Science.gov

Sample records for gray-body interchange factor

  1. Scattering coefficients and gray-body factor for 1D BEC acoustic black holes: Exact results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbri, Alessandro; Balbinot, Roberto; Anderson, Paul R.

    2016-03-01

    A complete set of exact analytic solutions to the mode equation is found in the region exterior to the acoustic horizon for a class of 1D Bose-Einstein condensate acoustic black holes. From these, analytic expressions for the scattering coefficients and gray-body factor are obtained. The results are used to verify previous predictions regarding the behaviors of the scattering coefficients and gray-body factor in the low-frequency limit.

  2. Radiant-interchange Configuration Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, D C :; Morgan, W R

    1952-01-01

    A study is presented of the geometric configuration factors required for computing radiant heat transfer between opaque surfaces separated by a nonabsorbing medium and various methods of determining the configuration factors are discussed. Configuration-factor solutions available in the literature have been checked and the more complicated equations are presented as families of curves. Cases for point, line, and finite-area sources are worked out over a wide range of geometric proportions. These cases include several new configurations involving rectangles, triangles, and cylinders of finite length which are integrated and tabulated. An analysis is presented, in which configuration factors are employed of the radiant heat transfer to the rotor blades of a typical gas turbine under different conditions of temperature and pressure. (author)

  3. Volume interchange factors for hypersonic vehicle wake radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, D. K.; Babikian, D. S.

    1987-01-01

    Volume interchange factors are shown to be convenient in modeling the radiative processes in the wake of a hypersonic vehicle. Use of the factors facilitates calculating not just the radiative heating rates on afterbody surfaces but also the radiative de-excitation rates from stimulated emission and re-excitation rates from absorption in rarefied nonequilibrium flows. Sample calculations of volume interchange factors are presented for volume configurations modeling wake elements, and the numerical results are compared to limiting approximations to clarify the operation of the emission, transmission, and absorption processes.

  4. Gray-Body Radiation Using a Blackbody Source and an Optical Chopper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Arteaga, H.; Cárdenas-García, D.

    2015-08-01

    The emissivity of most material surfaces that can be used as radiation sources is a function of wavelength. On the other hand, blackbody cavities with emissivities higher than 0.995 in a wide wavelength range are readily available in many laboratories. If it were possible to attenuate by a constant factor the radiation emitted by those blackbodies, then they could be used as gray-body radiators. A neutral density filter is not an option to attenuate the radiation from a blackbody source because its transmittance is wavelength dependent. Optical choppers, usually rotating disk shutters, are widely used to modulate the intensity of a light beam. The apparent transmittance of an optical chopper is defined in terms of the mark-to-space ratio. Most optical choppers have a 1:1 ratio which would be equivalent to 50 % transmittance. To attenuate the radiation coming from a blackbody, the optical chopper should have a stable rotating speed and a high chopping frequency so its mark-to-space cycle time is very short compared to a radiation thermometer response time. If this condition is fulfilled, the radiation thermometer would display a temperature reading as if it were aiming to a gray-body at the temperature of the blackbody and with an emissivity equal to the optical chopper transmittance. This method to obtain a gray-body radiator using a blackbody source and an optical chopper is discussed, and some measurements including its uncertainty analysis are reported.

  5. High-Transmission Filters for Realizing Gray-Body Radiators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, J.; Yamada, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Calibration of infrared radiation thermometers at non-unity emissivity settings is a poorly solved problem for establishment of traceability to meet user needs, for instruments with both fixed and variable emissivity setting functions. A variable-temperature gray-body radiator having a constant value of emissivity independent of both wavelength and temperature can be a perfect tool for the calibration purpose. In this paper, two types of high-transmittance optical neutral density filters, one utilizing a rotating-sector optical chopper, and another of a wire-mesh type, are shown to perform well with a precise transmittance between 90 % and 100 % in the wide infrared wavelength range. These optical filters in combination with a blackbody cavity traceable to ITS-90 can realize reliable gray-body radiation. These methods are applied successfully to several models of infrared thermometers operated in the emissivity correction mode.

  6. Planetary Interchange of Bioactive Material: Probability Factors and Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Benton C.

    2001-02-01

    It is now well-accepted that both lunar and martian materials are represented in the meteorite collections. Early suggestions that viable organisms might survive natural transport between planets have not yet been thoroughly examined. The concept of Planetary Interchange of Bioactive Material (PIBM) is potentially relevant to the conditions under which life originated. PIBM has been also invoked to infer that the potential danger to Earth from martian materials is non-existent, an inference with, however, many pitfalls. Numerous impediments to efficient transfer of viable organisms exist. In this work, the lethality of space radiation during long transients and the biasing of launched objects toward materials unlikely to host abundant organisms are examined and shown to reduce the likelihood of successful transfer by orders of magnitude. It is also shown that martian meteorites studied to date assuredly have been subjected to sterilizing levels of ionizing radiation in space. PIBM considerations apply to both the solar system locale(s) of the origin of life and to the applicability of planetary protection protocols to preserve the biospheres of planetary bodies, including our own.

  7. Interstate Highway Interchanges Reshape Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Henry E., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Highway interchanges offer rural counties practically ready-made sites for development, but some interchanges offer better development opportunities than others. A study of a Kentucky interchange identified seven factors that make a difference in development, including traffic volume, distance to an urban area, ruggedness of terrain, and sale of…

  8. Multiband fiber optic radiometry for measuring the temperature and emissivity of gray bodies of low or high emissivity.

    PubMed

    Sade, Sharon; Katzir, Abraham

    2004-03-20

    Infrared fiber optic radiometry was used for noncontact thermometry of gray bodies whose temperature was close to room temperature (40-70 degrees C). We selected three gray bodies, one with high emissivity (epsilon = 0.97), one with medium emissivity (epsilon = 0.71), and one with low emissivity (epsilon = 0.025). We carried out optimization calculations and measurements for a multiband fiber optic radiometer that consisted of a silver halide (AgClBr) infrared-transmitting fiber, a dual-band cooled infrared detector, and a set of 18 narrowband infrared filters that covered the 2-14-microm spectral range. We determined the optimal spectral range, the optimal number of filters to be used, and the optimal chopping scheme. Using these optimal conditions, we performed measurements of the three gray bodies and obtained an accuracy of better than 1 degrees C for body temperature and for room temperature. An accuracy of 0.03 was obtained for body emissivity. PMID:15065708

  9. Tether Technology Interchange Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, James K. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    This is a compilation of 25 papers presented at a tether technical interchange meeting in Huntsville, AL, on September 9-10, 1997. After each presentation, a technical discussion was held to clarify and expand the salient points. A wide range of subjects was covered including tether dynamics, electrodynamics, space power generation, plasma physics, ionospheric physics, towing tethers, tethered reentry schemes, and future tether missions.

  10. Interchangeable spline reference guide

    SciTech Connect

    Dolin, R.M.

    1994-05-01

    The WX-Division Integrated Software Tools (WIST) Team evolved from two previous committees, First was the W78 Solid Modeling Pilot Project`s Spline Subcommittee, which later evolved into the Vv`X-Division Spline Committee. The mission of the WIST team is to investigate current CAE engineering processes relating to complex geometry and to develop methods for improving those processes. Specifically, the WIST team is developing technology that allows the Division to use multiple spline representations. We are also updating the contour system (CONSYS) data base to take full advantage of the Division`s expanding electronic engineering process. Both of these efforts involve developing interfaces to commercial CAE systems and writing new software. The WIST team is comprised of members from V;X-11, -12 and 13. This {open_quotes}cross-functional{close_quotes} approach to software development is somewhat new in the Division so an effort is being made to formalize our processes and assure quality at each phase of development. Chapter one represents a theory manual and is one phase of the formal process. The theory manual is followed by a software requirements document, specification document, software verification and validation documents. The purpose of this guide is to present the theory underlying the interchangeable spline technology and application. Verification and validation test results are also presented for proof of principal.

  11. Ideal magnetohydrodynamic interchanges in low density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Yimin; Goel, Deepak; Hassam, A.B.

    2005-03-01

    The ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations are usually derived under the assumption V{sub A}<interchange instabilities in 'line-tied' slab geometry as well as to centrifugally confined plasmas. It is found that interchange growth rates are reduced by a factor of 1+V{sub A}{sup 2}/c{sup 2}, corresponding to a larger effective mass resulting from the extra electromagnetic momentum. Line tying is unaffected.

  12. Third SEI Technical Interchange: Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Given here are the proceedings of the 3rd Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) Technical Interchange. Topics covered include the First Lunar Outpost (FLO), the Lunar Resource Mapper, lunar rovers, lunar habitat concepts, lunar shelter construction analysis, thermoelectric nuclear power systems for SEI, cryogenic storage, a space network for lunar communications, the moon as a solar power satellite, and off-the-shelf avionics for future SEI missions.

  13. Interchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Teacher, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents suggestions from five contributors including how to develop middle school students' library skills, teaching early reading through materials from a fast food restaurant chain, and ways to conduct student evaluation of teachers. (FL)

  14. Interchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Teacher, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Six contributors suggest ways to (1) improve handwriting, (2) help children choose reading materials, (3) develop sight vocabulary, (4) use phonics with ESL learners, (5) use Uninterrupted Sustained Silent Reading, and (6) teach reading comprehension. (FL)

  15. Interchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Teacher, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Offers suggestions from eight contributors, including (1) activities for speedy readers, (2) conducting a "reading roundup," (3) improving children's math vocabulary, (4) teaching syllabication, (5) displaying student work, and (6) ideas for parents of beginning readers. (FL)

  16. NN interaction from bag-model quark interchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, B. L. G.; Bozoian, M.; Maslow, J. N.; Weber, H. J.

    1982-03-01

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of elastic nucleon-nuclon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one- and two-boson exchange amplitude from a bag-model quark interchange mechanism. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with other meson theoretic potentials and data up to laboratory energies of ~350 MeV. NUCLEAR REACTIONS NN elastic scattering, Elab<=350 MeV. Coupling constants, form factors of renormalized OBE calculated from bag-model quark interchange. Phase shifts, deuteron parameters calculated from covariant partial-wave analysis.

  17. Weakening of magnetohydrodynamic interchange instabilities by Alfven waves

    SciTech Connect

    Benilov, E. S.; Hassam, A. B.

    2008-02-15

    Alfven waves, made to propagate along an ambient magnetic field and polarized transverse to a gravitational field g, with wave amplitude stratified along g, are shown to reduce the growth rate of interchange instability by increasing the effective inertia by a factor of 1+(B{sub y}{sup '}/B{sub z}k{sub z}){sup 2}, where B{sub z} is the ambient magnetic field, k{sub z} is the wavenumber, and B{sub y}{sup '} is the wave amplitude shear. Appropriately placed Alfven wave power could thus be used to enhance the stability of interchange and ballooning modes in tokamaks and other interchange-limited magnetically confined plasmas.

  18. Renewable Generation Effect on Net Regional Energy Interchange: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Diakov, Victor; Brinkman, Gregory; Denholm, Paul; Jenkin, Thomas; Margolis, Robert

    2015-07-30

    Using production-cost model (PLEXOS), we simulate the Western Interchange (WECC) at several levels of the yearly renewable energy (RE) generation, between 13% and 40% of the total load for the year. We look at the overall energy exchange between a region and the rest of the system (net interchange, NI), and find it useful to examine separately (i) (time-)variable and (ii) year-average components of the NI. Both contribute to inter-regional energy exchange, and are affected by wind and PV generation in the system. We find that net load variability (in relatively large portions of WECC) is the leading factor affecting the variable component of inter-regional energy exchange, and the effect is quantifiable: higher regional net load correlation with the rest of the WECC lowers net interchange variability. Further, as the power mix significantly varies between WECC regions, effects of ‘flexibility import’ (regions ‘borrow’ ramping capability) are also observed.

  19. Interchange of entire communities: microbial community coalescence.

    PubMed

    Rillig, Matthias C; Antonovics, Janis; Caruso, Tancredi; Lehmann, Anika; Powell, Jeff R; Veresoglou, Stavros D; Verbruggen, Erik

    2015-08-01

    Microbial communities are enigmatically diverse. We propose a novel view of processes likely affecting microbial assemblages, which could be viewed as the Great American Interchange en miniature: the wholesale exchange among microbial communities resulting from moving pieces of the environment containing entire assemblages. Incidental evidence for such 'community coalescence' is accumulating, but such processes are rarely studied, likely because of the absence of suitable terminology or a conceptual framework. We provide the nucleus for such a conceptual foundation for the study of community coalescence, examining factors shaping these events, links to bodies of ecological theory, and we suggest modeling approaches for understanding coalescent communities. We argue for the systematic study of community coalescence because of important functional and applied consequences. PMID:26111582

  20. Focus on School Health. MCH Program Interchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Washington, DC.

    This issue of the "MCH Program Interchange" provides information about approximately 55 selected materials and publications related to school health, which have been developed by or are available from Federal agencies, state and local public health agencies, and voluntary and professional organizations. The interchange of this information is meant…

  1. Data interchange across cores of multi-core optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Ehab S.

    2015-12-01

    A novel device for data interchange among space-division multiplexed cores inside MCF is demonstrated using numerical simulations. The device allows complete exchange of all WDM data channels between MCF cores in propagation direction whether the channels have the same or different sets of wavelengths. This is crucial in future MCF optical networks where in-fiber data interchange over space-division multiplexed cores can allow for a simple and fast data swapping among cores without a need for space-division demultiplexing to single-mode single-core fibers. The data core-interchange (DCI) device consists of a graded refractive-index rectangular waveguide enclosing the two interchanged cores in addition to the cladding region in between them. Both finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) and eigenmode expansion (EME) simulations are performed to verify the device operation and characterize its performance. The simulations demonstrate that the DCI has a very short-length with polarization independent operation, and high performance over the broadband wavelength range S, C, L, and U bands. Moreover, the device shows a high coupling-factor of -0.13 dB with small cross-talk, back-reflection, and return-loss of -26.3, -46.1, and -48.8 dB, respectively.

  2. Geoscience terminology for data interchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Stephen

    2013-04-01

    Workgroups formed by the Commission for the Management and Application of Geoscience Information (CGI), a Commission of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) have been developing vocabulary resources to promote geoscience information exchange. The Multilingual Thesaurus Working Group (MLT) was formed in 2003 to continue work of the Multhes working group of the 1990s. The Concept Definition Task Group was formed by the CGI Interoperability Working Group in 2007 to develop concept vocabularies for populating GeoSciML interchange documents. The CGI council has determined that it will be more efficient and effective to merge the efforts of these groups and has formed a new Geoscience Terminology Working Group (GTWG, http://www.cgi-iugs.org/tech_collaboration/geoscience_terminology_working_group.html). Each GTWG member will be expected to shepherd one or more vocabularies. There are currently 31 vocabularies in the CGI portfolio, developed for GeoSciML interchange documents (e.g. see http://resource.geosciml.org/ 201202/). Vocabulary development in both groups has been conducted first by gathering candidate terms in Excel spreadsheets because these are easy for text editing and review. When the vocabulary is mature, it is migrated into SKOS, an RDF application for encoding concepts with identifiers, definitions, source information, standard thesaurus type relationships, and language-localized labels. Currently there are 30 vocabularies still required for GeoSciML v3, and 38 proposed vocabularies for use with EarthResourceML (https://www.seegrid.csiro.au/wiki/CGIModel/EarthResourceML). In addition, a project to develop a lithogenetic map unit vocabulary to use for regional geologic map integration using OGC web map services is underway. Considerable work remains to be done to integrate multilingual geoscience terms developed by the MLT Working Group with existing CGI vocabularies to provide multilingual support, and to make the thesaurus compiled by the

  3. Plan Execution Interchange Language (PLEXIL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estlin, Tara; Jonsson, Ari; Pasareanu, Corina; Simmons, Reid; Tso, Kam; Verma, Vandi

    2006-01-01

    Plan execution is a cornerstone of spacecraft operations, irrespective of whether the plans to be executed are generated on board the spacecraft or on the ground. Plan execution frameworks vary greatly, due to both different capabilities of the execution systems, and relations to associated decision-making frameworks. The latter dependency has made the reuse of execution and planning frameworks more difficult, and has all but precluded information sharing between different execution and decision-making systems. As a step in the direction of addressing some of these issues, a general plan execution language, called the Plan Execution Interchange Language (PLEXIL), is being developed. PLEXIL is capable of expressing concepts used by many high-level automated planners and hence provides an interface to multiple planners. PLEXIL includes a domain description that specifies command types, expansions, constraints, etc., as well as feedback to the higher-level decision-making capabilities. This document describes the grammar and semantics of PLEXIL. It includes a graphical depiction of this grammar and illustrative rover scenarios. It also outlines ongoing work on implementing a universal execution system, based on PLEXIL, using state-of-the-art rover functional interfaces and planners as test cases.

  4. Magnetic curvature effects on plasma interchange turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B.; Liao, X.; Sun, C. K.; Ou, W.; Liu, D.; Gui, G.; Wang, X. G.

    2016-06-01

    The magnetic curvature effects on plasma interchange turbulence and transport in the Z-pinch and dipole-like systems are explored with two-fluid global simulations. By comparing the transport levels in the systems with a different magnetic curvature, we show that the interchange-mode driven transport strongly depends on the magnetic geometry. For the system with large magnetic curvature, the pressure and density profiles are strongly peaked in a marginally stable state and the nonlinear evolution of interchange modes produces the global convective cells in the azimuthal direction, which lead to the low level of turbulent convective transport.

  5. Interchange mode excited by trapped energetic ions

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Seiya

    2015-07-15

    The kinetic energy principle describing the interaction between ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes with trapped energetic ions is revised. A model is proposed on the basis of the reduced ideal MHD equations for background plasmas and the bounce-averaged drift-kinetic equation for trapped energetic ions. The model is applicable to large-aspect-ratio toroidal devices. Specifically, the effect of trapped energetic ions on the interchange mode in helical systems is analyzed. Results show that the interchange mode is excited by trapped energetic ions, even if the equilibrium states are stable to the ideal interchange mode. The energetic-ion-induced branch of the interchange mode might be associated with the fishbone mode in helical systems.

  6. Laboratory arc furnace features interchangeable hearths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. L.; Kruger, O. L.

    1967-01-01

    Laboratory arc furnace using rapidly interchangeable hearths gains considerable versatility in casting so that buttons or special shaped castings can be produced. It features a sight glass for observation.

  7. Limit Interchange and L'Hopital's Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecker, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    Conventional application of these two calculus staples is stretched here, somewhat recreationally, but also to raise solid questions about the role of limit interchange in analysis--without, however, delving any deeper than first-year Calculus.

  8. Large-Larmor-radius interchange instability

    SciTech Connect

    Ripin, B.H.; McLean, E.A.; Manka, C.K.; Pawley, C.; Stamper, J.A.; Peyser, T.A.; Mostovych, A.N.; Grun, J.; Hassam, A.B.; Huba, J.

    1987-11-16

    We observe linear and nonlinear features of a strong plasma/magnetic field interchange Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the limit of large ion Larmor radius. The instability undergoes rapid linear growth culminating in free-streaming flute tips.

  9. Quark interchange model of baryon interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Maslow, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    The strong interactions at low energy are traditionally described by meson field theories treating hadrons as point-like particles. Here a mesonic quark interchange model (QIM) is presented which takes into account the finite size of the baryons and the internal quark structure of hadrons. The model incorporates the basic quark-gluon coupling of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the MIT bag model for color confinement. Because the quark-gluon coupling constant is large and it is assumed that confinement excludes overlap of hadronic quark bags except at high momenta, a non-perturbative method of nuclear interactions is presented. The QIM allows for exchange of quark quantum numbers at the bag boundary between colliding hadrons mediated at short distances by a gluon exchange between two quarks within the hadronic interior. This generates, via a Fierz transformation, an effective space-like t channel exchange of color singlet (q anti-q) states that can be identified with the low lying meson multiplets. Thus, a one boson exchange (OBE) model is obtained that allows for comparison with traditional phenomenological models of nuclear scattering. Inclusion of strange quarks enables calculation of YN scattering. The NN and YN coupling constants and the nucleon form factors show good agreement with experimental values as do the deuteron low energy data and the NN low energy phase shifts. Thus, the QIM provides a simple model of strong interactions that is chirally invariant, includes confinement and allows for an OBE form of hadronic interaction at low energies and momentum transfers.

  10. Quark Interchange Model of Baryon Interactions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslow, Joel Neal

    The strong interactions at low energy are traditionally described by meson field theories treating hadrons as point -like particles. Here a mesonic quark interchange model (QIM) is presented which takes into account the finite size of the baryons and the internal quark structure of hadrons. The model incorporates the basic quark-gluon coupling of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the MIT bag model for color confinement. Because the quark-gluon coupling constant is large and we assume that confinement excludes overlap of hadronic quark bags except at high momenta, a non-perturbative method of nuclear interactions is presented. The QIM allows for exchange of quark quantum numbers at the bag boundary between colliding hadrons mediated at short distances by a gluon exchange between two quarks within the hadronic interior. This generates, via a Fierz transformation, an effective space-like t channel exchange of color singlet (qq) states that can be identified with the low lying meson multiplets. Thus, a one boson exchange (OBE) model is obtained that allows for comparison with traditional phenomenological models of nuclear scattering. Inclusion of strange quarks enables calculation of Yn scattering. The NN and YN coupling constants and the nucleon form factors show good agreement with experimental values as do the deuteron low energy data and the NN low energy phase shifts. Thus, the QIM provides a simple model of strong interactions that is chirally invariant, includes confinement and allows for an OBE form of hadronic interaction at low energies and momentum transfers.

  11. ISO/IEC's image interchange facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, Christof; Hofmann, Georg R.

    1992-04-01

    This paper gives a technical description of the Image Interchange Facility (IIF), which comprises both a formate definition and a functional gateway specification. IIF is a part of the first International Image Processing and Interchange Standard (IPI), which is under elaboration by ISO/IEC JTC1/SC24. This paper reflects the related committee work performed up until January 1992. Considering the deficiencies and drawbacks of existing formats and current practices in exchanging digital images, the need for a new and more general approach to image interchange can be seen. This paper describes the requirements and design principles of the IIF data format and the IIF gateway. Furthermore, it explains the relation to the reference model for open communication (OSI) as well as the relation to the other parts of the IPI standard.

  12. Improving interorganizational data interchange for drug development.

    PubMed

    Canfield, K

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a reengineered process that uses a markup language to do interorganizational data interchange between the participants in the US drug development process. The two major goals of this paper are to present (1) a detailed enough description of the reengineered version of this process that a practitioner will be able to use it and (2) a case-study of the reengineering of an interorganizational data interchange system that is applicable to other areas in health care. The detailed description is augmented with a companion web-site that shows all programs in a working prototype. The case-study uses an IDEF0 model to show the structure of benefits from markup standards for interorganizational data interchange. PMID:10207657

  13. The interchangeability of siderophores in Staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Sobis-Glinkowska, M; Lisiecki, P; Mikucki, J

    1995-01-01

    The functional interchangeability of siderophores among 90 strains belonging to 26 species of genus Staphylococcus was tested. Among the species which synthesized siderophores most commonly utilized (the best donors) were S. epidermidis, S. aureus, S. cohnii, S. hominis and S. simulans. The species which utilized the widest range of exogenous siderophores from other species (the best recipient) were S. epidermidis, S. saprophyticus, S. kloosii and S. schleiferi. The donor and recipient of the widest range of siderophores was S. epidermidis. The potential ability to exchange siderophores as well as the range of their functional interchangeability in staphylococci were found as the features characterizing individual strains. PMID:8906932

  14. Current-interchange tearing modes: Conversion of interchange-type modes to tearing modes

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, L. J.; Furukawa, M.

    2010-05-15

    It is shown that, in addition to usual neoclassical tearing modes, another type of nonclassical tearing mode exists in tokamaks: viz., current-interchange tearing modes (CITMs). CITMs are directly driven by unstable pressure-driven electromagnetic or electrostatic modes of the interchange type (e.g., interchange/ballooning modes, drift waves, etc.) due to the current gradient in tokamaks. Interchange-type modes exchange not only thermal and magnetic energies between flux tubes but also current. In a plasma with a current (or resistivity) gradient, such an interchange can create a current sheet at a mode resonance surface and result in the excitation of CITMs. Note that the interchange mode (i.e., Rayleigh-Taylor instability) is fundamental to tokamak physics. This new theory has an effect on both resistive magnetohydrodynamic stability and transport theories. Instabilities of the interchange type could be directly converted into CITMs, alternative to forming turbulent eddies through nonlinear coupling as in conventional transport theories. In particular, our CITM theory fills in the component in the transport theory of Rechester and Rosenbluth [Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 38 (1978)] for the origin of magnetic island structure in axisymmetric tokamaks.

  15. Focus on Nutrition. MCH Program Interchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Washington, DC.

    This issue of the "MCH Program Interchange" describes selected materials and publications in maternal and child health (MCH) nutrition services and programs. The materials were developed by or are available from federal agencies, state and local public health agencies, and voluntary and professional organizations. The information is intended to…

  16. Electronic Data Interchange: Selected Issues and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigand, Rolf T.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes electronic data interchange (EDI) as the application-to-application exchange of business documents in a computer-readable format. Topics discussed include EDI in various industries, EDI in finance and banking, organizational impacts of EDI, future EDI markets and organizations, and implications for information resources management.…

  17. 5 CFR 214.204 - Interchange agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... EXECUTIVE SERVICE General Provisions § 214.204 Interchange agreements. (a) In accordance with 5 CFR 6.7, OPM... Service (SES) may, pursuant to legislative and regulatory authorities, enter into an agreement providing for the movement of persons between the SES and the other system. The agreement shall define...

  18. Interchange of Data Bases. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Rita G.; And Others

    This report describes the methods, developed by the American Institute of Physics in cooperation with Engineering Index, Inc., by which both organizations could reduce costs by eliminating duplication of keyboarding and indexing. The three sets of problems that confronted the interchange of their data bases (classification and indexing, formats,…

  19. Fuel Interchangeability Considerations for Gas Turbine Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, D.H.

    2007-10-01

    In recent years domestic natural gas has experienced a considerable growth in demand particularly in the power generation industry. However, the desire for energy security, lower fuel costs and a reduction in carbon emissions has produced an increase in demand for alternative fuel sources. Current strategies for reducing the environmental impact of natural gas combustion in gas turbine engines used for power generation experience such hurdles as flashback, lean blow-off and combustion dynamics. These issues will continue as turbines are presented with coal syngas, gasified coal, biomass, LNG and high hydrogen content fuels. As it may be impractical to physically test a given turbine on all of the possible fuel blends it may experience over its life cycle, the need to predict fuel interchangeability becomes imperative. This study considers a number of historical parameters typically used to determine fuel interchangeability. Also addressed is the need for improved reaction mechanisms capable of accurately modeling the combustion of natural gas alternatives.

  20. A reference model for scientific information interchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reich, Lou; Sawyer, Don; Davis, Randy

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of an Information Interchange Reference Model (IIRM) currently being developed by individuals participating in the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Panel 2, the Planetary Data Systems (PDS), and the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS). This is an ongoing research activity and is not an official position by these bodies. This reference model provides a framework for describing and assessing current and proposed methodologies for information interchange within and among the space agencies. It is hoped that this model will improve interoperability between the various methodologies. As such, this model attempts to address key information interchange issues as seen by the producers and users of space-related data and to put them into a coherent framework. Information is understood as the knowledge (e.g., the scientific content) represented by data. Therefore, concern is not primarily on mechanisms for transferring data from user to user (e.g., compact disk read-only memory (CD-ROM), wide-area networks, optical tape, and so forth) but on how information is encoded as data and how the information content is maintained with minimal loss or distortion during transmittal. The model assumes open systems, which means that the protocols or methods used should be fully described and the descriptions publicly available. Ideally these protocols are promoted by recognized standards organizations using processes that permit involvement by those most likely to be affected, thereby enhancing the protocol's stability and the likelihood of wide support.

  1. Interchange Reconnection and Coronal Hole Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmondson, J. K.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R.; Lynch, B. J.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effect of magnetic reconnection between open and closed field, (often referred to as "interchange" reconnection), on the dynamics and topology of coronal hole boundaries. The most important and most prevalent 3D topology of the interchange process is that of a small-scale bipolar magnetic field interacting with a large-scale background field. We determine the evolution of such a magnetic topology by numerical solution of the fully 3D MHD equations in spherical coordinates. First, we calculate the evolution of a small-scale bipole that initially is completely inside an open field region and then is driven across a coronal hole boundary by photospheric motions. Next the reverse situation is calculated in which the bipole is initially inside the closed region and driven toward the coronal hole boundary. In both cases we find that the stress imparted by the photospheric motions results in deformation of the separatrix surface between the closed field of the bipole and the background field, leading to rapid current sheet formation and to efficient reconnection. When the bipole is inside the open field region, the reconnection is of the interchange type in that it exchanges open and closed field. We examine, in detail, the topology of the field as the bipole moves across the coronal hole boundary, and find that the field remains well-connected throughout this process. Our results imply that open flux cannot penetrate deeply into the closed field region below a helmet streamer and, hence, support the quasi-steady models in which open and closed flux remain topologically distinct. Our results also support the uniqueness hypothesis for open field regions as postulated by Antiochos et al. We discuss the implications of this work for coronal observations. Subject Headings: Sun: corona Sun: magnetic fields Sun: reconnection Sun: coronal hole

  2. Interchange Reconnection in a Turbulent Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappazzo, A. F.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Ruffolo, D. J.; Servidio, S.; Velli, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection at the interface between coronal holes and loops, so-called interchange reconnection, can release the hotter, denser plasma from magnetically confined regions into the heliosphere, contributing to the formation of the highly variable slow solar wind. In the prevailing ``standard'' view the interchange process is thought to develop in null points (with B=0) preferably at the apex of streamers or pseudo-streamers, near Y and X-points, from where slow solar wind flows would originate. This standard model does not meet recent observations of slow wind streams from the edges of active regions, that suggest that slow streams are not limited to apex-regions near neutral points (B=0). Furthermore in order to account for the slow wind diffusion (~ 30 degrees) observed in situ around the Heliospheric Current Sheet, within the standard model framework one has to posit that the slow wind would originate from a small fraction, with a complex topology, of the whole coronal hole-loop boundary, namely narrow channels (supposedly at observationally sub-resolution scales) linking coronal holes. However, coronal heating models, with magnetic field lines shuffled by convective motions, show that reconnection can occur continuously in unipolar magnetic field regions with no neutral points. We propose that a similar alternate interchange mechanism operating near boundaries between open and closed regions induces a continual stochastic rearrangement of connectivity everywhere along the open-closed boundary. We examine a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model of a simplified unipolar interface region between open and closed corona. This boundary is not stationary, becomes fractal, and field lines change connectivity continuously, becoming alternatively open and closed. This model suggests that slow wind may originate everywhere along coronal loop-hole boundaries, a possibility that has major implications for coronal heating and models of the slow solar wind, and accounts

  3. Biotic interchange between the Indian subcontinent and mainland Asia through time

    PubMed Central

    Klaus, Sebastian; Morley, Robert J.; Plath, Martin; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Li, Jia-Tang

    2016-01-01

    Biotic interchange after the connection of previously independently evolving floras and faunas is thought to be one of the key factors that shaped global biodiversity as we see it today. However, it was not known how biotic interchange develops over longer time periods of several million years following the secondary contact of different biotas. Here we present a novel method to investigate the temporal dynamics of biotic interchange based on a phylogeographical meta-analysis by calculating the maximal number of observed dispersal events per million years given the temporal uncertainty of the underlying time-calibrated phylogenies. We show that biotic influx from mainland Asia onto the Indian subcontinent after Eocene continental collision was not a uniform process, but was subject to periods of acceleration, stagnancy and decrease. We discuss potential palaeoenvironmental causes for this fluctuation. PMID:27373955

  4. Biotic interchange between the Indian subcontinent and mainland Asia through time.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Sebastian; Morley, Robert J; Plath, Martin; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Li, Jia-Tang

    2016-01-01

    Biotic interchange after the connection of previously independently evolving floras and faunas is thought to be one of the key factors that shaped global biodiversity as we see it today. However, it was not known how biotic interchange develops over longer time periods of several million years following the secondary contact of different biotas. Here we present a novel method to investigate the temporal dynamics of biotic interchange based on a phylogeographical meta-analysis by calculating the maximal number of observed dispersal events per million years given the temporal uncertainty of the underlying time-calibrated phylogenies. We show that biotic influx from mainland Asia onto the Indian subcontinent after Eocene continental collision was not a uniform process, but was subject to periods of acceleration, stagnancy and decrease. We discuss potential palaeoenvironmental causes for this fluctuation. PMID:27373955

  5. A drift model of interchange instability

    SciTech Connect

    Benilov, E. S.; Power, O. A.

    2007-08-15

    A set of asymptotic equations is derived, describing the dynamics of the flute mode in a magnetized plasma with cold ions, under a 'local' approximation (i.e., near a particular point). The asymptotic set is then used to calculate the growth rate of interchange instability in the slab model. It is shown that, unlike the magnetohydrodynamic ordering, the drift one allows instability to occur for either sign of the pressure gradient (i.e., for both 'bad' and 'good' curvature of the magnetic field). It is also demonstrated that finite beta gives rise to an extra instability that does not exist in the small-beta limit.

  6. National airspace data interchange network (NADIN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falato, A. J.

    In order to implement the National Airspace Plan and meet future comunications requirements in the most cost-effective manner, it has become necessary to replace and modernize the existing data communications systems with the foundation of a totally integrated system. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) will initiate cut-over of the National Airspace Data Interchange Network (NADIN) in late 1983. NADIN is not only an operational data communications system for all Air Traffic control facilities, but also an International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) subsystem, and a growth plan for transportation telecommunications, using modular expansion techniques.

  7. Nuclear Propulsion Technical Interchange Meeting, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Propulsion Technical Interchange Meeting (NP-TIM-92) was sponsored and hosted by the Nuclear Propulsion Office at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The purpose of the meeting was to review the work performed in fiscal year 1992 in the areas of nuclear thermal and nuclear electric propulsion technology development. These proceedings are a compilation of the presentations given at the meeting (many of the papers are presented in outline or viewgraph form). Volume 1 covers the introductory presentations and the system concepts and technology developments related to nuclear thermal propulsion.

  8. Interchangeable breech lock for glove boxes

    DOEpatents

    Lemonds, David Preston

    2015-11-24

    A breech lock for a glove box is provided that may be used to transfer one or more items into the glove box. The breech lock can be interchangeably installed in place of a plug, glove, or other device in a port or opening of a glove box. Features are provided to aid the removal of items from the breech lock by a gloved operator. The breech lock can be reused or, if needed, can be replaced with a plug, glove, or other device at the port or opening of the glove box.

  9. Between Home and School: Cultural Interchange in an Elementary Classroom. The Series on Cultural Interchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jervis, Kathe

    This monograph presents a study of cultural interchange in a second/third grade classroom within a parent-founded school. It follows one child from a religious family who traveled a long distance, both geographically and psychologically, from home to school. The study addresses influences that students encountered in traveling between home and…

  10. Magnetic Flux Tube Interchange at the Heliopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florinski, V.

    2015-11-01

    The magnetic field measured by Voyager 1 prior to its heliocliff encounter on 2012.65 showed an unexpectedly complex transition from the primarily azimuthal inner-heliosheath field to the draped interstellar field tilted by some 20° to the nominal azimuthal direction. Most prominent were two regions of enhanced magnetic field strength depleted in energetic charged particles of heliospheric origin. These regions were interpreted as magnetic flux tubes connected to the outer heliosheath that provided a path for the particles to escape. Despite large increases in strength, the field’s direction did not change appreciably at the boundaries of these flux tubes. Rather, the field’s direction changed gradually over several months prior to the heliocliff crossing. It is shown theoretically that the heliopause, as a pressure equilibrium layer, can become unstable to interchange of magnetic fields between the inner and the outer heliosheaths. The curvature of magnetic field lines and the anti-sunward gradient in plasma kinetic pressure provide conditions favorable for an interchange. Magnetic shear between the heliosheath and the interstellar fields reduces the growth rates, but does not fully stabilize the heliopause against perturbations propagating in the latitudinal direction. The instability could create a transition layer permeated by magnetic flux tubes, oriented parallel to each other and alternately connected to the heliosheath or the interstellar regions.

  11. Interchange mode in the presence of dust.

    PubMed

    Vranjes, J; Tanaka, M Y; Kono, M; Poedts, S

    2003-02-01

    The linear and nonlinear development of an electrostatic interchange mode which involves a magnetized nonuniform electron-ion fluid in the presence of nonuniform static charged dust grains is investigated. The charge on grains is taken as spatially dependent, and the consequences of that condition are investigated. It is shown that standardly accepted stabilization of the interchange mode in the presence of negatively charged grains can be violated due to the spatial dependence of the charge on grains. Also, the ion drift, which is caused by the action of a gravity term perpendicular to the magnetic field lines, is taken as nonuniform as a result of the magnetic field nonuniformity, and it is shown that due to such a nonuniformity the instability condition can be significantly modified. In the nonlinear regime several types of coherent stationary vortex structures are found: namely, dipolar and tripolar vortices and vortex chains. The dipolar vortex is found to propagate in the direction of the ion drift, while the tripole and vortex chains are carried by the drift flow. The spatial dependence of these structures is determined by parameters describing the nonuniformity of the equilibrium plasma. PMID:12636825

  12. [MODELING INFLAMMATORY EDEMA: ARE THE MODELS INTERCHANGEABLE].

    PubMed

    Hanh, Cong Hong; Khaziakhmetova, V N; Ziganshina, L E

    2015-01-01

    Experimental modeling of inflammatory edema by sub-plantar injection of carrageenan and formalin in mice and rats is widely used to evaluate potential anti-inflammatory activity of new drugs. This systematic analysis of published data showed that carrageenan induced paw edema model is used for evaluating the anti-inflammatory activity mostly in rats rather than mice. Formalin induced paw edema in rats and mice is used primarily for evaluation of the analgesic activity of drugs. Taken together, the results of this systematic review of available literature on edema modeling substantiate recommendation to use carrageenan paw edema in rats and formalin paw edema in mice as complementary, but not interchangeable models of inflammation. PMID:26591204

  13. Internet-based data interchange with XML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuerst, Karl; Schmidt, Thomas

    2000-12-01

    In this paper, a complete concept for Internet Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) - a well-known buzzword in the area of logistics and supply chain management to enable the automation of the interactions between companies and their partners - using XML (eXtensible Markup Language) will be proposed. This approach is based on Internet and XML, because the implementation of traditional EDI (e.g. EDIFACT, ANSI X.12) is mostly too costly for small and medium sized enterprises, which want to integrate their suppliers and customers in a supply chain. The paper will also present the results of the implementation of a prototype for such a system, which has been developed for an industrial partner to improve the current situation of parts delivery. The main functions of this system are an early warning system to detect problems during the parts delivery process as early as possible, and a transport following system to pursue the transportation.

  14. Technical Report Interchange Through Synchronized OAI Caches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Xiaming; Maly, Kurt; Zubair, Mohammad; Tang, Rong; Padshah, Mohammad Imran; Roncaglia, George; Rocker, JoAnne; Nelson, Michael; vonOfenheim, William; Luce, Richard

    2002-01-01

    The Technical Report Interchange project is a cooperative experimental effort between NASA Langley Research Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Air Force Research Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory and Old Dominion University to allow for the integration of technical reports. This is accomplished using the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) and having each site cache the metadata from the other participating sites. Each site also implements additional software to ingest the OAI-PMH harvested metadata into their native digital library (DL). This allows the users at each site to see an increased technical report collection through the familiar DL interfaces and tale advantage of whatever valued added are provided by the native DL.

  15. Interchange Reconnection in a Turbulent Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappazzo, A. F.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Ruffolo, D.; Servidio, S.; Velli, M.

    2012-10-01

    Magnetic reconnection at the interface between coronal holes and loops, the so-called interchange reconnection, can release the hotter, denser plasma from magnetically confined regions into the heliosphere, contributing to the formation of the highly variable slow solar wind. The interchange process is often thought to develop at the apex of streamers or pseudo-streamers, near Y- and X-type neutral points, but slow streams with loop composition have been recently observed along fanlike open field lines adjacent to closed regions, far from the apex. However, coronal heating models, with magnetic field lines shuffled by convective motions, show that reconnection can occur continuously in unipolar magnetic field regions with no neutral points: photospheric motions induce a magnetohydrodynamic turbulent cascade in the coronal field that creates the necessary small scales, where a sheared magnetic field component orthogonal to the strong axial field is created locally and can reconnect. We propose that a similar mechanism operates near and around boundaries between open and closed regions inducing a continual stochastic rearrangement of connectivity. We examine a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model of a simplified interface region between open and closed corona threaded by a strong unipolar magnetic field. This boundary is not stationary, becomes fractal, and field lines change connectivity continuously, becoming alternatively open and closed. This model suggests that slow wind may originate everywhere along loop-coronal-hole boundary regions and can account naturally and simply for outflows at and adjacent to such boundaries and for the observed diffusion of slow wind around the heliospheric current sheet.

  16. INTERCHANGE RECONNECTION IN A TURBULENT CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Rappazzo, A. F.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Ruffolo, D.; Servidio, S.; Velli, M.

    2012-10-10

    Magnetic reconnection at the interface between coronal holes and loops, the so-called interchange reconnection, can release the hotter, denser plasma from magnetically confined regions into the heliosphere, contributing to the formation of the highly variable slow solar wind. The interchange process is often thought to develop at the apex of streamers or pseudo-streamers, near Y- and X-type neutral points, but slow streams with loop composition have been recently observed along fanlike open field lines adjacent to closed regions, far from the apex. However, coronal heating models, with magnetic field lines shuffled by convective motions, show that reconnection can occur continuously in unipolar magnetic field regions with no neutral points: photospheric motions induce a magnetohydrodynamic turbulent cascade in the coronal field that creates the necessary small scales, where a sheared magnetic field component orthogonal to the strong axial field is created locally and can reconnect. We propose that a similar mechanism operates near and around boundaries between open and closed regions inducing a continual stochastic rearrangement of connectivity. We examine a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model of a simplified interface region between open and closed corona threaded by a strong unipolar magnetic field. This boundary is not stationary, becomes fractal, and field lines change connectivity continuously, becoming alternatively open and closed. This model suggests that slow wind may originate everywhere along loop-coronal-hole boundary regions and can account naturally and simply for outflows at and adjacent to such boundaries and for the observed diffusion of slow wind around the heliospheric current sheet.

  17. Can InterChange Write/Right Itself?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groote, Sabine

    When discussing "flaming" in relation to InterChange, it makes sense to look at two meanings of the word, to make the connection between the ardent and uncontrollable nature of the comments themselves and the flagrancy with which the electronic medium asserts itself. For some teachers, a "flaming" InterChange threatens their position in the…

  18. 77 FR 46258 - Debit Card Interchange Fees and Routing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ...The Board has amended the provisions in Regulation II (Debit Card Interchange Fees and Routing) that govern adjustments to debit card interchange transaction fees to make an allowance for fraud- prevention costs incurred by issuers. The amendments permit an issuer to receive or charge an amount of no more than 1 cent per transaction (the same amount currently permitted) in addition to its......

  19. 48 CFR 227.676 - Foreign patent interchange agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Foreign patent interchange... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Foreign License and Technical Assistance Agreements 227.676 Foreign patent interchange agreements. (a)...

  20. 48 CFR 227.676 - Foreign patent interchange agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Foreign patent interchange... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Foreign License and Technical Assistance Agreements 227.676 Foreign patent interchange agreements. (a)...

  1. 48 CFR 227.676 - Foreign patent interchange agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foreign patent interchange... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Foreign License and Technical Assistance Agreements 227.676 Foreign patent interchange agreements. (a)...

  2. 48 CFR 227.676 - Foreign patent interchange agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Foreign patent interchange... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Foreign License and Technical Assistance Agreements 227.676 Foreign patent interchange agreements. (a)...

  3. 48 CFR 227.676 - Foreign patent interchange agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Foreign patent interchange... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Foreign License and Technical Assistance Agreements 227.676 Foreign patent interchange agreements. (a)...

  4. The GuideLine Interchange Format

    PubMed Central

    Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Gennari, John H.; Murphy, Shawn N.; Jain, Nilesh L.; Tu, Samson W.; Oliver, Diane E.; Pattison-Gordon, Edward; Greenes, Robert A.; Shortliffe, Edward H.; Barnett, G. Octo

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To allow exchange of clinical practice guidelines among institutions and computer-based applications. Design: The GuideLine Interchange Format (GLIF) specification consists of the GLIF model and the GLIF syntax. The GLIF model is an object-oriented representation that consists of a set of classes for guideline entities, attributes for those classes, and data types for the attribute values. The GLIF syntax specifies the format of the test file that contains the encoding. Methods: Researchers from the InterMed Collaboratory at Columbia University, Harvard University (Brigham and Women's Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital), and Stanford University analyzed four existing guideline systems to derive a set of requirements for guideline representation. The GLIF specification is a consensus representation developed through a brainstorming process. Four clinical guidelines were encoded in GLIF to assess its expressivity and to study the variability that occurs when two people from different sites encode the same guideline. Results: The encoders reported that GLIF was adequately expressive. A comparison of the encodings revealed substantial variability. Conclusion: GLIF was sufficient to model the guidelines for the four conditions that were examined. GLIF needs improvement in standard representation of medical concepts, criterion logic, temporal information, and uncertainty. PMID:9670133

  5. Flute-interchange stability in a hot electron plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    Several topics in the kinetic stability theory of flute-interchange modes in a hot electron plasma are discussed. The stability analysis of the hot-electron, curvature-driven flute-interchange mode, previously performed in a slab geometry, is extended to a cylindrical plasma. The cold electron concentration necessary for stability differs substantially from previous criteria. The inclusion of a finite temperature background plasma in the stability analysis results in an ion curvature-driven flute-interchange mode which may be stabilized by either hot-electron diamagnetic effects, hot-electron plasma density, or finite (ion) Larmor radius effects.

  6. 76 FR 44897 - Columbia Gulf Transmission Company and Energy Interchange, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gulf Transmission Company and Energy Interchange, LLC; Notice of... Interchange, LLC (Energy Interchange), filed in the above referenced dockets a joint application pursuant to... section 7(c) authorizing the lease of interstate pipeline capacity by Energy Interchange from...

  7. The formation of blobs from a pure interchange process

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, P.; Sovinec, C. R.; Hegna, C. C.

    2015-02-15

    In this work, we focus on examining a pure interchange process in a shear-less slab configuration as a prototype mechanism for blob formation. We employ full magnetohydrodynamic simulations to demonstrate that the blob-like structures can emerge through the nonlinear development of a pure interchange instability originating from a pedestal-like transition region. In the early nonlinear stage, filamentary structures develop and extend in the direction of the effective gravity. The blob-like structures appear when the radially extending filaments break off and disconnect from the core plasma. The morphology and the dynamics of these filaments and blobs vary dramatically with a sensitive dependence on the dissipation mechanisms in the system and the initial perturbation. Despite the complexity in morphology and dynamics, the nature of the entire blob formation process in the shear-less slab configuration remains strictly interchange without involving any change in magnetic topology.

  8. AFL and FRL: abstraction and representation for field interchange.

    PubMed

    Tsafnat, Guy; Cloherty, Shaun L; Lambert, Tim D

    2004-01-01

    The holy grail of biomedical modelling is an integrated model of the entire human body. To this end, research groups around the world need to interchange experimental data, models and model results. A good interchange will have an efficient representation for storage and sharing and will have tools for modelling, data verification, authoring, data conversions and so on. A field is a spatially varying properly. In this paper we present the abstract field layer (AFL) and the field representation language (FRL). The AFL provides the field abstraction together with a set of common field operations. The FRL provides an efficient means for field representation and storage. We show how fields can be used to interchange information between modelling systems and between modelling and visualisation systems. We are currently developing a software system that composes multiple single cell solvers to create a tissue solver. PMID:17271571

  9. Analytical theory of interchange and compressional Alfven instabilities in EBT

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.Z.; Tsang, K.T.

    1981-07-01

    The local stability of the EBT plasma is analyzed for the long wavelength perturbations in the frequency regime, ..omega.. approx. less than or equal to ..cap omega../sub i/(..cap omega../sub i/ is ion cyclotron frequency). In addition to the low frequency interchange instability, the plasma can be unstable to the compressional Alfven wave. Contrary to the previously obtained quadratic dispersion relation in ..omega.. for the interchange mode, our dispersion relations for both types of instabilities are cubic in ..omega... New stability boundaries are found, for the hot electron interchange mode, to relate to the enhanced compressibility of the core plasma in the presence of hot electrons. The compressional Alfven instability is driven due to the coupling of hot electron magnetic drifts and diamagnetic drift with the compressional Alfven wave. The stability conditions of these two types of instabilities are opposite to each other.

  10. Cassini evidence for rapid interchange transport at Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rymer, A. M.; Mauk, B. H.; Hill, T. W.; André, N.; Mitchell, D. G.; Paranicas, C.; Young, D. T.; Smith, H. T.; Persoon, A. M.; Menietti, J. D.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Coates, A. J.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2009-12-01

    During its tour Cassini has observed numerous plasma injection events in Saturn's inner magnetosphere. Here, we present a case study of one "young" plasma bubble observed when Cassini was in the equatorial plane. The bubble was observed in the equatorial plane at ˜7 Saturn radii from Saturn and had a maximum azimuthal extent of ˜0.25 Rs (Rs=Saturn radius ˜60330 km). We show that the electron density inside the event is lower by a factor ˜3 and the electron temperature higher by over an order of magnitude compared to its surroundings. The injection contains slightly increased magnetic field magnitude of 49 nT compared with a background field of 46 nT. Modelling of pitch angle distributions inside the plasma bubble and measurements of plasma drift provide a novel way to estimate that the bubble originated between 9< L<11 and had an average radial propagation speed of ˜260+60/-70 km s -1. An independent estimate of the speed of the injection following theoretical work of Pontius et al. [1986. Steady State Plasma transport in a Corotation-Dominated Magnetosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett. 13(11), 1097-1100] based on the mass per unit flux gives a maximum radial propagation speeds of 140 km s -1. These results are similar to those found by Thorne et al. [1997. Galileo evidence for rapid interchange transport in the Io torus. Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 2131] for one event observed in Jupiter's magnetosphere near Io. We therefore suggest this is evidence of the same process operating at both planets.

  11. NASA/DOD Flight Experiments Technical Interchange Meeting Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the Flight Experiments Technical Interchange Meeting held in Monterey California, October 5-9, 1992. Technical sessions 4 through 8 addressing space structures, propulsion, space power systems, space environments and effects, and space operations are covered. Many of the papers are presented in outline and viewgraph form.

  12. Arctic warming will promote Atlantic-Pacific fish interchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisz, M. S.; Broennimann, O.; Grønkjær, P.; Møller, P. R.; Olsen, S. M.; Swingedouw, D.; Hedeholm, R. B.; Nielsen, E. E.; Guisan, A.; Pellissier, L.

    2015-03-01

    Throughout much of the Quaternary Period, inhospitable environmental conditions above the Arctic Circle have been a formidable barrier separating most marine organisms in the North Atlantic from those in the North Pacific. Rapid warming has begun to lift this barrier, potentially facilitating the interchange of marine biota between the two seas. Here, we forecast the potential northward progression of 515 fish species following climate change, and report the rate of potential species interchange between the Atlantic and the Pacific via the Northwest Passage and the Northeast Passage. For this, we projected niche-based models under climate change scenarios and simulated the spread of species through the passages when climatic conditions became suitable. Results reveal a complex range of responses during this century, and accelerated interchange after 2050. By 2100 up to 41 species could enter the Pacific and 44 species could enter the Atlantic, via one or both passages. Consistent with historical and recent biodiversity interchanges, this exchange of fish species may trigger changes for biodiversity and food webs in the North Atlantic and North Pacific, with ecological and economic consequences to ecosystems that at present contribute 39% to global marine fish landings.

  13. Are gods and good governments culturally and psychologically interchangeable?

    PubMed

    McCauley, Robert N

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive by-product theorists maintain that standard cognitive development facilitates the acquisition of religion. Citing secularization, Norenzayan et al. qualify that theory, proposing that gods and good governments are psychologically and culturally interchangeable. That contention, though, occasions questions about the psychological dynamics involved, about what qualifies as religiosity, and about asymmetries between gods and good governments in the face of catastrophes. PMID:26948736

  14. Communication Standards for Online Interchange of Library Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Thomas P.

    1982-01-01

    Presents new perspective on computerized information interchange within library community, and explains Open Systems Interconnection Model promoted by International Organization for Standardization, American National Standards Institute, and National Bureau of Standards. The Linked System Project undertaken by Library of Congress, Research…

  15. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU 3) Technical Interchange Meeting: Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU III) Technical Interchange Meeting, February 11-12, 1999, hosted by the Lockheed Martin Astronautics Waterton Facility, Denver, Colorado. Administration and publication support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Department at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

  16. 9. View of the Crockett interchange. The 1927 bridge is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View of the Crockett interchange. The 1927 bridge is to the left. Entrance and exit ramps for west-bound 1-80 traffic over the 1927 bridge are visible in the center of the image. - Carquinez Bridge, Spanning Carquinez Strait at Interstate 80, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  17. School Culture, Climate and Ethos: Interchangeable or Distinctive Concepts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Derek; Coleman, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    The terms school culture, climate and ethos appear to be used interchangeably. Within the context of differing national environments there is, however, a tendency to use climate when objective data is under consideration, ethos when more subjective descriptors are involved, and culture when these two are brought together as an integrative force in…

  18. Sample interchange of MST radar data from the Urbana radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowhill, S. A.; Rennier, A.

    1984-01-01

    As a first step in interchange of data from the Urbana mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar, a sample tape has been prepared in 9-track 1600-bpi IBM format. It includes all Urbana data for April 1978 (the first month of operation of the radar). The 300-ft tape contains 260 h of typical mesospheric power and line-of-sight velocity data.

  19. Electronic Data Interchange: Using Technology to Exchange Transcripts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John T.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the Florida Automated System for Transferring Educational Records (FASTER) project, which permits the electronic exchange of student transcripts; uses of similar electronic data interchange (EDI) programs in other states; and the national SPEEDE/ExPRESS project, which uses a standard format for transferring electronic transcripts.…

  20. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) for Libraries and Publishers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santosuosso, Joe

    1992-01-01

    Defines electronic data interchange (EDI) as the exchange of data between computer systems without human intervention or interpretation. Standards are discussed; and the implementation of EDI in libraries and the serials publishing community in the areas of orders and acquisitions, claims, and invoice processing is described. (LRW)

  1. On Ideal Stability of Cylindrical Localized Interchange Modes

    SciTech Connect

    Umansky, M V

    2007-05-15

    Stability of cylindrical localized ideal pressure-driven interchange plasma modes is revisited. Converting the underlying eigenvalue problem into the form of the Schroedinger equation gives a new simple way of deriving the Suydam stability criterion and calculating the growth rates of unstable modes. Near the marginal stability limit the growth rate is exponentially small and the mode has a double-peak structure.

