PMID:25019300
Bilayer quantum Hall phase transitions and the orbifold non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall states
Barkeshli, Maissam; Wen Xiaogang
2011-09-15
We study continuous quantum phase transitions that can occur in bilayer fractional quantum Hall (FQH) systems as the interlayer tunneling and interlayer repulsion are tuned. We introduce a slave-particle gauge theory description of a series of continuous transitions from the (ppq) Abelian bilayer states to a set of non-Abelian FQH states, which we dub orbifold FQH states, of which the Z{sub 4} parafermion (Read-Rezayi) state is a special case. This provides an example in which Z{sub 2} electron fractionalization leads to non-Abelian topological phases. The naive ''ideal'' wave functions and ideal Hamiltonians associated with these orbifold states do not in general correspond to incompressible phases but, instead, lie at a nearby critical point. We discuss this unusual situation from the perspective of the pattern-of-zeros/vertex algebra frameworks and discuss implications for the conceptual foundations of these approaches. Due to the proximity in the phase diagram of these non-Abelian states to the (ppq) bilayer states, they may be experimentally relevant, both as candidates for describing the plateaus in single-layer systems at filling fractions 8/3 and 12/5 and as a way to tune to non-Abelian states in double-layer or wide quantum wells.
Conditions for compatibility of quantum-state assignments
Caves, Carlton M.; Fuchs, Christopher A.; Schack, Ruediger
2002-12-01
Suppose N parties describe the state of a quantum system by N possibly different density operators. These N state assignments represent the beliefs of the parties about the system. We examine conditions for determining whether the N state assignments are compatible. We distinguish two kinds of procedures for assessing compatibility, the first based on the compatibility of the prior beliefs on which the N state assignments are based and the second based on the compatibility of predictive measurement probabilities they define. The first procedure leads to a compatibility criterion proposed by Brun, Finkelstein, and Mermin [BFM, Phys. Rev. A 65, 032315 (2002)]. The second procedure leads to a hierarchy of measurement-based compatibility criteria which is fundamentally different from the corresponding classical situation. Quantum mechanically none of the measurement-based compatibility criteria is equivalent to the BFM criterion.
Robust Multiple-Range Coherent Quantum State Transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Bing; Peng, Yan-Dong; Li, Yong; Qian, Xiao-Feng
2016-07-01
We propose a multiple-range quantum communication channel to realize coherent two-way quantum state transport with high fidelity. In our scheme, an information carrier (a qubit) and its remote partner are both adiabatically coupled to the same data bus, i.e., an N-site tight-binding chain that has a single defect at the center. At the weak interaction regime, our system is effectively equivalent to a three level system of which a coherent superposition of the two carrier states constitutes a dark state. The adiabatic coupling allows a well controllable information exchange timing via the dark state between the two carriers. Numerical results show that our scheme is robust and efficient under practically inevitable perturbative defects of the data bus as well as environmental dephasing noise.
Using interference for high fidelity quantum state transfer in optomechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ying-Dan; Clerk, Aashish A.
2012-02-01
We present a theoretical study of a two-cavity optomechanical system (e.g. a single mechanical resonator coupled to both a microwave and an optical cavity), investigating how interference can be used to perform mechanically-mediated quantum state transfer between the two cavities. We show that this optomechanical system possesses an effective ``mechanically-dark'' mode which is immune to mechanical dissipation; utilizing this feature allows highly efficient transfer of intra-cavity states, as well as of itinerant photon states. Simple analytic expressions for the fidelity of transferring both Gaussian and non-Gaussian states are provided. Our work has relevance to ongoing experimental efforts in quantum optomechanics (e.g., C. A. Regal and K. W. Lehnert, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 264, 012025 (2011); A. H. Safavi-Naeini and O. Painter, New J. Phys. 13, 013017 (2011)).
Robust Multiple-Range Coherent Quantum State Transfer.
Chen, Bing; Peng, Yan-Dong; Li, Yong; Qian, Xiao-Feng
2016-01-01
We propose a multiple-range quantum communication channel to realize coherent two-way quantum state transport with high fidelity. In our scheme, an information carrier (a qubit) and its remote partner are both adiabatically coupled to the same data bus, i.e., an N-site tight-binding chain that has a single defect at the center. At the weak interaction regime, our system is effectively equivalent to a three level system of which a coherent superposition of the two carrier states constitutes a dark state. The adiabatic coupling allows a well controllable information exchange timing via the dark state between the two carriers. Numerical results show that our scheme is robust and efficient under practically inevitable perturbative defects of the data bus as well as environmental dephasing noise. PMID:27364891
Robust Multiple-Range Coherent Quantum State Transfer
Chen, Bing; Peng, Yan-Dong; Li, Yong; Qian, Xiao-Feng
2016-01-01
We propose a multiple-range quantum communication channel to realize coherent two-way quantum state transport with high fidelity. In our scheme, an information carrier (a qubit) and its remote partner are both adiabatically coupled to the same data bus, i.e., an N-site tight-binding chain that has a single defect at the center. At the weak interaction regime, our system is effectively equivalent to a three level system of which a coherent superposition of the two carrier states constitutes a dark state. The adiabatic coupling allows a well controllable information exchange timing via the dark state between the two carriers. Numerical results show that our scheme is robust and efficient under practically inevitable perturbative defects of the data bus as well as environmental dephasing noise. PMID:27364891
Quantum Monte Carlo simulations with tensor-network states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Jeong Pil; Clay, R. T.
2011-03-01
Matrix-product states, generated by the density-matrix renormalization group method, are among the most powerful methods for simulation of quasi-one dimensional quantum systems. Direct application of a matrix-product state representation fails for two dimensional systems, although a number of tensor-network states have been proposed to generalize the concept for two dimensions. We introduce a useful approximate method replacing a 4-index tensor by two matrices in order to contract tensors in two dimensions. We use this formalism as a basis for variational quantum Monte Carlo, optimizing the matrix elements stochastically. We present results on a two dimensional spinless fermion model including nearest- neighbor Coulomb interactions, and determine the critical Coulomb interaction for the charge density wave state by finite size scaling. This work was supported by the Department of Energy grant DE-FG02-06ER46315.
Protecting quantum entanglement and nonlocality for tripartite states under decoherence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Rui; Yin, Yu Hao; Ma, Wen Chao; Ye, Liu
2016-06-01
Quantum entanglement and nonlocality will suffer inevitable harm from decoherence environment. Based on GHZ state, we study the harm of the generalized amplitude damping (GAD) operation and the protection by the single local filtering (SLF) operation in this paper. We verify that the SLF functions to depress the loss of entanglement and nonlocality from GAD. This conclusion will guide us to select the best method to protect the GHZ state from GAD decoherence.
Contrasting energy scales of reentrant integer quantum Hall states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Nianpei; Watson, J. D.; Rokhinson, L. P.; Manfra, M. J.; Csáthy, G. A.
2012-11-01
We report drastically different onset temperatures of the reentrant integer quantum Hall states in the second and third Landau level. This finding is in quantitative disagreement with the Hartree-Fock theory of the bubble phases which is thought to describe these reentrant states. Our results indicate that the number of electrons per bubble in either the second or the third Landau level is likely different than predicted.
Theory of ground state factorization in quantum cooperative systems.
Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2008-05-16
We introduce a general analytic approach to the study of factorization points and factorized ground states in quantum cooperative systems. The method allows us to determine rigorously the existence, location, and exact form of separable ground states in a large variety of, generally nonexactly solvable, spin models belonging to different universality classes. The theory applies to translationally invariant systems, irrespective of spatial dimensionality, and for spin-spin interactions of arbitrary range. PMID:18518481
Transitional steady states of exchange dynamics between finite quantum systems.
Jeon, Euijin; Yi, Juyeon; Kim, Yong Woon
2016-08-01
We examine energy and particle exchange between finite-sized quantum systems and find a new form of nonequilibrium state. The exchange rate undergoes stepwise evolution in time, and its magnitude and sign dramatically change according to system size differences. The origin lies in interference effects contributed by multiply scattered waves at system boundaries. Although such characteristics are utterly different from those of true steady state for infinite systems, Onsager's reciprocal relation remains universally valid. PMID:27627275
Charge-transfer-state photoluminescence in asymmetric coupled quantum wells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Norris, T. B.; Vodjdani, N.; Vinter, B.; Weisbuch, C.; Mourou, G. A.
1989-07-01
We have performed continuous and time-resolved photoluminescence experiments on novel double-quantum-well structures in Schottky diodes. We have directly observed the buildup of a charge-transfer (CT) state in which the electrons and holes are in separate wells because of the fact that they tunnel in opposite directions. We have studied the effect of an electric field on the CT state formation, and have observed a strong, linear Stark shift of the CT luminescence.
Memory-built-in quantum cloning in a hybrid solid-state spin register
Wang, W.-B.; Zu, C.; He, L.; Zhang, W.-G.; Duan, L.-M.
2015-01-01
As a way to circumvent the quantum no-cloning theorem, approximate quantum cloning protocols have received wide attention with remarkable applications. Copying of quantum states to memory qubits provides an important strategy for eavesdropping in quantum cryptography. We report an experiment that realizes cloning of quantum states from an electron spin to a nuclear spin in a hybrid solid-state spin register with near-optimal fidelity. The nuclear spin provides an ideal memory qubit at room temperature, which stores the cloned quantum states for a millisecond under ambient conditions, exceeding the lifetime of the original quantum state carried by the electron spin by orders of magnitude. The realization of a cloning machine with built-in quantum memory provides a key step for application of quantum cloning in quantum information science. PMID:26178617
Memory-built-in quantum cloning in a hybrid solid-state spin register
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, W.-B.; Zu, C.; He, L.; Zhang, W.-G.; Duan, L.-M.
2015-07-01
As a way to circumvent the quantum no-cloning theorem, approximate quantum cloning protocols have received wide attention with remarkable applications. Copying of quantum states to memory qubits provides an important strategy for eavesdropping in quantum cryptography. We report an experiment that realizes cloning of quantum states from an electron spin to a nuclear spin in a hybrid solid-state spin register with near-optimal fidelity. The nuclear spin provides an ideal memory qubit at room temperature, which stores the cloned quantum states for a millisecond under ambient conditions, exceeding the lifetime of the original quantum state carried by the electron spin by orders of magnitude. The realization of a cloning machine with built-in quantum memory provides a key step for application of quantum cloning in quantum information science.
Memory-built-in quantum cloning in a hybrid solid-state spin register.
Wang, W-B; Zu, C; He, L; Zhang, W-G; Duan, L-M
2015-01-01
As a way to circumvent the quantum no-cloning theorem, approximate quantum cloning protocols have received wide attention with remarkable applications. Copying of quantum states to memory qubits provides an important strategy for eavesdropping in quantum cryptography. We report an experiment that realizes cloning of quantum states from an electron spin to a nuclear spin in a hybrid solid-state spin register with near-optimal fidelity. The nuclear spin provides an ideal memory qubit at room temperature, which stores the cloned quantum states for a millisecond under ambient conditions, exceeding the lifetime of the original quantum state carried by the electron spin by orders of magnitude. The realization of a cloning machine with built-in quantum memory provides a key step for application of quantum cloning in quantum information science. PMID:26178617
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Imbriale, W. A.; Moore, M.; Rochblatt, D. J.; Veruttipong, W.
1995-01-01
At the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) Goldstone Complex, a 34-meter- diameter beam-waveguide antenna, DSS-13, was constructed in 1988-1990 and has become an integral part of an advanced systems program and a test bed for technologies being developed to introduce Ka-band (32 GHz) frequencies into the DSN. A method for compensating the gravity- induced structural deformations in this large antenna is presented.
Continuous Measurement Quantum State Tomography of Atomic Ensembles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riofrio Almeida, Carlos A.
