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Sample records for gray-body interchange factor

  1. Scattering coefficients and gray-body factor for 1D BEC acoustic black holes: Exact results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbri, Alessandro; Balbinot, Roberto; Anderson, Paul R.

    2016-03-01

    A complete set of exact analytic solutions to the mode equation is found in the region exterior to the acoustic horizon for a class of 1D Bose-Einstein condensate acoustic black holes. From these, analytic expressions for the scattering coefficients and gray-body factor are obtained. The results are used to verify previous predictions regarding the behaviors of the scattering coefficients and gray-body factor in the low-frequency limit.

  2. Radiant-interchange Configuration Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, D C :; Morgan, W R

    1952-01-01

    A study is presented of the geometric configuration factors required for computing radiant heat transfer between opaque surfaces separated by a nonabsorbing medium and various methods of determining the configuration factors are discussed. Configuration-factor solutions available in the literature have been checked and the more complicated equations are presented as families of curves. Cases for point, line, and finite-area sources are worked out over a wide range of geometric proportions. These cases include several new configurations involving rectangles, triangles, and cylinders of finite length which are integrated and tabulated. An analysis is presented, in which configuration factors are employed of the radiant heat transfer to the rotor blades of a typical gas turbine under different conditions of temperature and pressure. (author)

  3. Volume interchange factors for hypersonic vehicle wake radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, D. K.; Babikian, D. S.

    1987-01-01

    Volume interchange factors are shown to be convenient in modeling the radiative processes in the wake of a hypersonic vehicle. Use of the factors facilitates calculating not just the radiative heating rates on afterbody surfaces but also the radiative de-excitation rates from stimulated emission and re-excitation rates from absorption in rarefied nonequilibrium flows. Sample calculations of volume interchange factors are presented for volume configurations modeling wake elements, and the numerical results are compared to limiting approximations to clarify the operation of the emission, transmission, and absorption processes.

  4. Gray-Body Radiation Using a Blackbody Source and an Optical Chopper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Arteaga, H.; Cárdenas-García, D.

    2015-08-01

    The emissivity of most material surfaces that can be used as radiation sources is a function of wavelength. On the other hand, blackbody cavities with emissivities higher than 0.995 in a wide wavelength range are readily available in many laboratories. If it were possible to attenuate by a constant factor the radiation emitted by those blackbodies, then they could be used as gray-body radiators. A neutral density filter is not an option to attenuate the radiation from a blackbody source because its transmittance is wavelength dependent. Optical choppers, usually rotating disk shutters, are widely used to modulate the intensity of a light beam. The apparent transmittance of an optical chopper is defined in terms of the mark-to-space ratio. Most optical choppers have a 1:1 ratio which would be equivalent to 50 % transmittance. To attenuate the radiation coming from a blackbody, the optical chopper should have a stable rotating speed and a high chopping frequency so its mark-to-space cycle time is very short compared to a radiation thermometer response time. If this condition is fulfilled, the radiation thermometer would display a temperature reading as if it were aiming to a gray-body at the temperature of the blackbody and with an emissivity equal to the optical chopper transmittance. This method to obtain a gray-body radiator using a blackbody source and an optical chopper is discussed, and some measurements including its uncertainty analysis are reported.

  5. High-Transmission Filters for Realizing Gray-Body Radiators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, J.; Yamada, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Calibration of infrared radiation thermometers at non-unity emissivity settings is a poorly solved problem for establishment of traceability to meet user needs, for instruments with both fixed and variable emissivity setting functions. A variable-temperature gray-body radiator having a constant value of emissivity independent of both wavelength and temperature can be a perfect tool for the calibration purpose. In this paper, two types of high-transmittance optical neutral density filters, one utilizing a rotating-sector optical chopper, and another of a wire-mesh type, are shown to perform well with a precise transmittance between 90 % and 100 % in the wide infrared wavelength range. These optical filters in combination with a blackbody cavity traceable to ITS-90 can realize reliable gray-body radiation. These methods are applied successfully to several models of infrared thermometers operated in the emissivity correction mode.

  6. Planetary Interchange of Bioactive Material: Probability Factors and Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Benton C.

    2001-02-01

    It is now well-accepted that both lunar and martian materials are represented in the meteorite collections. Early suggestions that viable organisms might survive natural transport between planets have not yet been thoroughly examined. The concept of Planetary Interchange of Bioactive Material (PIBM) is potentially relevant to the conditions under which life originated. PIBM has been also invoked to infer that the potential danger to Earth from martian materials is non-existent, an inference with, however, many pitfalls. Numerous impediments to efficient transfer of viable organisms exist. In this work, the lethality of space radiation during long transients and the biasing of launched objects toward materials unlikely to host abundant organisms are examined and shown to reduce the likelihood of successful transfer by orders of magnitude. It is also shown that martian meteorites studied to date assuredly have been subjected to sterilizing levels of ionizing radiation in space. PIBM considerations apply to both the solar system locale(s) of the origin of life and to the applicability of planetary protection protocols to preserve the biospheres of planetary bodies, including our own.

  7. Interstate Highway Interchanges Reshape Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Henry E., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Highway interchanges offer rural counties practically ready-made sites for development, but some interchanges offer better development opportunities than others. A study of a Kentucky interchange identified seven factors that make a difference in development, including traffic volume, distance to an urban area, ruggedness of terrain, and sale of…

  8. Multiband fiber optic radiometry for measuring the temperature and emissivity of gray bodies of low or high emissivity.

    PubMed

    Sade, Sharon; Katzir, Abraham

    2004-03-20

    Infrared fiber optic radiometry was used for noncontact thermometry of gray bodies whose temperature was close to room temperature (40-70 degrees C). We selected three gray bodies, one with high emissivity (epsilon = 0.97), one with medium emissivity (epsilon = 0.71), and one with low emissivity (epsilon = 0.025). We carried out optimization calculations and measurements for a multiband fiber optic radiometer that consisted of a silver halide (AgClBr) infrared-transmitting fiber, a dual-band cooled infrared detector, and a set of 18 narrowband infrared filters that covered the 2-14-microm spectral range. We determined the optimal spectral range, the optimal number of filters to be used, and the optimal chopping scheme. Using these optimal conditions, we performed measurements of the three gray bodies and obtained an accuracy of better than 1 degrees C for body temperature and for room temperature. An accuracy of 0.03 was obtained for body emissivity. PMID:15065708

  9. Tether Technology Interchange Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, James K. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    This is a compilation of 25 papers presented at a tether technical interchange meeting in Huntsville, AL, on September 9-10, 1997. After each presentation, a technical discussion was held to clarify and expand the salient points. A wide range of subjects was covered including tether dynamics, electrodynamics, space power generation, plasma physics, ionospheric physics, towing tethers, tethered reentry schemes, and future tether missions.

  10. Interchangeable spline reference guide

    SciTech Connect

    Dolin, R.M.

    1994-05-01

    The WX-Division Integrated Software Tools (WIST) Team evolved from two previous committees, First was the W78 Solid Modeling Pilot Project`s Spline Subcommittee, which later evolved into the Vv`X-Division Spline Committee. The mission of the WIST team is to investigate current CAE engineering processes relating to complex geometry and to develop methods for improving those processes. Specifically, the WIST team is developing technology that allows the Division to use multiple spline representations. We are also updating the contour system (CONSYS) data base to take full advantage of the Division`s expanding electronic engineering process. Both of these efforts involve developing interfaces to commercial CAE systems and writing new software. The WIST team is comprised of members from V;X-11, -12 and 13. This {open_quotes}cross-functional{close_quotes} approach to software development is somewhat new in the Division so an effort is being made to formalize our processes and assure quality at each phase of development. Chapter one represents a theory manual and is one phase of the formal process. The theory manual is followed by a software requirements document, specification document, software verification and validation documents. The purpose of this guide is to present the theory underlying the interchangeable spline technology and application. Verification and validation test results are also presented for proof of principal.

  11. Ideal magnetohydrodynamic interchanges in low density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Yimin; Goel, Deepak; Hassam, A.B.

    2005-03-01

    The ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations are usually derived under the assumption V{sub A}<interchange instabilities in 'line-tied' slab geometry as well as to centrifugally confined plasmas. It is found that interchange growth rates are reduced by a factor of 1+V{sub A}{sup 2}/c{sup 2}, corresponding to a larger effective mass resulting from the extra electromagnetic momentum. Line tying is unaffected.

  12. Third SEI Technical Interchange: Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Given here are the proceedings of the 3rd Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) Technical Interchange. Topics covered include the First Lunar Outpost (FLO), the Lunar Resource Mapper, lunar rovers, lunar habitat concepts, lunar shelter construction analysis, thermoelectric nuclear power systems for SEI, cryogenic storage, a space network for lunar communications, the moon as a solar power satellite, and off-the-shelf avionics for future SEI missions.

  13. Interchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Teacher, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Offers suggestions from eight contributors, including (1) activities for speedy readers, (2) conducting a "reading roundup," (3) improving children's math vocabulary, (4) teaching syllabication, (5) displaying student work, and (6) ideas for parents of beginning readers. (FL)

  14. Interchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Teacher, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents suggestions from five contributors including how to develop middle school students' library skills, teaching early reading through materials from a fast food restaurant chain, and ways to conduct student evaluation of teachers. (FL)

  15. Interchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Teacher, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Six contributors suggest ways to (1) improve handwriting, (2) help children choose reading materials, (3) develop sight vocabulary, (4) use phonics with ESL learners, (5) use Uninterrupted Sustained Silent Reading, and (6) teach reading comprehension. (FL)

  16. NN interaction from bag-model quark interchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, B. L. G.; Bozoian, M.; Maslow, J. N.; Weber, H. J.

    1982-03-01

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of elastic nucleon-nuclon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one- and two-boson exchange amplitude from a bag-model quark interchange mechanism. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with other meson theoretic potentials and data up to laboratory energies of ~350 MeV. NUCLEAR REACTIONS NN elastic scattering, Elab<=350 MeV. Coupling constants, form factors of renormalized OBE calculated from bag-model quark interchange. Phase shifts, deuteron parameters calculated from covariant partial-wave analysis.

  17. Weakening of magnetohydrodynamic interchange instabilities by Alfven waves

    SciTech Connect

    Benilov, E. S.; Hassam, A. B.

    2008-02-15

    Alfven waves, made to propagate along an ambient magnetic field and polarized transverse to a gravitational field g, with wave amplitude stratified along g, are shown to reduce the growth rate of interchange instability by increasing the effective inertia by a factor of 1+(B{sub y}{sup '}/B{sub z}k{sub z}){sup 2}, where B{sub z} is the ambient magnetic field, k{sub z} is the wavenumber, and B{sub y}{sup '} is the wave amplitude shear. Appropriately placed Alfven wave power could thus be used to enhance the stability of interchange and ballooning modes in tokamaks and other interchange-limited magnetically confined plasmas.

  18. Renewable Generation Effect on Net Regional Energy Interchange: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Diakov, Victor; Brinkman, Gregory; Denholm, Paul; Jenkin, Thomas; Margolis, Robert

    2015-07-30

    Using production-cost model (PLEXOS), we simulate the Western Interchange (WECC) at several levels of the yearly renewable energy (RE) generation, between 13% and 40% of the total load for the year. We look at the overall energy exchange between a region and the rest of the system (net interchange, NI), and find it useful to examine separately (i) (time-)variable and (ii) year-average components of the NI. Both contribute to inter-regional energy exchange, and are affected by wind and PV generation in the system. We find that net load variability (in relatively large portions of WECC) is the leading factor affecting the variable component of inter-regional energy exchange, and the effect is quantifiable: higher regional net load correlation with the rest of the WECC lowers net interchange variability. Further, as the power mix significantly varies between WECC regions, effects of ‘flexibility import’ (regions ‘borrow’ ramping capability) are also observed.

  19. Interchange of entire communities: microbial community coalescence.

    PubMed

    Rillig, Matthias C; Antonovics, Janis; Caruso, Tancredi; Lehmann, Anika; Powell, Jeff R; Veresoglou, Stavros D; Verbruggen, Erik

    2015-08-01

    Microbial communities are enigmatically diverse. We propose a novel view of processes likely affecting microbial assemblages, which could be viewed as the Great American Interchange en miniature: the wholesale exchange among microbial communities resulting from moving pieces of the environment containing entire assemblages. Incidental evidence for such 'community coalescence' is accumulating, but such processes are rarely studied, likely because of the absence of suitable terminology or a conceptual framework. We provide the nucleus for such a conceptual foundation for the study of community coalescence, examining factors shaping these events, links to bodies of ecological theory, and we suggest modeling approaches for understanding coalescent communities. We argue for the systematic study of community coalescence because of important functional and applied consequences. PMID:26111582

  20. Focus on School Health. MCH Program Interchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Washington, DC.

    This issue of the "MCH Program Interchange" provides information about approximately 55 selected materials and publications related to school health, which have been developed by or are available from Federal agencies, state and local public health agencies, and voluntary and professional organizations. The interchange of this information is meant…

  1. Data interchange across cores of multi-core optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Ehab S.

    2015-12-01

    A novel device for data interchange among space-division multiplexed cores inside MCF is demonstrated using numerical simulations. The device allows complete exchange of all WDM data channels between MCF cores in propagation direction whether the channels have the same or different sets of wavelengths. This is crucial in future MCF optical networks where in-fiber data interchange over space-division multiplexed cores can allow for a simple and fast data swapping among cores without a need for space-division demultiplexing to single-mode single-core fibers. The data core-interchange (DCI) device consists of a graded refractive-index rectangular waveguide enclosing the two interchanged cores in addition to the cladding region in between them. Both finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) and eigenmode expansion (EME) simulations are performed to verify the device operation and characterize its performance. The simulations demonstrate that the DCI has a very short-length with polarization independent operation, and high performance over the broadband wavelength range S, C, L, and U bands. Moreover, the device shows a high coupling-factor of -0.13 dB with small cross-talk, back-reflection, and return-loss of -26.3, -46.1, and -48.8 dB, respectively.

  2. Geoscience terminology for data interchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Stephen

    2013-04-01

    Workgroups formed by the Commission for the Management and Application of Geoscience Information (CGI), a Commission of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) have been developing vocabulary resources to promote geoscience information exchange. The Multilingual Thesaurus Working Group (MLT) was formed in 2003 to continue work of the Multhes working group of the 1990s. The Concept Definition Task Group was formed by the CGI Interoperability Working Group in 2007 to develop concept vocabularies for populating GeoSciML interchange documents. The CGI council has determined that it will be more efficient and effective to merge the efforts of these groups and has formed a new Geoscience Terminology Working Group (GTWG, http://www.cgi-iugs.org/tech_collaboration/geoscience_terminology_working_group.html). Each GTWG member will be expected to shepherd one or more vocabularies. There are currently 31 vocabularies in the CGI portfolio, developed for GeoSciML interchange documents (e.g. see http://resource.geosciml.org/ 201202/). Vocabulary development in both groups has been conducted first by gathering candidate terms in Excel spreadsheets because these are easy for text editing and review. When the vocabulary is mature, it is migrated into SKOS, an RDF application for encoding concepts with identifiers, definitions, source information, standard thesaurus type relationships, and language-localized labels. Currently there are 30 vocabularies still required for GeoSciML v3, and 38 proposed vocabularies for use with EarthResourceML (https://www.seegrid.csiro.au/wiki/CGIModel/EarthResourceML). In addition, a project to develop a lithogenetic map unit vocabulary to use for regional geologic map integration using OGC web map services is underway. Considerable work remains to be done to integrate multilingual geoscience terms developed by the MLT Working Group with existing CGI vocabularies to provide multilingual support, and to make the thesaurus compiled by the

  3. Plan Execution Interchange Language (PLEXIL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estlin, Tara; Jonsson, Ari; Pasareanu, Corina; Simmons, Reid; Tso, Kam; Verma, Vandi

    2006-01-01

    Plan execution is a cornerstone of spacecraft operations, irrespective of whether the plans to be executed are generated on board the spacecraft or on the ground. Plan execution frameworks vary greatly, due to both different capabilities of the execution systems, and relations to associated decision-making frameworks. The latter dependency has made the reuse of execution and planning frameworks more difficult, and has all but precluded information sharing between different execution and decision-making systems. As a step in the direction of addressing some of these issues, a general plan execution language, called the Plan Execution Interchange Language (PLEXIL), is being developed. PLEXIL is capable of expressing concepts used by many high-level automated planners and hence provides an interface to multiple planners. PLEXIL includes a domain description that specifies command types, expansions, constraints, etc., as well as feedback to the higher-level decision-making capabilities. This document describes the grammar and semantics of PLEXIL. It includes a graphical depiction of this grammar and illustrative rover scenarios. It also outlines ongoing work on implementing a universal execution system, based on PLEXIL, using state-of-the-art rover functional interfaces and planners as test cases.

  4. Magnetic curvature effects on plasma interchange turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B.; Liao, X.; Sun, C. K.; Ou, W.; Liu, D.; Gui, G.; Wang, X. G.

    2016-06-01

    The magnetic curvature effects on plasma interchange turbulence and transport in the Z-pinch and dipole-like systems are explored with two-fluid global simulations. By comparing the transport levels in the systems with a different magnetic curvature, we show that the interchange-mode driven transport strongly depends on the magnetic geometry. For the system with large magnetic curvature, the pressure and density profiles are strongly peaked in a marginally stable state and the nonlinear evolution of interchange modes produces the global convective cells in the azimuthal direction, which lead to the low level of turbulent convective transport.

  5. Limit Interchange and L'Hopital's Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecker, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    Conventional application of these two calculus staples is stretched here, somewhat recreationally, but also to raise solid questions about the role of limit interchange in analysis--without, however, delving any deeper than first-year Calculus.

  6. Interchange mode excited by trapped energetic ions

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Seiya

    2015-07-15

    The kinetic energy principle describing the interaction between ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes with trapped energetic ions is revised. A model is proposed on the basis of the reduced ideal MHD equations for background plasmas and the bounce-averaged drift-kinetic equation for trapped energetic ions. The model is applicable to large-aspect-ratio toroidal devices. Specifically, the effect of trapped energetic ions on the interchange mode in helical systems is analyzed. Results show that the interchange mode is excited by trapped energetic ions, even if the equilibrium states are stable to the ideal interchange mode. The energetic-ion-induced branch of the interchange mode might be associated with the fishbone mode in helical systems.

  7. Laboratory arc furnace features interchangeable hearths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. L.; Kruger, O. L.

    1967-01-01

    Laboratory arc furnace using rapidly interchangeable hearths gains considerable versatility in casting so that buttons or special shaped castings can be produced. It features a sight glass for observation.

  8. Large-Larmor-radius interchange instability

    SciTech Connect

    Ripin, B.H.; McLean, E.A.; Manka, C.K.; Pawley, C.; Stamper, J.A.; Peyser, T.A.; Mostovych, A.N.; Grun, J.; Hassam, A.B.; Huba, J.

    1987-11-16

    We observe linear and nonlinear features of a strong plasma/magnetic field interchange Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the limit of large ion Larmor radius. The instability undergoes rapid linear growth culminating in free-streaming flute tips.

  9. Quark Interchange Model of Baryon Interactions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslow, Joel Neal

    The strong interactions at low energy are traditionally described by meson field theories treating hadrons as point -like particles. Here a mesonic quark interchange model (QIM) is presented which takes into account the finite size of the baryons and the internal quark structure of hadrons. The model incorporates the basic quark-gluon coupling of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the MIT bag model for color confinement. Because the quark-gluon coupling constant is large and we assume that confinement excludes overlap of hadronic quark bags except at high momenta, a non-perturbative method of nuclear interactions is presented. The QIM allows for exchange of quark quantum numbers at the bag boundary between colliding hadrons mediated at short distances by a gluon exchange between two quarks within the hadronic interior. This generates, via a Fierz transformation, an effective space-like t channel exchange of color singlet (qq) states that can be identified with the low lying meson multiplets. Thus, a one boson exchange (OBE) model is obtained that allows for comparison with traditional phenomenological models of nuclear scattering. Inclusion of strange quarks enables calculation of Yn scattering. The NN and YN coupling constants and the nucleon form factors show good agreement with experimental values as do the deuteron low energy data and the NN low energy phase shifts. Thus, the QIM provides a simple model of strong interactions that is chirally invariant, includes confinement and allows for an OBE form of hadronic interaction at low energies and momentum transfers.

  10. Quark interchange model of baryon interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Maslow, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    The strong interactions at low energy are traditionally described by meson field theories treating hadrons as point-like particles. Here a mesonic quark interchange model (QIM) is presented which takes into account the finite size of the baryons and the internal quark structure of hadrons. The model incorporates the basic quark-gluon coupling of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the MIT bag model for color confinement. Because the quark-gluon coupling constant is large and it is assumed that confinement excludes overlap of hadronic quark bags except at high momenta, a non-perturbative method of nuclear interactions is presented. The QIM allows for exchange of quark quantum numbers at the bag boundary between colliding hadrons mediated at short distances by a gluon exchange between two quarks within the hadronic interior. This generates, via a Fierz transformation, an effective space-like t channel exchange of color singlet (q anti-q) states that can be identified with the low lying meson multiplets. Thus, a one boson exchange (OBE) model is obtained that allows for comparison with traditional phenomenological models of nuclear scattering. Inclusion of strange quarks enables calculation of YN scattering. The NN and YN coupling constants and the nucleon form factors show good agreement with experimental values as do the deuteron low energy data and the NN low energy phase shifts. Thus, the QIM provides a simple model of strong interactions that is chirally invariant, includes confinement and allows for an OBE form of hadronic interaction at low energies and momentum transfers.

  11. Improving interorganizational data interchange for drug development.

    PubMed

    Canfield, K

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a reengineered process that uses a markup language to do interorganizational data interchange between the participants in the US drug development process. The two major goals of this paper are to present (1) a detailed enough description of the reengineered version of this process that a practitioner will be able to use it and (2) a case-study of the reengineering of an interorganizational data interchange system that is applicable to other areas in health care. The detailed description is augmented with a companion web-site that shows all programs in a working prototype. The case-study uses an IDEF0 model to show the structure of benefits from markup standards for interorganizational data interchange. PMID:10207657

  12. ISO/IEC's image interchange facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, Christof; Hofmann, Georg R.

    1992-04-01

    This paper gives a technical description of the Image Interchange Facility (IIF), which comprises both a formate definition and a functional gateway specification. IIF is a part of the first International Image Processing and Interchange Standard (IPI), which is under elaboration by ISO/IEC JTC1/SC24. This paper reflects the related committee work performed up until January 1992. Considering the deficiencies and drawbacks of existing formats and current practices in exchanging digital images, the need for a new and more general approach to image interchange can be seen. This paper describes the requirements and design principles of the IIF data format and the IIF gateway. Furthermore, it explains the relation to the reference model for open communication (OSI) as well as the relation to the other parts of the IPI standard.

  13. The interchangeability of siderophores in Staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Sobis-Glinkowska, M; Lisiecki, P; Mikucki, J

    1995-01-01

    The functional interchangeability of siderophores among 90 strains belonging to 26 species of genus Staphylococcus was tested. Among the species which synthesized siderophores most commonly utilized (the best donors) were S. epidermidis, S. aureus, S. cohnii, S. hominis and S. simulans. The species which utilized the widest range of exogenous siderophores from other species (the best recipient) were S. epidermidis, S. saprophyticus, S. kloosii and S. schleiferi. The donor and recipient of the widest range of siderophores was S. epidermidis. The potential ability to exchange siderophores as well as the range of their functional interchangeability in staphylococci were found as the features characterizing individual strains. PMID:8906932

  14. Current-interchange tearing modes: Conversion of interchange-type modes to tearing modes

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, L. J.; Furukawa, M.