  2. 75 FR 81721 - Debit Card Interchange Fees and Routing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... computed using the Consolidated Financial Statements for Bank Holding Companies (FR Y-9C; OMB No. 7100-0128... direct the routing of an electronic debit transaction to any network that may process such transactions... from the network (excluding interchange fees passed through the network). The Board also is...

  3. The Implications of a Mixed Media Network for Information Interchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meaney, John W.

    A mixed media network for information interchange is what we are always likely to have. Amid the current permutations of the storage and distribution media we see the emergence of two trends -- toward the common denominators of electronic display on the TV system and of digital processing and control. The economic implications of a mixed network…

  4. Knowledge Representation Standards and Interchange Formats for Causal Graphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Throop, David R.; Malin, Jane T.; Fleming, Land

    2005-01-01

    In many domains, automated reasoning tools must represent graphs of causally linked events. These include fault-tree analysis, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), planning, procedures, medical reasoning about disease progression, and functional architectures. Each of these fields has its own requirements for the representation of causation, events, actors and conditions. The representations include ontologies of function and cause, data dictionaries for causal dependency, failure and hazard, and interchange formats between some existing tools. In none of the domains has a generally accepted interchange format emerged. The paper makes progress towards interoperability across the wide range of causal analysis methodologies. We survey existing practice and emerging interchange formats in each of these fields. Setting forth a set of terms and concepts that are broadly shared across the domains, we examine the several ways in which current practice represents them. Some phenomena are difficult to represent or to analyze in several domains. These include mode transitions, reachability analysis, positive and negative feedback loops, conditions correlated but not causally linked and bimodal probability distributions. We work through examples and contrast the differing methods for addressing them. We detail recent work in knowledge interchange formats for causal trees in aerospace analysis applications in early design, safety and reliability. Several examples are discussed, with a particular focus on reachability analysis and mode transitions. We generalize the aerospace analysis work across the several other domains. We also recommend features and capabilities for the next generation of causal knowledge representation standards.

  5. Gender and Pupil Performance. Interchange 70.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinklin, Teresa; Croxford, Linda; Ducklin, Alan; Frame, Barbara

    This study examined factors that influence the relative academic attainment of males and females and how good performance by both genders can be achieved. The study involved a review of literature and policy documents, statistical analysis of official data, a questionnaire survey of local authorities, and case studies of six secondary schools in…

  6. 42 CFR 84.80 - Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. 84...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.80 Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. Approvals shall not... or respirator component which is designed or constructed to permit the interchangeable use of...

  7. 42 CFR 84.80 - Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. 84...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.80 Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. Approvals shall not... or respirator component which is designed or constructed to permit the interchangeable use of...

  8. 42 CFR 84.80 - Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. 84...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.80 Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. Approvals shall not... or respirator component which is designed or constructed to permit the interchangeable use of...

  9. 42 CFR 84.80 - Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. 84...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.80 Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. Approvals shall not... or respirator component which is designed or constructed to permit the interchangeable use of...

  10. 42 CFR 84.80 - Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. 84...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.80 Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. Approvals shall not... or respirator component which is designed or constructed to permit the interchangeable use of...

  11. Rules and Norms: Requirements for Rule Interchange Languages in the Legal Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Thomas F.; Governatori, Guido; Rotolo, Antonino

    In this survey paper we summarize the requirements for rule interchange languages for applications in the legal domain and use these requirements to evaluate RuleML, SBVR, SWRL and RIF. We also present the Legal Knowledge Interchange Format (LKIF), a new rule interchange format developed specifically for applications in the legal domain.

  12. 32 CFR 644.409 - Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Procedures for Interchange of National Forest... Interests § 644.409 Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands. (a) General. The interchange of national forest lands is accomplished in three steps: first, agreement must be reached between the...

  13. 32 CFR 644.409 - Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Procedures for Interchange of National Forest... Interests § 644.409 Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands. (a) General. The interchange of national forest lands is accomplished in three steps: first, agreement must be reached between the...

  14. 32 CFR 644.409 - Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Procedures for Interchange of National Forest... Interests § 644.409 Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands. (a) General. The interchange of national forest lands is accomplished in three steps: first, agreement must be reached between the...

  15. 32 CFR 644.409 - Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Procedures for Interchange of National Forest... Interests § 644.409 Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands. (a) General. The interchange of national forest lands is accomplished in three steps: first, agreement must be reached between the...

  16. 14 CFR 121.569 - Equipment interchange: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equipment interchange: Domestic and flag... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.569 Equipment interchange: Domestic and flag operations. (a) Before operating under an interchange agreement,...

  17. 14 CFR 121.569 - Equipment interchange: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equipment interchange: Domestic and flag... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.569 Equipment interchange: Domestic and flag operations. (a) Before operating under an interchange agreement,...

  18. 14 CFR 121.569 - Equipment interchange: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equipment interchange: Domestic and flag... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.569 Equipment interchange: Domestic and flag operations. (a) Before operating under an interchange agreement,...

  19. 14 CFR 121.569 - Equipment interchange: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equipment interchange: Domestic and flag... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.569 Equipment interchange: Domestic and flag operations. (a) Before operating under an interchange agreement,...

  20. 14 CFR 121.569 - Equipment interchange: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment interchange: Domestic and flag... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.569 Equipment interchange: Domestic and flag operations. (a) Before operating under an interchange agreement,...

  1. A Kinetic Ballooning/Interchange Instability in the Magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coroniti, F. V.; Pritchett, P. L.

    2005-12-01

    In the near-Earth plasma sheet, earthward convection can be inhibited by plasma compression (the Erickson-Wolf effect), resulting in the formation of a weakly magnetized region from which the normal magnetic field component B_n increases in both the tailward (x) and earthward (-x) directions. Starting from a model plasma sheet equilibrium with B_n at the midplane (z = 0) proportional to (1+x/L) mid-way along the tail, 3D fully electromagnetic PIC simulations demonstrate that a strong ballooning/interchange type instability develops in the region of tailward increasing B_n. Unlike the classic MHD ballooning mode, however, the kinetic instability has a frequency which is below the ion bounce, diamagnetic, and magnetic drift frequencies, and a cross-tail (y) wavelength which is comparable to the ion gyroradius ρin in the normal field (k_y ρin ≍ 2π). The spatial extent of the mode in the x direction is initially of the order of the B_n gradient length L; at late times, the ballooning fingers of magnetic flux extend throughout and earthward of the B_n gradient region. The polarization of the mode is dominated by strong perturbations in the parallel magnetic field and approximately anti-correlated plasma density, the cross-tail Ey field, and the electrostatic potential. The ion distribution develops a weak v_y perturbation, while the x- and field-aligned flow velocities remain very small, a consequence of the ion's gyromotion essentially averaging the perturbed electric fields to zero. Thus the ions do not move earthward with the inward moving fingers of magnetic flux. The perturbed magnetic fields are generated by strong transverse electron Hall currents which are coupled to a complex system of field-aligned currents. The earthward speed of the flux enhancements is typically about 400 km/s. A characteristic signature of the mode is a local increase in B_z by about a factor of two without any significant ion flow.

  2. XAFS Data Interchange: A single spectrum XAFS data file format

    PubMed Central

    Ravel, B.; Newville, M.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a standard data format for the interchange of XAFS data. The XAFS Data Interchange (XDI) standard is meant to encapsulate a single spectrum of XAFS along with relevant metadata. XDI is a text-based format with a simple syntax which clearly delineates metadata from the data table in a way that is easily interpreted both by a computer and by a human. The metadata header is inspired by the format of an electronic mail header, representing metadata names and values as an associative array. The data table is represented as columns of numbers. This format can be imported as is into most existing XAFS data analysis, spreadsheet, or data visualization programs. Along with a specification and a dictionary of metadata types, we provide an application-programming interface written in C and bindings for programming dynamic languages. PMID:27499797

  3. Vorticity scaling and intermittency in drift-interchange plasma turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Dura, P. D.; Hnat, B.; Robinson, J.; Dendy, R. O.

    2012-09-15

    The effects of spatially varying magnetic field strength on the scaling properties of plasma turbulence, modelled by an extended form of Hasegawa-Wakatani model, are investigated. We study changes in the intermittency of the velocity, density, and vorticity fields, as functions of the magnetic field inhomogeneity C=-{partial_derivative} ln B/{partial_derivative}x. While the velocity fluctuations are always self-similar and their scaling is unaffected by the value of C, the intermittency levels in density and vorticity change with parameter C, reflecting morphological changes in the coherent structures due to the interchange mechanism. Given the centrality of vorticity in conditioning plasma transport, this result is of interest in scaling the results of transport measurements and simulations in tokamak edge plasmas, where drift-interchange turbulence in the presence of a magnetic field gradient is likely to occur.

  4. XAFS Data Interchange: A single spectrum XAFS data file format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravel, B.; Newville, M.

    2016-05-01

    We propose a standard data format for the interchange of XAFS data. The XAFS Data Interchange (XDI) standard is meant to encapsulate a single spectrum of XAFS along with relevant metadata. XDI is a text-based format with a simple syntax which clearly delineates metadata from the data table in a way that is easily interpreted both by a computer and by a human. The metadata header is inspired by the format of an electronic mail header, representing metadata names and values as an associative array. The data table is represented as columns of numbers. This format can be imported as is into most existing XAFS data analysis, spreadsheet, or data visualization programs. Along with a specification and a dictionary of metadata types, we provide an application-programming interface written in C and bindings for programming dynamic languages.

  5. Vorticity scaling and intermittency in drift-interchange plasma turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dura, P. D.; Hnat, B.; Robinson, J.; Dendy, R. O.

    2012-09-01

    The effects of spatially varying magnetic field strength on the scaling properties of plasma turbulence, modelled by an extended form of Hasegawa-Wakatani model, are investigated. We study changes in the intermittency of the velocity, density, and vorticity fields, as functions of the magnetic field inhomogeneity C =-∂ ln B/∂x. While the velocity fluctuations are always self-similar and their scaling is unaffected by the value of C, the intermittency levels in density and vorticity change with parameter C, reflecting morphological changes in the coherent structures due to the interchange mechanism. Given the centrality of vorticity in conditioning plasma transport, this result is of interest in scaling the results of transport measurements and simulations in tokamak edge plasmas, where drift-interchange turbulence in the presence of a magnetic field gradient is likely to occur.

  6. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Technical Interchange Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Technical Interchange Meeting, February 4-5, 1997, at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, Texas. Abstracts are arranged in order of presentation at the meetings, with corresponding page numbers shown in the enclosed agenda. Logistics, administration, and publication support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Department at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

  7. Residual turbulence from velocity shear stabilized interchange instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, C. P.; Hassam, A. B.

    2013-01-15

    The stabilizing effect of velocity shear on the macroscopic, broad bandwidth, ideal interchange instability is studied in linear and nonlinear regimes. A 2D dissipative magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code is employed to simulate the system. For a given flow shear, V Prime , linear growth rates are shown to be suppressed to below the shear-free level at both the small and large wavelengths. With increasing V Prime , the unstable band in wavenumber-space shrinks so that the peak growth results for modes that correspond to relatively high wavenumbers, on the scale of the density gradient. In the nonlinear turbulent steady state, a similar turbulent spectrum obtains, and the convection cells are roughly circular. In addition, the density fluctuation level and the degree of flattening of the initial inverted density profile are found to decrease as V Prime increases; in fact, unstable modes are almost completely stabilized and the density profile reverts to laminar when V Prime is a few times the classic interchange growth rate. Moreover, the turbulent particle flux diminishes with increasing velocity shear such that all the flux is carried by the classical diffusive flux in the asymptotic limit. The simulations are compared with measurements of magnetic fluctuations from the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment, MCX, which investigated interchange modes in the presence of velocity shear. The experimental spectral data, taken in the plasma edge, are in general agreement with the numerical data obtained in higher viscosity simulations for which the level of viscosity is chosen consistent with MCX Reynolds numbers at the edge. In particular, the residual turbulence in both cases is dominated by elongated convection cells. Finally, concomitant Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in the system are also examined. Complete stability to interchanges is obtained only in the parameter space wherein the generalized Rayleigh inflexion theorem is satisfied.

  8. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU II) Technical Interchange Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, David (Compiler); Saunders, Stephen R. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This volume contains extended abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU II) Technical Interchange Meeting, November 18-19, 1997, at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, Texas. Included are topics which include: Extraterrestrial resources, in situ propellant production, sampling of planetary surfaces, oxygen production, water vapor extraction from the Martian atmosphere, gas generation, cryogenic refrigeration, and propellant transport and storage.

  9. Third SEI Technical Interchange: Proceedings. [Space Exploration Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Given here are the proceedings of the 3rd Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) Technical Interchange. Topics covered include the First Lunar Outpost (FLO), the Lunar Resource Mapper, lunar rovers, lunar habitat concepts, lunar shelter construction analysis, thermoelectric nuclear power systems for SEI, cryogenic storage, a space network for lunar communications, the moon as a solar power satellite, and off-the-shelf avionics for future SEI missions.

  10. NN interaction from bag-model quark interchange

    SciTech Connect

    Bakker, B.L.G.; Bozoian, M.; Maslow, J.N.; Weber, H.J.

    1982-03-01

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of elastic nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one- and two-boson exchange amplitude from a bag-model quark interchange mechanism. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with other meson theoretic potentials and data up to laboratory energies of approx.350 MeV.

  11. XML-Based SHINE Knowledge Base Interchange Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark; Mackey, Ryan; Tikidjian, Raffi

    2008-01-01

    The SHINE Knowledge Base Interchange Language software has been designed to more efficiently send new knowledge bases to spacecraft that have been embedded with the Spacecraft Health Inference Engine (SHINE) tool. The intention of the behavioral model is to capture most of the information generally associated with a spacecraft functional model, while specifically addressing the needs of execution within SHINE and Livingstone. As such, it has some constructs that are based on one or the other.

  12. Theory of semicollisional drift-interchange modes in cylindrical plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hahm, T.S.; Chen, L.

    1985-01-01

    Resistive interchange instabilities in cylindrical plasmas are studied, including the effects of electron diamagnetic drift, perpendicular resistivity, and plasma compression. The analyses are pertinent to the semicollisional regime where the effective ion gyro-radius is larger than the resistive layer width. Both analytical and numerical results show that the modes can be completely stabilized by the perpendicular plasma transport. Ion sound effects, meanwhile, are found to be negligible in the semicollisional regime.

  13. A format for the interchange of scheduling models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John P.; Davis, Elizabeth K.

    1994-01-01

    In recent years a variety of space-activity schedulers have been developed within the aerospace community. Space-activity schedulers are characterized by their need to handle large numbers of activities which are time-window constrained and make high demands on many scarce resources, but are minimally constrained by predecessor/successor requirements or critical paths. Two needs to exchange data between these schedulers have materialized. First, there is significant interest in comparing and evaluating the different scheduling engines to ensure that the best technology is applied to each scheduling endeavor. Second, there is a developing requirement to divide a single scheduling task among different sites, each using a different scheduler. In fact, the scheduling task for International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) will be distributed among NASA centers and among the international partners. The format used to interchange scheduling data for ISSA will likely use a growth version of the format discussed in this paper. The model interchange format (or MIF, pronounced as one syllable) discussed in this paper is a robust solution to the need to interchange scheduling requirements for space activities. It is highly extensible, human-readable, and can be generated or edited with common text editors. It also serves well the need to support a 'benchmark' data case which can be delivered on any computer platform.

  14. Relative performance of stop sign versus signal control at diamond interchanges

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, R.H.

    1987-10-01

    A study was conducted to compare all-way stop sign control with traffic light signal control. To provide general guidelines for signal control, signal operations studied included pretimed control, actuated control, three phase operation and four phase operation with overlaps. The following conclusions were made regarding diamond interchanges: a diamond interchange operates much differently than two isolated intersections because of close spacing; diamond interchange signalization should be a separate MUTCD procedure from that of isolated intersections; diamond interchange models that combine complex interactions of internal and external traffic are the most representative approach; and a discriminating diamond interchange volume level exists beyond which traffic signal control is better than stop sign control.

  15. Reconnection and interchange instability in the near magnetotail

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Birn, Joachim; Liu, Yi -Hsin; Daughton, William; Hesse, Michael; Schindler, Karl

    2015-07-16

    This paper provides insights into the possible coupling between reconnection and interchange/ballooning in the magnetotail related to substorms and flow bursts. The results presented are largely based on recent simulations of magnetotail dynamics, exploring onset and progression of reconnection. 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations with different tail deformation demonstrate a clear boundary between stable and unstable cases depending on the amount of deformation, explored up to the real proton/electron mass ratio. The evolution prior to onset, as well as the evolution of stable cases, are governed by the conservation of integral flux tube entropy S as imposed in ideal MHD, maintainingmore » a monotonic increase with distance downtail. This suggests that ballooning instability in the tail should not be expected prior to the onset of tearing and reconnection. 3-D MHD simulations confirm this conclusion, showing no indication of ballooning prior to reconnection, if the initial state is ballooning stable. The simulation also shows that, after imposing resistivity necessary to initiate reconnection, the reconnection rate and energy release initially remain slow. However, when S becomes reduced from plasmoid ejection and lobe reconnection, forming a negative slope in S as a function of distance from Earth, the reconnection rate and energy release increase drastically. The latter condition has been shown to be necessary for ballooning/interchange instability, and the cross-tail structures that develop subsequently in the MHD simulation are consistent with such modes. The simulations support a concept in which tail activity is initiated by tearing instability but significantly enhanced by the interaction with ballooning/interchange enabled by plasmoid loss and lobe reconnection.« less

  16. Reconnection and interchange instability in the near magnetotail

    SciTech Connect

    Birn, Joachim; Liu, Yi -Hsin; Hesse, Michael

    2015-07-16

    This paper provides insights into the possible coupling between reconnection and interchange/ballooning in the magnetotail related to substorms and flow bursts. The results presented are largely based on recent simulations of magnetotail dynamics, exploring onset and progression of reconnection. 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations with different tail deformation demonstrate a clear boundary between stable and unstable cases depending on the amount of deformation, explored up to the real proton/electron mass ratio. The evolution prior to onset, as well as the evolution of stable cases, are governed by the conservation of integral flux tube entropy S as imposed in ideal MHD, maintaining a monotonic increase with distance downtail. This suggests that ballooning instability in the tail should not be expected prior to the onset of tearing and reconnection. 3-D MHD simulations confirm this conclusion, showing no indication of ballooning prior to reconnection, if the initial state is ballooning stable. The simulation also shows that, after imposing resistivity necessary to initiate reconnection, the reconnection rate and energy release initially remain slow. However, when S becomes reduced from plasmoid ejection and lobe reconnection, forming a negative slope in S as a function of distance from Earth, the reconnection rate and energy release increase drastically. The latter condition has been shown to be necessary for ballooning/interchange instability, and the cross-tail structures that develop subsequently in the MHD simulation are consistent with such modes. The simulations support a concept in which tail activity is initiated by tearing instability but significantly enhanced by the interaction with ballooning/interchange enabled by plasmoid loss and lobe reconnection.

  17. Effects of radial motion on interchange injections at Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranicas, C.; Thomsen, M. F.; Achilleos, N.; Andriopoulou, M.; Badman, S. V.; Hospodarsky, G.; Jackman, C. M.; Jia, X.; Kennelly, T.; Khurana, K.; Kollmann, P.; Krupp, N.; Louarn, P.; Roussos, E.; Sergis, N.

    2016-01-01

    Charged particle injections are regularly observed in Saturn's inner magnetosphere by Cassini. They are attributed to an ongoing process of flux-tube interchange driven by the strong centrifugal force associated with Saturn's rapid rotation. Numerical simulations suggest that these interchange injections can be associated with inward flow channels, in which plasma confined to a narrow range of longitudes moves radially toward the planet, gaining energy, while ambient plasma in the adjacent regions moves more slowly outward. Most previous analyses of these events have neglected this radial motion and inferred properties of the events under the assumption that they appear instantaneously at the spacecraft's L-shell and thereafter drift azimuthally. This paper describes features of injections that can be related to their radial motion prior to observation. We use a combination of phase space density profiles and an updated version of a test-particle model to quantify properties of the injection. We are able to infer the longitudinal width of the injection, the radial travel time from its point of origin, and the starting L shell of the injection. We can also predict which energies can remain inside the channel during the radial transport. To highlight the effects of radial propagation at a finite speed, we focus on those interchange injections without extensive features of azimuthal dispersion. Injections that have traveled radially for one or more hours prior to observation would have been initiated at a different local time than that of the observation. Finally, we describe an injection where particles have drifted azimuthally into a flow channel prior to observation by Cassini.

  18. Assessing Interchangeability at Cluster-Levels with Multiple-Informant Data

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zhehui; Breslau, Joshua; Gardiner, Joseph C.; Chen, Qiaoling; Breslau, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Studies examining the relationship between neighborhood social disorder and health often rely on multiple informants. Such studies assume interchangeability of the latent constructs derived from multiple-informant data. Existing methods examining this assumption do not clearly delineate the uncertainty at individual levels from that at neighborhood levels. We propose a multi-level variance component factor model that allows this delineation. Data come from a survey of a representative sample of children born between 1983 and 1985 in the inner city of Detroit and nearby middle-class suburbs. Results indicate that the informant-level models tend to exaggerate the effect of places due to differences between persons. Our evaluations of different methodologies lead to the recommendation of the multi-level variance component factor model whenever multiple-informant reports can be aggregated at a neighborhood level. PMID:24038232

  19. Directory interchange format manual, version 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Directory Interchange Format (DIF) is a data structure used to exchange directory level information about data sets among information systems. The format consists of a number of fields that describe the attributes of a directory entry and text blocks that contain a descriptive summary of and references for the directory entry. All fields and the summary are preceded by labels identifying their contents. All values are ASCII character strings. The structure is intended to be flexible, allowing for future changes in the contents of directory entries.

  20. An XML-based format for guideline interchange and execution.

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, A. K.; Chueh, H. C.

    2000-01-01

    In building a general purpose guideline system based on GLIF--the GuideLine Interchange Format, we encountered limitations in the GLIF specification. These limitations, while not so apparent in the static version of guideline content, became readily so in the context of real world implementation, and pertain not only to GLIF-based systems, but generally as well. These limitations can be described as being in one of five categories. In this paper, we describe each of these categories in detail, and show how an execution environment based on XML data structures addresses these concerns. PMID:11079874

  1. System comprising interchangeable electronic controllers and corresponding methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Glen F. (Inventor); Salazar, George A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A system comprising an interchangeable electronic controller is provided with programming that allows the controller to adapt a behavior that is dependent upon the particular type of function performed by a system or subsystem component. The system reconfigures the controller when the controller is moved from one group of subsystem components to another. A plurality of application programs are provided by a server from which the application program for a particular electronic controller is selected. The selection is based on criteria such as a subsystem component group identifier that identifies the particular type of function associated with the system or subsystem group of components.

  2. Signatures of interchange reconnection: STEREO, ACE and Hinode observations combined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D.; Rouillard, A. P.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Démoulin, P.; Harra, L. K.; Lavraud, B.; Davies, J. A.; Opitz, A.; Luhmann, J. G.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Galvin, A. B.

    2009-10-01

    Combining STEREO, ACE and Hinode observations has presented an opportunity to follow a filament eruption and coronal mass ejection (CME) on 17 October 2007 from an active region (AR) inside a coronal hole (CH) into the heliosphere. This particular combination of "open" and closed magnetic topologies provides an ideal scenario for interchange reconnection to take place. With Hinode and STEREO data we were able to identify the emergence time and type of structure seen in the in-situ data four days later. On the 21st, ACE observed in-situ the passage of an ICME with "open" magnetic topology. The magnetic field configuration of the source, a mature AR located inside an equatorial CH, has important implications for the solar and interplanetary signatures of the eruption. We interpret the formation of an "anemone" structure of the erupting AR and the passage in-situ of the ICME being disconnected at one leg, as manifested by uni-directional suprathermal electron flux in the ICME, to be a direct result of interchange reconnection between closed loops of the CME originating from the AR and "open" field lines of the surrounding CH.

  3. Directory interchange format manual, version 4.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Directory Interchange Format (DIF) is a data structure used to exchange directory-level information about data sets among information systems. In general the format consists of a number of fields that describe the attributes of a directory entry and text blocks that contain a descriptive summary of and references for the directory entry. All fields and the summary are preceded by labels identifying their contents. All values are ASCII character strings. The structure is intended to be flexible, allowing for future changes in the contents of directory entries. The manual is structured as follows: section 1 is a general description of what constitutes a directory entry; section 2 describes the content of the individual fields within the data structure, together with some examples. Also included in the six appendices is a description of the syntax used within the examples; samples of the directory interchange format applied to different data sets; the allowable discipline keywords; a current list of valid location keywords; a list of allowable parameter keywords; a list of acronyns and a glossary of terms used; and a description of the Standard Formatted Data Unit header, which may be added to the front of a DIF file to identify the file as a registered standard format.

  4. Ion composition in interchange injection events in Saturn's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, M. F.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Wilson, R. J.; Andriopoulou, M.; Crary, F. J.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Jackman, C. M.; Jia, X.; Khurana, K. K.; Paranicas, C.; Roussos, E.; Sergis, N.; Tokar, R. L.

    2014-12-01

    Interchange injection events are commonly observed by the Cassini spacecraft in the region between about 6 and 12 Rs (1 Rs = 60,268 km) and even frequently beyond. In this study, 13 examples of interchange injection events are identified in Cassini/Cassini Plasma Spectrometer data under special conditions such that time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectra could be obtained from entirely within the events. Using the TOF data to separate the main ion species H+, H2+, and W+, approximate densities of each species are calculated under the assumption that all distributions were isotropic. The light-ion density ratios, H2+/H+, in the injection events are not discernibly different from those ratios in control intervals from the ambient plasma. However, the water-group ratio, W+/H+, is significantly lower than ambient. The comparison of the measured density ratios with the range of values observed throughout Saturn's magnetosphere indicates that the values of W+/H+ that are as low as those observed within the injection events are found primarily beyond L~14 (where L is the equatorial crossing distance, in Saturn radius, of a dipole field line), indicating that the injection events are delivering plasma from the outer magnetosphere at times traveling at least 6 Rs.

  5. An interchangeable-cathode vacuum arc plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, David K.; Peterson, Bryan G.; Hart, Grant W.

    2010-01-15

    A simplified vacuum arc design [based on metal vapor vacuum arc (MeVVA) concepts] is employed as a plasma source for a study of a {sup 7}Be non-neutral plasma. The design includes a mechanism for interchanging the cathode source. Testing of the plasma source showed that it is capable of producing on the order of 10{sup 12} charges at confinable energies using a boron-carbide disk as the cathode target. The design is simplified from typical designs for lower energy and lower density applications by using only the trigger spark rather than the full vacuum arc in high current ion beam designs. The interchangeability of the cathode design gives the source the ability to replace only the source sample, simplifying use of radioactive materials in the plasma source. The sample can also be replaced with a completely different conductive material. The design can be easily modified for use in other plasma confinement or full MeVVA applications.

  6. FUEL INTERCHANGEABILITY FOR LEAN PREMIXED COMBUSTION IN GAS TURBINE ENGINES

    SciTech Connect

    Don Ferguson; Geo. A. Richard; Doug Straub

    2008-06-13

    In response to environmental concerns of NOx emissions, gas turbine manufacturers have developed engines that operate under lean, pre-mixed fuel and air conditions. While this has proven to reduce NOx emissions by lowering peak flame temperatures, it is not without its limitations as engines utilizing this technology are more susceptible to combustion dynamics. Although dependent on a number of mechanisms, changes in fuel composition can alter the dynamic response of a given combustion system. This is of particular interest as increases in demand of domestic natural gas have fueled efforts to utilize alternatives such as coal derived syngas, imported liquefied natural gas and hydrogen or hydrogen augmented fuels. However, prior to changing the fuel supply end-users need to understand how their system will respond. A variety of historical parameters have been utilized to determine fuel interchangeability such as Wobbe and Weaver Indices, however these parameters were never optimized for today’s engines operating under lean pre-mixed combustion. This paper provides a discussion of currently available parameters to describe fuel interchangeability. Through the analysis of the dynamic response of a lab-scale Rijke tube combustor operating on various fuel blends, it is shown that commonly used indices are inadequate for describing combustion specific phenomena.

  7. Uncertainty-based Estimation of the Secure Range for ISO New England Dynamic Interchange Adjustment

    SciTech Connect

    Etingov, Pavel V.; Makarov, Yuri V.; Wu, Di; Hou, Zhangshuan; Sun, Yannan; Maslennikov, S.; Luo, Xiaochuan; Zheng, T.; George, S.; Knowland, T.; Litvinov, E.; Weaver, S.; Sanchez, E.

    2014-04-14

    The paper proposes an approach to estimate the secure range for dynamic interchange adjustment, which assists system operators in scheduling the interchange with neighboring control areas. Uncertainties associated with various sources are incorporated. The proposed method is implemented in the dynamic interchange adjustment (DINA) tool developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for ISO New England. Simulation results are used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. Interchange and Infernal Fishbone Modes in Plasmas with Tangentially Injected Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Kolesnichenko; Ya.I.; Marchenko; V.S.; White; R.B.

    2006-01-01

    New energetic particle mode instabilities of fishbone type are predicted. The considered instabilities are driven by the circulating energetic ions. They can arise in plasmas of tokamaks and spherical tori with weak magnetic shear in the wide core region and strong shear at the periphery, provided that the central safety factor is close to the ratio m/n, where m and n are the poloidal mode number and toroidal mode number, respectively. The instability with m = n = 1 has interchange-like spatial structure, whereas the structure of instabilities with m/n > 1 is similar to that of the infernal MHD mode (except for the region in vicinity of the local Alfvén resonance).

  9. Transport scaling in interchange-driven toroidal plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ricci, Paolo; Rogers, B. N.

    2009-06-15

    Two-dimensional fluid simulations of a simple magnetized torus are presented, in which the vertical and toroidal components of the magnetic field create helicoidal field lines that terminate on the upper and lower walls of the plasma chamber. The simulations self-consistently evolve the full radial profiles of the electric potential, density, and electron temperature in the presence of three competing effects: the cross-field turbulent transport driven by the interchange instability, parallel losses to the upper and lower walls, and the input of particles and heat by external plasma sources. Considering parameter regimes in which equilibrium ExB shear flow effects are weak, we study the dependence of the plasma profiles--in particular the pressure profile scale length--on the parameters of the system. Analytical scalings are obtained that show remarkable agreement with the simulations.

  10. SCHIP: Statistics for Chromosome Interphase Positioning Based on Interchange Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vives, Sergi; Loucas, Bradford; Vazquez, Mariel; Brenner, David J.; Sachs, Rainer K.; Hlatky, Lynn; Cornforth, Michael; Arsuaga, Javier

    2005-01-01

    he position of chromosomes in the interphase nucleus is believed to be associated with a number of biological processes. Here, we present a web-based application that helps analyze the relative position of chromosomes during interphase in human cells, based on observed radiogenic chromosome aberrations. The inputs of the program are a table of yields of pairwise chromosome interchanges and a proposed chromosome geometric cluster. Each can either be uploaded or selected from provided datasets. The main outputs are P-values for the proposed chromosome clusters. SCHIP is designed to be used by a number of scientific communities interested in nuclear architecture, including cancer and cell biologists, radiation biologists and mathematical/computational biologists.

  11. An Ensemble Approach for Forecasting Net Interchange Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Vlachopoulou, Maria; Gosink, Luke J.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Ferryman, Thomas A.; Zhou, Ning; Tong, Jianzhong

    2013-09-01

    The net interchange schedule (NIS) is the sum of the transactions (MW) between an ISO/RTO and its neighbors. Effective forecasting of the submitted NIS can improve grid operation efficiency. This paper applies a Bayesian model averaging (BMA) technique to forecast submitted NIS. As an ensemble approach, the BMA method aggregates different forecasting models in order to improve forecasting accuracy and consistency. In this study, the BMA method is compared to two alternative approaches: a stepwise regression method and an artificial neural network (ANN) trained for NIS forecasting. In our comparative analysis, we use field measurement data from the Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Maryland (PJM) Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) to train and test each method. Our preliminary results indicate that ensemble-based methods can provide more accurate and consistent NIS forecasts in comparison to non-ensemble alternate methods.

  12. Guidelines for Provision and Interchange of Geothermal Data Assets

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-07-03

    The US Department of Energy Office of Geothermal Technologies (OGT) is funding and overseeing the development of the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS), a distributed information system providing access to integrated data in support of, and generated in, all phases of geothermal development. NGDS is being built in an open paradigm and will employ state-of-the-art informatics approaches and capabilities to advance the state of geothermal knowledge in the US. This document presents guidelines related to provision and interchange of data assets in the context of the National Geothermal Data System. It identifies general specifications for NGDS catalog metadata and data content, and provides specific instructions for preparation and submission of data assets by OGT-funded projects.

  13. Interchangeable end effector tools utilized on the protoflight manipulator arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A subset of teleoperator and effector tools was designed, fabricated, delivered and successfully demonstrated on the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) protoflight manipulator arm (PFMA). The tools delivered included a rotary power tool with interchangeable collets and two fluid coupling mate/demate tools; one for a Fairchild coupling and the other for a Purolator coupling. An electrical interface connector was also provided for the rotary power tool. A tool set, from which the subset was selected, for performing on-orbit satellite maintenance was identified and conceptionally designed. Maintenance requirements were synthesized, evaluated and prioritized to develop design requirements for a set of end effector tools representative of those needed to provide on-orbit maintenance of satellites to be flown in the 1986 to 2000 timeframe.

  14. Collaboration for Education with the Apple Learning Interchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Patrick A.; Zimmerman, T.; Knierman, K. A.

    2006-12-01

    We present a progressive effort to deliver online education and outreach resources in collaboration with the Apple Learning Interchange, a free community for educators. We have created a resource site with astronomy activities, video training for the activities, and the possibility of interactive training through video chat services. Also in development is an online textbook for graduate and advanced undergraduate courses in stellar evolution, featuring an updatable and annotated text with multimedia content, online lectures, podcasts, and a framework for interactive simulation activities. Both sites will be highly interactive, combining online discussions, the opportunity for live video interaction, and a growing library of student work samples. This effort promises to provide a compelling model for collaboration between science educators and corporations. As scientists, we provide content knowledge and a compelling reason to communicate, while Apple provides technical expertise, a deep knowledge of online education, and a way for us to reach a wide audience of higher education, community outreach, and K-12 educators.

  15. Interchange of electronic design through VHDL and EIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Richard M.

    1987-01-01

    The need for both robust and unambiguous electronic designs is a direct requirement of the astonishing growth in design and manufacturing capability during recent years. In order to manage the plethora of designs, and have the design data both interchangeable and interoperable, the Very High Speed Integrated Circuits (VHSIC) program is developing two major standards for the electronic design community. The VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL) is designed to be the lingua franca for transmission of design data between designers and their environments. The Engineering Information System (EIS) is designed to ease the integration of data betweeen diverse design automation systems. This paper describes the rationale for the necessity for these two standards and how they provide a synergistic expressive capability across the macrocosm of design environments.

  16. EDI (electronic data interchange): the best in business partner cooperation.

    PubMed

    Pirelli, T

    1989-10-01

    This is the first of a three-part series on electronic data interchange (EDI) applications in the materials management and accounts payable departments, especially as they relate to transactions with outside vendors. Part Two will cover EDI applications within a hospital, from one computer system to another. The article will illustrate how the new HL7 standards will make "seamless" interfaces an economic reality for the first time. Part Three will focus on the paperwork reduction aspects of EDI, and the resultant cost savings. Through the use of permanent CD-ROM storage, the day will come when a hospital's business transactions (purchase orders, invoices, checks) as well as medical records, will never be generated on paper. PMID:10295750

  17. Inter-Changeability of Impedance Devices for Lymphedema Assessment.

    PubMed

    van Zanten, Malou; Piller, Neil; Ward, Leigh C

    2016-06-01

    Impedance technology is a popular technique for the early detection of lymphedema. The preferred approach is to use bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS), with measurements being made with the subject lying supine, although attempts have been made to use single or multiple frequency impedance measurements obtained while the subject is standing. The aim of the present study was to determine the equivalence of these different approaches. Impedance measurements of the individual limbs of 37 healthy individuals were determined using both a stand-on, multi-frequency impedance device and a supine impedance spectroscopy instrument. Significant differences were found between the instruments in both absolute impedance values and, importantly, inter-limb impedance ratios. Since impedance ratios in healthy individuals provide the reference standard for detection of lymphedema, these data indicate that the methods are not interchangeable. Consideration of the errors associated with each method indicates that the BIS remains the preferred method for lymphedema detection. PMID:26574711

  18. The Harang reversal and the interchange stability of the magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtani, Shinichi; Gkioulidou, Matina; Wang, Chih-Ping; Wolf, Richard A.

    2016-04-01

    The present study addresses steady convection in the plasma sheet in terms of the interchange stability with special attention to the Harang reversal. The closure of the tail current with a field-aligned current (FAC) results from the divergence/convergence of the pressure gradient current. If the magnetotail is in a steady state, the associated change of local plasma pressure p has to balance with its advective change. Accordingly, for adiabatic transport, the flux tube entropy parameter pVγ increases and decreases along the convection path in regions corresponding to downward and upward FACs, respectively. This requirement, along with the condition for the interchange stability imposes an important constraint on the direction of convection especially in the regions of downward FACs. It is deduced that for the dusk cell, the convection in the downward R2 current has to be directed azimuthally duskward, which follows the sunward, possibly dawnward deflected, convection in the region of the premidnight upward R1 current. This duskward turn of convection takes place in the vicinity of the R1-R2 demarcation, and it presumably corresponds to the Harang reversal. For the dawn cell the convection in the postmidnight downward R1 current has to deflect dawnward, and then it proceeds sunward in the upward R2 current. The continuity of the associated ionospheric currents consistently reproduces the assumed FAC distribution. The proposed interrelationships between the convection and FACs are also verified with a quasi-steady plasma sheet configuration and convection reproduced by a modified Rice Convection Model with force balance.

  19. Roles of transition metals interchanging with lithium in electrode materials.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Tomoya; Fukuda, Katsutoshi; Tokuda, Kazuya; Sakaida, Masashi; Ichitsubo, Tetsu; Oishi, Masatsugu; Mizuki, Jun'ichiro; Matsubara, Eiichiro

    2015-06-01

    Roles of antisite transition metals interchanging with Li atoms in electrode materials of Li transition-metal complex oxides were clarified using a newly developed direct labeling method, termed powder diffraction anomalous fine structure (P-DAFS) near the Ni K-edge. We site-selectively investigated the valence states and local structures of Ni in Li0.89Ni1.11O2, where Ni atoms occupy mainly the NiO2 host-layer sites and partially the interlayer Li sites in-between the host layers, during electrochemical Li insertion/extraction in a lithium-ion battery (LIB). The site-selective X-ray near edge structure evaluated via the P-DAFS method revealed that the interlayer Ni atoms exhibited much lower electrochemical activity as compared to those at the host-layer site. Furthermore, the present analyses of site-selective extended X-ray absorption fine structure performed using the P-DAFS method indicates local structural changes around the residual Ni atoms at the interlayer space during the initial charge; it tends to gather to form rock-salt NiO-like domains around the interlayer Ni. The presence of the NiO-like domains in the interlayer space locally diminishes the interlayer distance and would yield strain energy because of the lattice mismatch, which retards the subsequent Li insertion both thermodynamically and kinetically. Such restrictions on the Li insertion inevitably make the NiO-like domains electrochemically inactive, resulting in an appreciable irreversible capacity after the initial charge but an achievement of robust linkage of neighboring NiO2 layers that tend to be dissociated without the Li occupation. The P-DAFS characterization of antisite transition metals interchanging with Li atoms complements the understanding of the detailed charge-compensation and degradation mechanisms in the electrode materials. PMID:25959625

  20. Finite Larmor radius assisted velocity shear stabilization of the interchange instability in magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ng Sheungwah; Hassam, A.B.

    2005-06-15

    Finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects, originally shown to stabilize magnetized plasma interchange modes at short wavelength, are shown to assist velocity shear stabilization of long wavelength interchanges. It is shown that the FLR effects result in stabilization with roughly the same efficacy as the stabilization from dissipative (resistive and viscous) effects found earlier.

  1. Compressibility effect on magnetic-shear-localized ideal magnetohydrodynamic interchange instability

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Sangeeta; Callen, J.D.; Hegna, C.C.

    2005-08-15

    Eigenmode analysis of a magnetic-shear-localized ideal magnetohydrodynamic interchange instability in the presence of plasma compressibility indicates the marginal stability criterion (D{sub I}=1/4) is not affected by the compressibility effects. Above the marginal stability criterion, plasma compressibility causes a significant reduction in the growth rate of an ideal interchange instability.

  2. Structural Characteristics of Computer-Mediated Language: A Comparative Analysis of InterChange Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Kwang-Kyu

    1996-01-01

    Compares one form of synchronous computer-mediated communication, Daedalus InterChange, with analogous spoken and written corpora. Finds that the InterChange discourse mode is not merely intermediate between speaking and writing; rather the electronic medium uniquely fosters some behaviors and inhibits others, in support of the view that physical…

  3. 32 CFR 644.408 - Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interchange of national forest and military and... Property and Easement Interests § 644.408 Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands. 16 U.S.C. 505a, 505b authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture, with respect to national forest...

  4. 32 CFR 644.408 - Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interchange of national forest and military and... Property and Easement Interests § 644.408 Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands. 16 U.S.C. 505a, 505b authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture, with respect to national forest...

  5. 32 CFR 644.408 - Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Interchange of national forest and military and... Property and Easement Interests § 644.408 Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands. 16 U.S.C. 505a, 505b authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture, with respect to national forest...

  6. 32 CFR 644.408 - Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Interchange of national forest and military and... Property and Easement Interests § 644.408 Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands. 16 U.S.C. 505a, 505b authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture, with respect to national forest...

  7. 32 CFR 644.408 - Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Interchange of national forest and military and... Property and Easement Interests § 644.408 Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands. 16 U.S.C. 505a, 505b authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture, with respect to national forest...

  8. 78 FR 18666 - Agency Information Collection Activities; New Information Collection: Lease and Interchange of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... Docket Management System published in the Federal Register on January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316), or you may... Information Collection: Lease and Interchange of Vehicles AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration... codified in 49 CFR Part 376, ``Lease and Interchange of Vehicles.'' These regulations require certain...

  9. What Kind of International Interchange Is Beneficial? Experiences of Taiwanese Indigenes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shan-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Because of globalization, international interchanges among indigenes in every country have become more frequent. Influenced by international multicultural trends, Taiwan's government not only supports indigenous populations to revive their traditional cultures, but also encourages the promotion of the international interchange activities among…

  10. 78 FR 54589 - Information Required in Notices and Petitions Containing Interchange Commitments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... and Regulatory Flexibility In the NPR, published in the Federal Register at 77 FR 66165 on November 2... Petitions Containing Interchange Commitments AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Final rules... underlying lease or line sale includes an interchange commitment. Based on the comments received and...

  11. 77 FR 66165 - Information Required in Notices and Petitions Containing Interchange Commitments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-02

    ... Railroad Cost of Capital--2011, EP 558 (Sub-No. 15) (STB served Sept. 13, 2012). \\11\\ Review of Rail Access... served Oct. 30, 2007). \\12\\ Id. at 15. To facilitate its review of transactions that include interchange... the terms of the interchange commitment with the Board.\\15\\ \\13\\ See generally id. \\14\\ Disclosure...

  12. The Place of Community-Based Learning in Higher Education: A Case Study of Interchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardwick, Louise

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on one strand of community engagement: community-based learning for students. It considers in particular Interchange as a case study. Interchange is a registered charity based in, but independent of, a department in a Higher Education Institution. It brokers between undergraduate research/work projects and Voluntary Community…

  13. Use of data description languages in the interchange of data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pignede, M.; Real-Planells, B.; Smith, S. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is developing Standards for the interchange of information between systems, including those operating under different environments. The objective is to perform the interchange automatically, i.e. in a computer interpretable manner. One aspect of the concept developed by CCSDS is the use of a separate data description to specify the data being transferred. Using the description, data can then be automatically parsed by the receiving computer. With a suitably expressive Data Description Language (DDL), data formats of arbitrary complexity can be handled. The advantages of this approach are: (1) that the description need only be written and distributed once to all users, and (2) new software does not need to be written for each new format, provided generic tools are available to support writing and interpretation of descriptions and the associated data instances. Consequently, the effort of 'hard coding' each new format is avoided and problems of integrating multiple implementations of a given format by different users are avoided. The approach is applicable in any context where computer parsable description of data could enhance efficiency (e.g. within a spacecraft control system, a data delivery system or an archive). The CCSDS have identified several candidate DDL's: EAST (Extended Ada Subset), TSDN (Transfer Syntax Data Notation) and MADEL (Modified ASN.1 as a Data Description Language -- a DDL based on the Abstract Syntax Notation One - ASN.1 - specified in the ISO/IEC 8824). This paper concentrates on ESA's development of MADEL. ESA have also developed a 'proof of concept' prototype of the required support tools, implemented on a PC under MS-DOS, which has successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the approach, including the capability within an application of retrieving and displaying particular data elements, given its MADEL description (i.e. a data description written in MADEL). This paper outlines

  14. Space Solar Power Technical Interchange Meeting 2: SSP TIM 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Jim; Hawk, Clark W.

    1998-01-01

    The 2nd Space Solar Power Technical Interchange Meeting (SSP TIM 2) was conducted September 21st through 24th with the first part consisting of a Plenary session. The summary results of this Plenary session are contained in part one of this report. The attendees were then organized into Working Breakout Sessions and Integrated Product Team (IPT) Sessions for the purpose of conducting in-depth discussions in specific topic areas and developing a consensus as to appropriate study plans and actions to be taken. The Second part covers the Plenary Summary Session, which contains the summary results of the Working Breakout Sessions and IPT Sessions. The appendix contains the list of attendees. The ob'jective was to provide an update for the study teams and develop plans for subsequent study activities. This SSP TIM 2 was initiated and the results reported electronically over the Internet. The International Space Station (ISS) could provide the following opportunities for conducting research and technology (R&T) which are applicable to SSP: (1) Automation and Robotics, (2) Advanced Power Generation, (3) Advanced Power Management & Distribution (PMAD), (4) Communications Systems and Networks, (5) Energy Storage, (6) In Space Propulsion (ISP), (7) Structural Dynamics and Control, and Assembly and (8) Wireless Power Transmission.

  15. Unsafe health and safety: sphygmomanometer cuffs are not interchangeable.

    PubMed

    Shaw, K C; McEniery, C M; Wilkinson, I B; Brown, M J

    2013-07-01

    Unknown to its hypertension specialists, a major teaching hospital changed the cuffs on its sphygmomanometers from manufacturer-validated to a uniform washable alternative, in line with 'Health and Safety' concerns surrounding potential cross-contamination between patients. When clinic doctors suspected serious under-reading with the new cuffs, a systematic comparison was undertaken in 54 patients (mean±s.d. age, 61±17 years), using two UM-101 sphygmomanometers, one using the original, manufacturer-supplied cuff and the other with the washable replacement. The study confirmed an average under-reading of 8±10/5±5 mm Hg using the washable cuff, and a third of patients with poorly controlled hypertension were considered normotensive, after using this cuff. The UM-101 sphygmomanometers have now been re-fitted with the original cuffs. Sphygmomanometer cuffs are not interchangeable between devices and a modicum of common sense should be shown to prevent changes made in the name of Health and Safety from having the opposite effect to that intended. PMID:23172028

  16. Relation between Turbulence Suppression and Flow Shear for Interchange Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentle, Kenneth; Rowan, William; Williams, Chad; Li, Bo

    2013-10-01

    The Helimak is an approximation to the infinite cylindrical slab with a size large compared with turbulence transverse scale lengths, but with open field lines of finite length. Interchange modes are the dominant instability. Radially-segmented isolated end plates allow application of radial electric fields. Above a threshold in applied voltage, the fractional turbulent amplitude is greatly reduced. Reductions are observed for both bias polarities over a broad range of collisionality and parallel connection length. Simultaneous measurements of the ion flow velocity profile are made by Doppler spectroscopy of the argon plasma ion. Turbulence reductions are weakly correlated with reductions in radial correlation length, but neither turbulence levels nor turbulence reductions are correlated with velocity flow shear. No evidence of zonal flows has been found. The turbulence - density and potential fluctuations, is compared with simulations from a two-fluid model for this geometry, which also show turbulence stabilization with bias without increased shear. Work supported by the Department of Energy OFES DE-FG02-04ER54766.

  17. Herbicide interchange between a stream and the adjacent alluvial aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, W.; Squillace, P.

    1994-01-01

    Herbicide interchange between a stream and the adjacent alluvial aquifer and quantification of herbicide bank storage during high streamflow were investigated at a research site on the Cedar River flood plain, 10 km southeast of Cedar Rapids, Iowa. During high streamflow in March 1990, alachlor, atrazine, and metolachlor were detected at concentrations above background in water from wells as distant as 20, 50, and 10 m from the river's edge, respectively. During high streamflow in May 1990, alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, and metolachlor were detected at concentrations above background as distant as 20, 50, 10, and 20 m from the river's edge, respectively. Herbicide bank storage took place during high streamflow when hydraulic gradients were from the river to the alluvial aquifer and the laterally infiltrating river water contained herbicide concentrations larger than background concentrations in the aquifer. The herbicide bank storage can be quantified by multiplying herbicide concentration by the "effective area" that a well represented and an assumed porosity of 0.25. During March 1990, herbicide bank storage values were calculated to be 1.7,79, and 4.0 mg/m for alachlor, atrazine, and metolachlor, respectively. During May 1990, values were 7.1, 54, 11, and 19 mg/m for alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, and metolachlor, respectively. ?? 1994 American Chemical Society.

  18. Interchange Stability at Saturn and the role of electron density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hospodarsky, George; Kennelly, Timothy; Thomsen, Michelle; Persoon, Ann; Gurnett, Donald; Kurth, William

    2015-04-01

    Interchange events, where "injections" of hotter, less dense plasma move inward to return the magnetic flux carried outward by the colder, more dense plasma are common in rapidly rotating magnetospheres. The Cassini spacecraft detects these injections on almost every orbit of Saturn that encounters the inner and middle (<15 Rs) magnetosphere. Significant changes often occur in the number of injection events and the location they are detected (L shell) between inbound and outbound passes on a given Cassini orbit. Furthermore, differences are observed between consecutive orbits for the same local time sampling. Similar variations between inbound and outbound passes, and between orbits have been observed in the electron density values measured by Cassini. We examine the relationship between the observed electron plasma density and characteristics of the injection events as detected by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) and Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument (MIMI) for a series of near equatorial orbits between L of about 4.5 to 10 with the inbound primarily in the midnight sector and the outbound in the noon sector.

  19. RCM simulation of interchange transport in Saturn's inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, T. W.; Liu, X.; Sazykin, S. Y.; Wolf, R.

    2013-12-01

    Numerical simulations with the Rice Convection Model have been used to study the radial transport of plasma in Saturn's inner magnetosphere (L < 12) where the magnetic field is dominated by the planetary dipole. This transport occurs through a time-variable pattern of wider outflow channels containing cool, dense plasma from interior sources, alternating with narrower inflow channels containing hot, tenuous plasma from the outer magnetosphere. The 'smoking gun' of this interchange transport process is the pervasive presence of V-shaped injection/dispersion signatures in linear energy-time spectrograms that are observed by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) on every pass through the inner magnetosphere. Using observed hot plasma distributions at L~12 as input, we have now successfully simulated these V-shaped signatures. We will show these simulation results and compare them with observed signatures. We will also describe future improvements to the model including relaxing the dipole-field assumption, thus enabling us to simulate local-time asymmetries imposed by the outer magnetosphere and tail.

  20. An interchangeable scanning Hall probe/scanning SQUID microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Chiu-Chun; Lin, Hui-Ting; Wu, Sing-Lin; Chen, Tse-Jun; Wang, M. J.; Ling, D. C.; Chi, C. C.; Chen, Jeng-Chung

    2014-08-15

    We have constructed a scanning probe microscope for magnetic imaging, which can function as a scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) and as a scanning SQUID microscope (SSM). The scanning scheme, applicable to SHPM and SSM, consists of a mechanical positioning (sub) micron-XY stage and a flexible direct contact to the sample without a feedback control system for the Z-axis. With the interchangeable capability of operating two distinct scanning modes, our microscope can incorporate the advantageous functionalities of the SHPM and SSM with large scan range up to millimeter, high spatial resolution (⩽4 μm), and high field sensitivity in a wide range of temperature (4.2 K-300 K) and magnetic field (10{sup −7} T-1 T). To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, we present magnetic images scanned with SHPM and SSM, including a RbFeB magnet and a nickel grid pattern at room temperature, surface magnetic domain structures of a La{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} thin film at 77 K, and superconducting vortices in a striped niobium film at 4.2 K.

  1. The interchange instability in high-latitude plasma blobs

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, P.K.; Huba, J.D. )

    1987-04-01

    The stability of high-latitude plasma density enhancements (blobs) is analyzed with regard to the interchange mode (driven by neutral wind or equilibrium transverse electric field acting on the density gradient at the walls of the blobs). The effects arising from the finite parallel length of the blobs along the magnetic field lines are included in the analysis. Plasma regions of differing collisionalities, to which the blobs extend in altitude, are considered. The authors find that the finite parallel blob size results in a modest reduction in the growth rates of the small ({approx lt}1 km) and intermediate (1-10 km) scale sizes but severely reduces the growth rates for the large scale sizes (> 10 km) for the observed parallel blob lengths ({approximately}300-600 km). Further, it is found that the instability growth rates show a moderate reduction at higher altitudes (where ion-inertial effects may be dominant over the ion-neutral collisional effects). Thus the E{times} B instability is considered a plausible candidate for the scintillation-causing irregularities (1-10 km) associated with the high-latitude blobs.

  2. Interchange instability in high-latitude plasma blobs. Memorandum report

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, P.K.; Huba, J.D.

    1986-12-30

    The stability of high-latitude plasma-density enhancements (blobs) is analyzed with regard to the interchange model (driven by a neutral wind or transverse electric field acting on the density gradient at the walls of the blobs). The effects arising from the finite parallel length of the blobs along the magnetic field lines are included in the analysis. Plasma regions of differing collisionalities, to which the blobs extend in altitude, are considered. It was found that the finite-parallel blob size results in a modest reduction in the growth rates of the small somewhat < 1 km) and intermediate (1-10 km) scale sizes, but severely reduces the growth rates, for the large scale sizes (> 10 kms) for the observed parallel blob lengths (approx. 300-600 kms). Further, it is found that the instability growth rates show a moderate reduction at higher altitudes (where ion-inertial effects may be dominant over the ion-neutral collisional effects). Thus, the E x B instability is considered a plausible candidate for the scintillation causing irregularities (1-10 kms) associated with the high-latitude blobs.