Quantum state tomography is a fundamental tool in quantum information processing tasks. It allows us to estimate the state of a quantum system by measuring different observables on many identically prepared copies of the system. Usually, one makes projective measurements of an "informationally complete" set of observables and repeats them enough times so that good estimates of their expectation values are obtained. This is, in general, a very time-consuming task that requires a large number of measurements. There are, however, systems in which the data acquisition can be done more efficiently. In fact, an ensemble of quantum systems can be prepared and manipulated by external fields while being continuously probed collectively, producing enough information to estimate its state. This provides a basis for continuous measurement quantum tomography, and is the main topic of this dissertation. This method, based on weak continuous measurement, has the advantage of being fast, accurate, and almost nonperturbative. In this work, we present a extensive discussion and a generalization of the protocol proposed in [1], which was experimentally achieved in [2] using cold cesium atoms. In this protocol, an ensemble of identically prepared systems is collectively probed and controlled in a time-dependent manner so as to create an informationally complete continuous measurement record. The measurement history is then inverted to determine the state at the initial time. To achieve this, we use two different estimation methods: the widely used maximum likelihood and the novel compressed sensing algorithms. The general formalism is applied to the case of reconstruction of the quantum state encoded in the magnetic sub-levels of a large-spin alkali atom, 133Cs. We extend the applicability of the protocol in [1] to the more ambitious case of reconstruction of states in the full 16-dimensional electronic-ground subspace ( F = 3, F = 4), controlled by microwaves and radio
Nonequilibrium steady states of ideal bosonic and fermionic quantum gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vorberg, Daniel; Wustmann, Waltraut; Schomerus, Henning; Ketzmerick, Roland; Eckardt, André
2015-12-01
We investigate nonequilibrium steady states of driven-dissipative ideal quantum gases of both bosons and fermions. We focus on systems of sharp particle number that are driven out of equilibrium either by the coupling to several heat baths of different temperature or by time-periodic driving in combination with the coupling to a heat bath. Within the framework of (Floquet-)Born-Markov theory, several analytical and numerical methods are described in detail. This includes a mean-field theory in terms of occupation numbers, an augmented mean-field theory taking into account also nontrivial two-particle correlations, and quantum-jump-type Monte Carlo simulations. For the case of the ideal Fermi gas, these methods are applied to simple lattice models and the possibility of achieving exotic states via bath engineering is pointed out. The largest part of this work is devoted to bosonic quantum gases and the phenomenon of Bose selection, a nonequilibrium generalization of Bose condensation, where multiple single-particle states are selected to acquire a large occupation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240405 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.240405]. In this context, among others, we provide a theory for transitions where the set of selected states changes, describe an efficient algorithm for finding the set of selected states, investigate beyond-mean-field effects, and identify the dominant mechanisms for heat transport in the Bose-selected state.
Quantum steering of Gaussian states via non-Gaussian measurements
Ji, Se-Wan; Lee, Jaehak; Park, Jiyong; Nha, Hyunchul
2016-01-01
Quantum steering—a strong correlation to be verified even when one party or its measuring device is fully untrusted—not only provides a profound insight into quantum physics but also offers a crucial basis for practical applications. For continuous-variable (CV) systems, Gaussian states among others have been extensively studied, however, mostly confined to Gaussian measurements. While the fulfilment of Gaussian criterion is sufficient to detect CV steering, whether it is also necessary for Gaussian states is a question of fundamental importance in many contexts. This critically questions the validity of characterizations established only under Gaussian measurements like the quantification of steering and the monogamy relations. Here, we introduce a formalism based on local uncertainty relations of non-Gaussian measurements, which is shown to manifest quantum steering of some Gaussian states that Gaussian criterion fails to detect. To this aim, we look into Gaussian states of practical relevance, i.e. two-mode squeezed states under a lossy and an amplifying Gaussian channel. Our finding significantly modifies the characteristics of Gaussian-state steering so far established such as monogamy relations and one-way steering under Gaussian measurements, thus opening a new direction for critical studies beyond Gaussian regime. PMID:27411853
Quantum steering of Gaussian states via non-Gaussian measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, Se-Wan; Lee, Jaehak; Park, Jiyong; Nha, Hyunchul
2016-07-01
Quantum steering—a strong correlation to be verified even when one party or its measuring device is fully untrusted—not only provides a profound insight into quantum physics but also offers a crucial basis for practical applications. For continuous-variable (CV) systems, Gaussian states among others have been extensively studied, however, mostly confined to Gaussian measurements. While the fulfilment of Gaussian criterion is sufficient to detect CV steering, whether it is also necessary for Gaussian states is a question of fundamental importance in many contexts. This critically questions the validity of characterizations established only under Gaussian measurements like the quantification of steering and the monogamy relations. Here, we introduce a formalism based on local uncertainty relations of non-Gaussian measurements, which is shown to manifest quantum steering of some Gaussian states that Gaussian criterion fails to detect. To this aim, we look into Gaussian states of practical relevance, i.e. two-mode squeezed states under a lossy and an amplifying Gaussian channel. Our finding significantly modifies the characteristics of Gaussian-state steering so far established such as monogamy relations and one-way steering under Gaussian measurements, thus opening a new direction for critical studies beyond Gaussian regime.
Nonequilibrium steady states of ideal bosonic and fermionic quantum gases.
Vorberg, Daniel; Wustmann, Waltraut; Schomerus, Henning; Ketzmerick, Roland; Eckardt, André
2015-12-01
We investigate nonequilibrium steady states of driven-dissipative ideal quantum gases of both bosons and fermions. We focus on systems of sharp particle number that are driven out of equilibrium either by the coupling to several heat baths of different temperature or by time-periodic driving in combination with the coupling to a heat bath. Within the framework of (Floquet-)Born-Markov theory, several analytical and numerical methods are described in detail. This includes a mean-field theory in terms of occupation numbers, an augmented mean-field theory taking into account also nontrivial two-particle correlations, and quantum-jump-type Monte Carlo simulations. For the case of the ideal Fermi gas, these methods are applied to simple lattice models and the possibility of achieving exotic states via bath engineering is pointed out. The largest part of this work is devoted to bosonic quantum gases and the phenomenon of Bose selection, a nonequilibrium generalization of Bose condensation, where multiple single-particle states are selected to acquire a large occupation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240405 (2013)]. In this context, among others, we provide a theory for transitions where the set of selected states changes, describe an efficient algorithm for finding the set of selected states, investigate beyond-mean-field effects, and identify the dominant mechanisms for heat transport in the Bose-selected state. PMID:26764644
Selective interactions in trapped ions: State reconstruction and quantum logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Solano, E.
2005-01-01
We propose the implementation of selective interactions of atom-motion subspaces in trapped ions. These interactions yield resonant exchange of population inside a selected subspace, leaving the others in a highly dispersive regime. Selectivity allows us to generate motional Fock (and other nonclassical) states with high purity out of a wide class of initial states, and becomes an unconventional cooling mechanism when the ground state is chosen. Individual population of number states can be distinctively measured, as well as the motional Wigner function. Furthermore, a protocol for implementing quantum logic through a suitable control of selective subspaces is presented.
Quantum-enhanced spectroscopy with entangled multiphoton states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dinani, Hossein T.; Gupta, Manish K.; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Berry, Dominic W.
2016-06-01
Traditionally, spectroscopy is performed by examining the position of absorption lines. However, at frequencies near the transition frequency, additional information can be obtained from the phase shift. In this work we consider the information about the transition frequency obtained from both the absorption and the phase shift, as quantified by the Fisher information in an interferometric measurement. We examine the use of multiple single-photon states, NOON states, and numerically optimized states that are entangled and have multiple photons. We find the optimized states that improve over the standard quantum limit set by independent single photons for some atom number densities.
Groverian entanglement measure of pure quantum states with arbitrary partitions
Shimoni, Yishai; Biham, Ofer
2007-02-15
The Groverian entanglement measure of pure quantum states of n qubits is generalized to the case in which the qubits are divided into any p{<=}n parties. The entanglement between these parties is evaluated numerically using an efficient parametrization. To demonstrate this measure we apply it to symmetric states such as the Greenberg-Horne-Zeiliner state and the W state. Interestingly, this measure is equivalent to an entanglement measure introduced earlier [H. Barnum and N. Linden, J. Phys. A 34, 6787 (2001)], using different considerations.
Multiconfigurational quantum propagation with trajectory-guided generalized coherent states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grigolo, Adriano; Viscondi, Thiago F.; de Aguiar, Marcus A. M.
2016-03-01
A generalized version of the coupled coherent states method for coherent states of arbitrary Lie groups is developed. In contrast to the original formulation, which is restricted to frozen-Gaussian basis sets, the extended method is suitable for propagating quantum states of systems featuring diversified physical properties, such as spin degrees of freedom or particle indistinguishability. The approach is illustrated with simple models for interacting bosons trapped in double- and triple-well potentials, most adequately described in terms of SU(2) and SU(3) bosonic coherent states, respectively.
Quantum error correction for state transfer in noisy spin chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kay, Alastair
2016-04-01
Can robustness against experimental imperfections and noise be embedded into a quantum simulation? In this paper, we report on a special case in which this is possible. A spin chain can be engineered such that, in the absence of imperfections and noise, an unknown quantum state is transported from one end of the chain to the other, due only to the intrinsic dynamics of the system. We show that an encoding into a standard error-correcting code (a Calderbank-Shor-Steane code) can be embedded into this simulation task such that a modified error-correction procedure on readout can recover from sufficiently low rates of noise during transport.
Hydrogenic states of monopoles in diluted quantum spin ice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrova, Olga; Moessner, Roderich; Sondhi, S. L.
2015-09-01
We consider the effect of adding quantum dynamics to a classical topological spin liquid, with a particular view of how to best detect its presence in experiment. For the Coulomb phase of spin ice, we find quantum effects to be most visible in the gauge-charged monopole excitations. In the presence of weak dilution with nonmagnetic ions we find a particularly crisp phenomenon, namely, the emergence of hydrogenic excited states in which a magnetic monopole is bound to a vacancy at various distances. Via a mapping to an analytically tractable single particle problem on the Bethe lattice, we obtain an approximate expression for the dynamic neutron scattering structure factor.
Quantum-state reconstruction by maximizing likelihood and entropy.
Teo, Yong Siah; Zhu, Huangjun; Englert, Berthold-Georg; Řeháček, Jaroslav; Hradil, Zdeněk
2011-07-01
Quantum-state reconstruction on a finite number of copies of a quantum system with informationally incomplete measurements, as a rule, does not yield a unique result. We derive a reconstruction scheme where both the likelihood and the von Neumann entropy functionals are maximized in order to systematically select the most-likely estimator with the largest entropy, that is, the least-bias estimator, consistent with a given set of measurement data. This is equivalent to the joint consideration of our partial knowledge and ignorance about the ensemble to reconstruct its identity. An interesting structure of such estimators will also be explored. PMID:21797584
Emergence of canonical ensembles from pure quantum states.
Cho, Jaeyoon; Kim, M S
2010-04-30
We consider a system weakly interacting with a bath as a thermodynamic setting to establish a quantum foundation of statistical physics. It is shown that even if the composite system is initially in an arbitrary nonequilibrium pure quantum state, the unitary dynamics of a generic weak interaction almost always drives the subsystem into the canonical ensemble, in the usual sense of typicality. A crucial step is taken by assuming that the matrix elements of the interaction Hamiltonian have random phases, while their amplitudes are left unrestricted. PMID:20482093
On the reduction criterion for random quantum states
Jivulescu, Maria Anastasia Lupa, Nicolae; Nechita, Ion
2014-11-15
In this paper, we study the reduction criterion for detecting entanglement of large dimensional bipartite quantum systems. We first obtain an explicit formula for the moments of a random quantum state to which the reduction criterion has been applied. We show that the empirical eigenvalue distribution of this random matrix converges strongly to a limit that we compute, in three different asymptotic regimes. We then employ tools from free probability theory to study the asymptotic positivity of the reduction operators. Finally, we compare the reduction criterion with other entanglement criteria, via thresholds.
Topology and quantum states: The electron-monopole system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Cosmo, F.; Marmo, G.; Zampini, A.