    2010-05-15

    It is shown that, in addition to usual neoclassical tearing modes, another type of nonclassical tearing mode exists in tokamaks: viz., current-interchange tearing modes (CITMs). CITMs are directly driven by unstable pressure-driven electromagnetic or electrostatic modes of the interchange type (e.g., interchange/ballooning modes, drift waves, etc.) due to the current gradient in tokamaks. Interchange-type modes exchange not only thermal and magnetic energies between flux tubes but also current. In a plasma with a current (or resistivity) gradient, such an interchange can create a current sheet at a mode resonance surface and result in the excitation of CITMs. Note that the interchange mode (i.e., Rayleigh-Taylor instability) is fundamental to tokamak physics. This new theory has an effect on both resistive magnetohydrodynamic stability and transport theories. Instabilities of the interchange type could be directly converted into CITMs, alternative to forming turbulent eddies through nonlinear coupling as in conventional transport theories. In particular, our CITM theory fills in the component in the transport theory of Rechester and Rosenbluth [Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 38 (1978)] for the origin of magnetic island structure in axisymmetric tokamaks.

  15. 5 CFR 214.204 - Interchange agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... EXECUTIVE SERVICE General Provisions § 214.204 Interchange agreements. (a) In accordance with 5 CFR 6.7, OPM... Service (SES) may, pursuant to legislative and regulatory authorities, enter into an agreement providing for the movement of persons between the SES and the other system. The agreement shall define...

  16. Interchange of Data Bases. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Rita G.; And Others

    This report describes the methods, developed by the American Institute of Physics in cooperation with Engineering Index, Inc., by which both organizations could reduce costs by eliminating duplication of keyboarding and indexing. The three sets of problems that confronted the interchange of their data bases (classification and indexing, formats,…

  17. Focus on Nutrition. MCH Program Interchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Washington, DC.

    This issue of the "MCH Program Interchange" describes selected materials and publications in maternal and child health (MCH) nutrition services and programs. The materials were developed by or are available from federal agencies, state and local public health agencies, and voluntary and professional organizations. The information is intended to…

  18. Electronic Data Interchange: Selected Issues and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigand, Rolf T.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes electronic data interchange (EDI) as the application-to-application exchange of business documents in a computer-readable format. Topics discussed include EDI in various industries, EDI in finance and banking, organizational impacts of EDI, future EDI markets and organizations, and implications for information resources management.…

  19. Fuel Interchangeability Considerations for Gas Turbine Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, D.H.

    2007-10-01

    In recent years domestic natural gas has experienced a considerable growth in demand particularly in the power generation industry. However, the desire for energy security, lower fuel costs and a reduction in carbon emissions has produced an increase in demand for alternative fuel sources. Current strategies for reducing the environmental impact of natural gas combustion in gas turbine engines used for power generation experience such hurdles as flashback, lean blow-off and combustion dynamics. These issues will continue as turbines are presented with coal syngas, gasified coal, biomass, LNG and high hydrogen content fuels. As it may be impractical to physically test a given turbine on all of the possible fuel blends it may experience over its life cycle, the need to predict fuel interchangeability becomes imperative. This study considers a number of historical parameters typically used to determine fuel interchangeability. Also addressed is the need for improved reaction mechanisms capable of accurately modeling the combustion of natural gas alternatives.

  20. A reference model for scientific information interchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reich, Lou; Sawyer, Don; Davis, Randy

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of an Information Interchange Reference Model (IIRM) currently being developed by individuals participating in the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Panel 2, the Planetary Data Systems (PDS), and the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS). This is an ongoing research activity and is not an official position by these bodies. This reference model provides a framework for describing and assessing current and proposed methodologies for information interchange within and among the space agencies. It is hoped that this model will improve interoperability between the various methodologies. As such, this model attempts to address key information interchange issues as seen by the producers and users of space-related data and to put them into a coherent framework. Information is understood as the knowledge (e.g., the scientific content) represented by data. Therefore, concern is not primarily on mechanisms for transferring data from user to user (e.g., compact disk read-only memory (CD-ROM), wide-area networks, optical tape, and so forth) but on how information is encoded as data and how the information content is maintained with minimal loss or distortion during transmittal. The model assumes open systems, which means that the protocols or methods used should be fully described and the descriptions publicly available. Ideally these protocols are promoted by recognized standards organizations using processes that permit involvement by those most likely to be affected, thereby enhancing the protocol's stability and the likelihood of wide support.

  1. Interchange Reconnection and Coronal Hole Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmondson, J. K.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R.; Lynch, B. J.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effect of magnetic reconnection between open and closed field, (often referred to as "interchange" reconnection), on the dynamics and topology of coronal hole boundaries. The most important and most prevalent 3D topology of the interchange process is that of a small-scale bipolar magnetic field interacting with a large-scale background field. We determine the evolution of such a magnetic topology by numerical solution of the fully 3D MHD equations in spherical coordinates. First, we calculate the evolution of a small-scale bipole that initially is completely inside an open field region and then is driven across a coronal hole boundary by photospheric motions. Next the reverse situation is calculated in which the bipole is initially inside the closed region and driven toward the coronal hole boundary. In both cases we find that the stress imparted by the photospheric motions results in deformation of the separatrix surface between the closed field of the bipole and the background field, leading to rapid current sheet formation and to efficient reconnection. When the bipole is inside the open field region, the reconnection is of the interchange type in that it exchanges open and closed field. We examine, in detail, the topology of the field as the bipole moves across the coronal hole boundary, and find that the field remains well-connected throughout this process. Our results imply that open flux cannot penetrate deeply into the closed field region below a helmet streamer and, hence, support the quasi-steady models in which open and closed flux remain topologically distinct. Our results also support the uniqueness hypothesis for open field regions as postulated by Antiochos et al. We discuss the implications of this work for coronal observations. Subject Headings: Sun: corona Sun: magnetic fields Sun: reconnection Sun: coronal hole

  2. Interchange Reconnection in a Turbulent Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappazzo, A. F.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Ruffolo, D. J.; Servidio, S.; Velli, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection at the interface between coronal holes and loops, so-called interchange reconnection, can release the hotter, denser plasma from magnetically confined regions into the heliosphere, contributing to the formation of the highly variable slow solar wind. In the prevailing ``standard'' view the interchange process is thought to develop in null points (with B=0) preferably at the apex of streamers or pseudo-streamers, near Y and X-points, from where slow solar wind flows would originate. This standard model does not meet recent observations of slow wind streams from the edges of active regions, that suggest that slow streams are not limited to apex-regions near neutral points (B=0). Furthermore in order to account for the slow wind diffusion (~ 30 degrees) observed in situ around the Heliospheric Current Sheet, within the standard model framework one has to posit that the slow wind would originate from a small fraction, with a complex topology, of the whole coronal hole-loop boundary, namely narrow channels (supposedly at observationally sub-resolution scales) linking coronal holes. However, coronal heating models, with magnetic field lines shuffled by convective motions, show that reconnection can occur continuously in unipolar magnetic field regions with no neutral points. We propose that a similar alternate interchange mechanism operating near boundaries between open and closed regions induces a continual stochastic rearrangement of connectivity everywhere along the open-closed boundary. We examine a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model of a simplified unipolar interface region between open and closed corona. This boundary is not stationary, becomes fractal, and field lines change connectivity continuously, becoming alternatively open and closed. This model suggests that slow wind may originate everywhere along coronal loop-hole boundaries, a possibility that has major implications for coronal heating and models of the slow solar wind, and accounts

  3. Biotic interchange between the Indian subcontinent and mainland Asia through time.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Sebastian; Morley, Robert J; Plath, Martin; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Li, Jia-Tang

    2016-01-01

    Biotic interchange after the connection of previously independently evolving floras and faunas is thought to be one of the key factors that shaped global biodiversity as we see it today. However, it was not known how biotic interchange develops over longer time periods of several million years following the secondary contact of different biotas. Here we present a novel method to investigate the temporal dynamics of biotic interchange based on a phylogeographical meta-analysis by calculating the maximal number of observed dispersal events per million years given the temporal uncertainty of the underlying time-calibrated phylogenies. We show that biotic influx from mainland Asia onto the Indian subcontinent after Eocene continental collision was not a uniform process, but was subject to periods of acceleration, stagnancy and decrease. We discuss potential palaeoenvironmental causes for this fluctuation. PMID:27373955

  4. Biotic interchange between the Indian subcontinent and mainland Asia through time

    PubMed Central

    Klaus, Sebastian; Morley, Robert J.; Plath, Martin; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Li, Jia-Tang

    2016-01-01

    Biotic interchange after the connection of previously independently evolving floras and faunas is thought to be one of the key factors that shaped global biodiversity as we see it today. However, it was not known how biotic interchange develops over longer time periods of several million years following the secondary contact of different biotas. Here we present a novel method to investigate the temporal dynamics of biotic interchange based on a phylogeographical meta-analysis by calculating the maximal number of observed dispersal events per million years given the temporal uncertainty of the underlying time-calibrated phylogenies. We show that biotic influx from mainland Asia onto the Indian subcontinent after Eocene continental collision was not a uniform process, but was subject to periods of acceleration, stagnancy and decrease. We discuss potential palaeoenvironmental causes for this fluctuation. PMID:27373955

  5. Nuclear Propulsion Technical Interchange Meeting, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Propulsion Technical Interchange Meeting (NP-TIM-92) was sponsored and hosted by the Nuclear Propulsion Office at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The purpose of the meeting was to review the work performed in fiscal year 1992 in the areas of nuclear thermal and nuclear electric propulsion technology development. These proceedings are a compilation of the presentations given at the meeting (many of the papers are presented in outline or viewgraph form). Volume 1 covers the introductory presentations and the system concepts and technology developments related to nuclear thermal propulsion.

  6. A drift model of interchange instability

    SciTech Connect

    Benilov, E. S.; Power, O. A.

    2007-08-15

    A set of asymptotic equations is derived, describing the dynamics of the flute mode in a magnetized plasma with cold ions, under a 'local' approximation (i.e., near a particular point). The asymptotic set is then used to calculate the growth rate of interchange instability in the slab model. It is shown that, unlike the magnetohydrodynamic ordering, the drift one allows instability to occur for either sign of the pressure gradient (i.e., for both 'bad' and 'good' curvature of the magnetic field). It is also demonstrated that finite beta gives rise to an extra instability that does not exist in the small-beta limit.

  7. National airspace data interchange network (NADIN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falato, A. J.

    In order to implement the National Airspace Plan and meet future comunications requirements in the most cost-effective manner, it has become necessary to replace and modernize the existing data communications systems with the foundation of a totally integrated system. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) will initiate cut-over of the National Airspace Data Interchange Network (NADIN) in late 1983. NADIN is not only an operational data communications system for all Air Traffic control facilities, but also an International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) subsystem, and a growth plan for transportation telecommunications, using modular expansion techniques.

  8. Interchangeable breech lock for glove boxes

    DOEpatents

    Lemonds, David Preston

    2015-11-24

    A breech lock for a glove box is provided that may be used to transfer one or more items into the glove box. The breech lock can be interchangeably installed in place of a plug, glove, or other device in a port or opening of a glove box. Features are provided to aid the removal of items from the breech lock by a gloved operator. The breech lock can be reused or, if needed, can be replaced with a plug, glove, or other device at the port or opening of the glove box.

  9. Between Home and School: Cultural Interchange in an Elementary Classroom. The Series on Cultural Interchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jervis, Kathe

    This monograph presents a study of cultural interchange in a second/third grade classroom within a parent-founded school. It follows one child from a religious family who traveled a long distance, both geographically and psychologically, from home to school. The study addresses influences that students encountered in traveling between home and…

  10. Interchange mode in the presence of dust.

    PubMed

    Vranjes, J; Tanaka, M Y; Kono, M; Poedts, S

    2003-02-01

    The linear and nonlinear development of an electrostatic interchange mode which involves a magnetized nonuniform electron-ion fluid in the presence of nonuniform static charged dust grains is investigated. The charge on grains is taken as spatially dependent, and the consequences of that condition are investigated. It is shown that standardly accepted stabilization of the interchange mode in the presence of negatively charged grains can be violated due to the spatial dependence of the charge on grains. Also, the ion drift, which is caused by the action of a gravity term perpendicular to the magnetic field lines, is taken as nonuniform as a result of the magnetic field nonuniformity, and it is shown that due to such a nonuniformity the instability condition can be significantly modified. In the nonlinear regime several types of coherent stationary vortex structures are found: namely, dipolar and tripolar vortices and vortex chains. The dipolar vortex is found to propagate in the direction of the ion drift, while the tripole and vortex chains are carried by the drift flow. The spatial dependence of these structures is determined by parameters describing the nonuniformity of the equilibrium plasma. PMID:12636825

  11. Magnetic Flux Tube Interchange at the Heliopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florinski, V.

    2015-11-01

    The magnetic field measured by Voyager 1 prior to its heliocliff encounter on 2012.65 showed an unexpectedly complex transition from the primarily azimuthal inner-heliosheath field to the draped interstellar field tilted by some 20° to the nominal azimuthal direction. Most prominent were two regions of enhanced magnetic field strength depleted in energetic charged particles of heliospheric origin. These regions were interpreted as magnetic flux tubes connected to the outer heliosheath that provided a path for the particles to escape. Despite large increases in strength, the field’s direction did not change appreciably at the boundaries of these flux tubes. Rather, the field’s direction changed gradually over several months prior to the heliocliff crossing. It is shown theoretically that the heliopause, as a pressure equilibrium layer, can become unstable to interchange of magnetic fields between the inner and the outer heliosheaths. The curvature of magnetic field lines and the anti-sunward gradient in plasma kinetic pressure provide conditions favorable for an interchange. Magnetic shear between the heliosheath and the interstellar fields reduces the growth rates, but does not fully stabilize the heliopause against perturbations propagating in the latitudinal direction. The instability could create a transition layer permeated by magnetic flux tubes, oriented parallel to each other and alternately connected to the heliosheath or the interstellar regions.

  12. [MODELING INFLAMMATORY EDEMA: ARE THE MODELS INTERCHANGEABLE].

    PubMed

    Hanh, Cong Hong; Khaziakhmetova, V N; Ziganshina, L E

    2015-01-01

    Experimental modeling of inflammatory edema by sub-plantar injection of carrageenan and formalin in mice and rats is widely used to evaluate potential anti-inflammatory activity of new drugs. This systematic analysis of published data showed that carrageenan induced paw edema model is used for evaluating the anti-inflammatory activity mostly in rats rather than mice. Formalin induced paw edema in rats and mice is used primarily for evaluation of the analgesic activity of drugs. Taken together, the results of this systematic review of available literature on edema modeling substantiate recommendation to use carrageenan paw edema in rats and formalin paw edema in mice as complementary, but not interchangeable models of inflammation. PMID:26591204

  13. Internet-based data interchange with XML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuerst, Karl; Schmidt, Thomas

    2000-12-01

    In this paper, a complete concept for Internet Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) - a well-known buzzword in the area of logistics and supply chain management to enable the automation of the interactions between companies and their partners - using XML (eXtensible Markup Language) will be proposed. This approach is based on Internet and XML, because the implementation of traditional EDI (e.g. EDIFACT, ANSI X.12) is mostly too costly for small and medium sized enterprises, which want to integrate their suppliers and customers in a supply chain. The paper will also present the results of the implementation of a prototype for such a system, which has been developed for an industrial partner to improve the current situation of parts delivery. The main functions of this system are an early warning system to detect problems during the parts delivery process as early as possible, and a transport following system to pursue the transportation.

  14. Technical Report Interchange Through Synchronized OAI Caches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Xiaming; Maly, Kurt; Zubair, Mohammad; Tang, Rong; Padshah, Mohammad Imran; Roncaglia, George; Rocker, JoAnne; Nelson, Michael; vonOfenheim, William; Luce, Richard

    2002-01-01

    The Technical Report Interchange project is a cooperative experimental effort between NASA Langley Research Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Air Force Research Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory and Old Dominion University to allow for the integration of technical reports. This is accomplished using the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) and having each site cache the metadata from the other participating sites. Each site also implements additional software to ingest the OAI-PMH harvested metadata into their native digital library (DL). This allows the users at each site to see an increased technical report collection through the familiar DL interfaces and tale advantage of whatever valued added are provided by the native DL.

  15. INTERCHANGE RECONNECTION IN A TURBULENT CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Rappazzo, A. F.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Ruffolo, D.; Servidio, S.; Velli, M.

    2012-10-10

    Magnetic reconnection at the interface between coronal holes and loops, the so-called interchange reconnection, can release the hotter, denser plasma from magnetically confined regions into the heliosphere, contributing to the formation of the highly variable slow solar wind. The interchange process is often thought to develop at the apex of streamers or pseudo-streamers, near Y- and X-type neutral points, but slow streams with loop composition have been recently observed along fanlike open field lines adjacent to closed regions, far from the apex. However, coronal heating models, with magnetic field lines shuffled by convective motions, show that reconnection can occur continuously in unipolar magnetic field regions with no neutral points: photospheric motions induce a magnetohydrodynamic turbulent cascade in the coronal field that creates the necessary small scales, where a sheared magnetic field component orthogonal to the strong axial field is created locally and can reconnect. We propose that a similar mechanism operates near and around boundaries between open and closed regions inducing a continual stochastic rearrangement of connectivity. We examine a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model of a simplified interface region between open and closed corona threaded by a strong unipolar magnetic field. This boundary is not stationary, becomes fractal, and field lines change connectivity continuously, becoming alternatively open and closed. This model suggests that slow wind may originate everywhere along loop-coronal-hole boundary regions and can account naturally and simply for outflows at and adjacent to such boundaries and for the observed diffusion of slow wind around the heliospheric current sheet.

  16. Interchange Reconnection in a Turbulent Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappazzo, A. F.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Ruffolo, D.; Servidio, S.; Velli, M.

    2012-10-01

    Magnetic reconnection at the interface between coronal holes and loops, the so-called interchange reconnection, can release the hotter, denser plasma from magnetically confined regions into the heliosphere, contributing to the formation of the highly variable slow solar wind. The interchange process is often thought to develop at the apex of streamers or pseudo-streamers, near Y- and X-type neutral points, but slow streams with loop composition have been recently observed along fanlike open field lines adjacent to closed regions, far from the apex. However, coronal heating models, with magnetic field lines shuffled by convective motions, show that reconnection can occur continuously in unipolar magnetic field regions with no neutral points: photospheric motions induce a magnetohydrodynamic turbulent cascade in the coronal field that creates the necessary small scales, where a sheared magnetic field component orthogonal to the strong axial field is created locally and can reconnect. We propose that a similar mechanism operates near and around boundaries between open and closed regions inducing a continual stochastic rearrangement of connectivity. We examine a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model of a simplified interface region between open and closed corona threaded by a strong unipolar magnetic field. This boundary is not stationary, becomes fractal, and field lines change connectivity continuously, becoming alternatively open and closed. This model suggests that slow wind may originate everywhere along loop-coronal-hole boundary regions and can account naturally and simply for outflows at and adjacent to such boundaries and for the observed diffusion of slow wind around the heliospheric current sheet.

  17. Can InterChange Write/Right Itself?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groote, Sabine

    When discussing "flaming" in relation to InterChange, it makes sense to look at two meanings of the word, to make the connection between the ardent and uncontrollable nature of the comments themselves and the flagrancy with which the electronic medium asserts itself. For some teachers, a "flaming" InterChange threatens their position in the…

  18. 48 CFR 227.676 - Foreign patent interchange agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Foreign patent interchange... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Foreign License and Technical Assistance Agreements 227.676 Foreign patent interchange agreements. (a)...

  19. 48 CFR 227.676 - Foreign patent interchange agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Foreign patent interchange... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Foreign License and Technical Assistance Agreements 227.676 Foreign patent interchange agreements. (a)...

  20. 48 CFR 227.676 - Foreign patent interchange agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foreign patent interchange... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Foreign License and Technical Assistance Agreements 227.676 Foreign patent interchange agreements. (a)...

  1. 48 CFR 227.676 - Foreign patent interchange agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Foreign patent interchange... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Foreign License and Technical Assistance Agreements 227.676 Foreign patent interchange agreements. (a)...

  2. 48 CFR 227.676 - Foreign patent interchange agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Foreign patent interchange... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Foreign License and Technical Assistance Agreements 227.676 Foreign patent interchange agreements. (a)...

  3. 77 FR 46258 - Debit Card Interchange Fees and Routing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ...The Board has amended the provisions in Regulation II (Debit Card Interchange Fees and Routing) that govern adjustments to debit card interchange transaction fees to make an allowance for fraud- prevention costs incurred by issuers. The amendments permit an issuer to receive or charge an amount of no more than 1 cent per transaction (the same amount currently permitted) in addition to its......

  4. The GuideLine Interchange Format

    PubMed Central

    Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Gennari, John H.; Murphy, Shawn N.; Jain, Nilesh L.; Tu, Samson W.; Oliver, Diane E.; Pattison-Gordon, Edward; Greenes, Robert A.; Shortliffe, Edward H.; Barnett, G. Octo

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To allow exchange of clinical practice guidelines among institutions and computer-based applications. Design: The GuideLine Interchange Format (GLIF) specification consists of the GLIF model and the GLIF syntax. The GLIF model is an object-oriented representation that consists of a set of classes for guideline entities, attributes for those classes, and data types for the attribute values. The GLIF syntax specifies the format of the test file that contains the encoding. Methods: Researchers from the InterMed Collaboratory at Columbia University, Harvard University (Brigham and Women's Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital), and Stanford University analyzed four existing guideline systems to derive a set of requirements for guideline representation. The GLIF specification is a consensus representation developed through a brainstorming process. Four clinical guidelines were encoded in GLIF to assess its expressivity and to study the variability that occurs when two people from different sites encode the same guideline. Results: The encoders reported that GLIF was adequately expressive. A comparison of the encodings revealed substantial variability. Conclusion: GLIF was sufficient to model the guidelines for the four conditions that were examined. GLIF needs improvement in standard representation of medical concepts, criterion logic, temporal information, and uncertainty. PMID:9670133

  5. Flute-interchange stability in a hot electron plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    Several topics in the kinetic stability theory of flute-interchange modes in a hot electron plasma are discussed. The stability analysis of the hot-electron, curvature-driven flute-interchange mode, previously performed in a slab geometry, is extended to a cylindrical plasma. The cold electron concentration necessary for stability differs substantially from previous criteria. The inclusion of a finite temperature background plasma in the stability analysis results in an ion curvature-driven flute-interchange mode which may be stabilized by either hot-electron diamagnetic effects, hot-electron plasma density, or finite (ion) Larmor radius effects.

  6. 76 FR 44897 - Columbia Gulf Transmission Company and Energy Interchange, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gulf Transmission Company and Energy Interchange, LLC; Notice of... Interchange, LLC (Energy Interchange), filed in the above referenced dockets a joint application pursuant to... section 7(c) authorizing the lease of interstate pipeline capacity by Energy Interchange from...