  3. Using electronic data interchange to report product quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, Donald F.; Frank, Donald T.

    1993-03-01

    The Product Quality Deficiency Report (PQDR) is a Department of Defense form that identifies deficiencies in the manufacture, repair, or procurement of materiel. It may be used by DoD employees or contractors to identify defects at any point in the item's life. DoD generates nearly 75,000 such deficiency reports each year. In most cases, when a defect is identified, Standard Form (SF) 368 is completed and sent to the activity managing the contract under which the materiel was procured. That activity, usually in conjunction with the contractor, investigates the complaint, attempts to determine a cause and a corrective action, and must make some disposition of the defective materiel. The process is labor- and paper-intensive and time-consuming. Technology can reduce the costs of the process and at the same time improve timeliness by electronically exchanging discrepancy data between activities. Electronic data interchange (EDI) is one technology for electronically passing PQDR data. It is widely used in industry and increasingly within DoD. DMRD 941 defines DoD's commitment to use EDI and cites the PQDR and other discrepancy reports as early candidates for EDI. In this report, we describe how EDI can be linked to changes in PQDR processing practices to provide further improvements.

  4. Tetrasulfur, S4: rotational spectrum, interchange tunneling, and geometrical structure.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, M C; Thorwirth, S; Gottlieb, C A; Thaddeus, P

    2004-07-01

    The rotational spectrum of S4 has been observed for the first time in an electrical discharge through sulfur vapor. Two techniques have been used: Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy and long-path millimeter-wave absorption spectroscopy. Small, but systematic shifts of the measured transition frequencies of the normal isotopic species indicate that S4 has C2v symmetry but with a low-lying transition state of D2h symmetry, yielding interchange tunneling at 14.1(2) kHz in its ground vibrational state. From the rotational constants of the normal and the single 34S isotopic species, an experimental (r0) structure has been derived: S4 is a singlet planar trapezoid with a terminal bond length of 1.899(7) A, a central bond of 2.173(32) A, and an S-S-S angle of 103.9(8) degrees. Like thiozone (S3), S4 is a candidate for detection in the atmosphere of the Jovian moon Io and in other astronomical sources. PMID:15260588

  5. Stabilization of numerical interchange in spectral-element magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sovinec, C. R.

    2016-08-01

    Auxiliary numerical projections of the divergence of flow velocity and vorticity parallel to magnetic field are developed and tested for the purpose of suppressing unphysical interchange instability in magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The numerical instability arises with equal-order C0 finite- and spectral-element expansions of the flow velocity, magnetic field, and pressure and is sensitive to behavior at the limit of resolution. The auxiliary projections are motivated by physical field-line bending, and coercive responses to the projections are added to the flow-velocity equation. Their incomplete expansions are limited to the highest-order orthogonal polynomial in at least one coordinate of the spectral elements. Cylindrical eigenmode computations show that the projections induce convergence from the stable side with first-order ideal-MHD equations during h-refinement and p-refinement. Hyperbolic and parabolic projections and responses are compared, together with different methods for avoiding magnetic divergence error. The projections are also shown to be effective in linear and nonlinear time-dependent computations with the NIMROD code Sovinec et al. [17], provided that the projections introduce numerical dissipation.

  6. Evaluation of cardiac output by 5 arterial pulse contour techniques using trend interchangeability method.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Marc-Olivier; Diouf, Momar; Wilde, Robert B P de; Dupont, Hervé; Hanouz, Jean-Luc; Lorne, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    Cardiac output measurement with pulse contour analysis is a continuous, mini-invasive, operator-independent, widely used, and cost-effective technique, which could be helpful to assess changes in cardiac output. The 4-quadrant plot and the polar plot have been described to compare the changes between 2 measurements performed under different conditions, and the direction of change by using different methods of measurements. However, the 4-quadrant plot and the polar plot present a number of limitations, with a risk of misinterpretation in routine clinical practice. We describe a new trend interchangeability method designed to objectively define the interchangeability of each change of a variable. Using the repeatability of the reference method, we classified each change as either uninterpretable or interpretable and then as either noninterchangeable, in the gray zone or interchangeable. An interchangeability rate can then be calculated by the number of interchangeable changes divided by the total number of interpretable changes. In this observational study, we used this objective method to assess cardiac output changes with 5 arterial pulse contour techniques (Wesseling's method, LiDCO, PiCCO, Hemac method, and Modelflow) in comparison with bolus thermodilution technique as reference method in 24 cardiac surgery patients. A total of 172 cardiac output variations were available from the 199 data points: 88 (51%) were uninterpretable, according to the first step of the method. The second step of the method, based on the 84 (49%) interpretable variations, showed that only 18 (21%) to 30 (36%) variations were interchangeable regardless of the technique used. None of pulse contour cardiac output technique could be interchangeable with bolus thermodilution to assess changes in cardiac output using the trend interchangeability method in cardiac surgery patients. Future studies may consider using this method to assess interchangeability of changes between different methods

  7. Kinetic and resistive effects on interchange instabilities for a cylindrical model spheromak

    SciTech Connect

    Hammett, G.W.; Tang, W.M.

    1983-04-01

    The stabilizing influence of diamagnetic drift effects on ideal and resistive interchange modes is investigated. A resistive-ballooning-mode equation is derived using a kinetic theory approach and is applied to a cylindrical model spheromak equilibrium. It is found that these kinetic effects can significantly improve the ..beta.. limits for collisionless interchange stability. For the resistive modes, the diamagnetic drift terms lead to growth rates which scale linearly with resistivity and are considerably reduced in magnitude. However, the resistive interchange growth rates estimated for near-term spheromak parameters remain significant.

  8. Interchange Slip-Running Reconnection and Sweeping SEP-Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masson, S.; Aulanier, G.; Pariat, E.; Klein, K.-L.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new model to explain how particles, accelerated at a reconnection site that is not magnetically connected to the Earth, could eventually propagate along the well-connected open flux tube. Our model is based on the results of a low-beta resistive magnetohydrodynamics simulation of a three-dimensional line-tied and initially current-free bipole, that is embedded in a non-uniform open potential field. The topology of this configuration is that of an asymmetric coronal null-point, with a closed fan surface and an open outer spine. When driven by slow photospheric shearing motions, field lines, initially fully anchored below the fan dome, reconnect at the null point, and jump to the open magnetic domain. This is the standard interchange mode as sketched and calculated in 2D. The key result in 3D is that, reconnected open field lines located in the vicinity of the outer spine, keep reconnecting continuously, across an open quasi-separatrix layer, as previously identified for non-open-null-point reconnection. The apparent slipping motion of these field lines leads to form an extended narrow magnetic flux tube at high altitude. Because of the slip-running reconnection, we conjecture that if energetic particles would be travelling through, or be accelerated inside, the diffusion region, they would be successively injected along continuously reconnecting field lines that are connected farther and farther from the spine. At the scale of the full Sun, owing to the super-radial expansion of field lines below 3 solar radius, such energetic particles could easily be injected in field lines slipping over significant distances, and could eventually reach the distant flux tube that is well-connected to the Earth.

  9. Morphology of Interchange-Driven Injections in Saturn's Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranicas, C.; Achilleos, N.; Andriopoulou, M.; Badman, S. V.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Jia, X.; Jackman, C. M.; Khurana, K. K.; Krupp, N.; Louarn, P.; Roussos, E.; Sergis, N.; Thomsen, M. F.

    2014-12-01

    As Cassini passes close to Saturn during its regular orbits, evidence of particle injections can often be found in many different data sets (including MAG, CAPS, MIMI, and RPWS). One reason injections are easily visible in Saturn's inner magnetosphere is that the circumplanetary neutral gas distribution can reduce the intensities of some charged particles. For example, energetic ions can be lost from the system following charge exchange with neutrals and energetic electrons can lose energy in collisions with gas and dust. Injections in the inner magnetosphere are believed to be flux tube interchange events that are part of a larger circulation system in which cold dense plasma flows outward carrying magnetic flux with it. The closed magnetic flux is ultimately returned to the inner magnetosphere in the form of injections of rapidly moving hotter but lighter flux tubes from the middle magnetosphere. In this presentation, we will look at injections from the perspective of multiple Cassini data sets. Some features of these structures have already been identified in the literature from one or more data sets. For example, the tendency for injections to appear as enhancements (depressions) in magnetic field strength at low (high) magnetic latitude has been documented (Andre et al. 2007). Furthermore, that flux tube bundles seem to narrow in spatial extent in the equatorial plane in the higher magnetic field region has also been described. Here, we will look at selected structures distributed in radial distance and latitude as a step toward generalizing their characteristics at various locations. We will consider issues such as the magnetic signature in the field components, the typical wave signatures, the energy range of the injection, and the presence of isolated features versus multiple features occurring simultaneously. We will also discuss observational issues, such as when each instrument is optimally suited to detect injections, and how this relates to their

  10. 32 CFR 644.409 - Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... determination by the two Secretaries that the interchange will facilitate land management and provide maximum... representatives of the Forest Service, and the using service if appropriate, the exchange of custody...

  11. Geothermal Energy and the Eastern US: Fifth technical information interchange meeting, Minutes

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    The technical interchange meeting documented here is the fifth meeting where people interested in geothermal energy in the Eastern US have met to interchange technical information. These meetings are intended to assist all in the difficult task of balancing time and effort in doing their assigned jobs and keeping track of what others are doing in similar or related tasks. All of the aforementioned meetings have served their intended purpose and further regional and national meetings are sure to follow.

  12. The electromagnetic interchange mode in a partially ionized collisional plasma. [spread F region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, M. K.; Kennel, C. F.

    1974-01-01

    A collisional electromagnetic dispersion relation is derived from two-fluid theory for the interchange mode coupled to the Alfven, acoustic, drift and entropy modes in a partially ionized plasma. The fundamental electromagnetic nature of the interchange model is noted; coupling to the intermediate Alfven mode is strongly stabilizing for finite k sub z. Both ion viscous and ion-neutral stabilization are included, and it was found that collisions destroy the ion finite Larmor radius cutoff at short perpendicular wavelengths.

  13. Complex stability and dynamic subunit interchange modulates the disparate activities of the yeast moonlighting proteins Hal3 and Vhs3.

    PubMed

    Abrie, J Albert; Molero, Cristina; Ariño, Joaquín; Strauss, Erick

    2015-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hal3 and Vhs3 are moonlighting proteins, acting both as inhibitors of the serine/threonine protein phosphatase Ppz1 and as subunits (together with Cab3) of the unique heterotrimeric phosphopantothenoylcysteine decarboxylase (PPCDC) enzyme of Hemiascomycetous yeast. Both these roles are essential: PPCDC catalyses the third step of coenzyme A biosynthesis, while Ppz1 inhibition is required for regulation of monovalent cation homeostasis. However, the mechanisms by which these proteins' disparate activities are regulated are not well understood. The PPCDC domains (PDs) of Hal3, Vhs3 and Cab3 constitute the minimum requirement for these proteins to show both PPCDC activity and, in the case of Hal3 and Vhs3, to bind to Ppz1. Using these PD proteins as a model system to study the possibility of dynamic interchange between these roles, we provide evidence that Hal3 binds Ppz1 as a monomer (1:1 stoichiometry), requiring it to de-oligomerize from its usual homo- and heterotrimeric states (the latter having PPCDC activity). This de-oligomerization is made possible by structural features that set Hal3 apart from Vhs3, increasing its ability to undergo monomer exchange. These findings suggest that oligomer interchange may be a significant factor in the functional regulation of these proteins and their various unrelated (moonlighting) functions. PMID:26514574

  14. Fluency effects in recognition memory: are perceptual fluency and conceptual fluency interchangeable?

    PubMed

    Lanska, Meredith; Olds, Justin M; Westerman, Deanne L

    2014-01-01

    On a recognition memory test, both perceptual and conceptual fluency can engender a sense of familiarity and elicit recognition memory illusions. To date, perceptual and conceptual fluency have been studied separately but are they interchangeable in terms of their influence on recognition judgments? Five experiments compared the effect of perceptual and conceptual fluency on recognition. The results suggest that under standard intentional encoding instructions participants were influenced by conceptual and perceptual fluency manipulations to a similar degree (Experiments 1a and 1b). When the perceptual features of the stimuli were emphasized during encoding, the perceptual fluency manipulation had a stronger influence on recognition memory decisions than the conceptual fluency manipulation (Experiment 2). Enhanced conceptual processing at encoding served to nullify the influence of both perceptual and conceptual fluency on the test (Experiment 3). The nature of the test instructions also influenced the relative contribution of perceptual versus conceptual fluency manipulations to the recognition judgment. In Experiment 4, the influence of conceptual fluency was larger when the recognition instructions were meaning based (a synonym recognition test) than with standard recognition instructions. Collectively, the results suggest that the relative contribution of perceptual and conceptual fluency depends on both encoding and test factors. PMID:24001021

  15. Statistical and regulatory considerations in assessments of interchangeability of biological drug products.

    PubMed

    Tóthfalusi, Lászlo; Endrényi, László; Chow, Shein-Chung

    2014-05-01

    When the patent of a brand-name, marketed drug expires, new, generic products are usually offered. Small-molecule generic and originator drug products are expected to be chemically identical. Their pharmaceutical similarity can be typically assessed by simple regulatory criteria such as the expectation that the 90% confidence interval for the ratio of geometric means of some pharmacokinetic parameters be between 0.80 and 1.25. When such criteria are satisfied, the drug products are generally considered to exhibit therapeutic equivalence. They are then usually interchanged freely within individual patients. Biological drugs are complex proteins, for instance, because of their large size, intricate structure, sensitivity to environmental conditions, difficult manufacturing procedures, and the possibility of immunogenicity. Generic and brand-name biologic products can be expected to show only similarity but not identity in their various features and clinical effects. Consequently, the determination of biosimilarity is also a complicated process which involves assessment of the totality of the evidence for the close similarity of the two products. Moreover, even when biosimilarity has been established, it may not be assumed that the two biosimilar products can be automatically substituted by pharmacists. This generally requires additional, careful considerations. Without declaring interchangeability, a new product could be prescribed, i.e. it is prescribable. However, two products can be automatically substituted only if they are interchangeable. Interchangeability is a statistical term and it means that products can be used in any order in the same patient without considering the treatment history. The concepts of interchangeability and prescribability have been widely discussed in the past but only in relation to small molecule generics. In this paper we apply these concepts to biosimilars and we discuss: definitions of prescribability and interchangeability and

  16. Delimiting cohesion species: extreme population structuring and the role of ecological interchangeability.

    PubMed

    Stockman, Amy K; Bond, Jason E

    2007-08-01

    Species exhibiting morphological homogeneity and strong population structuring present challenging taxonomic problems: morphology-based approaches infer few species, whereas genetic approaches often indicate more. Morphologically cryptic, yet genetically divergent species groups require alternative approaches to delimiting species that assess adaptive divergence and ecological interchangeability of lineages. We apply such an approach to Promyrmekiaphila, a small genus (three nominal taxa) of trapdoor spiders endemic to northern California to define cohesion species (lineages that are genetically exchangeable and ecologically interchangeable). Genetic exchangeability is evaluated using standard phylogeographical techniques (e.g. nested clade analysis); ecological interchangeability is assessed using two GIS-based approaches. First, climatic values are extracted from layer data for each locality point and utilized in a principal components analysis followed by MANOVA. Second, niche-based distribution models of genetically divergent lineages are created using a maximum-entropy modelling approach; the amount of overlap among lineages is calculated and evaluated against a probability distribution of null overlap. Lineages that have significant amounts of predicted overlap are considered ecologically interchangeable. Based on a synthetic evaluation of ecological interchangeability, geographical concordance, and morphological differentiation, we conclude that Promyrmekiaphila comprises six cohesion species, five of which are cryptic (i.e. undetectable by conventional means). PMID:17688540

  17. Characteristics of magnetic island formation due to resistive interchange instability in helical plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, R.; Matsumoto, Y.; Itagaki, M.; Oikawa, S.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Sato, M.

    2014-05-15

    Focusing attention on the magnetic island formation, we investigate the characteristics of the resistive interchange magnetohydrodynamics instabilities, which would limit a high beta operational regime in helical type fusion reactors. An introduction of a new index, i.e., the ratio of the magnetic fluctuation level to the radial displacement, enables us to make a systematic analysis on the magnetic island formation in the large helical device-like plasmas during the linear growth phase; (i) the interchange instability with the second largest growth rate makes the magnetic island larger than that with the largest growth rate when the amplitude of the radial displacement in both cases is almost the same as each other; (ii) applied to a typical tearing instability, the index is smaller than that for the interchange instability with the second largest growth rate.

  18. Theory of energetic trapped particle-induced resistive interchange-ballooning modes

    SciTech Connect

    Biglari, H.; Chen, L.

    1986-02-01

    A theory describing the influence of energetic trapped particles on resistive interchange-ballooning modes in tokamaks is presented. It is shown that a population of hot particles trapped in the region of adverse curvature can resonantly interact with and destabilize the resistive interchange mode, which is stable in their absence because of favorable average curvature. The mode is different from the usual resistive interchange mode not only in its destabilization mechanism, but also in that it has a real component to its frequency comparable to the precessional drift frequency of the rapidly circulating energetic species. Corresponding growth rate and threshold conditions for this trapped-particle-driven instability are derived and finite banana width effects are shown to have a stabilizing effect on the mode. Finally, the ballooning/tearing dispersion relation is generalized to include hot particles, so that both the ideal and the resistive modes are derivable in the appropriate limits. 23 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Interaction between static magnetic islands and interchange modes in a straight heliotron plasma with high resistivity

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Kinya; Ichiguchi, Katsuji; Ohyabu, Nobuyoshi

    2010-06-15

    Fundamental mechanism of the nonlinear interaction between static magnetic islands generated by an external field and a resistive interchange mode is investigated in a straight heliotron plasma with high resistivity by using a numerical method based on the reduced magnetohydrodynamics equations. The behavior of the magnetic islands is examined at the steady state after the nonlinear saturation of the interchange mode. The width and the phase of the magnetic islands are changed by the mode evolution. These changes are almost determined by the linear combination of the two perturbed poloidal magnetic fluxes, the flux imposed externally and the flux attributed to the interchange mode, in spite of the fact that the changes result from the nonlinear process. It is also obtained that the amount of the local change of the pressure at the resonant surface in the saturation state depends on the phase of the static magnetic islands.

  20. Automatic 3D high-fidelity traffic interchange modeling using 2D road GIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong

    2011-03-01

    3D road models are widely used in many computer applications such as racing games and driving simulations. However, almost all high-fidelity 3D road models were generated manually by professional artists at the expense of intensive labor. There are very few existing methods for automatically generating 3D high-fidelity road networks, especially for those existing in the real world. Real road network contains various elements such as road segments, road intersections and traffic interchanges. Among them, traffic interchanges present the most challenges to model due to their complexity and the lack of height information (vertical position) of traffic interchanges in existing road GIS data. This paper proposes a novel approach that can automatically produce 3D high-fidelity road network models, including traffic interchange models, from real 2D road GIS data that mainly contain road centerline information. The proposed method consists of several steps. The raw road GIS data are first preprocessed to extract road network topology, merge redundant links, and classify road types. Then overlapped points in the interchanges are detected and their elevations are determined based on a set of level estimation rules. Parametric representations of the road centerlines are then generated through link segmentation and fitting, and they have the advantages of arbitrary levels of detail with reduced memory usage. Finally a set of civil engineering rules for road design (e.g., cross slope, superelevation) are selected and used to generate realistic road surfaces. In addition to traffic interchange modeling, the proposed method also applies to other more general road elements. Preliminary results show that the proposed method is highly effective and useful in many applications.

  1. Positional interchanges influence the physical and technical match performance variables of elite soccer players.

    PubMed

    Schuth, G; Carr, G; Barnes, C; Carling, C; Bradley, P S

    2016-01-01

    Positional variation in match performance is well established in elite soccer but no information exists on players switching positions. This study investigated the influence of elite players interchanging from one position to another on physical and technical match performance. Data were collected from multiple English Premier League (EPL) seasons using a computerised tracking system. After adhering to stringent inclusion criteria, players were examined across several interchanges: central-defender to fullback (CD-FB, n = 11, 312 observations), central-midfielder to wide-midfielder (CM-WM, n = 7, 171 observations), wide-midfielder to central-midfielder (WM-CM, n = 7, 197 observations) and attacker to wide-midfielder (AT-WM, n = 4, 81 observations). Players interchanging from CD-FB covered markedly more high-intensity running and sprinting distance (effect size [ES]: -1.56 and -1.26), lost more possessions but made more final third entries (ES: -1.23 and -1.55). Interchanging from CM-WM and WM-CM resulted in trivial to moderate differences in both physical (ES: -0.14-0.59 and -0.21-0.39) and technical performances (ES: -0.48-0.64 and -0.36-0.54). Players interchanging from AT-WM demonstrated a moderate difference in high-intensity running without possession (ES: -0.98) and moderate-to-large differences in the number of clearances, tackles and possessions won (ES: -0.77, -1.16 and -1.41). The data demonstrate that the physical and technical demands vary greatly from one interchange to another but utility players seem able to adapt to these positional switches. PMID:26700131

  2. The Interchangeability of Plasma and Whole Blood Metal Ion Measurement in the Monitoring of Metal on Metal Hips

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Ibrahim A.; Rogers, Joanne; King, Amanda Christina; Clutton, Juliet; Winson, Daniel; John, Alun

    2015-01-01

    One hundred and twenty six paired samples of plasma and whole blood were measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry technique for metal ions analysis to determine a relationship between them. There was a significant difference between the mean plasma and whole blood concentrations of both cobalt (Co) and chromium (Cr) (p < 0.0001 for both Co and Cr). The mean ratio between plasma and whole blood Cr and Co was 1.56 (range: 0.39–3.85) and 1.54 (range: 0.64–18.26), respectively, but Bland and Altman analysis illustrated that this relationship was not universal throughout the range of concentrations. There was higher variability at high concentrations for both ions. We conclude that both these concentrations should not be used interchangeably and conversion factors are unreliable due to concentration dependent variability. PMID:26798516

  3. Electromagnetic interchange-like mode and zonal flow in electron-magnetohydrodynamic plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, Nikhil; Horiuchi, Ritoku

    2006-10-15

    A numerical simulation of the nonlinear state of interchange instability associated with electron inertia in an unmagnetized plasma is studied. It is shown that a self-consistent sheared transverse electron current flow is generated due to nonlinear mechanisms. This zonal flow can reduce the growth rate of the magnetic interchange-like instability and reach a steady state. The zonal flow generation mechanisms are discussed by truncated Fourier mode representation. In the truncated model, three mode equations are considered that have an exact analytic solution that matches well with the numerical solution. The effect of different boundary conditions in such investigations is also discussed.

  4. [Levothyroxine and the problem of interchangeability of drugs with narrow therapeutic index].

    PubMed

    Ward, Laura Sterian

    2011-10-01

    The exchange of a prescribed drug by other similar, by generic products and even by custom products has become common practice in our country, often ignoring basic tenets of bioequivalence, interchangeability, stability and characteristics of the pharmaceutical compounds. In the case of drugs of narrow therapeutic index, such as levothyroxine, these problems are intensified, putting the effectiveness of treatment and patient health at serious risk. We review the pertinent legislation, emphasizing the characteristics of levothyroxine and adverse effects that limit the interchangeability of the compound. PMID:22147090

  5. First North American fossil monkey and early Miocene tropical biotic interchange.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Jonathan I; Woodruff, Emily D; Wood, Aaron R; Rincon, Aldo F; Harrington, Arianna R; Morgan, Gary S; Foster, David A; Montes, Camilo; Jaramillo, Carlos A; Jud, Nathan A; Jones, Douglas S; MacFadden, Bruce J

    2016-05-12

    New World monkeys (platyrrhines) are a diverse part of modern tropical ecosystems in North and South America, yet their early evolutionary history in the tropics is largely unknown. Molecular divergence estimates suggest that primates arrived in tropical Central America, the southern-most extent of the North American landmass, with several dispersals from South America starting with the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama 3-4 million years ago (Ma). The complete absence of primate fossils from Central America has, however, limited our understanding of their history in the New World. Here we present the first description of a fossil monkey recovered from the North American landmass, the oldest known crown platyrrhine, from a precisely dated 20.9-Ma layer in the Las Cascadas Formation in the Panama Canal Basin, Panama. This discovery suggests that family-level diversification of extant New World monkeys occurred in the tropics, with new divergence estimates for Cebidae between 22 and 25 Ma, and provides the oldest fossil evidence for mammalian interchange between South and North America. The timing is consistent with recent tectonic reconstructions of a relatively narrow Central American Seaway in the early Miocene epoch, coincident with over-water dispersals inferred for many other groups of animals and plants. Discovery of an early Miocene primate in Panama provides evidence for a circum-Caribbean tropical distribution of New World monkeys by this time, with ocean barriers not wholly restricting their northward movements, requiring a complex set of ecological factors to explain their absence in well-sampled similarly aged localities at higher latitudes of North America. PMID:27096364

  6. First North American fossil monkey and early Miocene tropical biotic interchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloch, Jonathan I.; Woodruff, Emily D.; Wood, Aaron R.; Rincon, Aldo F.; Harrington, Arianna R.; Morgan, Gary S.; Foster, David A.; Montes, Camilo; Jaramillo, Carlos A.; Jud, Nathan A.; Jones, Douglas S.; MacFadden, Bruce J.

    2016-05-01

    New World monkeys (platyrrhines) are a diverse part of modern tropical ecosystems in North and South America, yet their early evolutionary history in the tropics is largely unknown. Molecular divergence estimates suggest that primates arrived in tropical Central America, the southern-most extent of the North American landmass, with several dispersals from South America starting with the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama 3–4 million years ago (Ma). The complete absence of primate fossils from Central America has, however, limited our understanding of their history in the New World. Here we present the first description of a fossil monkey recovered from the North American landmass, the oldest known crown platyrrhine, from a precisely dated 20.9-Ma layer in the Las Cascadas Formation in the Panama Canal Basin, Panama. This discovery suggests that family-level diversification of extant New World monkeys occurred in the tropics, with new divergence estimates for Cebidae between 22 and 25 Ma, and provides the oldest fossil evidence for mammalian interchange between South and North America. The timing is consistent with recent tectonic reconstructions of a relatively narrow Central American Seaway in the early Miocene epoch, coincident with over-water dispersals inferred for many other groups of animals and plants. Discovery of an early Miocene primate in Panama provides evidence for a circum-Caribbean tropical distribution of New World monkeys by this time, with ocean barriers not wholly restricting their northward movements, requiring a complex set of ecological factors to explain their absence in well-sampled similarly aged localities at higher latitudes of North America.

  7. 75 FR 62919 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on the Route 250 Bypass Interchange at McIntire Road...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... at McIntire Road Project in Virginia AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION... the Route 250 Bypass Interchange at McIntire Road project in the City of Charlottesville, Virginia... approvals for the following project in the State of Virginia: Route 250 Bypass Interchange at McIntire...

  8. Futures Information Interchange Newsletter; Volume 3, Number 2 and 3, December 1974 and April 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Univ., Amherst. School of Education.

    The Futures Information Interchange Newsletters (No. 2 and 3) include a collection of practical teaching methods and learning activities for introducing future studies in the elementary and secondary classroom. Two lead articles offer new insights into future studies. In "Dilemmas of a Futurist" Fran Koster discusses some of the stresses unique to…

  9. Baseline Assessment Literature Review and Pre-School Record Keeping in Scotland. Interchange No. 55.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, J. Eric; Watt, Joyce; Napuk, Angela; Normand, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Every opportunity should be taken to communicate research findings both inside and outside government programs and make them accessible to policy makers, teachers, lecturers, parents, and employers. The "Interchange" series aims to further improve the Educational Research Unit's (ERU) dissemination of the findings of research funded by the…

  10. The Implicit Curriculum in Social Work Education: The Culture of Human Interchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogo, Marion; Wayne, Julianne

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the culture of human interchange, which is included as a component of the implicit curriculum in the current EPAS. It presents the use of the implicit curriculum concept in teacher and medical education as a context for its application to social work education. The authors argue that professional behaviors taught in the…

  11. Specification for Teaching Machines and Programmes (Interchangeability of Programmes). Part 1, Linear Machines and Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Standards Institution, London (England).

    To promote interchangeability of teaching machines and programs, so that the user is not so limited in his choice of programs, the British Standards Institute has offered a standard. Part I of the standard deals with linear teaching machines and programs that make use of the roll or sheet methods of presentation. Requirements cover: spools,…

  12. 22 CFR 501.3 - Noncompetitive interchange between Civil Service and Foreign Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Executive Order 11219 (3 CFR 1964-65 Comp. p. 303) provides for the noncompetitive appointment of present or... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Noncompetitive interchange between Civil Service and Foreign Service. 501.3 Section 501.3 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS...

  13. 76 FR 29267 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Interchangeable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... research project remains open, and Interchangeable Virtual Instruments Foundation, Inc. intends to file... Act on July 30, 2001 (66 FR 39336). The last notification was filed with the Department on February 24..., 2011 (76 FR 16820). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division. BILLING...

  14. 76 FR 80405 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Interchangeable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... in this group research project remains open, and Interchangeable Virtual Instruments Foundation, Inc...) of the Act on July 30, 2001 (66 FR 39336). The last notification was filed with the Department on... May 20, 2011 (76 FR 29267). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust...

  15. 78 FR 117 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Interchangeable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    .... Membership in this group research project remains open, and Interchangeable Virtual Instruments Foundation... Section 6(b) of the Act on July 30, 2001 (66 FR 39336). The last notification was filed with the... the Act on February 16, 2012 (77 FR 9266). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement,...

  16. 75 FR 54652 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Interchangeable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... research project remains open, and Interchangeable Virtual Instruments Foundation, Inc. intends to file... Act on July 30, 2001 (66 FR 39336). The last notification was filed with the Department on April 15..., 2010 (75 FR 28294). Patricia A. Brink, Deputy Director of Operations, Antitrust Division. BILLING...

  17. A numerical study of the 3D random interchange and random loop models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barp, Alessandro; Barp, Edoardo Gabriele; Briol, François-Xavier; Ueltschi, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    We have studied numerically the random interchange model and related loop models on the three-dimensional cubic lattice. We have determined the transition time for the occurrence of long loops. The joint distribution of the lengths of long loops is Poisson-Dirichlet with parameter 1 or \\frac{1}{2}.

  18. N-231 High Reynolds Number Channel I is a blowdown Facility that utilizes interchangeable test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    N-231 High Reynolds Number Channel I is a blowdown Facility that utilizes interchangeable test sections and nozzles. The facility provides experimental support for the fluid mechanics research, including experimental verification of aerodynamic computer codes and boundary-layer and airfoil studies that require high Reynolds number simulation. (Tunnel 1)

  19. Patterns of Attainment in Standard Grade Mathematics 3-6. Interchange No. 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Marion; And Others

    The interchange series of documents aims to improve the Research and Intelligence Unit's dissemination of the findings of research funded by the Scottish Office Education Department. In 1991 this department commissioned the Scottish Council for Research in Education to investigate the performance in Standard Grade mathematics of those candidates…

  20. SECTION OF CANAL AT PROPOSED McLELLAN DRIVE INTERCHANGE, SHOWING CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SECTION OF CANAL AT PROPOSED McLELLAN DRIVE INTERCHANGE, SHOWING CANAL (RIGHT), BRIDAL TRAIL (CENTER) AND PEDESTRIAN/BICYCLE TRAIL (RIGHT). VIEW TO NORTH - High Line Canal, Mouth of South Platte River to confluence with Second Creek, Denver, Denver County, CO

  1. Fluency Effects in Recognition Memory: Are Perceptual Fluency and Conceptual Fluency Interchangeable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanska, Meredith; Olds, Justin M.; Westerman, Deanne L.

    2014-01-01

    On a recognition memory test, both perceptual and conceptual fluency can engender a sense of familiarity and elicit recognition memory illusions. To date, perceptual and conceptual fluency have been studied separately but are they interchangeable in terms of their influence on recognition judgments? Five experiments compared the effect of…

  2. Pre-School Educational Provision in Rural Areas. Interchange 69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copus, Andrew; Petrie, Scott; Shucksmith, Janet; Shucksmith, Mark; Still, Margaret; Watt, Joyce

    The Scottish Executive Education Department has pledged to achieve universal provision of preschool education for 3- and 4-year-olds, whose parents want it, by 2002. The particular factors affecting delivery of preschool education in rural areas were examined through telephone interviews with local education authorities and voluntary preschool…

  3. Interchangeability among reference insulin analogues and their biosimilars: regulatory framework, study design and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Dowlat, H A; Kuhlmann, M K; Khatami, H; Ampudia-Blasco, F J

    2016-08-01

    Biosimilars are regulated differently from small-molecule generic, chemically derived medicines. The complexity of biological products means that small changes in manufacturing or formulation may result in changes in efficacy and safety of the final product. In the face of this complexity, the regulatory landscape for biosimilars continues to evolve, and global harmonization regarding requirements is currently lacking. It is essential that clinicians and patients are reassured that biosimilars are equally safe and effective as their reference product, and this is particularly important when interchangeability, defined as 'changing one medicine for another one which is expected to achieve the same clinical effect in a given clinical setting in any one patient', is considered. Although the automatic substitution (i.e. substitution without input from the prescribing healthcare provider) of biosimilars for reference products is currently not permitted by the majority of countries, this may change in the future. In order to demonstrate interchangeability between reference products and a biosimilar, more stringent and specific studies of the safety and efficacy of biosimilars are likely to be needed; however, guidance on the design of and the need for any such studies is currently limited. The present article provides an overview of the current regulatory framework around the demonstration of interchangeability with biosimilars, with a specific focus on biosimilar insulin analogues, and details experiences with other biosimilar products. In addition, designs for studies to evaluate interchangeability with a biosimilar insulin analogue product are proposed and a discussion about the implications of interchangeability in clinical practice is included. PMID:27097592

  4. Superthermal Electron Energy Interchange in the Ionosphere-Plasmasphere System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Glocer, A.; Liemohn, M. W.; Himwich, E. W.

    2013-01-01

    A self-consistent approach to superthermal electron (SE) transport along closed field lines in the inner magnetosphere is used to examine the concept of plasmaspheric transparency, magnetospheric trapping, and SE energy deposition to the thermal electrons. The dayside SE population is generated both by photoionization of the thermosphere and by secondary electron production from impact ionization when the photoelectrons collide with upper atmospheric neutral particles. It is shown that a self-consistent approach to this problem produces significant changes, in comparison with other approaches, in the SE energy exchange between the plasmasphere and the two magnetically conjugate ionospheres. In particular, plasmaspheric transparency can vary by a factor of two depending on the thermal plasma content along the field line and the illumination conditions of the two conjugate ionospheres. This variation in plasmaspheric transparency as a function of thermal plasma and ionospheric conditions increases with L-shell, as the field line gets longer and the equatorial pitch angle extent of the fly-through zone gets smaller. The inference drawn from these results is that such a self-consistent approach to SE transport and energy deposition should be included to ensure robustness in ionosphere-magnetosphere modeling networks.

  5. [Drug interchangeability: clinical approach and consumer's point of view].

    PubMed

    Rumel, Davi; Nishioka, Sérgio de Andrade; Santos, Adélia Aparecida Marçal dos

    2006-10-01

    The rational construction of an essential drug list, considering the patient's need, drug safety, availability and the best cost-benefit ratio, is based on drug safety, efficacy and quality. However, in daily practice, the prescriber's decision is mostly influenced by drug effectiveness, following criteria that increase adherence to the treatment, such as relative drug toxicity, convenience, cost and prescriber's experience. In addition, frequent launching of new molecules for the same therapeutic indication, together with wide publicity targeting prescribers, interferes with the decision-making process. Similarly, the bonuses offered by the industry for over-the-counter drug sales interfere with the consumer's choice. The confrontation between known human biological variability and the knowledge that there is no absolute similarity between drugs of the same therapeutic class, or even generic drugs, has an impact on the prescriber's drug list, which should include the concept of first and second choice drugs. Prescribers' unfamiliarity with these subjects is a determinant factor for irrational drug use: a public health issue. The objective of this study was to introduce to drug prescribers information that can help them building up a rational drug list for their patients, based on the National Health Surveillance Agency (Anvisa) experience of drug regulation. PMID:17301916

  6. Ion finite Larmor radius effects on the interchange instability in an open system

    SciTech Connect

    Katanuma, I.; Sato, S.; Okuyama, Y.; Kato, S.; Kubota, R.

    2013-11-15

    A particle simulation of an interchange instability was performed by taking into account the ion finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects. It is found that the interchange instability with large FLR grows in two phases, that is, linearly growing phase and the nonlinear phase subsequent to the linear phase, where the instability grows exponentially in both phases. The linear growth rates observed in the simulation agree well with the theoretical calculation. The effects of FLR are usually taken in the fluid simulation through the gyroviscosity, the effects of which are verified in the particle simulation with large FLR regime. The gyroviscous cancellation phenomenon observed in the particle simulation causes the drifts in the direction of ion diamagnetic drifts.

  7. Interchange and Flow Velocity Shear Instabilities in the Presence of Finite Larmor Radius Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotnikov, V.; Kim, T.; Mishin, E.; Genoni, T.; Rose, D.; Mehlhorn, T.

    2014-09-01

    Ionospheric irregularities cause scintillations of electromagnetic signals that can severely affect navigation and transionospheric communication, in particular during Equatorial Plasma Bubbles (EPBs) events. However, the existing ionospheric models do not describe density irregularities with typical scales of several ion Larmor radii that affect UHF and L bands. These irregularities can be produced in the process of nonlinear evolution of interchange or flow velocity shear instabilities. The model of nonlinear development of these instabilities based on two-fluid hydrodynamic description with inclusion of finite Larmor radius effects will be presented. The derived nonlinear equations will be numerically solved by using the code Flute, which was originally developed for High Energy Density applications and modified to describe interchange and flow velocity shear instabilities in the ionosphere. The high-resolution simulations will be driven by the ambient conditions corresponding to the AFRL C/NOFS satellite low-resolution data during EPBs.

  8. Transition from drift to interchange instabilities in an open magnetic field line configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Poli, F. M.; Ricci, P.; Fasoli, A.; Podesta, M.

    2008-03-15

    The transition from a regime dominated by drift instabilities to a regime dominated by pure interchange instabilities is investigated and characterized in the simple magnetized toroidal device TORPEX [TORoidal Plasma EXperiment, A. Fasoli et al., Phys. of Plasmas 13, 055906 (2006)]. The magnetic field lines are helical, with a dominant toroidal component and a smaller vertical component. Instabilities with a drift character are observed in the favorable curvature region, on the high field side with respect to the maximum of the background density profile. For a limited range of values of the vertical field they coexist with interchange instabilities in the unfavorable curvature region, on the plasma low field side. With increasing vertical magnetic field magnitude, a gradual transition between the two regimes is observed on the low field side, controlled by the value of the field line connection length. The observed transition follows the predictions of a two-fluid linear model.

  9. Several benthic species can be used interchangeably in integrated sediment quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Romero, A; Khosrovyan, A; Del Valls, T A; Obispo, R; Serrano, F; Conradi, M; Riba, I

    2013-06-01

    The selection of the best management option for contaminated sediments requires the biological assessment of sediment quality using bioindicator organisms. There have been comparisons of the performance of different test species when exposed to naturally occurring sediments. However, more research is needed to determine their suitability to be used interchangeably. The sensitivity of two amphipod species (Ampelisca brevicornis and Corophium volutator) to sediments collected from four different commercial ports in Spain was tested. For comparison the lugworm, Arenicola marina, which is typically used for bioaccumulation testing, was also tested. Chemical analyses of the sediments were also conducted. All species responded consistently to the chemical exposure tests, although the amphipods, as expected, were more sensitive than the lugworm. It was found that C. volutator showed higher vulnerability than A.brevicornis. It was concluded that the three species can be used interchangeably in the battery of tests for integrated sediment quality assessment. PMID:23531332

  10. Particle-in-cell simulation of electromagnetic wave scattering in the presence of interchange instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Main, Daniel; Caplinger, James; Kim, Tony; Sotnikov, Vladimir

    2014-10-01

    The propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves can be influenced by the presence of plasma turbulence. It is known that vortex density structures can develop on nonlinear stage of an interchange instability in Earth's ionosphere and can affect radio communication channels. These density structures play an important role in the refraction and scattering of EM waves in Earth's ionosphere and also in laser diagnostic scattering experiments. We will use a numerical solution of nonlinear equations which govern the development of interchange instability to define a spatial dependence of density irregularities which can be used to analyze scattering of high frequency EM waves. This solution contains both large scale vortex density structures coexisting with short scale density perturbations. Next we will initialize a PIC simulation with the density distribution from the fluid simulation to calculate the scattering cross-section and compare the results with an analytic solution obtained using numerically calculated density spectra.

  11. Fluctuation-induced shear flow and energy transfer in plasma interchange turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Li, B.; Sun, C. K.; Wang, X. Y.; Zhou, A.; Wang, X. G.; Ernst, D. R.

    2015-11-15

    Fluctuation-induced E × B shear flow and energy transfer for plasma interchange turbulence are examined in a flux-driven system with both closed and open magnetic field lines. The nonlinear evolution of interchange turbulence shows the presence of two confinement regimes characterized by low and high E × B flow shear. In the first regime, the large-scale turbulent convection is dominant and the mean E × B shear flow is at a relatively low level. By increasing the heat flux above a certain threshold, the increased turbulent intensity gives rise to the transfer of energy from fluctuations to mean E × B flows. As a result, a transition to the second regime occurs, in which a strong mean E × B shear flow is generated.

  12. Device interchangeability on anterior chamber depth and white-to-white measurements: a thorough literature review

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Vicent, Alberto; Pérez-Vives, Cari; Ferrer-Blasco, Teresa; García-Lázaro, Santiago; Montés-Micó, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We have reviewed a set of recently published studies that compared the anterior chamber depth (ACD) and/or white-to-white (WTW) distance obtained by means of different measuring devices. Since some of those studies reached contradictory conclusions regarding device interchangeability, this review was carried out in attempting to clarify which clinical devices can or cannot be considered as interchangeable in clinical practice to measure ACD and/or WTW distance, among these devices: A-scan, ultrasound biomicroscopy, Orbscan and Orbscan II (Bausch&Lomb Surgical Inc., San Dimas, California, USA), Pentacam and Pentacam HR (Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany), Galilei (Ziemer, Switzerland), Visante optical coherence tomography (Visante OCT, Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Dublin, California, USA), IOLMaster (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany), and Lenstar LS 900/Biograph (Haag-Streit AG, Koeniz, Switzerland/Alcon Laboratories Inc., Ft Worth, Texas, USA). PMID:27500117

  13. Are infrared and thermistor thermometers interchangeable for measuring localized skin temperature?

    PubMed

    Kelechi, Teresa J; Michel, Yvonne; Wiseman, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Localized skin temperature must be measured by accurate and reliable thermometers to effectively evaluate treatment outcomes, monitor changes, and predict potential complications. This study compared localized skin temperature measurements with a contact thermistor thermometer used as a reference standard and a noncontact infrared (IR) skin thermometer to determine their interchangeability with calculated Bland-Altman limits of agreement. Fifty-five adults ages 50 to 89 participated in the study in which data were collected in a climate-controlled room over 3 measurement periods, 1 week apart. The thermistor and IR thermometers were interchangeable with a limit of agreement of +/- 1.5 degrees C. This limit of agreement is acceptable as a reference standard for IR thermometers to measure localized skin temperature in clinical settings. PMID:16764175

  14. Observed mid-to-high latitude interchange of atmospheric angular momentum and some implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, H. A., Jr.; Kramer, L.

    1990-01-01

    Graphic illustration of midlatitude interchange of atmospheric angular momentum between distant regions is presented. An examination is conducted of the global distribution of atmospheric angular momentum during 1977-1978 and 1982-1983 in order to identify evidence of prominent short-term interchanges of relavitive atmospheric angular momentum between mid and high latitude zones in both hemispheres. Thirty-day detrended angular momentum time series, prepared from the NMC global zonal wind data, are examined in latitude bands. The results confirm that momentum can be selectively redistributed between tropical, temperate, and high latitudes in patterns indicative of the development and dissipation of interacting regions, described variously in studies on the index cycle, seesaws, and telecommunications.

  15. Transitions in the Lives of Children and Young People: Resilience Factors. Interchange 78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Tony; Blackburn, Sarah

    This report draws upon an extensive review of the international literature on resilience to describe effective strategies in health, education, and social work for helping children to cope with periods of transition through promoting resilience. The report takes a broad view of childrens transitions, meaning any episode where children have to cope…

  16. Technique for experimental determination of radiation interchange factors in solar wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobco, R. P.; Nolte, L. J.; Wensley, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    Process obtains solar heating data which support analytical design. Process yields quantitative information on local solar exposure of models which are geometrically and reflectively similar to prototypes under study. Models are tested in a shirtsleeve environment.

  17. Observation of Centrifugally Driven Interchange Instabilities in a Plasma Confined by a Magnetic Dipole

    SciTech Connect

    Levitt, B.; Maslovsky, D.; Mauel, M.E.

    2005-05-06

    Centrifugally driven interchange instabilities are observed in a laboratory plasma confined by a dipole magnetic field. The instabilities appear when an equatorial mesh is biased to drive a radial current that causes rapid axisymmetric plasma rotation. The observed instabilities are quasicoherent in the laboratory frame of reference; they have global radial mode structures and low azimuthal mode numbers, and they are modified by the presence of energetic, magnetically confined electrons. Results from a self-consistent nonlinear simulation reproduce the measured mode structures.

  18. Effects of resistive interchange instabilities on energy confinement in reversed-field pinch

    SciTech Connect

    AN Zhi-gang; Diamond, P.H.

    1986-01-01

    Electron conduction losses due to magnetic flutter produced by resistive interchange instabilities and the resulting confinement deterioration mechanism are investigated analytically. Using approximate solutions of MHD equations for even and odd potential parities, the potential and magnetic perturbation levels at saturation are estimated. These results are used to calculate the stochastic magnetic field diffusion coefficients. An expression for the anomalous electron thermal conductivity is then derived for collision-less and collisional regimes. Scaling laws for energy confinement are inferred therefrom.

  19. Comparison and interchangeability of macular thickness measured with Cirrus OCT and Stratus OCT in myopic eyes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Geng; Qiu, Kun-Liang; Lu, Xue-Hui; Zhang, Ming-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate the difference of macular thickness measurements between stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT) and Cirrus OCT (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA, USA) in the same myopic patient and to develop a conversion equation to interchange macular thickness obtained with these two OCT devices. METHODS Eighty-nine healthy Chinese adults with spherical equivalent (SE) ranging from -1.13 D to -9.63 D were recruited. The macular thickness was measured by Cirrus OCT and Stratus OCT. The correlation between macular thickness and axial length and the agreement between two OCT measurements were evaluated. A formula was generated to interchange macular thickness obtained with two OCT devices. RESULTS Average macular thickness measured with Stratus OCT (r=-0.280, P=0.008) and Cirrus OCT (r=-0.224, P=0.034) were found to be negatively correlated with axial length. No statistically significant correlation was found between axial length and central subfield macular thickness (CMT) measured with Stratus OCT (r=0.191, P=0.073) and Cirrus OCT (r=0.169, P=0.113). The mean CMT measured with Cirrus OCT was 53.63±7.94 µm thicker than with Stratus OCT. The formula CMTCirrus OCT=78.328+0.874×CMTStratus OCT was generated to interchange macular thickness obtained with two OCT devices. CONCLUSION Macular thickness measured with Cirrus OCT were thicker than with Stratus OCT in myopic eyes. A formula can be used to interchange macular thickness measured with two OCT devices in myopic eyes. Studies with different OCT devices and larger samples are warranted to enable the comparison of macular values measured with different OCT devices. PMID:26682172

  20. THEMIS observation of Kinetic Ballooning/Interchange Waves in the High Bz Plasma Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panov, Evgeny V.; Nakamura, Rumi; Kubyshkina, Marina V.; Baumjohann, Wolfgang; A, Sergeev, Victor

    2015-04-01

    Using THEMIS observations of plasma sheet oscillations with kinetic ballooning/interchange instability (BICI) signatures, we investigate the properties of the waves when a high background plasma sheet Bz is seen. We find that such waves are in a better agreement with the existing kinetic simulations. Using adapted Tsyganenko models, we also show conjugate all-sky camera observations in the course of the development of the waves.

  1. Excitation of the centrifugally driven interchange instability in a plasma confined by a magnetic dipole

    SciTech Connect

    Levitt, B.; Maslovsky, D.; Mauel, M.E.; Waksman, J.

    2005-05-15

    The centrifugally driven electrostatic interchange instability is excited for the first time in a laboratory magnetoplasma. The plasma is confined by a dipole magnetic field, and the instability is excited when an equatorial mesh is biased to induce a radial current that creates rapid axisymmetric plasma rotation. The observed instabilities appear quasicoherent in the lab frame of reference; they have global radial mode structures and low azimuthal mode numbers, and they are modified by the presence of energetic, magnetically confined electrons. The mode structure is measured using a multiprobe correlation technique as well as a novel 96-point polar imaging diagnostic which measures particle flux along field lines that map to the pole. Interchange instabilities caused by hot electron pressure are simultaneously observed at the hot electron drift frequency. Adjusting the hot electron fraction {alpha} modifies the stability as well as the structures of the centrifugally driven modes. In the presence of larger fractions of energetic electrons, m=1 is observed to be the dominant mode. For faster rotating plasmas containing fewer energetic electrons, m=2 dominates. Results from a self-consistent nonlinear simulation reproduce the measured mode structures in both regimes. The low azimuthal mode numbers seen in the experiment and simulation can also be interpreted with a local, linear dispersion relation of the electrostatic interchange instability. Drift resonant hot electrons give the instability a real frequency, inducing stabilizing ion polarization currents that preferentially suppress high-m modes.

  2. Generation of Periodic Signatures at Saturn Through Titan's Interaction with the Centrifugal Interchange Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winglee, R.; Kidder, A. R.; Harnett, E. M.; Paty, C. S.; Snowden, D. S.

    2013-12-01

    Due to the high degree of alignment of Saturn's dipole with its rotation axis, no strong rotational periodicities are expected. However, Cassini data demonstrated the existence of such periodicities not only in Saturn's kilometric radio emissions (SKR), but in the plasma and magnetic field signatures. Multi-fluid/multi-scale simulations that include the heavy ions from the Enceladus plasma torus, the light ions of the solar wind and the interaction of Titan with the Kronian magnetosphere show that the rotational period is embedded in the development of the interchange instability but the planetary period is masked by high-frequency components of the instability. The presence of Titan is shown to damp the high-frequency components in association with the flapping of Titan's ion tail and this enables the fundamental frequency near the planetary rotation frequency to grow at the expense of the high-frequency components. As a result, the interchange instability is seen to change from one where 5-7 large interchange fingers dominate to one where there are about 3 which cause the modulation of magnetospheric parameters near the planetary period. This modulation includes the movement of the magnetopause, the injection of energetic particles into the inner magnetosphere and the plasma density at high latitudes both of which control Saturn's kilometic radiation.

  3. A standardized SOA for clinical data interchange in a cardiac telemonitoring environment.

    PubMed

    Gazzarata, Roberta; Vergari, Fabio; Cinotti, Tullio Salmon; Giacomini, Mauro

    2014-11-01

    Care of chronic cardiac patients requires information interchange between patients' homes, clinical environments, and the electronic health record. Standards are emerging to support clinical information collection, exchange and management and to overcome information fragmentation and actors delocalization. Heterogeneity of information sources at patients' homes calls for open solutions to collect and accommodate multidomain information, including environmental data. Based on the experience gained in a European Research Program, this paper presents an integrated and open approach for clinical data interchange in cardiac telemonitoring applications. This interchange is supported by the use of standards following the indications provided by the national authorities of the countries involved. Taking into account the requirements provided by the medical staff involved in the project, the authors designed and implemented a prototypal middleware, based on a service-oriented architecture approach, to give a structured and robust tool to congestive heart failure patients for their personalized telemonitoring. The middleware is represented by a health record management service, whose interface is compliant to the healthcare services specification project Retrieve, Locate and Update Service standard (Level 0), which allows communication between the agents involved through the exchange of Clinical Document Architecture Release 2 documents. Three performance tests were carried out and showed that the prototype completely fulfilled all requirements indicated by the medical staff; however, certain aspects, such as authentication, security and scalability, should be deeply analyzed within a future engineering phase. PMID:25014978

  4. Normalization Of Thermal-Radiation Form-Factor Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuyuki, Glenn T.

    1994-01-01

    Report describes algorithm that adjusts form-factor matrix in TRASYS computer program, which calculates intraspacecraft radiative interchange among various surfaces and environmental heat loading from sources such as sun.

  5. Pressure driven tearing and interchange modes in the reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Paccagnella, R.

    2013-01-15

    In this work, the magneto-hydro-dynamic stability of pressure driven modes in the reversed field pinch has been analyzed. It is shown that at low and intermediate {beta}'s, i.e., typically for values below 20-25%, the tearing parity is dominant, while only at very high {beta}, well above the achieved experimental values, at least part of the modes are converted to ideal interchange instabilities. Before their transition to ideal instabilities, according to their Lundquist number scaling, they can be classified as resistive-g modes.

  6. The Great American Biotic Interchange: Dispersals, Tectonics, Climate, Sea Level and Holding Pens

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The biotic and geologic dynamics of the Great American Biotic Interchange are reviewed and revised. Information on the Marine Isotope Stage chronology, sea level changes as well as Pliocene and Pleistocene vegetation changes in Central and northern South America add to a discussion of the role of climate in facilitating trans-isthmian exchanges. Trans-isthmian land mammal exchanges during the Pleistocene glacial intervals appear to have been promoted by the development of diverse non-tropical ecologies. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10914-010-9144-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:21125025

  7. Second NASA Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM): Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) Technology Tool Box (TTB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ONeil, D. A.; Mankins, J. C.; Christensen, C. B.; Gresham, E. C.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS), a spreadsheet analysis tool suite, applies parametric equations for sizing and lifecycle cost estimation. Performance, operation, and programmatic data used by the equations come from a Technology Tool Box (TTB) database. In this second TTB Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM), technologists, system model developers, and architecture analysts discussed methods for modeling technology decisions in spreadsheet models, identified specific technology parameters, and defined detailed development requirements. This Conference Publication captures the consensus of the discussions and provides narrative explanations of the tool suite, the database, and applications of ATLAS within NASA s changing environment.

  8. Resistive Interchange Modes Destabilized by Helically Trapped Energetic Ions in a Helical Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, X. D.; Toi, K.; Osakabe, M.; Ohdachi, S.; Ido, T.; Tanaka, K.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoshinuma, M.; Ogawa, K.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Isobe, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Ozaki, T.; Sakakibara, S.; Seki, R.; Shimizu, A.; Suzuki, Y.; Tsuchiya, H.