2016-09-01
This paper starts by describing the dynamics of the electron-monopole system at both classical and quantum level by a suitable reduction procedure. This suggests, in order to realise the space of states for quantum systems which are classically described on topologically non-trivial configuration spaces, to consider Hilbert spaces of exterior differential forms. Among the advantages of this formulation, we present--in the case of the group SU(2) , how it is possible to obtain all unitary irreducible representations on such a Hilbert space, and how it is possible to write scalar Dirac-type operators, following an idea by Kähler.
Quantum optics with quantum gases: Controlled state reduction by designed light scattering
Mekhov, Igor B.; Ritsch, Helmut
2009-07-15
Cavity-enhanced light scattering from an ultracold gas in an optical lattice constitutes a quantum measurement with a controllable form of the measurement backaction. Time-resolved counting of scattered photons alters the state of the atoms without particle loss implementing a quantum nondemolition measurement. The conditional dynamics is given by the interplay between photodetection events (quantum jumps) and no-count processes. The class of emerging atomic many-body states can be chosen via the optical geometry and light frequencies. Light detection along the angle of a diffraction maximum (Bragg angle) creates an atom-number-squeezed state, while light detection at diffraction minima leads to the macroscopic superposition states (Schroedinger cat states) of different atom numbers in the cavity mode. A measurement of the cavity transmission intensity can lead to atom-number-squeezed or macroscopic superposition states depending on its outcome. We analyze the robustness of the superposition with respect to missed counts and find that a transmission measurement yields more robust and controllable superposition states than the ones obtained by scattering at a diffraction minimum.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnston, John D.; Blandino, Joseph R.; McEvoy, Kiley C.
2004-01-01
The development of gossamer space structures such as solar sails and sunshields presents many challenges due to their large size and extreme flexibility. The post-deployment structural geometry exhibited during ground testing may significantly depart from the in-space configuration due to the presence of gravity-induced deformations (gravity sag) of lightly preloaded membranes. This paper describes a study carried out to characterize gravity sag in two subscale gossamer structures: a single quadrant from a 2 m, 4 quadrant square solar sail and a 1.7 m membrane layer from a multi-layer sunshield The behavior of the test articles was studied over a range of preloads and in several orientations with respect to gravity. An experimental study was carried out to measure the global surface profiles using photogrammetry, and nonlinear finite element analysis was used to predict the behavior of the test articles. Comparison of measured and predicted surface profiles shows that the finite dement analysis qualitatively predicts deformed shapes comparable to those observed in the laboratory. Quantitatively, finite element analysis predictions for peak gravity-induced deformations in both test articles were within 10% of measured values. Results from this study provide increased insight into gravity sag behavior in gossamer structures, and demonstrates the potential to analytically predict gravity-induced deformations to within reasonable accuracy.
Mapping Image Potential States on Graphene Quantum Dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Craes, Fabian; Runte, Sven; Klinkhammer, Jürgen; Kralj, Marko; Michely, Thomas; Busse, Carsten
2013-08-01
Free-electron-like image potential states are observed in scanning tunneling spectroscopy on graphene quantum dots on Ir(111) acting as potential wells. The spectrum strongly depends on the size of the nanostructure as well as on the spatial position on top, indicating lateral confinement. Analysis of the substructure of the first state by the spatial mapping of the constant energy local density of states reveals characteristic patterns of confined states. The most pronounced state is not the ground state, but an excited state with a favorable combination of the local density of states and parallel momentum transfer in the tunneling process. Chemical gating tunes the confining potential by changing the local work function. Our experimental determination of this work function allows us to deduce the associated shift of the Dirac point.
Mapping image potential states on graphene quantum dots.
Craes, Fabian; Runte, Sven; Klinkhammer, Jürgen; Kralj, Marko; Michely, Thomas; Busse, Carsten
2013-08-01
Free-electron-like image potential states are observed in scanning tunneling spectroscopy on graphene quantum dots on Ir(111) acting as potential wells. The spectrum strongly depends on the size of the nanostructure as well as on the spatial position on top, indicating lateral confinement. Analysis of the substructure of the first state by the spatial mapping of the constant energy local density of states reveals characteristic patterns of confined states. The most pronounced state is not the ground state, but an excited state with a favorable combination of the local density of states and parallel momentum transfer in the tunneling process. Chemical gating tunes the confining potential by changing the local work function. Our experimental determination of this work function allows us to deduce the associated shift of the Dirac point. PMID:23952430
Wei, T.-C.
2010-06-15
We consider quantum states under the renormalization-group (RG) transformations introduced by Verstraete et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 140601 (2005)] and propose a quantification of entanglement under such RGs (via the geometric measure of entanglement). We examine the resulting entanglement under RG transformations for the ground states of ''matrix-product-state'' Hamiltonians constructed by Wolf et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 110403 (2006)] that possess quantum phase transitions. We find that near critical points, the ground-state entanglement exhibits singular behavior. The singular behavior within finite steps of the RG obeys a scaling hypothesis and reveals the correlation length exponent. However, under the infinite steps of RG transformation, the singular behavior is rendered different and is universal only when there is an underlying conformal-field-theory description of the critical point.
Jeong, Hyunseok; Ralph, Timothy C.
2007-10-15
We study characteristics of superpositions and entanglement of thermal states at high temperatures and discuss their applications to quantum-information processing. We introduce thermal-state qubits and thermal-Bell states, which are a generalization of pure-state qubits and Bell states to thermal mixtures. A scheme is then presented to discriminate between the four thermal-Bell states without photon number resolving detection but with Kerr nonlinear interactions and two single-photon detectors. This enables one to perform quantum teleportation and gate operations for quantum computation with thermal-state qubits.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nitsche, Thomas; Elster, Fabian; Novotný, Jaroslav; Gábris, Aurél; Jex, Igor; Barkhofen, Sonja; Silberhorn, Christine
2016-06-01
Quantum walks are a well-established model for the study of coherent transport phenomena and provide a universal platform in quantum information theory. Dynamically influencing the walker’s evolution gives a high degree of flexibility for studying various applications. Here, we present time-multiplexed finite quantum walks of variable size, the preparation of non-localised input states and their dynamical evolution. As a further application, we implement a state transfer scheme for an arbitrary input state to two different output modes. The presented experiments rely on the full dynamical control of a time-multiplexed quantum walk, which includes adjustable coin operation as well as the possibility to flexibly configure the underlying graph structures.
Quantum Holonomies from Spectral Networks and Framed BPS States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gabella, Maxime
2016-08-01
We propose a method for determining the spins of BPS states supported on line defects in 4d {{N}=2} theories of class S. Via the 2d-4d correspondence, this translates to the construction of quantum holonomies on a punctured Riemann surface {{C}} . Our approach combines the technology of spectral networks, which decomposes flat {GL(K,{C})} -connections on {{C}} in terms of flat abelian connections on a K-fold cover of {{C}} , and the skein algebra in the 3-manifold {{C} × [0,1]} , which expresses the representation theory of the quantum group U q (gl K ). With any path on {{C}} , the quantum holonomy associates a positive Laurent polynomial in the quantized Fock-Goncharov coordinates of higher Teichmüller space. This confirms various positivity conjectures in physics and mathematics.
Using graph states for quantum computation and communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goyal, Kovid
In this work, we describe a method to achieve fault tolerant measurement based quantum computation in two and three dimensions. The proposed scheme has an threshold of 7.8*10^-3 and poly-logarithmic overhead scaling. The overhead scaling below the threshold is also studied. The scheme uses a combination of topological error correction and magic state distillation to construct a universal quantum computer on a qubit lattice. The chapters on measurement based quantum computation are written in review form with extensive discussion and illustrative examples.In addition, we describe and analyze a family of entanglement purification protocols that provide a flexible trade-off between overhead, threshold and output quality. The protocols are studied analytically, with closed form expressions for their threshold.
Metal-to-insulator switching in quantum anomalous Hall states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Lei; Kou, Xufeng; Wang, Jing; Fan, Yabin; Choi, Eun Sang; Shao, Qiming; Zhang, Shou Cheng; Wang, Kang Lung
Quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) was recently achieved in magnetic topological insulator films as a form of dissipationless transport without external magnetic field. However, the universal phase diagram of QAHE and its relation with quantum Hall effect (QHE) remain to be investigated. Here, we report the experimental observation of the giant longitudinal resistance peak and zero Hall conductance plateau at the coercive field in the six quintuple-layer (Cr0.12Bi0.26Sb0.62)2 Te3 film, and demonstrate the metal-to-insulator switching between two opposite QAHE plateau states up to 0.3 K. The universal QAHE phase diagram is further confirmed through the angle-dependent measurements. Our results address that the quantum phase transitions in both QAHE and QHE regimes are in the same universality class, yet the microscopic details are different.
Deterministic Quantum Teleportation of a Particular Six-qubit State Using Six-qubit Cluster State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Xiaoqian; Song, Tingting
2016-01-01
A new application of the six-qubit cluster state for quantum teleportation of a particular six-qubit state is proposed. In this scheme, the sender performs three controlled-NOT operations to turn the particular six-qubit state into a three-qubit state. The receiver can reconstruct the particular six-qubit state by performing some appropriate unitary transformations on her qubits. The probability of success is 100 % and the fidelity is 1.
Gravity-induced swirl of nanoparticles in microfluidics.
Zhao, Chao; Oztekin, Alparslan; Cheng, Xuanhong
2013-04-01
Parallel flows of two fluids in microfluidic devices are used for miniaturized chemistry, physics, biology and bioengineering studies, and the streams are often considered to remain parallel. However, as the two fluids do not always have the same density, interface reorientation induced by density stratification is unavoidable. In this paper, flow characteristics of an aqueous polystyrene nanofluid and a sucrose-densified aqueous solution flowing parallel in microchannels are examined. Nanoparticles 100 nm in diameter are used in the study. The motion of the nanoparticles is simulated using the Lagrangian description and directly observed by a confocal microscope. Matched results are obtained from computational and empirical analysis. Although solution density homogenizes rapidly resulting from a fast diffusion of sucrose in water, the nanofluid is observed to rotate for an extended period. Angular displacement of the nanofluid depends on the ratio of gravitational force to viscous force, Re/Fr (2), where Re is the Reynolds number and Fr is the Froude number. In the developing region at the steady state, the angular displacement is related to y/D h, the ratio between distance from the inlet and the hydraulic diameter of the microfluidic channel. The development of nanofluid flow feature also depends on h/w, the ratio of microfluidic channel's height to width. The quantitative description of the angular displacement of nanofluid will aid rational designs of microfluidic devices utilizing multistream, multiphase flows. PMID:24563612
Gravity-induced swirl of nanoparticles in microfluidics
Zhao, Chao; Oztekin, Alparslan
2013-01-01
Parallel flows of two fluids in microfluidic devices are used for miniaturized chemistry, physics, biology and bioengineering studies, and the streams are often considered to remain parallel. However, as the two fluids do not always have the same density, interface reorientation induced by density stratification is unavoidable. In this paper, flow characteristics of an aqueous polystyrene nanofluid and a sucrose-densified aqueous solution flowing parallel in microchannels are examined. Nanoparticles 100 nm in diameter are used in the study. The motion of the nanoparticles is simulated using the Lagrangian description and directly observed by a confocal microscope. Matched results are obtained from computational and empirical analysis. Although solution density homogenizes rapidly resulting from a fast diffusion of sucrose in water, the nanofluid is observed to rotate for an extended period. Angular displacement of the nanofluid depends on the ratio of gravitational force to viscous force, Re/Fr2, where Re is the Reynolds number and Fr is the Froude number. In the developing region at the steady state, the angular displacement is related to y/Dh, the ratio between distance from the inlet and the hydraulic diameter of the microfluidic channel. The development of nanofluid flow feature also depends on h/w, the ratio of microfluidic channel’s height to width. The quantitative description of the angular displacement of nanofluid will aid rational designs of microfluidic devices utilizing multistream, multiphase flows. PMID:24563612
Ground State of the Parallel Double Quantum Dot System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Žitko, Rok; Mravlje, Jernej; Haule, Kristjan
2012-02-01
We resolve the controversy regarding the ground state of the parallel double quantum dot system near half filling. The numerical renormalization group predicts an underscreened Kondo state with residual spin-1/2 magnetic moment, ln2 residual impurity entropy, and unitary conductance, while the Bethe ansatz solution predicts a fully screened impurity, regular Fermi-liquid ground state, and zero conductance. We calculate the impurity entropy of the system as a function of the temperature using the hybridization-expansion continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo technique, which is a numerically exact stochastic method, and find excellent agreement with the numerical renormalization group results. We show that the origin of the unconventional behavior in this model is the odd-symmetry “dark state” on the dots.