  7. AFL and FRL: abstraction and representation for field interchange.

    PubMed

    Tsafnat, Guy; Cloherty, Shaun L; Lambert, Tim D

    2004-01-01

    The holy grail of biomedical modelling is an integrated model of the entire human body. To this end, research groups around the world need to interchange experimental data, models and model results. A good interchange will have an efficient representation for storage and sharing and will have tools for modelling, data verification, authoring, data conversions and so on. A field is a spatially varying properly. In this paper we present the abstract field layer (AFL) and the field representation language (FRL). The AFL provides the field abstraction together with a set of common field operations. The FRL provides an efficient means for field representation and storage. We show how fields can be used to interchange information between modelling systems and between modelling and visualisation systems. We are currently developing a software system that composes multiple single cell solvers to create a tissue solver. PMID:17271571

  8. The formation of blobs from a pure interchange process

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, P.; Sovinec, C. R.; Hegna, C. C.

    2015-02-15

    In this work, we focus on examining a pure interchange process in a shear-less slab configuration as a prototype mechanism for blob formation. We employ full magnetohydrodynamic simulations to demonstrate that the blob-like structures can emerge through the nonlinear development of a pure interchange instability originating from a pedestal-like transition region. In the early nonlinear stage, filamentary structures develop and extend in the direction of the effective gravity. The blob-like structures appear when the radially extending filaments break off and disconnect from the core plasma. The morphology and the dynamics of these filaments and blobs vary dramatically with a sensitive dependence on the dissipation mechanisms in the system and the initial perturbation. Despite the complexity in morphology and dynamics, the nature of the entire blob formation process in the shear-less slab configuration remains strictly interchange without involving any change in magnetic topology.

  9. Analytical theory of interchange and compressional Alfven instabilities in EBT

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.Z.; Tsang, K.T.

    1981-07-01

    The local stability of the EBT plasma is analyzed for the long wavelength perturbations in the frequency regime, ..omega.. approx. less than or equal to ..cap omega../sub i/(..cap omega../sub i/ is ion cyclotron frequency). In addition to the low frequency interchange instability, the plasma can be unstable to the compressional Alfven wave. Contrary to the previously obtained quadratic dispersion relation in ..omega.. for the interchange mode, our dispersion relations for both types of instabilities are cubic in ..omega... New stability boundaries are found, for the hot electron interchange mode, to relate to the enhanced compressibility of the core plasma in the presence of hot electrons. The compressional Alfven instability is driven due to the coupling of hot electron magnetic drifts and diamagnetic drift with the compressional Alfven wave. The stability conditions of these two types of instabilities are opposite to each other.

  10. Cassini evidence for rapid interchange transport at Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rymer, A. M.; Mauk, B. H.; Hill, T. W.; André, N.; Mitchell, D. G.; Paranicas, C.; Young, D. T.; Smith, H. T.; Persoon, A. M.; Menietti, J. D.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Coates, A. J.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2009-12-01

    During its tour Cassini has observed numerous plasma injection events in Saturn's inner magnetosphere. Here, we present a case study of one "young" plasma bubble observed when Cassini was in the equatorial plane. The bubble was observed in the equatorial plane at ˜7 Saturn radii from Saturn and had a maximum azimuthal extent of ˜0.25 Rs (Rs=Saturn radius ˜60330 km). We show that the electron density inside the event is lower by a factor ˜3 and the electron temperature higher by over an order of magnitude compared to its surroundings. The injection contains slightly increased magnetic field magnitude of 49 nT compared with a background field of 46 nT. Modelling of pitch angle distributions inside the plasma bubble and measurements of plasma drift provide a novel way to estimate that the bubble originated between 9< L<11 and had an average radial propagation speed of ˜260+60/-70 km s -1. An independent estimate of the speed of the injection following theoretical work of Pontius et al. [1986. Steady State Plasma transport in a Corotation-Dominated Magnetosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett. 13(11), 1097-1100] based on the mass per unit flux gives a maximum radial propagation speeds of 140 km s -1. These results are similar to those found by Thorne et al. [1997. Galileo evidence for rapid interchange transport in the Io torus. Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 2131] for one event observed in Jupiter's magnetosphere near Io. We therefore suggest this is evidence of the same process operating at both planets.

  11. 75 FR 81721 - Debit Card Interchange Fees and Routing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... computed using the Consolidated Financial Statements for Bank Holding Companies (FR Y-9C; OMB No. 7100-0128... direct the routing of an electronic debit transaction to any network that may process such transactions... from the network (excluding interchange fees passed through the network). The Board also is...

  12. 9. View of the Crockett interchange. The 1927 bridge is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View of the Crockett interchange. The 1927 bridge is to the left. Entrance and exit ramps for west-bound 1-80 traffic over the 1927 bridge are visible in the center of the image. - Carquinez Bridge, Spanning Carquinez Strait at Interstate 80, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  13. School Culture, Climate and Ethos: Interchangeable or Distinctive Concepts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Derek; Coleman, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    The terms school culture, climate and ethos appear to be used interchangeably. Within the context of differing national environments there is, however, a tendency to use climate when objective data is under consideration, ethos when more subjective descriptors are involved, and culture when these two are brought together as an integrative force in…

  14. NASA/DOD Flight Experiments Technical Interchange Meeting Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the Flight Experiments Technical Interchange Meeting held in Monterey California, October 5-9, 1992. Technical sessions 4 through 8 addressing space structures, propulsion, space power systems, space environments and effects, and space operations are covered. Many of the papers are presented in outline and viewgraph form.

  15. Arctic warming will promote Atlantic-Pacific fish interchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisz, M. S.; Broennimann, O.; Grønkjær, P.; Møller, P. R.; Olsen, S. M.; Swingedouw, D.; Hedeholm, R. B.; Nielsen, E. E.; Guisan, A.; Pellissier, L.

    2015-03-01

    Throughout much of the Quaternary Period, inhospitable environmental conditions above the Arctic Circle have been a formidable barrier separating most marine organisms in the North Atlantic from those in the North Pacific. Rapid warming has begun to lift this barrier, potentially facilitating the interchange of marine biota between the two seas. Here, we forecast the potential northward progression of 515 fish species following climate change, and report the rate of potential species interchange between the Atlantic and the Pacific via the Northwest Passage and the Northeast Passage. For this, we projected niche-based models under climate change scenarios and simulated the spread of species through the passages when climatic conditions became suitable. Results reveal a complex range of responses during this century, and accelerated interchange after 2050. By 2100 up to 41 species could enter the Pacific and 44 species could enter the Atlantic, via one or both passages. Consistent with historical and recent biodiversity interchanges, this exchange of fish species may trigger changes for biodiversity and food webs in the North Atlantic and North Pacific, with ecological and economic consequences to ecosystems that at present contribute 39% to global marine fish landings.

  16. Are gods and good governments culturally and psychologically interchangeable?

    PubMed

    McCauley, Robert N

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive by-product theorists maintain that standard cognitive development facilitates the acquisition of religion. Citing secularization, Norenzayan et al. qualify that theory, proposing that gods and good governments are psychologically and culturally interchangeable. That contention, though, occasions questions about the psychological dynamics involved, about what qualifies as religiosity, and about asymmetries between gods and good governments in the face of catastrophes. PMID:26948736

  17. Communication Standards for Online Interchange of Library Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Thomas P.

    1982-01-01

    Presents new perspective on computerized information interchange within library community, and explains Open Systems Interconnection Model promoted by International Organization for Standardization, American National Standards Institute, and National Bureau of Standards. The Linked System Project undertaken by Library of Congress, Research…

  18. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU 3) Technical Interchange Meeting: Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU III) Technical Interchange Meeting, February 11-12, 1999, hosted by the Lockheed Martin Astronautics Waterton Facility, Denver, Colorado. Administration and publication support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Department at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

  19. On Ideal Stability of Cylindrical Localized Interchange Modes

    SciTech Connect

    Umansky, M V

    2007-05-15

    Stability of cylindrical localized ideal pressure-driven interchange plasma modes is revisited. Converting the underlying eigenvalue problem into the form of the Schroedinger equation gives a new simple way of deriving the Suydam stability criterion and calculating the growth rates of unstable modes. Near the marginal stability limit the growth rate is exponentially small and the mode has a double-peak structure.

  20. The Implications of a Mixed Media Network for Information Interchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meaney, John W.

    A mixed media network for information interchange is what we are always likely to have. Amid the current permutations of the storage and distribution media we see the emergence of two trends -- toward the common denominators of electronic display on the TV system and of digital processing and control. The economic implications of a mixed network…

  1. Sample interchange of MST radar data from the Urbana radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowhill, S. A.; Rennier, A.

    1984-01-01

    As a first step in interchange of data from the Urbana mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar, a sample tape has been prepared in 9-track 1600-bpi IBM format. It includes all Urbana data for April 1978 (the first month of operation of the radar). The 300-ft tape contains 260 h of typical mesospheric power and line-of-sight velocity data.

  2. Electronic Data Interchange: Using Technology to Exchange Transcripts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John T.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the Florida Automated System for Transferring Educational Records (FASTER) project, which permits the electronic exchange of student transcripts; uses of similar electronic data interchange (EDI) programs in other states; and the national SPEEDE/ExPRESS project, which uses a standard format for transferring electronic transcripts.…

  3. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) for Libraries and Publishers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santosuosso, Joe

    1992-01-01

    Defines electronic data interchange (EDI) as the exchange of data between computer systems without human intervention or interpretation. Standards are discussed; and the implementation of EDI in libraries and the serials publishing community in the areas of orders and acquisitions, claims, and invoice processing is described. (LRW)

  4. Knowledge Representation Standards and Interchange Formats for Causal Graphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Throop, David R.; Malin, Jane T.; Fleming, Land

    2005-01-01

    In many domains, automated reasoning tools must represent graphs of causally linked events. These include fault-tree analysis, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), planning, procedures, medical reasoning about disease progression, and functional architectures. Each of these fields has its own requirements for the representation of causation, events, actors and conditions. The representations include ontologies of function and cause, data dictionaries for causal dependency, failure and hazard, and interchange formats between some existing tools. In none of the domains has a generally accepted interchange format emerged. The paper makes progress towards interoperability across the wide range of causal analysis methodologies. We survey existing practice and emerging interchange formats in each of these fields. Setting forth a set of terms and concepts that are broadly shared across the domains, we examine the several ways in which current practice represents them. Some phenomena are difficult to represent or to analyze in several domains. These include mode transitions, reachability analysis, positive and negative feedback loops, conditions correlated but not causally linked and bimodal probability distributions. We work through examples and contrast the differing methods for addressing them. We detail recent work in knowledge interchange formats for causal trees in aerospace analysis applications in early design, safety and reliability. Several examples are discussed, with a particular focus on reachability analysis and mode transitions. We generalize the aerospace analysis work across the several other domains. We also recommend features and capabilities for the next generation of causal knowledge representation standards.

  5. Gender and Pupil Performance. Interchange 70.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinklin, Teresa; Croxford, Linda; Ducklin, Alan; Frame, Barbara

    This study examined factors that influence the relative academic attainment of males and females and how good performance by both genders can be achieved. The study involved a review of literature and policy documents, statistical analysis of official data, a questionnaire survey of local authorities, and case studies of six secondary schools in…

  6. 32 CFR 644.409 - Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Procedures for Interchange of National Forest... Interests § 644.409 Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands. (a) General. The interchange of national forest lands is accomplished in three steps: first, agreement must be reached between the...

  7. 32 CFR 644.409 - Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Procedures for Interchange of National Forest... Interests § 644.409 Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands. (a) General. The interchange of national forest lands is accomplished in three steps: first, agreement must be reached between the...

  8. 32 CFR 644.409 - Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Procedures for Interchange of National Forest... Interests § 644.409 Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands. (a) General. The interchange of national forest lands is accomplished in three steps: first, agreement must be reached between the...

  9. 32 CFR 644.409 - Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Procedures for Interchange of National Forest... Interests § 644.409 Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands. (a) General. The interchange of national forest lands is accomplished in three steps: first, agreement must be reached between the...

  10. 14 CFR 121.569 - Equipment interchange: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equipment interchange: Domestic and flag... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.569 Equipment interchange: Domestic and flag operations. (a) Before operating under an interchange agreement,...

  11. 14 CFR 121.569 - Equipment interchange: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equipment interchange: Domestic and flag... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.569 Equipment interchange: Domestic and flag operations. (a) Before operating under an interchange agreement,...

  12. 14 CFR 121.569 - Equipment interchange: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equipment interchange: Domestic and flag... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.569 Equipment interchange: Domestic and flag operations. (a) Before operating under an interchange agreement,...

  13. 14 CFR 121.569 - Equipment interchange: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equipment interchange: Domestic and flag... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.569 Equipment interchange: Domestic and flag operations. (a) Before operating under an interchange agreement,...

  14. 14 CFR 121.569 - Equipment interchange: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment interchange: Domestic and flag... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.569 Equipment interchange: Domestic and flag operations. (a) Before operating under an interchange agreement,...

  15. 42 CFR 84.80 - Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. 84...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.80 Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. Approvals shall not... or respirator component which is designed or constructed to permit the interchangeable use of...

  16. 42 CFR 84.80 - Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. 84...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.80 Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. Approvals shall not... or respirator component which is designed or constructed to permit the interchangeable use of...

  17. 42 CFR 84.80 - Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. 84...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.80 Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. Approvals shall not... or respirator component which is designed or constructed to permit the interchangeable use of...

  18. 42 CFR 84.80 - Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. 84...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.80 Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. Approvals shall not... or respirator component which is designed or constructed to permit the interchangeable use of...

  19. 42 CFR 84.80 - Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. 84...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.80 Interchangeability of oxygen and air prohibited. Approvals shall not... or respirator component which is designed or constructed to permit the interchangeable use of...

  20. Rules and Norms: Requirements for Rule Interchange Languages in the Legal Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Thomas F.; Governatori, Guido; Rotolo, Antonino

    In this survey paper we summarize the requirements for rule interchange languages for applications in the legal domain and use these requirements to evaluate RuleML, SBVR, SWRL and RIF. We also present the Legal Knowledge Interchange Format (LKIF), a new rule interchange format developed specifically for applications in the legal domain.

  1. A Kinetic Ballooning/Interchange Instability in the Magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coroniti, F. V.; Pritchett, P. L.

    2005-12-01

    In the near-Earth plasma sheet, earthward convection can be inhibited by plasma compression (the Erickson-Wolf effect), resulting in the formation of a weakly magnetized region from which the normal magnetic field component B_n increases in both the tailward (x) and earthward (-x) directions. Starting from a model plasma sheet equilibrium with B_n at the midplane (z = 0) proportional to (1+x/L) mid-way along the tail, 3D fully electromagnetic PIC simulations demonstrate that a strong ballooning/interchange type instability develops in the region of tailward increasing B_n. Unlike the classic MHD ballooning mode, however, the kinetic instability has a frequency which is below the ion bounce, diamagnetic, and magnetic drift frequencies, and a cross-tail (y) wavelength which is comparable to the ion gyroradius ρin in the normal field (k_y ρin ≍ 2π). The spatial extent of the mode in the x direction is initially of the order of the B_n gradient length L; at late times, the ballooning fingers of magnetic flux extend throughout and earthward of the B_n gradient region. The polarization of the mode is dominated by strong perturbations in the parallel magnetic field and approximately anti-correlated plasma density, the cross-tail Ey field, and the electrostatic potential. The ion distribution develops a weak v_y perturbation, while the x- and field-aligned flow velocities remain very small, a consequence of the ion's gyromotion essentially averaging the perturbed electric fields to zero. Thus the ions do not move earthward with the inward moving fingers of magnetic flux. The perturbed magnetic fields are generated by strong transverse electron Hall currents which are coupled to a complex system of field-aligned currents. The earthward speed of the flux enhancements is typically about 400 km/s. A characteristic signature of the mode is a local increase in B_z by about a factor of two without any significant ion flow.

  2. XAFS Data Interchange: A single spectrum XAFS data file format

    PubMed Central

    Ravel, B.; Newville, M.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a standard data format for the interchange of XAFS data. The XAFS Data Interchange (XDI) standard is meant to encapsulate a single spectrum of XAFS along with relevant metadata. XDI is a text-based format with a simple syntax which clearly delineates metadata from the data table in a way that is easily interpreted both by a computer and by a human. The metadata header is inspired by the format of an electronic mail header, representing metadata names and values as an associative array. The data table is represented as columns of numbers. This format can be imported as is into most existing XAFS data analysis, spreadsheet, or data visualization programs. Along with a specification and a dictionary of metadata types, we provide an application-programming interface written in C and bindings for programming dynamic languages. PMID:27499797

  3. Vorticity scaling and intermittency in drift-interchange plasma turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Dura, P. D.; Hnat, B.; Robinson, J.; Dendy, R. O.

    2012-09-15

    The effects of spatially varying magnetic field strength on the scaling properties of plasma turbulence, modelled by an extended form of Hasegawa-Wakatani model, are investigated. We study changes in the intermittency of the velocity, density, and vorticity fields, as functions of the magnetic field inhomogeneity C=-{partial_derivative} ln B/{partial_derivative}x. While the velocity fluctuations are always self-similar and their scaling is unaffected by the value of C, the intermittency levels in density and vorticity change with parameter C, reflecting morphological changes in the coherent structures due to the interchange mechanism. Given the centrality of vorticity in conditioning plasma transport, this result is of interest in scaling the results of transport measurements and simulations in tokamak edge plasmas, where drift-interchange turbulence in the presence of a magnetic field gradient is likely to occur.

  4. XAFS Data Interchange: A single spectrum XAFS data file format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravel, B.; Newville, M.

    2016-05-01

    We propose a standard data format for the interchange of XAFS data. The XAFS Data Interchange (XDI) standard is meant to encapsulate a single spectrum of XAFS along with relevant metadata. XDI is a text-based format with a simple syntax which clearly delineates metadata from the data table in a way that is easily interpreted both by a computer and by a human. The metadata header is inspired by the format of an electronic mail header, representing metadata names and values as an associative array. The data table is represented as columns of numbers. This format can be imported as is into most existing XAFS data analysis, spreadsheet, or data visualization programs. Along with a specification and a dictionary of metadata types, we provide an application-programming interface written in C and bindings for programming dynamic languages.

  5. Vorticity scaling and intermittency in drift-interchange plasma turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dura, P. D.; Hnat, B.; Robinson, J.; Dendy, R. O.

    2012-09-01

    The effects of spatially varying magnetic field strength on the scaling properties of plasma turbulence, modelled by an extended form of Hasegawa-Wakatani model, are investigated. We study changes in the intermittency of the velocity, density, and vorticity fields, as functions of the magnetic field inhomogeneity C =-∂ ln B/∂x. While the velocity fluctuations are always self-similar and their scaling is unaffected by the value of C, the intermittency levels in density and vorticity change with parameter C, reflecting morphological changes in the coherent structures due to the interchange mechanism. Given the centrality of vorticity in conditioning plasma transport, this result is of interest in scaling the results of transport measurements and simulations in tokamak edge plasmas, where drift-interchange turbulence in the presence of a magnetic field gradient is likely to occur.

  6. Theory of semicollisional drift-interchange modes in cylindrical plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hahm, T.S.; Chen, L.

    1985-01-01

    Resistive interchange instabilities in cylindrical plasmas are studied, including the effects of electron diamagnetic drift, perpendicular resistivity, and plasma compression. The analyses are pertinent to the semicollisional regime where the effective ion gyro-radius is larger than the resistive layer width. Both analytical and numerical results show that the modes can be completely stabilized by the perpendicular plasma transport. Ion sound effects, meanwhile, are found to be negligible in the semicollisional regime.

  7. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Technical Interchange Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Technical Interchange Meeting, February 4-5, 1997, at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, Texas. Abstracts are arranged in order of presentation at the meetings, with corresponding page numbers shown in the enclosed agenda. Logistics, administration, and publication support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Department at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

  8. Residual turbulence from velocity shear stabilized interchange instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, C. P.; Hassam, A. B.

    2013-01-15

    The stabilizing effect of velocity shear on the macroscopic, broad bandwidth, ideal interchange instability is studied in linear and nonlinear regimes. A 2D dissipative magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code is employed to simulate the system. For a given flow shear, V Prime , linear growth rates are shown to be suppressed to below the shear-free level at both the small and large wavelengths. With increasing V Prime , the unstable band in wavenumber-space shrinks so that the peak growth results for modes that correspond to relatively high wavenumbers, on the scale of the density gradient. In the nonlinear turbulent steady state, a similar turbulent spectrum obtains, and the convection cells are roughly circular. In addition, the density fluctuation level and the degree of flattening of the initial inverted density profile are found to decrease as V Prime increases; in fact, unstable modes are almost completely stabilized and the density profile reverts to laminar when V Prime is a few times the classic interchange growth rate. Moreover, the turbulent particle flux diminishes with increasing velocity shear such that all the flux is carried by the classical diffusive flux in the asymptotic limit. The simulations are compared with measurements of magnetic fluctuations from the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment, MCX, which investigated interchange modes in the presence of velocity shear. The experimental spectral data, taken in the plasma edge, are in general agreement with the numerical data obtained in higher viscosity simulations for which the level of viscosity is chosen consistent with MCX Reynolds numbers at the edge. In particular, the residual turbulence in both cases is dominated by elongated convection cells. Finally, concomitant Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in the system are also examined. Complete stability to interchanges is obtained only in the parameter space wherein the generalized Rayleigh inflexion theorem is satisfied.

  9. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU II) Technical Interchange Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, David (Compiler); Saunders, Stephen R. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This volume contains extended abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU II) Technical Interchange Meeting, November 18-19, 1997, at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, Texas. Included are topics which include: Extraterrestrial resources, in situ propellant production, sampling of planetary surfaces, oxygen production, water vapor extraction from the Martian atmosphere, gas generation, cryogenic refrigeration, and propellant transport and storage.

  10. NN interaction from bag-model quark interchange

    SciTech Connect

    Bakker, B.L.G.; Bozoian, M.; Maslow, J.N.; Weber, H.J.

    1982-03-01

    A partial-wave helicity-state analysis of elastic nucleon-nucleon scattering is carried out in momentum space. Its basis is a one- and two-boson exchange amplitude from a bag-model quark interchange mechanism. The resulting phase shifts and bound-state parameters of the deuteron are compared with other meson theoretic potentials and data up to laboratory energies of approx.350 MeV.

  11. XML-Based SHINE Knowledge Base Interchange Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark; Mackey, Ryan; Tikidjian, Raffi

    2008-01-01

    The SHINE Knowledge Base Interchange Language software has been designed to more efficiently send new knowledge bases to spacecraft that have been embedded with the Spacecraft Health Inference Engine (SHINE) tool. The intention of the behavioral model is to capture most of the information generally associated with a spacecraft functional model, while specifically addressing the needs of execution within SHINE and Livingstone. As such, it has some constructs that are based on one or the other.

  12. Third SEI Technical Interchange: Proceedings. [Space Exploration Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Given here are the proceedings of the 3rd Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) Technical Interchange. Topics covered include the First Lunar Outpost (FLO), the Lunar Resource Mapper, lunar rovers, lunar habitat concepts, lunar shelter construction analysis, thermoelectric nuclear power systems for SEI, cryogenic storage, a space network for lunar communications, the moon as a solar power satellite, and off-the-shelf avionics for future SEI missions.

  13. A format for the interchange of scheduling models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John P.; Davis, Elizabeth K.