    2015-04-01

    A new bursting m =1 /n =1 instability (m ,n : poloidal and toroidal mode numbers) with rapid frequency chirping down has been observed for the first time in a helical plasma with intense perpendicular neutral beam injection. This is destabilized in the plasma peripheral region by resonant interaction between helically trapped energetic ions and the resistive interchange mode. A large radial electric field is induced near the edge due to enhanced radial transport of the trapped energetic ions by the mode, and leads to clear change in toroidal plasma flow, suppression of microturbulence, and triggering an improvement of bulk plasma confinement.

  9. Bringing Order to Chaos: RIF as the New Standard for Rule Interchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawke, Sandro

    As the W3C Rule Interchange Format (RIF) nears completion, we consider what it offers users and how it may change the design of systems and change the industry. More than just a standard XML format for rules, RIF is integrated with the W3C Semantic Web technology stack, offering a vision for combining some of the best features of the Web with the best features of rule systems. RIF is designed to directly handle rule bases which use only standard features, but it can be extended. Some example extensions and possible areas for future standards work will be discussed.

  10. NASA Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM): Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) Technology Tool Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ONeil, D. A.; Craig, D. A.; Christensen, C. B.; Gresham, E. C.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this Technical Interchange Meeting was to increase the quantity and quality of technical, cost, and programmatic data used to model the impact of investing in different technologies. The focus of this meeting was the Technology Tool Box (TTB), a database of performance, operations, and programmatic parameters provided by technologists and used by systems engineers. The TTB is the data repository used by a system of models known as the Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS). This report describes the result of the November meeting, and also provides background information on ATLAS and the TTB.

  11. The free energy in a class of quantum spin systems and interchange processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björnberg, J. E.

    2016-07-01

    We study a class of quantum spin systems in the mean-field setting of the complete graph. For spin S = 1/2, the model is the Heisenberg ferromagnet, and for general spin S ∈ 1/2 N, it has a probabilistic representation as a cycle-weighted interchange process. We determine the free energy and the critical temperature (recovering results by Tóth and by Penrose when S = 1/2). The critical temperature is shown to coincide (as a function of S) with that of the q = 2S + 1 state classical Potts model, and the phase transition is discontinuous when S ≥ 1.

  12. Virtual Airspace Modeling and Simulation (VAMS) Project First Technical Interchange Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beard, Robert; Kille, Robert; Kirsten, Richard; Rigterink, Paul; Sielski, Henry; Gratteau, Melinda F. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    A three-day NASA Virtual Airspace and Modeling Project (VAMS) Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM) was held at the NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, CA. on May 21 through May 23,2002. The purpose of this meeting was to share initial concept information sponsored by the VAMS Project. An overall goal of the VAMS Project is to develop validated, blended, robust and transition-able air transportation system concepts over the next five years that will achieve NASA's long-term Enterprise Aviation Capacity goals. This document describes the presentations at the TIM, their related questions and answers, and presents the TIM recommendations.

  13. Chemical and nuclear emergencies: Interchanging lessons learned from planning and accident experience

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, V.; Sorensen, J.H.; Rogers, G.O.

    1989-01-01

    Because the goal of emergency preparedness for both chemical and nuclear hazards is to reduce human exposure to hazardous materials, this paper examines the interchange of lessons learned from emergency planning and accident experience in both industries. While the concerns are slightly different, sufficient similarity is found for each to draw implications from the others experience. Principally the chemical industry can learn from the dominant planning experience associated with nuclear power plants, while the nuclear industry can chiefly learn from the chemical industry's accident experience. 23 refs.

  14. Modeling of mesoscale flux-tube interchange motions in the inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazykin, Stanislav; Wolf, Richard Alan; Yang, Jian; Rocco Toffoletto, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Mesoscale flux-tube interchange motions associated with bursty bulk flows and dipolarization fronts play a significant role in particle transport from the plasma sheet into the inner magnetosphere. One of the challenges is to quantify the relative role of these processes compared to large-scale particle energization as part of global-scale convection. In this paper, we will describe latest progress in attempting quantitative modeling of flux-tube interchange processes using a high-resolution version of the Rice Convection Model (RCM) that includes effects of inertial drifts. Including effects of inertial drifts is necessary to allow oscillatory motion of flux tubes in inner magnetospheric models. We generalized the formulation of the RCM by making three simplifying assumptions: (i) the communication between the equatorial plane and ionosphere occurs either instantaneously or with a given time lag, (ii) the pressure is isotropic and therefore constant along field lines, and (iii) for purposes of calculating the effect of inertia, all of a flux tube's mass is assumed to be concentrated in the equatorial plane. We will present idealized numerical simulations of a depleted flux tube propagation in the magnetosphere, and quantify particle injection signatures. Our analysis of the simulations will include ionospheric electric fields and particle precipitation signatures of the flow channels associated with propagation of depleted flux tubes, and address the sensitivity of the results to the assumptions made in the inclusion of the inertia effects.

  15. When are people interchangeable sexual objects? The effect of gender and body type on sexual fungibility.

    PubMed

    Gervais, Sarah J; Vescio, Theresa K; Allen, Jill

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to empirically examine the fungibility hypothesis derived from sexual objectification theory. Sexual objectification theorists have suggested that like objects, people, typically women, may be fungible or interchangeable with similar others. Despite its provocative nature and potential adverse psychological consequences, the fungibility hypothesis has yet to be empirically examined. We suggested that women, regardless of body types, but also men with body types that resemble the cultural ideal of attractiveness (e.g., large arms and chests and narrow waists), would be more fungible than men with body types that resemble the cultural average. Participants (n = 66) saw images of average and ideal women and men once before they completed a surprise matching task requiring that they match the bodies and faces that appeared together in the original images. Consistent with hypotheses, we found that women with ideal bodies, women with average bodies, and men with ideal bodies were more fungible (perceivers made more body-face pairing errors) than men with average bodies. Furthermore, it appears that when people are fungible they are interchangeable with people with similar body types. Implications and directions for future research on objectification and fungibility are discussed. PMID:23216316

  16. Local regulation of interchange turbulence in a dipole-confined plasma torus using current-collection feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, T. M. Mauel, M. E. Worstell, M. W.

    2015-05-15

    Turbulence in plasma confined by a magnetic dipole is dominated by interchange fluctuations with complex dynamics and short spatial coherence. We report the first use of local current-collection feedback to modify, amplify, and suppress these fluctuations. The spatial extent of turbulence regulation is limited to a correlation length near the collector. Changing the gain and phase of collection results in power either extracted from or injected into the turbulence. The measured plasma response shows some agreement with calculations of the linear response of global interchange-like MHD and entropy modes to current-collection feedback.

  17. An XXX male resulting from paternal X-Y interchange and maternal X-X nondisjunction.

    PubMed

    Annerén, G; Andersson, M; Page, D C; Brown, L G; Berg, M; Läckgren, G; Gustavson, K H; de la Chapelle, A

    1987-10-01

    A 2-year-old boy was found to have a 47,XXX karyotype. Restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism analysis showed that, of his three X chromosomes, one is of paternal and two are of maternal origin. The results of Y-DNA hybridization were reminiscent of those in XX males in two respects. First, hybridization to Southern transfers revealed the presence in this XXX male of sequences derived from the Y-chromosomal short arm. Second, in situ hybridization showed that this Y DNA was located on the tip of the X-chromosomal short arm. We conclude that this XXX male resulted from the coincidence of X-X nondisjunction during maternal meiosis and aberrant X-Y interchange either during or prior to paternal meiosis. PMID:2889356

  18. Net Interchange Schedule Forecasting of Electric Power Exchange for RTO/ISOs

    SciTech Connect

    Ferryman, Thomas A.; Haglin, David J.; Vlachopoulou, Maria; Yin, Jian; Shen, Chao; Tuffner, Francis K.; Lin, Guang; Zhou, Ning; Tong, Jianzhong

    2012-07-26

    Neighboring independent system operators (ISOs) exchange electric power to enable efficient and reliable operation of the grid. Net interchange (NI) schedule is the sum of the transactions (in MW) between an ISO and its neighbors. Effective forecasting of the amount of actual NI can improve grid operation efficiency. This paper presents results of a preliminary investigation into various methods of prediction that may result in improved prediction accuracy. The methods studied are linear regression, forward regression, stepwise regression, and support vector machine (SVM) regression. The work to date is not yet conclusive. The hope is to explore the effectiveness of other prediction methods and apply all methods to at least one new data set. This should enable more confidence in the conclusions.

  19. Neuronal Prediction of Opponent’s Behavior during Cooperative Social Interchange in Primates

    PubMed Central

    Haroush, Keren; Williams, Ziv M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY A cornerstone of successful social interchange is the ability to anticipate each other’s intentions or actions. While generating these internal predictions is essential for constructive social behavior, their single neuronal basis and causal underpinnings are unknown. Here, we discover specific neurons in the primate dorsal anterior cingulate that selectively predict an opponent’s yet unknown decision to invest in their common good or defect and distinct neurons that encode the monkey’s own current decision based on prior outcomes. Mixed population predictions of the other was remarkably near optimal compared to behavioral decoders. Moreover, disrupting cingulate activity selectively biased mutually beneficial interactions between the monkeys but, surprisingly, had no influence on their decisions when no net-positive outcome was possible. These findings identify a group of other-predictive neurons in the primate anterior cingulate essential for enacting cooperative interactions and may pave a way toward the targeted treatment of social behavioral disorders. PMID:25728667

  20. Anderson Localization from the Berry-Curvature Interchange in Quantum Anomalous Hall Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Zhenhua; Han, Yulei; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Deng, Xinzhou; Jiang, Hua; Yang, Shengyuan A.; Wang, Jian; Niu, Qian

    2016-07-01

    We theoretically investigate the localization mechanism of the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) in the presence of spin-flip disorders. We show that the QAHE stays quantized at weak disorders, then enters a Berry-curvature mediated metallic phase at moderate disorders, and finally goes into the Anderson insulating phase at strong disorders. From the phase diagram, we find that at the charge neutrality point although the QAHE is most robust against disorders, the corresponding metallic phase is much easier to be localized into the Anderson insulating phase due to the interchange of Berry curvatures carried, respectively, by the conduction and valence bands. In the end, we provide a phenomenological picture related to the topological charges to better understand the underlying physical origin of the QAHE Anderson localization.

  1. Anderson Localization from the Berry-Curvature Interchange in Quantum Anomalous Hall Systems.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Zhenhua; Han, Yulei; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Deng, Xinzhou; Jiang, Hua; Yang, Shengyuan A; Wang, Jian; Niu, Qian

    2016-07-29

    We theoretically investigate the localization mechanism of the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) in the presence of spin-flip disorders. We show that the QAHE stays quantized at weak disorders, then enters a Berry-curvature mediated metallic phase at moderate disorders, and finally goes into the Anderson insulating phase at strong disorders. From the phase diagram, we find that at the charge neutrality point although the QAHE is most robust against disorders, the corresponding metallic phase is much easier to be localized into the Anderson insulating phase due to the interchange of Berry curvatures carried, respectively, by the conduction and valence bands. In the end, we provide a phenomenological picture related to the topological charges to better understand the underlying physical origin of the QAHE Anderson localization. PMID:27517785

  2. NASA's Single-Pilot Operations Technical Interchange Meeting: Proceedings and Findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comerford, Doreen; Brandt, Summer L.; Lachter, Joel B.; Wu, Shu-Chieh; Mogford, Richard H.; Battiste, Vernol; Johnson, Walter W.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center and Langley Research Center are jointly investigating issues associated with potential concepts, or configurations, in which a single pilot might operate under conditions that are currently reserved for a minimum of two pilots. As part of early efforts, NASA Ames Research Center hosted a technical interchange meeting in order to gain insight from members of the aviation community regarding single-pilot operations (SPO). The meeting was held on April 10-12, 2012 at NASA Ames Research Center. Professionals in the aviation domain were invited because their areas of expertise were deemed to be directly related to an exploration of SPO. NASA, in selecting prospective participants, attempted to represent various relevant sectors within the aviation domain. Approximately 70 people representing government, academia, and industry attended. A primary focus of this gathering was to consider how tasks and responsibilities might be re-allocated to allow for SPO.

  3. Probehead with interchangeable loop-gap resonators and rf coils for multifrequency EPR/ENDOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christides, T.; Froncisz, W.; Oles, T.; Hyde, James S.

    1994-01-01

    A probehead employing interchangeable loop-gap resonators and rf coils for multifrequency EPR/ENDOR spectroscopy from 1 to 10 GHz is described. A precision coupling mechanism allows accurate magnetic coupling of the microwaves to the resonators. The Rexolite© support of the resonator acts as a spool for the ENDOR coil. rf fields of 1.0 mT are generated. The coil and resonator can be easily changed to cover the range of 1-10 GHz. Liquid-phase ENDOR spectra of the stable free-radical galvanoxyl and of the spin label TEMPONE (4-oxo-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-l-piperidine-N-oxyl) dissolved in n-heptane are shown. The ENDOR enhancement for nitrogen from TEMPONE is 15 times larger at 2.3 than at 9.3 GHz due to the rf enhancement.

  4. Spaces of phylogenetic networks from generalized nearest-neighbor interchange operations.

    PubMed

    Huber, Katharina T; Linz, Simone; Moulton, Vincent; Wu, Taoyang

    2016-02-01

    Phylogenetic networks are a generalization of evolutionary or phylogenetic trees that are used to represent the evolution of species which have undergone reticulate evolution. In this paper we consider spaces of such networks defined by some novel local operations that we introduce for converting one phylogenetic network into another. These operations are modeled on the well-studied nearest-neighbor interchange operations on phylogenetic trees, and lead to natural generalizations of the tree spaces that have been previously associated to such operations. We present several results on spaces of some relatively simple networks, called level-1 networks, including the size of the neighborhood of a fixed network, and bounds on the diameter of the metric defined by taking the smallest number of operations required to convert one network into another. We expect that our results will be useful in the development of methods for systematically searching for optimal phylogenetic networks using, for example, likelihood and Bayesian approaches. PMID:26037483

  5. Asymmetric coupled interchange-ballooning dynamics during magnetic reconnection in the solar wind driven magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Ehab; Horton, W.; Hatch, D. R.; Agullo, O.; Muraglia, M.; Benkadda, S.; InstituteFusion Studies Collaboration; PIIM/CNRS, AMU, Marseille, France Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    Fast reconnection in the magnetosphere and the geomagnetic tail involves electron scale dynamics that includes the electron inertial scale length on the inner scale and the ion gyroradius on the outer scale. New forms of the partial differential equations for the electric and magnetic field during the fast interchange dynamics. Typical data is that of the fast reconnection with dominant electron heating reported in the Nakamura et al. from CLUSTER data. New formulas extend to smaller scales the previous simulations of Horton et al. [2007] for this event by including more electron dynamics and heating. 3D-simulations and movies of the dynamics are presented. Supported by US-DoE grant to UT and CNRS grant to AMU.