Coulombic Effects on Excited States in a Small Quantum Dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldhaber-Gordon, David; Duncan, David; Westervelt, R. M.; Maranowski, K. M.; Gossard, A. C.
2000-03-01
The excitation spectrum of a quantum dot varies with the addition of electrons, as successive single-particle eigenstates become filled in the ground state and so cannot accomodate additional electrons. Previous experiments have observed that each spatial state becomes unavailable for transport of further electrons after only one electron has occupied it. We have investigated state occupancy in the excitation spectrum of a small (200 nm X 200 nm) quantum dot laterally defined by capacitively coupled gate electrodes in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. For our dots, quantized level spacing Δ E ≈ 300 μeV and charging energy Ec ≈ 2 meV. We have studied the evolution of features in the excitation spectrum with magnetic field and equilibrium occupancy and have identified the pattern of spins for the added electrons. These results test the applicability of the spin-degenerate constant interaction picture as well as its limitations.
From rotating atomic rings to quantum Hall states
Roncaglia, M.; Rizzi, M.; Dalibard, J.
2011-01-01
Considerable efforts are currently devoted to the preparation of ultracold neutral atoms in the strongly correlated quantum Hall regime. However, the necessary angular momentum is very large and in experiments with rotating traps this means spinning frequencies extremely near to the deconfinement limit; consequently, the required control on parameters turns out to be too stringent. Here we propose instead to follow a dynamic path starting from the gas initially confined in a rotating ring. The large moment of inertia of the ring-shaped fluid facilitates the access to large angular momenta, corresponding to giant vortex states. The trapping potential is then adiabatically transformed into a harmonic confinement, which brings the interacting atomic gas in the desired quantum-Hall regime. We provide numerical evidence that for a broad range of initial angular frequencies, the giant-vortex state is adiabatically connected to the bosonic ν = 1/2 Laughlin state. PMID:22355562
Matrix product states for su(2) invariant quantum spin chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zadourian, Rubina; Fledderjohann, Andreas; Klümper, Andreas
2016-08-01
A systematic and compact treatment of arbitrary su(2) invariant spin-s quantum chains with nearest-neighbour interactions is presented. The ground-state is derived in terms of matrix product states (MPS). The fundamental MPS calculations consist of taking products of basic tensors of rank 3 and contractions thereof. The algebraic su(2) calculations are carried out completely by making use of Wigner calculus. As an example of application, the spin-1 bilinear-biquadratic quantum chain is investigated. Various physical quantities are calculated with high numerical accuracy of up to 8 digits. We obtain explicit results for the ground-state energy, entanglement entropy, singlet operator correlations and the string order parameter. We find an interesting crossover phenomenon in the correlation lengths.
Quantum phase estimation using path-symmetric entangled states
Lee, Su-Yong; Lee, Chang-Woo; Lee, Jaehak; Nha, Hyunchul
2016-01-01
We study the sensitivity of phase estimation using a generic class of path-symmetric entangled states |φ〉|0〉 + |0〉|φ〉, where an arbitrary state |φ〉 occupies one of two modes in quantum superposition. With this generalization, we identify the fundamental limit of phase estimation under energy constraint that is characterized by the photon statistics of the component state |φ〉. We show that quantum Cramer-Rao bound (QCRB) can be indefinitely lowered with super-Poissonianity of the state |φ〉. For possible measurement schemes, we demonstrate that a full photon-counting employing the path-symmetric entangled states achieves the QCRB over the entire range [0, 2π] of unknown phase shift ϕ whereas a parity measurement does so in a certain confined range of ϕ. By introducing a component state of the form , we particularly show that an arbitrarily small QCRB can be achieved even with a finite energy in an ideal situation. This component state also provides the most robust resource against photon loss among considered entangled states over the range of the average input energy Nav > 1. Finally we propose experimental schemes to generate these path-symmetric entangled states for phase estimation. PMID:27457267
Quantum phase estimation using path-symmetric entangled states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Su-Yong; Lee, Chang-Woo; Lee, Jaehak; Nha, Hyunchul
2016-07-01
We study the sensitivity of phase estimation using a generic class of path-symmetric entangled states |φ>|0> + |0>|φ>, where an arbitrary state |φ> occupies one of two modes in quantum superposition. With this generalization, we identify the fundamental limit of phase estimation under energy constraint that is characterized by the photon statistics of the component state |φ>. We show that quantum Cramer-Rao bound (QCRB) can be indefinitely lowered with super-Poissonianity of the state |φ>. For possible measurement schemes, we demonstrate that a full photon-counting employing the path-symmetric entangled states achieves the QCRB over the entire range [0, 2π] of unknown phase shift ϕ whereas a parity measurement does so in a certain confined range of ϕ. By introducing a component state of the form , we particularly show that an arbitrarily small QCRB can be achieved even with a finite energy in an ideal situation. This component state also provides the most robust resource against photon loss among considered entangled states over the range of the average input energy Nav > 1. Finally we propose experimental schemes to generate these path-symmetric entangled states for phase estimation.
Quantum phase estimation using path-symmetric entangled states.
Lee, Su-Yong; Lee, Chang-Woo; Lee, Jaehak; Nha, Hyunchul
2016-01-01
We study the sensitivity of phase estimation using a generic class of path-symmetric entangled states |φ〉|0〉 + |0〉|φ〉, where an arbitrary state |φ〉 occupies one of two modes in quantum superposition. With this generalization, we identify the fundamental limit of phase estimation under energy constraint that is characterized by the photon statistics of the component state |φ〉. We show that quantum Cramer-Rao bound (QCRB) can be indefinitely lowered with super-Poissonianity of the state |φ〉. For possible measurement schemes, we demonstrate that a full photon-counting employing the path-symmetric entangled states achieves the QCRB over the entire range [0, 2π] of unknown phase shift ϕ whereas a parity measurement does so in a certain confined range of ϕ. By introducing a component state of the form , we particularly show that an arbitrarily small QCRB can be achieved even with a finite energy in an ideal situation. This component state also provides the most robust resource against photon loss among considered entangled states over the range of the average input energy Nav > 1. Finally we propose experimental schemes to generate these path-symmetric entangled states for phase estimation. PMID:27457267
Podoshvedov, S. A.
2008-03-15
We study a teleportation protocol of an unknown macroscopic qubit by means of a quantum channel composed of the displaced vacuum and single-photon states. The scheme is based on linear optical devices such as a beam splitter and photon number resolving detectors. A method based on conditional measurement is used to generate both the macroscopic qubit and entangled state composed from displaced vacuum and single-photon states. We show that such a qubit has both macroscopic and microscopic properties. In particular, we investigate a quantum teleportation protocol from a macroscopic object to a microscopic state.
Quantum Teleportation of an Arbitrary N-qubit State via GHZ-like States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Bo; Liu, Xing-tong; Wang, Jian; Tang, Chao-jing
2016-03-01
Recently Zhu (Int. J. Theor. Phys. 53, 4095, 2014) had shown that using GHZ-like states as quantum channel, it is possible to teleport an arbitrary unknown two-qubit state. We investigate this channel for the teleportation of an arbitrary N-qubit state. The strict proof through mathematical induction is presented and the rule for the receiver to reconstruct the desired state is explicitly derived in the most general case. We also discuss that if a system of quantum secret sharing of classical message is established, our protocol can be transformed to a N-qubit perfect controlled teleportation scheme from the controller's point of view.
Speeding up Adiabatic Quantum State Transfer by Using Dressed States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baksic, Alexandre; Ribeiro, Hugo; Clerk, Aashish A.
2016-06-01
We develop new pulse schemes to significantly speed up adiabatic state transfer protocols. Our general strategy involves adding corrections to an initial control Hamiltonian that harness nonadiabatic transitions. These corrections define a set of dressed states that the system follows exactly during the state transfer. We apply this approach to stimulated Raman adiabatic passage protocols and show that a suitable choice of dressed states allows one to design fast protocols that do not require additional couplings, while simultaneously minimizing the occupancy of the "intermediate" level.
Diagonal unitary entangling gates and contradiagonal quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lakshminarayan, Arul; Puchała, Zbigniew; Życzkowski, Karol
2014-09-01
Nonlocal properties of an ensemble of diagonal random unitary matrices of order N2 are investigated. The average Schmidt strength of such a bipartite diagonal quantum gate is shown to scale as lnN, in contrast to the lnN2 behavior characteristic of random unitary gates. Entangling power of a diagonal gate U is related to the von Neumann entropy of an auxiliary quantum state ρ =AA†/N2, where the square matrix A is obtained by reshaping the vector of diagonal elements of U of length N2 into a square matrix of order N. This fact provides a motivation to study the ensemble of non-Hermitian unimodular matrices A, with all entries of the same modulus and random phases and the ensemble of quantum states ρ, such that all their diagonal entries are equal to 1/N. Such a state is contradiagonal with respect to the computational basis, in the sense that among all unitary equivalent states it maximizes the entropy copied to the environment due to the coarse-graining process. The first four moments of the squared singular values of the unimodular ensemble are derived, based on which we conjecture a connection to a recently studied combinatorial object called the "Borel triangle." This allows us to find exactly the mean von Neumann entropy for random phase density matrices and the average entanglement for the corresponding ensemble of bipartite pure states.
Minimal-excitation states for electron quantum optics using levitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubois, J.; Jullien, T.; Portier, F.; Roche, P.; Cavanna, A.; Jin, Y.; Wegscheider, W.; Roulleau, P.; Glattli, D. C.
2013-10-01
The on-demand generation of pure quantum excitations is important for the operation of quantum systems, but it is particularly difficult for a system of fermions. This is because any perturbation affects all states below the Fermi energy, resulting in a complex superposition of particle and hole excitations. However, it was predicted nearly 20 years ago that a Lorentzian time-dependent potential with quantized flux generates a minimal excitation with only one particle and no hole. Here we report that such quasiparticles (hereafter termed levitons) can be generated on demand in a conductor by applying voltage pulses to a contact. Partitioning the excitations with an electronic beam splitter generates a current noise that we use to measure their number. Minimal-excitation states are observed for Lorentzian pulses, whereas for other pulse shapes there are significant contributions from holes. Further identification of levitons is provided in the energy domain with shot-noise spectroscopy, and in the time domain with electronic Hong-Ou-Mandel noise correlations. The latter, obtained by colliding synchronized levitons on a beam splitter, exemplifies the potential use of levitons for quantum information: using linear electron quantum optics in ballistic conductors, it is possible to imagine flying-qubit operation in which the Fermi statistics are exploited to entangle synchronized electrons emitted by distinct sources. Compared with electron sources based on quantum dots, the generation of levitons does not require delicate nanolithography, considerably simplifying the circuitry for scalability. Levitons are not limited to carrying a single charge, and so in a broader context n-particle levitons could find application in the study of full electron counting statistics. But they can also carry a fraction of charge if they are implemented in Luttinger liquids or in fractional quantum Hall edge channels; this allows the study of Abelian and non-Abelian quasiparticles in the
Quantum Optics in the Solid State with Diamond Nanophotonics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Leon, Nathalie; Evans, Ruffin; de Greve, Kristiaan; Goldman, Michael; High, Alex; Markham, Matthew; Stacey, Alastair; Twitchen, Daniel; Loncar, Marko; Park, Hongkun; Lukin, Mikhail
2015-05-01
Large-scale quantum networks will require efficient interfaces between photons and stationary quantum bits. Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond are a promising candidate for quantum information processing because they are optically addressable, have spin degrees of freedom with long coherence times, and as solid-state entities, can be integrated into nanophotonic devices. An enabling feature of the NV center is its zero-phonon line (ZPL), which acts as an atom-like cycling transition that can be used for coherent optical manipulation and read-out of the spin. However, the ZPL only accounts for 3-5% of the total emission, and previously demonstrated methods of producing high densities of NV centers yield unstable ZPLs. We have developed techniques to fabricate high quality factor, small mode volume photonic crystal cavities directly out of diamond, and to deterministically position these photonic crystal cavities so that a stable NV center sits at the maximum electric field. We observe an enhancement of the spontaneous emission at the cavity resonance by a factor of up to 100. Crucially, we are able to control the NV center precisely using both microwave and resonant optical manipulation. These nanophotonic elements in diamond will provide key building blocks for quantum information processing such as single photon transistors, enabling distribution of entanglement over quantum networks.