    1994-01-01

    In recent years a variety of space-activity schedulers have been developed within the aerospace community. Space-activity schedulers are characterized by their need to handle large numbers of activities which are time-window constrained and make high demands on many scarce resources, but are minimally constrained by predecessor/successor requirements or critical paths. Two needs to exchange data between these schedulers have materialized. First, there is significant interest in comparing and evaluating the different scheduling engines to ensure that the best technology is applied to each scheduling endeavor. Second, there is a developing requirement to divide a single scheduling task among different sites, each using a different scheduler. In fact, the scheduling task for International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) will be distributed among NASA centers and among the international partners. The format used to interchange scheduling data for ISSA will likely use a growth version of the format discussed in this paper. The model interchange format (or MIF, pronounced as one syllable) discussed in this paper is a robust solution to the need to interchange scheduling requirements for space activities. It is highly extensible, human-readable, and can be generated or edited with common text editors. It also serves well the need to support a 'benchmark' data case which can be delivered on any computer platform.

  14. Relative performance of stop sign versus signal control at diamond interchanges

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, R.H.

    1987-10-01

    A study was conducted to compare all-way stop sign control with traffic light signal control. To provide general guidelines for signal control, signal operations studied included pretimed control, actuated control, three phase operation and four phase operation with overlaps. The following conclusions were made regarding diamond interchanges: a diamond interchange operates much differently than two isolated intersections because of close spacing; diamond interchange signalization should be a separate MUTCD procedure from that of isolated intersections; diamond interchange models that combine complex interactions of internal and external traffic are the most representative approach; and a discriminating diamond interchange volume level exists beyond which traffic signal control is better than stop sign control.

  15. Reconnection and interchange instability in the near magnetotail

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Birn, Joachim; Liu, Yi -Hsin; Daughton, William; Hesse, Michael; Schindler, Karl

    2015-07-16

    This paper provides insights into the possible coupling between reconnection and interchange/ballooning in the magnetotail related to substorms and flow bursts. The results presented are largely based on recent simulations of magnetotail dynamics, exploring onset and progression of reconnection. 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations with different tail deformation demonstrate a clear boundary between stable and unstable cases depending on the amount of deformation, explored up to the real proton/electron mass ratio. The evolution prior to onset, as well as the evolution of stable cases, are governed by the conservation of integral flux tube entropy S as imposed in ideal MHD, maintainingmore » a monotonic increase with distance downtail. This suggests that ballooning instability in the tail should not be expected prior to the onset of tearing and reconnection. 3-D MHD simulations confirm this conclusion, showing no indication of ballooning prior to reconnection, if the initial state is ballooning stable. The simulation also shows that, after imposing resistivity necessary to initiate reconnection, the reconnection rate and energy release initially remain slow. However, when S becomes reduced from plasmoid ejection and lobe reconnection, forming a negative slope in S as a function of distance from Earth, the reconnection rate and energy release increase drastically. The latter condition has been shown to be necessary for ballooning/interchange instability, and the cross-tail structures that develop subsequently in the MHD simulation are consistent with such modes. The simulations support a concept in which tail activity is initiated by tearing instability but significantly enhanced by the interaction with ballooning/interchange enabled by plasmoid loss and lobe reconnection.« less

  16. Reconnection and interchange instability in the near magnetotail

    SciTech Connect

    Birn, Joachim; Liu, Yi -Hsin; Hesse, Michael

    2015-07-16

    This paper provides insights into the possible coupling between reconnection and interchange/ballooning in the magnetotail related to substorms and flow bursts. The results presented are largely based on recent simulations of magnetotail dynamics, exploring onset and progression of reconnection. 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations with different tail deformation demonstrate a clear boundary between stable and unstable cases depending on the amount of deformation, explored up to the real proton/electron mass ratio. The evolution prior to onset, as well as the evolution of stable cases, are governed by the conservation of integral flux tube entropy S as imposed in ideal MHD, maintaining a monotonic increase with distance downtail. This suggests that ballooning instability in the tail should not be expected prior to the onset of tearing and reconnection. 3-D MHD simulations confirm this conclusion, showing no indication of ballooning prior to reconnection, if the initial state is ballooning stable. The simulation also shows that, after imposing resistivity necessary to initiate reconnection, the reconnection rate and energy release initially remain slow. However, when S becomes reduced from plasmoid ejection and lobe reconnection, forming a negative slope in S as a function of distance from Earth, the reconnection rate and energy release increase drastically. The latter condition has been shown to be necessary for ballooning/interchange instability, and the cross-tail structures that develop subsequently in the MHD simulation are consistent with such modes. The simulations support a concept in which tail activity is initiated by tearing instability but significantly enhanced by the interaction with ballooning/interchange enabled by plasmoid loss and lobe reconnection.

  17. Effects of radial motion on interchange injections at Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranicas, C.; Thomsen, M. F.; Achilleos, N.; Andriopoulou, M.; Badman, S. V.; Hospodarsky, G.; Jackman, C. M.; Jia, X.; Kennelly, T.; Khurana, K.; Kollmann, P.; Krupp, N.; Louarn, P.; Roussos, E.; Sergis, N.

    2016-01-01

    Charged particle injections are regularly observed in Saturn's inner magnetosphere by Cassini. They are attributed to an ongoing process of flux-tube interchange driven by the strong centrifugal force associated with Saturn's rapid rotation. Numerical simulations suggest that these interchange injections can be associated with inward flow channels, in which plasma confined to a narrow range of longitudes moves radially toward the planet, gaining energy, while ambient plasma in the adjacent regions moves more slowly outward. Most previous analyses of these events have neglected this radial motion and inferred properties of the events under the assumption that they appear instantaneously at the spacecraft's L-shell and thereafter drift azimuthally. This paper describes features of injections that can be related to their radial motion prior to observation. We use a combination of phase space density profiles and an updated version of a test-particle model to quantify properties of the injection. We are able to infer the longitudinal width of the injection, the radial travel time from its point of origin, and the starting L shell of the injection. We can also predict which energies can remain inside the channel during the radial transport. To highlight the effects of radial propagation at a finite speed, we focus on those interchange injections without extensive features of azimuthal dispersion. Injections that have traveled radially for one or more hours prior to observation would have been initiated at a different local time than that of the observation. Finally, we describe an injection where particles have drifted azimuthally into a flow channel prior to observation by Cassini.

  18. Assessing Interchangeability at Cluster-Levels with Multiple-Informant Data

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zhehui; Breslau, Joshua; Gardiner, Joseph C.; Chen, Qiaoling; Breslau, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Studies examining the relationship between neighborhood social disorder and health often rely on multiple informants. Such studies assume interchangeability of the latent constructs derived from multiple-informant data. Existing methods examining this assumption do not clearly delineate the uncertainty at individual levels from that at neighborhood levels. We propose a multi-level variance component factor model that allows this delineation. Data come from a survey of a representative sample of children born between 1983 and 1985 in the inner city of Detroit and nearby middle-class suburbs. Results indicate that the informant-level models tend to exaggerate the effect of places due to differences between persons. Our evaluations of different methodologies lead to the recommendation of the multi-level variance component factor model whenever multiple-informant reports can be aggregated at a neighborhood level. PMID:24038232

  19. Directory interchange format manual, version 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Directory Interchange Format (DIF) is a data structure used to exchange directory level information about data sets among information systems. The format consists of a number of fields that describe the attributes of a directory entry and text blocks that contain a descriptive summary of and references for the directory entry. All fields and the summary are preceded by labels identifying their contents. All values are ASCII character strings. The structure is intended to be flexible, allowing for future changes in the contents of directory entries.

  20. An XML-based format for guideline interchange and execution.

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, A. K.; Chueh, H. C.

    2000-01-01

    In building a general purpose guideline system based on GLIF--the GuideLine Interchange Format, we encountered limitations in the GLIF specification. These limitations, while not so apparent in the static version of guideline content, became readily so in the context of real world implementation, and pertain not only to GLIF-based systems, but generally as well. These limitations can be described as being in one of five categories. In this paper, we describe each of these categories in detail, and show how an execution environment based on XML data structures addresses these concerns. PMID:11079874

  1. System comprising interchangeable electronic controllers and corresponding methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Glen F. (Inventor); Salazar, George A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A system comprising an interchangeable electronic controller is provided with programming that allows the controller to adapt a behavior that is dependent upon the particular type of function performed by a system or subsystem component. The system reconfigures the controller when the controller is moved from one group of subsystem components to another. A plurality of application programs are provided by a server from which the application program for a particular electronic controller is selected. The selection is based on criteria such as a subsystem component group identifier that identifies the particular type of function associated with the system or subsystem group of components.

  2. Ion composition in interchange injection events in Saturn's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, M. F.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Wilson, R. J.; Andriopoulou, M.; Crary, F. J.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Jackman, C. M.; Jia, X.; Khurana, K. K.; Paranicas, C.; Roussos, E.; Sergis, N.; Tokar, R. L.

    2014-12-01

    Interchange injection events are commonly observed by the Cassini spacecraft in the region between about 6 and 12 Rs (1 Rs = 60,268 km) and even frequently beyond. In this study, 13 examples of interchange injection events are identified in Cassini/Cassini Plasma Spectrometer data under special conditions such that time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectra could be obtained from entirely within the events. Using the TOF data to separate the main ion species H+, H2+, and W+, approximate densities of each species are calculated under the assumption that all distributions were isotropic. The light-ion density ratios, H2+/H+, in the injection events are not discernibly different from those ratios in control intervals from the ambient plasma. However, the water-group ratio, W+/H+, is significantly lower than ambient. The comparison of the measured density ratios with the range of values observed throughout Saturn's magnetosphere indicates that the values of W+/H+ that are as low as those observed within the injection events are found primarily beyond L~14 (where L is the equatorial crossing distance, in Saturn radius, of a dipole field line), indicating that the injection events are delivering plasma from the outer magnetosphere at times traveling at least 6 Rs.

  3. An interchangeable-cathode vacuum arc plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, David K.; Peterson, Bryan G.; Hart, Grant W.

    2010-01-15

    A simplified vacuum arc design [based on metal vapor vacuum arc (MeVVA) concepts] is employed as a plasma source for a study of a {sup 7}Be non-neutral plasma. The design includes a mechanism for interchanging the cathode source. Testing of the plasma source showed that it is capable of producing on the order of 10{sup 12} charges at confinable energies using a boron-carbide disk as the cathode target. The design is simplified from typical designs for lower energy and lower density applications by using only the trigger spark rather than the full vacuum arc in high current ion beam designs. The interchangeability of the cathode design gives the source the ability to replace only the source sample, simplifying use of radioactive materials in the plasma source. The sample can also be replaced with a completely different conductive material. The design can be easily modified for use in other plasma confinement or full MeVVA applications.

  4. Signatures of interchange reconnection: STEREO, ACE and Hinode observations combined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D.; Rouillard, A. P.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Démoulin, P.; Harra, L. K.; Lavraud, B.; Davies, J. A.; Opitz, A.; Luhmann, J. G.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Galvin, A. B.

    2009-10-01

    Combining STEREO, ACE and Hinode observations has presented an opportunity to follow a filament eruption and coronal mass ejection (CME) on 17 October 2007 from an active region (AR) inside a coronal hole (CH) into the heliosphere. This particular combination of "open" and closed magnetic topologies provides an ideal scenario for interchange reconnection to take place. With Hinode and STEREO data we were able to identify the emergence time and type of structure seen in the in-situ data four days later. On the 21st, ACE observed in-situ the passage of an ICME with "open" magnetic topology. The magnetic field configuration of the source, a mature AR located inside an equatorial CH, has important implications for the solar and interplanetary signatures of the eruption. We interpret the formation of an "anemone" structure of the erupting AR and the passage in-situ of the ICME being disconnected at one leg, as manifested by uni-directional suprathermal electron flux in the ICME, to be a direct result of interchange reconnection between closed loops of the CME originating from the AR and "open" field lines of the surrounding CH.

  5. Directory interchange format manual, version 4.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Directory Interchange Format (DIF) is a data structure used to exchange directory-level information about data sets among information systems. In general the format consists of a number of fields that describe the attributes of a directory entry and text blocks that contain a descriptive summary of and references for the directory entry. All fields and the summary are preceded by labels identifying their contents. All values are ASCII character strings. The structure is intended to be flexible, allowing for future changes in the contents of directory entries. The manual is structured as follows: section 1 is a general description of what constitutes a directory entry; section 2 describes the content of the individual fields within the data structure, together with some examples. Also included in the six appendices is a description of the syntax used within the examples; samples of the directory interchange format applied to different data sets; the allowable discipline keywords; a current list of valid location keywords; a list of allowable parameter keywords; a list of acronyns and a glossary of terms used; and a description of the Standard Formatted Data Unit header, which may be added to the front of a DIF file to identify the file as a registered standard format.

  6. FUEL INTERCHANGEABILITY FOR LEAN PREMIXED COMBUSTION IN GAS TURBINE ENGINES

    SciTech Connect

    Don Ferguson; Geo. A. Richard; Doug Straub

    2008-06-13

    In response to environmental concerns of NOx emissions, gas turbine manufacturers have developed engines that operate under lean, pre-mixed fuel and air conditions. While this has proven to reduce NOx emissions by lowering peak flame temperatures, it is not without its limitations as engines utilizing this technology are more susceptible to combustion dynamics. Although dependent on a number of mechanisms, changes in fuel composition can alter the dynamic response of a given combustion system. This is of particular interest as increases in demand of domestic natural gas have fueled efforts to utilize alternatives such as coal derived syngas, imported liquefied natural gas and hydrogen or hydrogen augmented fuels. However, prior to changing the fuel supply end-users need to understand how their system will respond. A variety of historical parameters have been utilized to determine fuel interchangeability such as Wobbe and Weaver Indices, however these parameters were never optimized for today’s engines operating under lean pre-mixed combustion. This paper provides a discussion of currently available parameters to describe fuel interchangeability. Through the analysis of the dynamic response of a lab-scale Rijke tube combustor operating on various fuel blends, it is shown that commonly used indices are inadequate for describing combustion specific phenomena.

  7. Uncertainty-based Estimation of the Secure Range for ISO New England Dynamic Interchange Adjustment

    SciTech Connect

    Etingov, Pavel V.; Makarov, Yuri V.; Wu, Di; Hou, Zhangshuan; Sun, Yannan; Maslennikov, S.; Luo, Xiaochuan; Zheng, T.; George, S.; Knowland, T.; Litvinov, E.; Weaver, S.; Sanchez, E.

    2014-04-14

    The paper proposes an approach to estimate the secure range for dynamic interchange adjustment, which assists system operators in scheduling the interchange with neighboring control areas. Uncertainties associated with various sources are incorporated. The proposed method is implemented in the dynamic interchange adjustment (DINA) tool developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for ISO New England. Simulation results are used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. Interchange and Infernal Fishbone Modes in Plasmas with Tangentially Injected Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Kolesnichenko; Ya.I.; Marchenko; V.S.; White; R.B.

    2006-01-01

    New energetic particle mode instabilities of fishbone type are predicted. The considered instabilities are driven by the circulating energetic ions. They can arise in plasmas of tokamaks and spherical tori with weak magnetic shear in the wide core region and strong shear at the periphery, provided that the central safety factor is close to the ratio m/n, where m and n are the poloidal mode number and toroidal mode number, respectively. The instability with m = n = 1 has interchange-like spatial structure, whereas the structure of instabilities with m/n > 1 is similar to that of the infernal MHD mode (except for the region in vicinity of the local Alfvén resonance).

  9. Inter-Changeability of Impedance Devices for Lymphedema Assessment.

    PubMed

    van Zanten, Malou; Piller, Neil; Ward, Leigh C

    2016-06-01

    Impedance technology is a popular technique for the early detection of lymphedema. The preferred approach is to use bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS), with measurements being made with the subject lying supine, although attempts have been made to use single or multiple frequency impedance measurements obtained while the subject is standing. The aim of the present study was to determine the equivalence of these different approaches. Impedance measurements of the individual limbs of 37 healthy individuals were determined using both a stand-on, multi-frequency impedance device and a supine impedance spectroscopy instrument. Significant differences were found between the instruments in both absolute impedance values and, importantly, inter-limb impedance ratios. Since impedance ratios in healthy individuals provide the reference standard for detection of lymphedema, these data indicate that the methods are not interchangeable. Consideration of the errors associated with each method indicates that the BIS remains the preferred method for lymphedema detection. PMID:26574711

  10. EDI (electronic data interchange): the best in business partner cooperation.

    PubMed

    Pirelli, T

    1989-10-01

    This is the first of a three-part series on electronic data interchange (EDI) applications in the materials management and accounts payable departments, especially as they relate to transactions with outside vendors. Part Two will cover EDI applications within a hospital, from one computer system to another. The article will illustrate how the new HL7 standards will make "seamless" interfaces an economic reality for the first time. Part Three will focus on the paperwork reduction aspects of EDI, and the resultant cost savings. Through the use of permanent CD-ROM storage, the day will come when a hospital's business transactions (purchase orders, invoices, checks) as well as medical records, will never be generated on paper. PMID:10295750

  11. Guidelines for Provision and Interchange of Geothermal Data Assets

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-07-03

    The US Department of Energy Office of Geothermal Technologies (OGT) is funding and overseeing the development of the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS), a distributed information system providing access to integrated data in support of, and generated in, all phases of geothermal development. NGDS is being built in an open paradigm and will employ state-of-the-art informatics approaches and capabilities to advance the state of geothermal knowledge in the US. This document presents guidelines related to provision and interchange of data assets in the context of the National Geothermal Data System. It identifies general specifications for NGDS catalog metadata and data content, and provides specific instructions for preparation and submission of data assets by OGT-funded projects.

  12. Interchangeable end effector tools utilized on the protoflight manipulator arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A subset of teleoperator and effector tools was designed, fabricated, delivered and successfully demonstrated on the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) protoflight manipulator arm (PFMA). The tools delivered included a rotary power tool with interchangeable collets and two fluid coupling mate/demate tools; one for a Fairchild coupling and the other for a Purolator coupling. An electrical interface connector was also provided for the rotary power tool. A tool set, from which the subset was selected, for performing on-orbit satellite maintenance was identified and conceptionally designed. Maintenance requirements were synthesized, evaluated and prioritized to develop design requirements for a set of end effector tools representative of those needed to provide on-orbit maintenance of satellites to be flown in the 1986 to 2000 timeframe.

  13. Transport scaling in interchange-driven toroidal plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ricci, Paolo; Rogers, B. N.

    2009-06-15

    Two-dimensional fluid simulations of a simple magnetized torus are presented, in which the vertical and toroidal components of the magnetic field create helicoidal field lines that terminate on the upper and lower walls of the plasma chamber. The simulations self-consistently evolve the full radial profiles of the electric potential, density, and electron temperature in the presence of three competing effects: the cross-field turbulent transport driven by the interchange instability, parallel losses to the upper and lower walls, and the input of particles and heat by external plasma sources. Considering parameter regimes in which equilibrium ExB shear flow effects are weak, we study the dependence of the plasma profiles--in particular the pressure profile scale length--on the parameters of the system. Analytical scalings are obtained that show remarkable agreement with the simulations.

  14. SCHIP: Statistics for Chromosome Interphase Positioning Based on Interchange Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vives, Sergi; Loucas, Bradford; Vazquez, Mariel; Brenner, David J.; Sachs, Rainer K.; Hlatky, Lynn; Cornforth, Michael; Arsuaga, Javier

    2005-01-01

    he position of chromosomes in the interphase nucleus is believed to be associated with a number of biological processes. Here, we present a web-based application that helps analyze the relative position of chromosomes during interphase in human cells, based on observed radiogenic chromosome aberrations. The inputs of the program are a table of yields of pairwise chromosome interchanges and a proposed chromosome geometric cluster. Each can either be uploaded or selected from provided datasets. The main outputs are P-values for the proposed chromosome clusters. SCHIP is designed to be used by a number of scientific communities interested in nuclear architecture, including cancer and cell biologists, radiation biologists and mathematical/computational biologists.

  15. An Ensemble Approach for Forecasting Net Interchange Schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Vlachopoulou, Maria; Gosink, Luke J.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Ferryman, Thomas A.; Zhou, Ning; Tong, Jianzhong

    2013-09-01

    The net interchange schedule (NIS) is the sum of the transactions (MW) between an ISO/RTO and its neighbors. Effective forecasting of the submitted NIS can improve grid operation efficiency. This paper applies a Bayesian model averaging (BMA) technique to forecast submitted NIS. As an ensemble approach, the BMA method aggregates different forecasting models in order to improve forecasting accuracy and consistency. In this study, the BMA method is compared to two alternative approaches: a stepwise regression method and an artificial neural network (ANN) trained for NIS forecasting. In our comparative analysis, we use field measurement data from the Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Maryland (PJM) Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) to train and test each method. Our preliminary results indicate that ensemble-based methods can provide more accurate and consistent NIS forecasts in comparison to non-ensemble alternate methods.

  16. Collaboration for Education with the Apple Learning Interchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Patrick A.; Zimmerman, T.; Knierman, K. A.

    2006-12-01

    We present a progressive effort to deliver online education and outreach resources in collaboration with the Apple Learning Interchange, a free community for educators. We have created a resource site with astronomy activities, video training for the activities, and the possibility of interactive training through video chat services. Also in development is an online textbook for graduate and advanced undergraduate courses in stellar evolution, featuring an updatable and annotated text with multimedia content, online lectures, podcasts, and a framework for interactive simulation activities. Both sites will be highly interactive, combining online discussions, the opportunity for live video interaction, and a growing library of student work samples. This effort promises to provide a compelling model for collaboration between science educators and corporations. As scientists, we provide content knowledge and a compelling reason to communicate, while Apple provides technical expertise, a deep knowledge of online education, and a way for us to reach a wide audience of higher education, community outreach, and K-12 educators.

  17. Interchange of electronic design through VHDL and EIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Richard M.

    1987-01-01

    The need for both robust and unambiguous electronic designs is a direct requirement of the astonishing growth in design and manufacturing capability during recent years. In order to manage the plethora of designs, and have the design data both interchangeable and interoperable, the Very High Speed Integrated Circuits (VHSIC) program is developing two major standards for the electronic design community. The VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL) is designed to be the lingua franca for transmission of design data between designers and their environments. The Engineering Information System (EIS) is designed to ease the integration of data betweeen diverse design automation systems. This paper describes the rationale for the necessity for these two standards and how they provide a synergistic expressive capability across the macrocosm of design environments.