  6. Structure and consequences of the kinetic ballooning/interchange instability in the magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchett, P. L.; Coroniti, F. V.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract<p label="1">The structure and dynamical consequences of the kinetic ballooning/<span class="hlt">interchange</span> instability (BICI) that can be excited in the curved magnetic geometry characteristic of the terrestrial plasma sheet are investigated by means of three-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations. Compared with earlier studies that considered a single Bz minimum configuration with an extremely large midtail field, additional simulations are performed in which this maximum is reduced to a more realistic value, the dependence on the values of the plasma beta and of the mass and temperature ratios mi/me and Ti/Te is investigated, and the limiting case of a constant Bz profile is examined. The general properties of the BICI modes are found to be unaltered by these changes. Significantly, the BICI excitation is found not to require an explicit tailward magnetic field gradient; it appears to be sufficient for the entropy to decrease with distance down the tail. The BICI wavelength varies inversely with Bz, and the eigenmodes are strongly field aligned with parallel electron flows comparable to the ion thermal velocity. In the edge of the plasma sheet, the oscillations in Bx and Bz have comparable magnitude. Once excited, the growth of the modes is robust and leads to the formation of intense <span class="hlt">interchange</span> heads that propagate earthward. When the equatorial plasma beta is on the order of 500 or higher, the Bz field can be driven southward in the wake of the heads. This results in the onset of localized magnetic reconnection and a violent disruption of the plasma sheet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4446098','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4446098"><span id="translatedtitle">Bioreactance Is Not <span class="hlt">Interchangeable</span> with Thermodilution for Measuring Cardiac Output during Adult Liver Transplantation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Han, Sangbin; Lee, Jong Hwan; Kim, Gaabsoo; Ko, Justin Sangwook; Choi, Soo Joo; Kwon, Ji Hae; Heo, Burn Young; Gwak, Mi Sook</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Thermodilution technique using a pulmonary artery catheter is widely used for the assessment of cardiac output (CO) in patients undergoing liver transplantation. However, the unclearness of the risk-benefit ratio of this method has led to an interest in less invasive modalities. Thus, we evaluated whether noninvasive bioreactance CO monitoring is <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> with thermodilution technique. Methods Nineteen recipients undergoing adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation were enrolled in this prospective observational study. COs were recorded automatically by the two devices and compared simultaneously at 3-minute intervals. The Bland–Altman plot was used to evaluate the agreement between bioreactance and thermodilution. Clinically acceptable agreement was defined as a percentage error of limits of agreement <30%. The four quadrant plot was used to evaluate concordance between bioreactance and thermodilution. Clinically acceptable concordance was defined as a concordance rate >92%. Results A total of 2640 datasets were collected. The mean CO difference between the two techniques was 0.9 l/min, and the 95% limits of agreement were -3.5 l/min and 5.4 l/min with a percentage error of 53.9%. The percentage errors in the dissection, anhepatic, and reperfusion phase were 50.6%, 56.1%, and 53.5%, respectively. The concordance rate between the two techniques was 54.8%. Conclusion Bioreactance and thermodilution failed to show acceptable <span class="hlt">interchangeability</span> in terms of both estimating CO and tracking CO changes in patients undergoing liver transplantation. Thus, the use of bioreactance as an alternative CO monitoring to thermodilution, in spite of its noninvasiveness, would be hard to recommend in these surgical patients. PMID:26017364</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27328273','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27328273"><span id="translatedtitle">The Effect of <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Rotation Period and Number on Australian Football Running Performance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Montgomery, Paul G; Wisbey, Ben</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Montgomery, PG, and Wisbey, B. The effect of <span class="hlt">interchange</span> rotation period and number on Australian Football running performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1890-1897, 2016-To determine the effect of on-field rotation periods and total number of game rotations on Australian Football running performance, elite Australian Football players (n = 21, mean ± SD; 23.2 ± 1.7 years; 183.5 ± 3.7 cm; 83.2 ± 4.5 kg) had Global Positioning System game data from 22 rounds divided into a total of 692 on-field playing periods. These periods were allocated into time blocks of 2:00-minute increments, with the log transformed percentage differences in running performance (m·min) between blocks analyzed by effect size and meaningful differences. A total of 7,730 game rotation and associated average m·min combinations collected over 3 Australian Football seasons were also assessed by effect size and meaningful differences. Running capacity decreases after 5:00 minutes by ∼3% for each 2:00 minutes of on-field time up to 9:00 minutes, with variable responses between positions up to 6.7% for nomadic players. For each rotation less than 6 per game, clear small-to-moderate decreases up to 3.6% in running capacity occurred per rotation. To maintain a high level of running capacity, shorter on-field periods are more effective in Australian Football; however, players and coaches should be aware that with <span class="hlt">interchange</span> restriction, slightly longer on-field periods achieve similar results. PMID:27328273</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Seating&pg=3&id=EJ959487','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Seating&pg=3&id=EJ959487"><span id="translatedtitle">Attention <span class="hlt">Interchanges</span> at Story-Time: A Case Study from a Deaf and Hearing Twin Pair Acquiring Swedish Sign Language in Their Deaf Family</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cramer-Wolrath, Emelie</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This case study longitudinally analyzes and describes the changes of attentional expressions in <span class="hlt">interchanges</span> between a pair of fraternal twins, 1 deaf and 1 hearing, from the age of 10-40 months, and their Deaf family members. The video-observed attentional expressions of initiating and reestablishing <span class="hlt">interchange</span> were grouped in 5 functional…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-07-29/pdf/2011-19199.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-07-29/pdf/2011-19199.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 45649 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on I-5: Fern Valley <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Project: Jackson County, OR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-29</p> <p>... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on I-5: Fern Valley <span class="hlt">Interchange</span>... the meaning of 23 U.S.C. 139(l)(1). The actions relate to a proposed highway project, I-5: Fern Valley... Administration, 530 Center Street, NE., Suite 420, Salem, Oregon 97301, Telephone: (503) 316-2559. The I-5:...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title22-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title22-vol2-sec501-9.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title22-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title22-vol2-sec501-9.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">22 CFR 501.9 - <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> of FSOs between Broadcasting Board of Governors and other Foreign Affairs Agencies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> of FSOs between Broadcasting Board of Governors and other Foreign Affairs Agencies. 501.9 Section 501.9 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING... Broadcasting Board of Governors and other Foreign Affairs Agencies. Foreign Service Officers (FSOs)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol3-sec63-501.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol3-sec63-501.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 63.501 - Contents of applications to sever physical connection or to terminate or suspend <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contents of applications to sever physical... Contents of applications to sever physical connection or to terminate or suspend <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of traffic... application is to be addressed; (c) Nature of the proposed change; (d) Identification of community or part...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol3-sec63-501.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol3-sec63-501.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 63.501 - Contents of applications to sever physical connection or to terminate or suspend <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contents of applications to sever physical connection or to terminate or suspend <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of traffic with another carrier. 63.501 Section 63.501 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) EXTENSION OF LINES, NEW LINES, AND...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol3-sec63-501.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol3-sec63-501.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 63.501 - Contents of applications to sever physical connection or to terminate or suspend <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contents of applications to sever physical... Contents of applications to sever physical connection or to terminate or suspend <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of traffic... application is to be addressed; (c) Nature of the proposed change; (d) Identification of community or part...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol3-sec63-501.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol3-sec63-501.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 63.501 - Contents of applications to sever physical connection or to terminate or suspend <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contents of applications to sever physical... Contents of applications to sever physical connection or to terminate or suspend <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of traffic... application is to be addressed; (c) Nature of the proposed change; (d) Identification of community or part...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol3-sec63-501.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol3-sec63-501.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 63.501 - Contents of applications to sever physical connection or to terminate or suspend <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contents of applications to sever physical... Contents of applications to sever physical connection or to terminate or suspend <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of traffic... application is to be addressed; (c) Nature of the proposed change; (d) Identification of community or part...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120013163','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120013163"><span id="translatedtitle">Boiling eXperiment Facility (BXF) Fluid Toxicity Technical <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Meeting (TIM) with the Payload Safety Review Panel (PSRP)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sheredy, William A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A Technical <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> meeting was held between the payload developers for the Boiling eXperiment Facility (BXF) and the NASA Safety Review Panel concerning operational anomaly that resulted in overheating one of the fluid heaters, shorted a 24VDC power supply and generated Perfluoroisobutylene (PFiB) from Perfluorohexane.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26707923','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26707923"><span id="translatedtitle">An O([Formula: see text]) algorithm for sorting signed genomes by reversals, transpositions, transreversals and block-<span class="hlt">interchanges</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yu, Shuzhi; Hao, Fanchang; Leong, Hon Wai</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>We consider the problem of sorting signed permutations by reversals, transpositions, transreversals, and block-<span class="hlt">interchanges</span>. The problem arises in the study of species evolution via large-scale genome rearrangement operations. Recently, Hao et al. gave a 2-approximation scheme called genome sorting by bridges (GSB) for solving this problem. Their result extended and unified the results of (i) He and Chen - a 2-approximation algorithm allowing reversals, transpositions, and block-<span class="hlt">interchanges</span> (by also allowing transversals) and (ii) Hartman and Sharan - a 1.5-approximation algorithm allowing reversals, transpositions, and transversals (by also allowing block-<span class="hlt">interchanges</span>). The GSB result is based on introduction of three bridge structures in the breakpoint graph, the L-bridge, T-bridge, and X-bridge that models goodreversal, transposition/transreversal, and block-<span class="hlt">interchange</span>, respectively. However, the paper by Hao et al. focused on proving the 2-approximation GSB scheme and only mention a straightforward [Formula: see text] algorithm. In this paper, we give an [Formula: see text] algorithm for implementing the GSB scheme. The key idea behind our faster GSB algorithm is to represent cycles in the breakpoint graph by their canonical sequences, which greatly simplifies the search for these bridge structures. We also give some comparison results (running time and computed distances) against the original GSB implementation. PMID:26707923</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24354756','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24354756"><span id="translatedtitle">Small portable <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> imager of fluorescence for fluorescence guided surgery and research.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Okusanya, Olugbenga T; Madajewski, Brian; Segal, Erin; Judy, Brendan F; Venegas, Ollin G; Judy, Ryan P; Quatromoni, Jon G; Wang, May D; Nie, Shuming; Singhal, Sunil</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Fluorescence guided surgery (FGS) is a developing field of surgical and oncologic research. Practically, FGS has shown useful applications in urologic surgery, benign biliary surgery, colorectal cancer liver metastasis resection, and ovarian cancer debulking. Most notably in in cancer surgery, FGS allows for the clear delineation of cancerous tissue from benign tissue. FGS requires the utilization of a fluorescent contrast agent and an intraoperative fluorescence imaging device (IFID). Currently available IFIDs are expensive, unable to work with multiple fluorophores, and can be cumbersome. This study aims to describe the development and utility of a small, cost-efficient, and <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> IFID made from commercially available components. Extensive research was done to design and construct a light-weight, portable, and cost-effective IFID. We researched the capabilities, size, and cost of several camera types and eventually decided on a near-infrared (NIR) charged couple device (CCD) camera for its overall profile. The small portable <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> imager of fluorescence (SPIIF) is a "scout" IFID system for FGS. The main components of the SPIIF are a NIR CCD camera with an articulating light filter. These components and a LED light source with an attached heat sink are mounted on a small metal platform. The system is connected to a laptop by a USB 2.0 cable. Pixielink © software on the laptop runs the system by controlling exposure time, gain, and image capture. After developing the system, we evaluated its utility as an IFID. The system weighs less than two pounds and can cover a large area. Due to its small size, it is easily made sterile by covering it with any sterile plastic sheet. To determine the system's ability to detect fluorescent signal, we used the SPIIF to detect indocyanine green under ex and in-vivo conditions and fluorescein under ex-vivo conditions. We found the SPIIF was able to detect both ICG and fluorescein under different depths of a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4134767','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4134767"><span id="translatedtitle">Small Portable <span class="hlt">Interchangeable</span> Imager of Fluorescence for Fluorescence Guided Surgery and Research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Okusanya, Olugbenga T.; Madajewski, Brian; Segal, Erin; Judy, Brendan F.; Venegas, Ollin G.; Judy, Ryan P.; Quatromoni, Jon G.; Wang, May D.; Nie, Shuming; Singhal, Sunil</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Fluorescence guided surgery (FGS) is a developing field of surgical and oncologic research. Practically, FGS has shown useful applications in urologic surgery, benign biliary surgery, colorectal cancer liver metastasis resection, and ovarian cancer debulking. Most notably in in cancer surgery, FGS allows for the clear delineation of cancerous tissue from benign tissue. FGS requires the utilization of a fluorescent contrast agent and an intraoperative fluorescence imaging device (IFID). Currently available IFIDs are expensive, unable to work with multiple fluorophores, and can be cumbersome. This study aims to describe the development and utility of a small, cost-efficient, and <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> IFID made from commercially available components. Extensive research was done to design and construct a light-weight, portable, and cost-effective IFID. We researched the capabilities, size, and cost of several camera types and eventually decided on a near-infrared (NIR) charged couple device (CCD) camera for its overall profile. The small portable <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> imager of fluorescence (SPIIF) is a “scout” IFID system for FGS. The main components of the SPIIF are a NIR CCD camera with an articulating light filter. These components and a LED light source with an attached heat sink are mounted on a small metal platform. The system is connected to a laptop by a USB 2.0 cable. Pixielink © software on the laptop runs the system by controlling exposure time, gain, and image capture. After developing the system, we evaluated its utility as an IFID. The system weighs less than two pounds and can cover a large area. Due to its small size, it is easily made sterile by covering it with any sterile plastic sheet. To determine the system’s ability to detect fluorescent signal, we used the SPIIF to detect indocyanine green under ex and in-vivo conditions and fluorescein under ex-vivo conditions. We found the SPIIF was able to detect both ICG and fluorescein under different depths of</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1812459N&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1812459N&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional consequences of a biotic <span class="hlt">interchange</span>: insights from the Lessepsian invasion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nawrot, Rafal; Albano, Paolo G.; Chattopadhyay, Devapriya; Zuschin, Martin</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The fossil record provides ample evidence of large-scale biotic <span class="hlt">interchanges</span> and their pervasive effects on regional biotas, but mechanisms controlling such events are difficult to decipher in deep time. Massive invasion of Indo-Pacific species into the Mediterranean Sea triggered by the opening of the Suez Canal offers a unique opportunity to examine the ecological consequences of breaking down biogeographic barriers. We developed an extensive database of taxonomic composition, body size and ecological characteristics of the Red Sea and Mediterranean bivalve fauna in order to link biotic selectivity of the invasion process with its effects on the recipient biota. Shallow-water occurrence and presence outside the tropical zone in other regions are the strongest predictors of the successful transition through the Suez Canal. Subsequent establishment of alien species in the Mediterranean Sea correlates with early arrival and preference for hard substrates. Finally, large-bodied species and hard-bottom dwellers are over-represented among the invasive aliens that have reached the spread stage and impose a strong impact on native communities. Although body size is important only at the last invasion stage, alien species are significantly larger compared to native Mediterranean bivalves. This reflects biogeographic difference in the body-size distributions of the source and recipient species pools related to the recent geological history of the Mediterranean Sea. Contrary to the general expectations on the effects of temperature on average body size, continued warming of the Mediterranean Sea accelerates the entry of tropical aliens and thus indirectly leads to increase in the proportion of large-bodied species in local communities and the regional biota. Invasion-driven shifts in species composition are stronger in hard-substrate communities, which host a smaller pool of incumbent species and are more susceptible to the establishment of newcomers. Analogous differences</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760057957&hterms=halt&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dhalt','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760057957&hterms=halt&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dhalt"><span id="translatedtitle">Accretion onto magnetized neutron stars - Structure and <span class="hlt">interchange</span> instability of a model magnetosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Arons, J.; Lea, S. M.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>A self-consistent model is analyzed for the spherical infall of weakly magnetized plasma into the magnetosphere of a slowly rotating, strongly magnetized neutron star. It is shown that spherical infall is probably a good approximation for X-ray sources which accrete from a stellar wind. The location of the standoff shock which halts the hypersonic infall is estimated along with the emission from the shocked layer. The location of the equilibrium magnetopause and the structure of the magnetic field within it are calculated; it is found that the magnetic poles are true cusps and that the entry of gas due to equilibrium flow across a cusp is almost certainly dominated by the <span class="hlt">interchange</span> instability near the magnetic equator. The energy principle is applied to derive necessary conditions for the occurrence of this instability. The results indicate that the strong magnetic-pressure gradient stabilizes the gas unless moderately strong radiative cooling takes place and that the cooled plasma enters the magnetosphere as long filaments capable of moving between field lines. The rate at which the equilibrium magnetopause can 'absorb' mass and momentum is derived, the validity of the approximations employed is discussed, and the likely evolution of the sinking filaments is outlined to show that the spatial distribution of the plasma is determined mainly by the dynamics and thermodynamics of the filaments rather than the magnetic-field structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20860283','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20860283"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental characterization of drift-<span class="hlt">interchange</span> instabilities in a simple toroidal plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Poli, F. M.; Brunner, S.; Diallo, A.; Fasoli, A.; Furno, I.; Labit, B.; Mueller, S. H.; Plyushchev, G.; Podesta, M.</p> <p>2006-10-15</p> <p>Low frequency electrostatic instabilities are investigated on TORPEX [Fasoli, Labit, McGrath, Mueller, Podesta, and Poli, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 48, 119 (2003)], a toroidal device for basic plasma physics experiments with a toroidal magnetic field 100 mT and a small vertical magnetic field ({<=}4 mT). A two-dimensional (2D) profile of the frequency and amplitude of density and potential fluctuations is reconstructed using electrostatic probes with high space and time resolution. The measured phase velocity, corrected for the Doppler shift induced by the ExB drift, is consistent with the electron diamagnetic drift velocity. The local dispersion relation, measured along and across the magnetic field, is in agreement with the predictions of a linear kinetic slab model for drift waves. Unstable modes are generated in regions of unfavorable curvature, where the pressure gradient is colinear with the magnetic field gradient. It is demonstrated that the curvature of the magnetic field lines is essential for driving the observed instabilities, which are therefore identified as drift-<span class="hlt">interchange</span> modes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21294255','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21294255"><span id="translatedtitle">Pressure-driven, resistive magnetohydrodynamic <span class="hlt">interchange</span> instabilities in laser-produced high-energy-density plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Li, C. K.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Seguin, F. H.; Amendt, P. A.; Landen, O. L.; Town, R. P. J.; Betti, R.; Knauer, J. P.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Soures, J. M.</p> <p>2009-07-15</p> <p>Recent experiments using proton backlighting of laser-foil interactions provide unique opportunities for studying magnetized plasma instabilities in laser-produced high-energy-density plasmas. Time-gated proton radiograph images indicate that the outer structure of a magnetic field entrained in a hemispherical plasma bubble becomes distinctly asymmetric after the laser turns off. It is shown that this asymmetry is a consequence of pressure-driven, resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) <span class="hlt">interchange</span> instabilities. In contrast to the predictions made by ideal MHD theory, the increasing plasma resistivity after laser turn-off allows for greater low-mode destabilization (m>1) from reduced stabilization by field-line bending. For laser-generated plasmas presented herein, a mode-number cutoff for stabilization of perturbations with m>{approx}[8{pi}{beta}(1+D{sub m}k{sub perpendicular}{sup 2}{gamma}{sub max}{sup -1})]{sup 1/2} is found in the linear growth regime. The growth is measured and is found to be in reasonable agreement with model predictions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1384365','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1384365"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of disease and health between the Old and New Worlds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Berlinguer, G</p> <p>1992-10-01</p> <p>A review of the five centuries since Columbus discovered America helps us understand the mutual contributions of the Old and the New Worlds to the history of diseases and their treatment. It also shows the consequences of this "mutual discovery" as they are currently emerging in the fields of health, culture, and the environment. To evaluate the multiple aspects of the <span class="hlt">interchange</span> between the Old and New Worlds, this paper discusses the following: the causes of the rapid decline of the original American populations; the diffusion of communicable diseases between the two civilizations; the health consequences of nutritional changes on both sides of the Atlantic; drug addictions, as they developed through the centuries and as they exist today; the ways diseases were and are evaluated, prevented, diagnosed, and treated; and the mutual impact of different models of health services. Arguing that a major global change following the discovery of America was the transition from isolation of the two worlds to communication, and, more recently, to global interdependence, the paper also discusses some problems of bioethical relevance and the possible impact of new epidemics. Finally, it suggests that a critical analysis of the past may help stimulate future cooperation and solidarity. PMID:1384365</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24584134','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24584134"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing safety and immunogenicity of post-exposure prophylaxis following <span class="hlt">interchangeability</span> of rabies vaccines in humans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ravish, Hardanahalli S; Sudarshan, Mysore K; Madhusudana, Shampur N; Annadani, Rachana R; Narayana, Doddabele H Ashwath; Belludi, Ashwin Y; Anandaiah, Gangaboraiah; Vijayashankar, Veena</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Rabies post exposure prophylaxis with cell culture vaccines by either intramuscular route or intradermal route spans over a period of one month. World Health Organization recommends completing post exposure prophylaxis against rabies with the same cell culture or embryonated egg rabies vaccine and with same route of administration and any deviation from this shall be an exception. In the present study, the safety and immunogenicity of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis was studied prospectively in 90 animal bite cases that had <span class="hlt">interchangeability</span> of rabies vaccines either by route of administration or brand/type and such changes had occurred due to logistical/financial problems. Among them, 47 had change in route of administration from intramuscular to intradermal or vice versa and 43 had change in the brand/type of cell culture rabies vaccine. All of them had category III rabies exposure and received equine rabies immunoglobulin along with the rabies vaccine. None of the study subjects had any adverse reactions. The rabies virus neutralizing antibody titers was assessed by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test and all the vaccinees had titers ≥0.5 IU per mL on day 14 which is considered as adequate for protection against rabies. Thus, the present study showed that, rabies post-exposure prophylaxis was safe and immunogenic despite changes in the route of administration and brand/type of rabies vaccine. PMID:24584134</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1999APS..DPPCP1101U&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1999APS..DPPCP1101U&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of shear flow formation between resonant and non-resonant resistive <span class="hlt">interchange</span> modes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Unemura, T.; Hamaguchi, S.; Wakatani, M.</p> <p>1999-11-01</p> <p>It is known that the poloidal shear flow is produced from the nonlinear resistive <span class="hlt">interchange</span> modes(A. Hasegawa and M. Wakatani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59) 1581 (1987)(B.A. Carreras and V. E. Lynch, Phys. Fluids B 5) 1795 (1993). Since the non-resonant resistive modes also become unstable(K. Ichiguchi, Y. Nakamura and M. Wakatani, Nucl. Fusion 31) 2073 (1991), the nonlinear behavior is compared between the resonant and non-resonant modes from the point of view of poloidal flow formation. For understanding the difference, we studied single helicity (m,n)=(3,2) mode in a cylindrical geometry.Rotational transform profile, ι(r), was changed. First, we assumed ι(r)=0.51+0.39r^2, and increased ι(0). This change represents a finite beta effect in currentless stellarators. When the resonant surface exists with ι(r_s)=2/3, the poloidal flow are created near the resonant surface. And, in the case when no resonant surface exists but ι_min ~ 2/3, the non-resonant (3,2) mode grows and poloidal shear flow is also generated; however, the magnitude decreases sharply with the increase of ι_min.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JSAES..29..619C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JSAES..29..619C"><span id="translatedtitle">Amazonian magnetostratigraphy: Dating the first pulse of the Great American Faunal <span class="hlt">Interchange</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Campbell, Kenneth E., Jr.; Prothero, Donald R.; Romero-Pittman, Lidia; Hertel, Fritz; Rivera, Nadia</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>The chronostratigraphy of the youngest Neogene deposits of the Amazon Basin, which comprise the Madre de Dios Formation in eastern Peru, remains unresolved. Although 40Ar/ 39Ar dates on two volcanic ashes from this formation in Peru provide critical baseline data points, stratigraphic correlations among scattered riverine outcrops in adjacent drainage basins remain problematic. To refine the chronostratigraphy of the Madre de Dios Formation, we report here the magnetostratigraphy of an outcrop on the Madre de Dios River in southeastern Peru. A total of 18 polarity zones was obtained in the ˜65-m-thick Cerro Colorado section, which we correlate to magnetozones Chrons C4Ar to C2An (9.5-3.0 Ma) based on the prior 40Ar/ 39Ar dates. These results confirm the late Miocene age of a gomphothere recovered from the Ipururo Formation, which underlies the late Miocene Ucayali Unconformity at the base of the Cerro Colorado outcrop. The results also support earlier interpretations of a late Miocene age for other fossils of North American mammals recovered from basal conglomeratic deposits of the Madre de Dios Formation immediately above the Ucayali Unconformity. These mammals include other gomphotheres, peccaries, and tapirs, and their presence in South America in the late Miocene is recognized as part of the first pulse of the Great American Faunal <span class="hlt">Interchange</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1695863','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1695863"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of disease and health between the Old and New Worlds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Berlinguer, G</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>A review of the five centuries since Columbus discovered America helps us understand the mutual contributions of the Old and the New Worlds to the history of diseases and their treatment. It also shows the consequences of this "mutual discovery" as they are currently emerging in the fields of health, culture, and the environment. To evaluate the multiple aspects of the <span class="hlt">interchange</span> between the Old and New Worlds, this paper discusses the following: the causes of the rapid decline of the original American populations; the diffusion of communicable diseases between the two civilizations; the health consequences of nutritional changes on both sides of the Atlantic; drug addictions, as they developed through the centuries and as they exist today; the ways diseases were and are evaluated, prevented, diagnosed, and treated; and the mutual impact of different models of health services. Arguing that a major global change following the discovery of America was the transition from isolation of the two worlds to communication, and, more recently, to global interdependence, the paper also discusses some problems of bioethical relevance and the possible impact of new epidemics. Finally, it suggests that a critical analysis of the past may help stimulate future cooperation and solidarity. PMID:1384365</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JInst..11C2009S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JInst..11C2009S"><span id="translatedtitle">Developments of frequency comb microwave reflectometer for the <span class="hlt">interchange</span> mode observations in LHD plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Soga, R.; Tokuzawa, T.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Tanaka, K.; Yamada, I.; Inagaki, S.; Kasuya, N.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>We have upgraded the multi-channel microwave reflectometer system which uses a frequency comb as a source and measure the distribution of the density fluctuation caused by magneto-hydro dynamics instability. The previous multi-channel system was composed of the Ka-band, and the U-band system has been developed. Currently, the U-band system has eight frequency channels, which are 43.0, 45.0, 47.0, 49.0, 51.0, 53.0, 55.0, and 57.0 GHz, in U-band. Before the installation to the Large Helical Device (LHD), several tests for understanding the system characteristics, which are the phase responsibility, the linearity of output signal, and others, have been carried out. The in situ calibration in LHD has been done for the cross reference. In the neutral beam injected plasma experiments, we can observe the density fluctuation of the <span class="hlt">interchange</span> mode and obtain the radial distribution of fluctuation amplitude.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20384761','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20384761"><span id="translatedtitle">Generic products of antiepileptic drugs: a perspective on bioequivalence and <span class="hlt">interchangeability</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bialer, Meir; Midha, Kamal K</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>Most antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are currently available as generic products, yet neurologists and patients are reluctant to switch to generics. Generic AEDs are regarded as bioequivalent to brand AEDs after meeting the average bioequivalence criteria; consequently, they are considered to be <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> with their respective brands without loss of efficacy and safety. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) the present bioequivalence requirements are already so rigorous and constrained that there is little possibility that generics that meet regulatory bioequivalence criteria could lead to therapeutic problems. So is there a scientific rationale for the concerns about switching patients with epilepsy to bioequivalent generics? Herein we discuss the assessment of bioequivalence and propose a scaled-average bioequivalence approach where scaling of bioequivalence is carried out based on brand lot-to-lot variance as an alternative to the conventional bioequivalence test as a means to determine whether switching patients to generic formulations, or vice versa, is a safe and effective therapeutic option. Meeting the proposed scaled-average bioequivalence requirements will ensure that when an individual patient is switched, he or she has fluctuations in plasma levels similar to those from lot-to-lot of the brand reference levels and thus should make these generic products safely switchable without change in efficacy and safety outcomes. PMID:20384761</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4896519','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4896519"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing safety and immunogenicity of post-exposure prophylaxis following <span class="hlt">interchangeability</span> of rabies vaccines in humans</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ravish, Hardanahalli S; Sudarshan, Mysore K; Madhusudana, Shampur N; Annadani, Rachana R; Narayana, Doddabele H Ashwath; Belludi, Ashwin Y; Anandaiah, Gangaboraiah; Vijayashankar, Veena</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Rabies post exposure prophylaxis with cell culture vaccines by either intramuscular route or intradermal route spans over a period of one month. World Health Organization recommends completing post exposure prophylaxis against rabies with the same cell culture or embryonated egg rabies vaccine and with same route of administration and any deviation from this shall be an exception. In the present study, the safety and immunogenicity of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis was studied prospectively in 90 animal bite cases that had <span class="hlt">interchangeability</span> of rabies vaccines either by route of administration or brand/type and such changes had occurred due to logistical/financial problems. Among them, 47 had change in route of administration from intramuscular to intradermal or vice versa and 43 had change in the brand/type of cell culture rabies vaccine. All of them had category III rabies exposure and received equine rabies immunoglobulin along with the rabies vaccine. None of the study subjects had any adverse reactions. The rabies virus neutralizing antibody titers was assessed by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test and all the vaccinees had titers ≥0.5 IU per mL on day 14 which is considered as adequate for protection against rabies. Thus, the present study showed that, rabies post-exposure prophylaxis was safe and immunogenic despite changes in the route of administration and brand/type of rabies vaccine. PMID:24584134</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26810193','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26810193"><span id="translatedtitle">Biosolids reduction by the oxic-settling-anoxic process: Impact of sludge <span class="hlt">interchange</span> rate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Semblante, Galilee U; Hai, Faisal I; Bustamante, Heriberto; Guevara, Nelly; Price, William E; Nghiem, Long D</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The impact of sludge <span class="hlt">interchange</span> rate (SIR) on sludge reduction by oxic-settling-anoxic (OSA) process was investigated. The sludge yield of an OSA system (a sequencing batch reactor, SBR, integrated with external anoxic reactors) was compared to that of a control (an SBR attached to a single-pass aerobic digester). SIR (%) is the percentage by volume of sludge returned from the external reactor into the main bioreactor of the OSA, and was varied from 0% to 22%. OSA achieved greater sludge reduction when fed with unsettled sewage (sCOD=113mg/L) rather than settled sewage (sCOD=60mg/L). The SIR of 11% resulted in the highest OSA performance. At the optimum SIR, higher volatile solids destruction and nitrification/denitrification (i.e., conversion of destroyed volatile solids into inert forms) were observed in the external anoxic and intermittently aerated (i.e., aerobic/anoxic) reactors, respectively. Denitrification in the aerobic/anoxic reactor was inefficient without SIR. Effluent quality and sludge settleability of the main SBR were unaffected by SIR. PMID:26810193</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993STIN...9428874.','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993STIN...9428874."><span id="translatedtitle">DOD Electronic Commerce (EC)/Electronic Data <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> (EDI) in contracting report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1993-12-01</p> <p>Use of Electronic Commerce (EC)/Electronic Data <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> (EDI) to support Department of Defense (DoD) procurement processes has been under consideration for some time. A 1988 Deputy Secretary of Defense memo calls for maximum use of EDI, based on 10 years of DoD EDI investigation and experiments. In 1990, Defense Management Review Decision 941 stated, 'The strategic goal of DoD's current efforts is to provide the department with the capability to initiate, conduct, and maintain its external business related transactions and internal logistics, contracting, and financial activities without requiring the use of hard copy media.' The EC in Contracting PAT membership reflected a broad cross section of Military Services and Defense Agencies working on a full-time basis for 60 days. The diversity of the EC in Contracting PAT ensured that the needs and concerns of all DoD components were addressed during the creation of the report. The resultant plan, therefore, represents a comprehensive approach for implementing EC throughout the DoD.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4403360','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4403360"><span id="translatedtitle">Pelvic Floor Ultrasound Imaging: Are Physiotherapists <span class="hlt">Interchangeable</span> in the Assessment of Levator Hiatal Biometry?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gentilcore-Saulnier, Evelyne; Auchincloss, Cindy; McLean, Linda</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate inter-examiner reliability in the ultrasound (US) assessment of levator hiatal dimensions when different physiotherapists perform independent data acquisition and analysis. Methods: In this cross-sectional observational study, 14 asymptomatic nulliparous women were imaged at rest, during pelvic floor muscle contraction, and during Valsalva manoeuvre by two physiotherapists using three-dimensional (3D) and four-dimensional (4D) transperineal US. Examiners each measured the dimensions of the levator hiatus (area and antero-posterior and transverse diameters) from the US volumes they respectively acquired. Inter-examiner reliability was determined using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs), and inter-examiner agreement was determined using Bland–Altman analyses. Results: The ICC results demonstrated very good inter-examiner reliability (ICC=0.84–0.98); Bland–Altman results showed high inter-examiner agreement across all measurements. Conclusions: Trained examiners may be considered <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> in the US assessment of levator hiatal biometry. Overall, trained physiotherapists using transperineal US imaging to assess levator hiatal biometry can be confident when comparing their own clinical findings to those of their colleagues and to findings published in the literature. PMID:25922555</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSM51E4294H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSM51E4294H"><span id="translatedtitle">The Role of Electron Density on the <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Instability at Saturn</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hospodarsky, G. B.; Kennelly, T.; Thomsen, M. F.; Persoon, A. M.; Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Achilleos, N. A.; Andriopoulou, M.; Badman, S. V.; Jackman, C. M.; Jia, X.; Khurana, K. K.; Krupp, N.; Louarn, P.; Paranicas, C.; Roussos, E.; Sergis, N.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Interchange</span> events, where "injections" of hotter, less dense plasma moves inward to return the magnetic flux carried outward by the colder, more dense plasma in rapidly rotating magnetospheres, are detected at Saturn by Cassini on almost every orbit that encounters the inner and middle (<15 Rs) magnetosphere. Significant changes can occur in the number of injection events and their location (L shell) between inbound and outbound passes on a given orbit (over a several hour time span). Furthermore, changes are observed between orbits for the same local time sampling (over tens of days). Similar changes between inbound and outbound passes, and between orbits have been observed in the electron density values measured by Cassini. We examine the period in 2010 when Cassini was in near equatorial orbits with the inbound period between L of 4.5 and 10 primarily in the midnight sector and the outbound period was near noon. Using Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) and Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument (MIMI) data we determine the occurrence of injection events, their signature in a wide range of energies (eV to MeV), and examine their relationship with the electron density determined from the upper hybrid resonance emission measured by the Radio and Plasma Wave Science instrument.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17277878','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17277878"><span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Interchangeability</span> of biological drugs: considerations about the approval of biogeneric formulations in Chile].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Saavedra S, Iván; Quiñones S, Luis</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Once drug patents expire, the health authorities can approve the registry of similar products. They must request to the manufacturer, the bibliographic background of the original product and the analytical results that certify drug quality. An inspection of the premises of the manufacturer is also required. The main goal of this approval is to decrease cost, considering that the original product is usually more expensive. This is a current situation due to the imminent expiration of the patents of many biopharmaceutical products. Therefore, in Chile, the Public Health (ISP) and the Ministry of Health should consider that for this kind of products, until now, there are no <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> generic drugs, and that the similar drugs that are offered have a different chemical composition, since they have been manufactured through different processes. In the case of biological drugs (e.g. erythropoietir, somatotropin, heparin) the quality and homogeneity depend from the manufacture process. Its complete composition can not be absolutely elucidated; therefore small impurities or conformational variants can elicit an altered immune response or unexpected adverse reactions. This indicates that the approval of a biogeneric drug requires in addition to pharmacokinetic studies, preclinical and clinical analytical studies such as physicochemical assays, biological and immunological test. This issues have been established by WHO and have been incorporated for the main drug registry entities all over the world (FDA, EMEA, ANVISA) to approve biogeneric products. PMID:17277878</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4332249','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4332249"><span id="translatedtitle">Telomeres and centromeres have <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> roles in promoting meiotic spindle formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fennell, Alex; Fernández-Álvarez, Alfonso; Tomita, Kazunori</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Telomeres and centromeres have traditionally been considered to perform distinct roles. During meiotic prophase, in a conserved chromosomal configuration called the bouquet, telomeres gather to the nuclear membrane (NM), often near centrosomes. We found previously that upon disruption of the fission yeast bouquet, centrosomes failed to insert into the NM at meiosis I and nucleate bipolar spindles. Hence, the trans-NM association of telomeres with centrosomes during prophase is crucial for efficient spindle formation. Nonetheless, in approximately half of bouquet-deficient meiocytes, spindles form properly. Here, we show that bouquet-deficient cells can successfully undergo meiosis using centromere–centrosome contact instead of telomere–centrosome contact to generate spindle formation. Accordingly, forced association between centromeres and centrosomes fully rescued the spindle defects incurred by bouquet disruption. Telomeres and centromeres both stimulate focal accumulation of the SUN domain protein Sad1 beneath the centrosome, suggesting a molecular underpinning for their shared spindle-generating ability. Our observations demonstrate an unanticipated level of <span class="hlt">interchangeability</span> between the two most prominent chromosomal landmarks. PMID:25688135</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4565160','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4565160"><span id="translatedtitle">Microfluidic impact printer with <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> cartridges for versatile non-contact multiplexed micropatterning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ding, Yuzhe; Huang, Eric; Lam, Kit S.; Pan, Tingrui</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Biopatterning has been increasingly used for well-defined cellular microenvironment, patterned surface topology, and guided biological cues; however, it meets additional challenges on biocompatibility, temperature and chemical sensitivity and limited reagent volume. In this paper, we target at combining the desired features from the non-contact inkjet printing and the dot-matrix impact printing to establish a versatile multiplexed micropatterning platform, referred to as Microfluidic Impact Printer (MI-Printer), for emerging biomedical applications. Using this platform, we can achieve the distinct features of no cross-contamination, minute volume manipulation with minimal dead volume, high-throughput and biocompatible printing process, multiplexed patterning with automatic alignment, printing availability for complex medium (cell suspension or colloidal solutions), <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span>/disposable microfluidic cartridge design with out-of-cleanroom microfabrication, simple printing system assembly and configuration, all highly desirable towards biological applications. Specifically, the printing resolution of the MI-printer platform has been experimentally characterized and theoretically analyzed. Printed droplets with 80µm in diameter have been repeatedly obtained. Furthermore, two unique features of MI-printer platform, multiplexed printing and self-alignment printing, have been successfully experimentally demonstrated (less than 10µm misalignment). In addition, combinatorial patterning and biological patterning, which utilizes the multiplexed and self-alignment printing nature of the MI-printer, have been devised to demonstrate the applicability of this robust printing technique for emerging biomedical applications. PMID:23525299</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4850808','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4850808"><span id="translatedtitle">Can higher end tonometers be used <span class="hlt">interchangeably</span> in routine clinical practice?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Patel, Kunjan Jayantilal; Jain, Saurabh P; Kapadia, Priti R; Patel, Nikunj V; Patel, Saurabh; Patel, Vikas</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Context: Precise intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement is important in glaucoma practise. Various instruments are available today to accurately measure IOP. Thus, the question arises about which instrument to use and whether all of them can be used <span class="hlt">interchangeably</span>. Aims: To assess the agreement between noncontact tonometer (NCT), rebound tonometer (RBT), Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT), and dynamic contour tonometer (DCT) in measuring IOP. Subjects and Methods: 499 eyes of 250 patients were evaluated during a period of 24 months from September 2010 to August 2012 and measurement of IOP by NCT, RBT, GAT, and DCT was done in the given sequence. The agreement was assessed by use of the Bland–Altman plot keeping GAT as a gold standard technique. Results: The mean IOP value of NCT, RBT, GAT, and DCT was 15.9 ± 5.5, 15.9 ± 5.8, 15.9 ± 4.9, and 16.0 ± 4.7 mm of Hg, respectively. The limits of agreement of GAT with DCT, NCT, and RBT were found to be +5.4 to −5.2, −4.7 to +4.6, and −5.2 to +5.1 mm of Hg, respectively. Conclusions: A positive and strong correlation was found between newer tonometers and GAT, but the limit of agreement was clinically unacceptable. The use of a single tonometer should be practised at a glaucoma clinic for a patient at each follow-up. PMID:27050348</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990041450','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990041450"><span id="translatedtitle">Summary of Work for Joint Research <span class="hlt">Interchanges</span> with DARWIN Integrated Product Team 1998</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hesselink, Lambertus</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The intent of Stanford University's SciVis group is to develop technologies that enabled comparative analysis and visualization techniques for simulated and experimental flow fields. These techniques would then be made available under the Joint Research <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> for potential injection into the DARWIN Workspace Environment (DWE). In the past, we have focused on techniques that exploited feature based comparisons such as shock and vortex extractions. Our current research effort focuses on finding a quantitative comparison of general vector fields based on topological features. Since the method relies on topological information, grid matching and vector alignment is not needed in the comparison. This is often a problem with many data comparison techniques. In addition, since only topology based information is stored and compared for each field, there is a significant compression of information that enables large databases to be quickly searched. This report will briefly (1) describe current technologies in the area of comparison techniques, (2) will describe the theory of our new method and finally (3) summarize a few of the results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990051031','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990051031"><span id="translatedtitle">Summary of Work for Joint Research <span class="hlt">Interchanges</span> with DARWIN Integrated Product Team</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hesselink, Lambertus</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The intent of Stanford University's SciVis group is to develop technologies that enabled comparative analysis and visualization techniques for simulated and experimental flow fields. These techniques would then be made available un- der the Joint Research <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> for potential injection into the DARWIN Workspace Environment (DWE). In the past, we have focused on techniques that exploited feature based comparisons such as shock and vortex extractions. Our current research effort focuses on finding a quantitative comparison of general vector fields based on topological features. Since the method relies on topological information, grid matching an@ vector alignment is not needed in the comparison. This is often a problem with many data comparison techniques. In addition, since only topology based information is stored and compared for each field, there is a significant compression of information that enables large databases to be quickly searched. This report will briefly (1) describe current technologies in the area of comparison techniques, (2) will describe the theory of our new method and finally (3) summarize a few of the results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23860294','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23860294"><span id="translatedtitle">Match intensity and pacing strategies in rugby league: an examination of whole-game and <span class="hlt">interchanged</span> players, and winning and losing teams.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Black, Georgia M; Gabbett, Tim J</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>There is currently limited information on whether pacing occurs during rugby league match play. In addition, to date no research has investigated whether pacing strategies differ between winning and losing teams. This study investigated the pacing strategies of whole-game and <span class="hlt">interchanged</span> rugby league players. Furthermore, we investigated the pacing strategies of winning and losing teams. Fifty-two rugby league players, from a sample of 11 teams competing in a semi-elite competition, underwent global positioning system analysis. Performances were divided into match quartiles for whole-game and <span class="hlt">interchanged</span> players. Total distance, including low- and high-speed distances, and repeated high-intensity effort bouts were recorded. The total distance and low-speed distance covered across all quartiles of the match, but specifically quartiles 1 and 8, were greater for <span class="hlt">interchanged</span> players than whole-game players. The match outcome differentially affected the pacing strategies of whole-game and <span class="hlt">interchanged</span> players. Whole-game players from winning teams set a higher pacing strategy than whole-game players from losing teams (effect size [ES] = 1.03 ± 0.77, 96%, very likely), whereas <span class="hlt">interchanged</span> players from losing teams demonstrated a greater "end-spurt" than <span class="hlt">interchanged</span> players from winning teams (ES = 0.60 ± 0.52, 96%, very likely). The pacing strategies of <span class="hlt">interchanged</span> players were higher than whole-game players, irrespective of playing position. The results of this study suggest that pacing strategies differ between <span class="hlt">interchanged</span> and whole-game rugby league players. Furthermore, our results demonstrate a different pacing strategy between winning and losing teams. These findings suggest that physical preparation for rugby league matches, and recovery from these matches, should be individualized for whole-game and <span class="hlt">interchanged</span> players. Finally, performing physically intense training on a regular basis is likely to develop the physical and mental qualities required to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhPl...21e2309S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhPl...21e2309S"><span id="translatedtitle">Scattering of electromagnetic waves by vortex density structures associated with <span class="hlt">interchange</span> instability: Analytical and large scale plasma simulation results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sotnikov, V.; Kim, T.; Lundberg, J.; Paraschiv, I.; Mehlhorn, T. A.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The presence of plasma turbulence can strongly influence propagation properties of electromagnetic signals used for surveillance and communication. In particular, we are interested in the generation of low frequency plasma density irregularities in the form of coherent vortex structures. <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> or flute type density irregularities in magnetized plasma are associated with Rayleigh-Taylor type instability. These types of density irregularities play an important role in refraction and scattering of high frequency electromagnetic signals propagating in the earth ionosphere, in high energy density physics, and in many other applications. We will discuss scattering of high frequency electromagnetic waves on low frequency density irregularities due to the presence of vortex density structures associated with <span class="hlt">interchange</span> instability. We will also present particle-in-cell simulation results of electromagnetic scattering on vortex type density structures using the large scale plasma code LSP and compare them with analytical results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21282103','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21282103"><span id="translatedtitle">Observation of a critical pressure gradient for the stabilization of <span class="hlt">interchange</span> modes in simple magnetized toroidal plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Federspiel, L.; Labit, B.; Ricci, P.; Fasoli, A.; Furno, I.; Theiler, C.</p> <p>2009-09-15</p> <p>The existence of a critical pressure gradient needed to drive the <span class="hlt">interchange</span> instability is experimentally demonstrated in the simple magnetized torus TORoidal Plasma EXperiment [A. Fasoli et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 055902 (2006)]. This gradient is reached during a scan in the neutral gas pressure p{sub n}. Around a critical value for p{sub n}, depending on the magnetic configuration and on the injected rf power, a small increase in the neutral gas pressure triggers a transition in the plasma behavior. The pressure profile is locally flattened, stabilizing the <span class="hlt">interchange</span> mode observed at lower neutral gas densities. The measured value for the critical gradient is close to the linear theory estimate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22300174','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22300174"><span id="translatedtitle">Scattering of electromagnetic waves by vortex density structures associated with <span class="hlt">interchange</span> instability: Analytical and large scale plasma simulation results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sotnikov, V.; Kim, T.; Lundberg, J.; Paraschiv, I.; Mehlhorn, T. A.</p> <p>2014-05-15</p> <p>The presence of plasma turbulence can strongly influence propagation properties of electromagnetic signals used for surveillance and communication. In particular, we are interested in the generation of low frequency plasma density irregularities in the form of coherent vortex structures. <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> or flute type density irregularities in magnetized plasma are associated with Rayleigh-Taylor type instability. These types of density irregularities play an important role in refraction and scattering of high frequency electromagnetic signals propagating in the earth ionosphere, in high energy density physics, and in many other applications. We will discuss scattering of high frequency electromagnetic waves on low frequency density irregularities due to the presence of vortex density structures associated with <span class="hlt">interchange</span> instability. We will also present particle-in-cell simulation results of electromagnetic scattering on vortex type density structures using the large scale plasma code LSP and compare them with analytical results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DPPPP2053A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DPPPP2053A"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Multi-Point Current-Injection Feedback on <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Turbulence in a Dipole-Confined Plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abler, Melissa C.; Battey, Alexander; Mauel, Michael; Roberts, T. Maximillian</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Plasma confined by a strong dipole field exhibits low-frequency <span class="hlt">interchange</span> turbulence, which previous experiments have shown responds locally to active feedback, primarily in the direction of the electron magnetic drift. New experiments on the Collisionless Terella Experiment (CTX) use a system of two electrodes with 90° azimuthal separation to study the effects of multi-point current-injection feedback on <span class="hlt">interchange</span> turbulence. Initial open-loop experiments to excite low-frequency waves at a variety of relative phases and amplitudes indicate a significantly stronger spatial coherence when two electrodes are used rather than one. These driven low-frequency waves also generate harmonics which can persist throughout the plasma. In a closed-loop active feedback configuration, this system may be used to regulate the turbulent dynamics in new ways. Supported by NSF-DOE Partnership for Plasma Science Grants DOE-DE-FG02-00ER54585 and NSF-PHY-1201896.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910015300','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910015300"><span id="translatedtitle">Cryogenic mechanisms for scanning and <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of the Fabry-Perot interferometers in the ISO long wavelength spectrometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Davis, G. R.; Furniss, I.; Patrick, T. J.; Sidey, R. C.; Towlson, W. A.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) is an ESA cornerstone mission for infrared astronomy. Schedules for launch in 1993, its four scientific instruments will provide unprecedented sensitivity and spectral resolution at wavelengths which are inaccessible using ground-based techniques. One of these, the Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS), will operate in the 45 to 180 micron region (Emery et. al., 1985) and features two Fabry-Perot interferometers mounted on an <span class="hlt">interchange</span> mechanism. The entire payload module of the spacecraft, comprising the 60 cm telescope and the four focal plane instruments, is maintained at 2 to 4 K by an onboard supply of liquid helium. The mechanical design and testing of the cryogenic interferometer and <span class="hlt">interchange</span> mechanisms are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=concentrate&id=EJ1005111','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=concentrate&id=EJ1005111"><span id="translatedtitle">Racism, the Left and Twenty-First-Century Socialism: Some Observations on the Gur-Ze'ev/McLaren <span class="hlt">Interchange</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cole, Mike</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The Gur-Ze'ev/McLaren <span class="hlt">interchange</span> covered a wide range of issues that are important for twenty-first century socialists. In this article, the author concentrates on two of them: first, Gur-Ze'ev's charge that critical pedagogy is part of the "new anti-Semitism"; second, his critique of McLaren's support for Hugo Chavez and the Bolivarian model of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSM51E2595P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSM51E2595P"><span id="translatedtitle">All-sky imager observations near footprints of plasma sheet waves with kinetic ballooning-<span class="hlt">interchange</span> signatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Panov, E. V.; Nakamura, R.; Sergeev, V. A.; Baumjohann, W.; Kubyshkina, M. V.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We collected several THEMIS observations of plasma sheet oscillations with kinetic ballooning/<span class="hlt">interchange</span> instability (BICI) signatures. Using an adapted model to find the location of THEMIS footprints, we identified all-sky imager (ASI) observations that may be associated with the waves. The ASI observations reveal a reach activity often being diffuse patchy aurora. We investigate the brightness and motion of the auroral patches and compare them with the BICI activity in the plasma sheet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-03-04/pdf/2010-4509.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-03-04/pdf/2010-4509.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 10015 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on the <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> of State Loop 1604 and United States...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-03-04</p> <p>...This notice announces actions taken by the FHWA and other Federal agencies that are final within the meaning of 23 U.S.C. 139(l)(1). The actions relate to a proposed highway project, the <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of Texas State Loop 1604 (LP 1604) with United States Highway 281 (US 281). Project limits on LP 1604 are from Bitters Road to Redland Road and on US 281 are from LP 1604 to Bitters Road in Bexar......</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3758099','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3758099"><span id="translatedtitle">Is there a need for a formulary of clinically <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> medicines to guide generic substitution in Saudi Arabia?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Alrasheedy, Alian A.; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Aljadhey, Hisham; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed; Al-Tamimi, Saleh Karamah</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The escalating healthcare expenditure is a major challenge to sustainability of the healthcare systems. To confront the escalating health expenditure in general and medicines expenditure in particular, many countries promoted the use of generic medicines. To promote generic medicines, many countries have adopted a generic substitution (GS) policy and generic prescribing. To effectively implement the GS policy, it is evident in the literature that it is essential to have an evidence-based guide on therapeutic equivalence and formulary of <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> medicines to guide responsible GS. In Saudi Arabia, GS is permissive and pharmacists are given the right to perform GS. While the prescriber's approval is not a requirement, patient consent is required when performing GS. Although there are some general drug references, such as the Saudi National Formulary (SNF) and list of registered medicines in the Saudi market, but there is currently no information available to healthcare professionals that documents the therapeutic and bioequivalence between medicines. Thus, it is essential to have a formulary of <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> medicines to guide appropriate GS or at least to include such vital information regarding therapeutic equivalence and brand <span class="hlt">interchangeability</span> as part of the SNF. That, in turn, will not only make healthcare professionals more confident when providing GS, but will also enable the avoidance of situations where GS is inappropriate. PMID:24023460</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050041622','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050041622"><span id="translatedtitle">Lapin Data <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Among Database, Analysis and Display Programs Using XML-Based Text Files</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of grant NCC3-966 was to investigate and evaluate the <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of application-specific data among multiple programs each carrying out part of the analysis and design task. This has been carried out previously by creating a custom program to read data produced by one application and then write that data to a file whose format is specific to the second application that needs all or part of that data. In this investigation, data of interest is described using the XML markup language that allows the data to be stored in a text-string. Software to transform output data of a task into an XML-string and software to read an XML string and extract all or a portion of the data needed for another application is used to link two independent applications together as part of an overall design effort. This approach was initially used with a standard analysis program, Lapin, along with standard applications a standard spreadsheet program, a relational database program, and a conventional dialog and display program to demonstrate the successful sharing of data among independent programs. Most of the effort beyond that demonstration has been concentrated on the inclusion of more complex display programs. Specifically, a custom-written windowing program organized around dialogs to control the interactions have been combined with an independent CAD program (Open Cascade) that supports sophisticated display of CAD elements such as lines, spline curves, and surfaces and turbine-blade data produced by an independent blade design program (UD0300).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ApJ...803...68Y&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ApJ...803...68Y&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Reconnection Forced by the Filament Eruption Inside a Pseudo-streamer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Jiayan; Jiang, Yunchun; Xu, Zhe; Bi, Yi; Hong, Junchao</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>We present rare observational signatures of <span class="hlt">interchange</span> reconnection (IR) forced by the filament eruption inside a pseudo-streamer (PS). The PS was centered above a positive-polarity region bounded by two negative-polarity coronal holes (CHs), and thus its base contained two polarity inversion lines and a pair of loop arcades where two filaments were harbored. In white-light coronagraph data from two different views, it showed up as a fan-shaped structure consisting of fine rays and a coronal streamer. Followed by a two-ribbon flare and a coronal mass ejection, one of the filaments and its overlying arcade erupted away from the nearby CH and flew over the other arcade to interact with the PS's remote CH. As a result, distinct ribbon-like remote brightenings formed along the remote CH boundary and were connected to the positive-polarity flare ribbon by a loop system, but the nearby open-field region largely remained unchanged except that compact brightenings and a following small coronal dimming appeared close to one end of the erupted filament. In combination with the coronal magnetic configuration that derived from the potential-field source-surface model, these observations can be interpreted as follows: the erupting field was first deflected and guided by the nearby CH's open field and then reconnected with the oppositely oriented open field of the remote CH, during which both the closed field bridging the erupted filament and the remoter CH's open field were transported in the opposite direction. The observations thus supported the idea that PSs provide favorable environments for IR to take place and remote brightenings along their CH boundaries represent a credible IR signature on the solar surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSM43C..03C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSM43C..03C"><span id="translatedtitle">The Ballooning/<span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Instability as a Source of Dipolarization Fronts and Auroral Streamers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coroniti, F. V.; Pritchett, P. L.; Nishimura, Y.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The Ballooning/InterChange Instability (BICI) can be excited in a 3D plasma sheet configuration in a region where the entropy decreases with distance down the tail. This mode represents a low-frequency extension to curved magnetic geometry of the familiar LHDI in straight magnetic geometry. Initially, this mode produces the familiar <span class="hlt">interchange</span> fingers with a wavelength comparable to a few times the local equatorial ion gyroradius. Nonlinearly, however, as the modes propagate earthward at a speed of about 0.6 V_Ti, the dominant fingers steepen as they sweep up magnetic flux to form intense "heads" with strength comparable to the lobe field. This evolution process represents a self-consistent dynamical realization of the bubble scenario proposed by Chen and Wolf [1993]. 3-D particle-in-cell simulations are used to determine the properties of the nonlinear BICI heads. The cross-tail extent of a head is typically of the order of 4000-5000 km; the transition thickness of the B_z increase at the leading edge is about the local ion inertial length; the heads feature a Region 1 (substorm current wedge) sense field-aligned current structure; eventually a head breaks up into multiple substructures of width 600-800 km. This breakup occurs when the ion gyroradius in the head becomes smaller than the y width of the head, thereby permitting the BICI process to generate secondary heads. These subheads are regions where the electrons are not frozen-in to the field (E + U_e X B/c ne 0); the deviation from the ideal Ohm's law arises from strong electron pressure gradients and electron inertial term at the scalloped head. The breakup of the head structures should be manifested in the formation of structures within the corresponding auroral streamer. These predictions will be compared with observations of such streamer substructures obtained by the THEMIS all-sky imager network.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4412061','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4412061"><span id="translatedtitle">Transcriptional activity of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta Holobiont: molecular evidence for metabolic <span class="hlt">interchange</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fiore, Cara L.; Labrie, Micheline; Jarett, Jessica K.; Lesser, Michael P.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Compared to our understanding of the taxonomic composition of the symbiotic microbes in marine sponges, the functional diversity of these symbionts is largely unknown. Furthermore, the application of genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic techniques to functional questions on sponge host-symbiont interactions is in its infancy. In this study, we generated a transcriptome for the host and a metatranscriptome of its microbial symbionts for the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta, from the Caribbean. In combination with a gene-specific approach, our goals were to (1) characterize genetic evidence for nitrogen cycling in X. muta, an important limiting nutrient on coral reefs (2) identify which prokaryotic symbiont lineages are metabolically active and, (3) characterize the metabolic potential of the prokaryotic community. Xestospongia muta expresses genes from multiple nitrogen transformation pathways that when combined with the abundance of this sponge, and previous data on dissolved inorganic nitrogen fluxes, shows that this sponge is an important contributor to nitrogen cycling biogeochemistry on coral reefs. Additionally, we observed significant differences in gene expression of the archaeal amoA gene, which is involved in ammonia oxidation, between coral reef locations consistent with differences in the fluxes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen previously reported. In regards to symbiont metabolic potential, the genes in the biosynthetic pathways of several amino acids were present in the prokaryotic metatranscriptome dataset but in the host-derived transcripts only the catabolic reactions for these amino acids were present. A similar pattern was observed for the B vitamins (riboflavin, biotin, thiamin, cobalamin). These results expand our understanding of biogeochemical cycling in sponges, and the metabolic <span class="hlt">interchange</span> highlighted here advances the field of symbiont physiology by elucidating specific metabolic pathways where there is high potential for host</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9147E..51C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9147E..51C"><span id="translatedtitle">A format standard for efficient <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of high-contrast direct imaging science products</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Choquet, Élodie; Vigan, Arthur; Soummer, Rémi; Chauvin, Gaël.; Pueyo, Laurent; Perrin, Marshall D.; Hines, Dean C.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>The present and next few years will see the arrival of several new coronagraphic instruments dedicated to the detection and characterization of planetary systems. These ground- and space-based instruments (Gemini/GPI, VLT/SPHERE, Subaru/ CHARIS, JWST NIRCam and MIRI coronagraphs among others), will provide a large number of new candidates, through multiple nearby-star surveys and will complete and extend those acquired with current generation instruments (Palomar P1640, VLT/NACO, Keck, HST). To optimize the use of the wealth of data, including non-detection results, the science products of these instruments will require to be shared among the community. In the long term such data exchange will significantly ease companion confirmations, planet characterization via different type of instruments (integral field spectrographs, polarimetric imagers, etc.), and Monte-Carlo population studies from detection and non-detection results. In this context, we initiated a collaborative effort between the teams developing the data reduction pipelines for SPHERE, GPI, and the JWST coronagraphs, and the ALICE (Archival Legacy Investigations of Circumstellar Environment) collaboration, which is currently reprocessing all the HST/NICMOS coronagraphic surveys. We are developing a standard format for the science products generated by high-contrast direct imaging instruments (reduced image, sensitivity limits, noise image, candidate list, etc.), that is directly usable for astrophysical investigations. In this paper, we present first results of this work and propose a preliminary format adopted for the science product. We call for discussions in the high-contrast direct imaging community to develop this effort, reach a consensus and finalize this standard. This action will be critical to enable data <span class="hlt">interchange</span> and combination in a consistent way between several instruments and to stiffen the scientific production in the community.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040074180','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040074180"><span id="translatedtitle">Lapin Data <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Among Database, Analysis and Display Programs Using XML-Based Text Files</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The purpose was to investigate and evaluate the <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of application- specific data among multiple programs each carrying out part of the analysis and design task. This has been carried out previously by creating a custom program to read data produced by one application and then write that data to a file whose format is specific to the second application that needs all or part of that data. In this investigation, data of interest is described using the XML markup language that allows the data to be stored in a text-string. Software to transform output data of a task into an XML-string and software to read an XML string and extract all or a portion of the data needed for another application is used to link two independent applications together as part of an overall design effort. This approach was initially used with a standard analysis program, Lapin, along with standard applications a standard spreadsheet program, a relational database program, and a conventional dialog and display program to demonstrate the successful sharing of data among independent programs. See Engineering Analysis Using a Web-Based Protocol by J.D. Schoeffler and R.W. Claus, NASA TM-2002-211981, October 2002. Most of the effort beyond that demonstration has been concentrated on the inclusion of more complex display programs. Specifically, a custom-written windowing program organized around dialogs to control the interactions have been combined with an independent CAD program (Open Cascade) that supports sophisticated display of CAD elements such as lines, spline curves, and surfaces and turbine-blade data produced by an independent blade design program (UD0300).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24179174','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24179174"><span id="translatedtitle">Beta tubulin isoforms are not <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> for rescuing impaired radial migration due to Tubb3 knockdown.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Saillour, Yoann; Broix, Loïc; Bruel-Jungerman, Elodie; Lebrun, Nicolas; Muraca, Giuseppe; Rucci, Julien; Poirier, Karine; Belvindrah, Richard; Francis, Fiona; Chelly, Jamel</p> <p>2014-03-15</p> <p>Over the last years, the critical role of cytoskeletal proteins in cortical development including neuronal migration as well as in neuronal morphology has been well established. Inputs from genetic studies were provided through the identification of several mutated genes encoding either proteins associated with microtubules (DCX, LIS1, KIF2A, KIF5C, DYNC1H1) or tubulin subunits (TUBA1A, TUBB2B, TUBB5 and TUBG1), in malformations of cortical development (MCD). We also reported the identification of missense mutations in TUBB3, the postmitotic neuronal specific tubulin, in six different families presenting either polymicrogyria or gyral disorganization in combination with cerebellar and basal ganglial abnormalities. Here, we investigate further the association between TUBB3 mutations and MCDs by analyzing the consequences of Tubb3 knockdown on cortical development in mice. Using the in utero-electroporation approach, we demonstrate that Tubb3 knockdown leads to delayed bipolar morphology and radial migration with evidence, suggesting that the neuronal arrest is a transient phenomenon overcome after birth. Silenced blocked cells display a round-shape and decreased number of processes and a delay in the acquisition of the bipolar morphology. Also, more Tbr2 positive cells are observed, although less cells express the proliferation marker Ki67, suggesting that Tubb3 inactivation might have an indirect effect on intermediate progenitor proliferation. Furthermore, we show by rescue experiments the non-<span class="hlt">interchangeability</span> of other beta-tubulins which are unable to rescue the phenotype. Our study highlights the critical and specific role of Tubb3 on the stereotyped morphological changes and polarization processes that are required for initiating radial migration to the cortical plate. PMID:24179174</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17174109','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17174109"><span id="translatedtitle">Phylogeny of the Procyonidae (Mammalia: Carnivora): molecules, morphology and the Great American <span class="hlt">Interchange</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Gompper, Matthew E; Eizirik, Eduardo; Ho, Cheuk-Chung; Linden, Leif; Maldonado, Jesus E; Wayne, Robert K</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>, 709-720] may be due to non-independence among atomized dental characters that does not take into account the high developmental genetic correlation of these characters. Finally, molecular divergence dating analyses using a relaxed molecular clock approach suggest that intergeneric and intrageneric splits in the Procyonidae mostly occurred in the Miocene. The inferred divergence times for intrageneric splits for several genera whose ranges are bisected by the Panamanian Isthmus is significant because they suggest diversification well precedes the Great American <span class="hlt">Interchange</span>, which has long been considered a primary underlying mechanism for procyonid evolution. PMID:17174109</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000038369','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000038369"><span id="translatedtitle">Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) Technical <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Meeting 2 (SERT TIM 2)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Howell, Joe; Sanders, Clark W.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The University of Alabama in Huntsville's (UAH) Propulsion Research Center hosted the Space Solar Power Exploratory Research & Technology (SERT) Technical <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Meeting TIM) 2 in Huntsville, Alabama December 7-10. 