Quantum anonymous voting with unweighted continuous-variable graph states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Ying; Feng, Yanyan; Zeng, Guihua
2016-08-01
Motivated by the revealing topological structures of continuous-variable graph state (CVGS), we investigate the design of quantum voting scheme, which has serious advantages over the conventional ones in terms of efficiency and graphicness. Three phases are included, i.e., the preparing phase, the voting phase and the counting phase, together with three parties, i.e., the voters, the tallyman and the ballot agency. Two major voting operations are performed on the yielded CVGS in the voting process, namely the local rotation transformation and the displacement operation. The voting information is carried by the CVGS established before hand, whose persistent entanglement is deployed to keep the privacy of votes and the anonymity of legal voters. For practical applications, two CVGS-based quantum ballots, i.e., comparative ballot and anonymous survey, are specially designed, followed by the extended ballot schemes for the binary-valued and multi-valued ballots under some constraints for the voting design. Security is ensured by entanglement of the CVGS, the voting operations and the laws of quantum mechanics. The proposed schemes can be implemented using the standard off-the-shelf components when compared to discrete-variable quantum voting schemes attributing to the characteristics of the CV-based quantum cryptography.
Quantum anonymous voting with unweighted continuous-variable graph states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Ying; Feng, Yanyan; Zeng, Guihua
2016-05-01
Motivated by the revealing topological structures of continuous-variable graph state (CVGS), we investigate the design of quantum voting scheme, which has serious advantages over the conventional ones in terms of efficiency and graphicness. Three phases are included, i.e., the preparing phase, the voting phase and the counting phase, together with three parties, i.e., the voters, the tallyman and the ballot agency. Two major voting operations are performed on the yielded CVGS in the voting process, namely the local rotation transformation and the displacement operation. The voting information is carried by the CVGS established before hand, whose persistent entanglement is deployed to keep the privacy of votes and the anonymity of legal voters. For practical applications, two CVGS-based quantum ballots, i.e., comparative ballot and anonymous survey, are specially designed, followed by the extended ballot schemes for the binary-valued and multi-valued ballots under some constraints for the voting design. Security is ensured by entanglement of the CVGS, the voting operations and the laws of quantum mechanics. The proposed schemes can be implemented using the standard off-the-shelf components when compared to discrete-variable quantum voting schemes attributing to the characteristics of the CV-based quantum cryptography.
Quantum Probability Cancellation Due to a Single-Photon State
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ou, Z. Y.
1996-01-01
When an N-photon state enters a lossless symmetric beamsplitter from one input port, the photon distribution for the two output ports has the form of Bernouli Binormial, with highest probability at equal partition (N/2 at one outport and N/2 at the other). However, injection of a single photon state at the other input port can dramatically change the photon distribution at the outputs, resulting in zero probability at equal partition. Such a strong deviation from classical particle theory stems from quantum probability amplitude cancellation. The effect persists even if the N-photon state is replaced by an arbitrary state of light. A special case is the coherent state which corresponds to homodyne detection of a single photon state and can lead to the measurement of the wave function of a single photon state.
Stability of quantum-dot excited-state laser emission under simultaneous ground-state perturbation
Kaptan, Y. Herzog, B.; Schöps, O.; Kolarczik, M.; Woggon, U.; Owschimikow, N.; Röhm, A.; Lingnau, B.; Lüdge, K.; Schmeckebier, H.; Arsenijević, D.; Bimberg, D.; Mikhelashvili, V.; Eisenstein, G.
2014-11-10
The impact of ground state amplification on the laser emission of In(Ga)As quantum dot excited state lasers is studied in time-resolved experiments. We find that a depopulation of the quantum dot ground state is followed by a drop in excited state lasing intensity. The magnitude of the drop is strongly dependent on the wavelength of the depletion pulse and the applied injection current. Numerical simulations based on laser rate equations reproduce the experimental results and explain the wavelength dependence by the different dynamics in lasing and non-lasing sub-ensembles within the inhomogeneously broadened quantum dots. At high injection levels, the observed response even upon perturbation of the lasing sub-ensemble is small and followed by a fast recovery, thus supporting the capacity of fast modulation in dual-state devices.
Quantum transport through the system of parallel quantum dots with Majorana bound states
Wang, Ning; Li, Yuxian; Lv, Shuhui
2014-02-28
We study the tunneling transport properties through a system of parallel quantum dots which are coupled to Majorana bound states (MBSs). The conductance and spectral function are computed using the retarded Green's function method based on the equation of motion. The conductance of the system is 2e{sup 2}/h at zero Fermi energy and is robust against the coupling between the MBSs and the quantum dots. The dependence of the Fermi energy on the spectral function is different for the first dot (dot1) than for the second dot (dot2) with fixed dot2-MBSs coupling. The influence of the Majorana bound states on the spectral function was studied for the series and parallel configurations of the system. It was found that when the configuration is in series, the Majorana bound states play an important role, resulting in a spectral function with three peaks. However, the spectral function shows two peaks when the system is in a parallel configuration. The zero Fermi energy spectral function is always 1/2 not only in series but also in the parallel configuration and robust against the coupling between the MBSs and the quantum dots. The phase diagram of the Fermi energy versus the quantum dot energy levels was also investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Shu-Jiang; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Wang, Lian-Hai; Ding, Qing-Yan; Zhang, Shu-Hui
2016-06-01
In 2011, Qu et al. proposed a quantum information hiding protocol based on the entanglement swapping of χ-type quantum states. Because a χ-type state can be described by the 4-particle cat states which have good symmetry, the possible output results of the entanglement swapping between a given χ-type state and all of the 16 χ-type states are divided into 8 groups instead of 16 groups of different results when the global phase is not considered. So it is difficult to read out the secret messages since each result occurs twice in each line (column) of the secret messages encoding rule for the original protocol. In fact, a 3-bit instead of a 4-bit secret message can be encoded by performing two unitary transformations on 2 particles of a χ-type quantum state in the original protocol. To overcome this defect, we propose an improved quantum information hiding protocol based on the general term formulas of the entanglement swapping among χ-type states. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 61572297, 61303199, 61272514, and 61373131, the Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. ZR2013FM025, ZR2013FQ001, ZR2014FM003, and ZY2015YL018, the Shandong Provincial Outstanding Research Award Fund for Young Scientists of China under Grant Nos. BS2015DX006 and BS2014DX007, the National Development Foundation for Cryptological Research, China under Grant No. MMJJ201401012, the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions and Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center on Atmospheric Environment and Equipment Technology Funds, and the Shandong Academy of Sciences Youth Fund Project, China under Grant Nos. 2015QN003 and 2013QN007
State-Selective Excitation of Quantum Systems via Geometrical Optimization.
Chang, Bo Y; Shin, Seokmin; Sola, Ignacio R
2015-09-01
We lay out the foundations of a general method of quantum control via geometrical optimization. We apply the method to state-selective population transfer using ultrashort transform-limited pulses between manifolds of levels that may represent, e.g., state-selective transitions in molecules. Assuming that certain states can be prepared, we develop three implementations: (i) preoptimization, which implies engineering the initial state within the ground manifold or electronic state before the pulse is applied; (ii) postoptimization, which implies engineering the final state within the excited manifold or target electronic state, after the pulse; and (iii) double-time optimization, which uses both types of time-ordered manipulations. We apply the schemes to two important dynamical problems: To prepare arbitrary vibrational superposition states on the target electronic state and to select weakly coupled vibrational states. Whereas full population inversion between the electronic states only requires control at initial time in all of the ground vibrational levels, only very specific superposition states can be prepared with high fidelity by either pre- or postoptimization mechanisms. Full state-selective population inversion requires manipulating the vibrational coherences in the ground electronic state before the optical pulse is applied and in the excited electronic state afterward, but not during all times. PMID:26575896
Quantum Hall State on Singular Surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiu, Yu Hung; Can, Tankut; Laskin, Michael; Wiegmann, Paul B.
We propose a framework to study the response towards geometry with FQHE state on singular surfaces. Such study on singular surface provides a path to measure the gravitational anomaly, the third universal transport coefficient of FQHE, in leading order. The large N expansion of generating functional is computed via two independent methods: a Ward Identity and a field theory approach. Meanwhile the second moment of the density is also obtained via Ward Identity. We observe that the generating functional on singular surfaces can be viewed as vertex operators at the cone tips. Divergence in the Liouville functional due to singularities is, as expected, a source for the modification, but not the sole source. From both methods, we are able to obtain the charge and conformal dimension hα of such a vertex operator. The talk will concentrate on the one cone result obtained via both approaches.
Minimum error discrimination between similarity-transformed quantum states
Jafarizadeh, M. A.; Sufiani, R.; Mazhari Khiavi, Y.
2011-07-15
Using the well-known necessary and sufficient conditions for minimum error discrimination (MED), we extract an equivalent form for the MED conditions. In fact, by replacing the inequalities corresponding to the MED conditions with an equivalent but more suitable and convenient identity, the problem of mixed state discrimination with optimal success probability is solved. Moreover, we show that the mentioned optimality conditions can be viewed as a Helstrom family of ensembles under some circumstances. Using the given identity, MED between N similarity transformed equiprobable quantum states is investigated. In the case that the unitary operators are generating a set of irreducible representation, the optimal set of measurements and corresponding maximum success probability of discrimination can be determined precisely. In particular, it is shown that for equiprobable pure states, the optimal measurement strategy is the square-root measurement (SRM), whereas for the mixed states, SRM is not optimal. In the case that the unitary operators are reducible, there is no closed-form formula in the general case, but the procedure can be applied in each case in accordance to that case. Finally, we give the maximum success probability of optimal discrimination for some important examples of mixed quantum states, such as generalized Bloch sphere m-qubit states, spin-j states, particular nonsymmetric qudit states, etc.
Heat-machine control by quantum-state preparation: From quantum engines to refrigerators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, D.; Kurizki, G.
2014-08-01
We explore the dependence of the performance bounds of heat engines and refrigerators on the initial quantum state and the subsequent evolution of their piston, modeled by a quantized harmonic oscillator. Our goal is to provide a fully quantized treatment of self-contained (autonomous) heat machines, as opposed to their prevailing semiclassical description that consists of a quantum system alternately coupled to a hot or a cold heat bath and parametrically driven by a classical time-dependent piston or field. Here, by contrast, there is no external time-dependent driving. Instead, the evolution is caused by the stationary simultaneous interaction of two heat baths (having distinct spectra and temperatures) with a single two-level system that is in turn coupled to the quantum piston. The fully quantized treatment we put forward allows us to investigate work extraction and refrigeration by the tools of quantum-optical amplifier and dissipation theory, particularly, by the analysis of amplified or dissipated phase-plane quasiprobability distributions. Our main insight is that quantum states may be thermodynamic resources and can provide a powerful handle, or control, on the efficiency of the heat machine. In particular, a piston initialized in a coherent state can cause the engine to produce work at an efficiency above the Carnot bound in the linear amplification regime. In the refrigeration regime, the coefficient of performance can transgress the Carnot bound if the piston is initialized in a Fock state. The piston may be realized by a vibrational mode, as in nanomechanical setups, or an electromagnetic field mode, as in cavity-based scenarios.