  18. Roles of transition metals interchanging with lithium in electrode materials.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Tomoya; Fukuda, Katsutoshi; Tokuda, Kazuya; Sakaida, Masashi; Ichitsubo, Tetsu; Oishi, Masatsugu; Mizuki, Jun'ichiro; Matsubara, Eiichiro

    2015-06-01

    Roles of antisite transition metals interchanging with Li atoms in electrode materials of Li transition-metal complex oxides were clarified using a newly developed direct labeling method, termed powder diffraction anomalous fine structure (P-DAFS) near the Ni K-edge. We site-selectively investigated the valence states and local structures of Ni in Li0.89Ni1.11O2, where Ni atoms occupy mainly the NiO2 host-layer sites and partially the interlayer Li sites in-between the host layers, during electrochemical Li insertion/extraction in a lithium-ion battery (LIB). The site-selective X-ray near edge structure evaluated via the P-DAFS method revealed that the interlayer Ni atoms exhibited much lower electrochemical activity as compared to those at the host-layer site. Furthermore, the present analyses of site-selective extended X-ray absorption fine structure performed using the P-DAFS method indicates local structural changes around the residual Ni atoms at the interlayer space during the initial charge; it tends to gather to form rock-salt NiO-like domains around the interlayer Ni. The presence of the NiO-like domains in the interlayer space locally diminishes the interlayer distance and would yield strain energy because of the lattice mismatch, which retards the subsequent Li insertion both thermodynamically and kinetically. Such restrictions on the Li insertion inevitably make the NiO-like domains electrochemically inactive, resulting in an appreciable irreversible capacity after the initial charge but an achievement of robust linkage of neighboring NiO2 layers that tend to be dissociated without the Li occupation. The P-DAFS characterization of antisite transition metals interchanging with Li atoms complements the understanding of the detailed charge-compensation and degradation mechanisms in the electrode materials. PMID:25959625

  19. The Harang reversal and the interchange stability of the magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtani, Shinichi; Gkioulidou, Matina; Wang, Chih-Ping; Wolf, Richard A.

    2016-04-01

    The present study addresses steady convection in the plasma sheet in terms of the interchange stability with special attention to the Harang reversal. The closure of the tail current with a field-aligned current (FAC) results from the divergence/convergence of the pressure gradient current. If the magnetotail is in a steady state, the associated change of local plasma pressure p has to balance with its advective change. Accordingly, for adiabatic transport, the flux tube entropy parameter pVγ increases and decreases along the convection path in regions corresponding to downward and upward FACs, respectively. This requirement, along with the condition for the interchange stability imposes an important constraint on the direction of convection especially in the regions of downward FACs. It is deduced that for the dusk cell, the convection in the downward R2 current has to be directed azimuthally duskward, which follows the sunward, possibly dawnward deflected, convection in the region of the premidnight upward R1 current. This duskward turn of convection takes place in the vicinity of the R1-R2 demarcation, and it presumably corresponds to the Harang reversal. For the dawn cell the convection in the postmidnight downward R1 current has to deflect dawnward, and then it proceeds sunward in the upward R2 current. The continuity of the associated ionospheric currents consistently reproduces the assumed FAC distribution. The proposed interrelationships between the convection and FACs are also verified with a quasi-steady plasma sheet configuration and convection reproduced by a modified Rice Convection Model with force balance.

  20. The Place of Community-Based Learning in Higher Education: A Case Study of Interchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardwick, Louise

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on one strand of community engagement: community-based learning for students. It considers in particular Interchange as a case study. Interchange is a registered charity based in, but independent of, a department in a Higher Education Institution. It brokers between undergraduate research/work projects and Voluntary Community…

  1. 77 FR 66165 - Information Required in Notices and Petitions Containing Interchange Commitments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-02

    ... Railroad Cost of Capital--2011, EP 558 (Sub-No. 15) (STB served Sept. 13, 2012). \\11\\ Review of Rail Access... served Oct. 30, 2007). \\12\\ Id. at 15. To facilitate its review of transactions that include interchange... the terms of the interchange commitment with the Board.\\15\\ \\13\\ See generally id. \\14\\ Disclosure...

  2. 32 CFR 644.408 - Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interchange of national forest and military and... Property and Easement Interests § 644.408 Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands. 16 U.S.C. 505a, 505b authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture, with respect to national forest...

  3. 32 CFR 644.408 - Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interchange of national forest and military and... Property and Easement Interests § 644.408 Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands. 16 U.S.C. 505a, 505b authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture, with respect to national forest...

  4. 32 CFR 644.408 - Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Interchange of national forest and military and... Property and Easement Interests § 644.408 Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands. 16 U.S.C. 505a, 505b authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture, with respect to national forest...

  5. 32 CFR 644.408 - Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Interchange of national forest and military and... Property and Easement Interests § 644.408 Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands. 16 U.S.C. 505a, 505b authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture, with respect to national forest...

  6. 32 CFR 644.408 - Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Interchange of national forest and military and... Property and Easement Interests § 644.408 Interchange of national forest and military and civil works lands. 16 U.S.C. 505a, 505b authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture, with respect to national forest...

  7. 78 FR 18666 - Agency Information Collection Activities; New Information Collection: Lease and Interchange of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... Docket Management System published in the Federal Register on January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316), or you may... Information Collection: Lease and Interchange of Vehicles AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration... codified in 49 CFR Part 376, ``Lease and Interchange of Vehicles.'' These regulations require certain...

  8. What Kind of International Interchange Is Beneficial? Experiences of Taiwanese Indigenes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shan-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Because of globalization, international interchanges among indigenes in every country have become more frequent. Influenced by international multicultural trends, Taiwan's government not only supports indigenous populations to revive their traditional cultures, but also encourages the promotion of the international interchange activities among…

  9. 78 FR 54589 - Information Required in Notices and Petitions Containing Interchange Commitments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... and Regulatory Flexibility In the NPR, published in the Federal Register at 77 FR 66165 on November 2... Petitions Containing Interchange Commitments AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Final rules... underlying lease or line sale includes an interchange commitment. Based on the comments received and...

  10. Finite Larmor radius assisted velocity shear stabilization of the interchange instability in magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ng Sheungwah; Hassam, A.B.

    2005-06-15

    Finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects, originally shown to stabilize magnetized plasma interchange modes at short wavelength, are shown to assist velocity shear stabilization of long wavelength interchanges. It is shown that the FLR effects result in stabilization with roughly the same efficacy as the stabilization from dissipative (resistive and viscous) effects found earlier.

  11. Compressibility effect on magnetic-shear-localized ideal magnetohydrodynamic interchange instability

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Sangeeta; Callen, J.D.; Hegna, C.C.

    2005-08-15

    Eigenmode analysis of a magnetic-shear-localized ideal magnetohydrodynamic interchange instability in the presence of plasma compressibility indicates the marginal stability criterion (D{sub I}=1/4) is not affected by the compressibility effects. Above the marginal stability criterion, plasma compressibility causes a significant reduction in the growth rate of an ideal interchange instability.

  12. Structural Characteristics of Computer-Mediated Language: A Comparative Analysis of InterChange Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Kwang-Kyu

    1996-01-01

    Compares one form of synchronous computer-mediated communication, Daedalus InterChange, with analogous spoken and written corpora. Finds that the InterChange discourse mode is not merely intermediate between speaking and writing; rather the electronic medium uniquely fosters some behaviors and inhibits others, in support of the view that physical…

  13. Use of data description languages in the interchange of data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pignede, M.; Real-Planells, B.; Smith, S. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is developing Standards for the interchange of information between systems, including those operating under different environments. The objective is to perform the interchange automatically, i.e. in a computer interpretable manner. One aspect of the concept developed by CCSDS is the use of a separate data description to specify the data being transferred. Using the description, data can then be automatically parsed by the receiving computer. With a suitably expressive Data Description Language (DDL), data formats of arbitrary complexity can be handled. The advantages of this approach are: (1) that the description need only be written and distributed once to all users, and (2) new software does not need to be written for each new format, provided generic tools are available to support writing and interpretation of descriptions and the associated data instances. Consequently, the effort of 'hard coding' each new format is avoided and problems of integrating multiple implementations of a given format by different users are avoided. The approach is applicable in any context where computer parsable description of data could enhance efficiency (e.g. within a spacecraft control system, a data delivery system or an archive). The CCSDS have identified several candidate DDL's: EAST (Extended Ada Subset), TSDN (Transfer Syntax Data Notation) and MADEL (Modified ASN.1 as a Data Description Language -- a DDL based on the Abstract Syntax Notation One - ASN.1 - specified in the ISO/IEC 8824). This paper concentrates on ESA's development of MADEL. ESA have also developed a 'proof of concept' prototype of the required support tools, implemented on a PC under MS-DOS, which has successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the approach, including the capability within an application of retrieving and displaying particular data elements, given its MADEL description (i.e. a data description written in MADEL). This paper outlines

  14. Using electronic data interchange to report product quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, Donald F.; Frank, Donald T.

    1993-03-01

    The Product Quality Deficiency Report (PQDR) is a Department of Defense form that identifies deficiencies in the manufacture, repair, or procurement of materiel. It may be used by DoD employees or contractors to identify defects at any point in the item's life. DoD generates nearly 75,000 such deficiency reports each year. In most cases, when a defect is identified, Standard Form (SF) 368 is completed and sent to the activity managing the contract under which the materiel was procured. That activity, usually in conjunction with the contractor, investigates the complaint, attempts to determine a cause and a corrective action, and must make some disposition of the defective materiel. The process is labor- and paper-intensive and time-consuming. Technology can reduce the costs of the process and at the same time improve timeliness by electronically exchanging discrepancy data between activities. Electronic data interchange (EDI) is one technology for electronically passing PQDR data. It is widely used in industry and increasingly within DoD. DMRD 941 defines DoD's commitment to use EDI and cites the PQDR and other discrepancy reports as early candidates for EDI. In this report, we describe how EDI can be linked to changes in PQDR processing practices to provide further improvements.

  15. Unsafe health and safety: sphygmomanometer cuffs are not interchangeable.

    PubMed

    Shaw, K C; McEniery, C M; Wilkinson, I B; Brown, M J

    2013-07-01

    Unknown to its hypertension specialists, a major teaching hospital changed the cuffs on its sphygmomanometers from manufacturer-validated to a uniform washable alternative, in line with 'Health and Safety' concerns surrounding potential cross-contamination between patients. When clinic doctors suspected serious under-reading with the new cuffs, a systematic comparison was undertaken in 54 patients (mean±s.d. age, 61±17 years), using two UM-101 sphygmomanometers, one using the original, manufacturer-supplied cuff and the other with the washable replacement. The study confirmed an average under-reading of 8±10/5±5 mm Hg using the washable cuff, and a third of patients with poorly controlled hypertension were considered normotensive, after using this cuff. The UM-101 sphygmomanometers have now been re-fitted with the original cuffs. Sphygmomanometer cuffs are not interchangeable between devices and a modicum of common sense should be shown to prevent changes made in the name of Health and Safety from having the opposite effect to that intended. PMID:23172028

  16. Relation between Turbulence Suppression and Flow Shear for Interchange Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentle, Kenneth; Rowan, William; Williams, Chad; Li, Bo

    2013-10-01

    The Helimak is an approximation to the infinite cylindrical slab with a size large compared with turbulence transverse scale lengths, but with open field lines of finite length. Interchange modes are the dominant instability. Radially-segmented isolated end plates allow application of radial electric fields. Above a threshold in applied voltage, the fractional turbulent amplitude is greatly reduced. Reductions are observed for both bias polarities over a broad range of collisionality and parallel connection length. Simultaneous measurements of the ion flow velocity profile are made by Doppler spectroscopy of the argon plasma ion. Turbulence reductions are weakly correlated with reductions in radial correlation length, but neither turbulence levels nor turbulence reductions are correlated with velocity flow shear. No evidence of zonal flows has been found. The turbulence - density and potential fluctuations, is compared with simulations from a two-fluid model for this geometry, which also show turbulence stabilization with bias without increased shear. Work supported by the Department of Energy OFES DE-FG02-04ER54766.

  17. Herbicide interchange between a stream and the adjacent alluvial aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, W.; Squillace, P.

    1994-01-01

    Herbicide interchange between a stream and the adjacent alluvial aquifer and quantification of herbicide bank storage during high streamflow were investigated at a research site on the Cedar River flood plain, 10 km southeast of Cedar Rapids, Iowa. During high streamflow in March 1990, alachlor, atrazine, and metolachlor were detected at concentrations above background in water from wells as distant as 20, 50, and 10 m from the river's edge, respectively. During high streamflow in May 1990, alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, and metolachlor were detected at concentrations above background as distant as 20, 50, 10, and 20 m from the river's edge, respectively. Herbicide bank storage took place during high streamflow when hydraulic gradients were from the river to the alluvial aquifer and the laterally infiltrating river water contained herbicide concentrations larger than background concentrations in the aquifer. The herbicide bank storage can be quantified by multiplying herbicide concentration by the "effective area" that a well represented and an assumed porosity of 0.25. During March 1990, herbicide bank storage values were calculated to be 1.7,79, and 4.0 mg/m for alachlor, atrazine, and metolachlor, respectively. During May 1990, values were 7.1, 54, 11, and 19 mg/m for alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, and metolachlor, respectively. ?? 1994 American Chemical Society.

  18. Space Solar Power Technical Interchange Meeting 2: SSP TIM 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Jim; Hawk, Clark W.

    1998-01-01

    The 2nd Space Solar Power Technical Interchange Meeting (SSP TIM 2) was conducted September 21st through 24th with the first part consisting of a Plenary session. The summary results of this Plenary session are contained in part one of this report. The attendees were then organized into Working Breakout Sessions and Integrated Product Team (IPT) Sessions for the purpose of conducting in-depth discussions in specific topic areas and developing a consensus as to appropriate study plans and actions to be taken. The Second part covers the Plenary Summary Session, which contains the summary results of the Working Breakout Sessions and IPT Sessions. The appendix contains the list of attendees. The ob'jective was to provide an update for the study teams and develop plans for subsequent study activities. This SSP TIM 2 was initiated and the results reported electronically over the Internet. The International Space Station (ISS) could provide the following opportunities for conducting research and technology (R&T) which are applicable to SSP: (1) Automation and Robotics, (2) Advanced Power Generation, (3) Advanced Power Management & Distribution (PMAD), (4) Communications Systems and Networks, (5) Energy Storage, (6) In Space Propulsion (ISP), (7) Structural Dynamics and Control, and Assembly and (8) Wireless Power Transmission.

  19. Tetrasulfur, S4: rotational spectrum, interchange tunneling, and geometrical structure.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, M C; Thorwirth, S; Gottlieb, C A; Thaddeus, P

    2004-07-01

    The rotational spectrum of S4 has been observed for the first time in an electrical discharge through sulfur vapor. Two techniques have been used: Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy and long-path millimeter-wave absorption spectroscopy. Small, but systematic shifts of the measured transition frequencies of the normal isotopic species indicate that S4 has C2v symmetry but with a low-lying transition state of D2h symmetry, yielding interchange tunneling at 14.1(2) kHz in its ground vibrational state. From the rotational constants of the normal and the single 34S isotopic species, an experimental (r0) structure has been derived: S4 is a singlet planar trapezoid with a terminal bond length of 1.899(7) A, a central bond of 2.173(32) A, and an S-S-S angle of 103.9(8) degrees. Like thiozone (S3), S4 is a candidate for detection in the atmosphere of the Jovian moon Io and in other astronomical sources. PMID:15260588

  20. The interchange instability in high-latitude plasma blobs

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, P.K.; Huba, J.D. )

    1987-04-01

    The stability of high-latitude plasma density enhancements (blobs) is analyzed with regard to the interchange mode (driven by neutral wind or equilibrium transverse electric field acting on the density gradient at the walls of the blobs). The effects arising from the finite parallel length of the blobs along the magnetic field lines are included in the analysis. Plasma regions of differing collisionalities, to which the blobs extend in altitude, are considered. The authors find that the finite parallel blob size results in a modest reduction in the growth rates of the small ({approx lt}1 km) and intermediate (1-10 km) scale sizes but severely reduces the growth rates for the large scale sizes (> 10 km) for the observed parallel blob lengths ({approximately}300-600 km). Further, it is found that the instability growth rates show a moderate reduction at higher altitudes (where ion-inertial effects may be dominant over the ion-neutral collisional effects). Thus the E{times} B instability is considered a plausible candidate for the scintillation-causing irregularities (1-10 km) associated with the high-latitude blobs.

  1. Interchange instability in high-latitude plasma blobs. Memorandum report

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, P.K.; Huba, J.D.

    1986-12-30

    The stability of high-latitude plasma-density enhancements (blobs) is analyzed with regard to the interchange model (driven by a neutral wind or transverse electric field acting on the density gradient at the walls of the blobs). The effects arising from the finite parallel length of the blobs along the magnetic field lines are included in the analysis. Plasma regions of differing collisionalities, to which the blobs extend in altitude, are considered. It was found that the finite-parallel blob size results in a modest reduction in the growth rates of the small somewhat < 1 km) and intermediate (1-10 km) scale sizes, but severely reduces the growth rates, for the large scale sizes (> 10 kms) for the observed parallel blob lengths (approx. 300-600 kms). Further, it is found that the instability growth rates show a moderate reduction at higher altitudes (where ion-inertial effects may be dominant over the ion-neutral collisional effects). Thus, the E x B instability is considered a plausible candidate for the scintillation causing irregularities (1-10 kms) associated with the high-latitude blobs.

  2. Interchange Stability at Saturn and the role of electron density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hospodarsky, George; Kennelly, Timothy; Thomsen, Michelle; Persoon, Ann; Gurnett, Donald; Kurth, William

    2015-04-01

    Interchange events, where "injections" of hotter, less dense plasma move inward to return the magnetic flux carried outward by the colder, more dense plasma are common in rapidly rotating magnetospheres. The Cassini spacecraft detects these injections on almost every orbit of Saturn that encounters the inner and middle (<15 Rs) magnetosphere. Significant changes often occur in the number of injection events and the location they are detected (L shell) between inbound and outbound passes on a given Cassini orbit. Furthermore, differences are observed between consecutive orbits for the same local time sampling. Similar variations between inbound and outbound passes, and between orbits have been observed in the electron density values measured by Cassini. We examine the relationship between the observed electron plasma density and characteristics of the injection events as detected by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) and Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument (MIMI) for a series of near equatorial orbits between L of about 4.5 to 10 with the inbound primarily in the midnight sector and the outbound in the noon sector.

  3. An interchangeable scanning Hall probe/scanning SQUID microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Chiu-Chun; Lin, Hui-Ting; Wu, Sing-Lin; Chen, Tse-Jun; Wang, M. J.; Ling, D. C.; Chi, C. C.; Chen, Jeng-Chung

    2014-08-15

    We have constructed a scanning probe microscope for magnetic imaging, which can function as a scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) and as a scanning SQUID microscope (SSM). The scanning scheme, applicable to SHPM and SSM, consists of a mechanical positioning (sub) micron-XY stage and a flexible direct contact to the sample without a feedback control system for the Z-axis. With the interchangeable capability of operating two distinct scanning modes, our microscope can incorporate the advantageous functionalities of the SHPM and SSM with large scan range up to millimeter, high spatial resolution (⩽4 μm), and high field sensitivity in a wide range of temperature (4.2 K-300 K) and magnetic field (10{sup −7} T-1 T). To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, we present magnetic images scanned with SHPM and SSM, including a RbFeB magnet and a nickel grid pattern at room temperature, surface magnetic domain structures of a La{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} thin film at 77 K, and superconducting vortices in a striped niobium film at 4.2 K.

  4. RCM simulation of interchange transport in Saturn's inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, T. W.; Liu, X.; Sazykin, S. Y.; Wolf, R.

    2013-12-01

    Numerical simulations with the Rice Convection Model have been used to study the radial transport of plasma in Saturn's inner magnetosphere (L < 12) where the magnetic field is dominated by the planetary dipole. This transport occurs through a time-variable pattern of wider outflow channels containing cool, dense plasma from interior sources, alternating with narrower inflow channels containing hot, tenuous plasma from the outer magnetosphere. The 'smoking gun' of this interchange transport process is the pervasive presence of V-shaped injection/dispersion signatures in linear energy-time spectrograms that are observed by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) on every pass through the inner magnetosphere. Using observed hot plasma distributions at L~12 as input, we have now successfully simulated these V-shaped signatures. We will show these simulation results and compare them with observed signatures. We will also describe future improvements to the model including relaxing the dipole-field assumption, thus enabling us to simulate local-time asymmetries imposed by the outer magnetosphere and tail.

  5. Stabilization of numerical interchange in spectral-element magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sovinec, C. R.

    2016-08-01

    Auxiliary numerical projections of the divergence of flow velocity and vorticity parallel to magnetic field are developed and tested for the purpose of suppressing unphysical interchange instability in magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The numerical instability arises with equal-order C0 finite- and spectral-element expansions of the flow velocity, magnetic field, and pressure and is sensitive to behavior at the limit of resolution. The auxiliary projections are motivated by physical field-line bending, and coercive responses to the projections are added to the flow-velocity equation. Their incomplete expansions are limited to the highest-order orthogonal polynomial in at least one coordinate of the spectral elements. Cylindrical eigenmode computations show that the projections induce convergence from the stable side with first-order ideal-MHD equations during h-refinement and p-refinement. Hyperbolic and parabolic projections and responses are compared, together with different methods for avoiding magnetic divergence error. The projections are also shown to be effective in linear and nonlinear time-dependent computations with the NIMROD code Sovinec et al. [17], provided that the projections introduce numerical dissipation.

  6. Evaluation of cardiac output by 5 arterial pulse contour techniques using trend interchangeability method.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Marc-Olivier; Diouf, Momar; Wilde, Robert B P de; Dupont, Hervé; Hanouz, Jean-Luc; Lorne, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    Cardiac output measurement with pulse contour analysis is a continuous, mini-invasive, operator-independent, widely used, and cost-effective technique, which could be helpful to assess changes in cardiac output. The 4-quadrant plot and the polar plot have been described to compare the changes between 2 measurements performed under different conditions, and the direction of change by using different methods of measurements. However, the 4-quadrant plot and the polar plot present a number of limitations, with a risk of misinterpretation in routine clinical practice. We describe a new trend interchangeability method designed to objectively define the interchangeability of each change of a variable. Using the repeatability of the reference method, we classified each change as either uninterpretable or interpretable and then as either noninterchangeable, in the gray zone or interchangeable. An interchangeability rate can then be calculated by the number of interchangeable changes divided by the total number of interpretable changes. In this observational study, we used this objective method to assess cardiac output changes with 5 arterial pulse contour techniques (Wesseling's method, LiDCO, PiCCO, Hemac method, and Modelflow) in comparison with bolus thermodilution technique as reference method in 24 cardiac surgery patients. A total of 172 cardiac output variations were available from the 199 data points: 88 (51%) were uninterpretable, according to the first step of the method. The second step of the method, based on the 84 (49%) interpretable variations, showed that only 18 (21%) to 30 (36%) variations were interchangeable regardless of the technique used. None of pulse contour cardiac output technique could be interchangeable with bolus thermodilution to assess changes in cardiac output using the trend interchangeability method in cardiac surgery patients. Future studies may consider using this method to assess interchangeability of changes between different methods

  7. Kinetic and resistive effects on interchange instabilities for a cylindrical model spheromak

    SciTech Connect

    Hammett, G.W.; Tang, W.M.

    1983-04-01

    The stabilizing influence of diamagnetic drift effects on ideal and resistive interchange modes is investigated. A resistive-ballooning-mode equation is derived using a kinetic theory approach and is applied to a cylindrical model spheromak equilibrium. It is found that these kinetic effects can significantly improve the ..beta.. limits for collisionless interchange stability. For the resistive modes, the diamagnetic drift terms lead to growth rates which scale linearly with resistivity and are considerably reduced in magnitude. However, the resistive interchange growth rates estimated for near-term spheromak parameters remain significant.