1999 with 126 people in attendance. The SERT program includes both competitively procured activities. which are being implemented through a portfolio of focused R&D investments--with the maximum leveraging of existing resources inside and outside NASA. and guided by these system studies. Axel Roth. Director of the Flight Projects Directorate NASA MSFC, welcomed the SERT TIM 2 participants and challenged them to develop the necessary technologies and demonstrations that will lead to Space Solar Power (SSP) International implementation. Joe Howell, NASA MSFC, reiterated the SERT TIM 2 objectives: 1) Refining and modeling systems approaches for the utilization of SSP concepts and technologies, ranging, from the near-term e.g. for space science, exploration and commercial space applications to the far-term (e. g. SSP for terrestrial markets), including systems concepts, technology, infrastructure (i.g., transportation), and economics. 2) Conducting technology research, development and demonstration activities to produce "proof- of-concept" validation of critical SSP elements for both the nearer and farther-term applications. 3) Initiating partnerships Nationality and Internationally that could be expanded, as appropriate, to pursue later SSP technology and applications (e.g., space science. colonization, etc.). Day one began with the NASA Centers presenting their SERT activities summary since SERT TIM 1 and wound up with a presentation by Masahiro Mori, NASDA titled "NASDA In-house Study for SSP". Demonstration for the Near-Term. Day two began with the SERT Systems Studies and Analysis reports resulting from NRA 8-23 followed by presentations of SERT Technology Demonstrations reports resulting from NRA 8-23. Day two closed with John Mankins presentation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=42922','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=42922"><span id="translatedtitle">Oxidative metal release from metallothionein via zinc-thiol/disulfide <span class="hlt">interchange</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Maret, W</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Mammalian metallothionein has been postulated to play a pivotal role in cellular zinc distribution. All seven of its metal atoms are bound with high thermodynamic stability in two clusters buried deeply in the molecule. If the protein is to function in metal delivery, there must be a biological mechanism to facilitate metal release. One means to achieve this would be a labilization of the clusters by interaction of metallothionein with an appropriate cellular ligand. To search for such a mediator, we have designed a rapid radiochromatographic method that can detect changes in the zinc content of 65Zn-labeled metallothionein in response to other biomolecules. Using this methodology, we have established that rabbit liver metallothionein 2 interacts with glutathione disulfide with concomitant release of zinc. Under conditions of pseudo-first-order kinetics, the monophasic reaction depends linearly on the concentration of glutathione disulfide in the range from 5 to 30 mM with a second-order rate constant k = 4.9 x 10(-3)s-1.M-1 (pH 8.6; 25 degrees C). Apparently, zinc release does not involve direct access of glutathione disulfide to the inner coordination sphere of the metals. Rather it appears that the solvent-accessible zinc-bound thiolates in two clefts of each domain of metallothionein [Robbins, A. H., McRee, D. E., Williamson, M., Collett, S. A., Xuong, N. H., Furey, W. F., Wang, B. C. & Stout, C. D. (1991) J. Mol. Biol. 221, 1269-1293] participate in a thiol/disulfide <span class="hlt">interchange</span> with glutathione disulfide. This rate-limiting initial S-thiolation, which occurs with indistinguishable rates in both clusters, then causes the clusters to collapse and release their zinc. Such a mechanism of metal release would link the control of the metal content of metallothionein to the cellular glutathione redox status and raises important questions about the physiological implications of this observation with regard to a role of glutathione in zinc metabolism and in making zinc</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFMIN52B..07R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFMIN52B..07R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Geoscience terminology for data <span class="hlt">interchange</span>: the CGI Geoscience Terminology Work Group (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Richard, S. M.; Gtwg, G.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>. Petersburg, Russia in June, 2013. The group decided on workflow procedures and discussed technology for vocabulary accessibility, which is still a problem. Eleven new vocabularies were adopted to add to the current portfolio of 31 vocabularies developed for GeoSciML <span class="hlt">interchange</span> documents. Additional vocabularies are under development for GeoSciML v3, and EarthResourceML https://www.seegrid.csiro.au/wiki/CGIModel/EarthResourceML. Other outstanding work items include integrating multilingual geoscience terms developed by the MLT Working Group with existing CGI vocabularies to provide multilingual support, establishing existing vocabularies in a permanent repository under stewardship of the GTWG, and documenting policies for vocabulary management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25807555','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25807555"><span id="translatedtitle">Distribution, persistence and <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of Epstein-Barr virus strains among PBMC, plasma and saliva of primary infection subjects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kwok, Hin; Chan, Koon Wing; Chan, Kwok Hung; Chiang, Alan Kwok Shing</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Our study aimed at investigating the distribution, persistence and <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of viral strains among peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), plasma and saliva of primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection subjects. Twelve infectious mononucleosis (IM) patients and eight asymptomatic individuals (AS) with primary EBV infection were followed longitudinally at several time points for one year from the time of diagnosis, when blood and saliva samples were collected and separated into PBMC, plasma and saliva, representing circulating B cell, plasma and epithelial cell compartments, respectively. To survey the viral strains, genotyping assays for the natural polymorphisms in two latent EBV genes, EBNA2 and LMP1, were performed and consisted of real-time PCR on EBNA2 to distinguish type 1 and 2 viruses, fluorescent-based 30-bp typing assay on LMP1 to distinguish deletion and wild type LMP1, and fluorescent-based heteroduplex tracking assays on both EBNA2 and LMP1 to distinguish defined polymorphic variants. No discernible differences were observed between IM patients and AS. Multiple viral strains were acquired early at the start of infection. Stable persistence of dominant EBV strains in the same tissue compartment was observed throughout the longitudinal samples. LMP1-defined strains, China 1, China 2 and Mediterranean+, were the most common strains observed. EBNA2-defined groups 1 and 3e predominated the PBMC and saliva compartments. Concordance of EBNA2 and LMP1 strains between PBMC and saliva suggested ready <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of viruses between circulating B cell and epithelial cell pools, whilst discordance of viral strains observed between plasma and PBMC/saliva indicated presence of viral pools in other undetermined tissue compartments. Taken together, the results indicated that the distribution, persistence and <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of viral strains among the tissue compartments are more complex than those proposed by the current model of EBV life cycle. PMID:25807555</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840003108','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840003108"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation and evaluation of the Sh-2F helicopter in a shipboard environment using the <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> cab system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Paulk, C. H., Jr.; Astill, D. L.; Donley, S. T.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The operation of the SH-2F helicopter from the decks of small ships in adverse weather was simulated using a large amplitude vertical motion simulator, a wide angle computer generated imagery visual system, and an <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> cab (ICAB). The simulation facility, the mathematical programs, and the validation method used to ensure simulation fidelity are described. The results show the simulator to be a useful tool in simulating the ship-landing problem. Characteristics of the ICAB system and ways in which the simulation can be improved are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFMSH31B..05R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFMSH31B..05R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Reconnection and Slow Solar Wind Formation at the boundaries of open field regions in the Solar Corona</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rappazzo, A. F.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Ruffolo, D. J.; Servidio, S.; Velli, M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Interchange</span> reconnection, i.e., magnetic reconnection at the interface between open and closed corona, is thought to contribute to the formation of the slowsolar wind, since it can inject the hotter and denserplasma from closed regions into the heliosphere,and account for the different slow wind composition (thatis similar to the plasma of closed regions) respectto the fast wind. The <span class="hlt">interchange</span> process has mostly been investigatedfor magnetic field lines with opposite polarity and null points, either for the case of counterdirected loops (e.g., Fisk et al. 1999, Fisk and Schwadron 2001), or in correspondence of null points at the apex of streamers or pseudo-streamers (e.g., Wang et al. 1998,Edmondson et al. 2010, Del Zanna et al. 2011).Magnetic reconnection can certainly occur in these configurations,but they occupy a very small volume of the corona. On the other hand component magnetic reconnection at the boundarybetween coronal holes and streamers or pseudo-streamers hasreceived less attention, even though it can occur aroundthe entire extension of such boundaries. Magnetic reconnection is at the basis of Parker'snanoflare scenario for the heating of coronal loops.Modeling such regions in cartesian geometry with a strongguide field, it has been shown numerically that photosphericmotions induce a magnetic fieldcomponent orthogonal to the strong axial field characterizedby the presence of many current sheets, where the field lines are locally oppositely directed, and can reconnect (Einaudi et al. 1996; Dmitruk and Gomez 1997).The reconnection of the orthogonal component of the magneticfield leads to a change of connectivity of the field linesof the total magnetic field that connect one photospheric boundaryto the other. We have shown that a similar <span class="hlt">interchange</span> mechanismcan operate in and around the boundaries between open and closedregions inducing a continual stochastic rearrangement of connectivityeverywhere along the open-closed boundary (Rappazzo et al. 2012</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/231389','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/231389"><span id="translatedtitle">Summary of geotechnical services for the proposed Route 24/580/980 <span class="hlt">interchange</span> improvement in Oakland, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tabatabaie, A.; Majchrzak, M.</p> <p>1996-02-01</p> <p>This report presents a summary of the geotechnical services in connection with the proposed Route 24/580/980 <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Improvement in Oakland, California. The purpose of the work was to provide drilling equipment and personnel to log test borings, collect soils samples, testing of excess soil cutting for environmental concerns and disposal of excess soils cutting. A field investigation was conducted from September 7 through September 26, 1995. The field work consisted of drilling 7 borings (B-1 through B-7) at the approximate locations shown on the Boring Location Map provided by CALTRANS. These borings extended to approximately 200 feet below the ground surface. This project is part of a CALTRANS earthquake retrofit project.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NucFu..56b6008N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NucFu..56b6008N"><span id="translatedtitle">Dissipation and diamagnetic effects on the <span class="hlt">interchange</span> mode growth rate and rotation in reduced magnetohydrodynamics applied to stellarators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nicolas, T.; Ichiguchi, K.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The results of a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model for the <span class="hlt">interchange</span> mode in a stellarator are reported. The model is based on Strauss equations, with the addition of resistivity, viscosity and perpendicular heat conductivity on the one hand, and ion and electron diamagnetic effects on the other hand. The ideally unstable and stable mode growth rate and frequency are studied. The main result is that the ideally unstable mode can rotate in the electron direction even in the absence of electron diamagnetic effects, due to a linear bifurcation caused by the heat conductivity. The presence of the bifurcation is explained analytically. The diamagnetic effects can be destabilizing. For the ideally stable (resistive) mode, we find that the presence of viscosity and heat conductivity causes rotation in the electron direction in the case where {{T}e}={{T}i} .</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhPl...23f2319G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhPl...23f2319G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of fast electrons on the stability of resistive <span class="hlt">interchange</span> modes in the TJ-II stellarator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>García, L.; Ochando, M. A.; Carreras, B. A.; Carralero, D.; Hidalgo, C.; van Milligen, B. Ph.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>In this paper, we report on electromagnetic phenomena in low-β plasmas at the TJ-II stellarator, controlled by external heating. To understand the observations qualitatively, we introduce a simple modification of the standard resistive MHD equations, to include the potential impact of fast electrons on instabilities. The dominant instabilities of the modeling regime are resistive <span class="hlt">interchange</span> modes, and calculations are performed in a configuration with similar characteristics as the TJ-II stellarator. The main effect of the trapping of fast electrons by magnetic islands induced by MHD instabilities is to increase the magnetic component of the fluctuations, changing the character of the instability to tearing-like and modifying the frequency of the modes. These effects seem to be consistent with some of the experimental observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JSPST..72..190U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JSPST..72..190U"><span id="translatedtitle">LUMIX DMC-G1 - New Pleasantness of the Camera with <span class="hlt">Interchangeable</span> Lenses That G1 Provides -</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ueda, Hiroshi; Hataji, Shinji; Morishita, Seiki; Inoue, Yoshiyuki</p> <p></p> <p>Panasonic introduced in October 2008 the "LUMIX DMC-G1", which is adopting the Micro Four Thirds standard. This camera was a hot topic from the time of the announcement in September and after the sales start it was highly evaluated not only due to its small size and light weight, but also due to the compact camera like easy operation realized by the mirror-less construction and due to the performance, which is on the same level like conventional consumer SLR cameras. Within this chapter we will explain about the technology behind the high-speed AF, which was seen as difficult to realize in a system based on Live View, and the high resolution Live View Finder, as well as about the new challenge of color variations, presented for the first time for an <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> lens camera.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21218049','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21218049"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interchangeability</span> of two 500 mg amoxicillin capsules with one 1000 mg amoxicillin tablet after a single oral administration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zaid, A N; Cortesi, R; Kort, J; Sweileh, W</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>The aim of the study was to evaluate if two capsules (Amoxil(®) capsules, 500 mg/capsule) and one tablet (Amoxicare(®) tablets, 1000 mg/tablet) of amoxicillin have similar bioequivalence parameters. For this purpose a randomized, two-way, crossover, bioequivalence study was performed in 24 healthy, male volunteers, divided into two groups of 12 subjects each. One group was treated with the reference standard (Amoxil(®)) and the other one with the generic tablet Amoxicare(®), with a crossover after a wash-out period of 7 days. Blood samples were collected at fixed time intervals and amoxicillin was determined by a validated HPLC method. The pharmacokinetic parameters AUC(0-8), AUC(0-∞), C(max), T(max), K(e) and T(1/2) were determined for both formulations and statistically compared to evaluate the bioequivalence between the two brands of amoxicillin, using the statistical model recommended by the FDA. C(max) and AUC(0-∞) were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA); no statistically significant difference was observed between the two formulations. The 90% confidence intervals between the mean values of C(max) and AUC(0-∞) fall within the FDA specified bioequivalent limits (80-125%) suggesting that the two products are bioequivalent and the two formulations are <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span>. Based on these findings it was concluded that the practice of <span class="hlt">interchangeability</span> between the above formulations to achieve better patient compliance could be followed without compromising the extent of amoxicillin absorption. PMID:21218049</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-08-16/pdf/2010-20092.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-08-16/pdf/2010-20092.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 50038 - Temporary Closure of I-70 (I-70/I-465 West Leg <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> to the I-70/I-65 South Split...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-08-16</p> <p>... deletion of segments of the federally designated routes that make up the National Network designated in... the risk of work zone accidents in the area of these work zones. The INDOT believes that the best way... the work in the <span class="hlt">interchange</span> areas is being conducted. The closure also provides additional safety...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=history+AND+second+AND+World&pg=4&id=EJ1078879','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=history+AND+second+AND+World&pg=4&id=EJ1078879"><span id="translatedtitle">Teacher Mobility and Transnational, "British World" Space: The League of the Empire's "<span class="hlt">Interchange</span> of Home and Dominion Teachers", 1907-1931</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Crutchley, Jody</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This article explores the experiences of teachers who participated in the League of the Empire's "<span class="hlt">Interchange</span> of Home and Dominion Teachers" scheme through a tripartite approach to "British World" space. First, it identifies the mechanisms through which exchanges were established. It analyses the patterns of teacher mobility…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ClinicalTrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT01972802','CLINICALTRIALS'); return false;" href="https://ClinicalTrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT01972802"><span id="translatedtitle">International Cancer of the Head and Neck, Genetics and Environment (<span class="hlt">InterCHANGE</span>) Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct/screen/SimpleSearch">ClinicalTrials.gov</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-29</p> <p>Evaluate the Association Between Certain Environmental Exposures (e.g. Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol Drinking, Betel Nut Chewing…) and Head and Neck Cancers; Assess the Effect of Genetic <span class="hlt">Factors</span>, Including Both SNP and Copy Number Variation (CNV) Through Analysis of Both Main Effect and Gene-gene Interaction</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JChPh.102.1114K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JChPh.102.1114K"><span id="translatedtitle">Donor-acceptor <span class="hlt">interchange</span> tunneling in HDO-DOH and the higher energy HDO-HOD isotopomer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karyakin, E. N.; Fraser, G. T.; Lovas, F. J.; Suenram, R. D.; Fujitake, M.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The microwave and submillimeter spectra of the a-type K=0←0 and K=1←1, c-type K=1←0, and isotopically allowed b-type K=1←0 bands of the O-D bonded HDO-DOH water dimer isotopomer and the higher energy O-H bonded HDO-HOD isotopomer have been measured using molecular-beam electric resonance optothermal and pulsed-nozzle Fourier-transform microwave spectrometers. The present results obtained in He and He/Ne seeded molecular beams give the first evidence for the presence of the higher energy O-H bonded mixed protonated-deuterated water dimers. These species were not reported previously in studies using seeded Ar molecular beams. The donor-acceptor <span class="hlt">interchange</span> tunneling splittings are found to be 1322.1019(43) and 5004.059(20) MHz for the HDO-DOH and the metastable HDO-HOD dimers, respectively. For both isotopomers, the donor-accepter <span class="hlt">interchange</span> tunneling-state selections rules for the b- and c-type bands are consistent with tunneling pathways corresponding to geared partial internal rotation of the two subunits in double-minima potentials. The larger tunneling splitting in HDO-HOD is primarily the consequence of the smaller effective reduced mass for tunneling in this system compared to that in HDO-DOH. The presence of both b- and c-type K=1←0 bands allows the direct measurement of the largest tunneling splitting, that associated with the internal rotation about the O-H-O or O-D-O bond of the nonbonded proton/deuteron on the proton donating unit. For the K=0 state of HDO-DOH this splitting is 214 208.38(23) MHz, while for the K=0 state of HDO-HOD it is 117 440.97(17) MHz. A strong b-type Coriolis interaction is observed between the upper K=0 and lower K=1 states in HDO-DOH, similar to that observed previously in (H2O)2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2954488','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2954488"><span id="translatedtitle">Large-Scale Phosphoproteome of Human Whole Saliva Using Disulphide-Thiol-<span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Covalent Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Salih, Erdjan; Siqueira, Walter L.; Helmerhorst, Eva J.; Oppenheim, Frank G.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Thus far only a handful of phosphoproteins with important biological functions have been identified and characterized in oral fluids and these include some of the abundant protein constituents of saliva. Whole saliva (WS) samples were trypsin digested followed by chemical derivatization using dithiothreitol (DTT) of the phospho-serine/threonine containing peptides. The DTT-phosphopeptides were enriched by covalent disulphide-thiol-<span class="hlt">interchange</span> chromatography and analysis by nano-flow LC-ESI-MS/MS. The specificity of DTT chemical derivatization was evaluated separately under different base-catalyzed conditions with NaOH and Ba(OH)2, blocking cysteine residues by iodoacetamide and enzymatic O-deglycosylation prior to DTT reaction. Further analysis of WS samples which were subjected to either of these conditions provided supporting evidence for phosphoprotein identifications. The combined chemical strategies and mass spectrometric analyses identified 65 phosphoproteins in WS of which 28 were based on two or more peptide identification criteria with high confidence, and 37 were based on a single phosphopeptide identification. Most of the identified proteins, ~80%, were hitherto unknown phosphoprotein components. This study represents the first large-scale documentation of phosphoproteins of WS. The origins and identity of WS phosphoproteome suggest significant implications for both basic science and the development of novel biomarkers/diagnostic tools for both systemic and oral disease states. PMID:20659418</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4283609','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4283609"><span id="translatedtitle">Neotropical mammal diversity and the Great American Biotic <span class="hlt">Interchange</span>: spatial and temporal variation in South America's fossil record</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Carrillo, Juan D.; Forasiepi, Analía; Jaramillo, Carlos; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The vast mammal diversity of the Neotropics is the result of a long evolutionary history. During most of the Cenozoic, South America was an island continent with an endemic mammalian fauna. This isolation ceased during the late Neogene after the formation of the Isthmus of Panama, resulting in an event known as the Great American Biotic <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> (GABI). In this study, we investigate biogeographic patterns in South America, just before or when the first immigrants are recorded and we review the temporal and geographical distribution of fossil mammals during the GABI. We performed a dissimilarity analysis which grouped the faunal assemblages according to their age and their geographic distribution. Our data support the differentiation between tropical and temperate assemblages in South America during the middle and late Miocene. The GABI begins during the late Miocene (~10–7 Ma) and the putative oldest migrations are recorded in the temperate region, where the number of GABI participants rapidly increases after ~5 Ma and this trend continues during the Pleistocene. A sampling bias toward higher latitudes and younger records challenges the study of the temporal and geographic patterns of the GABI. PMID:25601879</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/1983/0878b/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/1983/0878b/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A U.S. Geological Survey Data Standard (Specifications for representation of geographic point locations for information <span class="hlt">interchange</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>U.S. Geological Survey</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>This standard establishes uniform formats for geographic point location data. Geographic point location refers to the use of a coordinate system to define the position of a point that may be on, above, or below the Earth's surface. It provides a means for representing these data in digital form for the purpose of <span class="hlt">interchanging</span> information among data systems and improving clarity and accuracy of interpersonal communications. This document is an expansion and clarification of National Bureau of Standards FIPS PUB 70, issued October 24, 1980. There are minor editorial changes, plus the following additions and modifications: (I) The representation of latitude and longitude using radian measure was added. (2) Alternate 2 for Representation of Hemispheric Information was deleted. (3) Use of the maximum precision for all numerical values was emphasized. The Alternate Representation of Precision was deleted. (4) The length of the zone representation for the State Plane Coordinate System was standardized. (5) The term altitude was substituted for elevation throughout to conform with international usage. (6) Section 3, Specifications for Altitude Data, was expanded and upgraded significantly to the same level of detail as for the horizontal values. (7) A table delineating the coverage of Universal Transverse Mercator zones and the longitudes of the Central Meridians was added and the other tables renumbered. (8) The total length of the representation of point location data at maximum precision was standardized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/78-1029/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/ofr/78-1029/"><span id="translatedtitle">Quality of the water in Borrow Ponds near a major highway <span class="hlt">interchange</span>, Dade County, Florida, October-November 1977</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Beaven, T.R.; McPherson, Benjamin F.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Water, bottom sediment, and aquatic plants were sampled from ponds near a major south Florida highway <span class="hlt">interchange</span> to document concentrations of selected constituents in an aquatic environment near heavy vehicular traffic. Generally, concentrations of constituents were within the range expected in an uncontaminated environment in south Florida. However, concentrations did exceed south Florida background levels or Environmental Protection Agency criteria in a few cases. Two trace elements--chromium (20 micrograms per liter) in ponded surface water and lead (500 micrograms per gram) in bottom sediment--exceeded background levels. Concentrations of dieldrin (22 micrograms per kilogram) and polychlorinated biphenyls (53 micrograms per kilogram) also exceed background levels in bottom sediment. The concentration of phenol (23 micrograms per liter) in ground water exceeded Environmental Protection Agency quality criteria by 22 micrograms per liter, but was within the background range for south Florida. Ten metals were detected in the cattail or algal samples, but only iron, manganese, and zinc were in higher concentrations than those in the bottom sediment. (Woodard-USGS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EEEV....9..103T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EEEV....9..103T"><span id="translatedtitle">Tri-directional shaking table tests of vibration sensitive equipment with static dynamics <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span>-ball pendulum system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsai, C. S.; Lin, Yung-Chang; Chen, Wen-Shin; Su, H. C.</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>Recently, the high-tech industry has become a key industry for economic development in many countries. However, vibration sensitive equipment located in these industrial buildings is vulnerable during earthquakes, which may cause huge economic loss. In this study, an innovative isolator for safeguarding the vibration sensitive equipment, namely, the static dynamics <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span>-ball pendulum system (SDI-BPS) is proposed and investigated to examine its protective capability for the vibration sensitive equipment during earthquakes through a series of tri-directional shaking table tests. The experimental results illustrate that the SDI-BPS isolator can provide significant damping to rolling types of base isolation systems for reducing the bearing displacement and size, and avoid the stress concentration, which can cause damage or scratches on the rolling surface of the isolator, to prolong its life span of service. The SDI-BPS isolator also provides excellent capability in protecting the vibration sensitive equipment and exhibits a stable behavior under long terms of service loadings and earthquakes.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4849472','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4849472"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of immunophilins leads to parallel pathways and different intermediates in the assembly of Hsp90 glucocorticoid receptor complexes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ebong, Ima-obong; Beilsten-Edmands, Victoria; Patel, Nisha A; Morgner, Nina; Robinson, Carol V</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Hormone receptors require participation of the chaperones Hsp40/Hsp70 to form client-transfer complexes with Hsp90/Hop. Interaction with the co-chaperone p23 releases Hop and Hsp70, and the immunophilin FKBP52 mediates transfer of the Hsp90-receptor complex to the nucleus. Inhibition of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) transport by FKBP51, but not by FKBP52, has been observed at the cellular level, but the subunit composition of the intermediates involved has not been deduced. Here we use mass spectrometry to show that FKBP51/52 form analogous complexes with GR/Hsp90/Hop/Hsp70/ATP, but differences emerge upon addition of p23 to client-transfer complexes. When FKBP51 is present, a stable intermediate is formed (FKBP51)1(GR)1(Hsp90)2(p23)2 by expulsion of Hsp70 and Hop. By contrast, in the presence of FKBP52, ejection of p23 also takes place to form the nuclear transfer complex (FKBP52)1(GR)1(Hsp90)2. Our results are therefore consistent with pathways in which FKBP51/52 are <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> during the early assembly reactions. Following interaction with p23, however, the pathways diverge with FKBP51 sequestering GR in a stable intermediate complex with p23. By contrast, binding of FKBP52 occurs almost concomitantly with release of p23 to form a highly dynamic transfer complex, primed for interaction with the dynactin transport machinery. PMID:27462449</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25751606','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25751606"><span id="translatedtitle">Multilevel multitrait-multimethod latent analysis of structurally different and <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> raters of school climate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Konold, Timothy; Cornell, Dewey</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Informant-based systems of assessment are common platforms for measuring a variety of educational and psychological constructs where the use of multiple informants is considered best practice. In many instances, structurally different informant types (e.g., students and teachers) are solicited on the basis of their unique roles with the target of measurement. The use of multiple informants provides an opportunity to evaluate the degree to which the obtained ratings are influenced by the trait of focus and extraneous sources that can be attributed to the rater. Data from a multilevel multitrait-multimethod design in which students (N = 35,565) and teachers (N = 9,112), from 340 middle schools, responded to items measuring 3 dimensions of school climate were evaluated through a multilevel correlated trait-correlated method latent variable model. Results indicated that ratings of school climate obtained by students and teachers demonstrated high levels of convergent validity, and that school-level ratings obtained by students and teachers were equitable in the assessment of teasing and bullying. Student ratings of support and structure yielded somewhat stronger evidence of convergent validity than ratings obtained by teachers as revealed by their respective trait <span class="hlt">factor</span> loadings. This was explained in part by the higher levels of common method effects that were observed for teachers. PMID:25751606</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002PhDT.......114M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002PhDT.......114M"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermoset recycling via high-pressure high-temperature sintering: Revisiting the effect of <span class="hlt">interchange</span> chemistry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morin, Jeremy Edward</p> <p></p> <p> and between particles. The technique of high-pressure high-temperature sintering has worked on all types of thermoset materials. Typical mechanical properties for sintered SBR powder rubber are as follows: 1.3 MPa 100% Modulus, 12.0 MPa Tensile Strength and 300% Elongation at Break. The goal of this research is two-fold. First, to gain an understanding of the variables that control the process of high-pressure high-temperature sintering. Second, to study the <span class="hlt">factors</span> governing the mechanism of fusion with the hope of controlling and exploiting this process so that tires can be recycled to produce high quality and high-value added products.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016NucFu..56a6002D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016NucFu..56a6002D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Resistive <span class="hlt">interchange</span> mode destabilized by helically trapped energetic ions and its effects on energetic ions and bulk plasma in a helical plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Du, X. D.; Toi, K.; Ohdachi, S.; Osakabe, M.; Ido, T.; Tanaka, K.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoshinuma, M.; Ogawa, K.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Akiyama, T.; Isobe, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Ozaki, T.; Sakakibara, S.; Seki, R.; Shimizu, A.; Suzuki, Y.; Tsuchiya, H.; the LHD Experiment Group</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A resistive <span class="hlt">interchange</span> mode of the m=1/n=1 structure (m , n : poloidal and toroidal mode numbers, respectively) with a bursting character and rapid frequency chirping in the range less than 10 kHz is observed for the first time in the edge region of the net current-free, low beta LHD (Large Helical Device) plasmas during high power injection of perpendicular neutral beams. The mode resonates with the precession motion of helically trapped energetic ions (EPs), following the resonant condition. The radial mode structure is recognized to be similar to that of the pressure-driven resistive <span class="hlt">interchange</span> mode, of which radial displacement eigenfunction quite localizes around the mode rational surface, and evolves into an odd-type (or island-type) during the late of frequency chirping phase. This beam driven mode is excited when the beta value of helically trapped EPs exceeds a certain threshold. This instability is thought to be a new branch of resistive <span class="hlt">interchange</span> mode destabilized by the trapped energetic ions. The radial transport, i.e. redistribution and losses, of helically trapped energetic ions induced by the mode transiently generates significant radial electric field near the plasma peripheral region. The large shear of thus generated radial electric field is thought to contribute to the observed suppression of micro-turbulence and transient increases of the temperature of fully ionized carbon impurity ions and electron density, suggesting improvement of bulk plasma confinement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8488E..0GS','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8488E..0GS"><span id="translatedtitle">Trend of digital camera and <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> zoom lenses with high ratio based on patent application over the past 10 years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sensui, Takayuki</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Although digitalization has tripled consumer-class camera market scale, extreme reductions in prices of fixed-lens cameras has reduced profitability. As a result, a number of manufacturers have entered the market of the System DSC i.e. digital still camera with <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> lens, where large profit margins are possible, and many high ratio zoom lenses with image stabilization functions have been released. Quiet actuators are another indispensable component. Design with which there is little degradation in performance due to all types of errors is preferred for good balance in terms of size, lens performance, and the rate of quality to sub-standard products. Decentering, such as that caused by tilting, sensitivity of moving groups is especially important. In addition, image stabilization mechanisms actively shift lens groups. Development of high ratio zoom lenses with vibration reduction mechanism is confronted by the challenge of reduced performance due to decentering, making control over decentering sensitivity between lens groups everything. While there are a number of ways to align lenses (axial alignment), shock resistance and ability to stand up to environmental conditions must also be considered. Naturally, it is very difficult, if not impossible, to make lenses smaller and achieve a low decentering sensitivity at the same time. 4-group zoom construction is beneficial in making lenses smaller, but decentering sensitivity is greater. 5-group zoom configuration makes smaller lenses more difficult, but it enables lower decentering sensitivities. At Nikon, the most advantageous construction is selected for each lens based on specifications. The AF-S DX NIKKOR 18-200mm f/3.5-5.6G ED VR II and AF-S NIKKOR 28-300mm f/3.5-5.6G ED VR are excellent examples of this.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007Geo....35..123M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007Geo....35..123M"><span id="translatedtitle">Revised age of the late Neogene terror bird (Titanis) in North America during the Great American <span class="hlt">Interchange</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>MacFadden, Bruce J.; Labs-Hochstein, Joann; Hulbert, Richard C., Jr.; Baskin, Jon A.</p> <p>2007-02-01</p> <p>The giant flightless terror bird Titanis walleri</em> is known from Florida and Texas during the late Neogene. The age of T. walleri</em> is problematic because this taxon co-occurs with temporally mixed (i.e., time-averaged) faunas at two key sites. Thus, prior to this study, T. walleri</em> from the Santa Fe River, Florida (type locality), was either as old as late Pliocene (ca. 2.2 Ma) or as young as latest Pleistocene (ca. 15 ka). Likewise, T. walleri</em> from the Nueces River, Texas, was either early Pliocene (ca. 5 Ma) or latest Pleistocene (ca. 15 ka). In order to better resolve this age range, the rare earth element (REE) patterns of T. walleri</em> from the Santa Fe River, Florida, were compared to two biochronologically distinctive groups (late Pliocene versus late Pleistocene) of fossil mammals from the same locality. Similarly, the REE patterns of T. walleri</em> from Texas were compared to two groups (early Pliocene versus latest Pleistocene) of fossil mammals from the same locality. The REE patterns of T. walleri</em> from Florida are indistinguishable from those of the co-occurring late Pliocene mammals. Likewise, the REE pattern of T. walleri</em> from Texas is indistinguishable from those of the co-occurring early Pliocene mammals. Given these REE constraints, the revised age of T. walleri</em> is early Pliocene in Texas (ca. 5 Ma) and late Pliocene (ca. 2.2 1.8 Ma) in Florida. As such, T. walleri</em> is interpreted as an early immigrant during the Great American <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> prior to the formation of the Isthmian land bridge. No evidence currently exists for Pleistocene T. walleri</em> in North America.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10165333','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10165333"><span id="translatedtitle">Ground-motion variability resulting from the January 17, 1994, M = 6.6 Northridge earthquake at the <span class="hlt">interchange</span> between highways 14 and I-5 in the northern San Fernando Valley</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hutchings, L.; Jarpe, S.; Kasameyer, P.; McCallen, D.; Heuze, F.; Lewis, P.; Cullen, J.</p> <p>1994-02-04</p> <p>Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory responded to the 17 January 1994, Northridge earthquake by sending an information gathering team to observe and study the collapse of the <span class="hlt">interchange</span> between highways 14 and I-5 in the northern San Fernando Valley. This field team examined the structural failure at the <span class="hlt">interchange</span> and the surface soil conditions, and they installed high-grain RefTek seismic recorders to record aftershocks. We recorded aftershocks for two weeks. Analyses of aftershock recordings in this report illustrate the degree of differential support motion for this site, and the higher than expected ground motion from an earthquake of this size and distance. We used the aftershock recordings of small earthquakes as empirical Green`s functions and synthesized strong ground motion at three sites in the <span class="hlt">interchange</span> area. Results presented here are based on an assumption that the geology of the <span class="hlt">interchange</span> area remained linear in its response to the main event.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ica&pg=3&id=EJ505473','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ica&pg=3&id=EJ505473"><span id="translatedtitle">Hypertext <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Using ICA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rada, Roy; And Others</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Discusses extended ICA (Integrated Chameleon Architecture), a public domain toolset for generating text-to-hypertext translators. A system called SGML-MUCH has been developed using E-ICA (Extended Integrated Chameleon Architecture) and is presented as a case study with converters for the hypertext systems MUCH, Guide, Hyperties, and Toolbook.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940032342&hterms=publishing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dpublishing','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940032342&hterms=publishing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dpublishing"><span id="translatedtitle">Electronic document <span class="hlt">interchange</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Erwin, Jim</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The operational impact of various storage formats related to electronic publishing of documents in the NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Program is discussed. Questions are raised about the development of full text, surrogate, and hybrid storage formats. It appears that the eventual configuration will contain a mix of storage formats based on user demand.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940032341&hterms=publishing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dpublishing','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940032341&hterms=publishing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dpublishing"><span id="translatedtitle">Electronic document <span class="hlt">interchange</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tuey, Dick</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Evaluation and implementation tasks for the NASA-wide electronic publishing system known as networked DOCUTECH are examined and the system configuration is graphically depicted. DOCUTECH provides the capability to print on demand electronically stored documents. Use of the electronic publishing system in several applications has generated productivity gains ranging from 33 to 88 percent at geographically dispersed NASA centers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25510388','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25510388"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interchangeability</span> of meningococcal group C conjugate vaccines with different carrier proteins in the United Kingdom infant immunisation schedule.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ladhani, Shamez N; Andrews, Nick J; Waight, Pauline; Hallis, Bassam; Matheson, Mary; England, Anna; Findlow, Helen; Bai, Xilian; Borrow, Ray; Burbidge, Polly; Pearce, Emma; Goldblatt, David; Miller, Elizabeth</p> <p>2015-01-29</p> <p>An open, non-randomised study was undertaken in England during 2011-12 to evaluate vaccine antibody responses in infants after completion of the routine primary infant immunisation schedule, which included two doses of meningococcal group C (MenC) conjugate (MCC) vaccine at 3 and 4 months. Any of the three licensed MCC vaccines could be used for either dose, depending on local availability. Healthy term infants registered at participating general practices (GPs) in Hertfordshire and Gloucestershire, UK, were recruited prospectively to provide a single blood sample four weeks after primary immunisation, which was administered by the GP surgery. Vaccination history was obtained at blood sampling. MenC serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) and IgG antibodies against Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib), pertussis toxin (PT), diphtheria toxoid (DT), tetanus toxoid (TT) and thirteen pneumococcal serotypes were analysed according to MCC vaccines received. MenC SBA responses differed significantly (P<0.001) according to MCC vaccine schedule as follows: MenC SBA geometric mean titres (GMTs) were significantly lower in infants receiving a diphtheria cross-reacting material-conjugated MCC (MCC-CRM) vaccine followed by TT-conjugated MCC (MCC-TT) vaccine (82.0; 95% CI, 39-173; n=14) compared to those receiving two MCC-CRM (418; 95% CI, 325-537; n=82), two MCC-TT (277; 95% CI, 223-344; n=79) or MCC-TT followed by MCC-CRM (553; 95% CI, 322-949; n=18). The same group also had the lowest Hib geometric mean concentrations (0.60 μg/mL, 0.27-1.34) compared to 1.85 μg/mL (1.23-2.78), 2.86 μg/mL (2.02-4.05) and 4.26 μg/mL (1.94-9.36), respectively. Our results indicate that MCC vaccines with different carrier proteins are not <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span>. When several MCC vaccines are available, children requiring more than one dose should receive MCC vaccines with the same carrier protein or, alternatively, receive MCC-TT first wherever possible. PMID:25510388</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/698728','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/698728"><span id="translatedtitle">Differentiation and <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of harlequin duck populations within the North Pacific. Restoration project 97161: Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project -- Final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Goatcher, B.; Zwiefelhofer, D.; Lanctot, R.; Talbot, S.; Pierson, B.</p> <p>1999-04-01</p> <p>Concerns about constraints to harlequin duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) population recovery following the Exxon Valdez oil spill led biologists to ask whether birds in different molting and wintering areas belong to genetically distinct and, thus, demographically independent population segments. Genetic markers, which differed in mode of inheritance (two sex-linked Z-specific microsatellite loci, four biparentally inherited microsatellite loci and maternally inherited mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid sequences), were used to evaluate the degree of genetic differentiation among wintering areas within Prince William Sound, Alaska Peninsula (Katmai National Park) and Kodiak Archipelago (Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge). The authors also used colored leg bands to detect population <span class="hlt">interchange</span> within and among these regions. The authors` genetic results show that differences in genotype frequencies among wintering locations within Alaska were low and non-significant for all three classes of markers. An analysis of genetic samples collected throughout the West Coast of North America revealed significant structuring at larger geographic scales. No <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of banded birds was observed among regions and movements within regions were uncommon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4672245','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4672245"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interchangeability</span> of Electrocardiography and Blood Pressure Measurement for Determining Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability in Free-Moving Domestic Pigs in Various Behavioral Contexts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Krause, Annika; Tuchscherer, Armin; Puppe, Birger; Langbein, Jan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This study assessed the <span class="hlt">interchangeability</span> between heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) measures derived from a series of interbeat intervals (IBIs) recorded via electrocardiogram (ECG) and intra-arterial blood pressure (BP) in various behavioral contexts. Five minutes of simultaneously recorded IBIs from ECG and BP signals in 11 female domestic pigs during resting, feeding, and active behavior were analyzed. Comparisons were made for measures of HR, the standard deviation of IBIs, and the root mean of the squared distances of subsequent IBIs derived from ECG and BP signals for each behavior category using statistical procedures with different explanatory power [linear regression, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Bland and Altman plots, and analysis of variance (ANOVA)]. Linear regression showed a strong relationship for HR during all behaviors and for HRV during resting. Excellent ICCs [lower 95% confidence intervals (CI) >0.75] and narrow limits of agreement in all behavior categories were found for HR. ICCs for HRV reached the critical lower 95% CI value of 0.75 only during resting. Using Bland and Altman plots, HRV agreement was unacceptable for all of the behavior categories. ANOVA showed significant differences between the methods in terms of HRV. BP systematically overestimated HRV compared with ECG. Our findings reveal that HR data recorded via BP agree well those recorded using ECG independently of the activity of the subject, whereas ECG and BP cannot be used <span class="hlt">interchangeably</span> in the context of HRV in free-moving domestic pigs. PMID:26664979</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16429961','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16429961"><span id="translatedtitle">Data <span class="hlt">interchange</span> standards in healthcare IT--computable semantic interoperability: now possible but still difficult, do we really need a better mousetrap?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mead, Charles N</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The following article on HL7 Version 3 will give readers a glimpse into the significant differences between "what came before"--that is, HL7 Version 2.x--and "what today and the future will bring," which is the HL7 Version 3 family of data <span class="hlt">interchange</span> specifications. The difference between V2.x and V3 is significant, and it exists because the various stakeholders in the HL7 development process believe that the increased depth, breadth, and, to some degree, complexity that characterize V3 are necessary to solve many of today's and tomorrow's increasingly wide, deep and complex healthcare information data <span class="hlt">interchange</span> requirements. Like many healthcare or technology discussions, this discussion has its own vocabulary of somewhat obscure, but not difficult, terms. This article will define the minimum set that is necessary for readers to appreciate the relevance and capabilities of HL7 Version 3, including how it is different than HL7 Version 2. After that, there will be a brief overview of the primary motivations for HL7 Version 3 in the presence of the unequivocal success of Version 2. In this context, the article will give readers an overview of one of the prime constructs of Version 3, the Reference Information Model (RIM). There are 'four pillars that are necessary but not sufficient to obtain computable semantic interoperability." These four pillars--a cross-domain information model; a robust data type specification; a methodology for separating domain-specific terms from, as well as binding them to, the common model; and a top-down <span class="hlt">interchange</span> specification methodology and tools for using 1, 2, 3 and defining Version 3 specification--collectively comprise the "HL7 Version 3 Toolkit." Further, this article will present a list of questions and answers to help readers assess the scope and complexity of the problems facing healthcare IT today, and which will further enlighten readers on the "reality" of HL7 Version 3. The article will conclude with a "pseudo</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1215517','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1215517"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical Study of Velocity Shear Stabilization of 3D and Theoretical Considerations for Centrifugally Confined Plasmas and Other <span class="hlt">Interchange</span>-Limited Fusion Concepts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hassam, Adil</p> <p>2015-09-21</p> <p>We studied the feasibility of resonantly driving GAMs in tokamaks. A numerical simulation was carried out and showed the essential features and limitations. It was shown further that GAMs can damp by phase-mixing, from temperature gradients, or nonlinear detuning, thus broadening the resonance. Experimental implications of this were quantified. Theoretical support was provided for the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment, funded in a separate grant by DOE. Plasma diamagnetism from supersonic rotation was established. A theoretical model was built to match the data. Additional support to the experiment in terms of numerical simulation of the <span class="hlt">interchange</span> turbulence was provided. Spectra from residual turbulence on account of velocity shear suppression were obtained and compared favorably to experiment. A new drift wave, driven solely by the thermal force, was identified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/321401','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/321401"><span id="translatedtitle">Selected heavy metals and other constituents in soil and stormwater runoff at the Interstate 95 <span class="hlt">interchange</span> near Atlee, Virginia, April 1993--May 1997</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Speiran, G.K.</p> <p>1998-12-31</p> <p>Concentrations of the heavy metals copper, lead, and zinc, and other constituents, were measured in soil and runoff before and after construction of a stormwater detention basin at the Interstate 95-State Route 656 <span class="hlt">interchange</span> near Atlee, VA, from April 1993 through May 1997. The spatial and vertical distribution of heavy metals in soil indicate that the paved traffic lanes of the interstate highway are a source of the metals. Concentrations of the metals in soil decrease with increasing soil depth below the ground surface and with increasing distance from the highway lanes. Of the three metals for which samples were analyzed, lead was generally present at the greatest concentration, and copper was at the lowest concentration in the soil.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993E%26PSL.114..229M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993E%26PSL.114..229M"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetic polarity stratigraphy of Inchasi: a Pliocene mammal-bearing locality from the Bolivian Andes deposited just before the Great American <span class="hlt">Interchange</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>MacFadden, Bruce J.; Anaya, Federico; Argollo, Jaime</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The newly discovered section at Inchasi, located about 50 km southeast of Potosi, Bolivia, in the eastern Cordillera, consists of about 120 m of undeformed terrestrial sediments containing fossil mammals. Paleomagnetic analysis of 54 sites indicates a polarity pattern with an estimated duration of about 0.64 Ma. The rich Inchasi local fauna indicates a Montehermosan and/or Chapadmalalan land mammal age (Pliocene). Given these constraints, Inchasi correlates from the interval between the late Gilbert (within the Cochiti subchron) to the early Gauss (within the Mammoth subchron) chrons; that is, between about 4.0 and 3.3 Ma. The distinct lack of North American mammals in the Inchasi local fauna provides some of the first well-calibrated evidence that the Great American <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> occurred after about 3.0 Ma, as has been previously stated based on other calibrations of the earliest immigrant (Uquian) faunas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JEI....22a3017J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JEI....22a3017J"><span id="translatedtitle">Image encryption schemes for joint photographic experts group and graphics <span class="hlt">interchange</span> format formats based on three-dimensional baker with compound chaotic sequence generator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ji, Shiyu; Tong, Xiaojun; Zhang, Miao</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We propose several methods to transplant the compound chaotic image encryption scheme with permutation based on three-dimensional (3-D) baker onto image formats such as the joint photographic experts group (JPEG) and graphics <span class="hlt">interchange</span> format (GIF). The new methods avert the discrete cosine transform and quantization, which result in floating point precision loss, and succeed to encrypt and decrypt JPEG images lossless. The ciphered JPEG images generated by our solution own much better randomness than most other existing schemes. Our proposed method for GIF keeps the property of animation successfully. The security test results indicate the proposed methods have high security, and the speed of our algorithm is faster than classical solutions. Since JPEG and GIF image formats are popular contemporarily, we show that the prospect of chaotic image encryption is promising.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1995SPIE.2435..394K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1995SPIE.2435..394K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Utilizing the Signal <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Format (SIGIF) standard to interface a Signal Archive and Communications System (SACS) with a Picture Archive and Communications System (PACS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Keyes, John A.; Bretz, James F.</p> <p>1995-05-01</p> <p>Looking to the medical environment of the 21st Century, this paper describes the use of the signal <span class="hlt">interchange</span> format (SIGIF) standard to integrate the data collected by biological signal monitoring systems with systems from other parts of a hospital or research facility. This paper covers three parts of this process. The first is the signal archive and communications system (SACS) which collects the data directly from a patient, the second part covers the signal <span class="hlt">interchange</span> format standard which is used to communicate data from the SACS to a picture archive and communications system (PACS), and the last part covers the changes to a PACS. The concept of a signal archive and communications system was presented at the 1993 IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Conference as part of a paper by Joao Paulo Cunha. This paper attempts to define a specific architecture for a SACS and describe changes to published descriptions of a PACS required to complete the PACS/SACS interface. For over 15 years the use of computerized signal collections systems have been commonly accepted as part of hospital and research environments. Each manufacture has devised a unique, and usually proprietary, method of storing that information. During that time, very little has been done to provide a common standard so this information could be communicated to another computer. This has resulted in millions of miles of hard copy printouts being stored in patient records. The radiology departments have had the same problem; however, they solved the problem with the ACR/NEMA DICOM standard. The SIGIF standard is being presented as an equivalent standard to solve the communications problem for biological signal data. This paper presents a new step in the integration of bio-signal collection systems with other hospital data processing systems. The concept being presented for the first time in this paper is to convent signal information into the DICOM image format. Each pixel of the image will</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JSAES..23....1R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JSAES..23....1R"><span id="translatedtitle">Biochronology and biostratigraphy of the Uquía Formation (Pliocene early Pleistocene, NW Argentina) and its significance in the Great American Biotic <span class="hlt">Interchange</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reguero, M. A.; Candela, A. M.; Alonso, R. N.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The Uquía Formation crops out in the Quebrada de Humahuaca in Jujuy province, Eastern Cordillera, NW Argentina. This unit is composed of a sequence of fluviatile sediments and water-laid air-fall tuff beds; it is approximately 260 m thick and unconformably overlain by Pleistocene conglomerates and Quaternary alluvium. The sediments have been folded into a syncline and broken by several faults that generally trend northwest-southeast. Following Castellanos stratigraphy, we characterize three units (Lower, Middle, and Upper) of the Uquía Formation. Biochronologically, the Lower Unit is assigned to the late Chapadmalalan, the Middle Unit ("Uquian fauna") to the late Vorohuean and Sanandresian, and the Upper Unit to the Ensenadan. Biostratigraphic evidence provides a calibration of important biochronologic events in the Great American Biotic <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> (GABI), namely, the first appearances of Erethizon, Hippidion, and proboscideans at 2.5 Ma (late Pliocene) in South America. Geological and paleobiological evidence suggest that during the late Pliocene, the area could have been a wide intermountain valley at 1400-1700 m elevation, with a more humid environment than that of the present day and some wet-dry seasonality that permitted the coexistence of forest and open areas. Uquian mammals also indicate that northwestern Argentina and the Pampean region have represented distinct biogeographical areas since at least the late Pliocene.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SuScT..17..308N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SuScT..17..308N"><span id="translatedtitle">Inhomogeneous oxygen <span class="hlt">interchange</span> during annealing and cooling of textured bulk Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+dgr superconductors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Natividad, E.; Angurel, L. A.; Andrés, J. M.; Mayoral, M. C.</p> <p>2004-03-01</p> <p>The optimized annealing of bulk Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+dgr (Bi-2212) materials textured using the laser floating zone technique requires a two-step process, consisting of a first step at 870 °C and a second step at 801 °C. In this paper, we present an analysis of the changes induced within the samples along this thermal treatment and the subsequent cooling to room temperature. During the initial step the cationic diffusion takes place, while the oxygen content is adjusted during the second step, at lower temperature. The evolution of the superconducting properties reveals that the oxygen diffusion into the sample is not homogeneous and that the different oxygen contents along the annealing are also a consequence of a strong <span class="hlt">interchange</span> between the central and the external sample regions. It has been shown that, at the different stages of the thermal process, the samples present different degrees of homogeneity in their superconducting properties, this being caused by the improvement of one region to the detriment of the other.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26597768','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26597768"><span id="translatedtitle">Chikungunya nsP2 protease is not a papain-like cysteine protease and the catalytic dyad cysteine is <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> with a proximal serine.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Saisawang, Chonticha; Saitornuang, Sawanan; Sillapee, Pornpan; Ubol, Sukathida; Smith, Duncan R; Ketterman, Albert J</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Chikungunya virus is the pathogenic alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever in humans. In the last decade millions of cases have been reported around the world from Africa to Asia to the Americas. The alphavirus nsP2 protein is multifunctional and is considered to be pivotal to viral replication, as the nsP2 protease activity is critical for proteolytic processing of the viral polyprotein during replication. Classically the alphavirus nsP2 protease is thought to be papain-like with the enzyme reaction proceeding through a cysteine/histidine catalytic dyad. We performed structure-function studies on the chikungunya nsP2 protease and show that the enzyme is not papain-like. Characterization of the catalytic dyad cysteine residue enabled us to identify a nearby serine that is catalytically <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> with the dyad cysteine residue. The enzyme retains activity upon alanine replacement of either residue but a replacement of both cysteine and serine residues results in no detectable activity. Protein dynamics appears to allow the use of either the cysteine or the serine residue in catalysis. This switchable dyad residue has not been previously reported for alphavirus nsP2 proteases and would have a major impact on the nsP2 protease as an anti-viral target. PMID:26597768</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/967719','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/967719"><span id="translatedtitle">NEW GUN CAPABILITY WITH <span class="hlt">INTERCHANGABLE</span> BARRELS TO INVESTIGATE LOW VELOCITY IMPACT REGIMES AT THE LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY HIGH EXPLOSIVES APPLICATIONS FACILITY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vandersall, K S; Behn, A; Gresshoff, M; Jr., L F; Chiao, P I</p> <p>2009-09-16</p> <p>A new gas gun capability is being activated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories located in the High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF). The single stage light gas (dry air, nitrogen, or helium) gun has <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> barrels ranging from 25.4 mm to 76.2 mm in diameter with 1.8 meters in length and is being fabricated by Physics Applications, Inc. Because it is being used for safety studies involving explosives, the gun is planned for operation inside a large enclosed firing tank, with typical velocities planned in the range of 10-300 m/s. Three applications planned for this gun include: low velocity impact of detonator or detonator/booster assemblies with various projectile shapes, the Steven Impact test that involves impact initiation of a cased explosive target, and the Taylor impact test using a cylindrical explosive sample impacted onto a rigid anvil for fracture studies of energetic materials. A highlight of the gun features, outline on work in progress for implementing this capability, and discussion of the planned areas of research will be included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26188274','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26188274"><span id="translatedtitle">Standardizing data exchange for clinical research protocols and case report forms: An assessment of the suitability of the Clinical Data <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Standards Consortium (CDISC) Operational Data Model (ODM).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huser, Vojtech; Sastry, Chandan; Breymaier, Matthew; Idriss, Asma; Cimino, James J</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Efficient communication of a clinical study protocol and case report forms during all stages of a human clinical study is important for many stakeholders. An electronic and structured study representation format that can be used throughout the whole study life-span can improve such communication and potentially lower total study costs. The most relevant standard for representing clinical study data, applicable to unregulated as well as regulated studies, is the Operational Data Model (ODM) in development since 1999 by the Clinical Data <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Standards Consortium (CDISC). ODM's initial objective was exchange of case report forms data but it is increasingly utilized in other contexts. An ODM extension called Study Design Model, introduced in 2011, provides additional protocol representation elements. Using a case study approach, we evaluated ODM's ability to capture all necessary protocol elements during a complete clinical study lifecycle in the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health. ODM offers the advantage of a single format for institutions that deal with hundreds or thousands of concurrent clinical studies and maintain a data warehouse for these studies. For each study stage, we present a list of gaps in the ODM standard and identify necessary vendor or institutional extensions that can compensate for such gaps. The current version of ODM (1.3.2) has only partial support for study protocol and study registration data mainly because it is outside the original development goal. ODM provides comprehensive support for representation of case report forms (in both the design stage and with patient level data). Inclusion of requirements of observational, non-regulated or investigator-initiated studies (outside Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation) can further improve future revisions of the standard. PMID:26188274</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160006047','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160006047"><span id="translatedtitle">Summary Report for the Technical <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Meeting on Development of Baseline Material Properties and Design Guidelines for In-Space Manufacturing Activities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Prater, T. J.; Bean, Q. A.; Werkheiser, N. J.; Johnston, M. M.; Ordonez, E. A.; Ledbetter, F. E.; Risdon, D. L.; Stockman, T. J.; Sandridge, S. K. R.; Nelson, G. M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the Agency as a whole are currently engaged in a number of in-space manufacturing (ISM) activities that have the potential to reduce launch costs, enhance crew safety, and provide the capabilities needed to undertake long-duration spaceflight. The recent 3D Printing in Zero-G experiment conducted on board the International Space Station (ISS) demonstrated that parts of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic can be manufactured in microgravity using fused deposition modeling (FDM). This project represents the beginning of the development of a capability that is critical to future NASA missions. Current and future ISM activities will require the development of baseline material properties to facilitate design, analysis, and certification of materials manufactured using in-space techniques. The purpose of this technical <span class="hlt">interchange</span> meeting (TIM) was to bring together MSFC practitioners and experts in materials characterization and development of baseline material properties for emerging technologies to advise the ISM team as we progress toward the development of material design values, standards, and acceptance criteria for materials manufactured in space. The overall objective of the TIM was to leverage MSFC's shared experiences and collective knowledge in advanced manufacturing and materials development to construct a path forward for the establishment of baseline material properties, standards development, and certification activities related to ISM. Participants were asked to help identify research and development activities that will (1) accelerate acceptance and adoption of ISM techniques among the aerospace design community; (2) benefit future NASA programs, commercial technology developments, and national needs; and (3) provide opportunities and avenues for further collaboration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030007824&hterms=guidelines&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dguidelines','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030007824&hterms=guidelines&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dguidelines"><span id="translatedtitle">Technical <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Meeting Guidelines Breakout</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fong, Rob</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Along with concept developers, the Systems Evaluation and Assessment (SEA) sub-element of VAMS will develop those scenarios and metrics required for testing the new concepts that reside within the System-Level Integrated Concepts (SLIC) sub-element in the VAMS project. These concepts will come from the NRA process, space act agreements, a university group, and other NASA researchers. The emphasis of those concepts is to increase capacity while at least maintaining the current safety level. The concept providers will initially develop their own scenarios and metrics for self-evaluation. In about a year, the SEA sub-element will become responsible for conducting initial evaluations of the concepts using a common scenario and metric set. This set may derive many components from the scenarios and metrics used by the concept providers. Ultimately, the common scenario\\metric set will be used to help determine the most feasible and beneficial concepts. A set of 15 questions and issues, discussed below, pertaining to the scenario and metric set, and its use for assessing concepts, was submitted by the SEA sub-element for consideration during the breakout session. The questions were divided among the three breakout groups. Each breakout group deliberated on its set of questions and provided a report on its discussion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22246898','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22246898"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Compliance Analysis for PPP to bridge the gap between SEA and EIA: Lessons from the Turcot <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> reconstruction in Montréal, Québec</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Thompson, Undiné-Celeste Marsan, Jean-François Fournier-Peyresblanques, Bastien Forgues, Chantal Ogaa, Anita Jaeger, Jochen A.G.</p> <p>2013-09-15</p> <p> concrete projects “on the ground”. CAPPP can be used as a tool for comparative analysis in decision-making situations at various scales. CAPPP is a fairly straight-forward method that can be used by policy makers, EIA experts, and members of the general public alike. Highlights: ► We investigated the level of harmonization between SEA, plans, policies and programmes and EIA projects. ► We created a new methodology: the goal compliance analysis (GCA). ► We tested it on an ongoing project, the Turcot <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> in Montreal, Canada. ► The method is straight-forward and can be used by policy makers, EIA experts, and members of the general public alike.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26209820','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26209820"><span id="translatedtitle">Asthma and COPD: <span class="hlt">Interchangeable</span> use of inhalers. A document of Italian Society of Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immmunology (SIAAIC) & Italian Society of Respiratory Medicine (SIMeR).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lavorini, Federico; Braido, Fulvio; Baiardini, Ilaria; Blasi, Francesco; Canonica, Giorgio Walter</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Prescription cost-containment measures are increasing in many European countries and, as more inhaler devices become available, there may be pressure to switch patients from reference inhaled medication to cheaper generic inhaled drugs. Indeed, in some countries, such a substitution is mandated by current regulations, and patients who do not accept the substitution have to pay the difference in cost. Generic inhaled drugs are therapeutically equivalent to original branded options but may differ in their formulation and inhalation device. This new situation raises questions about the potential impact of switching from branded to generic inhaled medications in patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with or without their consent, in countries where this is permitted. Acquisition cost savings from a substitution could be offset by costs related to deterioration in asthma control or worsening in COPD outcomes if the patient is unable or unwilling to use the inhaler device properly. Non-adherence to therapy and incorrect inhaler usage are recognised as major <span class="hlt">factors</span> in uncontrolled asthma and worsening of COPD outcomes. Switching patients to a different inhaler device may exacerbate these problems, particularly in patients who disagree to switch. Where switching is permitted or mandatory, it is crucial that the reason for switching has been properly explained to the patient and adequate instruction for operating correctly the inhaler have clearly been provided. PMID:26209820</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17318453','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17318453"><span id="translatedtitle">Cancer family history reporting: impact of method and psychosocial <span class="hlt">factors</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kelly, Kimberly M; Shedlosky-Shoemaker, Randi; Porter, Kyle; Remy, Amber; DeSimone, Philip; Andrykowski, Michael A</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>Family history is one the greatest risk <span class="hlt">factors</span> for disease and one of the most important informational tools in medical genetics for the purpose of diagnosis, risk assessment, prevention and treatment. However, research is needed on the comparability of different methods of cancer family history assessment and the influence of psychosocial <span class="hlt">factors</span> in family history reports. The purpose of this study was to determine if individuals had discrepancies between written and interview reports of cancer family history and the role of psychosocial <span class="hlt">factors</span> in these discrepancies. Oncology patients (n=104) were administered a survey to assess psychosocial <span class="hlt">factors</span> (i.e., information-seeking, worry, perceived risk, and health literacy) and were asked to provide family history in a written and an interview form. Randomization determined which form individuals received first. No differences in the amount of missing data or the amount of unspecified data were noted between the written and interview method. Psychosocial <span class="hlt">factors</span> did not differentiate between those who had discrepancies in family history reports and those who did not have discrepancies in family history reports; although there was a trend for those with lower literacy and those who were blunters to be more discrepant on type of cancer diagnosis. In sum, this preliminary study indicates that written and interview methods of family history assessment for first degree relatives may be used <span class="hlt">interchangeably</span>. The ability to use written methods will facilitate collection of basic family history information in the oncology clinic. PMID:17318453</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000545.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000545.htm"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factor</span> XII (Hageman <span class="hlt">factor</span>) deficiency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... takes longer than normal to clot in a test tube. <span class="hlt">Factor</span> XII deficiency is a rare inherited disorder. Symptoms There are usually no symptoms. Exams and Tests <span class="hlt">Factor</span> XII deficiency is most often found when ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150003409','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150003409"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of Parachute Joint <span class="hlt">Factors</span> using Seam and Joint Testing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mollmann, Catherine</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This paper details the methodology for determining the joint <span class="hlt">factor</span> for all parachute components. This method has been successfully implemented on the Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) for the NASA Orion crew module for use in determining the margin of safety for each component under peak loads. Also discussed are concepts behind the joint <span class="hlt">factor</span> and what drives the loss of material strength at joints. The joint <span class="hlt">factor</span> is defined as a "loss in joint strength...relative to the basic material strength" that occurs when "textiles are connected to each other or to metals." During the CPAS engineering development phase, a conservative joint <span class="hlt">factor</span> of 0.80 was assumed for each parachute component. In order to refine this <span class="hlt">factor</span> and eliminate excess conservatism, a seam and joint testing program was implemented as part of the structural validation. This method split each of the parachute structural joints into discrete tensile tests designed to duplicate the loading of each joint. Breaking strength data collected from destructive pull testing was then used to calculate the joint <span class="hlt">factor</span> in the form of an efficiency. Joint efficiency is the percentage of the base material strength that remains after degradation due to sewing or interaction with other components; it is used <span class="hlt">interchangeably</span> with joint <span class="hlt">factor</span> in this paper. Parachute materials vary in type-mainly cord, tape, webbing, and cloth -which require different test fixtures and joint sample construction methods. This paper defines guidelines for designing and testing samples based on materials and test goals. Using the test methodology and analysis approach detailed in this paper, the minimum joint <span class="hlt">factor</span> for each parachute component can be formulated. The joint <span class="hlt">factors</span> can then be used to calculate the design <span class="hlt">factor</span> and margin of safety for that component, a critical part of the design verification process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993sao..reptR....H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993sao..reptR....H"><span id="translatedtitle">AXAF FITS standard for ray trace <span class="hlt">interchange</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hsieh, Paul F.</p> <p>1993-07-01</p> <p>A standard data format for the archival and transport of x-ray events generated by ray trace models is described. Upon review and acceptance by the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) Software Systems Working Group (SSWG), this standard shall become the official AXAF data format for ray trace events. The Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) is well suited for the purposes of the standard and was selected to be the basis of the standard. FITS is both flexible and efficient and is also widely used within the astronomical community for storage and transfer of data. In addition, software to read and write FITS format files are widely available. In selecting quantities to be included within the ray trace standard, the AXAF Mission Support team, Science Instruments team, and the other contractor teams were surveyed. From the results of this survey, the following requirements were established: (1) for the scientific needs, each photon should have associated with it: position, direction, energy, and statistical weight; the standard must also accommodate path length (relative phase), and polarization. (2) a unique photon identifier is necessary for bookkeeping purposes; (3) a log of individuals, organizations, and software packages that have modified the data must be maintained in order to create an audit trail; (4) a mechanism for extensions to the basic kernel should be provided; and (5) the ray trace standard should integrate with future AXAF data product standards.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED249395.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED249395.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interchange</span>. Program Improvement Products Identified through Networking.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.</p> <p></p> <p>This catalog lists exemplary field-based program improvement products identified by the Dissemination and Utilization Products and Services Program (D&U) at the National Center for Research in Vocational Education. It is designed to increase awareness of these products among vocational educators and to provide information about them that…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930017762','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930017762"><span id="translatedtitle">Nuclear Propulsion Technical <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Meeting, volume 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of the meeting was to review the work performed in fiscal year 1992 in the areas of nuclear thermal and nuclear electric propulsion technology development. These proceedings are an accumulation of the presentations provided at the meeting along with annotations provided by authors. The proceedings cover system concepts, technology development, and system modeling for nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP). The test facilities required for the development of the nuclear propulsion systems are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=stirling&pg=3&id=ED469200','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=stirling&pg=3&id=ED469200"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of the Matrix Project. <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> 77.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McIvor, Gill; Moodie, Kristina</p> <p></p> <p>The Matrix Project is a program that has been established in central Scotland with the aim of reducing the risk of offending and anti-social behavior among vulnerable children. The project provides a range of services to children between eight and 11 years of age who are at risk in the local authority areas of Clackmannanshire, Falkirk and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=239967','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=239967"><span id="translatedtitle">Multispectral imaging system with <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> filter design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The design and calibration of a three-band image acquisition system was reported. The prototype system developed was a three-band spectral imaging system that acquired two visible images and a NIR image simultaneously. This was accomplished by using a three-port imaging system that consisted of th...