Heat-machine control by quantum-state preparation: from quantum engines to refrigerators.
Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, D; Kurizki, G
2014-08-01
We explore the dependence of the performance bounds of heat engines and refrigerators on the initial quantum state and the subsequent evolution of their piston, modeled by a quantized harmonic oscillator. Our goal is to provide a fully quantized treatment of self-contained (autonomous) heat machines, as opposed to their prevailing semiclassical description that consists of a quantum system alternately coupled to a hot or a cold heat bath and parametrically driven by a classical time-dependent piston or field. Here, by contrast, there is no external time-dependent driving. Instead, the evolution is caused by the stationary simultaneous interaction of two heat baths (having distinct spectra and temperatures) with a single two-level system that is in turn coupled to the quantum piston. The fully quantized treatment we put forward allows us to investigate work extraction and refrigeration by the tools of quantum-optical amplifier and dissipation theory, particularly, by the analysis of amplified or dissipated phase-plane quasiprobability distributions. Our main insight is that quantum states may be thermodynamic resources and can provide a powerful handle, or control, on the efficiency of the heat machine. In particular, a piston initialized in a coherent state can cause the engine to produce work at an efficiency above the Carnot bound in the linear amplification regime. In the refrigeration regime, the coefficient of performance can transgress the Carnot bound if the piston is initialized in a Fock state. The piston may be realized by a vibrational mode, as in nanomechanical setups, or an electromagnetic field mode, as in cavity-based scenarios. PMID:25215684
Metal-to-insulator switching in quantum anomalous Hall states
Kou, Xufeng; Pan, Lei; Wang, Jing; Fan, Yabin; Choi, Eun Sang; Lee, Wei -Li; Nie, Tianxiao; Murata, Koichi; Shao, Qiming; Zhang, Shou -Cheng; et al
2015-10-07
After decades of searching for the dissipationless transport in the absence of any external magnetic field, quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) was recently achieved in magnetic topological insulator films. However, the universal phase diagram of QAHE and its relation with quantum Hall effect (QHE) remain to be investigated. Here, we report the experimental observation of the giant longitudinal resistance peak and zero Hall conductance plateau at the coercive field in the six quintuple-layer (Cr0.12Bi0.26Sb0.62)2Te3 film, and demonstrate the metal-to-insulator switching between two opposite QAHE plateau states up to 0.3 K. Moreover, the universal QAHE phase diagram is confirmed through themore » angle-dependent measurements. Our results address that the quantum phase transitions in both QAHE and QHE regimes are in the same universality class, yet the microscopic details are different. Additionally, the realization of the QAHE insulating state unveils new ways to explore quantum phase-related physics and applications.« less
Metal-to-insulator switching in quantum anomalous Hall states
Kou, Xufeng; Pan, Lei; Wang, Jing; Fan, Yabin; Choi, Eun Sang; Lee, Wei-Li; Nie, Tianxiao; Murata, Koichi; Shao, Qiming; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Wang, Kang L.
2015-01-01
After decades of searching for the dissipationless transport in the absence of any external magnetic field, quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) was recently achieved in magnetic topological insulator films. However, the universal phase diagram of QAHE and its relation with quantum Hall effect (QHE) remain to be investigated. Here, we report the experimental observation of the giant longitudinal resistance peak and zero Hall conductance plateau at the coercive field in the six quintuple-layer (Cr0.12Bi0.26Sb0.62)2Te3 film, and demonstrate the metal-to-insulator switching between two opposite QAHE plateau states up to 0.3 K. Moreover, the universal QAHE phase diagram is confirmed through the angle-dependent measurements. Our results address that the quantum phase transitions in both QAHE and QHE regimes are in the same universality class, yet the microscopic details are different. In addition, the realization of the QAHE insulating state unveils new ways to explore quantum phase-related physics and applications. PMID:26442609
Magnetic resonance force microscopy and a solid state quantum computer.
Pelekhov, D. V.; Martin, I.; Suter, A.; Reagor, D. W.; Hammel, P. C.
2001-01-01
A Quantum Computer (QC) is a device that utilizes the principles of Quantum Mechanics to perform computations. Such a machine would be capable of accomplishing tasks not achievable by means of any conventional digital computer, for instance factoring large numbers. Currently it appears that the QC architecture based on an array of spin quantum bits (qubits) embedded in a solid-state matrix is one of the most promising approaches to fabrication of a scalable QC. However, the fabrication and operation of a Solid State Quantum Computer (SSQC) presents very formidable challenges; primary amongst these are: (1) the characterization and control of the fabrication process of the device during its construction and (2) the readout of the computational result. Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy (MRFM)--a novel scanning probe technique based on mechanical detection of magnetic resonance-provides an attractive means of addressing these requirements. The sensitivity of the MRFM significantly exceeds that of conventional magnetic resonance measurement methods, and it has the potential for single electron spin detection. Moreover, the MRFM is capable of true 3D subsurface imaging. These features will make MRFM an invaluable tool for the implementation of a spin-based QC. Here we present the general principles of MRFM operation, the current status of its development and indicate future directions for its improvement.
Metal-to-insulator switching in quantum anomalous Hall states
Kou, Xufeng; Pan, Lei; Wang, Jing; Fan, Yabin; Choi, Eun Sang; Lee, Wei -Li; Nie, Tianxiao; Murata, Koichi; Shao, Qiming; Zhang, Shou -Cheng; Wang, Kang L.
2015-10-07
After decades of searching for the dissipationless transport in the absence of any external magnetic field, quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) was recently achieved in magnetic topological insulator films. However, the universal phase diagram of QAHE and its relation with quantum Hall effect (QHE) remain to be investigated. Here, we report the experimental observation of the giant longitudinal resistance peak and zero Hall conductance plateau at the coercive field in the six quintuple-layer (Cr_{0.12}Bi_{0.26}Sb_{0.62})_{2}Te_{3} film, and demonstrate the metal-to-insulator switching between two opposite QAHE plateau states up to 0.3 K. Moreover, the universal QAHE phase diagram is confirmed through the angle-dependent measurements. Our results address that the quantum phase transitions in both QAHE and QHE regimes are in the same universality class, yet the microscopic details are different. Additionally, the realization of the QAHE insulating state unveils new ways to explore quantum phase-related physics and applications.
Metal-to-insulator switching in quantum anomalous Hall states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kou, Xufeng; Pan, Lei; Wang, Jing; Fan, Yabin; Choi, Eun Sang; Lee, Wei-Li; Nie, Tianxiao; Murata, Koichi; Shao, Qiming; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Wang, Kang L.
2015-10-01
After decades of searching for the dissipationless transport in the absence of any external magnetic field, quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) was recently achieved in magnetic topological insulator films. However, the universal phase diagram of QAHE and its relation with quantum Hall effect (QHE) remain to be investigated. Here, we report the experimental observation of the giant longitudinal resistance peak and zero Hall conductance plateau at the coercive field in the six quintuple-layer (Cr0.12Bi0.26Sb0.62)2Te3 film, and demonstrate the metal-to-insulator switching between two opposite QAHE plateau states up to 0.3 K. Moreover, the universal QAHE phase diagram is confirmed through the angle-dependent measurements. Our results address that the quantum phase transitions in both QAHE and QHE regimes are in the same universality class, yet the microscopic details are different. In addition, the realization of the QAHE insulating state unveils new ways to explore quantum phase-related physics and applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niu, X. Y.; Huang, X. L.; Shang, Y. F.; Wang, X. Y.
2015-04-01
Superposition principle plays a crucial role in quantum mechanics, thus its effects on thermodynamics is an interesting topic. Here, the effects of superpositions of quantum states on isoenergetic cycle are studied. We find superposition can improve the heat engine efficiency and release the positive work condition in general case. In the finite time process, we find the efficiency at maximum power output in superposition case is lower than the nonsuperposition case. This efficiency depends on one index of the energy spectrum of the working substance. This result does not mean the superposition discourages the heat engine performance. For fixed efficiency or fixed power, the superposition improves the power or efficiency respectively. These results show how quantum mechanical properties affect the thermodynamical cycle.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daoud, M.; Ahl Laamara, R.
2012-07-01
We give the explicit expressions of the pairwise quantum correlations present in superpositions of multipartite coherent states. A special attention is devoted to the evaluation of the geometric quantum discord. The dynamics of quantum correlations under a dephasing channel is analyzed. A comparison of geometric measure of quantum discord with that of concurrence shows that quantum discord in multipartite coherent states is more resilient to dissipative environments than is quantum entanglement. To illustrate our results, we consider some special superpositions of Weyl-Heisenberg, SU(2) and SU(1,1) coherent states which interpolate between Werner and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states.
The Local Orthogonality Between Quantum States and Entanglement Decomposition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Sunho; Wu, Junde; Zhang, Lin; Cho, Minhyung
2016-06-01
In the paper, we show that when a quantum state can be decomposed as a convex combination of locally orthogonal mixed states, its entanglement can be decomposed into the entanglement of these mixed states without losing them. The obtained result generalizes a corresponding one proved by Horodecki (Acta Phys. Slov. 48, 141 1998). But, for the entanglement cost it requires certain conditions for holding the decomposition, and the distillable entanglement only has a week result as inequality. Finally, we presented an example to show that the conditions of our conclusions are existence.
Efficient Quantum Compression for Ensembles of Identically Prepared Mixed States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yuxiang; Chiribella, Giulio; Ebler, Daniel
2016-02-01
We present one-shot compression protocols that optimally encode ensembles of N identically prepared mixed states into O (log N ) qubits. In contrast to the case of pure-state ensembles, we find that the number of encoding qubits drops down discontinuously as soon as a nonzero error is tolerated and the spectrum of the states is known with sufficient precision. For qubit ensembles, this feature leads to a 25% saving of memory space. Our compression protocols can be implemented efficiently on a quantum computer.
Numerical analysis of decoy state quantum key distribution protocols
Harrington, Jim W; Rice, Patrick R
2008-01-01
Decoy state protocols are a useful tool for many quantum key distribution systems implemented with weak coherent pulses, allowing significantly better secret bit rates and longer maximum distances. In this paper we present a method to numerically find optimal three-level protocols, and we examine how the secret bit rate and the optimized parameters are dependent on various system properties, such as session length, transmission loss, and visibility. Additionally, we show how to modify the decoy state analysis to handle partially distinguishable decoy states as well as uncertainty in the prepared intensities.
Quantum speed limit for perfect state transfer in one dimension
Yung, M.-H.
2006-09-15
The basic idea of spin-chain engineering for perfect quantum state transfer (QST) is to find a set of coupling constants in the Hamiltonian such that a particular state initially encoded on one site will evolve freely to the opposite site without any dynamical controls. The minimal possible evolution time represents a speed limit for QST. We prove that the optimal solution is the one simulating the precession of a spin in a static magnetic field. We also argue that, at least for solid-state systems where interactions are local, it is more realistic to characterize the computation power by the couplings than the initial energy.
Intermediate states in quantum cryptography and Bell inequalities
Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H.; Gisin, N.
2003-06-01
Intermediate states are known from intercept/resend eavesdropping in the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum cryptographic protocol. But they also play fundamental roles in the optimal eavesdropping strategy on the BB84 protocol and in the CHSH (Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt) inequality. We generalize the intermediate states to an arbitrary dimension and consider intercept/resend eavesdropping, optimal eavesdropping on the generalized BB84 protocol and present a generalized Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for two entangled qudits based on these states.
Generating and protecting correlated quantum states under collective dephasing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carnio, Edoardo G.; Buchleitner, Andreas; Gessner, Manuel
2016-07-01
We study the collective dephasing process of a system of non-interacting atomic qubits, immersed in a spatially uniform magnetic field of fluctuating intensity. The correlation properties of bipartite states are analysed based on a geometric representation of the state space. Particular emphasis is put on the dephasing-assisted generation of states with a high correlation rank, which can be related to discord-type correlations and allow for direct applications in quantum information theory. Finally we study the conditions that ensure the robustness of initial entanglement and discuss the phenomenon of time-invariant entanglement.