  8. Interchange Slip-Running Reconnection and Sweeping SEP-Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masson, S.; Aulanier, G.; Pariat, E.; Klein, K.-L.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new model to explain how particles, accelerated at a reconnection site that is not magnetically connected to the Earth, could eventually propagate along the well-connected open flux tube. Our model is based on the results of a low-beta resistive magnetohydrodynamics simulation of a three-dimensional line-tied and initially current-free bipole, that is embedded in a non-uniform open potential field. The topology of this configuration is that of an asymmetric coronal null-point, with a closed fan surface and an open outer spine. When driven by slow photospheric shearing motions, field lines, initially fully anchored below the fan dome, reconnect at the null point, and jump to the open magnetic domain. This is the standard interchange mode as sketched and calculated in 2D. The key result in 3D is that, reconnected open field lines located in the vicinity of the outer spine, keep reconnecting continuously, across an open quasi-separatrix layer, as previously identified for non-open-null-point reconnection. The apparent slipping motion of these field lines leads to form an extended narrow magnetic flux tube at high altitude. Because of the slip-running reconnection, we conjecture that if energetic particles would be travelling through, or be accelerated inside, the diffusion region, they would be successively injected along continuously reconnecting field lines that are connected farther and farther from the spine. At the scale of the full Sun, owing to the super-radial expansion of field lines below 3 solar radius, such energetic particles could easily be injected in field lines slipping over significant distances, and could eventually reach the distant flux tube that is well-connected to the Earth.

  9. Morphology of Interchange-Driven Injections in Saturn's Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranicas, C.; Achilleos, N.; Andriopoulou, M.; Badman, S. V.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Jia, X.; Jackman, C. M.; Khurana, K. K.; Krupp, N.; Louarn, P.; Roussos, E.; Sergis, N.; Thomsen, M. F.

    2014-12-01

    As Cassini passes close to Saturn during its regular orbits, evidence of particle injections can often be found in many different data sets (including MAG, CAPS, MIMI, and RPWS). One reason injections are easily visible in Saturn's inner magnetosphere is that the circumplanetary neutral gas distribution can reduce the intensities of some charged particles. For example, energetic ions can be lost from the system following charge exchange with neutrals and energetic electrons can lose energy in collisions with gas and dust. Injections in the inner magnetosphere are believed to be flux tube interchange events that are part of a larger circulation system in which cold dense plasma flows outward carrying magnetic flux with it. The closed magnetic flux is ultimately returned to the inner magnetosphere in the form of injections of rapidly moving hotter but lighter flux tubes from the middle magnetosphere. In this presentation, we will look at injections from the perspective of multiple Cassini data sets. Some features of these structures have already been identified in the literature from one or more data sets. For example, the tendency for injections to appear as enhancements (depressions) in magnetic field strength at low (high) magnetic latitude has been documented (Andre et al. 2007). Furthermore, that flux tube bundles seem to narrow in spatial extent in the equatorial plane in the higher magnetic field region has also been described. Here, we will look at selected structures distributed in radial distance and latitude as a step toward generalizing their characteristics at various locations. We will consider issues such as the magnetic signature in the field components, the typical wave signatures, the energy range of the injection, and the presence of isolated features versus multiple features occurring simultaneously. We will also discuss observational issues, such as when each instrument is optimally suited to detect injections, and how this relates to their

  10. 32 CFR 644.409 - Procedures for Interchange of National Forest Lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... determination by the two Secretaries that the interchange will facilitate land management and provide maximum... representatives of the Forest Service, and the using service if appropriate, the exchange of custody...

  11. Geothermal Energy and the Eastern US: Fifth technical information interchange meeting, Minutes

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    The technical interchange meeting documented here is the fifth meeting where people interested in geothermal energy in the Eastern US have met to interchange technical information. These meetings are intended to assist all in the difficult task of balancing time and effort in doing their assigned jobs and keeping track of what others are doing in similar or related tasks. All of the aforementioned meetings have served their intended purpose and further regional and national meetings are sure to follow.

  12. The electromagnetic interchange mode in a partially ionized collisional plasma. [spread F region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, M. K.; Kennel, C. F.

    1974-01-01

    A collisional electromagnetic dispersion relation is derived from two-fluid theory for the interchange mode coupled to the Alfven, acoustic, drift and entropy modes in a partially ionized plasma. The fundamental electromagnetic nature of the interchange model is noted; coupling to the intermediate Alfven mode is strongly stabilizing for finite k sub z. Both ion viscous and ion-neutral stabilization are included, and it was found that collisions destroy the ion finite Larmor radius cutoff at short perpendicular wavelengths.

  13. Complex stability and dynamic subunit interchange modulates the disparate activities of the yeast moonlighting proteins Hal3 and Vhs3.

    PubMed

    Abrie, J Albert; Molero, Cristina; Ariño, Joaquín; Strauss, Erick

    2015-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hal3 and Vhs3 are moonlighting proteins, acting both as inhibitors of the serine/threonine protein phosphatase Ppz1 and as subunits (together with Cab3) of the unique heterotrimeric phosphopantothenoylcysteine decarboxylase (PPCDC) enzyme of Hemiascomycetous yeast. Both these roles are essential: PPCDC catalyses the third step of coenzyme A biosynthesis, while Ppz1 inhibition is required for regulation of monovalent cation homeostasis. However, the mechanisms by which these proteins' disparate activities are regulated are not well understood. The PPCDC domains (PDs) of Hal3, Vhs3 and Cab3 constitute the minimum requirement for these proteins to show both PPCDC activity and, in the case of Hal3 and Vhs3, to bind to Ppz1. Using these PD proteins as a model system to study the possibility of dynamic interchange between these roles, we provide evidence that Hal3 binds Ppz1 as a monomer (1:1 stoichiometry), requiring it to de-oligomerize from its usual homo- and heterotrimeric states (the latter having PPCDC activity). This de-oligomerization is made possible by structural features that set Hal3 apart from Vhs3, increasing its ability to undergo monomer exchange. These findings suggest that oligomer interchange may be a significant factor in the functional regulation of these proteins and their various unrelated (moonlighting) functions. PMID:26514574

  14. Fluency effects in recognition memory: are perceptual fluency and conceptual fluency interchangeable?

    PubMed

    Lanska, Meredith; Olds, Justin M; Westerman, Deanne L

    2014-01-01

    On a recognition memory test, both perceptual and conceptual fluency can engender a sense of familiarity and elicit recognition memory illusions. To date, perceptual and conceptual fluency have been studied separately but are they interchangeable in terms of their influence on recognition judgments? Five experiments compared the effect of perceptual and conceptual fluency on recognition. The results suggest that under standard intentional encoding instructions participants were influenced by conceptual and perceptual fluency manipulations to a similar degree (Experiments 1a and 1b). When the perceptual features of the stimuli were emphasized during encoding, the perceptual fluency manipulation had a stronger influence on recognition memory decisions than the conceptual fluency manipulation (Experiment 2). Enhanced conceptual processing at encoding served to nullify the influence of both perceptual and conceptual fluency on the test (Experiment 3). The nature of the test instructions also influenced the relative contribution of perceptual versus conceptual fluency manipulations to the recognition judgment. In Experiment 4, the influence of conceptual fluency was larger when the recognition instructions were meaning based (a synonym recognition test) than with standard recognition instructions. Collectively, the results suggest that the relative contribution of perceptual and conceptual fluency depends on both encoding and test factors. PMID:24001021

  15. Statistical and regulatory considerations in assessments of interchangeability of biological drug products.

    PubMed

    Tóthfalusi, Lászlo; Endrényi, László; Chow, Shein-Chung

    2014-05-01

    When the patent of a brand-name, marketed drug expires, new, generic products are usually offered. Small-molecule generic and originator drug products are expected to be chemically identical. Their pharmaceutical similarity can be typically assessed by simple regulatory criteria such as the expectation that the 90% confidence interval for the ratio of geometric means of some pharmacokinetic parameters be between 0.80 and 1.25. When such criteria are satisfied, the drug products are generally considered to exhibit therapeutic equivalence. They are then usually interchanged freely within individual patients. Biological drugs are complex proteins, for instance, because of their large size, intricate structure, sensitivity to environmental conditions, difficult manufacturing procedures, and the possibility of immunogenicity. Generic and brand-name biologic products can be expected to show only similarity but not identity in their various features and clinical effects. Consequently, the determination of biosimilarity is also a complicated process which involves assessment of the totality of the evidence for the close similarity of the two products. Moreover, even when biosimilarity has been established, it may not be assumed that the two biosimilar products can be automatically substituted by pharmacists. This generally requires additional, careful considerations. Without declaring interchangeability, a new product could be prescribed, i.e. it is prescribable. However, two products can be automatically substituted only if they are interchangeable. Interchangeability is a statistical term and it means that products can be used in any order in the same patient without considering the treatment history. The concepts of interchangeability and prescribability have been widely discussed in the past but only in relation to small molecule generics. In this paper we apply these concepts to biosimilars and we discuss: definitions of prescribability and interchangeability and

  16. Delimiting cohesion species: extreme population structuring and the role of ecological interchangeability.

    PubMed

    Stockman, Amy K; Bond, Jason E

    2007-08-01

    Species exhibiting morphological homogeneity and strong population structuring present challenging taxonomic problems: morphology-based approaches infer few species, whereas genetic approaches often indicate more. Morphologically cryptic, yet genetically divergent species groups require alternative approaches to delimiting species that assess adaptive divergence and ecological interchangeability of lineages. We apply such an approach to Promyrmekiaphila, a small genus (three nominal taxa) of trapdoor spiders endemic to northern California to define cohesion species (lineages that are genetically exchangeable and ecologically interchangeable). Genetic exchangeability is evaluated using standard phylogeographical techniques (e.g. nested clade analysis); ecological interchangeability is assessed using two GIS-based approaches. First, climatic values are extracted from layer data for each locality point and utilized in a principal components analysis followed by MANOVA. Second, niche-based distribution models of genetically divergent lineages are created using a maximum-entropy modelling approach; the amount of overlap among lineages is calculated and evaluated against a probability distribution of null overlap. Lineages that have significant amounts of predicted overlap are considered ecologically interchangeable. Based on a synthetic evaluation of ecological interchangeability, geographical concordance, and morphological differentiation, we conclude that Promyrmekiaphila comprises six cohesion species, five of which are cryptic (i.e. undetectable by conventional means). PMID:17688540

  17. Interaction between static magnetic islands and interchange modes in a straight heliotron plasma with high resistivity

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Kinya; Ichiguchi, Katsuji; Ohyabu, Nobuyoshi

    2010-06-15

    Fundamental mechanism of the nonlinear interaction between static magnetic islands generated by an external field and a resistive interchange mode is investigated in a straight heliotron plasma with high resistivity by using a numerical method based on the reduced magnetohydrodynamics equations. The behavior of the magnetic islands is examined at the steady state after the nonlinear saturation of the interchange mode. The width and the phase of the magnetic islands are changed by the mode evolution. These changes are almost determined by the linear combination of the two perturbed poloidal magnetic fluxes, the flux imposed externally and the flux attributed to the interchange mode, in spite of the fact that the changes result from the nonlinear process. It is also obtained that the amount of the local change of the pressure at the resonant surface in the saturation state depends on the phase of the static magnetic islands.

  18. Characteristics of magnetic island formation due to resistive interchange instability in helical plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, R.; Matsumoto, Y.; Itagaki, M.; Oikawa, S.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Sato, M.

    2014-05-15

    Focusing attention on the magnetic island formation, we investigate the characteristics of the resistive interchange magnetohydrodynamics instabilities, which would limit a high beta operational regime in helical type fusion reactors. An introduction of a new index, i.e., the ratio of the magnetic fluctuation level to the radial displacement, enables us to make a systematic analysis on the magnetic island formation in the large helical device-like plasmas during the linear growth phase; (i) the interchange instability with the second largest growth rate makes the magnetic island larger than that with the largest growth rate when the amplitude of the radial displacement in both cases is almost the same as each other; (ii) applied to a typical tearing instability, the index is smaller than that for the interchange instability with the second largest growth rate.

  19. Theory of energetic trapped particle-induced resistive interchange-ballooning modes

    SciTech Connect

    Biglari, H.; Chen, L.

    1986-02-01

    A theory describing the influence of energetic trapped particles on resistive interchange-ballooning modes in tokamaks is presented. It is shown that a population of hot particles trapped in the region of adverse curvature can resonantly interact with and destabilize the resistive interchange mode, which is stable in their absence because of favorable average curvature. The mode is different from the usual resistive interchange mode not only in its destabilization mechanism, but also in that it has a real component to its frequency comparable to the precessional drift frequency of the rapidly circulating energetic species. Corresponding growth rate and threshold conditions for this trapped-particle-driven instability are derived and finite banana width effects are shown to have a stabilizing effect on the mode. Finally, the ballooning/tearing dispersion relation is generalized to include hot particles, so that both the ideal and the resistive modes are derivable in the appropriate limits. 23 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Automatic 3D high-fidelity traffic interchange modeling using 2D road GIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong

    2011-03-01

    3D road models are widely used in many computer applications such as racing games and driving simulations. However, almost all high-fidelity 3D road models were generated manually by professional artists at the expense of intensive labor. There are very few existing methods for automatically generating 3D high-fidelity road networks, especially for those existing in the real world. Real road network contains various elements such as road segments, road intersections and traffic interchanges. Among them, traffic interchanges present the most challenges to model due to their complexity and the lack of height information (vertical position) of traffic interchanges in existing road GIS data. This paper proposes a novel approach that can automatically produce 3D high-fidelity road network models, including traffic interchange models, from real 2D road GIS data that mainly contain road centerline information. The proposed method consists of several steps. The raw road GIS data are first preprocessed to extract road network topology, merge redundant links, and classify road types. Then overlapped points in the interchanges are detected and their elevations are determined based on a set of level estimation rules. Parametric representations of the road centerlines are then generated through link segmentation and fitting, and they have the advantages of arbitrary levels of detail with reduced memory usage. Finally a set of civil engineering rules for road design (e.g., cross slope, superelevation) are selected and used to generate realistic road surfaces. In addition to traffic interchange modeling, the proposed method also applies to other more general road elements. Preliminary results show that the proposed method is highly effective and useful in many applications.

  1. Positional interchanges influence the physical and technical match performance variables of elite soccer players.

    PubMed

    Schuth, G; Carr, G; Barnes, C; Carling, C; Bradley, P S

    2016-01-01

    Positional variation in match performance is well established in elite soccer but no information exists on players switching positions. This study investigated the influence of elite players interchanging from one position to another on physical and technical match performance. Data were collected from multiple English Premier League (EPL) seasons using a computerised tracking system. After adhering to stringent inclusion criteria, players were examined across several interchanges: central-defender to fullback (CD-FB, n = 11, 312 observations), central-midfielder to wide-midfielder (CM-WM, n = 7, 171 observations), wide-midfielder to central-midfielder (WM-CM, n = 7, 197 observations) and attacker to wide-midfielder (AT-WM, n = 4, 81 observations). Players interchanging from CD-FB covered markedly more high-intensity running and sprinting distance (effect size [ES]: -1.56 and -1.26), lost more possessions but made more final third entries (ES: -1.23 and -1.55). Interchanging from CM-WM and WM-CM resulted in trivial to moderate differences in both physical (ES: -0.14-0.59 and -0.21-0.39) and technical performances (ES: -0.48-0.64 and -0.36-0.54). Players interchanging from AT-WM demonstrated a moderate difference in high-intensity running without possession (ES: -0.98) and moderate-to-large differences in the number of clearances, tackles and possessions won (ES: -0.77, -1.16 and -1.41). The data demonstrate that the physical and technical demands vary greatly from one interchange to another but utility players seem able to adapt to these positional switches. PMID:26700131

  2. The Interchangeability of Plasma and Whole Blood Metal Ion Measurement in the Monitoring of Metal on Metal Hips

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Ibrahim A.; Rogers, Joanne; King, Amanda Christina; Clutton, Juliet; Winson, Daniel; John, Alun

    2015-01-01

    One hundred and twenty six paired samples of plasma and whole blood were measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry technique for metal ions analysis to determine a relationship between them. There was a significant difference between the mean plasma and whole blood concentrations of both cobalt (Co) and chromium (Cr) (p < 0.0001 for both Co and Cr). The mean ratio between plasma and whole blood Cr and Co was 1.56 (range: 0.39–3.85) and 1.54 (range: 0.64–18.26), respectively, but Bland and Altman analysis illustrated that this relationship was not universal throughout the range of concentrations. There was higher variability at high concentrations for both ions. We conclude that both these concentrations should not be used interchangeably and conversion factors are unreliable due to concentration dependent variability. PMID:26798516

  3. [Levothyroxine and the problem of interchangeability of drugs with narrow therapeutic index].

    PubMed

    Ward, Laura Sterian

    2011-10-01

    The exchange of a prescribed drug by other similar, by generic products and even by custom products has become common practice in our country, often ignoring basic tenets of bioequivalence, interchangeability, stability and characteristics of the pharmaceutical compounds. In the case of drugs of narrow therapeutic index, such as levothyroxine, these problems are intensified, putting the effectiveness of treatment and patient health at serious risk. We review the pertinent legislation, emphasizing the characteristics of levothyroxine and adverse effects that limit the interchangeability of the compound. PMID:22147090

  4. Electromagnetic interchange-like mode and zonal flow in electron-magnetohydrodynamic plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, Nikhil; Horiuchi, Ritoku

    2006-10-15

    A numerical simulation of the nonlinear state of interchange instability associated with electron inertia in an unmagnetized plasma is studied. It is shown that a self-consistent sheared transverse electron current flow is generated due to nonlinear mechanisms. This zonal flow can reduce the growth rate of the magnetic interchange-like instability and reach a steady state. The zonal flow generation mechanisms are discussed by truncated Fourier mode representation. In the truncated model, three mode equations are considered that have an exact analytic solution that matches well with the numerical solution. The effect of different boundary conditions in such investigations is also discussed.

  5. First North American fossil monkey and early Miocene tropical biotic interchange.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Jonathan I; Woodruff, Emily D; Wood, Aaron R; Rincon, Aldo F; Harrington, Arianna R; Morgan, Gary S; Foster, David A; Montes, Camilo; Jaramillo, Carlos A; Jud, Nathan A; Jones, Douglas S; MacFadden, Bruce J

    2016-05-12

    New World monkeys (platyrrhines) are a diverse part of modern tropical ecosystems in North and South America, yet their early evolutionary history in the tropics is largely unknown. Molecular divergence estimates suggest that primates arrived in tropical Central America, the southern-most extent of the North American landmass, with several dispersals from South America starting with the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama 3-4 million years ago (Ma). The complete absence of primate fossils from Central America has, however, limited our understanding of their history in the New World. Here we present the first description of a fossil monkey recovered from the North American landmass, the oldest known crown platyrrhine, from a precisely dated 20.9-Ma layer in the Las Cascadas Formation in the Panama Canal Basin, Panama. This discovery suggests that family-level diversification of extant New World monkeys occurred in the tropics, with new divergence estimates for Cebidae between 22 and 25 Ma, and provides the oldest fossil evidence for mammalian interchange between South and North America. The timing is consistent with recent tectonic reconstructions of a relatively narrow Central American Seaway in the early Miocene epoch, coincident with over-water dispersals inferred for many other groups of animals and plants. Discovery of an early Miocene primate in Panama provides evidence for a circum-Caribbean tropical distribution of New World monkeys by this time, with ocean barriers not wholly restricting their northward movements, requiring a complex set of ecological factors to explain their absence in well-sampled similarly aged localities at higher latitudes of North America. PMID:27096364

  6. First North American fossil monkey and early Miocene tropical biotic interchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloch, Jonathan I.; Woodruff, Emily D.; Wood, Aaron R.; Rincon, Aldo F.; Harrington, Arianna R.; Morgan, Gary S.; Foster, David A.; Montes, Camilo; Jaramillo, Carlos A.; Jud, Nathan A.; Jones, Douglas S.; MacFadden, Bruce J.

    2016-05-01

    New World monkeys (platyrrhines) are a diverse part of modern tropical ecosystems in North and South America, yet their early evolutionary history in the tropics is largely unknown. Molecular divergence estimates suggest that primates arrived in tropical Central America, the southern-most extent of the North American landmass, with several dispersals from South America starting with the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama 3–4 million years ago (Ma). The complete absence of primate fossils from Central America has, however, limited our understanding of their history in the New World. Here we present the first description of a fossil monkey recovered from the North American landmass, the oldest known crown platyrrhine, from a precisely dated 20.9-Ma layer in the Las Cascadas Formation in the Panama Canal Basin, Panama. This discovery suggests that family-level diversification of extant New World monkeys occurred in the tropics, with new divergence estimates for Cebidae between 22 and 25 Ma, and provides the oldest fossil evidence for mammalian interchange between South and North America. The timing is consistent with recent tectonic reconstructions of a relatively narrow Central American Seaway in the early Miocene epoch, coincident with over-water dispersals inferred for many other groups of animals and plants. Discovery of an early Miocene primate in Panama provides evidence for a circum-Caribbean tropical distribution of New World monkeys by this time, with ocean barriers not wholly restricting their northward movements, requiring a complex set of ecological factors to explain their absence in well-sampled similarly aged localities at higher latitudes of North America.

  7. 75 FR 62919 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on the Route 250 Bypass Interchange at McIntire Road...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... at McIntire Road Project in Virginia AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION... the Route 250 Bypass Interchange at McIntire Road project in the City of Charlottesville, Virginia... approvals for the following project in the State of Virginia: Route 250 Bypass Interchange at McIntire...

  8. The Implicit Curriculum in Social Work Education: The Culture of Human Interchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogo, Marion; Wayne, Julianne

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the culture of human interchange, which is included as a component of the implicit curriculum in the current EPAS. It presents the use of the implicit curriculum concept in teacher and medical education as a context for its application to social work education. The authors argue that professional behaviors taught in the…

  9. Specification for Teaching Machines and Programmes (Interchangeability of Programmes). Part 1, Linear Machines and Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Standards Institution, London (England).

    To promote interchangeability of teaching machines and programs, so that the user is not so limited in his choice of programs, the British Standards Institute has offered a standard. Part I of the standard deals with linear teaching machines and programs that make use of the roll or sheet methods of presentation. Requirements cover: spools,…

  10. 22 CFR 501.3 - Noncompetitive interchange between Civil Service and Foreign Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Executive Order 11219 (3 CFR 1964-65 Comp. p. 303) provides for the noncompetitive appointment of present or... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Noncompetitive interchange between Civil Service and Foreign Service. 501.3 Section 501.3 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS...

  11. 76 FR 29267 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Interchangeable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... research project remains open, and Interchangeable Virtual Instruments Foundation, Inc. intends to file... Act on July 30, 2001 (66 FR 39336). The last notification was filed with the Department on February 24..., 2011 (76 FR 16820). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division. BILLING...

  12. 76 FR 80405 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Interchangeable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... in this group research project remains open, and Interchangeable Virtual Instruments Foundation, Inc...) of the Act on July 30, 2001 (66 FR 39336). The last notification was filed with the Department on... May 20, 2011 (76 FR 29267). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust...

  13. 78 FR 117 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Interchangeable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    .... Membership in this group research project remains open, and Interchangeable Virtual Instruments Foundation... Section 6(b) of the Act on July 30, 2001 (66 FR 39336). The last notification was filed with the... the Act on February 16, 2012 (77 FR 9266). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement,...

  14. 75 FR 54652 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Interchangeable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... research project remains open, and Interchangeable Virtual Instruments Foundation, Inc. intends to file... Act on July 30, 2001 (66 FR 39336). The last notification was filed with the Department on April 15..., 2010 (75 FR 28294). Patricia A. Brink, Deputy Director of Operations, Antitrust Division. BILLING...