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=marketing+AND+research+AND+relevance&pg=5&id=ED374246','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=marketing+AND+research+AND+relevance&pg=5&id=ED374246"><span id="translatedtitle">Marketing Means Business. <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> No. 28.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Macleod, Ann; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>A project examined information currently made available by colleges of further education in Scotland to users and the marketing strategies used. Thirty-eight of 45 colleges completed a questionnaire on current marketing practice. Other activities included focus groups and interviews with students and members of the general public and a postal…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10131505','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10131505"><span id="translatedtitle">Reducing costs through electronic data <span class="hlt">interchange</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chapin-Strike, S</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The times have never been riper for an investment in EDI to pay off for healthcare providers. As suppliers attain their implementation goals for electronic purchase orders, they are expanding their EDI capabilities. One area which seems to be attracting considerable attention is the entire contracting cycle, where there are numerous opportunities for reducing administrative costs and improving accuracy. A detailed example using a buying group's contract cycle shows how EDI can be used at every step of the way, from request for quotation to funds transfer and monthly purchase summaries. EDI can be implemented at any level, from PC to mainframe. Implementation is not cheap and integration may not be easy, but the benefits can justify the cost. The first step to successful implementation is to identify and quantify, throughout the entire organization, reengineering opportunities in which EDI can be used. Two industry organizations, the Health Industry Distributors Association (HIDA) and the Healthcare EDI Corporation (HEDIC) have taken leadership roles in simplifying the implementation process. PMID:10131505</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=personal+AND+pronouns&id=EJ931992','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=personal+AND+pronouns&id=EJ931992"><span id="translatedtitle">Personal Pronoun <span class="hlt">Interchanges</span> in Mandarin Chinese Conversation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hsiao, Chi-hua</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Dynamic and interactive uses of personal pronouns are usually not as neat as traditional grammar describes in that the first and second person pronoun index speakers and addressees in a speech event. Devoted to a prevalent feature of Mandarin Chinese conversation--the switch of the first person singular pronoun "wo", "I", and the second person…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10108638','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10108638"><span id="translatedtitle">Electronic data <span class="hlt">interchange</span>: a strategic approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Davidson, M; Scott, S</p> <p>1991-02-01</p> <p>The potential of EDI is virtually unlimited, but the success of any EDI initiative hinges on its ability to directly support strategies that achieve your institution's business objectives. At its most fundamental level, EDI technology automates current business practices, speeding up the exchange of business information. This application of EDI most often is found in a hospital's material management department. But EDI integrated internally within a hospital and externally with suppliers and vendors has the potential to go beyond simple automation and to transform processes. This is where the full value of EDI can be realized. No matter which level of EDI participation hospital management decides is appropriate to fulfill its business objectives and strategies, EDI will affect the entire institution's exchange of information with its internal and external audiences. The question management must answer is: Will the hospital's EDI strategy be offensive and managed, or defensive and reactive? Today's environment leaves no room for a "no-strategy" EDI option. The options are either to proactively shape EDI, or reactively play catch-up. EDI can work for you. Adequately developing an EDI game plan in support of your business objectives and calling on your suppliers and other trading partners to work with you will ensure EDI is an asset to your facility. PMID:10108638</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940009832','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940009832"><span id="translatedtitle">AXAF FITS standard for ray trace <span class="hlt">interchange</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hsieh, Paul F.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>A standard data format for the archival and transport of x-ray events generated by ray trace models is described. Upon review and acceptance by the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) Software Systems Working Group (SSWG), this standard shall become the official AXAF data format for ray trace events. The Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) is well suited for the purposes of the standard and was selected to be the basis of the standard. FITS is both flexible and efficient and is also widely used within the astronomical community for storage and transfer of data. In addition, software to read and write FITS format files are widely available. In selecting quantities to be included within the ray trace standard, the AXAF Mission Support team, Science Instruments team, and the other contractor teams were surveyed. From the results of this survey, the following requirements were established: (1) for the scientific needs, each photon should have associated with it: position, direction, energy, and statistical weight; the standard must also accommodate path length (relative phase), and polarization. (2) a unique photon identifier is necessary for bookkeeping purposes; (3) a log of individuals, organizations, and software packages that have modified the data must be maintained in order to create an audit trail; (4) a mechanism for extensions to the basic kernel should be provided; and (5) the ray trace standard should integrate with future AXAF data product standards.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=input+AND+output+AND+device&pg=2&id=EJ304456','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=input+AND+output+AND+device&pg=2&id=EJ304456"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of Arabic in Computerized Information <span class="hlt">Interchange</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Aman, Mohammed M.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Identifies technical and linguistic problems associated with use of Arabic in input and output devices and describes efforts to introduce a unified code for the Arabic language (CODAR-U/FD). The Hydriyya Method, requirements for Arabic terminals suitable for library use, manufacturers of bilingual terminals, and Arabization of software are…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26700680','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26700680"><span id="translatedtitle">The function and regulation of the GATA <span class="hlt">factor</span> ELT-2 in the C. elegans endoderm.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wiesenfahrt, Tobias; Berg, Janette Y; Osborne Nishimura, Erin; Robinson, Adam G; Goszczynski, Barbara; Lieb, Jason D; McGhee, James D</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>ELT-2 is the major regulator of genes involved in differentiation, maintenance and function of C. elegans intestine from the early embryo to mature adult. elt-2 responds to overexpression of the GATA transcription <span class="hlt">factors</span> END-1 and END-3, which specify the intestine, as well as to overexpression of the two GATA <span class="hlt">factors</span> that are normally involved in intestinal differentiation, ELT-7 and ELT-2 itself. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these interactions, how ELT-2 levels are maintained throughout development or how such systems respond to developmental perturbations. Here, we analyse elt-2 gene regulation through transgenic reporter assays, ELT-2 ChIP and characterisation of in vitro DNA-protein interactions. Our results indicate that elt-2 is controlled by three discrete regulatory regions conserved between C. elegans and C. briggsae that span >4 kb of 5' flanking sequence. These regions are superficially <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> but have quantitatively different enhancer properties, and their combined activities indicate inter-region synergies. Their regulatory activity is mediated by a small number of conserved TGATAA sites that are largely <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> and interact with different endodermal GATA <span class="hlt">factors</span> with only modest differences in affinity. The redundant molecular mechanism that forms the elt-2 regulatory network is robust and flexible, as loss of end-3 halves ELT-2 levels in the early embryo but levels fully recover by the time of hatching. When ELT-2 is expressed under the control of end-1 regulatory elements, in addition to its own endogenous promoter, it can replace the complete set of endoderm-specific GATA <span class="hlt">factors</span>: END-1, END-3, ELT-7 and (the probably non-functional) ELT-4. Thus, in addition to controlling gene expression during differentiation, ELT-2 is capable of specifying the entire C. elegans endoderm. PMID:26700680</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6588282','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6588282"><span id="translatedtitle">Quality <span class="hlt">factors</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kerr, G.D.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The quality <span class="hlt">factor</span>, Q, is a dimensionless modifier used in converting absorbed dose, expressed in rads (or grays), to dose equivalent, expressed in rems (or seiverts). The dose equivalent is used in radiation protection to account for the biological effectiveness of different kinds of radiation. The quality <span class="hlt">factor</span> is related to both the linear energy transfer (LET) and relative biological effectiveness (RBE). The RBE's obtained from biological experiments depend in a complex way on the observed biological effect, the specific test organism, and the experimental conditions. Judgement is involved, therefore, in the choice of the quality <span class="hlt">factor</span>. Questions regarding the adequacy of current Q values for neutrons were raised first in a 1980 statement by the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) and later in a 1985 statement by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). In 1980, the NCRP alerted the technical community to possible future increases between a <span class="hlt">factor</span> of three and ten in the Q for neutrons, and in 1985, the ICRP suggested an increase by a <span class="hlt">factor</span> of two in Q for neutrons. Both the ICRP and NRCP are now recommending essentially the same guidance with regard to Q for neutrons: an increase by a <span class="hlt">factor</span> of two. The Q for neutrons is based on a large, albeit unfocused, body of experimental data. In spite of the lack of focus, the data supporting a change in the neutron quality <span class="hlt">factor</span> are substantial. However, the proposed doubling of Q for neutrons is clouded by other issues regarding its application. 33 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27260827','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27260827"><span id="translatedtitle">Interpretation: a confounding <span class="hlt">factor</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gupta, Mohit</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>With reference to the article "Passive euthanasia in India: a critique", authored by Ms Rohini Shukla and published online on August 5, 2015, I would like to make a few comments and highlight the following points. First, the author notes that Section 309 IPC has been decriminalised. This is not so since there has neither been any amendment to the IPC, nor has any ordinance been passed regarding the matter. Attempting suicide is still an offence in India. Second, the author observes that withholding life support is an act of omission and withdrawing life support is an act of commission and the terms have been used <span class="hlt">interchangeably</span> by the Hon'ble Court, although there is a subtle difference between the two terms. PMID:27260827</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=LCMS&id=EJ1043956','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=LCMS&id=EJ1043956"><span id="translatedtitle">Rethinking <span class="hlt">Factors</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Feldman, Ziv</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This article describes an exciting exploration-based activity in which students develop an alternative definition of <span class="hlt">factor</span> that can help them solve problems like the one presented above. Students work in groups to collect data, analyze the data to make conjectures, and then spend a significant amount of time debating and justifying their…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16325936','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16325936"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparative protein profiling identifies elongation <span class="hlt">factor</span>-1beta and tryparedoxin peroxidase as <span class="hlt">factors</span> associated with metastasis in Leishmania guyanensis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Walker, John; Acestor, Nathalie; Gongora, Rafael; Quadroni, Manfredo; Segura, Iris; Fasel, Nicolas; Saravia, Nancy G</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>Parasites of the Leishmania Viannia subgenus are major causative agents of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL), a disease characterised by parasite dissemination (metastasis) from the original cutaneous lesion to form debilitating secondary lesions in the nasopharyngeal mucosa. We employed a protein profiling approach to identify potential metastasis <span class="hlt">factors</span> in laboratory clones of L. (V.) guyanensis with stable phenotypes ranging from highly metastatic (M+) through infrequently metastatic (M+/M-) to non-metastatic (M-). Comparison of the soluble proteomes of promastigotes by two-dimensional electrophoresis revealed two abundant protein spots specifically associated with M+ and M+/M- clones (Met2 and Met3) and two others exclusively expressed in M- parasites (Met1 and Met4). The association between clinical disease phenotype and differential expression of Met1-Met4 was less clear in L. Viannia strains from mucosal (M+) or cutaneous (M-) lesions of patients. Identification of Met1-Met4 by biological mass spectrometry (LC-ES-MS/MS) and bioinformatics revealed that M+ and M- clones express distinct acidic and neutral isoforms of both elongation <span class="hlt">factor</span>-1 subunit beta (EF-1beta) and cytosolic tryparedoxin peroxidase (TXNPx). This <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of isoforms may relate to the mechanisms by which the activities of EF-1beta and TXNPx are modulated, and/or differential post-translational modification of the gene product(s). The multiple metabolic functions of EF-1 and TXNPx support the plausibility of their participation in parasite survival and persistence and thereby, metastatic disease. Both polypeptides are active in resistance to chemical and oxidant stress, providing a basis for further elucidation of the importance of antioxidant defence in the pathogenesis underlying MCL. PMID:16325936</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000553.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000553.htm"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factor</span> X deficiency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Factor</span> X (ten) deficiency is a disorder caused by a lack of a protein called <span class="hlt">factor</span> X in the blood. It leads to problems with ... or are not functioning like they should. <span class="hlt">Factor</span> X is one such coagulation <span class="hlt">factor</span>. <span class="hlt">Factor</span> X deficiency ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4530459','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4530459"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiple conversion between the genes encoding bacterial class-I release <span class="hlt">factors</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ishikawa, Sohta A.; Kamikawa, Ryoma; Inagaki, Yuji</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Bacteria require two class-I release <span class="hlt">factors</span>, RF1 and RF2, that recognize stop codons and promote peptide release from the ribosome. RF1 and RF2 were most likely established through gene duplication followed by altering their stop codon specificities in the common ancestor of extant bacteria. This scenario expects that the two RF gene families have taken independent evolutionary trajectories after the ancestral gene duplication event. However, we here report two independent cases of conversion between RF1 and RF2 genes (RF1-RF2 gene conversion), which were severely examined by procedures incorporating the maximum-likelihood phylogenetic method. In both cases, RF1-RF2 gene conversion was predicted to occur in the region encoding nearly entire domain 3, of which functions are common between RF paralogues. Nevertheless, the ‘direction’ of gene conversion appeared to be opposite from one another—from RF2 gene to RF1 gene in one case, while from RF1 gene to RF2 gene in the other. The two cases of RF1-RF2 gene conversion prompt us to propose two novel aspects in the evolution of bacterial class-I release <span class="hlt">factors</span>: (i) domain 3 is <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> between RF paralogues, and (ii) RF1-RF2 gene conversion have occurred frequently in bacterial genome evolution. PMID:26257102</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4522568','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4522568"><span id="translatedtitle">Collapsing <span class="hlt">factors</span> in multitrait-multimethod models: examining consequences of a mismatch between measurement design and model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Geiser, Christian; Bishop, Jacob; Lockhart, Ginger</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Models of confirmatory <span class="hlt">factor</span> analysis (CFA) are frequently applied to examine the convergent validity of scores obtained from multiple raters or methods in so-called multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) investigations. Many applications of CFA-MTMM and similarly structured models result in solutions in which at least one method (or specific) <span class="hlt">factor</span> shows non-significant loading or variance estimates. Eid et al. (2008) distinguished between MTMM measurement designs with <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> (randomly selected) vs. structurally different (fixed) methods and showed that each type of measurement design implies specific CFA-MTMM measurement models. In the current study, we hypothesized that some of the problems that are commonly seen in applications of CFA-MTMM models may be due to a mismatch between the underlying measurement design and fitted models. Using simulations, we found that models with M method <span class="hlt">factors</span> (where M is the total number of methods) and unconstrained loadings led to a higher proportion of solutions in which at least one method <span class="hlt">factor</span> became empirically unstable when these models were fit to data generated from structurally different methods. The simulations also revealed that commonly used model goodness-of-fit criteria frequently failed to identify incorrectly specified CFA-MTMM models. We discuss implications of these findings for other complex CFA models in which similar issues occur, including nested (bifactor) and latent state-trait models. PMID:26283977</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3156863','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3156863"><span id="translatedtitle">HEME-DEPENDENT ACTIVATION OF NEURONAL NITRIC-OXIDE SYNTHASE BY CYTOSOL IS DUE TO AN HSP70-DEPENDENT, THIOREDOXIN-MEDIATED THIOL-DISULFIDE <span class="hlt">INTERCHANGE</span> IN THE HEME/SUBSTRATE BINDING CLEFT†</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Morishima, Yoshihiro; Lau, Miranda; Peng, Hwei-Ming; Miyata, Yoshinari; Gestwicki, Jason E.; Pratt, William B.; Osawa, Yoichi</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We have reported that heme-dependent activation of apo-neuronal nitric oxide synthase (apo-nNOS) to the active holo-enzyme dimer is dependent upon <span class="hlt">factors</span> present in reticulocyte lysate and other cytosols. Here, we find that both Hsp70 and thioredoxin are components of the activation system. The apo-nNOS activating activity of reticulocyte lysate is retained in a pool of fractions containing Hsp70 that elute from DE52 prior to Hsp90. All of the activating activity and 20–30% of the Hsp70 elute in the flow-through fraction upon subsequent ATP-agarose chromatography. Apo-nNOS activation by this flow-through fraction is inhibited by pifithrin-μ, a small molecule inhibitor of Hsp70, suggesting that a non-ATP-binding form of Hsp70 is involved in heme-dependent apo-nNOS activation. Previous work has shown that apo-nNOS can be activated by thiol-disulfide exchange, and we show substantial activation with a small molecule dithiol modeled on the active motifs of thioredoxin and protein disulfide isomerase. Further fractionation of the ATP-agarose flow-through on Sephacryl S-300 separates free thioredoxin from apo-nNOS activating activity, Hsp70, and a small amount of thioredoxin, all of which are eluted throughout the macromolecular peak. Incubation of apo-nNOS with the macromolecular fraction in combination with either the thioredoxin-containing fraction or with purified recombinant human thioredoxin restores full heme-dependent activating activity. This supports a model in which Hsp70 binding to apo-nNOS stabilizes an open state of the heme/substrate binding cleft to facilitate thioredoxin access to the active site cysteine that coordinates with heme iron, permitting heme binding and dimerization to the active enzyme. PMID:21755988</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21755988','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21755988"><span id="translatedtitle">Heme-dependent activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase by cytosol is due to an Hsp70-dependent, thioredoxin-mediated thiol-disulfide <span class="hlt">interchange</span> in the heme/substrate binding cleft.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Morishima, Yoshihiro; Lau, Miranda; Peng, Hwei-Ming; Miyata, Yoshinari; Gestwicki, Jason E; Pratt, William B; Osawa, Yoichi</p> <p>2011-08-23</p> <p>We have reported that heme-dependent activation of apo-neuronal nitric oxide synthase (apo-nNOS) to the active holo-enzyme dimer is dependent upon <span class="hlt">factors</span> present in reticulocyte lysate and other cytosols. Here, we find that both Hsp70 and thioredoxin are components of the activation system. The apo-nNOS activating activity of reticulocyte lysate is retained in a pool of fractions containing Hsp70 that elute from DE52 prior to Hsp90. All of the activating activity and 20-30% of the Hsp70 elute in the flow-through fraction upon subsequent ATP-agarose chromatography. Apo-nNOS activation by this flow-through fraction is inhibited by pifithrin-μ, a small molecule inhibitor of Hsp70, suggesting that a non-ATP-binding form of Hsp70 is involved in heme-dependent apo-nNOS activation. Previous work has shown that apo-nNOS can be activated by thiol-disulfide exchange, and we show substantial activation with a small molecule dithiol modeled on the active motifs of thioredoxin and protein disulfide isomerase. Further fractionation of the ATP-agarose flow-through on Sephacryl S-300 separates free thioredoxin from apo-nNOS activating activity, Hsp70, and a small amount of thioredoxin, all of which are eluted throughout the macromolecular peak. Incubation of apo-nNOS with the macromolecular fraction in combination either with the thioredoxin-containing fraction or with purified recombinant human thioredoxin restores full heme-dependent activating activity. This supports a model in which Hsp70 binding to apo-nNOS stabilizes an open state of the heme/substrate binding cleft to facilitate thioredoxin access to the active site cysteine that coordinates with heme iron, permitting heme binding and dimerization to the active enzyme. PMID:21755988</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160009078','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160009078"><span id="translatedtitle">ISS Payload Human <span class="hlt">Factors</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ellenberger, Richard; Duvall, Laura; Dory, Jonathan</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The ISS Payload Human <span class="hlt">Factors</span> Implementation Team (HFIT) is the Payload Developer's resource for Human <span class="hlt">Factors</span>. HFIT is the interface between Payload Developers and ISS Payload Human <span class="hlt">Factors</span> requirements in SSP 57000. ? HFIT provides recommendations on how to meet the Human <span class="hlt">Factors</span> requirements and guidelines early in the design process. HFIT coordinates with the Payload Developer and Astronaut Office to find low cost solutions to Human <span class="hlt">Factors</span> challenges for hardware operability issues.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27167280','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27167280"><span id="translatedtitle">Small field detector correction <span class="hlt">factors</span>: effects of the flattening filter for Elekta and Varian linear accelerators.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tyler, Madelaine K; Liu, Paul Z Y; Lee, Christopher; McKenzie, David R; Suchowerska, Natalka</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Flattening filter-free (FFF) beams are becoming the preferred beam type for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR), as they enable an increase in dose rate and a decrease in treatment time. This work assesses the effects of the flattening filter on small field output <span class="hlt">factors</span> for 6 MV beams generated by both Elekta and Varian linear accelerators, and determines differences between detector response in flattened (FF) and FFF beams. Relative output <span class="hlt">factors</span> were measured with a range of detectors (diodes, ionization cham-bers, radiochromic film, and microDiamond) and referenced to the relative output <span class="hlt">factors</span> measured with an air core fiber optic dosimeter (FOD), a scintillation dosimeter developed at Chris O'Brien Lifehouse, Sydney. Small field correction <span class="hlt">factors</span> were generated for both FF and FFF beams. Diode measured detector response was compared with a recently published mathematical relation to predict diode response corrections in small fields. The effect of flattening filter removal on detector response was quantified using a ratio of relative detector responses in FFF and FF fields for the same field size. The removal of the flattening filter was found to have a small but measurable effect on ionization chamber response with maximum deviations of less than ± 0.9% across all field sizes measured. Solid-state detectors showed an increased dependence on the flattening filter of up to ± 1.6%. Measured diode response was within ± 1.1% of the published mathematical relation for all fields up to 30 mm, independent of linac type and presence or absence of a flattening filter. For 6 MV beams, detector correction <span class="hlt">factors</span> between FFF and FF beams are <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> for a linac between FF and FFF modes, providing that an additional uncertainty of up to ± 1.6% is accepted. PMID:27167280</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20827568','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20827568"><span id="translatedtitle">Critical <span class="hlt">factors</span> influencing hospitals' adoption of HL7 version 2 standards: an empirical investigation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lin, Chi-Hung; Lin, I-Chun; Roan, Jin-Sheng; Yeh, Jehn-Shan</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Industry predictions focus on future e-hospitals that will integrate all stakeholders into a seamless network, allowing data to be shared. The Health Level Seven (HL7) is a standard for the <span class="hlt">interchange</span> of data within the healthcare industry. It simplifies communication interfaces and allows the interoperability among heterogeneous applications. Although the benefits of adopting HL7 are well known, only a few hospitals in Taiwan have actually adopted it. What are the reasons behind the hospitals' lack of intention to adopt HL7? Most prior studies on HL7 have focused on technical issues and general overlooked the managerial side. This has caused a lack of understanding of <span class="hlt">factors</span> influencing hospitals' decision on HL7 adoption. In fact, main reasons behind a hospital's decision on whether to adopt an innovative technology are more often related to organizational than purely technical issues. Hence, we pay our attention to these organizational considerations over HL7 adoption. Based on the Innovation Diffusion Theory, we proposed a research model to explore the critical <span class="hlt">factors</span> influencing Taiwan hospitals' adoption intention of HL7. 472 questionnaires were distributed to all accredited hospitals in Taiwan and 122 were returned. The valid response rate was 25.21% (119). <span class="hlt">Factor</span> analysis, logistic regression and Pearson Chi-square test were conducted to verify the research model. The results showed that environmental pressure, top management attitude towards HL7, staff's technology capability, system integrity, and hospital's scale were critical <span class="hlt">factors</span> influencing hospitals' intention on whether to adopt HL7. The research findings provided the government, the healthcare industry, the hospital administrators and the academia with practical and theoretical references. These <span class="hlt">factors</span> should be considered in planning promotion plan to encourage hospital adoption of HL7. This study also opens up a new research direction as well as a new viewpoint, and consequentially</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000550.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000550.htm"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factor</span> V deficiency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Blood clotting is a complex process involving as many as 20 different proteins in blood plasma. These proteins ... by a lack of <span class="hlt">Factor</span> V. When certain blood clotting <span class="hlt">factors</span> are low or missing, your blood does ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Fibonacci&pg=7&id=EJ332003','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Fibonacci&pg=7&id=EJ332003"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factoring</span> Polynomials and Fibonacci.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schwartzman, Steven</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Discusses the <span class="hlt">factoring</span> of polynomials and Fibonacci numbers, offering several challenges teachers can give students. For example, they can give students a polynomial containing large numbers and challenge them to <span class="hlt">factor</span> it. (JN)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000548.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000548.htm"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factor</span> VII deficiency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... may be done include: Partial thromboplastin time ( PTT ) Plasma <span class="hlt">factor</span> VII activity Prothrombin time ( PT ) Mixing study ... controlled by getting intravenous (IV) infusions of normal plasma, concentrates of <span class="hlt">factor</span> VII, or genetically produced (recombinant) ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000106.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000106.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Heart disease - risk <span class="hlt">factors</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000106.htm Heart disease - risk <span class="hlt">factors</span> To use the sharing features on this ... may help you live a longer, healthier life. Risk <span class="hlt">Factors</span> You Cannot Change Some of your heart ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000550.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000550.htm"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factor</span> V deficiency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... as many as 20 different proteins in blood plasma. These proteins are called blood coagulation <span class="hlt">factors</span>. <span class="hlt">Factor</span> ... You will be given fresh blood plasma or fresh frozen plasma infusions ... These treatments will correct the deficiency temporarily.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/819893','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/819893"><span id="translatedtitle">Mesonic Form <span class="hlt">Factors</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Frederic D. R. Bonnet; Robert G. Edwards; George T. Fleming; Randal Lewis; David Richards</p> <p>2003-07-22</p> <p>We have started a program to compute the electromagnetic form <span class="hlt">factors</span> of mesons. We discuss the techniques used to compute the pion form <span class="hlt">factor</span> and present preliminary results computed with domain wall valence fermions on MILC asqtad lattices, as well as Wilson fermions on quenched lattices. These methods can easily be extended to rho-to-gamma-pi transition form <span class="hlt">factors</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=factor+AND+analysis+AND+method&pg=3&id=EJ962272','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=factor+AND+analysis+AND+method&pg=3&id=EJ962272"><span id="translatedtitle">Multilevel Mixture <span class="hlt">Factor</span> Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Varriale, Roberta; Vermunt, Jeroen K.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Factor</span> analysis is a statistical method for describing the associations among sets of observed variables in terms of a small number of underlying continuous latent variables. Various authors have proposed multilevel extensions of the <span class="hlt">factor</span> model for the analysis of data sets with a hierarchical structure. These Multilevel <span class="hlt">Factor</span> Models (MFMs)…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4242469','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4242469"><span id="translatedtitle">Bayesian Exploratory <span class="hlt">Factor</span> Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Conti, Gabriella; Frühwirth-Schnatter, Sylvia; Heckman, James J.; Piatek, Rémi</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This paper develops and applies a Bayesian approach to Exploratory <span class="hlt">Factor</span> Analysis that improves on ad hoc classical approaches. Our framework relies on dedicated <span class="hlt">factor</span> models and simultaneously determines the number of <span class="hlt">factors</span>, the allocation of each measurement to a unique <span class="hlt">factor</span>, and the corresponding <span class="hlt">factor</span> loadings. Classical identification criteria are applied and integrated into our Bayesian procedure to generate models that are stable and clearly interpretable. A Monte Carlo study confirms the validity of the approach. The method is used to produce interpretable low dimensional aggregates from a high dimensional set of psychological measurements. PMID:25431517</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920056049&hterms=1583&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231583','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920056049&hterms=1583&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231583"><span id="translatedtitle">Aerostructural safety <span class="hlt">factor</span> criteria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Verderaime, V.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The present modification of the conventional safety <span class="hlt">factor</span> method for aircraft structures evaluation involves the expression of deterministic safety <span class="hlt">factors</span> in probabilistic tolerance limit ratios; these are found to involve a total of three <span class="hlt">factors</span> that control the interference of applied and resistive stress distributions. The deterministic expression is extended so that it may furnish a 'relative ultimate safety' index that encompasses all three distribution <span class="hlt">factors</span>. Operational reliability is developed on the basis of the applied and the yield stress distribution interferences. Industry standards are suggested to be derivable from <span class="hlt">factor</span> selections that are based on the consequences of failure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5973..101G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5973..101G"><span id="translatedtitle">Recombinant modular transporters on the basis of epidermal growth <span class="hlt">factor</span> for targeted intracellular delivery of photosensitizers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gilyazova, Dinara G.; Rosenkranz, Andrey A.; Gulak, Pavel V.; Lunin, Vladimir G.; Sergienko, Olga V.; Grin, Mikhail A.; Mironov, Andrey F.; Rubin, Andrey B.; Sobolev, Alexander S.</p> <p>2005-08-01</p> <p>The search for new pharmaceuticals has raised interest in locally-acting drugs which act over short distances within the cell, and for which different cell compartments have different sensitivities. Thus, photosensitizers used in anti-cancer therapy should be transported to the most sensitive subcellular compartments where their action is most pronounced. Earlier, we described the effects of bacterially expressed modular recombinant transporters for photosensitizers comprising a-melanocyte-stimulating hormone as an internalizable, cell-specific ligand, an optimized nuclear localization sequence, an Escherichia coli hemoglobin-like protein as a carrier, and an endosomolytic amphipathic polypeptide. These transporters delivered photosensitizers into the murine melanoma cells nuclei to result in cytotoxic effects 2 orders of magnitude greater than those of nonmodified photosensitizers. Here we describe new transporters possessing the same modules except for a ligand that is replaced with epidermal growth <span class="hlt">factor</span> specific for other cancer cell types. The new transporter modules retained their functional activities within the chimera, this transporter delivered photosensitizers into the human carcinoma cells nuclei to result in photocytotoxic effects almost 3 orders of magnitude greater than those of nonmodified photosensitizers. The obtained results show that ligand modules of such transporters are <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span>, meaning that they can be tailored for particular applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/49471','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/49471"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factor</span> VIII and glomerulonephritis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ekberg, M; Nilsson, I M</p> <p>1975-05-17</p> <p>To find out if determination of <span class="hlt">factor</span> VIII,which most probably is synthetised in the intima of blood-vessesls, is of value for predicting the severity of vessel damge in glomerulonephritis, <span class="hlt">factor</span>-VIII activity, <span class="hlt">factor</span>-VIII-related antigen, and glomerular filtration-ratewere esto,ated om 85 patients with early glomerulonephritis on admission, and in 70 of these at follow-up for up to 4 years. The levels of <span class="hlt">factor</span>-VIII activity and <span class="hlt">factor</span>-VIII-related antigen on admission were normal in those patients who recovered. Where renal function was impaired on admission or becaome so during follow-up, <span class="hlt">factor</span> VIII was high. Determination of <span class="hlt">factor</span> VIII might thus be of prognostic value in early glomerulonephritis. PMID:49471</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-07-20/pdf/2011-16861.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-07-20/pdf/2011-16861.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 43393 - Debit Card <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Fees and Routing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-20</p> <p>...\\ 75 FR 81724-26, 81740-42 (Dec. 28, 2010). \\24\\ http://www.federalreserve.gov/paymentsystems/files... proposed Regulation II (75 FR 81725 (Dec. 28, 2010)) because several networks subsequently submitted... estimates that were included in the proposal. 75 FR 81740-41 (Dec. 28, 2010). The higher losses...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24094516','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24094516"><span id="translatedtitle">Biologic therapies for moderate to severe psoriasis are not <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Puig, L</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Health care managers and hospital pharmacists are increasingly compelling prescribers to use medication substitutes. This policy becomes particularly evident when the agents are biologics with shared indications based on their assumed clinical equivalence and efficiency (cost-effectiveness), and in these cases the involvement of clinicians in decision making is often minimal or nonexistent. Lacking head-to-head clinical trials comparing various drugs, the prescriber can use indirect comparisons to define 2 or more agents as clinically equivalent therapeutic alternatives. This denomination of clinical equivalence does not imply that 2 such medications are truly therapeutically equivalent, or therapeutic equivalents, as this type of equivalence is defined by the absence of statistically significant differences between the drugs on all measures of effect in most patients, meaning that neither one is preferable to the other in different situations. Although real patients are not entirely comparable to those in clinical trials, the choice of a biologic agent to treat psoriasis is largely based on the findings of such trials. A recently published meta-analysis shows that not all the biologics currently available to treat moderate to severe psoriasis can be considered therapeutic equivalents, in spite of the authors' claim to the contrary; indeed, infliximab and etanercept can in no way be considered equivalent therapeutic alternatives based on the data provided. Biologics do display real differences with respect to efficacy at different time points and in the time required to onset of effect. In any case, therapeutic decisions should be made by an experienced clinician and tailored to each individual patient. PMID:24094516</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ACL&pg=5&id=EJ145583','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ACL&pg=5&id=EJ145583"><span id="translatedtitle">Individuality of Item Interpretation in <span class="hlt">Interchangeable</span> ACL Scales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fiske, Donald W.; Barack, Leonard I.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>The diversity among interpretations of single items in personality questionnaires has been noted previously. Using adjectives from the Adjective Check List (ACL), the study sought evidence bearing on these questions: Does such diversity make the responses to an item not comparable across subjects? If so, what are the implications for scores based…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=birdsall&pg=4&id=EJ204569','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=birdsall&pg=4&id=EJ204569"><span id="translatedtitle">Staffroom <span class="hlt">Interchange</span>: Avoiding Whadjaget with No-Grade, Graded Papers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Birdsall, Eric R.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Describes a technique for increasing students' concern for the merits of their papers and for their teachers' suggestions by withholding the grade each paper receives and offering the opportunity to rewrite. (DD)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..899..481B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..899..481B"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Gif (Graphics <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Format) Images In Physics Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bulbul, M. Sahin</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>In Computer Based Physics Education, Java and Flash programs are used. However learning how to use them is rather difficult and their preparation takes a long time. Although the usage and preparation of GIF images are easy they are largely neglected in Physics Education. This study suggests that they can be used effectively in Physics Education. In order to prove this a number of methods were used. Twenty students were selected and they taught how to prepare GIF images. Then, they were given certain topics with which they were not familiar and were asked to prepare one GIF image. After this, they were also asked to asses this learning process. The images were exhibited in a class and participants' views were recorded. The data collected for this study indicates that by using this method students can learn more effectively certain topics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title46-vol9/pdf/CFR-2012-title46-vol9-sec535-305.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title46-vol9/pdf/CFR-2012-title46-vol9-sec535-305.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">46 CFR 535.305 - Equipment <span class="hlt">interchange</span> agreements-exemption.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... Section 535.305 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF 1984... agreement between two or more ocean common carriers for: (1) The exchange of empty containers,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title46-vol9/pdf/CFR-2011-title46-vol9-sec535-305.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title46-vol9/pdf/CFR-2011-title46-vol9-sec535-305.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">46 CFR 535.305 - Equipment <span class="hlt">interchange</span> agreements-exemption.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... Section 535.305 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF 1984... agreement between two or more ocean common carriers for: (1) The exchange of empty containers,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title46-vol9/pdf/CFR-2014-title46-vol9-sec535-305.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title46-vol9/pdf/CFR-2014-title46-vol9-sec535-305.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">46 CFR 535.305 - Equipment <span class="hlt">interchange</span> agreements-exemption.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... Section 535.305 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF 1984... agreement between two or more ocean common carriers for: (1) The exchange of empty containers,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3625255','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3625255"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interchangeable</span> adaptors regulate mitochondrial dynamin assembly for membrane scission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Koirala, Sajjan; Guo, Qian; Kalia, Raghav; Bui, Huyen T.; Eckert, Debra M.; Frost, Adam; Shaw, Janet M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Mitochondrial fission is mediated by the dynamin-related GTPases Dnm1/Drp1 (yeast/mammals), which form spirals around constricted sites on mitochondria. Additional membrane-associated adaptor proteins (Fis1, Mdv1, Mff, and MiDs) are required to recruit these GTPases from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial surface. Whether these adaptors participate in both GTPase recruitment and membrane scission is not known. Here we use a yeast strain lacking all fission proteins to identify the minimal combinations of GTPases and adaptors sufficient for mitochondrial fission. Although Fis1 is dispensable for fission, membrane-anchored Mdv1, Mff, or MiDs paired individually with their respective GTPases are sufficient to divide mitochondria. In addition to their role in Drp1 membrane recruitment, MiDs coassemble with Drp1 in vitro. The resulting heteropolymer adopts a dramatically different structure with a narrower diameter than Drp1 homopolymers assembled in isolation. This result demonstrates that an adaptor protein alters the architecture of a mitochondrial dynamin GTPase polymer in a manner that could facilitate membrane constriction and severing activity. PMID:23530241</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Serendipity&pg=3&id=EJ868270','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Serendipity&pg=3&id=EJ868270"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interchanges</span>: The Value of Book Collecting for Research and Teaching</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Whitburn, Merrill D.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>When the author became a professor with interests in literature, composition, technical communication, speech, and rhetoric, he little anticipated the extent to which book collecting could affect research and teaching, but his finds increasingly enlightened him. As he gravitated toward composition, technical communication, speech, and rhetoric in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140017833','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140017833"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Energy <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> in the Electron Diffuse Aurora</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Khazanov, George V.; Glocer, Alex; Himwich, E. W.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The diffuse aurora has recently been shown to be a major contributor of energy flux into the Earth's ionosphere. Therefore, a comprehensive theoretical analysis is required to understand its role in energy redistribution in the coupled ionosphere-magnetosphere system. In previous theoretical descriptions of precipitated magnetospheric electrons (E is approximately 1 keV), the major focus has been the ionization and excitation rates of the neutral atmosphere and the energy deposition rate to thermal ionospheric electrons. However, these precipitating electrons will also produce secondary electrons via impact ionization of the neutral atmosphere. This paper presents the solution of the Boltzman-Landau kinetic equation that uniformly describes the entire electron distribution function in the diffuse aurora, including the affiliated production of secondary electrons (E greater than 600 eV) and their ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling processes. In this article, we discuss for the first time how diffuse electron precipitation into the atmosphere and the associated secondary electron production participate in ionosphere-magnetosphere energy redistribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED324264.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED324264.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Standards and Responsibilities in International Educational <span class="hlt">Interchange</span>. Guidelines Series I.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>National Association for Foreign Student Affairs, Washington, DC. Field Service Program.</p> <p></p> <p>The original mission of the National Association for Foreign Students Association (NAFSA) was to improve the experience of foreign students in the United States by enhancing the professional expertise of personnel working with them. The guidelines presented in this document are designed to assist personnel and institutions working in any capacity…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=document+AND+interchange&pg=5&id=EJ473102','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=document+AND+interchange&pg=5&id=EJ473102"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimenting with HyTime Architectural Forms for Hypertext <span class="hlt">Interchange</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Carr, Les; And Others</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Describes Microcosm, an open hypermedia system for browsing through large bodies of multimedia information via links in external linkbases; explains HyTime (Hypermedia/Time-Based Structuring Language), an international standard for representing relationships between document objects; and examines HyTime features which are relevant to Microcosm.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=document+AND+interchange&id=EJ345902','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=document+AND+interchange&id=EJ345902"><span id="translatedtitle">Electronic Document <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> and the AAP Electronic Manuscript Project.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Martin, J. Sperling</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Describes the American Association of Publishers' (AAP) Electronic Manuscript Project, which was charged with the development of standards to facilitate the exchange and processing of electronically created documents, and explains the application of generic tags developed for descriptive markup that can be used with a variety of technologies and…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED445915.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED445915.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interchange</span> 63: The Impact of Information and Communications Technology Initiatives.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Scottish Executive Education Dept., Edinburgh.</p> <p></p> <p>This document reports the results of a study that assessed the effects of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) on students' skills and knowledge. The study analyzes the effect of using ICT on students' skills, motivation, and attitudes, and describes teachers' experiences with and views on the potential of ICT. (YDS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6438487','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6438487"><span id="translatedtitle">Data <span class="hlt">interchange</span> standards for biotechnology: Issues and alternatives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McCarthy, J.L.</p> <p>1990-06-01</p> <p>This report outlines a framework for discussion of what aspects of biotechnical information might be good candidates for guidelines or standards, what existing data exchange standards might be appropriate building blocks upon which to build, and what procedural mechanisms might be appropriate for adoption of such guidelines or standards. It builds on experience from other scientific communities which have already benefitted from development of discipline-specific data exchange standards. 33 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED427284.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED427284.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Accelerating Reading Attainment: The Effectiveness of Synthetic Phonics. <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> 57.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Watson, Joyce E.; Johnston, Rhona S.</p> <p></p> <p>Conducted in three phases, a study examined the teaching of reading in the early stages of primary school. The study was done by a research team from the University of St. Andrews School of Psychology, Scotland. Phase one explored methods of teaching reading and spelling in a sample of 12 schools within one Education Authority. Phase two examined…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7273103','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7273103"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interchangeable</span> whole-body and nose-only exposure system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Cannon, W.C.; Allemann, R.T.; Moss, O.R.; Decker, J.R. Jr.</p> <p>1992-03-31</p> <p>An exposure system for experimental animals includes a container for a single animal which has a double wall. The animal is confined within the inner wall. Gaseous material enters a first end, flows over the entire animal, then back between the walls and out the first end. The system also includes an arrangement of valve-controlled manifolds for supplying gaseous material to, and exhausting it from, the containers. 6 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/36254','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/36254"><span id="translatedtitle">LP-DIT <span class="hlt">interchange</span> tool for linear programming problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Makowski, M.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>LP-DIT is a small library that provides an easy handling of LP problem data between a problem generator, solver and other modules (problem modification, generation of multi-criteria problem, report writers, etc). So far LP-DIT has been implemented with 4 LP (including one MIP) solvers and is being used as a module for model-based Decision Support System. LP-DIT will be released as a public domain soft-ware in the coming weeks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-07-20/pdf/2011-16860.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-07-20/pdf/2011-16860.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 43477 - Debit Card <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Fees and Routing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-20</p> <p>... routing procedures. \\4\\ The Board reported preliminary survey results in the proposed rule (See 75 FR... published elsewhere in the Federal Register. \\6\\ See 75 FR 81742-81743 (Dec. 28, 2010). The Board requested... fraud.\\21\\ \\21\\ These percentages may differ from those noted in the Board's proposal (See 75 FR...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/868213','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/868213"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interchangeable</span> whole-body and nose-only exposure system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Cannon, William C.; Allemann, Rudolph T.; Moss, Owen R.; Decker, Jr., John R.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>An exposure system for experimental animals includes a container for a single animal which has a double wall. The animal is confined within the inner wall. Gaseous material enters a first end, flows over the entire animal, then back between the walls and out the first end. The system also includes an arrangement of valve-controlled manifolds for supplying gaseous material to, and exhausting it from, the containers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED070692.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED070692.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interchange</span>. Population Education Newsletter. Volume 1, Number 1.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Population Reference Bureau, Inc., Washington, DC.</p> <p></p> <p>This bi-monthly newsletter is designed to provide information to teachers, curriculum supervisors, and administrators on the most recent developments in the growing effort to introduce population issues into formal school curricula, primarily at the middle and secondary school levels. This initial issue summarizes the activities of 1971-1972…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED419063.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED419063.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Youth Work with Vulnerable Young People. <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> No. 51.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Powney, Janet; Furlong, Andy; Cartmel, Fred; Hall, Stuart</p> <p></p> <p>Research was conducted in Scotland to evaluate the effectiveness of youth work with vulnerable young people, primarily between the ages of 13 and 16. Four complementary methods were adopted: (1) a survey of secondary school students; (2) a series of focus group interviews with young people with experience of youth work; (3) interviews with…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Overpopulation&pg=5&id=ED329442','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Overpopulation&pg=5&id=ED329442"><span id="translatedtitle">Population Education <span class="hlt">Interchange</span>. Volume 17, Numbers 1-4, 1988.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Crews, Kimberly A.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The four issues of this volume are each concerned with a specific topic in population studies. Issue number 1 , "Demographic Illiteracy," indicates that U.S. students are not aware of world population growth patterns. The information is taken from the Second International Science Study, 1983. An annotated list of 16 population studies resources is…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Migration+AND+Germany&pg=5&id=ED329441','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Migration+AND+Germany&pg=5&id=ED329441"><span id="translatedtitle">Population Education <span class="hlt">Interchange</span>. Volume 16, Numbers 1-4, 1987.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Crews, Kimberly A.; Paul, Neena</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Each of the four issues in this volume contains a specific concern of population studies. Issue number 1, "Responding to the Challenge" (K. Crews), accompanies the learning series module, "Global Population Trends: Challenges Facing World Leaders." Sections of the issue focus on elderly populations, especially in Japan, the effect of population…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=266895','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=266895"><span id="translatedtitle">Data access and <span class="hlt">interchange</span> in agronomic and natural resources management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Challenges related to agriculture and natural resource management have never been greater. Comprehensive agronomic and natural resources data relevant to climate change, food security, bioenergy, and sustainable water supply are rare and in demand. Data used for policy development must be rigorous...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940022646','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940022646"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interchangeable</span> end effector tools utilized on the PFMA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cody, Joe; Carroll, John; Crow, George; Gierow, Paul; Littles, Jay; Maness, Michael; Morrison, Jim</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>An instrumented task board, used for measuring forces applied by the Protoflight Manipulator Arm (PFMA) to the task board, was fabricated and delivered to Marshall Space Flight Center. SRS Technologies phased out the existing IBM compatible data acquisition system, used with a instrumented task board, and integrated the force measuring electronic hardware in with the Macintosh II data acquisition system. The purpose of this change was to acquire all data with the same time tag, allowing easier and more accurate data reduction in addition to real-time graphics. A three-dimensional optical position sensing system for determining the location of the PFMA's end effect or in reference to the center of the instrumented task board was also designed and delivered under. An improved task board was fabricated which included an improved instrumented beam design. The modified design of the task board improved the force/torque measurement system by increasing the sensitivity, reliability, load range and ease of maintenance. A calibration panel for the optical position system was also designed and fabricated. The calibration method developed for the position sensors enhanced the performance of the sensors as well as simplified the installation and calibration procedures required. The modifications made under this effort expanded the capabilities of the task board system. The system developed determines the arm's position relative to the task board and measures the signals to the joints resulting from the operator's control signals in addition to the task board forces. The software and hardware required to calculate and record the position of the PFMA during the performance of tasks with the instrumented task board were defined, designed and delivered to MSFC. PFMA joint input signals can be measured from a breakout box to evaluate the sensitivity or response of the arm operation to control commands. The data processing system provides the capability for post processing of time-history graphics and plots of the PFMA positions, the operator's actions, and the PFMA servo reactions in addition to realtime force and position sensor data presentation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvD..86b3532B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvD..86b3532B"><span id="translatedtitle">New scale <span class="hlt">factor</span> measure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bousso, Raphael</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>The computation of probabilities in an eternally inflating universe requires a regulator or “measure.” The scale <span class="hlt">factor</span> time measure truncates the Universe when a congruence of timelike geodesics has expanded by a fixed volume <span class="hlt">factor</span>. This definition breaks down if the generating congruence is contracting—a serious limitation that excludes from consideration gravitationally bound regions such as our own. Here we propose a closely related regulator which is well defined in the entire spacetime. The new scale <span class="hlt">factor</span> cutoff restricts to events with a scale <span class="hlt">factor</span> below a given value. Since the scale <span class="hlt">factor</span> vanishes at caustics and crunches, this cutoff always includes an infinite number of disconnected future regions. We show that this does not lead to divergences. The resulting measure combines desirable features of the old scale <span class="hlt">factor</span> cutoff and of the light-cone time cutoff, while eliminating some of the disadvantages of each.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010866','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010866"><span id="translatedtitle">Analytic Couple Modeling Introducing Device Design <span class="hlt">Factor</span>, Fin <span class="hlt">Factor</span>, Thermal Diffusivity <span class="hlt">Factor</span>, and Inductance <span class="hlt">Factor</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mackey, Jon; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynys, Fred</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A set of convenient thermoelectric device solutions have been derived in order to capture a number of <span class="hlt">factors</span> which are previously only resolved with numerical techniques. The concise conversion efficiency equations derived from governing equations provide intuitive and straight-forward design guidelines. These guidelines allow for better device design without requiring detailed numerical modeling. The analytical modeling accounts for <span class="hlt">factors</span> such as i) variable temperature boundary conditions, ii) lateral heat transfer, iii) temperature variable material properties, and iv) transient operation. New dimensionless parameters, similar to the figure of merit, are introduced including the device design <span class="hlt">factor</span>, fin <span class="hlt">factor</span>, thermal diffusivity <span class="hlt">factor</span>, and inductance <span class="hlt">factor</span>. These new device <span class="hlt">factors</span> allow for the straight-forward description of phenomenon generally only captured with numerical work otherwise. As an example a device design <span class="hlt">factor</span> of 0.38, which accounts for thermal resistance of the hot and cold shoes, can be used to calculate a conversion efficiency of 2.28 while the ideal conversion efficiency based on figure of merit alone would be 6.15. Likewise an ideal couple with efficiency of 6.15 will be reduced to 5.33 when lateral heat is accounted for with a fin <span class="hlt">factor</span> of 1.0.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E1287I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E1287I"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of a range of extreme environmental <span class="hlt">factors</span> on tripartite lichen Peltigera aphthosa thallus viability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Irina, Insarova; Dyakov, Max; Ptushenko, Vasiliy; Shtaer, Oksana</p> <p></p> <p>Lichens are symbiotic organisms consisting of at least two genetic different partners: a heterotrophic fungus (mycobiont) and a phototrophic alga or cyanobacterium (photobiont). Lichens are ubiquitous at global scale. These symbiotic organisms represent the dominant type of “vegetation” at 8 - 10% of land (Larson, 1987). Abiotic stress’ resistance is notable for lichens among all eukaryotes. Lichens are often called “extremophiles” for their ability to acclimate the most severe environmental conditions. These features allow regarding lichens as a group of organisms which is potentially able to keep viability under open space conditions and to survive within Mars-like atmosphere types. The research presented was carried out in the network of spacecraft Bion-1 experiments involving the investigation of physiological and ultrastructural changes in biological objects survivable under open space conditions. Similar researches were already conducted on bipartite lichen species. The most attention was paid to the influence of UV and other space radiation types on lichen viability in those works. Thus we have taken tripartite lichen Peltigera aphthosa as a main research object and temperature fluctuations from extremely high to extremely low values in accordance to solar and umbral orbit sides - for the main extreme environmental <span class="hlt">factors</span>. These <span class="hlt">factors</span> were the less studied in previous works. During the research the influence of incubation under anaerobic conditions, multi-time effects of high and low temperatures and their <span class="hlt">interchange</span> on respiratory metabolism, photosynthetic apparatus condition and the ultrastructure of P. aphthosa thalli was assessed. The data obtained demonstrate that activity either mycobiont or photobiont in tripartite lichen Peltigera aphthosa keep near unchanged under influence of all stress <span class="hlt">factors</span> explored on dry thalli.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Perfect+AND+numbers&pg=5&id=EJ945603','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Perfect+AND+numbers&pg=5&id=EJ945603"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploratory Bi-<span class="hlt">Factor</span> Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jennrich, Robert I.; Bentler, Peter M.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Bi-<span class="hlt">factor</span> analysis is a form of confirmatory <span class="hlt">factor</span> analysis originally introduced by Holzinger. The bi-<span class="hlt">factor</span> model has a general <span class="hlt">factor</span> and a number of group <span class="hlt">factors</span>. The purpose of this article is to introduce an exploratory form of bi-<span class="hlt">factor</span> analysis. An advantage of using exploratory bi-<span class="hlt">factor</span> analysis is that one need not provide a specific…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED010193.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED010193.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">FACTORS</span> AFFECTING PITCH DISCRIMINATION.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>BERGAN, JOHN R.</p> <p></p> <p>EFFECTS OF TONAL MEMORY OF TWO KINDS OF <span class="hlt">FACTORS</span> WERE STUDIED. THE <span class="hlt">FACTORS</span> WERE (1) THE CHARACTERISTICS OF STIMULI PRESENTED TO THE SUBJECT IN A PITCH IDENTIFICATION TASK, AND (2) THOSE EFFECTING THE RESPONSE THAT THE SUBJECT MAKES IN SUCH A TASK. FIVE HYPOTHESES WERE ADVANCED FOR STUDY. THE UNDERLYING ASSUMPTION WAS THAT THERE ARE IMPORTANT…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8589926','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8589926"><span id="translatedtitle">Plant transcription <span class="hlt">factors</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meshi, T; Iwabuchi, M</p> <p>1995-12-01</p> <p>Transcriptional regulation of gene expression relies on the recognition of promoter elements by transcription <span class="hlt">factors</span>. In the past several years, a considerable number of (putative) transcription <span class="hlt">factors</span> have been identified in plants. Some genes coding for these <span class="hlt">factors</span> were isolated by south-western screening with oligonucleotides as a probe or by homology-based screening, and others were initially isolated by genetic means and subsequently identified as the genes for transcription <span class="hlt">factors</span>. These transcription <span class="hlt">factors</span> often form families of structurally related proteins with similar DNA-binding specificities and in addition, they are sometimes involved in related phenomena. Some groups of <span class="hlt">factors</span> homo- and/or heterodimerize to increase the length and variability of the target sequences. Transcriptional activators, in general, comprise a modular activation domain. The activities of the transcription <span class="hlt">factors</span> are controlled by post-translational modification, like phosphorylation and glycosylation, as well as at the levels of nuclear transport, oligomerization, etc. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge of plant transcription <span class="hlt">factors</span> to help understand the mechanistic aspects of the transcriptional regulation of genes. PMID:8589926</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009naco.book...16B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009naco.book...16B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factorizing</span> RSA Keys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Blakey, Ed</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Factorization</span> is notoriously difficult. Though the problem is not known to be NP-hard, neither efficient, algorithmic solution nor technologically practicable, quantum-computer solution has been found. This apparent complexity, which renders infeasible the <span class="hlt">factorization</span> of sufficiently large values, makes secure the RSA cryptographic system.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950017172','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950017172"><span id="translatedtitle">Block LU <span class="hlt">factorization</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Demmel, James W.; Higham, Nicholas J.; Schreiber, Robert S.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Many of the currently popular 'block algorithms' are scalar algorithms in which the operations have been grouped and reordered into matrix operations. One genuine block algorithm in practical use is block LU <span class="hlt">factorization</span>, and this has recently been shown by Demmel and Higham to be unstable in general. It is shown here that block LU <span class="hlt">factorization</span> is stable if A is block diagonally dominant by columns. Moreover, for a general matrix the level of instability in block LU <span class="hlt">factorization</span> can be founded in terms of the condition number kappa(A) and the growth <span class="hlt">factor</span> for Gaussian elimination without pivoting. A consequence is that block LU <span class="hlt">factorization</span> is stable for a matrix A that is symmetric positive definite or point diagonally dominant by rows or columns as long as A is well-conditioned.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2645965','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2645965"><span id="translatedtitle">Growth <span class="hlt">factors</span> in haemopoiesis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jones, A L; Millar, J L</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Haemopoietic growth <span class="hlt">factors</span> have for over two decades allowed experimentalists to grow haemopoietic bone marrow cells in vitro. With refinements in technique and the discovery of novel growth <span class="hlt">factors</span>, all of the known haemopoietic lineages can now be grown in vitro. This has allowed a much greater understanding of the complex process of haemopoiesis from the haemopoietic stem cell to the mature, functioning end-cell. The in vivo action of these growth <span class="hlt">factors</span> has been harder to investigate. Although recombinant technology has afforded us the much greater quantities necessary for in vivo work, problems remain with administration because of effects on other tissues. Interpretation of results is difficult because of the complex inter-relationships which exist between <span class="hlt">factors</span>. Some of these have been defined in vitro and it appears likely that they also operate in vivo. Erythropoietin is a physiological regulator of erythropoiesis. It has been detected in vivo with levels responding appropriately to stress (i.e. elevated in anaemia) and, when administered in pharmacological doses, has been shown to correct anaemia. Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating <span class="hlt">factor</span> (GM-CSF) has been detected in vivo and may influence the production and function of granulocytes and macrophages, although how it is regulated is unknown. Granulocyte colony-stimulating <span class="hlt">factor</span> (G-CSF) and macrophage colony-stimulating <span class="hlt">factor</span> are ore lineage-specific. Interleukin 3 (IL-3), although it has not been detected in vivo, may act on a primitive marrow precursor by expanding the population and making these cells more susceptible to other growth <span class="hlt">factors</span>, such as GM-CSF. Interleukin 1 (IL-1) has been detected in vivo, does not appear to have any isolated action on bone marrow (except possibly radioprotection) but probably acts synergistically with other growth <span class="hlt">factors</span>, such as G-CSF. Interleukins 2, 4, 5 and 6 have not been detected in vivo. All have effects on B-cells. In addition IL-2 is an essential</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3583136','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3583136"><span id="translatedtitle">Risk <span class="hlt">Factors</span> for Tuberculosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Narasimhan, Padmanesan; Wood, James; MacIntyre, Chandini Raina; Mathai, Dilip</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The risk of progression from exposure to the tuberculosis bacilli to the development of active disease is a two-stage process governed by both exogenous and endogenous risk <span class="hlt">factors</span>. Exogenous <span class="hlt">factors</span> play a key role in accentuating the progression from exposure to infection among which the bacillary load in the sputum and the proximity of an individual to an infectious TB case are key <span class="hlt">factors</span>. Similarly endogenous <span class="hlt">factors</span> lead in progression from infection to active TB disease. Along with well-established risk <span class="hlt">factors</span> (such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malnutrition, and young age), emerging variables such as diabetes, indoor air pollution, alcohol, use of immunosuppressive drugs, and tobacco smoke play a significant role at both the individual and population level. Socioeconomic and behavioral <span class="hlt">factors</span> are also shown to increase the susceptibility to infection. Specific groups such as health care workers and indigenous population are also at an increased risk of TB infection and disease. This paper summarizes these <span class="hlt">factors</span> along with health system issues such as the effects of delay in diagnosis of TB in the transmission of the bacilli. PMID:23476764</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3548163','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3548163"><span id="translatedtitle">Environmental <span class="hlt">Factors</span> in Autism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Grabrucker, Andreas M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in communication and social behavior, and by repetitive behaviors. Although genetic <span class="hlt">factors</span> might be largely responsible for the occurrence of autism they cannot fully account for all cases and it is likely that in addition to a certain combination of autism-related genes, specific environmental <span class="hlt">factors</span> might act as risk <span class="hlt">factors</span> triggering the development of autism. Thus, the role of environmental <span class="hlt">factors</span> in autism is an important area of research and recent data will be discussed in this review. Interestingly, the results show that many environmental risk <span class="hlt">factors</span> are interrelated and their identification and comparison might unveil a common scheme of alterations on a contextual as well as molecular level. For example, both, disruption in the immune system and in zinc homeostasis may affect synaptic transmission in autism. Thus, here, a model is proposed that interconnects the most important and scientifically recognized environmental <span class="hlt">factors</span>. Moreover, similarities in how these risk <span class="hlt">factors</span> impact synapse function are discussed and a possible influence on an already well described genetic pathway leading to the development of autism via zinc homeostasis is proposed. PMID:23346059</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15600224','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15600224"><span id="translatedtitle">Precipitating <span class="hlt">factors</span> of insomnia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bastien, Célyne H; Vallières, Annie; Morin, Charles M</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Insomnia is a prevalent health complaint whose onset is precipitated by a variety of <span class="hlt">factors</span>. There is an important need to identify and describe these <span class="hlt">factors</span> to improve our understanding of risk <span class="hlt">factors</span> and the natural history of insomnia. This article is aimed at identifying and describing the types of precipitating <span class="hlt">factors</span> related to the onset of insomnia. A total of 345 patients evaluated for insomnia at a sleep-disorders clinic completed a sleep survey and underwent a semistructured clinical interview. As part of the evaluation, the specific precipitating events related to the onset of insomnia were identified. Subsequently, these <span class="hlt">factors</span> were categorized (work-school, family, physical or psychological health, or indeterminate), and their affective valence (negative, positive, or indeterminate) was coded. The most common precipitating <span class="hlt">factors</span> of insomnia were related to family, health, and work-school events. Sixty-five percent of precipitating events had a negative valence. These events differed with the age of onset of insomnia but not with the gender of participants. These findings are useful to identify potential risk <span class="hlt">factors</span> for insomnia and improve our understanding of the natural history of insomnia. PMID:15600224</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20030767','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20030767"><span id="translatedtitle">Conundrums with uncertainty <span class="hlt">factors</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cooke, Roger</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>The practice of uncertainty <span class="hlt">factors</span> as applied to noncancer endpoints in the IRIS database harkens back to traditional safety <span class="hlt">factors</span>. In the era before risk quantification, these were used to build in a "margin of safety." As risk quantification takes hold, the safety <span class="hlt">factor</span> methods yield to quantitative risk calculations to guarantee safety. Many authors believe that uncertainty <span class="hlt">factors</span> can be given a probabilistic interpretation as ratios of response rates, and that the reference values computed according to the IRIS methodology can thus be converted to random variables whose distributions can be computed with Monte Carlo methods, based on the distributions of the uncertainty <span class="hlt">factors</span>. Recent proposals from the National Research Council echo this view. Based on probabilistic arguments, several authors claim that the current practice of uncertainty <span class="hlt">factors</span> is overprotective. When interpreted probabilistically, uncertainty <span class="hlt">factors</span> entail very strong assumptions on the underlying response rates. For example, the <span class="hlt">factor</span> for extrapolating from animal to human is the same whether the dosage is chronic or subchronic. Together with independence assumptions, these assumptions entail that the covariance matrix of the logged response rates is singular. In other words, the accumulated assumptions entail a log-linear dependence between the response rates. This in turn means that any uncertainty analysis based on these assumptions is ill-conditioned; it effectively computes uncertainty conditional on a set of zero probability. The practice of uncertainty <span class="hlt">factors</span> is due for a thorough review. Two directions are briefly sketched, one based on standard regression models, and one based on nonparametric continuous Bayesian belief nets. PMID:20030767</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003548.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003548.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Rheumatoid <span class="hlt">factor</span> (RF)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Rheumatoid <span class="hlt">factor</span> (RF) is a blood test that measures the amount of the RF antibody in the blood. ... these conditions still have a "normal" or low RF. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990117007','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990117007"><span id="translatedtitle">Aerospace Human <span class="hlt">Factors</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jordan, Kevin</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The following contains the final report on the activities related to the Cooperative Agreement between the human <span class="hlt">factors</span> research group at NASA Ames Research Center and the Psychology Department at San Jose State University. The participating NASA Ames division has been, as the organization has changed, the Aerospace Human <span class="hlt">Factors</span> Research Division (ASHFRD and Code FL), the Flight Management and Human <span class="hlt">Factors</span> Research Division (Code AF), and the Human <span class="hlt">Factors</span> Research and Technology Division (Code IH). The inclusive dates for the report are November 1, 1984 to January 31, 1999. Throughout the years, approximately 170 persons worked on the cooperative agreements in one capacity or another. The Cooperative Agreement provided for research personnel to collaborate with senior scientists in ongoing NASA ARC research. Finally, many post-MA/MS and post-doctoral personnel contributed to the projects. It is worth noting that 10 former cooperative agreement personnel were hired into civil service positions directly from the agreements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://labtestsonline.org/understanding/analytes/vwf/tab/test','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://labtestsonline.org/understanding/analytes/vwf/tab/test"><span id="translatedtitle">von Willebrand <span class="hlt">Factor</span> Test</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Platelet Count , Platelet Function Tests , Complete Blood Count , Coagulation <span class="hlt">Factor</span> VIII , PT , PTT At a Glance Test ... a protein , one of several components of the coagulation system that work together to stop bleeding and ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000549.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000549.htm"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factor</span> II deficiency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... blood. It leads to problems with blood clotting (coagulation). <span class="hlt">Factor</span> II is also known as prothrombin. ... blood clots form. This process is called the coagulation cascade. It involves special proteins called coagulation, or ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2903966','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2903966"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factors</span> Affecting Wound Healing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many <span class="hlt">factors</span> can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant <span class="hlt">factors</span> that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The <span class="hlt">factors</span> discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these <span class="hlt">factors</span> on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds. PMID:20139336</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780028214&hterms=penicillin+soil&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dpenicillin%2Bsoil','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780028214&hterms=penicillin+soil&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dpenicillin%2Bsoil"><span id="translatedtitle">New microbial growth <span class="hlt">factor</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bok, S. H.; Casida, L. E., Jr.