Estimation of the covariance matrix of macroscopic quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruppert, László; Usenko, Vladyslav C.; Filip, Radim
2016-05-01
For systems analogous to a linear harmonic oscillator, the simplest way to characterize the state is by a covariance matrix containing the symmetrically ordered moments of operators analogous to position and momentum. We show that using Stokes-like detectors without direct access to either position or momentum, the estimation of the covariance matrix of a macroscopic signal is still possible using interference with a classical noisy and low-intensity reference. Such a detection technique will allow one to estimate macroscopic quantum states of electromagnetic radiation without a coherent high-intensity local oscillator. It can be directly applied to estimate the covariance matrix of macroscopically bright squeezed states of light.
Tunable quantum beam splitters for coherent manipulation of a solid-state tripartite qubit system
Sun, Guozhu; Wen, Xueda; Mao, Bo; Chen, Jian; Yu, Yang; Wu, Peiheng; Han, Siyuan
2010-01-01
Coherent control of quantum states is at the heart of implementing solid-state quantum processors and testing quantum mechanics at the macroscopic level. Despite significant progress made in recent years in controlling single- and bi-partite quantum systems, coherent control of quantum wave function in multipartite systems involving artificial solid-state qubits has been hampered due to the relatively short decoherence time and lack of precise control methods. Here we report the creation and coherent manipulation of quantum states in a tripartite quantum system, which is formed by a superconducting qubit coupled to two microscopic two-level systems (TLSs). The avoided crossings in the system's energy-level spectrum due to the qubit–TLS interaction act as tunable quantum beam splitters of wave functions. Our result shows that the Landau–Zener–Stückelberg interference has great potential in precise control of the quantum states in the tripartite system. PMID:20975719
Tunable quantum beam splitters for coherent manipulation of a solid-state tripartite qubit system.
Sun, Guozhu; Wen, Xueda; Mao, Bo; Chen, Jian; Yu, Yang; Wu, Peiheng; Han, Siyuan
2010-01-01
Coherent control of quantum states is at the heart of implementing solid-state quantum processors and testing quantum mechanics at the macroscopic level. Despite significant progress made in recent years in controlling single- and bi-partite quantum systems, coherent control of quantum wave function in multipartite systems involving artificial solid-state qubits has been hampered due to the relatively short decoherence time and lack of precise control methods. Here we report the creation and coherent manipulation of quantum states in a tripartite quantum system, which is formed by a superconducting qubit coupled to two microscopic two-level systems (TLSs). The avoided crossings in the system's energy-level spectrum due to the qubit-TLS interaction act as tunable quantum beam splitters of wave functions. Our result shows that the Landau-Zener-Stückelberg interference has great potential in precise control of the quantum states in the tripartite system. PMID:20975719
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Tzu-Chieh
2010-06-01
We consider quantum states under the renormalization-group (RG) transformations introduced by Verstraete [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.94.140601 94, 140601 (2005)] and propose a quantification of entanglement under such RGs (via the geometric measure of entanglement). We examine the resulting entanglement under RG transformations for the ground states of “matrix-product-state” Hamiltonians constructed by Wolf [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.97.110403 97, 110403 (2006)] that possess quantum phase transitions. We find that near critical points, the ground-state entanglement exhibits singular behavior. The singular behavior within finite steps of the RG obeys a scaling hypothesis and reveals the correlation length exponent. However, under the infinite steps of RG transformation, the singular behavior is rendered different and is universal only when there is an underlying conformal-field-theory description of the critical point.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castro, E.; Gómez, R.; Ladera, C. L.; Zambrano, A.
2013-11-01
Among many applications quantum weak measurements have been shown to be important in exploring fundamental physics issues, such as the experimental violation of the Heisenberg uncertainty relation and the Hardy paradox, and have also technological implications in quantum optics, quantum metrology and quantum communications, where the precision of the measurement is as important as the precision of quantum state preparation. The theory of weak measurement can be formulated using the pre-and post-selected quantum systems, as well as using the weak measurement operator formalism. In this work, we study the quantum discord (QD) of quasi-Werner mixed states based on bipartite entangled coherent states using the weak measurements operator, instead of the projective measurement operators. We then compare the quantum discord for both kinds of measurement operators, in terms of the entanglement quality, the latter being measured using the concept of concurrence. It's found greater quantum correlations using the weak measurement operators.
Confinement of color states in a stochastic vacuum of quantum chromodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuvshinov, V. I.; Bagashov, E. G.
2015-09-01
We show that in the framework of the stochastic vacuum model of quantum chromodynamics, quark confinement can be described as the decoherence of a color state of a particle into a mixed quantum state with equal probabilities for different colors. We evaluate the quantum characteristics of one-particle and multiparticle states: purity, fidelity, and the von Neumann entropy.
Quantum-State-Resolved Ion-Molecule Chemistry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Gary; Yang, Tiangang; Campbell, Wesley; Hudson, Eric
2016-05-01
We propose a method to achieve quantum-state-resolved ion-molecule chemistry by utilizing cryogenic buffer gas cooling techniques and a combination of ion imaging and mass spectrometry of targets in an RF Paul trap. Cold molecular species produced by a cryogenic buffer gas beam (CBGB) are introduced to target ion species in an linear quadrupole trap (LQT) where ion imaging techniques and time of flight mass spectrometry (ToF) are then used to observe the target ions and the charged reaction products [1,2]. By taking advantage of the large ion-neutral interaction cross sections and characteristically long ion trap lifetimes, we can utilize the precision control over quantum states allowed by an ion trap to resolve state-to-state quantum chemical reactions without high-density molecular sample production, well within proposed capabilities. The combination of these two very general cold species production techniques allows for production and observation of a broad range of ion-neutral reactions. We initially plan to study chemical reactions between sympathetically cooled carbon ions (via laser cooled beryllium ions) with buffer gas cooled water. This work is supported by the US Air Force Office of Scientific Research.
Ground-state properties of quantum triangular ice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Owerre, S. A.
2016-03-01
Motivated by recent quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations of the quantum Kagome ice model by Juan Carrasquilla et al., [Nat. Commun., 6, 7421 (2015), 10.1038/ncomms8421], we study the ground-state properties of this model on the triangular lattice. In the presence of a magnetic field h , the Hamiltonian possesses competing interactions between a Z2-invariant easy-axis ferromagnetic interaction J±± and a frustrated Ising term Jz. As in the U(1)-invariant model, we obtain four classical distinctive phases, however, the classical phases in the Z2-invariant model are different. They are as follows: a fully polarized (FP) ferromagnet for large h , an easy-axis canted ferromagnet (CFM) with broken Z2 symmetry for small h and dominant J±±, a ferrosolid phase with broken translational and Z2 symmetries for small h and dominant Jz, and two lobes with m =
Coherent states and parasupersymmetric quantum mechanics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Debergh, Nathalie
1992-01-01
It is well known that Parafermi and Parabose statistics are natural extensions of the usual Fermi and Bose ones, enhancing trilinear (anti)commutation relations instead of bilinear ones. Due to this generalization, positive parameters appear: the so-called orders of paraquantization p (= 1, 2, 3, ...) and h sub 0 (= 1/2, 1, 3/2, ...), respectively, the first value leading in each case to the usual statistics. The superpostion of the parabosonic and parafermionic operators gives rise to parasupermultiplets for which mixed trilinear relations have already been studied leading to two (nonequivalent) sets: the relative Parabose and the relative Parafermi ones. For the specific values p = 1 = 2h sub 0, these sets reduce to the well known supersymmetry. Coherent states associated with this last model have been recently put in evidence through the annihilation operator point of view and the group theoretical approach or displacement operator context. We propose to realize the corresponding studies within the new context p = 2 = 2h sub 0, being then directly extended to any order of paraquantization.
Pretty good state transfer of entangled states through quantum spin chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sousa, Rúben; Omar, Yasser
2014-12-01
The XX model with uniform couplings represents the most natural choice for quantum state transfer through spin chains. Given that it has long been established that single-qubit states cannot be transferred with perfect fidelity in this model, the notion of pretty good state transfer has been recently introduced as a relaxation of the constraints on fidelity. In this paper, we study the transfer of multi-qubit entangled and unentangled states through unmodulated spin chains, and we prove that it is possible to have pretty good state transfer of any multi-particle state. This significantly generalizes the previous results on single-qubit state transfer and opens the way to using uniformly coupled spin chains as short-distance quantum channels for the transfer of arbitrary states of any dimension. Our results could be tested with current technology.
Local State and Sector Theory in Local Quantum Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ojima, Izumi; Okamura, Kazuya; Saigo, Hayato
2016-06-01
We define a new concept of local states in the framework of algebraic quantum field theory (AQFT). Local states are a natural generalization of states and give a clear vision of localization in the context of QFT. In terms of them, we can find a condition from which follows automatically the famous DHR selection criterion in DHR-DR theory. As a result, we can understand the condition as consequences of physically natural state preparations in vacuum backgrounds. Furthermore, a theory of orthogonal decomposition of completely positive (CP) maps is developed. It unifies a theory of orthogonal decomposition of states and order structure theory of CP maps. Using it, localized version of sectors is formulated, which gives sector theory for local states with respect to general reference representations.
Distillation of nonstabilizer states for universal quantum computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duclos-Cianci, Guillaume; Svore, Krysta M.
2013-10-01
Magic-state distillation is a fundamental technique for realizing fault-tolerant universal quantum computing and produces high-fidelity Clifford eigenstates, called magic states, which can be used to implement the non-Clifford π/8 gate. We propose an efficient protocol for distilling other nonstabilizer states that requires only Clifford operations, measurement, and magic states. One critical application of our protocol is efficiently and fault-tolerantly implementing arbitrary, non-Clifford, single-qubit rotations in, on average, constant online circuit depth and polylogarithmic (in precision) offline resource cost, resulting in significant improvements over state-of-the-art decomposition techniques. Finally, we show that our protocol is robust to noise in the resource states.
Local State and Sector Theory in Local Quantum Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ojima, Izumi; Okamura, Kazuya; Saigo, Hayato
2016-04-01
We define a new concept of local states in the framework of algebraic quantum field theory (AQFT). Local states are a natural generalization of states and give a clear vision of localization in the context of QFT. In terms of them, we can find a condition from which follows automatically the famous DHR selection criterion in DHR-DR theory. As a result, we can understand the condition as consequences of physically natural state preparations in vacuum backgrounds. Furthermore, a theory of orthogonal decomposition of completely positive (CP) maps is developed. It unifies a theory of orthogonal decomposition of states and order structure theory of CP maps. Using it, localized version of sectors is formulated, which gives sector theory for local states with respect to general reference representations.
Quantum backflow states from eigenstates of the regularized current operator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Halliwell, J. J.; Gillman, E.; Lennon, O.; Patel, M.; Ramirez, I.
2013-11-01
We present an exhaustive class of states with quantum backflow—the phenomenon in which a state consisting entirely of positive momenta has negative current and the probability flows in the opposite direction to the momentum. They are characterized by a general function of momenta subject to very weak conditions. Such a family of states is of interest in the light of a recent experimental proposal to measure backflow. We find one particularly simple state which has surprisingly large backflow—about 41% of the lower bound on flux derived by Bracken and Melloy. We study the eigenstates of a regularized current operator and we show how some of these states, in a certain limit, lead to our class of backflow states. This limit also clarifies the correspondence between the spectrum of the regularized current operator, which has just two non-zero eigenvalues in our chosen regularization, and the usual current operator.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yuen, H. P.; Shapiro, J. H.
1978-01-01
To determine the ultimate performance limitations imposed by quantum effects, it is also essential to consider optimum quantum-state generation. Certain 'generalized' coherent states of the radiation field possess novel quantum noise characteristics that offer the potential for greatly improved optical communications. These states have been called two-photon coherent states because they can be generated, in principle, by stimulated two-photon processes. The use of two-photon coherent state (TCS) radiation in free-space optical communications is considered. A simple theory of quantum state propagation is developed. The theory provides the basis for representing the free-space channel in a quantum-mechanical form convenient for communication analysis. The new theory is applied to TCS radiation.