  15. A numerical study of the 3D random interchange and random loop models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barp, Alessandro; Barp, Edoardo Gabriele; Briol, François-Xavier; Ueltschi, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    We have studied numerically the random interchange model and related loop models on the three-dimensional cubic lattice. We have determined the transition time for the occurrence of long loops. The joint distribution of the lengths of long loops is Poisson-Dirichlet with parameter 1 or \\frac{1}{2}.

  16. N-231 High Reynolds Number Channel I is a blowdown Facility that utilizes interchangeable test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    N-231 High Reynolds Number Channel I is a blowdown Facility that utilizes interchangeable test sections and nozzles. The facility provides experimental support for the fluid mechanics research, including experimental verification of aerodynamic computer codes and boundary-layer and airfoil studies that require high Reynolds number simulation. (Tunnel 1)

  17. Patterns of Attainment in Standard Grade Mathematics 3-6. Interchange No. 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Marion; And Others

    The interchange series of documents aims to improve the Research and Intelligence Unit's dissemination of the findings of research funded by the Scottish Office Education Department. In 1991 this department commissioned the Scottish Council for Research in Education to investigate the performance in Standard Grade mathematics of those candidates…

  18. Futures Information Interchange Newsletter; Volume 3, Number 2 and 3, December 1974 and April 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Univ., Amherst. School of Education.

    The Futures Information Interchange Newsletters (No. 2 and 3) include a collection of practical teaching methods and learning activities for introducing future studies in the elementary and secondary classroom. Two lead articles offer new insights into future studies. In "Dilemmas of a Futurist" Fran Koster discusses some of the stresses unique to…

  19. Baseline Assessment Literature Review and Pre-School Record Keeping in Scotland. Interchange No. 55.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, J. Eric; Watt, Joyce; Napuk, Angela; Normand, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Every opportunity should be taken to communicate research findings both inside and outside government programs and make them accessible to policy makers, teachers, lecturers, parents, and employers. The "Interchange" series aims to further improve the Educational Research Unit's (ERU) dissemination of the findings of research funded by the…

  20. SECTION OF CANAL AT PROPOSED McLELLAN DRIVE INTERCHANGE, SHOWING CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SECTION OF CANAL AT PROPOSED McLELLAN DRIVE INTERCHANGE, SHOWING CANAL (RIGHT), BRIDAL TRAIL (CENTER) AND PEDESTRIAN/BICYCLE TRAIL (RIGHT). VIEW TO NORTH - High Line Canal, Mouth of South Platte River to confluence with Second Creek, Denver, Denver County, CO

  1. Fluency Effects in Recognition Memory: Are Perceptual Fluency and Conceptual Fluency Interchangeable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanska, Meredith; Olds, Justin M.; Westerman, Deanne L.

    2014-01-01

    On a recognition memory test, both perceptual and conceptual fluency can engender a sense of familiarity and elicit recognition memory illusions. To date, perceptual and conceptual fluency have been studied separately but are they interchangeable in terms of their influence on recognition judgments? Five experiments compared the effect of…

  2. Pre-School Educational Provision in Rural Areas. Interchange 69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copus, Andrew; Petrie, Scott; Shucksmith, Janet; Shucksmith, Mark; Still, Margaret; Watt, Joyce

    The Scottish Executive Education Department has pledged to achieve universal provision of preschool education for 3- and 4-year-olds, whose parents want it, by 2002. The particular factors affecting delivery of preschool education in rural areas were examined through telephone interviews with local education authorities and voluntary preschool…

  3. Interchangeability among reference insulin analogues and their biosimilars: regulatory framework, study design and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Dowlat, H A; Kuhlmann, M K; Khatami, H; Ampudia-Blasco, F J

    2016-08-01

    Biosimilars are regulated differently from small-molecule generic, chemically derived medicines. The complexity of biological products means that small changes in manufacturing or formulation may result in changes in efficacy and safety of the final product. In the face of this complexity, the regulatory landscape for biosimilars continues to evolve, and global harmonization regarding requirements is currently lacking. It is essential that clinicians and patients are reassured that biosimilars are equally safe and effective as their reference product, and this is particularly important when interchangeability, defined as 'changing one medicine for another one which is expected to achieve the same clinical effect in a given clinical setting in any one patient', is considered. Although the automatic substitution (i.e. substitution without input from the prescribing healthcare provider) of biosimilars for reference products is currently not permitted by the majority of countries, this may change in the future. In order to demonstrate interchangeability between reference products and a biosimilar, more stringent and specific studies of the safety and efficacy of biosimilars are likely to be needed; however, guidance on the design of and the need for any such studies is currently limited. The present article provides an overview of the current regulatory framework around the demonstration of interchangeability with biosimilars, with a specific focus on biosimilar insulin analogues, and details experiences with other biosimilar products. In addition, designs for studies to evaluate interchangeability with a biosimilar insulin analogue product are proposed and a discussion about the implications of interchangeability in clinical practice is included. PMID:27097592

  4. Superthermal Electron Energy Interchange in the Ionosphere-Plasmasphere System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Glocer, A.; Liemohn, M. W.; Himwich, E. W.

    2013-01-01

    A self-consistent approach to superthermal electron (SE) transport along closed field lines in the inner magnetosphere is used to examine the concept of plasmaspheric transparency, magnetospheric trapping, and SE energy deposition to the thermal electrons. The dayside SE population is generated both by photoionization of the thermosphere and by secondary electron production from impact ionization when the photoelectrons collide with upper atmospheric neutral particles. It is shown that a self-consistent approach to this problem produces significant changes, in comparison with other approaches, in the SE energy exchange between the plasmasphere and the two magnetically conjugate ionospheres. In particular, plasmaspheric transparency can vary by a factor of two depending on the thermal plasma content along the field line and the illumination conditions of the two conjugate ionospheres. This variation in plasmaspheric transparency as a function of thermal plasma and ionospheric conditions increases with L-shell, as the field line gets longer and the equatorial pitch angle extent of the fly-through zone gets smaller. The inference drawn from these results is that such a self-consistent approach to SE transport and energy deposition should be included to ensure robustness in ionosphere-magnetosphere modeling networks.

  5. [Drug interchangeability: clinical approach and consumer's point of view].

    PubMed

    Rumel, Davi; Nishioka, Sérgio de Andrade; Santos, Adélia Aparecida Marçal dos

    2006-10-01

    The rational construction of an essential drug list, considering the patient's need, drug safety, availability and the best cost-benefit ratio, is based on drug safety, efficacy and quality. However, in daily practice, the prescriber's decision is mostly influenced by drug effectiveness, following criteria that increase adherence to the treatment, such as relative drug toxicity, convenience, cost and prescriber's experience. In addition, frequent launching of new molecules for the same therapeutic indication, together with wide publicity targeting prescribers, interferes with the decision-making process. Similarly, the bonuses offered by the industry for over-the-counter drug sales interfere with the consumer's choice. The confrontation between known human biological variability and the knowledge that there is no absolute similarity between drugs of the same therapeutic class, or even generic drugs, has an impact on the prescriber's drug list, which should include the concept of first and second choice drugs. Prescribers' unfamiliarity with these subjects is a determinant factor for irrational drug use: a public health issue. The objective of this study was to introduce to drug prescribers information that can help them building up a rational drug list for their patients, based on the National Health Surveillance Agency (Anvisa) experience of drug regulation. PMID:17301916

  6. Particle-in-cell simulation of electromagnetic wave scattering in the presence of interchange instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Main, Daniel; Caplinger, James; Kim, Tony; Sotnikov, Vladimir

    2014-10-01

    The propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves can be influenced by the presence of plasma turbulence. It is known that vortex density structures can develop on nonlinear stage of an interchange instability in Earth's ionosphere and can affect radio communication channels. These density structures play an important role in the refraction and scattering of EM waves in Earth's ionosphere and also in laser diagnostic scattering experiments. We will use a numerical solution of nonlinear equations which govern the development of interchange instability to define a spatial dependence of density irregularities which can be used to analyze scattering of high frequency EM waves. This solution contains both large scale vortex density structures coexisting with short scale density perturbations. Next we will initialize a PIC simulation with the density distribution from the fluid simulation to calculate the scattering cross-section and compare the results with an analytic solution obtained using numerically calculated density spectra.

  7. Fluctuation-induced shear flow and energy transfer in plasma interchange turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Li, B.; Sun, C. K.; Wang, X. Y.; Zhou, A.; Wang, X. G.; Ernst, D. R.

    2015-11-15

    Fluctuation-induced E × B shear flow and energy transfer for plasma interchange turbulence are examined in a flux-driven system with both closed and open magnetic field lines. The nonlinear evolution of interchange turbulence shows the presence of two confinement regimes characterized by low and high E × B flow shear. In the first regime, the large-scale turbulent convection is dominant and the mean E × B shear flow is at a relatively low level. By increasing the heat flux above a certain threshold, the increased turbulent intensity gives rise to the transfer of energy from fluctuations to mean E × B flows. As a result, a transition to the second regime occurs, in which a strong mean E × B shear flow is generated.

  8. Device interchangeability on anterior chamber depth and white-to-white measurements: a thorough literature review

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Vicent, Alberto; Pérez-Vives, Cari; Ferrer-Blasco, Teresa; García-Lázaro, Santiago; Montés-Micó, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We have reviewed a set of recently published studies that compared the anterior chamber depth (ACD) and/or white-to-white (WTW) distance obtained by means of different measuring devices. Since some of those studies reached contradictory conclusions regarding device interchangeability, this review was carried out in attempting to clarify which clinical devices can or cannot be considered as interchangeable in clinical practice to measure ACD and/or WTW distance, among these devices: A-scan, ultrasound biomicroscopy, Orbscan and Orbscan II (Bausch&Lomb Surgical Inc., San Dimas, California, USA), Pentacam and Pentacam HR (Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany), Galilei (Ziemer, Switzerland), Visante optical coherence tomography (Visante OCT, Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Dublin, California, USA), IOLMaster (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany), and Lenstar LS 900/Biograph (Haag-Streit AG, Koeniz, Switzerland/Alcon Laboratories Inc., Ft Worth, Texas, USA). PMID:27500117

  9. Are infrared and thermistor thermometers interchangeable for measuring localized skin temperature?

    PubMed

    Kelechi, Teresa J; Michel, Yvonne; Wiseman, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Localized skin temperature must be measured by accurate and reliable thermometers to effectively evaluate treatment outcomes, monitor changes, and predict potential complications. This study compared localized skin temperature measurements with a contact thermistor thermometer used as a reference standard and a noncontact infrared (IR) skin thermometer to determine their interchangeability with calculated Bland-Altman limits of agreement. Fifty-five adults ages 50 to 89 participated in the study in which data were collected in a climate-controlled room over 3 measurement periods, 1 week apart. The thermistor and IR thermometers were interchangeable with a limit of agreement of +/- 1.5 degrees C. This limit of agreement is acceptable as a reference standard for IR thermometers to measure localized skin temperature in clinical settings. PMID:16764175

  10. Ion finite Larmor radius effects on the interchange instability in an open system

    SciTech Connect

    Katanuma, I.; Sato, S.; Okuyama, Y.; Kato, S.; Kubota, R.

    2013-11-15

    A particle simulation of an interchange instability was performed by taking into account the ion finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects. It is found that the interchange instability with large FLR grows in two phases, that is, linearly growing phase and the nonlinear phase subsequent to the linear phase, where the instability grows exponentially in both phases. The linear growth rates observed in the simulation agree well with the theoretical calculation. The effects of FLR are usually taken in the fluid simulation through the gyroviscosity, the effects of which are verified in the particle simulation with large FLR regime. The gyroviscous cancellation phenomenon observed in the particle simulation causes the drifts in the direction of ion diamagnetic drifts.

  11. Interchange and Flow Velocity Shear Instabilities in the Presence of Finite Larmor Radius Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotnikov, V.; Kim, T.; Mishin, E.; Genoni, T.; Rose, D.; Mehlhorn, T.

    2014-09-01

    Ionospheric irregularities cause scintillations of electromagnetic signals that can severely affect navigation and transionospheric communication, in particular during Equatorial Plasma Bubbles (EPBs) events. However, the existing ionospheric models do not describe density irregularities with typical scales of several ion Larmor radii that affect UHF and L bands. These irregularities can be produced in the process of nonlinear evolution of interchange or flow velocity shear instabilities. The model of nonlinear development of these instabilities based on two-fluid hydrodynamic description with inclusion of finite Larmor radius effects will be presented. The derived nonlinear equations will be numerically solved by using the code Flute, which was originally developed for High Energy Density applications and modified to describe interchange and flow velocity shear instabilities in the ionosphere. The high-resolution simulations will be driven by the ambient conditions corresponding to the AFRL C/NOFS satellite low-resolution data during EPBs.

  12. Transition from drift to interchange instabilities in an open magnetic field line configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Poli, F. M.; Ricci, P.; Fasoli, A.; Podesta, M.

    2008-03-15

    The transition from a regime dominated by drift instabilities to a regime dominated by pure interchange instabilities is investigated and characterized in the simple magnetized toroidal device TORPEX [TORoidal Plasma EXperiment, A. Fasoli et al., Phys. of Plasmas 13, 055906 (2006)]. The magnetic field lines are helical, with a dominant toroidal component and a smaller vertical component. Instabilities with a drift character are observed in the favorable curvature region, on the high field side with respect to the maximum of the background density profile. For a limited range of values of the vertical field they coexist with interchange instabilities in the unfavorable curvature region, on the plasma low field side. With increasing vertical magnetic field magnitude, a gradual transition between the two regimes is observed on the low field side, controlled by the value of the field line connection length. The observed transition follows the predictions of a two-fluid linear model.

  13. Several benthic species can be used interchangeably in integrated sediment quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Romero, A; Khosrovyan, A; Del Valls, T A; Obispo, R; Serrano, F; Conradi, M; Riba, I

    2013-06-01

    The selection of the best management option for contaminated sediments requires the biological assessment of sediment quality using bioindicator organisms. There have been comparisons of the performance of different test species when exposed to naturally occurring sediments. However, more research is needed to determine their suitability to be used interchangeably. The sensitivity of two amphipod species (Ampelisca brevicornis and Corophium volutator) to sediments collected from four different commercial ports in Spain was tested. For comparison the lugworm, Arenicola marina, which is typically used for bioaccumulation testing, was also tested. Chemical analyses of the sediments were also conducted. All species responded consistently to the chemical exposure tests, although the amphipods, as expected, were more sensitive than the lugworm. It was found that C. volutator showed higher vulnerability than A.brevicornis. It was concluded that the three species can be used interchangeably in the battery of tests for integrated sediment quality assessment. PMID:23531332

  14. Observed mid-to-high latitude interchange of atmospheric angular momentum and some implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, H. A., Jr.; Kramer, L.

    1990-01-01

    Graphic illustration of midlatitude interchange of atmospheric angular momentum between distant regions is presented. An examination is conducted of the global distribution of atmospheric angular momentum during 1977-1978 and 1982-1983 in order to identify evidence of prominent short-term interchanges of relavitive atmospheric angular momentum between mid and high latitude zones in both hemispheres. Thirty-day detrended angular momentum time series, prepared from the NMC global zonal wind data, are examined in latitude bands. The results confirm that momentum can be selectively redistributed between tropical, temperate, and high latitudes in patterns indicative of the development and dissipation of interacting regions, described variously in studies on the index cycle, seesaws, and telecommunications.

  15. Transitions in the Lives of Children and Young People: Resilience Factors. Interchange 78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Tony; Blackburn, Sarah

    This report draws upon an extensive review of the international literature on resilience to describe effective strategies in health, education, and social work for helping children to cope with periods of transition through promoting resilience. The report takes a broad view of childrens transitions, meaning any episode where children have to cope…

  16. Technique for experimental determination of radiation interchange factors in solar wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobco, R. P.; Nolte, L. J.; Wensley, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    Process obtains solar heating data which support analytical design. Process yields quantitative information on local solar exposure of models which are geometrically and reflectively similar to prototypes under study. Models are tested in a shirtsleeve environment.

  17. Comparison and interchangeability of macular thickness measured with Cirrus OCT and Stratus OCT in myopic eyes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Geng; Qiu, Kun-Liang; Lu, Xue-Hui; Zhang, Ming-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate the difference of macular thickness measurements between stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT) and Cirrus OCT (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA, USA) in the same myopic patient and to develop a conversion equation to interchange macular thickness obtained with these two OCT devices. METHODS Eighty-nine healthy Chinese adults with spherical equivalent (SE) ranging from -1.13 D to -9.63 D were recruited. The macular thickness was measured by Cirrus OCT and Stratus OCT. The correlation between macular thickness and axial length and the agreement between two OCT measurements were evaluated. A formula was generated to interchange macular thickness obtained with two OCT devices. RESULTS Average macular thickness measured with Stratus OCT (r=-0.280, P=0.008) and Cirrus OCT (r=-0.224, P=0.034) were found to be negatively correlated with axial length. No statistically significant correlation was found between axial length and central subfield macular thickness (CMT) measured with Stratus OCT (r=0.191, P=0.073) and Cirrus OCT (r=0.169, P=0.113). The mean CMT measured with Cirrus OCT was 53.63±7.94 µm thicker than with Stratus OCT. The formula CMTCirrus OCT=78.328+0.874×CMTStratus OCT was generated to interchange macular thickness obtained with two OCT devices. CONCLUSION Macular thickness measured with Cirrus OCT were thicker than with Stratus OCT in myopic eyes. A formula can be used to interchange macular thickness measured with two OCT devices in myopic eyes. Studies with different OCT devices and larger samples are warranted to enable the comparison of macular values measured with different OCT devices. PMID:26682172

  18. Observation of Centrifugally Driven Interchange Instabilities in a Plasma Confined by a Magnetic Dipole

    SciTech Connect

    Levitt, B.; Maslovsky, D.; Mauel, M.E.

    2005-05-06

    Centrifugally driven interchange instabilities are observed in a laboratory plasma confined by a dipole magnetic field. The instabilities appear when an equatorial mesh is biased to drive a radial current that causes rapid axisymmetric plasma rotation. The observed instabilities are quasicoherent in the laboratory frame of reference; they have global radial mode structures and low azimuthal mode numbers, and they are modified by the presence of energetic, magnetically confined electrons. Results from a self-consistent nonlinear simulation reproduce the measured mode structures.

  19. Effects of resistive interchange instabilities on energy confinement in reversed-field pinch

    SciTech Connect

    AN Zhi-gang; Diamond, P.H.

    1986-01-01

    Electron conduction losses due to magnetic flutter produced by resistive interchange instabilities and the resulting confinement deterioration mechanism are investigated analytically. Using approximate solutions of MHD equations for even and odd potential parities, the potential and magnetic perturbation levels at saturation are estimated. These results are used to calculate the stochastic magnetic field diffusion coefficients. An expression for the anomalous electron thermal conductivity is then derived for collision-less and collisional regimes. Scaling laws for energy confinement are inferred therefrom.

  20. THEMIS observation of Kinetic Ballooning/Interchange Waves in the High Bz Plasma Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panov, Evgeny V.; Nakamura, Rumi; Kubyshkina, Marina V.; Baumjohann, Wolfgang; A, Sergeev, Victor

    2015-04-01

    Using THEMIS observations of plasma sheet oscillations with kinetic ballooning/interchange instability (BICI) signatures, we investigate the properties of the waves when a high background plasma sheet Bz is seen. We find that such waves are in a better agreement with the existing kinetic simulations. Using adapted Tsyganenko models, we also show conjugate all-sky camera observations in the course of the development of the waves.

  1. Excitation of the centrifugally driven interchange instability in a plasma confined by a magnetic dipole

    SciTech Connect

    Levitt, B.; Maslovsky, D.; Mauel, M.E.; Waksman, J.

    2005-05-15

    The centrifugally driven electrostatic interchange instability is excited for the first time in a laboratory magnetoplasma. The plasma is confined by a dipole magnetic field, and the instability is excited when an equatorial mesh is biased to induce a radial current that creates rapid axisymmetric plasma rotation. The observed instabilities appear quasicoherent in the lab frame of reference; they have global radial mode structures and low azimuthal mode numbers, and they are modified by the presence of energetic, magnetically confined electrons. The mode structure is measured using a multiprobe correlation technique as well as a novel 96-point polar imaging diagnostic which measures particle flux along field lines that map to the pole. Interchange instabilities caused by hot electron pressure are simultaneously observed at the hot electron drift frequency. Adjusting the hot electron fraction {alpha} modifies the stability as well as the structures of the centrifugally driven modes. In the presence of larger fractions of energetic electrons, m=1 is observed to be the dominant mode. For faster rotating plasmas containing fewer energetic electrons, m=2 dominates. Results from a self-consistent nonlinear simulation reproduce the measured mode structures in both regimes. The low azimuthal mode numbers seen in the experiment and simulation can also be interpreted with a local, linear dispersion relation of the electrostatic interchange instability. Drift resonant hot electrons give the instability a real frequency, inducing stabilizing ion polarization currents that preferentially suppress high-m modes.

  2. Generation of Periodic Signatures at Saturn Through Titan's Interaction with the Centrifugal Interchange Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winglee, R.; Kidder, A. R.; Harnett, E. M.; Paty, C. S.; Snowden, D. S.

    2013-12-01

    Due to the high degree of alignment of Saturn's dipole with its rotation axis, no strong rotational periodicities are expected. However, Cassini data demonstrated the existence of such periodicities not only in Saturn's kilometric radio emissions (SKR), but in the plasma and magnetic field signatures. Multi-fluid/multi-scale simulations that include the heavy ions from the Enceladus plasma torus, the light ions of the solar wind and the interaction of Titan with the Kronian magnetosphere show that the rotational period is embedded in the development of the interchange instability but the planetary period is masked by high-frequency components of the instability. The presence of Titan is shown to damp the high-frequency components in association with the flapping of Titan's ion tail and this enables the fundamental frequency near the planetary rotation frequency to grow at the expense of the high-frequency components. As a result, the interchange instability is seen to change from one where 5-7 large interchange fingers dominate to one where there are about 3 which cause the modulation of magnetospheric parameters near the planetary period. This modulation includes the movement of the magnetopause, the injection of energetic particles into the inner magnetosphere and the plasma density at high latitudes both of which control Saturn's kilometic radiation.

  3. A standardized SOA for clinical data interchange in a cardiac telemonitoring environment.

    PubMed

    Gazzarata, Roberta; Vergari, Fabio; Cinotti, Tullio Salmon; Giacomini, Mauro

    2014-11-01

    Care of chronic cardiac patients requires information interchange between patients' homes, clinical environments, and the electronic health record. Standards are emerging to support clinical information collection, exchange and management and to overcome information fragmentation and actors delocalization. Heterogeneity of information sources at patients' homes calls for open solutions to collect and accommodate multidomain information, including environmental data. Based on the experience gained in a European Research Program, this paper presents an integrated and open approach for clinical data interchange in cardiac telemonitoring applications. This interchange is supported by the use of standards following the indications provided by the national authorities of the countries involved. Taking into account the requirements provided by the medical staff involved in the project, the authors designed and implemented a prototypal middleware, based on a service-oriented architecture approach, to give a structured and robust tool to congestive heart failure patients for their personalized telemonitoring. The middleware is represented by a health record management service, whose interface is compliant to the healthcare services specification project Retrieve, Locate and Update Service standard (Level 0), which allows communication between the agents involved through the exchange of Clinical Document Architecture Release 2 documents. Three performance tests were carried out and showed that the prototype completely fulfilled all requirements indicated by the medical staff; however, certain aspects, such as authentication, security and scalability, should be deeply analyzed within a future engineering phase. PMID:25014978

  4. Normalization Of Thermal-Radiation Form-Factor Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuyuki, Glenn T.

    1994-01-01

    Report describes algorithm that adjusts form-factor matrix in TRASYS computer program, which calculates intraspacecraft radiative interchange among various surfaces and environmental heat loading from sources such as sun.