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>A screening procedure was used to isolate from soil a Penicillium sp., two bacterial isolates, and a Streptomyces sp. that produced a previously unknown microbial growth <span class="hlt">factor</span>. This <span class="hlt">factor</span> was an absolute growth requirement for three soil bacteria. The Penicillium sp. and one of the bacteria requiring the <span class="hlt">factor</span>, an Arthrobacter sp., were selected for more extensive study concerning the production and characteristics of the growth <span class="hlt">factor</span>. It did not seem to be related to the siderochromes. It was not present in soil extract, rumen fluid, or any other medium component tested. It appears to be a glycoprotein of high molecular weight and has high specific activity. When added to the diets for a meadow-vole mammalian test system, it caused an increased consumption of diet without a concurrent increase in rate of weight gain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24955002','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24955002"><span id="translatedtitle">Automated <span class="hlt">Factor</span> Slice Sampling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tibbits, Matthew M; Groendyke, Chris; Haran, Murali; Liechty, John C</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms offer a very general approach for sampling from arbitrary distributions. However, designing and tuning MCMC algorithms for each new distribution, can be challenging and time consuming. It is particularly difficult to create an efficient sampler when there is strong dependence among the variables in a multivariate distribution. We describe a two-pronged approach for constructing efficient, automated MCMC algorithms: (1) we propose the "<span class="hlt">factor</span> slice sampler", a generalization of the univariate slice sampler where we treat the selection of a coordinate basis (<span class="hlt">factors</span>) as an additional tuning parameter, and (2) we develop an approach for automatically selecting tuning parameters in order to construct an efficient <span class="hlt">factor</span> slice sampler. In addition to automating the <span class="hlt">factor</span> slice sampler, our tuning approach also applies to the standard univariate slice samplers. We demonstrate the efficiency and general applicability of our automated MCMC algorithm with a number of illustrative examples. PMID:24955002</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4063214','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4063214"><span id="translatedtitle">Automated <span class="hlt">Factor</span> Slice Sampling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tibbits, Matthew M.; Groendyke, Chris; Haran, Murali; Liechty, John C.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms offer a very general approach for sampling from arbitrary distributions. However, designing and tuning MCMC algorithms for each new distribution, can be challenging and time consuming. It is particularly difficult to create an efficient sampler when there is strong dependence among the variables in a multivariate distribution. We describe a two-pronged approach for constructing efficient, automated MCMC algorithms: (1) we propose the “<span class="hlt">factor</span> slice sampler”, a generalization of the univariate slice sampler where we treat the selection of a coordinate basis (<span class="hlt">factors</span>) as an additional tuning parameter, and (2) we develop an approach for automatically selecting tuning parameters in order to construct an efficient <span class="hlt">factor</span> slice sampler. In addition to automating the <span class="hlt">factor</span> slice sampler, our tuning approach also applies to the standard univariate slice samplers. We demonstrate the efficiency and general applicability of our automated MCMC algorithm with a number of illustrative examples. PMID:24955002</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21322517','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21322517"><span id="translatedtitle">Graviton emission from simply rotating Kerr-de Sitter black holes: Transverse traceless tensor graviton modes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Doukas, Jason; Cho, H. T.; Cornell, A. S.; Naylor, Wade</p> <p>2009-08-15</p> <p>In this article we present results for tensor graviton modes (in seven dimensions and greater, n{>=}3) for <span class="hlt">gray-body</span> <span class="hlt">factors</span> of Kerr-de Sitter black holes and for Hawking radiation from simply rotating (n+4)-dimensional Kerr black holes. Although there is some subtlety with defining the Hawking temperature of a Kerr-de Sitter black hole, we present some preliminary results for emissions assuming the standard Hawking normalization and a Bousso-Hawking-like normalization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1067339','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1067339"><span id="translatedtitle">FGF growth <span class="hlt">factor</span> analogs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Zamora, Paul O.; Pena, Louis A.; Lin, Xinhua; Takahashi, Kazuyuki</p> <p>2012-07-24</p> <p>The present invention provides a fibroblast growth <span class="hlt">factor</span> heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth <span class="hlt">factor</span> heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070016634&hterms=critical+design&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dcritical%2Bdesign','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070016634&hterms=critical+design&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dcritical%2Bdesign"><span id="translatedtitle">Human <span class="hlt">Factors</span> in the Design of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Whitmore, Mihriban; Byrne, Vicky; Holden, Kritina</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>NASA s Space Exploration vision for humans to venture to the moon and beyond provides interesting human <span class="hlt">factors</span> opportunities and challenges. The Human Engineering group at NASA has been involved in the initial phases of development of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), Orion. Getting involved at the ground level, Human <span class="hlt">Factors</span> engineers are beginning to influence design; this involvement is expected to continue throughout the development lifecycle. The information presented here describes what has been done to date, what is currently going on, and what is expected in the future. During Phase 1, prior to the contract award to Lockheed Martin, the Human Engineering group was involved in generating requirements, conducting preliminary task analyses based on interviews with subject matter experts in all vehicle systems areas, and developing preliminary concepts of operations based on the task analysis results. In addition, some early evaluations to look at CEV net habitable volume were also conducted. The program is currently in Phase 2, which is broken down into design cycles, including System Readiness Review, Preliminary Design Review, and Critical Design Review. Currently, there are ongoing Human Engineering Technical <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> Meetings being held with both NASA and Lockheed Martin in order to establish processes, desired products, and schedules. Multiple design trades and quick-look evaluations (e.g. display device layout and external window size) are also in progress. Future Human Engineering activities include requirement verification assessments and crew/stakeholder evaluations of increasing fidelity. During actual flights of the CEV, the Human Engineering group is expected to be involved in in-situ testing and lessons learned reporting, in order to benefit human space flight beyond the initial CEV program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930081016','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930081016"><span id="translatedtitle">A load <span class="hlt">factor</span> formula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Miller, Roy G</p> <p>1927-01-01</p> <p>The ultimate test of a load <span class="hlt">factor</span> formula is experience. The chief advantages of a semi rational formula over arbitrary <span class="hlt">factors</span> are that it fairs in between points of experience and it differentiates according to variables within a type. Structural failure of an airplane apparently safe according to the formula would call for a specific change in the formula. The best class of airplanes with which to check a load <span class="hlt">factor</span> formula seems to be those which have experienced structural failure. Table I comprises a list of the airplanes which have experienced failure in flight traceable to the wing structure. The load <span class="hlt">factor</span> by formula is observed to be greater than the designed strength in each case, without a single exception. Table II comprises the load <span class="hlt">factor</span> by formula with the designed strength of a number of well-known service types. The formula indicates that by far the majority of these have ample structural strength. One case considered here in deriving a suitable formula is that of a heavy load carrier of large size and practically no reserve power.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5829844','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5829844"><span id="translatedtitle">Power <span class="hlt">Factor</span> Controller Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Knudson Engineers, Inc.</p> <p>1989-08-01</p> <p>The complete report is divided into three parts as follows: (1) This report combines a historical perspective with a current assessment of the use of power <span class="hlt">factor</span> controllers for three-phase ac motor energy savings. The power <span class="hlt">factor</span> controller (PFC) is a power electronics device that reduces voltage to a motor during periods of reduced motor torque requirements. (2) A power <span class="hlt">factor</span> controller (PFC) is a power electronics device that reduces voltage to a motor during periods of reduced motor torque requirements. This report is the DEMONSTRATION phase of the PFC study. The phase report consists of three task reports -- Site Selection, Demonstration Preparation, and Demonstration. The reports explain how three sites were selected for demonstration, describe what was measured at each site and the method of measurement, and compare measured energy savings with calculated predictions of energy savings. The report concludes that PFCs can save energy on carefully selected motor applications. (3) The results of the demonstration task are described in this report. A power <span class="hlt">factor</span> controller (PFC) is a power electronics device that reduces voltage to a motor during periods of reduced motor torque requirements. The demonstration phase of this study calculates projected energy savings with the use of a PFC and compares measured performance with the calculations. The effect of the PFC on motor power requirements, power <span class="hlt">factor</span> and energy consumption shall be measured.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4612558','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4612558"><span id="translatedtitle">Breast cancer risk <span class="hlt">factors</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ciszewski, Tomasz; Łopacka-Szatan, Karolina; Miotła, Paweł; Starosławska, Elżbieta</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women's ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk <span class="hlt">factors</span> associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk <span class="hlt">factors</span> initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent <span class="hlt">factors</span> such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual's life. The second group would include extrinsic <span class="hlt">factors</span> conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable <span class="hlt">factors</span> may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence. PMID:26528110</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/166450','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/166450"><span id="translatedtitle">Electromagnetic nucleon form <span class="hlt">factors</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bender, A.; Roberts, C.D.; Frank, M.R.</p> <p>1995-08-01</p> <p>The Dyson-Schwinger equation framework is employed to obtain expressions for the electromagnetic nucleon form <span class="hlt">factor</span>. In generalized impulse approximation the form <span class="hlt">factor</span> depends on the dressed quark propagator, the dressed quark-photon vertex, which is crucial to ensuring current conservation, and the nucleon Faddeev amplitude. The approach manifestly incorporates the large space-like-q{sup 2} renormalization group properties of QCD and allows a realistic extrapolation to small space-like-q{sup 2}. This extrapolation allows one to relate experimental data to the form of the quark-quark interaction at small space-like-q{sup 2}, which is presently unknown. The approach provides a means of unifying, within a single framework, the treatment of the perturbative and nonperturbative regimes of QCD. The wealth of experimental nucleon form <span class="hlt">factor</span> data, over a large range of q{sup 2}, ensures that this application will provide an excellent environment to test, improve and extend our approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1178377','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1178377"><span id="translatedtitle">Geothermal Plant Capacity <span class="hlt">Factors</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The capacity <span class="hlt">factors</span> recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity <span class="hlt">factor</span> is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity <span class="hlt">factor</span> is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2869336','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2869336"><span id="translatedtitle">Psychological <span class="hlt">Factors</span> in Asthma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Asthma has long been considered a condition in which psychological <span class="hlt">factors</span> have a role. As in many illnesses, psychological variables may affect outcome in asthma via their effects on treatment adherence and symptom reporting. Emerging evidence suggests that the relation between asthma and psychological <span class="hlt">factors</span> may be more complex than that, however. Central cognitive processes may influence not only the interpretation of asthma symptoms but also the manifestation of measurable changes in immune and physiologic markers of asthma. Furthermore, asthma and major depressive disorder share several risk <span class="hlt">factors</span> and have similar patterns of dysregulation in key biologic systems, including the neuroendocrine stress response, cytokines, and neuropeptides. Despite the evidence that depression is common in people with asthma and exerts a negative impact on outcome, few treatment studies have examined whether improving symptoms of depression do, in fact, result in better control of asthma symptoms or improved quality of life in patients with asthma. PMID:20525122</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810010133','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810010133"><span id="translatedtitle">DSN human <span class="hlt">factors</span> project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chafin, R. L.; Martin, T. H.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The project plan was to hold focus groups to identify the <span class="hlt">factors</span> influencing the ease of use characteristics of software and to bond the problem. A questionnaire survey was conducted to evaluate those <span class="hlt">factors</span> which were more appropriately measured with that method. The performance oriented <span class="hlt">factors</span> were analyzed and relationships hypothesized. The hypotheses were put to test in the experimental phase of the project. In summary, the initial analysis indicates that there is an initial performance effect favoring computer controlled dialogue but the advantage fades fast as operators become experienced. The user documentation style is seen to have a significant effect on performance. The menu and prompt command formats are preferred by inexperienced operators. The short form mnemonic is least favored. There is no clear best command format but the short form mnemonic is clearly the worst.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1160234','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1160234"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-<span class="hlt">factor</span> authentication</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hamlet, Jason R; Pierson, Lyndon G</p> <p>2014-10-21</p> <p>Detection and deterrence of spoofing of user authentication may be achieved by including a cryptographic fingerprint unit within a hardware device for authenticating a user of the hardware device. The cryptographic fingerprint unit includes an internal physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generates a PUF value. Combining logic is coupled to receive the PUF value, combines the PUF value with one or more other authentication <span class="hlt">factors</span> to generate a multi-<span class="hlt">factor</span> authentication value. A key generator is coupled to generate a private key and a public key based on the multi-<span class="hlt">factor</span> authentication value while a decryptor is coupled to receive an authentication challenge posed to the hardware device and encrypted with the public key and coupled to output a response to the authentication challenge decrypted with the private key.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26721389','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26721389"><span id="translatedtitle">ConBind: motif-aware cross-species alignment for the identification of functional transcription <span class="hlt">factor</span> binding sites.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lelieveld, Stefan H; Schütte, Judith; Dijkstra, Maurits J J; Bawono, Punto; Kinston, Sarah J; Göttgens, Berthold; Heringa, Jaap; Bonzanni, Nicola</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Eukaryotic gene expression is regulated by transcription <span class="hlt">factors</span> (TFs) binding to promoter as well as distal enhancers. TFs recognize short, but specific binding sites (TFBSs) that are located within the promoter and enhancer regions. Functionally relevant TFBSs are often highly conserved during evolution leaving a strong phylogenetic signal. While multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is a potent tool to detect the phylogenetic signal, the current MSA implementations are optimized to align the maximum number of identical nucleotides. This approach might result in the omission of conserved motifs that contain <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> nucleotides such as the ETS motif (IUPAC code: GGAW). Here, we introduce ConBind, a novel method to enhance alignment of short motifs, even if their mutual sequence similarity is only partial. ConBind improves the identification of conserved TFBSs by improving the alignment accuracy of TFBS families within orthologous DNA sequences. Functional validation of the Gfi1b + 13 enhancer reveals that ConBind identifies additional functionally important ETS binding sites that were missed by all other tested alignment tools. In addition to the analysis of known regulatory regions, our web tool is useful for the analysis of TFBSs on so far unknown DNA regions identified through ChIP-sequencing. PMID:26721389</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4856970','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4856970"><span id="translatedtitle">ConBind: motif-aware cross-species alignment for the identification of functional transcription <span class="hlt">factor</span> binding sites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lelieveld, Stefan H.; Schütte, Judith; Dijkstra, Maurits J.J.; Bawono, Punto; Kinston, Sarah J.; Göttgens, Berthold; Heringa, Jaap; Bonzanni, Nicola</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Eukaryotic gene expression is regulated by transcription <span class="hlt">factors</span> (TFs) binding to promoter as well as distal enhancers. TFs recognize short, but specific binding sites (TFBSs) that are located within the promoter and enhancer regions. Functionally relevant TFBSs are often highly conserved during evolution leaving a strong phylogenetic signal. While multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is a potent tool to detect the phylogenetic signal, the current MSA implementations are optimized to align the maximum number of identical nucleotides. This approach might result in the omission of conserved motifs that contain <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> nucleotides such as the ETS motif (IUPAC code: GGAW). Here, we introduce ConBind, a novel method to enhance alignment of short motifs, even if their mutual sequence similarity is only partial. ConBind improves the identification of conserved TFBSs by improving the alignment accuracy of TFBS families within orthologous DNA sequences. Functional validation of the Gfi1b + 13 enhancer reveals that ConBind identifies additional functionally important ETS binding sites that were missed by all other tested alignment tools. In addition to the analysis of known regulatory regions, our web tool is useful for the analysis of TFBSs on so far unknown DNA regions identified through ChIP-sequencing. PMID:26721389</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4091213','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4091213"><span id="translatedtitle">WRKY transcription <span class="hlt">factors</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bakshi, Madhunita; Oelmüller, Ralf</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>WRKY transcription <span class="hlt">factors</span> are one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators found exclusively in plants. They have diverse biological functions in plant disease resistance, abiotic stress responses, nutrient deprivation, senescence, seed and trichome development, embryogenesis, as well as additional developmental and hormone-controlled processes. WRKYs can act as transcriptional activators or repressors, in various homo- and heterodimer combinations. Here we review recent progress on the function of WRKY transcription <span class="hlt">factors</span> in Arabidopsis and other plant species such as rice, potato, and parsley, with a special focus on abiotic, developmental, and hormone-regulated processes. PMID:24492469</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26939264','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26939264"><span id="translatedtitle">Anti-nutritional <span class="hlt">Factors</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Anti-nutritional <span class="hlt">factors</span> such as trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid and cyanogen are as important as nutritional content of any edible plant part. The anti-nutritional <span class="hlt">factors</span> can be defined as those substances generated in natural food substances by the normal metabolism of species and by different mechanisms (e.g. inactivation of some nutrients, diminution of the digestive process or metabolic utilization of feed) which exert effects contrary to optimum nutrition. Hence, trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid and cyanogens present in edibles with the methods in the chapter would be helpful. PMID:26939264</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=MSFC-9804659&hterms=clinical+trial&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dclinical%2Btrial','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=MSFC-9804659&hterms=clinical+trial&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dclinical%2Btrial"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factor</span> D Enzyme</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The trauma caused by the open heart surgery often triggers massive inflammation because the immune system overreacts. <span class="hlt">Factor</span> D, the protein which plays a key role in the biological steps that activate this immune response prevents the imune system from inappropriately rurning out of control, allowing the patient to recover more rapidly. <span class="hlt">Factor</span> D blockers, with their great potential to alleviate the complication of inflammation associated with heart surgery, are now being developed for clinical trials. These new drugs, developed from space research, should be commercially available as soon as year 2001.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3439975','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3439975"><span id="translatedtitle">The Transcription <span class="hlt">Factor</span> Encyclopedia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Here we present the Transcription <span class="hlt">Factor</span> Encyclopedia (TFe), a new web-based compendium of mini review articles on transcription <span class="hlt">factors</span> (TFs) that is founded on the principles of open access and collaboration. Our consortium of over 100 researchers has collectively contributed over 130 mini review articles on pertinent human, mouse and rat TFs. Notable features of the TFe website include a high-quality PDF generator and web API for programmatic data retrieval. TFe aims to rapidly educate scientists about the TFs they encounter through the delivery of succinct summaries written and vetted by experts in the field. TFe is available at http://www.cisreg.ca/tfe. PMID:22458515</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987MNRAS.226..257B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987MNRAS.226..257B"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiative Gaunt <span class="hlt">factors</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Burgess, Alan; Summers, Hugh P.</p> <p>1987-05-01</p> <p>Numerical methods for the evaluation of radiative Gaunt <span class="hlt">factors</span> for complex ions, and for the calculation of the principal integrals over the Gaunt <span class="hlt">factors</span> relevant to plasma spectroscopy, are presented. The present techniques are suitable for the computation of intermediate accuracy results for large numbers of ions over extended parameter ranges, and they cover bound-bound, bound-free, and free-free cases in both hydrogenic and nonhydrogenic approximations. The results demonstrate the reliability of the numerical methods and their advantages over the methods of Peach (1965, 1967) and Burgess and Seaton (1960). Significant differences from hydrogenic results at low and moderate z values are pointed out.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22458515','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22458515"><span id="translatedtitle">The transcription <span class="hlt">factor</span> encyclopedia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yusuf, Dimas; Butland, Stefanie L; Swanson, Magdalena I; Bolotin, Eugene; Ticoll, Amy; Cheung, Warren A; Zhang, Xiao Yu Cindy; Dickman, Christopher T D; Fulton, Debra L; Lim, Jonathan S; Schnabl, Jake M; Ramos, Oscar H P; Vasseur-Cognet, Mireille; de Leeuw, Charles N; Simpson, Elizabeth M; Ryffel, Gerhart U; Lam, Eric W-F; Kist, Ralf; Wilson, Miranda S C; Marco-Ferreres, Raquel; Brosens, Jan J; Beccari, Leonardo L; Bovolenta, Paola; Benayoun, Bérénice A; Monteiro, Lara J; Schwenen, Helma D C; Grontved, Lars; Wederell, Elizabeth; Mandrup, Susanne; Veitia, Reiner A; Chakravarthy, Harini; Hoodless, Pamela A; Mancarelli, M Michela; Torbett, Bruce E; Banham, Alison H; Reddy, Sekhar P; Cullum, Rebecca L; Liedtke, Michaela; Tschan, Mario P; Vaz, Michelle; Rizzino, Angie; Zannini, Mariastella; Frietze, Seth; Farnham, Peggy J; Eijkelenboom, Astrid; Brown, Philip J; Laperrière, David; Leprince, Dominique; de Cristofaro, Tiziana; Prince, Kelly L; Putker, Marrit; del Peso, Luis; Camenisch, Gieri; Wenger, Roland H; Mikula, Michal; Rozendaal, Marieke; Mader, Sylvie; Ostrowski, Jerzy; Rhodes, Simon J; Van Rechem, Capucine; Boulay, Gaylor; Olechnowicz, Sam W Z; Breslin, Mary B; Lan, Michael S; Nanan, Kyster K; Wegner, Michael; Hou, Juan; Mullen, Rachel D; Colvin, Stephanie C; Noy, Peter John; Webb, Carol F; Witek, Matthew E; Ferrell, Scott; Daniel, Juliet M; Park, Jason; Waldman, Scott A; Peet, Daniel J; Taggart, Michael; Jayaraman, Padma-Sheela; Karrich, Julien J; Blom, Bianca; Vesuna, Farhad; O'Geen, Henriette; Sun, Yunfu; Gronostajski, Richard M; Woodcroft, Mark W; Hough, Margaret R; Chen, Edwin; Europe-Finner, G Nicholas; Karolczak-Bayatti, Magdalena; Bailey, Jarrod; Hankinson, Oliver; Raman, Venu; LeBrun, David P; Biswal, Shyam; Harvey, Christopher J; DeBruyne, Jason P; Hogenesch, John B; Hevner, Robert F; Héligon, Christophe; Luo, Xin M; Blank, Marissa Cathleen; Millen, Kathleen Joyce; Sharlin, David S; Forrest, Douglas; Dahlman-Wright, Karin; Zhao, Chunyan; Mishima, Yuriko; Sinha, Satrajit; Chakrabarti, Rumela; Portales-Casamar, Elodie; Sladek, Frances M; Bradley, Philip H; Wasserman, Wyeth W</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Here we present the Transcription <span class="hlt">Factor</span> Encyclopedia (TFe), a new web-based compendium of mini review articles on transcription <span class="hlt">factors</span> (TFs) that is founded on the principles of open access and collaboration. Our consortium of over 100 researchers has collectively contributed over 130 mini review articles on pertinent human, mouse and rat TFs. Notable features of the TFe website include a high-quality PDF generator and web API for programmatic data retrieval. TFe aims to rapidly educate scientists about the TFs they encounter through the delivery of succinct summaries written and vetted by experts in the field. TFe is available at http://www.cisreg.ca/tfe. PMID:22458515</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230129-radiation-view-factor-shadowing','SCIGOV-ESTSC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230129-radiation-view-factor-shadowing"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiation View <span class="hlt">Factor</span> With Shadowing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/">Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1992-02-24</p> <p>FACET calculates the radiation geometric view <span class="hlt">factor</span> (alternatively called shape <span class="hlt">factor</span>, angle <span class="hlt">factor</span>, or configuration <span class="hlt">factor</span>) between surfaces for axisymmetric, two-dimensional planar and three-dimensional geometries with interposed third surface obstructions. FACET was developed to calculate view <span class="hlt">factors</span> as input data to finite element heat transfer analysis codes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22image+analysis%22&pg=7&id=EJ026017','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22image+analysis%22&pg=7&id=EJ026017"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factor</span> Analysis and Counseling Research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Weiss, David J.</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p>Topics discussed include <span class="hlt">factor</span> analysis versus cluster analysis, analysis of Q correlation matrices, ipsativity and <span class="hlt">factor</span> analysis, and tests for the significance of a correlation matrix prior to application of <span class="hlt">factor</span> analytic techniques. Techniques for <span class="hlt">factor</span> extraction discussed include principal components, canonical <span class="hlt">factor</span> analysis, alpha…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ868855.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ868855.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Affective <span class="hlt">Factors</span>: Anxiety</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tasnimi, Mahshad</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Affective <span class="hlt">factors</span> seem to play a crucial role in success or failure in second language acquisition. Negative attitudes can reduce learners' motivation and harm language learning, while positive attitudes can do the reverse. Discovering students' attitudes about language will help both teacher and student in teaching learning process. Anxiety is…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040201530','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040201530"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of Human <span class="hlt">Factors</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mount, Frances; Foley, Tico</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Human <span class="hlt">Factors</span> Engineering, often referred to as Ergonomics, is a science that applies a detailed understanding of human characteristics, capabilities, and limitations to the design, evaluation, and operation of environments, tools, and systems for work and daily living. Human <span class="hlt">Factors</span> is the investigation, design, and evaluation of equipment, techniques, procedures, facilities, and human interfaces, and encompasses all aspects of human activity from manual labor to mental processing and leisure time enjoyments. In spaceflight applications, human <span class="hlt">factors</span> engineering seeks to: (1) ensure that a task can be accomplished, (2) maintain productivity during spaceflight, and (3) ensure the habitability of the pressurized living areas. DSO 904 served as a vehicle for the verification and elucidation of human <span class="hlt">factors</span> principles and tools in the microgravity environment. Over six flights, twelve topics were investigated. This study documented the strengths and limitations of human operators in a complex, multifaceted, and unique environment. By focusing on the man-machine interface in space flight activities, it was determined which designs allow astronauts to be optimally productive during valuable and costly space flights. Among the most promising areas of inquiry were procedures, tools, habitat, environmental conditions, tasking, work load, flexibility, and individual control over work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5040023','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5040023"><span id="translatedtitle">Introduction to human <span class="hlt">factors</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Winters, J.M.</p> <p>1988-03-01</p> <p>Some background is given on the field of human <span class="hlt">factors</span>. The nature of problems with current human/computer interfaces is discussed, some costs are identified, ideal attributes of graceful system interfaces are outlined, and some reasons are indicated why it's not easy to fix the problems. (LEW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4782561','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4782561"><span id="translatedtitle">ERYTHROPOIETIC <span class="hlt">FACTOR</span> PURIFICATION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>White, W.F.; Schlueter, R.J.</p> <p>1962-05-01</p> <p>A method is given for purifying and concentrating the blood plasma erythropoietic <span class="hlt">factor</span>. Anemic sheep plasma is contacted three times successively with ion exchange resins: an anion exchange resin, a cation exchange resin at a pH of about 5, and a cation exchange resin at a pH of about 6. (AEC)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.cancer.org/cancer/thyroidcancer/detailedguide/thyroid-cancer-risk-factors','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.cancer.org/cancer/thyroidcancer/detailedguide/thyroid-cancer-risk-factors"><span id="translatedtitle">Thyroid Cancer Risk <span class="hlt">Factors</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... and radiation fallout from power plant accidents or nuclear weapons. Having had head or neck radiation treatments in childhood is a risk <span class="hlt">factor</span> for ... should be done using the lowest dose of radiation that still provides a clear ... from nuclear weapons or power plant accidents. For instance, thyroid ...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18770653','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18770653"><span id="translatedtitle">Common conversion <span class="hlt">factors</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>2001-05-01</p> <p>This appendix presents tables of some of the more common conversion <span class="hlt">factors</span> for units of measure used throughout Current Protocols manuals, as well as prefixes indicating powers of ten for SI units. Another table gives conversions between temperatures on the Celsius (Centigrade) and Fahrenheit scales. PMID:18770653</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230095-inelastic-scattering-form-factors','SCIGOV-ESTSC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230095-inelastic-scattering-form-factors"><span id="translatedtitle">Inelastic Scattering Form <span class="hlt">Factors</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/">Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>ATHENA-IV computes form <span class="hlt">factors</span> for inelastic scattering calculations, using single-particle wave functions that are eigenstates of motion in either a Woods-Saxon potential well or a harmonic oscillator well. Two-body forces of Gauss, Coulomb, Yukawa, and a sum of cut-off Yukawa radial dependences are available.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15537408','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15537408"><span id="translatedtitle">Recombinant <span class="hlt">factor</span> VIIa.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Aitken, Michael G</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Human coagulation <span class="hlt">factor</span> (F) VII is a single chain protease that circulates in the blood as a weakly active zymogen at concentrations of approximately 10 nmol/L. When converted to the active 2 chain form (FVIIa), it is a powerful initiator of haemostasis. Recombinant <span class="hlt">factor</span> VIIa (rFVIIa, eptacog alfa, NovoSeven) is a genetically engineered product that was first introduced in 1988 for the treatment of patients with haemophilia A and B with high inhibitory antibody titres to <span class="hlt">factors</span> VIII and IX. Recent reports in the form of case studies and series, and early trial data, have suggested a role for rFVIIa across a diverse range of indications including bleeding associated with trauma, surgery, thrombocytopaenia, liver disease and oral anticoagulant toxicity. This review describes the physiology of the coagulation pathway and in particular the role of recombinant <span class="hlt">factor</span> VIIa. It will also focus on the emerging role of rFVIIa in both trauma and non-trauma bleeding and its potential use in the ED. PMID:15537408</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5243406','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5243406"><span id="translatedtitle">Peptide growth <span class="hlt">factors</span>, part B</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Barnes, D.; Sirbasku, D.A.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>This book discusses the following topics: Platelet-Derived Growth <span class="hlt">Factor</span>;Nerve and Glial Growth <span class="hlt">Factors</span>;PC12 Pheochromocytoma Cells;Techniques for the Study of Growth <span class="hlt">Factor</span> Activity;Genetic Approaches and Biological Effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11011978','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11011978"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factor</span> structure of nonverbal cognition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ardil, A; Pineda, D A</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>In order to define the <span class="hlt">factor</span> structure of nonverbal cognitive processes, 156 twenty to sixty year-old participants were selected in Medellin (Colombia). A neuropsychological test battery for assessing different nonverbal cognitive domains (attention, memory, visuoperceptual and visuoconstructive abilities. executive functions, praxis abilities, and written calculation abilities) was administered. Initially, independent <span class="hlt">factor</span> analyses were carried out for each domain. Three attention <span class="hlt">factors</span> (Sustained Attention, Divided Attention, and Processing Speed, 73.1% of the variance); two memory <span class="hlt">factors</span> (Categorical and Non-Categorical Memory, 59.7% of the variance): two visuoperceptual and visuoconstructive <span class="hlt">factors</span> (Sequential and Simultaneous, 54.0% of the variance); and two executive function <span class="hlt">factors</span> (Categorization and Trial Error, 82.0% of the variance) were found. Further, several sequential <span class="hlt">factor</span> analyses using Varimax orthogonal rotations for noncorrelated variables were performed. The 32 test variables were included, but progressively some variables were removed. This procedure finally selected 13 variables corresponding to five <span class="hlt">factors</span> accounting for 72.6% of variance. <span class="hlt">Factor</span> I was an Executive Function <span class="hlt">factor</span> (30% of variance). <span class="hlt">Factor</span> 2 corresponded to a Sequential Constructional <span class="hlt">factor</span> (14.7%). <span class="hlt">Factor</span> 3 represented a Processing Speed <span class="hlt">factor</span> and accounted for 10.6% of the variance. <span class="hlt">Factor</span> 4 was Visuoperceptual <span class="hlt">factor</span> (9.5% of the variance). Finally, <span class="hlt">Factor</span> 5 (7.8% of the variance) was a Nonverbal Memory <span class="hlt">factor</span>. It was concluded that several, different cognitive dimensions are included in nonverbal cognition. PMID:11011978</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890017020','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890017020"><span id="translatedtitle">Human <span class="hlt">factors</span> workplace considerations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Haines, Richard F.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Computer workstations assume many different forms and play different functions today. In order for them to assume the effective interface role which they should play they must be properly designed to take into account the ubiguitous human <span class="hlt">factor</span>. In addition, the entire workplace in which they are used should be properly configured so as to enhance the operational features of the individual workstation where possible. A number of general human <span class="hlt">factors</span> workplace considerations are presented. This ongoing series of notes covers such topics as achieving comfort and good screen visibility, hardware issues (e.g., mouse maintenance), screen symbology features (e.g., labels, cursors, prompts), and various miscellaneous subjects. These notes are presented here in order to: (1) illustrate how one's workstation can be used to support telescience activities of many other people working within an organization, and (2) provide a single complete set of considerations for future reference.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890047078&hterms=goggle&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dgoggle','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890047078&hterms=goggle&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dgoggle"><span id="translatedtitle">Helicopter human <span class="hlt">factors</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hart, Sandra G.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The state-of-the-art helicopter and its pilot are examined using the tools of human-<span class="hlt">factors</span> analysis. The significant role of human error in helicopter accidents is discussed; the history of human-<span class="hlt">factors</span> research on helicopters is briefly traced; the typical flight tasks are described; and the noise, vibration, and temperature conditions typical of modern military helicopters are characterized. Also considered are helicopter controls, cockpit instruments and displays, and the impact of cockpit design on pilot workload. Particular attention is given to possible advanced-technology improvements, such as control stabilization and augmentation, FBW and fly-by-light systems, multifunction displays, night-vision goggles, pilot night-vision systems, night-vision displays with superimposed symbols, target acquisition and designation systems, and aural displays. Diagrams, drawings, and photographs are provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25456681','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25456681"><span id="translatedtitle">[Streptococcus pyogenes pathogenic <span class="hlt">factors</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bidet, Ph; Bonacorsi, S</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The pathogenicity of ß-hemolytic group A streptococcus (GAS) is particularly diverse, ranging from mild infections, such as pharyngitis or impetigo, to potentially debilitating poststreptococcal diseases, and up to severe invasive infections such as necrotizing fasciitis or the dreaded streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. This variety of clinical expressions, often radically different in individuals infected with the same strain, results from a complex interaction between the bacterial virulence <span class="hlt">factors</span>, the mode of infection and the immune system of the host. Advances in comparative genomics have led to a better understanding of how, following this confrontation, GAS adapts to the immune system's pressure, either peacefully by reducing the expression of certain virulence <span class="hlt">factors</span> to achieve an asymptomatic carriage, or on the contrary, by overexpressing them disproportionately, resulting in the most severe forms of invasive infection. PMID:25456681</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3632747','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3632747"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factors</span> regulating microglia activation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kierdorf, Katrin; Prinz, Marco</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Microglia are resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS) that display high functional similarities to other tissue macrophages. However, it is especially important to create and maintain an intact tissue homeostasis to support the neuronal cells, which are very sensitive even to minor changes in their environment. The transition from the “resting” but surveying microglial phenotype to an activated stage is tightly regulated by several intrinsic (e.g., Runx-1, Irf8, and Pu.1) and extrinsic <span class="hlt">factors</span> (e.g., CD200, CX3CR1, and TREM2). Under physiological conditions, minor changes of those <span class="hlt">factors</span> are sufficient to cause fatal dysregulation of microglial cell homeostasis and result in severe CNS pathologies. In this review, we discuss recent achievements that gave new insights into mechanisms that ensure microglia quiescence. PMID:23630462</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1306269','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1306269"><span id="translatedtitle">Risk <span class="hlt">Factors</span> in Stroke</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mustacchi, Piero</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>In the United States, stroke accounts for 160,000 annual deaths; only 16% of the 1.8 million stroke survivors are fully independent. The incidence of stroke increases with age. Hemorrhagic strokes outnumber ischemic strokes before age 15. Japanese men in this country have a lower stroke mortality than their age peers in Japan. Excessive stroke mortality for US nonwhites may not be entirely due to the greater prevalence of hypertension among blacks. Hypertension emerges as the single most powerful and reversible risk <span class="hlt">factor</span> in stroke and for survival after stroke. Impaired cardiac function is the second most important precursor of stroke. The recurrence of stroke in survivors is high. The frequency of completed stroke is high in persons with transient ischemic attacks, but not in those with asymptomatic carotid bruits. Other reversible risk <span class="hlt">factors</span> are smoking, the use of oral contraceptives, alcoholic excess, a low level of physical activity, blood hyperviscosity and drug abuse. PMID:3898597</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3755..113C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3755..113C"><span id="translatedtitle">Growth <span class="hlt">factors</span> for nanobacteria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ciftcioglu, Neva; Kajander, E. Olavi</p> <p>1999-12-01</p> <p>Nanobacteria are novel microorganisms recently isolated from fetal bovine serum and blood of cows and humans. These coccoid, gram negative bacteria in alpha-2 subgroup of Proteobacteria grow slowly under mammalian cell culture conditions but not in common media for microbes. Now we have found two different kinds of culture supplement preparations that improve their growth and make them culturable in the classical sense. These are supernatant fractions of conditioned media obtained from 1 - 3 months old nanobacteria cultures and from about a 2 weeks old Bacillus species culture. Both improved multiplication and particle yields and the latter increased their resistance to gentamicin. Nanobacteria cultured with any of the methods shared similar immunological property, structure and protein pattern. The growth supporting <span class="hlt">factors</span> were heat-stabile and nondialyzable, and dialysis improved the growth promoting action. Nanobacteria formed stony colonies in a bacteriological medium supplemented with the growth <span class="hlt">factors</span>. This is an implication that nanobacterial growth is influenced by pre-existing bacterial flora.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=MSFC-8552178&hterms=ac+motor+controller&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dac%2Bmotor%2Bcontroller','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=MSFC-8552178&hterms=ac+motor+controller&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dac%2Bmotor%2Bcontroller"><span id="translatedtitle">Power <span class="hlt">Factor</span> Controller</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Frank Nola invented the Power <span class="hlt">Factor</span> Controller (PFC) at Marshall Space Flight Center more than a decade ago. Nola came up with a way to curb power wastage in AC induction motors. The PFC matches voltage with the motor's actual need by continuously sensing shifts between voltage and current. When it senses a light load it cuts the voltage to the minimum needed. Potential energy savings range from 8 to 65 percent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/975645','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/975645"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factorization</span> of simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Barrett, C. L.; Mortveit, H. S.; Reidys, C. M.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>A simulation is collection of agents that, according to some schedule, are making decisions based on information about other agents in that collection. In this paper we present a class of dynamical systems called Sequential Dynamical Systems (SDS) that was developed to capture these key features of computer simulations. Here, as an example of the use of SDS, we demonstrate how one can obtain information about a simulation by a <span class="hlt">factorization</span> into smaller simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/834525','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/834525"><span id="translatedtitle">Nucleon Electromagnetic Form <span class="hlt">Factors</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kees de Jager</p> <p>2004-08-01</p> <p>Although nucleons account for nearly all the visible mass in the universe, they have a complicated structure that is still incompletely understood. The first indication that nucleons have an internal structure, was the measurement of the proton magnetic moment by Frisch and Stern (1933) which revealed a large deviation from the value expected for a point-like Dirac particle. The investigation of the spatial structure of the nucleon, resulting in the first quantitative measurement of the proton charge radius, was initiated by the HEPL (Stanford) experiments in the 1950s, for which Hofstadter was awarded the 1961 Nobel prize. The first indication of a non-zero neutron charge distribution was obtained by scattering thermal neutrons off atomic electrons. The recent revival of its experimental study through the operational implementation of novel instrumentation has instigated a strong theoretical interest. Nucleon electro-magnetic form <span class="hlt">factors</span> (EMFFs) are optimally studied through the exchange of a virtual photon, in elastic electron-nucleon scattering. The momentum transferred to the nucleon by the virtual photon can be selected to probe different scales of the nucleon, from integral properties such as the charge radius to scaling properties of its internal constituents. Polarization instrumentation, polarized beams and targets, and the measurement of the polarization of the recoiling nucleon have been essential in the accurate separation of the charge and magnetic form <span class="hlt">factors</span> and in studies of the elusive neutron charge form <span class="hlt">factor</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24245675','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24245675"><span id="translatedtitle">Fano <span class="hlt">factor</span> estimation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rajdl, Kamil; Lansky, Petr</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Fano <span class="hlt">factor</span> is one of the most widely used measures of variability of spike trains. Its standard estimator is the ratio of sample variance to sample mean of spike counts observed in a time window and the quality of the estimator strongly depends on the length of the window. We investigate this dependence under the assumption that the spike train behaves as an equilibrium renewal process. It is shown what characteristics of the spike train have large effect on the estimator bias. Namely, the effect of refractory period is analytically evaluated. Next, we create an approximate asymptotic formula for the mean square error of the estimator, which can also be used to find minimum of the error in estimation from single spike trains. The accuracy of the Fano <span class="hlt">factor</span> estimator is compared with the accuracy of the estimator based on the squared coefficient of variation. All the results are illustrated for spike trains with gamma and inverse Gaussian probability distributions of interspike intervals. Finally, we discuss possibilities of how to select a suitable observation window for the Fano <span class="hlt">factor</span> estimation. PMID:24245675</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5752348','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5752348"><span id="translatedtitle">Human <span class="hlt">Factors</span> Review Plan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R.</p> <p>1985-12-01</p> <p>''Human <span class="hlt">Factors</span>'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human <span class="hlt">factors</span> conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human <span class="hlt">factors</span> engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=61142&keyword=food+AND+drive&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77086249&CFTOKEN=56669263','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=61142&keyword=food+AND+drive&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=77086249&CFTOKEN=56669263"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">FACTORS</span> INFLUENCING THE DESIGN OF BIOACCUMULATION <span class="hlt">FACTOR</span> AND BIOTA-SEDIMENT ACCUMULATION <span class="hlt">FACTOR</span> FIELD STUDIES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>General guidance for designing field studies to measure bioaccumulation <span class="hlt">factors</span> (BAFs) and biota-sediment accumulation <span class="hlt">factors</span> (BSAFs) is not available. To develop such guidance, a series of modeling simulations were performed to evaluate the underlying <span class="hlt">factors</span> and principles th...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=eating+AND+Disorder&pg=7&id=EJ766076','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=eating+AND+Disorder&pg=7&id=EJ766076"><span id="translatedtitle">Risk <span class="hlt">Factors</span> for Eating Disorders</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The authors review research on risk <span class="hlt">factors</span> for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk <span class="hlt">factor</span> over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk <span class="hlt">factors</span> and biological <span class="hlt">factors</span> have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6709483','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6709483"><span id="translatedtitle">Activation of human <span class="hlt">factor</span> V by <span class="hlt">factor</span> Xa and thrombin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Monkovic, D.D.; Tracy, P.B. )</p> <p>1990-02-06</p> <p>The activation of human <span class="hlt">factor</span> V by <span class="hlt">factor</span> Xa and thrombin was studied by functional assessment of cofactor activity and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polycarylamide gel electrophoresis followed by either autoradiography of {sup 125}I-labeled <span class="hlt">factor</span> V activation products or Western blot analyses of unlabeled <span class="hlt">factor</span> V activation products. Cofactor activity was measured by the ability of the <span class="hlt">factor</span> V/Va peptides to support the activation of prothrombin. The <span class="hlt">factor</span> Xa catalyzed cleavage of <span class="hlt">factor</span> V was observed to be time, phospholipid, and calcium ion dependent, yielding a cofactor with activity equal to that of thrombin-activated <span class="hlt">factor</span> V (<span class="hlt">factor</span> Va). The cleavage pattern differed markedly from the one observed in the bovine system. The <span class="hlt">factor</span> Xa activated <span class="hlt">factor</span> V subunits expressing cofactor activity were isolated and found to consist of peptides of M{sub r} 220,000 and 105,000. Although thrombin cleaved the M{sub r} 220,000 peptide to yield peptides previously shown to be products of thrombin activation, cofactor activity did not increase. N-Terminal sequence analysis confirmed that both <span class="hlt">factor</span> Xa and thrombin cleave <span class="hlt">factor</span> V at the same bond to generate the M{sub r} 220,000 peptide. The <span class="hlt">factor</span> Xa dependent functional assessment of {sup 125}I-labeled <span class="hlt">factor</span> V coupled with densitometric analyses of the cleavage products indicated that the cofactor activity of <span class="hlt">factor</span> Xa activated <span class="hlt">factor</span> V closely paralleled the appearance of the M{sub r} 220,000 peptide. The data indicate that <span class="hlt">factor</span> Xa is as efficient an enzyme toward <span class="hlt">factor</span> V as thrombin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2909227','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2909227"><span id="translatedtitle">Milestones and Impact <span class="hlt">Factors</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Environmental Health has just received its first Impact <span class="hlt">Factor</span> by Thomson ISI. At a level of 2.48, this achievement is quite satisfactory and places Environmental Health in the top 25% of environmental science journals. When the journal was launched in 2002, it was still unclear whether the Open Access publishing model could be made into a viable commercial enterprise within the biomedical field. During the past eight years, Open Access journals have become widely available, although still covering only about 15% of journal titles. Major funding agencies and institutions, including prominent US universities, now require that researchers publish in Open Access journals. Because of the profound role of scientific journals for the sharing of results and communication between researchers, the advent of Open Access may be of as much significance as the transition from handwriting to printing via moveable type. As Environmental Health is an electronic Open Access journal, the numbers of downloads at the journal website can be retrieved. The top-20 list of articles most frequently accessed shows that all of them have been downloaded over 10,000 times. Back in 2002, the first article published was accessed only 49 times during the following month. A year later, the server had over 1,000 downloads per month, and now the total number of monthly downloads approaches 50,000. These statistics complement the Impact <span class="hlt">Factor</span> and confirm the viability of Open Access in our field of research. The advent of digital media and its decentralized mode of distribution - the internet - have dramatically changed the control and financing of scientific information dissemination, while facilitating peer review, accelerating editorial handling, and supporting much needed transparency. Both the meaning and means of "having an impact" are therefore changing, as will the degree and way in which scientific journals remain "<span class="hlt">factors</span>" in that impact. PMID:20615249</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/114580','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/114580"><span id="translatedtitle">Neutron quality <span class="hlt">factor</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-06-01</p> <p>Both the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) have recommended that the radiation quality weighting <span class="hlt">factor</span> for neutrons (Q{sub n}, or the corresponding new modifying <span class="hlt">factor</span>, w{sub R}) be increased by a value of two for most radiation protection practices. This means an increase in the recommended value for Q{sub n} from a nominal value of 10 to a nominal value of 20. This increase may be interpreted to mean that the biological effectiveness of neutrons is two times greater than previously thought. A decision to increase the value of Q{sub n} will have a major impact on the regulations and radiation protection programs of Federal agencies responsible for the protection of radiation workers. Therefore, the purposes of this report are: (1) to examine the general concept of {open_quotes}quality <span class="hlt">factor</span>{close_quotes} (Q) in radiation protection and the rationale for the selection of specific values of Q{sub n}; and (2) to make such recommendations to the Federal agencies, as appropriate. This report is not intended to be an exhaustive review of the scientific literature on the biological effects of neutrons, with the aim of defending a particular value for Q{sub n}. Rather, the working group examined the technical issues surrounding the current recommendations of scientific advisory bodies on this matter, with the aim of determining if these recommendations should be adopted by the Federal agencies. Ultimately, the group concluded that there was no compelling basis for a change in Q{sub n}. The report was prepared by Federal scientists working under the auspices of the Science Panel of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/903060','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/903060"><span id="translatedtitle">Nucleon elastic form <span class="hlt">factors</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>D. Day</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>The nucleon form <span class="hlt">factors</span> are still the subject of active investigation even after an experimental effort spanning 50 years. This is because they are of critical importance to our understanding of the electromagnetic properties of nuclei and provide a unique testing ground for QCD motivated models of nucleon structure. Progress in polarized beams, polarized targets and recoil polarimetry have allowed an important and precise set of data to be collected over the last decade. I will review the experimental status of elastic electron scattering from the nucleon along with an outlook for future progress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3477994','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3477994"><span id="translatedtitle">Psychosocial <span class="hlt">factors</span> in obesity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mustajoki, P</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Obese people as a group have similar mental health as normal weight people, and there are no psychiatric features characteristic of obesity in general. However, small subgroups of obese individuals may have psychiatric abnormalities which are specific for obesity, such as body image disturbance or periodic compulsive overeating (bulimia). Obesity is strongly related to sociocultural <span class="hlt">factors</span>. In western countries obesity is commoner in lower than in higher social classes. Thus, the development of obesity is influenced by social status. However, also the converse is true: recent observations suggest that obese people lose social status. This is probably due to prejudice and discrimination against obese persons in the modern western society. PMID:3477994</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020080993','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020080993"><span id="translatedtitle">Human <span class="hlt">Factors</span> Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Jack is an advanced human <span class="hlt">factors</span> software package that provides a three dimensional model for predicting how a human will interact with a given system or environment. It can be used for a broad range of computer-aided design applications. Jack was developed by the computer Graphics Research Laboratory of the University of Pennsylvania with assistance from NASA's Johnson Space Center, Ames Research Center and the Army. It is the University's first commercial product. Jack is still used for academic purposes at the University of Pennsylvania. Commercial rights were given to Transom Technologies, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6301736','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6301736"><span id="translatedtitle">Stress intensity <span class="hlt">factors</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Erdogan, F.</p> <p>1983-12-01</p> <p>In this work the concept of the stress intensity <span class="hlt">factor</span>, the underlying mechanics problem leading to its emergence, and its physical relevance, particularly its relation to fracture mechanics are discussed. The reasons as to why it has become nearly an indispensable tool for studying such important phenomena as brittle fracture and fatigue or corrosion fatigue crack propagation in structural solids are considered. A brief discussion of some of the important methods of solution of elastic crack problems is given. Also, a number of related special mechanics problems are described. 24 references.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/166444','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/166444"><span id="translatedtitle">Electromagnetic pion form <span class="hlt">factor</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Roberts, C.D.</p> <p>1995-08-01</p> <p>A phenomenological Dyson-Schwinger/Bethe-Salpeter equation approach to QCD, formalized in terms of a QCD-based model field theory, the Global Color-symmetry Model (GCM), was used to calculate the generalized impulse approximation contribution to the electromagnetic pion form <span class="hlt">factor</span> at space-like q{sup 2} on the domain [0,10] GeV{sup 2}. In effective field theories this form <span class="hlt">factor</span> is sometimes understood as simply being due to Vector Meson Dominance (VMD) but this does not allow for a simple connection with QCD where the VMD contribution is of higher order than that of the quark core. In the GCM the pion is treated as a composite bound state of a confined quark and antiquark interacting via the exchange of colored vector-bosons. A direct study of the quark core contribution is made, using a quark propagator that manifests the large space-like-q{sup 2} properties of QCD, parameterizes the infrared behavior and incorporates confinement. It is shown that the few parameters which characterize the infrared form of the quark propagator may be chosen so as to yield excellent agreement with the available data. In doing this one directly relates experimental observables to properties of QCD at small space-like-q{sup 2}. The incorporation of confinement eliminates endpoint and pinch singularities in the calculation of F{sub {pi}}(q{sup 2}). With asymptotic freedom manifest in the dressed quark propagator the calculation yields q{sup 4}F{sub {pi}}(q{sup 2}) = constant, up to [q{sup 2}]- corrections, for space-like-q{sup 2} {approx_gt} 35 GeV{sup 2}, which indicates that soft, nonperturbative contributions dominate the form <span class="hlt">factor</span> at presently accessible q{sup 2}. This means that the often-used <span class="hlt">factorization</span> Ansatz fails in this exclusive process. A paper describing this work was submitted for publication. In addition, these results formed the basis for an invited presentation at a workshop on chiral dynamics and will be published in the proceedings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPC.1635..377A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPC.1635..377A"><span id="translatedtitle">From compatible <span class="hlt">factorization</span> to near-compatible <span class="hlt">factorization</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aldiabat, Raja'i.; Ibrahim, Haslinda</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>A compatible <span class="hlt">factorization</span> of order ν, is an ν× ν-1/2 array in which the entries in row i form a near-one-<span class="hlt">factor</span> with focus i, and the triples associated with the rows contain no repetitions. In this paper, we aim to amend this compatible <span class="hlt">factorization</span> so that we can display ν(ν-1)/2 - 2ν/3 triples with the minimum repeated triples. Throughout this paper we propose a new type of <span class="hlt">factorization</span> called near-compatible <span class="hlt">factorization</span>. First, we present the compatible <span class="hlt">factorization</span> towards developing a near-compatible <span class="hlt">factorization</span>. Second, we discuss briefly the necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of near-compatible <span class="hlt">factorization</span>. Then, we exemplify the construction for case ν = 9 as a groundwork in developing near-compatible <span class="hlt">factorization</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26187859','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26187859"><span id="translatedtitle">Leukemia inhibitory <span class="hlt">factor</span> (LIF).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nicola, Nicos A; Babon, Jeffrey J</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Leukemia inhibitory <span class="hlt">factor</span> (LIF) is the most pleiotropic member of the interleukin-6 family of cytokines. It utilises a receptor that consists of the LIF receptor β and gp130 and this receptor complex is also used by ciliary neurotrophic growth <span class="hlt">factor</span> (CNTF), oncostatin M, cardiotrophin1 (CT1) and cardiotrophin-like cytokine (CLC). Despite common signal transduction mechanisms (JAK/STAT, MAPK and PI3K) LIF can have paradoxically opposite effects in different cell types including stimulating or inhibiting each of cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. While LIF can act on a wide range of cell types, LIF knockout mice have revealed that many of these actions are not apparent during ordinary development and that they may be the result of induced LIF expression during tissue damage or injury. Nevertheless LIF does appear to have non-redundant actions in maternal receptivity to blastocyst implantation, placental formation and in the development of the nervous system. LIF has also found practical use in the maintenance of self-renewal and totipotency of embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. PMID:26187859</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26487015','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26487015"><span id="translatedtitle">Auxin response <span class="hlt">factors</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chandler, John William</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Auxin signalling involves the activation or repression of gene expression by a class of auxin response <span class="hlt">factor</span> (ARF) proteins that bind to auxin response elements in auxin-responsive gene promoters. The release of ARF repression in the presence of auxin by the degradation of their cognate auxin/indole-3-acetic acid repressors forms a paradigm of transcriptional response to auxin. However, this mechanism only applies to activating ARFs, and further layers of complexity of ARF function and regulation are being revealed, which partly reflect their highly modular domain structure. This review summarizes our knowledge concerning ARF binding site specificity, homodimer and heterodimer multimeric ARF association and cooperative function and how activator ARFs activate target genes via chromatin remodelling and evolutionary information derived from phylogenetic comparisons from ARFs from diverse species. ARFs are regulated in diverse ways, and their importance in non-auxin-regulated pathways is becoming evident. They are also embedded within higher-order transcription <span class="hlt">factor</span> complexes that integrate signalling pathways from other hormones and in response to the environment. The ways in which new information concerning ARFs on many levels is causing a revision of existing paradigms of auxin response are discussed. PMID:26487015</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890010519','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890010519"><span id="translatedtitle">SARSCEST (human <span class="hlt">factors</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Parsons, H. Mcilvaine</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>People interact with the processes and products of contemporary technology. Individuals are affected by these in various ways and individuals shape them. Such interactions come under the label 'human <span class="hlt">factors</span>'. To expand the understanding of those to whom the term is relatively unfamiliar, its domain includes both an applied science and applications of knowledge. It means both research and development, with implications of research both for basic science and for development. It encompasses not only design and testing but also training and personnel requirements, even though some unwisely try to split these apart both by name and institutionally. The territory includes more than performance at work, though concentration on that aspect, epitomized in the derivation of the term ergonomics, has overshadowed human <span class="hlt">factors</span> interest in interactions between technology and the home, health, safety, consumers, children and later life, the handicapped, sports and recreation education, and travel. Two aspects of technology considered most significant for work performance, systems and automation, and several approaches to these, are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10795334','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10795334"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Factors</span> in risk perception</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sjoberg</p> <p>2000-02-01</p> <p>Risk perception is a phenomenon in search of an explanation. Several approaches are discussed in this paper. Technical risk estimates are sometimes a potent <span class="hlt">factor</span> in accounting for perceived risk, but in many important applications it is not. Heuristics and biases, mainly availability, account for only a minor portion of risk perception, and media contents have not been clearly implicated in risk perception. The psychometric model is probably the leading contender in the field, but its explanatory value is only around 20% of the variance of raw data. Adding a <span class="hlt">factor</span> of "unnatural risk" considerably improves the psychometric model. Cultural Theory, on the other hand, has not been able to explain more than 5-10% of the variance of perceived risk, and other value scales have similarly failed. A model is proposed in which attitude, risk sensitivity, and specific fear are used as explanatory variables; this model seems to explain well over 30-40% of the variance and is thus more promising than previous approaches. The model offers a different type of psychological explanation of risk perception, and it has many implications, e.g., a different approach to the relationship between attitude and perceived risk, as compared with the usual cognitive analysis of attitude. PMID:10795334</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26893084','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26893084"><span id="translatedtitle">Enhanced target <span class="hlt">factor</span> analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rostami, Akram; Abdollahi, Hamid; Maeder, Marcel</p> <p>2016-03-10</p> <p>Target testing or target <span class="hlt">factor</span> analysis, TFA, is a well-established soft analysis method. TFA answers the question whether an independent target test vector measured at the same wavelengths as the collection of spectra in a data matrix can be excluded as the spectrum of one of the components in the system under investigation. Essentially, TFA cannot positively prove that a particular test spectrum is the true spectrum of one of the components, it can, only reject a spectrum. However, TFA will not reject, or in other words TFA will accept, many spectra which cannot be component spectra. Enhanced Target <span class="hlt">Factor</span> Analysis, ETFA addresses the above problem. Compared with traditional TFA, ETFA results in a significantly narrower range of positive results, i.e. the chance of a false positive test result is dramatically reduced. ETFA is based on feasibility testing as described in Refs. [16-19]. The method has been tested and validated with computer generated and real data sets. PMID:26893084</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1011405','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1011405"><span id="translatedtitle">Neurotrophic <span class="hlt">factors</span> and neurologic disease.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Holtzman, D M; Mobley, W C</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Discovered only 40 years ago, nerve growth <span class="hlt">factor</span> is the prototypic neurotrophic <span class="hlt">factor</span>. By binding to specific receptors on certain neurons in the peripheral nervous system and brain, nerve growth <span class="hlt">factor</span> acts to enhance their survival, differentiation, and maintenance. In recent years, many additional neurotrophic <span class="hlt">factors</span> have been discovered; some are structurally related to nerve growth <span class="hlt">factor</span> while others are distinct from it. The robust actions of neurotrophic <span class="hlt">factors</span> have suggested their use in preventing or lessening the dysfunction and death of neurons in neurologic disorders. We review the progress in defining neurotrophic <span class="hlt">factors</span> and their receptors and in characterizing their actions. We also discuss some of the uses of neurotrophic <span class="hlt">factors</span> in animal models of disease. Finally, we discuss how neurotrophic <span class="hlt">factors</span> could be implicated in the pathogenesis of neurologic disorders. Images PMID:7975562</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890047060&hterms=Human+factors+aviation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DHuman%2Bfactors%2Baviation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890047060&hterms=Human+factors+aviation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DHuman%2Bfactors%2Baviation"><span id="translatedtitle">Human <span class="hlt">factors</span> in aviation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wiener, Earl L. (Editor); Nagel, David C. (Editor)</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The fundamental principles of human-<span class="hlt">factors</span> (HF) analysis for aviation applications are examined in a collection of reviews by leading experts, with an emphasis on recent developments. The aim is to provide information and guidance to the aviation community outside the HF field itself. Topics addressed include the systems approach to HF, system safety considerations, the human senses in flight, information processing, aviation workloads, group interaction and crew performance, flight training and simulation, human error in aviation operations, and aircrew fatigue and circadian rhythms. Also discussed are pilot control; aviation displays; cockpit automation; HF aspects of software interfaces; the design and integration of cockpit-crew systems; and HF issues for airline pilots, general aviation, helicopters, and ATC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22014923','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22014923"><span id="translatedtitle">Perioperative allergy: risk <span class="hlt">factors</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Caffarelli, C; Stringari, G; Pajno, G B; Peroni, D G; Franceschini, F; Dello Iacono, I; Bernardini, R</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Perioperative anaphylactic as well as anaphylactoid reactions can be elicited by drugs, diagnostic agents, antiseptics, disinfectants and latex. In some individuals, allergic reactions occur in the absence of any evident risk <span class="hlt">factor</span>. Previous history of specific safe exposure to a product does not permit to exclude the risk of having a reaction. We have systematically reviewed characteristics in the patient's history or clinical parameters that affect the risk of developing reactions during anesthesia. Evidence shows that patients with previous unexplained reaction during anesthesia are at risk for perioperative allergic reactions. An allergic reaction to an agent is associated with previous reaction to a product that is related with the culprit agent. Multiple surgery procedures, professional exposure to latex and allergy to fruit are associated with an increased frequency of latex allergy. It has been shown that in some instances, allergic perioperative reactions may be more common in atopic patients and in females. PMID:22014923</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/232638','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/232638"><span id="translatedtitle">Pion form <span class="hlt">factor</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ryong Ji, C.; Pang, A.; Szczepaniak, A.</p> <p>1994-04-01</p> <p>It is pointed out that the correct criterion to define the legal PQCD contribution to the exclusive processes in the lightcone perturbative expansion should be based on the large off-shellness of the lightcone energy in the intermediate states. In the lightcone perturbative QCD calculation of the pion form <span class="hlt">factor</span>, the authors find that the legal PQCD contribution defined by the lightcone energy cut saturates in the smaller Q{sup 2} region compared to that defined by the gluon four-momentum square cut. This is due to the contribution by the highly off-energy-shell gluons in the end point regions of the phase space, indicating that the gluon four-momentum-square cut may have cut too much to define the legal PQCD.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/895918','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/895918"><span id="translatedtitle">Nucleon Electromagnetic Form <span class="hlt">Factors</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Marc Vanderhaeghen; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>There has been much activity in the measurement of the elastic electromagnetic proton and neutron form <span class="hlt">factors</span> in the last decade, and the quality of the data has greatly improved by performing double polarization experiments, in comparison with previous unpolarized data. Here we review the experimental data base in view of the new results for the proton, and neutron, obtained at JLab, MAMI, and MIT-Bates. The rapid evolution of phenomenological models triggered by these high-precision experiments will be discussed, including the recent progress in the determination of the valence quark generalized parton distributions of the nucleon, as well as the steady rate of improvements made in the lattice QCD calculations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080004193','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080004193"><span id="translatedtitle">Unity power <span class="hlt">factor</span> converter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wester, Gene W. (Inventor)</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>A unity power <span class="hlt">factor</span> converter capable of effecting either inversion (dc-to-dc) or rectification (ac-to-dc), and capable of providing bilateral power control from a DC source (or load) through an AC transmission line to a DC load (or source) for power flow in either direction, is comprised of comparators for comparing the AC current i with an AC signal i.sub.ref (or its phase inversion) derived from the AC ports to generate control signals to operate a switch control circuit for high speed switching to shape the AC current waveform to a sine waveform, and synchronize it in phase and frequency with the AC voltage at the AC ports, by selectively switching the connections to a series inductor as required to increase or decrease the current i.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3690364','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3690364"><span id="translatedtitle">Psychosomatic <span class="hlt">factors</span> in pruritus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tey, Hong Liang; Wallengren, Joanna; Yosipovitch, Gil</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Pruritus and psyche are intricately and reciprocally related, with psychophysiological evidence and psychopathological explanations helping us to understand their complex association. Their interaction may be conceptualized and classified into 3 groups: pruritic diseases with psychiatric sequelae, pruritic diseases aggravated by psychosocial <span class="hlt">factors</span>, and psychiatric disorders causing pruritus. Management of chronic pruritus is directed at treating the underlying causes and adopting a multidisciplinary approach to address the dermatologic, somatosensory, cognitive, and emotional aspects. Pharmcotherapeutic agents that are useful for chronic pruritus with comorbid depression and/or anxiety comprise selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, mirtazapine, tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline and doxepin), and anticonvulsants (gabapentin, pregabalin); the role of neurokinin receptor-1 antagonists awaits verification. Antipsychotics are required for treating itch and formication associated with schizophrenia and delusion of parasitosis (including Morgellons disease). PMID:23245971</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23245971','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23245971"><span id="translatedtitle">Psychosomatic <span class="hlt">factors</span> in pruritus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tey, Hong Liang; Wallengren, Joanna; Yosipovitch, Gil</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Pruritus and psyche are intricately and reciprocally related, with psychophysiological evidence and psychopathological explanations helping us to understand their complex association. Their interaction may be conceptualized and classified into 3 groups: pruritic diseases with psychiatric sequelae, pruritic diseases aggravated by psychosocial <span class="hlt">factors</span>, and psychiatric disorders causing pruritus. Management of chronic pruritus is directed at treating the underlying causes and adopting a multidisciplinary approach to address the dermatologic, somatosensory, cognitive, and emotional aspects. Pharmcotherapeutic agents that are useful for chronic pruritus with comorbid depression and/or anxiety comprise selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, mirtazapine, tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline and doxepin), and anticonvulsants (gabapentin, pregabalin); the role of neurokinin receptor-1 antagonists awaits verification. Antipsychotics are required for treating itch and formication associated with schizophrenia and delusion of parasitosis (including Morgellons disease). PMID:23245971</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.</small> </div> </center> <div id="footer-wrapper"> <div class="footer-content"> <div id="footerOSTI" class=""> <div class="row"> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-push-4 footer-content-center"><small><a href="http://www.science.gov/disclaimer.html">Privacy and Security</a></small> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-pull-4 footer-content-left"> <img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/DOE_SC31.png" alt="U.S. Department of Energy" usemap="#doe" height="31" width="177"><map style="display:none;" name="doe" id="doe"><area shape="rect" coords="1,3,107,30" href="http://www.energy.gov" alt="U.S. Deparment of Energy"><area shape="rect" coords="114,3,165,30" href="http://www.science.energy.gov" alt="Office of Science"></map> <a ref="http://www.osti.gov" style="margin-left: 15px;"><img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/ostigov53.png" alt="Office of Scientific and Technical Information" height="31" width="53"></a> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center footer-content-right"> <a href="http://www.osti.gov/nle"><img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/NLElogo31.png" alt="National Library of Energy" height="31" width="79"></a> <a href="http://www.science.gov"><img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/scigov77.png" alt="science.gov" height="31" width="98"></a> <a href="http://worldwidescience.org"><img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/wws82.png" alt="WorldWideScience.org" height="31" width="90"></a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <p><br></p> </div><!-- container --> </body> </html>