Quantum cryptography using coherent states: Randomized encryption and key generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corndorf, Eric
With the advent of the global optical-telecommunications infrastructure, an increasing number of individuals, companies, and agencies communicate information with one another over public networks or physically-insecure private networks. While the majority of the traffic flowing through these networks requires little or no assurance of secrecy, the same cannot be said for certain communications between banks, between government agencies, within the military, and between corporations. In these arenas, the need to specify some level of secrecy in communications is a high priority. While the current approaches to securing sensitive information (namely the public-key-cryptography infrastructure and deterministic private-key ciphers like AES and 3DES) seem to be cryptographically strong based on empirical evidence, there exist no mathematical proofs of secrecy for any widely deployed cryptosystem. As an example, the ubiquitous public-key cryptosystems infer all of their secrecy from the assumption that factoring of the product of two large primes is necessarily time consuming---something which has not, and perhaps cannot, be proven. Since the 1980s, the possibility of using quantum-mechanical features of light as a physical mechanism for satisfying particular cryptographic objectives has been explored. This research has been fueled by the hopes that cryptosystems based on quantum systems may provide provable levels of secrecy which are at least as valid as quantum mechanics itself. Unfortunately, the most widely considered quantum-cryptographic protocols (BB84 and the Ekert protocol) have serious implementation problems. Specifically, they require quantum-mechanical states which are not readily available, and they rely on unproven relations between intrusion-level detection and the information available to an attacker. As a result, the secrecy level provided by these experimental implementations is entirely unspecified. In an effort to provably satisfy the cryptographic
Thermal pure quantum states of many-particle systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hyuga, Masahiko; Sugiura, Sho; Sakai, Kazumitsu; Shimizu, Akira
2014-09-01
We generalize the thermal pure quantum (TPQ) formulation of statistical mechanics, in such a way that it is applicable to systems whose Hilbert space is infinite dimensional. Assuming particle systems, we construct the grand-canonical TPQ (gTPQ) state, which is the counterpart of the grand-canonical Gibbs state of the ensemble formulation. A single realization of the gTPQ state gives all quantities of statistical-mechanical interest, with exponentially small probability of error. This formulation not only sheds new light on quantum statistical mechanics but also is useful for practical computations. As an illustration, we apply it to the Hubbard model, on a one-dimensional (1D) chain and on a two-dimensional (2D) triangular lattice. For the 1D chain, our results agree well with the exact solutions over wide ranges of temperature, chemical potential, and the on-site interaction. For the 2D triangular lattice, for which exact results are unknown, we obtain reliable results over a wide range of temperature. We also find that finite-size effects are much smaller in the gTPQ state than in the canonical TPQ state. This also shows that in the ensemble formulation the grand-canonical Gibbs state of a finite-size system simulates an infinite system much better than the canonical Gibbs state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Arnab; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.
2008-12-01
Here we discuss the annealing behavior of an infinite-range ±J Ising spin glass in the presence of a transverse field using a zero-temperature quantum Monte Carlo method. Within the simulation scheme, we demonstrate that quantum annealing not only helps finding the ground state of a classical spin glass, but can also help simulating the ground state of a quantum spin glass, in particular, when the transverse field is low, much more efficiently.
Das, Arnab; Chakrabarti, Bikas K
2008-12-01
Here we discuss the annealing behavior of an infinite-range +/-J Ising spin glass in the presence of a transverse field using a zero-temperature quantum Monte Carlo method. Within the simulation scheme, we demonstrate that quantum annealing not only helps finding the ground state of a classical spin glass, but can also help simulating the ground state of a quantum spin glass, in particular, when the transverse field is low, much more efficiently. PMID:19256816
An Immune Quantum Communication Model for Dephasing Noise Using Four-Qubit Cluster State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Rui-jin; Li, Dong-fen; Qin, Zhi-guang
2016-01-01
Quantum secure communication of dephasing in the presence of noise is a hot spot in research in the field of quantum secure communication. Quantum steganography aims is to transfer secret information in public quantum channel. But because effect of annealing phase noise, quantum states which is need to transfer easily delayed or changed. So, quantum steganography is very meaning apply to transmit secret information covertly in quantum noisy channels. The article introduced dephasing noise impact on the physics of quantum state, through the theoretical research, construct the logic of quantum states to back the phase noise immunity, and construct the decoherence free subspace, It can guarantees fidelity secret information exchange through quantum communication model in a noisy environment.
Quantum frequency up-conversion of continuous variable entangled states
Liu, Wenyuan; Wang, Ning; Li, Zongyang; Li, Yongmin
2015-12-07
We demonstrate experimentally quantum frequency up-conversion of a continuous variable entangled optical field via sum-frequency-generation process. The two-color entangled state initially entangled at 806 and 1518 nm with an amplitude quadrature difference squeezing of 3.2 dB and phase quadrature sum squeezing of 3.1 dB is converted to a new entangled state at 530 and 1518 nm with the amplitude quadrature difference squeezing of 1.7 dB and phase quadrature sum squeezing of 1.8 dB. Our implementation enables the observation of entanglement between two light fields spanning approximately 1.5 octaves in optical frequency. The presented scheme is robust to the excess amplitude and phase noises of the pump field, making it a practical building block for quantum information processing and communication networks.
Bidirectional imperfect quantum teleportation with a single Bell state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiktenko, E. O.; Popov, A. A.; Fedorov, A. K.
2016-06-01
We present a bidirectional modification of the standard one-qubit teleportation protocol, where both Alice and Bob transfer noisy versions of their qubit states to each other by using single Bell state and auxiliary (trigger) qubits. Three schemes are considered: the first where the actions of parties are governed by two independent quantum random triggers, the second with single random trigger, and the third as a mixture of the first two. We calculate the fidelities of teleportation for all schemes and find a condition on correlation between trigger qubits in the mixed scheme which allows us to overcome the classical fidelity boundary of 2/3. We apply the Choi-Jamiolkowski isomorphism to the quantum channels obtained in order to investigate an interplay between their ability to transfer the information, entanglement-breaking property, and auxiliary classical communication needed to form correlations between trigger qubits. The suggested scheme for bidirectional teleportation can be realized by using current experimental tools.
Edge-state blockade of transport in quantum dot arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benito, Mónica; Niklas, Michael; Platero, Gloria; Kohler, Sigmund
2016-03-01
We propose a transport blockade mechanism in quantum dot arrays and conducting molecules based on an interplay of Coulomb repulsion and the formation of edge states. As a model we employ a dimer chain that exhibits a topological phase transition. The connection to a strongly biased electron source and drain enables transport. We show that the related emergence of edge states is manifest in the shot noise properties as it is accompanied by a crossover from bunched electron transport to a Poissonian process. For both regions we develop a scenario that can be captured by a rate equation. The resulting analytical expressions for the Fano factor agree well with the numerical solution of a full quantum master equation.
Bulk Entanglement Spectrum Reveals Quantum Criticality within a Topological State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsieh, Timothy; Fu, Liang
2014-03-01
A quantum phase transition is usually achieved by tuning physical parameters in a Hamiltonian at zero temperature. Here, we demonstrate that the ground state of a topological phase itself encodes critical properties of its transition to a trivial phase. To extract this information, we introduce a partition of the system into two subsystems both of which extend throughout the bulk in all directions. The resulting bulk entanglement spectrum has a low-lying part that resembles the excitation spectrum of a bulk Hamiltonian, which allows us to access a topological phase transition from a single wavefunction by tuning either the geometry of the partition or the entanglement temperature. As an example, this remarkable correspondence between topological phase transition and entanglement criticality is rigorously established for integer quantum Hall states. TH is supported by NSF Graduate Research Fellowship No. 0645960. LF is partly supported by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under award DE-SC0010526.
Unconventional Sequence of Fractional Quantum Hall States in Suspended Graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feldman, Benjamin E.; Krauss, Benjamin; Smet, Jurgen H.; Yacoby, Amir
2012-09-01
Graphene provides a rich platform to study many-body effects, owing to its massless chiral charge carriers and the fourfold degeneracy arising from their spin and valley degrees of freedom. We use a scanning single-electron transistor to measure the local electronic compressibility of suspended graphene, and we observed an unusual pattern of incompressible fractional quantum Hall states that follows the standard composite fermion sequence between filling factors ν = 0 and 1 but involves only even-numerator fractions between ν = 1 and 2. We further investigated this surprising hierarchy by extracting the corresponding energy gaps as a function of the magnetic field. The sequence and relative strengths of the fractional quantum Hall states provide insight into the interplay between electronic correlations and the inherent symmetries of graphene.
Quantum frequency up-conversion of continuous variable entangled states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Wenyuan; Wang, Ning; Li, Zongyang; Li, Yongmin
2015-12-01
We demonstrate experimentally quantum frequency up-conversion of a continuous variable entangled optical field via sum-frequency-generation process. The two-color entangled state initially entangled at 806 and 1518 nm with an amplitude quadrature difference squeezing of 3.2 dB and phase quadrature sum squeezing of 3.1 dB is converted to a new entangled state at 530 and 1518 nm with the amplitude quadrature difference squeezing of 1.7 dB and phase quadrature sum squeezing of 1.8 dB. Our implementation enables the observation of entanglement between two light fields spanning approximately 1.5 octaves in optical frequency. The presented scheme is robust to the excess amplitude and phase noises of the pump field, making it a practical building block for quantum information processing and communication networks.
Quantum states for quantum processes: A toy model for ammonia inversion spectra
Arteca, Gustavo A.; Tapia, O.
2011-07-15
Chemical transformations are viewed here as quantum processes modulated by external fields, that is, as shifts in reactant to product amplitudes within a quantum state represented by a linear (coherent) superposition of electronuclear basis functions; their electronic quantum numbers identify the ''chemical species.'' This basis set can be mapped from attractors built from a unique electronic configurational space that is invariant with respect to the nuclear geometry. In turn, the quantum numbers that label these basis functions and the semiclassical potentials for the electronic attractors may be used to derive reaction coordinates to monitor progress as a function of the applied field. A generalization of Feynman's three-state model for the ammonia inversion process illustrates the scheme; to enforce symmetry for the entire inversion process model and ensure invariance with respect to nuclear configurations, the three attractors and their basis functions are computed with a grid of fixed floating Gaussian functions. The external-field modulation of the effective inversion barrier is discussed within this conceptual approach. This analysis brings the descriptions of chemical processes near modern technologies that employ molecules to encode information by means of confinement and external fields.
Probing the quantumness of channels with mixed states
Haeseler, Hauke; Luetkenhaus, Norbert
2009-10-15
We present an alternative approach to the derivation of benchmarks for quantum channels, such as memory or teleportation channels. Using the concept of effective entanglement and the verification thereof, a testing procedure is derived which demands very few experimental resources. The procedure is generalized by allowing for mixed test states. By constructing optimized measure and reprepare channels, the benchmarks are found to be very tight in the considered experimental regimes.
Comment on "Direct counterfactual transmission of a quantum state"
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaidman, L.
2016-06-01
The protocol for counterfactual transmission of a qubit [Z.-H. Li et al., Phys. Rev. A 92, 052315 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.052315] relies on the counterfactuality of transmissions of bit 1 and of bit 0. Since counterfactuality of transmission of bit 0 is not established, the claim of counterfactuality of transmission of a quantum state is not established too.
On the convergence of quantum resonant-state expansion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, J. M.; Jakobsen, P.; Bahl, A.; Moloney, J. V.; Kolesik, M.
2016-03-01
Completeness of the system of Stark resonant states is investigated for a one-dimensional quantum particle with the Dirac-delta potential exposed to an external homogeneous field. It is shown that the resonant series representation of a given wavefunction converges on the negative real axis while the series diverges on the positive axis. Despite the divergent nature of the resonant expansion, good approximations can be obtained in a compact spatial domain.