  5. Virtual Airspace Modeling and Simulation (VAMS) Project First Technical Interchange Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beard, Robert; Kille, Robert; Kirsten, Richard; Rigterink, Paul; Sielski, Henry; Gratteau, Melinda F. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    A three-day NASA Virtual Airspace and Modeling Project (VAMS) Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM) was held at the NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, CA. on May 21 through May 23,2002. The purpose of this meeting was to share initial concept information sponsored by the VAMS Project. An overall goal of the VAMS Project is to develop validated, blended, robust and transition-able air transportation system concepts over the next five years that will achieve NASA's long-term Enterprise Aviation Capacity goals. This document describes the presentations at the TIM, their related questions and answers, and presents the TIM recommendations.

  6. Bringing Order to Chaos: RIF as the New Standard for Rule Interchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawke, Sandro

    As the W3C Rule Interchange Format (RIF) nears completion, we consider what it offers users and how it may change the design of systems and change the industry. More than just a standard XML format for rules, RIF is integrated with the W3C Semantic Web technology stack, offering a vision for combining some of the best features of the Web with the best features of rule systems. RIF is designed to directly handle rule bases which use only standard features, but it can be extended. Some example extensions and possible areas for future standards work will be discussed.

  7. NASA Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM): Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) Technology Tool Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ONeil, D. A.; Craig, D. A.; Christensen, C. B.; Gresham, E. C.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this Technical Interchange Meeting was to increase the quantity and quality of technical, cost, and programmatic data used to model the impact of investing in different technologies. The focus of this meeting was the Technology Tool Box (TTB), a database of performance, operations, and programmatic parameters provided by technologists and used by systems engineers. The TTB is the data repository used by a system of models known as the Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS). This report describes the result of the November meeting, and also provides background information on ATLAS and the TTB.

  8. The free energy in a class of quantum spin systems and interchange processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björnberg, J. E.

    2016-07-01

    We study a class of quantum spin systems in the mean-field setting of the complete graph. For spin S = 1/2, the model is the Heisenberg ferromagnet, and for general spin S ∈ 1/2 N, it has a probabilistic representation as a cycle-weighted interchange process. We determine the free energy and the critical temperature (recovering results by Tóth and by Penrose when S = 1/2). The critical temperature is shown to coincide (as a function of S) with that of the q = 2S + 1 state classical Potts model, and the phase transition is discontinuous when S ≥ 1.

  9. Pressure driven tearing and interchange modes in the reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Paccagnella, R.

    2013-01-15

    In this work, the magneto-hydro-dynamic stability of pressure driven modes in the reversed field pinch has been analyzed. It is shown that at low and intermediate {beta}'s, i.e., typically for values below 20-25%, the tearing parity is dominant, while only at very high {beta}, well above the achieved experimental values, at least part of the modes are converted to ideal interchange instabilities. Before their transition to ideal instabilities, according to their Lundquist number scaling, they can be classified as resistive-g modes.

  10. The Great American Biotic Interchange: Dispersals, Tectonics, Climate, Sea Level and Holding Pens

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The biotic and geologic dynamics of the Great American Biotic Interchange are reviewed and revised. Information on the Marine Isotope Stage chronology, sea level changes as well as Pliocene and Pleistocene vegetation changes in Central and northern South America add to a discussion of the role of climate in facilitating trans-isthmian exchanges. Trans-isthmian land mammal exchanges during the Pleistocene glacial intervals appear to have been promoted by the development of diverse non-tropical ecologies. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10914-010-9144-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:21125025

  11. Second NASA Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM): Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) Technology Tool Box (TTB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ONeil, D. A.; Mankins, J. C.; Christensen, C. B.; Gresham, E. C.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS), a spreadsheet analysis tool suite, applies parametric equations for sizing and lifecycle cost estimation. Performance, operation, and programmatic data used by the equations come from a Technology Tool Box (TTB) database. In this second TTB Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM), technologists, system model developers, and architecture analysts discussed methods for modeling technology decisions in spreadsheet models, identified specific technology parameters, and defined detailed development requirements. This Conference Publication captures the consensus of the discussions and provides narrative explanations of the tool suite, the database, and applications of ATLAS within NASA s changing environment.

  12. Resistive Interchange Modes Destabilized by Helically Trapped Energetic Ions in a Helical Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, X. D.; Toi, K.; Osakabe, M.; Ohdachi, S.; Ido, T.; Tanaka, K.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoshinuma, M.; Ogawa, K.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Isobe, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Ozaki, T.; Sakakibara, S.; Seki, R.; Shimizu, A.; Suzuki, Y.; Tsuchiya, H.

    2015-04-01

    A new bursting m =1 /n =1 instability (m ,n : poloidal and toroidal mode numbers) with rapid frequency chirping down has been observed for the first time in a helical plasma with intense perpendicular neutral beam injection. This is destabilized in the plasma peripheral region by resonant interaction between helically trapped energetic ions and the resistive interchange mode. A large radial electric field is induced near the edge due to enhanced radial transport of the trapped energetic ions by the mode, and leads to clear change in toroidal plasma flow, suppression of microturbulence, and triggering an improvement of bulk plasma confinement.

  13. Chemical and nuclear emergencies: Interchanging lessons learned from planning and accident experience

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, V.; Sorensen, J.H.; Rogers, G.O.

    1989-01-01

    Because the goal of emergency preparedness for both chemical and nuclear hazards is to reduce human exposure to hazardous materials, this paper examines the interchange of lessons learned from emergency planning and accident experience in both industries. While the concerns are slightly different, sufficient similarity is found for each to draw implications from the others experience. Principally the chemical industry can learn from the dominant planning experience associated with nuclear power plants, while the nuclear industry can chiefly learn from the chemical industry's accident experience. 23 refs.

  14. Modeling of mesoscale flux-tube interchange motions in the inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazykin, Stanislav; Wolf, Richard Alan; Yang, Jian; Rocco Toffoletto, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Mesoscale flux-tube interchange motions associated with bursty bulk flows and dipolarization fronts play a significant role in particle transport from the plasma sheet into the inner magnetosphere. One of the challenges is to quantify the relative role of these processes compared to large-scale particle energization as part of global-scale convection. In this paper, we will describe latest progress in attempting quantitative modeling of flux-tube interchange processes using a high-resolution version of the Rice Convection Model (RCM) that includes effects of inertial drifts. Including effects of inertial drifts is necessary to allow oscillatory motion of flux tubes in inner magnetospheric models. We generalized the formulation of the RCM by making three simplifying assumptions: (i) the communication between the equatorial plane and ionosphere occurs either instantaneously or with a given time lag, (ii) the pressure is isotropic and therefore constant along field lines, and (iii) for purposes of calculating the effect of inertia, all of a flux tube's mass is assumed to be concentrated in the equatorial plane. We will present idealized numerical simulations of a depleted flux tube propagation in the magnetosphere, and quantify particle injection signatures. Our analysis of the simulations will include ionospheric electric fields and particle precipitation signatures of the flow channels associated with propagation of depleted flux tubes, and address the sensitivity of the results to the assumptions made in the inclusion of the inertia effects.

  15. When are people interchangeable sexual objects? The effect of gender and body type on sexual fungibility.

    PubMed

    Gervais, Sarah J; Vescio, Theresa K; Allen, Jill

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to empirically examine the fungibility hypothesis derived from sexual objectification theory. Sexual objectification theorists have suggested that like objects, people, typically women, may be fungible or interchangeable with similar others. Despite its provocative nature and potential adverse psychological consequences, the fungibility hypothesis has yet to be empirically examined. We suggested that women, regardless of body types, but also men with body types that resemble the cultural ideal of attractiveness (e.g., large arms and chests and narrow waists), would be more fungible than men with body types that resemble the cultural average. Participants (n = 66) saw images of average and ideal women and men once before they completed a surprise matching task requiring that they match the bodies and faces that appeared together in the original images. Consistent with hypotheses, we found that women with ideal bodies, women with average bodies, and men with ideal bodies were more fungible (perceivers made more body-face pairing errors) than men with average bodies. Furthermore, it appears that when people are fungible they are interchangeable with people with similar body types. Implications and directions for future research on objectification and fungibility are discussed. PMID:23216316

  16. Local regulation of interchange turbulence in a dipole-confined plasma torus using current-collection feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, T. M. Mauel, M. E. Worstell, M. W.

    2015-05-15

    Turbulence in plasma confined by a magnetic dipole is dominated by interchange fluctuations with complex dynamics and short spatial coherence. We report the first use of local current-collection feedback to modify, amplify, and suppress these fluctuations. The spatial extent of turbulence regulation is limited to a correlation length near the collector. Changing the gain and phase of collection results in power either extracted from or injected into the turbulence. The measured plasma response shows some agreement with calculations of the linear response of global interchange-like MHD and entropy modes to current-collection feedback.

  17. NASA's Single-Pilot Operations Technical Interchange Meeting: Proceedings and Findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comerford, Doreen; Brandt, Summer L.; Lachter, Joel B.; Wu, Shu-Chieh; Mogford, Richard H.; Battiste, Vernol; Johnson, Walter W.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center and Langley Research Center are jointly investigating issues associated with potential concepts, or configurations, in which a single pilot might operate under conditions that are currently reserved for a minimum of two pilots. As part of early efforts, NASA Ames Research Center hosted a technical interchange meeting in order to gain insight from members of the aviation community regarding single-pilot operations (SPO). The meeting was held on April 10-12, 2012 at NASA Ames Research Center. Professionals in the aviation domain were invited because their areas of expertise were deemed to be directly related to an exploration of SPO. NASA, in selecting prospective participants, attempted to represent various relevant sectors within the aviation domain. Approximately 70 people representing government, academia, and industry attended. A primary focus of this gathering was to consider how tasks and responsibilities might be re-allocated to allow for SPO.

  18. An XXX male resulting from paternal X-Y interchange and maternal X-X nondisjunction.

    PubMed

    Annerén, G; Andersson, M; Page, D C; Brown, L G; Berg, M; Läckgren, G; Gustavson, K H; de la Chapelle, A

    1987-10-01

    A 2-year-old boy was found to have a 47,XXX karyotype. Restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism analysis showed that, of his three X chromosomes, one is of paternal and two are of maternal origin. The results of Y-DNA hybridization were reminiscent of those in XX males in two respects. First, hybridization to Southern transfers revealed the presence in this XXX male of sequences derived from the Y-chromosomal short arm. Second, in situ hybridization showed that this Y DNA was located on the tip of the X-chromosomal short arm. We conclude that this XXX male resulted from the coincidence of X-X nondisjunction during maternal meiosis and aberrant X-Y interchange either during or prior to paternal meiosis. PMID:2889356

  19. Net Interchange Schedule Forecasting of Electric Power Exchange for RTO/ISOs

    SciTech Connect

    Ferryman, Thomas A.; Haglin, David J.; Vlachopoulou, Maria; Yin, Jian; Shen, Chao; Tuffner, Francis K.; Lin, Guang; Zhou, Ning; Tong, Jianzhong

    2012-07-26

    Neighboring independent system operators (ISOs) exchange electric power to enable efficient and reliable operation of the grid. Net interchange (NI) schedule is the sum of the transactions (in MW) between an ISO and its neighbors. Effective forecasting of the amount of actual NI can improve grid operation efficiency. This paper presents results of a preliminary investigation into various methods of prediction that may result in improved prediction accuracy. The methods studied are linear regression, forward regression, stepwise regression, and support vector machine (SVM) regression. The work to date is not yet conclusive. The hope is to explore the effectiveness of other prediction methods and apply all methods to at least one new data set. This should enable more confidence in the conclusions.

  20. Neuronal Prediction of Opponent’s Behavior during Cooperative Social Interchange in Primates

    PubMed Central

    Haroush, Keren; Williams, Ziv M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY A cornerstone of successful social interchange is the ability to anticipate each other’s intentions or actions. While generating these internal predictions is essential for constructive social behavior, their single neuronal basis and causal underpinnings are unknown. Here, we discover specific neurons in the primate dorsal anterior cingulate that selectively predict an opponent’s yet unknown decision to invest in their common good or defect and distinct neurons that encode the monkey’s own current decision based on prior outcomes. Mixed population predictions of the other was remarkably near optimal compared to behavioral decoders. Moreover, disrupting cingulate activity selectively biased mutually beneficial interactions between the monkeys but, surprisingly, had no influence on their decisions when no net-positive outcome was possible. These findings identify a group of other-predictive neurons in the primate anterior cingulate essential for enacting cooperative interactions and may pave a way toward the targeted treatment of social behavioral disorders. PMID:25728667

  1. Anderson Localization from the Berry-Curvature Interchange in Quantum Anomalous Hall Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Zhenhua; Han, Yulei; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Deng, Xinzhou; Jiang, Hua; Yang, Shengyuan A.; Wang, Jian; Niu, Qian

    2016-07-01

    We theoretically investigate the localization mechanism of the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) in the presence of spin-flip disorders. We show that the QAHE stays quantized at weak disorders, then enters a Berry-curvature mediated metallic phase at moderate disorders, and finally goes into the Anderson insulating phase at strong disorders. From the phase diagram, we find that at the charge neutrality point although the QAHE is most robust against disorders, the corresponding metallic phase is much easier to be localized into the Anderson insulating phase due to the interchange of Berry curvatures carried, respectively, by the conduction and valence bands. In the end, we provide a phenomenological picture related to the topological charges to better understand the underlying physical origin of the QAHE Anderson localization.

  2. Anderson Localization from the Berry-Curvature Interchange in Quantum Anomalous Hall Systems.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Zhenhua; Han, Yulei; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Deng, Xinzhou; Jiang, Hua; Yang, Shengyuan A; Wang, Jian; Niu, Qian

    2016-07-29

    We theoretically investigate the localization mechanism of the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) in the presence of spin-flip disorders. We show that the QAHE stays quantized at weak disorders, then enters a Berry-curvature mediated metallic phase at moderate disorders, and finally goes into the Anderson insulating phase at strong disorders. From the phase diagram, we find that at the charge neutrality point although the QAHE is most robust against disorders, the corresponding metallic phase is much easier to be localized into the Anderson insulating phase due to the interchange of Berry curvatures carried, respectively, by the conduction and valence bands. In the end, we provide a phenomenological picture related to the topological charges to better understand the underlying physical origin of the QAHE Anderson localization. PMID:27517785

  3. Spaces of phylogenetic networks from generalized nearest-neighbor interchange operations.

    PubMed

    Huber, Katharina T; Linz, Simone; Moulton, Vincent; Wu, Taoyang

    2016-02-01

    Phylogenetic networks are a generalization of evolutionary or phylogenetic trees that are used to represent the evolution of species which have undergone reticulate evolution. In this paper we consider spaces of such networks defined by some novel local operations that we introduce for converting one phylogenetic network into another. These operations are modeled on the well-studied nearest-neighbor interchange operations on phylogenetic trees, and lead to natural generalizations of the tree spaces that have been previously associated to such operations. We present several results on spaces of some relatively simple networks, called level-1 networks, including the size of the neighborhood of a fixed network, and bounds on the diameter of the metric defined by taking the smallest number of operations required to convert one network into another. We expect that our results will be useful in the development of methods for systematically searching for optimal phylogenetic networks using, for example, likelihood and Bayesian approaches. PMID:26037483

  4. Probehead with interchangeable loop-gap resonators and rf coils for multifrequency EPR/ENDOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christides, T.; Froncisz, W.; Oles, T.; Hyde, James S.

    1994-01-01

    A probehead employing interchangeable loop-gap resonators and rf coils for multifrequency EPR/ENDOR spectroscopy from 1 to 10 GHz is described. A precision coupling mechanism allows accurate magnetic coupling of the microwaves to the resonators. The Rexolite© support of the resonator acts as a spool for the ENDOR coil. rf fields of 1.0 mT are generated. The coil and resonator can be easily changed to cover the range of 1-10 GHz. Liquid-phase ENDOR spectra of the stable free-radical galvanoxyl and of the spin label TEMPONE (4-oxo-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-l-piperidine-N-oxyl) dissolved in n-heptane are shown. The ENDOR enhancement for nitrogen from TEMPONE is 15 times larger at 2.3 than at 9.3 GHz due to the rf enhancement.

  5. Asymmetric coupled interchange-ballooning dynamics during magnetic reconnection in the solar wind driven magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Ehab; Horton, W.; Hatch, D. R.; Agullo, O.; Muraglia, M.; Benkadda, S.; InstituteFusion Studies Collaboration; PIIM/CNRS, AMU, Marseille, France Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    Fast reconnection in the magnetosphere and the geomagnetic tail involves electron scale dynamics that includes the electron inertial scale length on the inner scale and the ion gyroradius on the outer scale. New forms of the partial differential equations for the electric and magnetic field during the fast interchange dynamics. Typical data is that of the fast reconnection with dominant electron heating reported in the Nakamura et al. from CLUSTER data. New formulas extend to smaller scales the previous simulations of Horton et al. [2007] for this event by including more electron dynamics and heating. 3D-simulations and movies of the dynamics are presented. Supported by US-DoE grant to UT and CNRS grant to AMU.

  6. The Effect of Interchange Rotation Period and Number on Australian Football Running Performance.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Paul G; Wisbey, Ben

    2016-07-01

    Montgomery, PG, and Wisbey, B. The effect of interchange rotation period and number on Australian Football running performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1890-1897, 2016-To determine the effect of on-field rotation periods and total number of game rotations on Australian Football running performance, elite Australian Football players (n = 21, mean ± SD; 23.2 ± 1.7 years; 183.5 ± 3.7 cm; 83.2 ± 4.5 kg) had Global Positioning System game data from 22 rounds divided into a total of 692 on-field playing periods. These periods were allocated into time blocks of 2:00-minute increments, with the log transformed percentage differences in running performance (m·min) between blocks analyzed by effect size and meaningful differences. A total of 7,730 game rotation and associated average m·min combinations collected over 3 Australian Football seasons were also assessed by effect size and meaningful differences. Running capacity decreases after 5:00 minutes by ∼3% for each 2:00 minutes of on-field time up to 9:00 minutes, with variable responses between positions up to 6.7% for nomadic players. For each rotation less than 6 per game, clear small-to-moderate decreases up to 3.6% in running capacity occurred per rotation. To maintain a high level of running capacity, shorter on-field periods are more effective in Australian Football; however, players and coaches should be aware that with interchange restriction, slightly longer on-field periods achieve similar results. PMID:27328273

  7. Structure and consequences of the kinetic ballooning/interchange instability in the magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchett, P. L.; Coroniti, F. V.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract<p label="1">The structure and dynamical consequences of the kinetic ballooning/<span class="hlt">interchange</span> instability (BICI) that can be excited in the curved magnetic geometry characteristic of the terrestrial plasma sheet are investigated by means of three-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations. Compared with earlier studies that considered a single Bz minimum configuration with an extremely large midtail field, additional simulations are performed in which this maximum is reduced to a more realistic value, the dependence on the values of the plasma beta and of the mass and temperature ratios mi/me and Ti/Te is investigated, and the limiting case of a constant Bz profile is examined. The general properties of the BICI modes are found to be unaltered by these changes. Significantly, the BICI excitation is found not to require an explicit tailward magnetic field gradient; it appears to be sufficient for the entropy to decrease with distance down the tail. The BICI wavelength varies inversely with Bz, and the eigenmodes are strongly field aligned with parallel electron flows comparable to the ion thermal velocity. In the edge of the plasma sheet, the oscillations in Bx and Bz have comparable magnitude. Once excited, the growth of the modes is robust and leads to the formation of intense <span class="hlt">interchange</span> heads that propagate earthward. When the equatorial plasma beta is on the order of 500 or higher, the Bz field can be driven southward in the wake of the heads. This results in the onset of localized magnetic reconnection and a violent disruption of the plasma sheet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4446098','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4446098"><span id="translatedtitle">Bioreactance Is Not <span class="hlt">Interchangeable</span> with Thermodilution for Measuring Cardiac Output during Adult Liver Transplantation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Han, Sangbin; Lee, Jong Hwan; Kim, Gaabsoo; Ko, Justin Sangwook; Choi, Soo Joo; Kwon, Ji Hae; Heo, Burn Young; Gwak, Mi Sook</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Thermodilution technique using a pulmonary artery catheter is widely used for the assessment of cardiac output (CO) in patients undergoing liver transplantation. However, the unclearness of the risk-benefit ratio of this method has led to an interest in less invasive modalities. Thus, we evaluated whether noninvasive bioreactance CO monitoring is <span class="hlt">interchangeable</span> with thermodilution technique. Methods Nineteen recipients undergoing adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation were enrolled in this prospective observational study. COs were recorded automatically by the two devices and compared simultaneously at 3-minute intervals. The Bland–Altman plot was used to evaluate the agreement between bioreactance and thermodilution. Clinically acceptable agreement was defined as a percentage error of limits of agreement <30%. The four quadrant plot was used to evaluate concordance between bioreactance and thermodilution. Clinically acceptable concordance was defined as a concordance rate >92%. Results A total of 2640 datasets were collected. The mean CO difference between the two techniques was 0.9 l/min, and the 95% limits of agreement were -3.5 l/min and 5.4 l/min with a percentage error of 53.9%. The percentage errors in the dissection, anhepatic, and reperfusion phase were 50.6%, 56.1%, and 53.5%, respectively. The concordance rate between the two techniques was 54.8%. Conclusion Bioreactance and thermodilution failed to show acceptable <span class="hlt">interchangeability</span> in terms of both estimating CO and tracking CO changes in patients undergoing liver transplantation. Thus, the use of bioreactance as an alternative CO monitoring to thermodilution, in spite of its noninvasiveness, would be hard to recommend in these surgical patients. PMID:26017364</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Seating&pg=3&id=EJ959487','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Seating&pg=3&id=EJ959487"><span id="translatedtitle">Attention <span class="hlt">Interchanges</span> at Story-Time: A Case Study from a Deaf and Hearing Twin Pair Acquiring Swedish Sign Language in Their Deaf Family</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cramer-Wolrath, Emelie</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This case study longitudinally analyzes and describes the changes of attentional expressions in <span class="hlt">interchanges</span> between a pair of fraternal twins, 1 deaf and 1 hearing, from the age of 10-40 months, and their Deaf family members. The video-observed attentional expressions of initiating and reestablishing <span class="hlt">interchange</span> were grouped in 5 functional…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title22-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title22-vol2-sec501-9.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title22-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title22-vol2-sec501-9.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">22 CFR 501.9 - <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> of FSOs between Broadcasting Board of Governors and other Foreign Affairs Agencies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true <span class="hlt">Interchange</span> of FSOs between Broadcasting Board of Governors and other Foreign Affairs Agencies. 501.9 Section 501.9 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING... Broadcasting Board of Governors and other Foreign Affairs Agencies. Foreign Service Officers (FSOs)...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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